Full Text Available The article analyzes the factors of successful adaptation of employees to professional work in the new environment. Under the new conditions of professional development and employee having professional experience and young professional may encounter, with the presentation not only new professional requirements and tasks, but also new working conditions, the system of building relationships in the team, discovering with some discrepancies between obtained them in the learning process theoretical knowledge and skills available to the real practice of professional activities. At the level of interpersonal relations of the process of social cognition, is account of the special knowledge of the process of social facilities and construction of social reality, such an important parameter defi nes as "emotional intelligence" – construct is proposed for study in 1990 by American psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer. Initially, the concept of "emotional intelligence" was linked to the notion of social intelligence. The effectiveness of social and psychological adaptation to the professional activity can be enhanced through the development of emotional intelligence. Implementation of the basic functions of emotional intelligence improves communication efficiency, optimization of interpersonal relationships, social and psychological adaptation of personality.
Awad, Sarah H.
Introducing psychology to first year students comes with its own challenges of presenting it in a clear introductory manner, yet also triggering students to think critically about the theories they are presented with. If we were to think of social psychology as a discipline that mutually influences...
Aronsson, Thomas; Schöb, Ronnie
Economic models of climate policy (or policies to combat other environmental problems) typically neglect psychological adaptation to changing life circumstances. People may adapt or become more sensitive, to different degrees, to a deteriorated environment. The present paper addresses these issues in a simple model of tax policy to combat climate change and elaborates on the consequences for optimal climate policies. Furthermore, it argues from a normative point of view that psychological ada...
Full Text Available The object of this research is a problem of relations between psychological separation-individuation as well as adaptation to secondary and boarding school and differences in separation and adaptation. Explorative research was performed on the sample of 586 adolescents aged 14-16. The instruments used were: The Psychological Separation Inventory (PSI, Hoffman, 1984, and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ, Baker & Siryk, 1984. The results showed that adolescents from boarding schools, comparing to those who are not separated from parents during secondary school, have significant higher level of separation of both parents, but discriminate analysis showed that adolescents from boarding schools express nostalgia for their parents and wants more contacts and support from them. Adolescent from boarding school showed general better adaptation, but lower emotional adaptation comparing to not separate adolescents. Discriminate analysis showed that adolescents from boarding schools express low satisfaction with life in boarding school. The results confirm hypothesis of connection between psychological separation from parents and adaptation in adolescence. Canonical correlation analysis showed two statistically significant canonical factors. First factor shows significant connection of lower independence and better adaptation, with 23% explained variance. Second factor indicates connection of lower functional, emotional and attitude independence and better adaptation, with 12% of explained variance. Results are argued in light of theory separation-individuation and importance of meaning of separation from their parents for adolescents for adaptation on request for adaptation on secondary school and boarding school.
Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of psychological education adaptability on the mental quality and mental health of recruits of field army units. Methods A total number of 1244 recruits who joined the army in 2012 were tested with Mental Quality Questionnaire of Armyman (MQQA, Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90, Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, Selfrating Depression Scale (SDS, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and self-compiled questionnaire for adaptability psychological education. 568 recruits received adaptability psychological education for 10 times (sessions in the experimental group, and 676 in the control group did not receive the education. Results After intervention, each dimension score of experimental and control groups on MQQA significantly increased (P0.05. Psychological education showed a significant effect on improving mental quality (P0.05. After education, the anxiety, depression, state-trait anxiety scores of the two groups reduced significantly (P<0.001; compared with the control group, the anxious emotion was effectively relieved by psychological education in experimental group (P<0.001. The recruits in the experimental group showed significant difference in 30 subjective evaluation items between before- and after-education periods (P<0.001. Conclusions The adaptability psychological education has a significant effect on promoting the mental quality, mental health, emotional state and positive cognition of the recruits in field army units. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.06.15
In this article, we address adaptation in relation to the neurosciences. Adaptation is examined at the individual as well as various environmental levels: biological, psychological, and social. We then briefly discuss, from a neuroscientific perspective, the concept of adaptation in relation to psychopathology, including attachment theory and the third wave of cognitive-behavioral therapies.
Leung, Cynthia M.; Berry, John W.
This study aimed to examine the psychological adaptation of international and migrant students in light of various individual variables including social self-efficacy, locus of control, age, sex, generational status, acculturating group membership, length of residence in the host society, and acculturation strategy. Participants were 197…
Dziuban, Charles D.; Moskal, Patsy D.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Fawcett, Alexis
This paper presents the results of a pilot study investigating the use of the Realizeit adaptive learning platform to deliver a fully online General Psychology course across two semesters. Through mutual cooperation, UCF and vendor (CCKF) researchers examined students' affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions to the system. Student survey…
Donadello, Ivan; Spoto, Andrea; Sambo, Francesco; Badaloni, Silvana; Granziol, Umberto; Vidotto, Giulio
The clinical assessment of mental disorders can be a time-consuming and error-prone procedure, consisting of a sequence of diagnostic hypothesis formulation and testing aimed at restricting the set of plausible diagnoses for the patient. In this article, we propose a novel computerized system for the adaptive testing of psychological disorders.…
Neto, Félix; Wilks, Daniela C.
We examined the predictors of psychological adaptation regarding subjective well-being and loneliness among international students. The sample included 243 Cape Verdean students attending Portuguese universities, and the control group was composed by 265 native-born Portuguese students. The latter group reported higher levels of well-being and…
Prince-Embury, S; Rooney, J F
Psychological adaptation is examined in a sample of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island following the restart of the nuclear generating facility which had been shut down since the 1979 accident. Findings indicate a lowering of psychological symptoms between 1985 and 1989 in spite of increased lack of control, less faith in experts and increased fear of developing cancer. The suggestion is made that reduced stress might have been related to a process of adaptation whereby a cognition of emergency preparedness was integrated by some of these residents as a modulating cognitive element. Findings also indicate that "loss of faith in experts" is a persistently salient cognition consistent with the "shattered assumptions" theory of victimization.
The issues related to socio-cultural and cross-cultural adaptation of foreign students have been analysed, the indicators of psychological adaptation have been identified, some aspects of their psychological adjustment have been studied, the concept of «culture shock» in the process of psychological adaptation to the cultural differences between countries has been analysed.
Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.
Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.
Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.
Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.
Full Text Available This article offers a view as to why Jerome Bruner should become an important figure in future constructions of adaptation theory. It will be divided into three sections. In the first, I discuss in more detail his notions of transformation, paying particular attention to the ways in which we redefine ourselves to cope with different situations (as I did while visiting two specific museums in Vienna and Samos. The second will examine Bruner’s belief in the power of narrative or storytelling as ways to impose order on the uncertainties of life (as well as one’s expectations from it that renders everyone authors of their own adaptations. In the final section I suggest that the capacity for “making stories” (Bruner’s term assumes equal importance in psychological terms as it does for the screenwriter or adapter: all of us construct narratives through a process of individual distillation of experiences and information, and subsequently refine them through group interaction. Through this process we understand more about ourselves and our relationship to the world around us. I elaborate this notion through a brief case-study of Charlie Kaufman’s screenplay for the film Adaptation (2002.
Olga A. Molokova
Full Text Available Aim. The solution version of one of problems of psychology andpedagogical escort of students at the initial stage of their adaptation to training in higher education institution is stated in the study. Such maintenance obligatory includes diagnostics of a psychological state of pupils that in a traditional state demands considerable expenses by as teachers’ and first-year students’ forces and time. Possibility of elimination of this shortcoming is presented.Methods. The methods involve the modified Sklyayn’s technique which description is presented in K. Rogers’s works; the technique of the personal differential definition; the technique of definition of the psychological satisfaction in various vital spheres. Students’ relation to the research was found out during anonymous poll.Results. It is shown that, despite the positive relation to psychological researches from the majority of respondents, there is a problem of the obvious or latent unwillingness of some first-year students to participate in surveys and test work caused by work content and its duration. The alternative to tiresome measurements of indicators of adaptation of pupils to training in higher education institution is presented – the express diagnostics reduce time of monitoring and allow teachers to get students interested. Comparison of the results received at use of Sklyayn’s technique and a technique «Personal differential» shows that they investigate the same phenomenon at nonverbal and verbal levels: correlation of persons’ «real self» and «ideal self». However, if creation of verbal formulations of the person relation to what he/she is, and to what he/she wants to be, can cause difficulties by the examinee, the nonverbal diagnostics turned to subconsciousness, is not only simpler, but also reflects a psychological state of the person more precisely.Scientific novelty. Modification of the technique by Sklyayn is proposed; it
liu, weiwei; Huangfu, Hao; Xiong, Jing
This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values...... of the time period of thermal adaption were obtained on the basis of the data from a long-term field survey conducted in two typical naturally ventilated offices located in Changsha, China. The results showed that the occupants need to take 4.25 days to fully adapt to a step-change in outdoor air temperature......, under the synergistic feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes. The time period of thermal adaption increased to 13 days, if only the feedback effect of the physical adaption mode was accounted for. The difference between the two values of the time period of thermal adaption...
Wood, J.; Hysong, S. J.; Lugg, D. J.; Harm, D. L.
This study is part of an ongoing program of research examining the psychological effects of isolation and confinement on individual adaptation, productivity and group relations in Antarctic winter personnel. This environment is used as an analogue for long-duration space mission scenarios, such as a space station sojourn, or a mission to Mars. Earlier results from this and other environments have demonstrated that: (1) most changes in psychological well-being are event-related and of relatively short duration; and (2) the greatest problem facing most individuals is interpersonal conflict. Content analysis of responses to open-ended questions has identified the numerous enjoyable aspects of Antarctic living, and confirmed that many of the problems reported were interpersonal in nature, and that problems varied significantly by station. Current work is exploring the effects of team assignment on the self-reported psychological changes and self-evaluations of members of isolated teams. This work includes identifying the dimensions by which subjects determine how well they are functioning. These dimensions (e.g., work, social life, internal emotional state) appear to play an important role in how subjects evaluate many aspects of life in isolation.
N hasan neghad
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological hardiness is a personal factor and social support is regarded as an environmental factor that can facilitate adjustment to disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adaptation with psychological hardiness and social support in individuals with Multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Seventy two females with MS and 25 males with MSwere selected through randomized sampling from two MS centers. Main variables of the study including adaptation, psychological hardiness, and social supportwere assessed respectively by Adaptation Inventory, Personal Attitudes Survey, and Social Support Questionnaire. Results: Spearman correlation coefficients revealed that there are significant relationships between adaptation and psychological hardiness (p<0.0001, as well as between adaptation and social support (p<0.0001. In addition, Multiple linear Regression showed that psychological hardiness (β= -0.483 and social support (β= -0.240 can explain 35/1% of adaptation variance in individuals with MS. Psychological hardinessproved to have a more important role in adaptation of individuals with MS. Conclusion: The study data demonstrated that personal factors like psychological hardiness and environmental factors such as social support can predict adjustment in individuals with MS. In order to clarify mechanisms of these factors on adaptation in individuals with MS, morelongitudinal and experimental studiesare required. These results are alsoapplicable in designing therapeutic programs for individuals with MS.
A. V. Stepanova
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was the comparing of psychological adaptation characteristics (type of attitude to a disease, psychological defense mechanisms, special aspects of coping-strategy as exemplified by 2 groups of schizophrenia disorder patients: 1 schizotypal disorders (F-21 according to ICD-10; 2 paranoid schizophrenia (F-20 according to ICD-10. The authors arrived at the conclusion of the same nature if special aspects of psychological adaptation in the groups compared. At the same time, both groups compared showed imbalance of «the level of success» between individual characteristics constituting the module of psychological adaptation. This circumstance testifies to the fact that psychological adaptation in the patients with schizophrenic disorders should be evaluated on a case- bycase basis. In conclusion, the study revealed the necessity to take into consideration of these characteristics during rehabilitation of these patients.
Emelin, Vadim; Tkhostov, Alexander; Rasskazova, Elena
The aim of the study is to consider technology-related changes in psychological needs and boundaries that affect one’s personal adaptation to the info-communication society, as well as how they relate to problematic or excessive technology use. Based on the psychological model of the consequences of technology use, we’ve picked two forms of technology use (one related to mobile phones and the other related to the Internet) from a revised version of our Technology-Related Psychological Consequ...
Emelin V.A.; Tkhostov A.Sh.; Rasskazova E.I.
The aim of the study is to consider technology-related changes in psychological needs and boundaries that affect one’s personal adaptation to the info-communication society, as well as how they relate to problematic or excessive technology use. Based on the psychological model of the consequences of technology use, we’ve picked two forms of technology use (one related to mobile phones and the other related to the Internet) from a revised version of our Technology-Related Psychological Consequ...
Although the concept of the defense mechanism was rejected from academic psychology for a number of years, recent empirical studies show renewed interest in defenses. Cognitive psychologists have confirmed the existence of unconscious psychological processes, a requisite for defenses. Developmental, personality, and social psychologists have all found evidence for defense mechanisms that explicate psychological functioning. The relevance of this new information for clinical practice is discussed.
Sidelnikov Andrey Yurevich; Glebov Viktor Vasilevich
Aspects of psychological adaptation of students of civil engineering at the initial stage of their professional training are considered in the article. The authors specify the approximate amount of professional information to be mastered by the students of civil engineering. The authors also analyze potential psychological and didactic difficulties to be resolved by the first-year students of civil engineering. Findings of the empirical research of the process of psychological ada...
Full Text Available The paper deals with investigations of social-psychological adaptability peculiarities of elderly people in Lviv (Ukraine. These personal performances are compared for the people who study and those who are not L’viv University of Third Age (LUTA listeners. The results of investigation have shown that participation of elderly people in LUTA allows them to decrease the solitude feeling and to increase the socio-psychological adaptability as well as the stress resistance level Keywords: ; ;
Bulgan, Gökçe; Çiftçi, Ayse
The authors investigated marital satisfaction and academic self-efficacy in relation to psychological adaptation (i.e., psychological well-being, life satisfaction) in a sample of 198 married international students. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that marital satisfaction and academic self-efficacy accounted for 45.9% of…
Livneh, Hanoch; Martz, Erin
The purpose of this article is to review the conceptual and clinical similarities that exist between the principles of positive psychology and those underlying rehabilitation counseling and psychology, occupational rehabilitation, and those espoused by the field of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID). Three themes were selected for review. These included the historical contributions of early scholars in the area of psychosocial adaptation to CID that later were indirectly infused into mainstream positive psychology; state and trait constructs that constitute much of the infrastructure of positive psychology and psychosocial adaptation to CID; and, finally, the philosophical congruencies between positive psychology and psychosocial adaptation to CID. The existing literature indicates that there is a substantial philosophical and conceptual overlap between the fields of positive psychology and psychosocial adaptation to CID. Since theoreticians and researchers, from both fields, often use differing terminology and definitions to describe similar concepts, as well as seek similar research goals, it would behoove both fields to seek a closer partnership in order to establish a meaningful dialogue that focuses on human strengths and virtues in the lives of people with CID.
O'Reilly, Aileen; Ryan, Dermot; Hickey, Tina
This article reports on an empirical study of the psychosocial adaptation of international students in Ireland. Using measures of social support, loneliness, stress, psychological well-being, and sociocultural adaptation, data were obtained from international students and a comparison sample of Irish students. The study found that, although…
Uruk, Ayse C.; Sayger, Thomas V.; Cogdal, Pamela A.
This study specifically examined the influence of family cohesion and adaptability on college students' trauma symptoms and psychological well-being in a sample of 189 undergraduate students. The participants were administered the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III (FACES-III), L.A. Symptom Checklist, and Scales of…
Limpens, Evita Jurriena Talina
This study was set out to investigate whether acculturation attitudes play a mediating role in the acculturation-adaptation link. The main focus was on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological adaptation and the potential mediating role of acculturation attitudes in this relationship. Expectations were based on previous research on ethnic and national identification and the role of these concepts in the acculturation-adaptation link. Acculturation attitudes were con...
Rail M Shamionov
Full Text Available The article discusses the results of a study on the socio-psychological adaptation predictors of the unemployed in relation to people with regular employment. It is assumed that adaptation of the employed and the unemployed is determined by various socio-psychological phenomena; definition of the phenomena will allow to develop programmes of adaptation for the unemployed with preservation of motivation for self-realization. In total, 362 people (33% of whom were male took part in the study, including 196 unemployed. Standardized methods and scales developed by the authors for assessing the subject position characteristics and adaptive readiness of a person were used. It was found that the unemployed are characterized by lower indicators of socio-psychological adaptation and characteristics that are of paramount importance for adaptation - self-acceptance, acceptance of others, emotional comfort. Socio-demographic characteristics, scales of subjective position, adaptive readiness, subjective well-being and values were consistently introduced to the regression equation. It is shown that adaptive readiness and values are the strongest predictors for the employed, while indicators of subjective well-being and value are more significant for the unemployed. The general predictors of adaptation are the level of education, happiness (positively and negative affect (negatively. In other cases, the predictors are strictly differentiated.
V. V. Khramtsova
Full Text Available Negative bodily experience due to health complications and disability is perceived as a difficult life situation. The success of adaptation, commitment to treatment and cooperation with a doctor depend on the personality characteristics that define behavioral representations. Aim. Investigate the structure of identity and mechanisms of social-psychological adaptation of patients with the hepatobiliary system disease. Contingent and methods. 75 patients with a diffuse liver disease - chronic hepatitis, mostly of viral etiology (36 people and liver cirrhosis (39 patients have been examined. We have applied clinical, clinical-psychological, mathematical and empirical methods, semi-structured cross-interviews ("patient-doctor", "patient-psychologist", diagnostics of personal characteristics, identity structure, social-psychological components of adaptation. Three leading personality profiles have been highlighted. Results. Persons with a disharmonious personality development are characterized by disorders in the area of identity formation and development. Fragmentation, the impossibility of personal integration and severe penetrability from the environment contribute to social-psychological maladjustment. The coping is aimed at preserving the problem situation and intensifying the intrapersonal conflict. For persons with difficulties in the adaptation of the personality, a violation of activity interaction with the surrounding world is characteristic, a ban on one's self-identity. Social adaptation is often disrupted due to instability in the emotional-volitional sphere and choosing low-adaptive coping strategies. Genuine "I" and identity formation is impeded for the individuals suppressing aggressive impulses. Adaptability tends to be discrete. With mental stress increasing, the likelihood of choosing low-adaptive coping strategies increases. Conclusions. When drafting psycho-correction programs and medical treatment of people with a hepatobiliary
M. V. Ivanova
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the content of the concept ofsocio-psychological adaptation.Methods. In the course of work theoretical methods of research are used: an overview and synthesis of approaches to the study of such a theoretical construct as adaptation and disadaptation; practical methods: methods of diagnostics of socio-psychological adaptation by K. Rogers and P. Diamond (SPA and multi-factor personality questionnaire by R. Cattell (CPQ. The research is summative. Statistical processing is carried out using the computer programs STATISTICA 6.0 and MS Excel; the method of multiple regression analysis is used to highlight the personal factors influencing the level of adaptation of pupils of the Suvorov military school. Results. According to the empirical study, the authors describe the obtained factors of socio-psychological adaptation and disadaptation of adolescents enrolled in the course at Suvorov military school of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. The results of empirical research of features of adolescents’ adaptation to the conditions of a military educational institution are presented. Special attention is paid to the selection of personality traits characterizing the failure probability of disadaptation. The authors justified the need and described the possibility of organizing a psychological-pedagogical support of adolescents at the initial stage of studying in military educational institution of the closed type.Scientific novelty. The article proposes the authors’ approach to the concept of socio-psychological adaptation; the main indicators of successful socio-psychological adolescents’ adaptation to the conditions of Suvorov military school are identified; the indicators that predict the risk of the failure probability of disadaptation are given. It is concluded that the development of adaptive capacity should be achieved through personal components.Practical significance. The
van den Heuvel, M.; Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.
The purpose of this 1-year follow-up study among 580 police officers is to investigate whether identity-related resources are positively related to adaptive behaviour during times of organizational change. Combining the social identity perspective with resources theories, we hypothesized that
Martz, Erin; Livneh, Hanoch
This purpose of this article is to review of the trends of research that examined positive psychology constructs in the context of adapting to chronic illness and disability (CID). This article examines the empirical findings on the relationships between six selected positive psychology-associated constructs (optimism, hope, resilience, benefit-finding, meaning-making, and post-traumatic growth) and adaptation to disability. Six positive psychology constructs were selected to represent the trends found in recent literature published on CID. The process of choosing these six variables included reviewing chapters on positive psychology and CID, reviewing the top rehabilitation journals that typically publish articles on psychosocial adaptation to CID, using search engines to find relevant journal articles published since the year 2000, and selecting the most important constructs based on the authors’ professional judgment. The available evidence supports the unique benefits of these six positive psychology constructs in predicting successful adaptation to a range of disabling conditions. Based on the available findings, the authors offer four suggestions for occupational rehabilitation researchers.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider technology-related changes in psychological needs and boundaries that affect one’s personal adaptation to the info-communication society, as well as how they relate to problematic or excessive technology use. Based on the psychological model of the consequences of technology use, we’ve picked two forms of technology use (one related to mobile phones and the other related to the Internet from a revised version of our Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire. The new version includes nine questions: two assessing the excessive use of technology (the inability to resist using technology and subjective dependence, four assessing changes in psychological boundaries (boundaries extension and violation, easiness-related and opportunity-related preference for technology and the other three measuring technology-related needs (functionality, convenience and image making. In the normative sample (N=132, appropriate reliability, factor validity and convergent validity were demonstrated in comparisons to the picture measure of the technology-related boundaries change. Based on hierarchical regression and moderator analysis, it was shown that changes in psychological boundaries affect the excessive use of technology (explaining an additional 17-27% of the variance after adjusting for frequency of use and age group. The extension of boundaries and ease-of-use-related preference for mobile phones versus the Internet predicted satisfaction with life after adjusting for frequency of use, age group, inability to resist and subjective dependency respectively; however, the figures were not statistically significant. Thus, our data supports the hypothesis that there are different kinds of technology-related changes in psychological boundaries that manifest themselves in the subjective feeling of dependence on technology and the feeling that it is impossible to do without technology, which might in some cases
Martins, Mariana Veloso; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Pedro, Juliana
fertility evaluation. No significant differences were found two or more years after the initial consultation. Evidence was found for anxiety, depression, active-avoidance coping, catastrophizing, difficulties in partner communication and the use of avoidance or religious coping from the wife as risk factors...... for psychological maladjustment. Protective factors were related to the use of coping strategies that involve seeking information and attribution of a positive meaning to infertility, having the support of others and of one's spouse, and engaging in open communication about the infertility problem. WIDER...... IMPLICATIONS: Our findings recommend an active involvement of men during the treatment process by health care professionals, and the inclusion of coping skills training and couple communication enhancement interventions in counselling. Further prospective large studies with high-quality design and power...
E. N. Mitin
Full Text Available Psychological comfort on the dental admission is important for the implementation of preventive measures. Considerable attention is now being given to the relationship doctor-dentist with patients, establish positive communication, without which it is impossible to implement preventive measures. Particularly urgent is the problem of creating a trusting relationship between doctor and patient in childhood. With three years there has been persistent memory on the pain, the child’s organs and systems are in a state of unstable equilibrium, so the feeling of fear and pain have a particularly pronounced effect on the psyche of a young patient. The dominant value in the motivation for subsequent visits to the doctor is the emotional coloring of the first visits to the dental clinic.
O'Reilly, Aileen; Ryan, Dermot; Hickey, Tina
This article reports on an empirical study of the psychosocial adaptation of international students in Ireland. Using measures of social support, loneliness, stress, psychological well-being, and sociocultural adaptation, data were obtained from international students and a comparison sample of Irish students. The study found that, although international students had high levels of social support and low levels of loneliness and stress, students were experiencing high levels of sociocultural ...
Peters, M.L.; Sorbi, M.J.; Kruise, D.A.; Kerssens, J.J.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J.
Computerized diary measurement of pain, disability and psychological adaptation was performed four times a day for 4 weeks in 80 patients with various duration of unexplained pain. Reported are (1) the temporal characteristics and stability of pain report during the 4-week measurement period, (2)
G N Kameneva
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the peculiarities of the relations of the variables of diligence as a personality trait and socio-psychological adaptation of students. The presented results of an empirical study show both general and specific relationships for Russian and international students.
Comerchero, Victoria; Fortugno, Dominick
The current study examined if correlations between statistics anxiety and dimensions of perfectionism (adaptive and maladaptive) were present amongst a sample of psychology graduate students (N = 96). Results demonstrated that scores on the APS-R Discrepancy scale, corresponding to maladaptive perfectionism, correlated with higher levels of…
Peters, M.L.; Sorbi, M.J.; Kruise, D.A.; Kerssens, J.J.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J.M.
Computerized diary measurement of pain, disability and psychological adaptation was performed four times a day for 4 weeks in 80 patients with various duration of unexplained pain. Reported are (1) the temporal characteristics and stability of pain report during the 4-week measurement period, (2)
Tsv?tkova, Nadezhda A.; Aleksandrova, Marina I.; Rybakova, Anna Igorevna; Starovoitova, Larisa I.; Kononova, Tatiana B.
The article presents the results of searching for answers to the following questions: Which are the characteristics of socio-psychological adaptation and self-regulation behavior in patients with diabetes mellitus type II? What is the nature of the relationship between these personal characteristics? In particular, it contains results of…
Serra, A; Spinato, G; Cocuzza, S; Licciardello, L; Pavone, P; Maiolino, L
The present research deals with the clinical and social problems present during linguistic and cognitive development of deaf children. Currently, the development of Theory of Mind represents an important research field in deafness studies. These international studies highlighted a significant alteration in the development of Theory of Mind in deaf children compared to normal hearing children, especially in cases of congenital or preverbal hearing loss. In particular, the research focuses on the skills of deaf children in recognising emotions and desires, through both perceptive and cognitive methods, by evaluation of psycho-cognitive skills of children with severe hearing loss using a set of questions to be administered to hearing loss patients. The experiment was performed on a group composed of 10 children (5 males and 5 females) aged 4 to 9 years and 54 to 108 months, affected by bilateral congenital hearing loss (severe to total), or hearing loss that developed in preverbal children the year before entering elementary school, or during the fourth year of elementary school. The selection criteria were based on: audiologic evaluation, neuro-psychological tests administered to assess general, cognitive as well as praxis and perceptive abilities, and clinical observations performed to assess psychopathology using tests that assess development of both visual perceptive (Coloured Progressive Matrices) and graphic representational abilities (Test of Human Figure Drawings and the Family Drawing Test). The instrument "cognitive" was the "Deaf Children Series", arranged by us, that consists of a mental status examination (MSE) that evaluates: level of cognitive (knowledge-related) ability, emotional mood, and speech and thought patterns at the time of evaluation. Deaf children show a reduced responsiveness to the expressions of sadness on the perceptive side. Through the test, we observed a psychodynamic defense mechanism considering perceptive understanding performance
Knöpfli, Bina; Morselli, Davide; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina
Marital dissolution is known to be among the most stressful life events with long-reaching negative consequences on individuals' lives. A limitation in research to date is that most studies have focused on the impact of marital disruption on well-being outcomes in younger adults. Furthermore, although population-based studies on divorce document a broad range of negative effects, more fine-grained analyses reveal a large heterogeneity in people's adjustment, which is still not well understood. The aim was to explore trajectories of psychological adaptation to marital breakup after a long-term marriage, and to examine variables accounting for recovery or chronicity in terms of intrapersonal resources (personality, trait resilience, and personal growth), relationship variables (satisfaction with ex-relationship, length of marriage, and time since divorce), and sociodemographic variables (age, gender, and financial situation). Latent transition analysis is used to examine the course of psychological adaptation (i.e., depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, hopelessness, mourning, and subjective health) to divorce over 2 years among 5 profiles of 308 divorcees (mean age: 55.6 years; average duration of former marriage: 23.62 years). We present two larger groups of individuals, one of which adapted very well ('resilients', 29%) and the other quite well ('average copers', 49%), as well as three groups with major difficulties ('vulnerables', 6%; 'malcontents', 12%, and 'resigned', 4%). In a second step, the differences between transition patterns were explored on the basis of the distal variables (i.e., intrapersonal resources, relationship variables, and sociodemographics). Although the probability of upward changes was higher for those individuals with lower adaptation at time point 1, only a small number of individuals made an upward change from the maladapted to the well-adapted groups throughout the 2 years. The groups of copers and resilients remained stable in
Arina Aleksandrovna Dmitrieva
Full Text Available In this article the theoretical analysis of Russian and foreign literature on the problem of psychological adaptation of patients with peripheral arterial disease, undergoing vascular and endovascular surgery is carried out. Most studies are dedicated to assessing quality of life of patients before and after reconstructive intervention. Improvement of quality of life, mainly in physical parameters is often found. Though, parameters of quality of life in the long-term period after surgery tend to decrease steadily. Psychological aspects of surgical treatment of patients with peripheral arterial disease are poorly investigated. The article stresses, that such aspects as the patients’ emotional response to illness and treatment, influence of personal cha-racteristics on the medical and social prognosis, personal attitudes of patients with peripheral arterial disease, in particular, the attitude to illness and treatment, psychological factors of treatment adherence are not well investigated. In the article problems of further research for the purpose of improvement of the medical and psychological prognosis are outlined.
Full Text Available The problem of social-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavioral today is of particular relevance in relation to the current process of restructuring of educational institutions - the merging of general and specialized schools for adolescents with behavioral problems in a unified educational complexes. In these circumstances it is necessary to find an efficient tool that will simultaneously accelerate the process of adaptation and have a positive preventive effect. In this article, the author shows that such a tool can become the emotional intelligence as a construct that includes various abilities of the emotional sphere. The main hypothesis of the study was that the socio-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavior has its own characteristics, different from the norm group, and is interconnected with the components of emotional intelligence. The study was conducted on the basis of general education school № 2077 formed by the merger of five educational institutions: the former school № 738, № 703, № 702, № 7 and № 77. The study involved 222 teenagers from 14 to 16 years (111 girls and 111 boys.
Stochl, Jan; Böhnke, Jan R; Pickett, Kate E; Croudace, Tim J
Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) items are frequently used to assess psychological distress but no study to date has investigated the GHQ-30's potential for adaptive administration. In computerized adaptive testing (CAT) items are matched optimally to the targeted distress level of respondents instead of relying on fixed-length versions of instruments. We therefore calibrate GHQ-30 items and report a simulation study exploring the potential of this instrument for adaptive administration in a longitudinal setting. GHQ-30 responses of 3445 participants with 2 completed assessments (baseline, 7-year follow-up) in the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey were calibrated using item response theory. Our simulation study evaluated the efficiency of CAT administration of the items, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, with different estimators, item selection methods, and measurement precision criteria. To yield accurate distress measurements (marginal reliability at least 0.90) nearly all GHQ-30 items need to be administered to most survey respondents in general population samples. When lower accuracy is permissible (marginal reliability of 0.80), adaptive administration saves approximately 2/3 of the items. For longitudinal applications, change scores based on the complete set of GHQ-30 items correlate highly with change scores from adaptive administrations. The rationale for CAT-GHQ-30 is only supported when the required marginal reliability is lower than 0.9, which is most likely to be the case in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies assessing mean changes in populations. Precise measurement of psychological distress at the individual level can be achieved, but requires the deployment of all 30 items.
Laney, Dawn Alyssia; Gruskin, Daniel J; Fernhoff, Paul M; Cubells, Joseph F; Ousley, Opal Y; Hipp, Heather; Mehta, Ami J
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. In addition to the debilitating physical symptoms of FD, there are also under-recognized and poorly characterized psychiatric features. As a first step toward characterizing psychiatric features of FD, we administered the Achenbach adult self report questionnaire to 30 FD patients and the Achenbach adult behavior checklist questionnaire to 28 partners/parents/friends of FD patients. Data from at least one of the questionnaires were available on 33 subjects. Analysis focused on social-adaptive functioning in various aspects of daily life and on criteria related to the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV (DSM-IV). Adaptive functioning scale values, which primarily measure social and relationship functioning and occupational success, showed that eight FD patients (six female and two male) had mean adaptive functioning deficits as compared to population norms. Greater rates of depression (P adaptive functioning. Decreased social-adaptive functioning in this study was not statistically significantly associated to disease severity, pain, or level of vitality. This study shows for the first time that FD patients, particularly women, are affected by decreased social-adaptive functioning. Comprehensive treatment plans for FD should consider assessments and interventions to evaluate and improve social, occupational, and psychological functioning. Attention to the behavioral aspects of FD could lead to improved treatment outcome and improved quality of life. Individuals affected by Fabry disease exhibited social-adaptive functioning deficits that were significantly correlated with anxiety, depression, antisocial behavior, and AD/H problems in a sampling of our male and female patients aged between 18 years and 59 years.
Rosnet, Elisabeth; Jurion, Sylvie; Cazes, Geneviève; Bachelard, Claude
The polar environment is often seen as a good analog for long-term space missions in terms of isolation and confinement. This paper focuses on the psychological adaptation of both the men and women in mixed-gender groups in the French polar station Dumont d'Urville. The first 49 expeditions to this station were composed of men only in groups of 25-30. In 2000, two women were included in the first mixed-gender wintering group, followed by five women in 2001. This study on coping strategies and psychological adaptation was included in an end-of-mission debriefing performed by a psychologist. Data were collected using a few quantitative tools and a semi-structured interview, and focused on adaptation to wintering, coping strategies, and information on interpersonal relationships. Including women in a wintering group seems to have had positive effects on the general climate of the group by reducing men's rude behavior, but it also seems to be an important stressor for both men and women when the females' average age is close to the males' because seduction behaviors appear and rivalry, frustration, and sexual harassment frequently result. The use of problem-oriented strategies helps women to adapt. There are strong arguments indicating that living in an isolated and confined environment magnifies the usual difficulties that arise in mixed-gender relationships. Difficulties may be magnified in space since the group size is smaller and the confinement more extreme. This implies the need for rigorous select-in criteria for both men and women, especially for relational criteria, and for group training after selection.
Full Text Available Background. The study of both Russian and international publications issued in the last twenty years revealed a significant gap in the number of studies examining adaptation (general living, psychological, socio-cultural, etc. in general, i.e., without regard to specific characteristics of the audience, and those describing adaptation of a particular group of people (specific age, ethnic, professional groups, etc.. Objective. The current paper aims to overcome this gap by offering a closer look at the adaptation processes of international journalism students at Russian universities, in particular, their psychological and socio-cultural types of adaptation. The question that interests us the most is how psychological and socio-cultural adaptation of international journalists to-be can be made easier and whether communication-oriented techniques can somehow facilitate this process. Design. In this paper, we provide an overview of current research analyzing adaptation from different angles, which is essential for creating a context for further narrower studies. Results. We discuss adaptation of journalism students in Russia, suggesting ways to make their adaptation in a host country easier and arguing that the development of communication skills can be important for successful adaptation to new living and learning conditions. Conclusion. We argue that there is a need for more detailed, narrow-focused research discussing the specifics of adaptation of different groups of people to a new environment (since we believe different people tend to adapt to new conditions in different ways as well as research outlining the role of communication competences in their adaptation processes.
Full Text Available this article presents a study of the dynamics of socio-psychological adaptation in adolescents during the course of pictorial arts. 60 teenagers aged 13 to 17 years have been participating in a longitudinal study for three years, systematically involved and not involved in pictorial art. It has been found that the creative adolescents have lower level of neuro-psychological adaptation and higher level of subjective feelings of loneliness than non-creative adolescents. But creative teenagers have significantly higher self-esteem, level of aspiration and satisfaction in achieving success and lower anxiety in relationships with adults. The influence of the creative group reflected on such personal qualities as: self-confidence, credibility among peers, ability to do things with their hands, social identity, loneliness, frustration needs in achieving success, problems and fears in relations with adults. The personal characteristics of creative adolescents have been identified. These characteristics distinguish them from others teenagers, and the effect of the creative group and creative activity indirectly on the personal qualities of adolescents.
Moore, James H.; Wang, Zhongming
Mentoring continues to build momentum among startups and established enterprises due to its positive impact on individuals and organizations. Unlike previous studies, this research focuses on mentoring higher level leadership, such as the CEO, and demonstrates its unique relationship to organizational innovativeness. Our sample included 200 mentored executives and entrepreneurs who personally identify and exploit opportunities. Our findings confirm that mentoring top leaders positively relates to their perceived innovativeness of the organization and that the relationship is mediated by these leaders’ perception of psychological safety within the organization. Our findings also confirm that the relationship is negatively moderated by these leaders’ cognitive adaptability. The reliability and validity of the results have been proved by using confirmatory factor analysis and advanced regression analytics. As a result, this work demonstrates the value of mentoring top leadership and advocates the importance of establishing a psychologically safe environment to inspire not only top leadership to try new avenues but also for all those within the organization to speak up and speak out. Additionally, our findings encourage organizations to proactively and selectively prioritize mentoring among top leadership, taking into account their differing levels of cognitive adaptability. Finally, further research could focus on how to provide greater support for mentors of higher level leaders. PMID:28303114
Moore, James H; Wang, Zhongming
Mentoring continues to build momentum among startups and established enterprises due to its positive impact on individuals and organizations. Unlike previous studies, this research focuses on mentoring higher level leadership, such as the CEO, and demonstrates its unique relationship to organizational innovativeness. Our sample included 200 mentored executives and entrepreneurs who personally identify and exploit opportunities. Our findings confirm that mentoring top leaders positively relates to their perceived innovativeness of the organization and that the relationship is mediated by these leaders' perception of psychological safety within the organization. Our findings also confirm that the relationship is negatively moderated by these leaders' cognitive adaptability. The reliability and validity of the results have been proved by using confirmatory factor analysis and advanced regression analytics. As a result, this work demonstrates the value of mentoring top leadership and advocates the importance of establishing a psychologically safe environment to inspire not only top leadership to try new avenues but also for all those within the organization to speak up and speak out. Additionally, our findings encourage organizations to proactively and selectively prioritize mentoring among top leadership, taking into account their differing levels of cognitive adaptability. Finally, further research could focus on how to provide greater support for mentors of higher level leaders.
Dang, Rui; Wang, Yishen; Li, Na; He, Ting; Shi, Mengna; Liang, Yanyan; Zhu, Chan; Zhou, Yongbo; Qi, Zongshi; Hu, Dahai
To explore the effects of group psychological counseling on the self-confidence and social adaptation of burn patients during the course of rehabilitation. Sixty-four burn patients conforming to the inclusion criteria and hospitalized from January 2012 to January 2014 in Xijing Hospital were divided into trial group and control group according to the method of rehabilitation, with 32 cases in each group. Patients in the two groups were given ordinary rehabilitation training for 8 weeks, and the patients in trial group were given a course of group psychological counseling in addition. The Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale was used to evaluate the changes in self-confidence levels, and the number of patients with inferiority complex, normal feeling, self-confidence, and over self-confidence were counted before and after treatment. The Abbreviated Burn-Specific Health Scale was used to evaluate physical function, psychological function, social relationship, health condition, and general condition before and after treatment to evaluate the social adaptation of patients. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcoxon test. (1) After treatment, the self-confidence levels of patients in trial group were significantly higher than those in control group (Z = -2.573, P self-confidence were 8 (25.0%) and 4 (12.5%) before treatment, which were respectively increased to 13 (40.6%) and 10 (31.3%) after treatment. The overall difference in trial group was obvious between before and after treatment (Z = -4.123, P self-confidence level of patients in control group between before and after treatment (Z = -1.000, P > 0.05). (2) After treatment, the scores of psychological function, social relationship, health condition, and general condition were (87 ± 3), (47.8 ± 3.6), (49 ± 3), and (239 ± 10) points in trial group, which were significantly higher than those in control group [(79 ± 4), (38.3 ± 5.6), (46 ± 4), and (231 ± 9) points, with t
Schotte, Kristin; Stanat, Petra; Edele, Aileen
Immigrant adaptation research views identification with the mainstream context as particularly beneficial for sociocultural adaptation, including academic achievement, and identification with the ethnic context as particularly beneficial for psychological adaptation. A strong identification with both contexts is considered most beneficial for both outcomes (integration hypothesis). However, it is unclear whether the integration hypothesis applies in assimilative contexts, across different outcomes, and across different immigrant groups. This study investigates the association of cultural identity with several indicators of academic achievement and psychological adaptation in immigrant adolescents (N = 3894, 51% female, M age = 16.24, SD age = 0.71) in Germany. Analyses support the integration hypothesis for aspects of psychological adaptation but not for academic achievement. Moreover, for some outcomes, findings vary across immigrant groups from Turkey (n = 809), the former Soviet Union (n = 712), and heterogeneous other countries (n = 2373). The results indicate that the adaptive potential of identity integration is limited in assimilative contexts, such as Germany, and that it may vary across different outcomes and groups. As each identification is positively associated with at least one outcome, however, both identification dimensions seem to be important for the adaptation of immigrant adolescents.
Biesecker, Barbara B; Erby, Lori H; Woolford, Samuel; Adcock, Jessica Young; Cohen, Julie S; Lamb, Amanda; Lewis, Katie V; Truitt, Megan; Turriff, Amy; Reeve, Bryce B
We introduce The Psychological Adaptation Scale (PAS) for assessing adaptation to a chronic condition or risk and present validity data from six studies of genetic conditions. Informed by theory, we identified four domains of adaptation: effective coping, self-esteem, social integration, and spiritual/existential meaning. Items were selected from the PROMIS "positive illness impact" item bank and adapted from the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to create a 20-item scale. Each domain included five items, with four sub-scale scores. Data from studies of six populations: adults affected with or at risk for genetic conditions (N=3) and caregivers of children with genetic conditions (N=3) were analyzed using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). CFA suggested that all but five posited items converge on the domains as designed. Invariance of the PAS amongst the studies further suggested it is a valid and reliable tool to facilitate comparisons of adaptation across conditions. Use of the PAS will standardize assessments of adaptation and foster understanding of the relationships among related health outcomes, such as quality of life and psychological well-being. Clinical interventions can be designed based on PAS data to enhance dimensions of psychological adaptation to a chronic health condition or risk. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Иван Викторович Малышев
Full Text Available In the paper the problem of the social-psychological adaptation of the personality of sportsmen in the conditions of the riskiness of their activity is considered. In the theoretical part of the paper the actuality of the problem of the adaptation of the personality in the conditions of the uncertainty and risk and the necessity of study of the phenomenon of the social-psychological adaptation andthe socialization from the point of view of systematic-diachronic approach are proved. The main definitions are uncovered: the social-psychological adaptation of the personality, the risk in psychology, systematic-diachronic approach.Purpose. The study of the characteristics of the social-psychological adaptation and the inclination (readiness to the risk, the relationship between the present phenomenons among young people who are actively realizing themselves in the sport activity.The methods of the diagnostic research. Inquirer of the social-psychological adaptation by C.Rogers and R.Dymond, the test by R.Kettel, inquirer MMPI (the adapted version, the methods of the diagnostics of the readiness to the risk by Schubert, the inquirer of the study of the readiness to the risk by A.G.Shmelev.Statistical processing the dates: the correlational analysis (Pearson.Results. The characteristic of the social-psychological adaptation of the personality of sportsmen in the form of its integral components is represented. Among the young people the stage of the adaptation possibilities according to the most of the indices is defined as the high one. This way, among the properties of the personality of sportsmen, which reflect their adaptation possibilities, a positive emotional background, capacity for work, the permanency of the interests, the emotional steadiness, the prevalence of the assurance of success, the tendency to the self-assertion, the social activity of the personality are detected. The correlation between some indices of the social-psychological
Full Text Available Orientation: The global skills crisis coupled with the aging workforce, rapid technological advances and changing nature of work have infringed various challenges upon organisations and employees. Media organisations in particular are affected by these trends, with retention further at risk because of the specialised and scarce skills sought and the versatility and ambiguity inherent in the nature of careers within the media industry, therefore resulting in engagement and skills retention being high on the agenda. Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore whether employees’ age, psychological career resources and career adaptability significantly predict their work engagement and whether generational cohorts differ significantly regarding these variables. Motivation for the study: Within a retention context, it is important to gain insight into the employees’ personal career-related capabilities and dispositions as these are deemed important for driving career development and engagement levels, which, in turn, impact on the retention of talent. Research design, approach and method: A stratified random sample (N = 248 of predominantly female (63.3% and black African people (54% within their early career stages (80% < 45 years was used. A cross-sectional, quantitative research design approach was followed. Stepwise regression analyses and tests for significant mean differences were performed. Main findings: The results indicated generational cohort (age, career confidence (career adaptability and career harmonisers (psychological career resources as significant predictors of work engagement. The Generation Y individuals had higher levels of psychological career resources (career preferences, career values and career drivers, while the Generation X individuals had higher career curiosity. The Baby Boomers showed higher levels of work engagement. Practical and managerial implications: Psycho-social career meta-capacities positively
Kamody, Rebecca C; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Rybak, Tiffany M; Klages, Kimberly L; Banks, Gabrielle G; Ali, Jeanelle S; Alemzadeh, Ramin; Ferry, Robert J; Diaz Thomas, Alicia M
Psychological flexibility, a complex concept encompassing both acceptance and action related factors, has been identified as a target for intervention for diabetes management. Research suggests acceptance, self-management, and stress, all factors that influence psychological flexibility, have an impact on adaptation to type 1 diabetes (T1D) by youth independently. However, yet to be explored is individually varying patterns of these variables and how they may relate to diabetes adaptation outcomes. The present study aimed to establish individual variations of patterns of these factors to derive profiles of psychological flexibility, and examine their relations to the adaptation outcomes of glycemic control and health-related quality of life. Youth (N = 162, aged 12-17 years) with T1D completed the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire, Diabetes Stress Questionnaire, Self-Care Inventory, and Pediatric Quality of Life-Diabetes Module. Hemoglobin A 1c values were abstracted from medical records. Latent profile analysis yielded three profiles: High Acceptance & Adherence/Low Stress, Low Acceptance/Moderate Adherence & Stress, and Low Acceptance & Adherence/High Stress. The High Acceptance & Adherence/Low Stress group displayed significantly higher health-related quality of life and lower HbA 1c compared to other groups. Fluid psychological variables, such as acceptance and diabetes stress, and adherence behaviors may be salient targets to increase psychological flexibility for individual psychosocial interventions aimed at improving adaptation to type 1 diabetes in youth.
Full Text Available We present a study of psychological characteristics of preadult orphans, their psychological adaptation to the conditions of learning in high school compared to the norm population (students living in family. We assumed that the level of adaptation of the orphan students is significantly smaller than in other students, because of their special life circumstances (maternal deprivation, living in residential care institutions, sometimes bad heredity, lack of life skills in everyday issues, personal problems. The results of the survey of 49 orphan students (26 girls and 23 boys and 49 first-year students brought up by parents (28 girls and 21 boys, confirmed this hypothesis and allow us to tell that orphan students need special psychological help in the learning process in high school to grow at a personal and professional level.
Full Text Available Psychological Assessment can be defined as a complex procedure of information collection, analysis and processing. Formal Psychological Assessment (FPA tries to improve this procedure by providing a formal framework to build assessment tools. In this paper, FPA is applied to depression. Seven questionnaires widely used for the self-evaluation of depression were selected. Diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder were derived from the DSM-5, literature and Seligman's and Beck's theories. A Boolean matrix was built, including 266 items from the questionnaires in the rows and 20 selected attributes, obtained through diagnostic criteria decomposition, in the columns. In the matrix, a 1 in a cell meant that the corresponding item investigated the specific attribute. It was thus possible to analyze the relationships between items and attributes and among items. While none of the considered questionnaires could alone cover all the criteria for the evaluation of depressive symptoms, we observed that a set of 30 items contained the same information that was obtained redundantly with 266 items. Another result highlighted by the matrix regards the relations among items. FPA allows in-depth analysis of currently used questionnaires based on the presence/absence of clinical elements. FPA allows for going beyond the mere score by differentiating the patients according to symptomatology. Furthermore, it allows for computerized-adaptive assessment.
Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick
Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…
Uchida, T; Mukai, Y; Sasa, R
The purpose of this study was to discover the changes in the adaptation of children to the Dental setting, and to discover the relationship between the adaptation, and the personality of the child, the personality of the mother, as well as the relationship between the mother and child. The subjects were 60 two to six year old children and their mothers who visited at the Department of Pedodontics, School of Dentistry, Showa University. The results were as follows: 1) The changes of adaptation were classified in groups of four classes. Four groups: Continuous Adaptability (45.0%) Acquired Adaptability (18.3%) Continuous Inadaptability (16.7%) Extreme Inadaptability (20.0%) 2) The inadaptability groups (Continuous Inadaptability and Extreme Inadaptability) of the two to three year old children did not correlate to the change of adaptation and personality of the child, and the relationship between the mother and child. 3) The extreme inadaptability group with the four year old children showed a connection with the change of adaptation and the various Psychological Tests. Concerning personality, the children showed elements of "dependence" "retrogression" and "maladaptation to school (kindergarten)". Concerning the mother child relationship, there were elements of "anxiety" "dotage" "follow blindly" "disagreement". 4) Nobody showed extreme inadaptability in the group of five to six year old children. Continuous Inadaptability group with the five to six year old children showed scarcely any problems. 5) The Personality of mother did not correlate to the change of adaptation of children in the dental setting.
The progress in fundamental social psychological research has become smaller and because of this, our society increasingly pushes scientific social psychology, and other sciences, into the direction of utility and valorisation. At the same time there is a painful short of use of social psychological
Full Text Available In the first half of the 20th century, the field concept was part of theoretical and methodological innovations in physics, gestalt theory as well as epic theatre as introduced by Bertolt Brecht. Another reference is the psychology of Kurt Lewin. In what ways Brecht took notice of Lewin’s research, especially his demand of a transition from Aristotelian to Galileian thought is reconstructed within the context of paradigm shifts fostered by logical empiricism, gestalt theory and physics. Lewin’s argumentation of an advanced understanding of the lawfulness of societal and psychological processes is placed in the center and traced back as an inspiration to Brecht’s writings. Vice versa, the article investigates in what ways Brecht’s theoretical writings and adaptations of Lewin’s approach can be reconsidered as a source for psychological theorizing.
Stoner, Charlotte R; Orrell, Martin; Spector, Aimee
Despite positive psychology being increasingly recognised as an important agent in well-being, there is a lack of standardised outcome measures for psychosocial dementia research. This review assessed positive psychology outcome measures using standardised criterion in populations that were identified as having shared characteristics. It aimed to identify robust measures that were suitable for potential adaption or use within a dementia population. The review identified 16 positive psychology outcome measures (and 8 further psychometric assessments of these) within the constructs of resilience, self-efficacy, religiousness/spirituality, life valuation, sense of coherence, autonomy, resourcefulness and a combined measure (CASP-19). Scale development studies were subject to a quality assessment, and most were found to be lacking information on reproducibility and responsiveness. A wide range of measures within the constructs of positive psychology was identified as having potential utility for psychosocial research within a dementia population. Examples included the CD-RISC, GSWB, SWLS, MPAQ, RSOA and CASP-19. It is recommended that such scales are further adapted or validated for people with dementia. Underreporting of appropriate psychometric analyses hampered this review, and it is recommended that future authors endeavour to report such analyses. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kuo, Ben C H
Given the continuous, dynamic demographic changes internationally due to intensive worldwide migration and globalization, the need to more fully understand how migrants adapt and cope with acculturation experiences in their new host cultural environment is imperative and timely. However, a comprehensive review of what we currently know about the relationship between coping behavior and acculturation experience for individuals undergoing cultural changes has not yet been undertaken. Hence, the current article aims to compile, review, and examine cumulative cross-cultural psychological research that sheds light on the relationships among coping, acculturation, and psychological and mental health outcomes for migrants. To this end, this present article reviews prevailing literature pertaining to: (a) the stress and coping conceptual perspective of acculturation; (b) four theoretical models of coping, acculturation and cultural adaptation; (c) differential coping pattern among diverse acculturating migrant groups; and (d) the relationship between coping variabilities and acculturation levels among migrants. In terms of theoretical understanding, this review points to the relative strengths and limitations associated with each of the four theoretical models on coping-acculturation-adaptation. These theories and the empirical studies reviewed in this article further highlight the central role of coping behaviors/strategies in the acculturation process and outcome for migrants and ethnic populations, both conceptually and functionally. Moreover, the review shows that across studies culturally preferred coping patterns exist among acculturating migrants and migrant groups and vary with migrants' acculturation levels. Implications and limitations of the existing literature for coping, acculturation, and psychological adaptation research are discussed and recommendations for future research are put forth.
Liu Jingquan; Li Zhe; Li Maoyou
Based on the analysis of the work characteristics of nuclear power plant operators and the comparison of professional psychological selection indices for different occupations, the indices of psychological selection system which is applicable to nuclear power plant operators are proposed in this paper, using the method named 'taking classes,cross-comparison'. The index results of the suggested psychological selection system reflects all the professional requirements on the nuclear power plant operators, which can also be used for the recruitment, training and the retraining programs for operators. (authors)
Carlos David Navarrete
Full Text Available Adherence to ingroup ideology increases after exposure to death-related stimuli, a reaction that proponents of terror management theory (TMT explain as a psychological defense against the uniquely human existential fear of death. We argue that existential concerns are not the relevant issue; rather, such concepts can be subsumed under a larger category of adaptive challenges that prime coalitional thinking. We suggest that increases in adherence to ingroup ideology in response to adaptive challenges are manifestations of normative mental representations emanating from psychological systems designed to enhance coordination and membership in social groups. In providing an alternative to TMT, we (1 explain why the theory is inconsistent with contemporary evolutionary biology, (2 demonstrate that mortality-salience does not have the unique evocative powers ascribed to it by TMT advocates, and (3 discuss our approach to coalitional psychology, a framework consistent with modern evolutionary theory and informed by a broad understanding of cultural variation, can be employed to help account for both the corpus of results in TMT research and the growing body of findings inconsistent with TMT's predictions.
Moore, Tria; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Makris, Michael
Venous thrombosis is a common and life-threatening disease that has received little attention in health psychology. The present study applied the theory of cognitive adaptation (TCA) to examine patients' reactions to venous thrombosis. Patients (N = 123) aged 16-84 recruited from anticoagulation units in the north of England completed measures of TCA constructs (meaning, mastery, self-esteem and optimism) and various outcome variables (anxiety, depression, thrombosis worries and quality of life) within 1 month of their thrombosis. The TCA explained large and significant amounts of variance in the outcome variables. In line with expectations, mastery, self-esteem and optimism were associated with positive adjustment. However, meaning was associated with elevated levels of distress. The results are discussed in relation to the search for meaning and the use of different control strategies in the early phases of adaptation to thrombosis.
Houtzager, B. A.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Caron, H. N.; Last, B. F.
Several studies have been conducted on sibling psychosocial adaptation to cancer in a brother or sister, but little is known on how the long-term adaptation of siblings to the illness develops. The concept quality of life has primarily been applied in research on the effects of chronic illness on
Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin
Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Puvathingal, Bess J.; Hantula, Donald A.
Intelligence analysis is a decision-making process rife with ambiguous, conflicting, irrelevant, important, and excessive information. The U.S. Intelligence Community is primed for psychology to lend its voice to the "analytic transformation" movement aimed at improving the quality of intelligence analysis. Traditional judgment and decision making…
Van den Heuvel, M.
The pace of organizational change has increased and multiple change-initiatives tend to overlap, therefore, organizations are in need of resourceful, adaptable employees who can handle change on an ongoing basis. This thesis uses a micro-level resource-perspective to broaden our understanding of
Full Text Available In the article, the author provides the findings of the empiric study, involving the employees of construction companies, with account for their diverse social statuses. Top executives, directors of departments, and engineers participated in the research project, covered by the article. One hundred and forty employees of six construction companies were involved in the empiric study. The project comprises quantitative and qualitative correlation of management situations, based on the methodology, developed by D. Snowden; contributions made by the psychological mechanisms of intergroup adaptation, as well as the resolution of management situations. The findings have proven that by getting adjusted to versa-tile management situations, group members alter the motivation potential of their groups by urging other groups, interacting with theirs, to get adjusted to the new environment of social interaction. Therefore, the difference in the motivation potentials of interacting groups may cause the resonance, leading to constructive solutions.
Thomas, Charles; Bhatia, Shruti
According to Indian Vedic philosophy, a human being contains 3 major bodies: (1) the matter body--brain, organs, and senses; (2) the mental body--mind, individual consciousness, intellect, and ego; and (3) the soul or causal body--universal consciousness. The third, which is located in the heart according to all spiritual traditions and recent scientific literature, can be seen as the information body that contains all memories. The mental body, which can interface with the matter and information bodies, can be seen as a field of immaterial energy that can carry, regulate, and strengthen all information (eg, thoughts or emotions) both positively and negatively. This body of information may store ancestral and/or autobiographical memories: unconscious memories from inner traumas--inner information (Ii) or samskaras in Vedic philosophy--and conscious memories from outer traumas--outer information (Io). These conscious and unconscious memories can be seen as potential psychological stressors. Resonance between Ii and Io may induce active conflicts if resistance occurs in the mental body; this conflict may cause specific metabolic activity in the brain and a stress response in the physical body, which permits adjustment to psychological stressors. The brainregulated stress response may be biphasic: cell death or growth induced by adrenergic molecular pathways during the conflict's unresolved phase and reversion to cell growth or death induced by cholinergic molecular pathways during the conflict's resolved phase. Case studies and data mining from PubMed suggest that this concept complies with the principles of holistic medicine and the scientific literature supporting its benefits. We suggest that the evolution of cancer can be seen as a biphasic stress response regulated by the brain to adapt to psychological stressors, which produce imbalance among the physical, mental, and information bodies.
Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; de Boer, Anthonius; Croiset, Gerda; Koster, Andries S; van der Burgt, Stéphanie; Kusurkar, Rashmi A
Insufficient professional development may lead to poor performance of healthcare professionals. Therefore, continuing education (CE) and continuing professional development (CPD) are needed to secure safe and good quality healthcare. The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesized associations and their directions between pharmacists' basic psychological needs in CE, their academic motivation, well-being, learning outcomes. Self-determination theory was used as a theoretical framework for this study. Data were collected through four questionnaires measuring: academic motivation, basic psychological needs (BPN), vitality and lifelong learning adaptability of pharmacists in the CE/CPD learning context. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data. Demographic factors like gender and working environment influenced the observed scores for frustration of BPN and factors like training status and working experience influenced the observed scores for academic motivation. A good model fit could be found only for a part of the hypothesized pathway. Frustration of BPN is positively directly related to the less desirable type of academic motivation, controlled motivation (0.88) and negatively directly related to vitality (- 1.61) and negatively indirectly related to learning outcomes in CE. Fulfillment or frustration of BPN are important predictors for well-being and learning outcomes. Further research should be conducted to discover how we can prevent these needs from being frustrated in order to design a motivating, vitalizing and sustainable CE/CPD system for pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Basic psychological needs are very important predictors for well-being and learning outcomes. Further research should be conducted to discover how we can prevent these needs from being frustrated in order to design a motivating, vitalizing and sustainable CE/CPD system for pharmacists and other healthcare professionals.
Alijani Renani, Houshang; Hajinejad, Fatemeh; Idani, Esmaeil; Ravanipour, Maryam
Recognition of the spiritual and psychological needs of children and their families with chronic asthma disease may be helpful in a successful coping with their problems in order to control over the condition. In a qualitative content analysis study, nine children with moderate to severe asthma and 10 parents were studied in order to discover the resources of compatibility of them. The participants were chosen purposefully and they were asked some semi-structure questions about their experiences. The spiritual and psychological experiences of the participants were divided into two main categories as follows: (1) contrive to religious-belief consisting of three sub-categories known as "religious rituals, believe in a divine predestination, and Islamic-based patience," and (2) psycho-intellectual management that includes the five sub-categories of "psycho-intellectual attention, maintaining family's mental peace, reduction in negative burden of disease, satisfaction from optimal treatment, and matching internal desires with disease conditions." It is recommended that heath care providers by reinforcing parent's and children's religious and spiritual backgrounds and according to child's cognitive development at this age provide a suitable foreground through necessary instructions for children and their families in order to spiritual growth and suitable adaptation with disease.
Houtzager, Bregje A; Oort, Frans J; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M; Caron, Huib N; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Last, Bob F
To assess associations of coping and family functioning with psychosocial adjustment in siblings of pediatric cancer patients at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months after diagnosis. Eighty-three siblings (ages 7-19 years) participated. Effects on anxiety, quality of life, behavioral-emotional problems, and emotional reactions to the illness were investigated. Data-analysis was performed with multilevel mixed modeling. Psychosocial functioning was impaired at 1 month but ameliorated over time. Adjustment problems were associated with high family adaptation and cohesion, older age, and female gender. Lower anxiety, insecurity, loneliness, and illness involvement were related to siblings' ability to remain optimistic. Insecurity and illness involvement were positively related to reliance on the medical specialist and a tendency to seek information about the illness. Siblings of pediatric cancer patients are most affected by the illness in the first months. Children at risk may be identified according to sibling age and gender and according to long-term family adaptation processes and sibling coping abilities.
Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Balaji, Madhumitha; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Rahman, Atif; Verdeli, Helena; Araya, Ricardo; Jordans, M J D; Chowdhary, Neerja; Patel, Vikram
Integrating consumer perspectives in developing and adapting psychological treatments (PTs) can enhance their acceptability in diverse cultural contexts. To describe the explanatory models (EMs) of depression in South Asia with the goal of informing the content of culturally appropriate PTs for this region. Two methods were used: a systematic review of published literature on the EMs of depression in South Asia; and in-depth interviews with persons with depression and family caregivers in two sites in India. Findings from both were analysed independently and then triangulated. There were 19 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Interviews were conducted with 27 patients and 10 caregivers. Findings were grouped under four broad categories: illness descriptions, perceived impact, causal beliefs and self-help forms of coping. Depression was characterised predominantly by somatic complaints, stress, low mood, and negative and ruminative thoughts. Patients experienced disturbances in interpersonal relationships occupational functioning, and stigma. Negative life events, particularly relationship difficulties, were perceived as the main cause. Patients mostly engaged in distracting activities, religious practices, and received support from family and friends to cope with the illness. The primary data are entirely from India but the studies from the literature review covering South Asia are consistent with these findings. This study also does not include literature in local languages or explore how consumer perspectives change over time. EMs can inform cultural adaptations to PTs for depression in South Asia by defining target outcomes, content for psycho-education, and culturally appropriate treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Broom, Donald M
The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and
. Dar es Salaam. Durban. Bloemfontein. Antananarivo. Cape Town. Ifrane ... program strategy. A number of CCAA-supported projects have relevance to other important adaptation-related themes such as disaster preparedness and climate.
Bargatze, L. F.
Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted
Nairobi, Kenya. 28 Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific and Endogenous Knowledge. Cap Verde, Gambia,. Guinea, Guinea Bissau,. Mauritania and Senegal. Environment and Development in the Third World. (ENDA-TM). Dakar, Senegal. 29 Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk ...
Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa
This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults' views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+) participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults. PMID:24455260
Full Text Available This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults’ views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+ participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults.
Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
Research consistently shows a negative view of individuals with obesity in the general public and in various other settings. Stigma and discrimination can be considered chronic stressors, as these factors have a profound impact on the psychological well-being of the affected individuals. This article proposes a framework that entails a mediation of the adverse effects of discrimination and stigmatization on mental well-being through elevated psychological risk factors that are not unique to weight but that could affect overweight and normal-weight individuals alike. A systematic review was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychological risk factors, such as self-esteem and coping, in individuals with obesity. Forty-six articles were assessed and included for detailed analysis. The number of studies on these topics is limited to certain dimensions of psychological processes. The best evaluated association of obesity and psychosocial aspects is seen for self-esteem. Most studies establish a negative association of weight and self-esteem in children and adults. All studies with mediation analysis find a positive mediation through psychological risk factors on mental health outcomes. This review shows that elevated psychological risk factors are existent in individuals with obesity and that they may be a mediator between weight discrimination and pathopsychological outcomes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Audhoe Selwin S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the working population, unemployed and temporary agency workers with psychological problems are a particularly vulnerable group, at risk for sickness absence and prolonged work disability. There is a need for the development of a new protocol for this group, because the existing return to work (RTW interventions, including practice guidelines, do not address the situation when there is no workplace to return to. The purpose of this study was to (1 describe the adaptations needed in the practice guideline for employed workers to enable its use by insurance physicians (IPs for counselling of sick-listed unemployed and temporary agency workers with minor psychological problems; and (2 evaluate the experiences of IPs when using the new guidance document for minor psychological problems (MPP guidance document. Methods The MPP guidance document for unemployed and temporary agency workers was developed through discussions with nine IPs and with the help of an expert. Semi-structured interviews with five IPs were then held to evaluate the IPs’ field experience using the MPP guidance document, in terms of (a feasibility and (b perceived usefulness of the MPP guidance document. Results The main adaptation introduced in the guideline is that interaction with the workplace, which is absent in this population, needed to be established in an alternative way, i.e., through the involvement of vocational rehabilitation agencies and labour experts. Overall, the guideline required minimal changes. In total, nineteen sick-listed workers were counselled using the MPP guidance document. The overall experience of the IPs was that the MPP guidance document was feasible and useful for the IP, while they had mixed responses on its usefulness for the sick-listed worker, in part due to the follow-up period of this study. Conclusions An existing practice guideline for employed workers was adapted for use as a guidance document for unemployed and
Audhoe, Selwin S; Hoving, Jan L; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W
Among the working population, unemployed and temporary agency workers with psychological problems are a particularly vulnerable group, at risk for sickness absence and prolonged work disability. There is a need for the development of a new protocol for this group, because the existing return to work (RTW) interventions, including practice guidelines, do not address the situation when there is no workplace to return to. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the adaptations needed in the practice guideline for employed workers to enable its use by insurance physicians (IPs) for counselling of sick-listed unemployed and temporary agency workers with minor psychological problems; and (2) evaluate the experiences of IPs when using the new guidance document for minor psychological problems (MPP guidance document). The MPP guidance document for unemployed and temporary agency workers was developed through discussions with nine IPs and with the help of an expert. Semi-structured interviews with five IPs were then held to evaluate the IPs' field experience using the MPP guidance document, in terms of (a) feasibility and (b) perceived usefulness of the MPP guidance document. The main adaptation introduced in the guideline is that interaction with the workplace, which is absent in this population, needed to be established in an alternative way, i.e., through the involvement of vocational rehabilitation agencies and labour experts. Overall, the guideline required minimal changes. In total, nineteen sick-listed workers were counselled using the MPP guidance document. The overall experience of the IPs was that the MPP guidance document was feasible and useful for the IP, while they had mixed responses on its usefulness for the sick-listed worker, in part due to the follow-up period of this study. An existing practice guideline for employed workers was adapted for use as a guidance document for unemployed and temporary agency workers with minor psychological problems. IPs
Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.
Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.
Duchesne, Stéphane; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Feng, Bei
There is abundant evidence to suggest that students' achievement goals (AGs) predict their motivation and performance. While it has been proposed that psychological need satisfaction (PNS) may affect AG, empirical support remains limited during the transition to secondary school. This prospective study addresses this gap by examining the link…
Stochl, Jan; Böhnke, Jan R; Pickett, Kate E; Croudace, Tim J
Recent developments in psychometric modeling and technology allow pooling well-validated items from existing instruments into larger item banks and their deployment through methods of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Use of item response theory-based bifactor methods and integrative data analysis overcomes barriers in cross-instrument comparison. This paper presents the joint calibration of an item bank for researchers keen to investigate population variations in general psychological distress (GPD). Multidimensional item response theory was used on existing health survey data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey (n = 766) to calibrate an item bank consisting of pooled items from the short common mental disorder screen (GHQ-12) and the Affectometer-2 (a measure of "general happiness"). Computer simulation was used to evaluate usefulness and efficacy of its adaptive administration. A bifactor model capturing variation across a continuum of population distress (while controlling for artefacts due to item wording) was supported. The numbers of items for different required reliabilities in adaptive administration demonstrated promising efficacy of the proposed item bank. Psychometric modeling of the common dimension captured by more than one instrument offers the potential of adaptive testing for GPD using individually sequenced combinations of existing survey items. The potential for linking other item sets with alternative candidate measures of positive mental health is discussed since an optimal item bank may require even more items than these.
Su, Tung-Ping; Lien, Te-Cheng; Yang, Chih-Yi; Su, Yiet Ling; Wang, Jia-Horng; Tsai, Sing-Ling; Yin, Jeo-Chen
To assess the rapidly changing psychological status of nurses during the acute phase of the 2003 SARS outbreak, we conducted a prospective and periodic evaluation of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation among nurses in SARS units and non-SARS units. Nurse participants were from two SARS units (regular SARS [N=44] and SARS ICU [N=26]) and two non-SARS units (Neurology [N=15] and CCU [N=17]). Participants periodically self-evaluated their depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, sleep disturbance, attitude towards SARS and family support. Results showed that depression (38.5% vs. 3.1%) and insomnia (37% vs. 9.7%) were, respectively, greater in the SARS unit nurses than the non-SARS unit nurses. No difference between these two groups was found in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (33% vs. 18.7%), yet, three unit subjects (SARS ICU, SARS regular and Neurology) had significantly higher rate than those in CCU (29.7% vs. 11.8%, respectively) (pregular SARS unit. Occurrence of psychiatric symptoms was linked to direct exposure to SARS patient care, previous mood disorder history, younger age and perceived negative feelings. Positive coping attitude and strong social and family support may have protected against acute stress. In conclusion, the psychological impact on the caring staffs facing future bio-disaster will be minimized with lowered risk factors and a safer and more structured work environment.
Hannah, Sean T; Balthazard, Pierre A; Waldman, David A; Jennings, Peter L; Thatcher, Robert W
Complex contexts and environments require leaders to be highly adaptive and to adjust their behavioral responses to meet diverse role demands. Such adaptability may be contingent upon leaders having requisite complexity to facilitate effectiveness across a range of roles. However, there exists little empirical understanding of the etiology or basis of leader complexity. To this end, we conceptualized a model of leader self-complexity that is inclusive of both the mind (the complexity of leaders' self-concepts) and the brain (the neuroscientific basis for complex leadership). We derived psychometric and neurologically based measures, the latter based on quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) profiles of leader self-complexity, and tested their separate effects on the adaptive decision-making of 103 military leaders. Results demonstrated that both measures accounted for unique variance in external ratings of adaptive decision-making. We discuss how these findings provide a deeper understanding of the latent and dynamic mechanisms that underpin leaders' self-complexity and their adaptability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Maralova, Tatyana P.; Filipenkova, Olesya G.; Galitskikh, Elena O.; Shulga, Tatiana I.; Sidyacheva, Natalya V.; Ovsyanik, Olga A.
The relevance of the study is conditioned by the complexity of students' adaptation to learning at University due to the change of social environment, an alarming feelings about the precise self-determination, lack of knowledge in opportunities for self-expression in art, science, sport and public life. The purpose of the paper is to identify…
García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar; Recio, Patricia
In couples parenting children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the partner becomes a primary source of support for addressing the additional parenting demands. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between supportive dyadic coping and parental adaptation, and to assess the mediating role of relationship satisfaction between…
Fiori, Katherine; Consedine, Nathan; Magai, Carol
Negotiating the balance between reliance on others and desires for autonomy is a fundamental task of successful aging. The purpose of the present study was to replicate and extend a three-factor model of interpersonal dependency in a sample of older adults, and to examine the physical and psychological health correlates of this multifaceted construct. Data come from the third wave of a population-based study of older Americans (n = 166; mean age 80 years). We conducted an exploratory factor analysis of selected dependency items from two scales, and then conducted logistic and hierarchical linear regressions to analyze the association of dependency factors with self-reported health, use of hypertension medication, depressed affect and positive affect. We found three factors closely paralleling those of Bornstein and Languirand's (Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 3-23, 2004) measure: destructive overdependence, healthy dependency and dysfunctional detachment, as well as a fourth factor we labeled 'healthy independence'. Healthy dependency was associated with better self-reported health. Dysfunctional detachment was related to a greater likelihood and healthy independence a lesser likelihood of taking hypertension medication. Whereas both healthy independence and healthy dependency were positively related to positive affect and negatively related to depressed affect, destructive overdependence was positively related to depressed affect. Understanding the complex nature of interpersonal dependency and autonomy in old age, as well as their implications for health and wellbeing, may enable practitioners to assist older adults in negotiating the task of balancing these needs.
Kuo, Ben C.H.
Given the continuous, dynamic demographic changes internationally due to intensive worldwide migration and globalization, the need to more fully understand how migrants adapt and cope with acculturation experiences in their new host cultural environment is imperative and timely. However, a comprehensive review of what we currently know about the relationship between coping behavior and acculturation experience for individuals undergoing cultural changes has not yet been undertaken. Hence, the...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The experiences of people with cancer and organ disease have been described across different dimensions of need as they approach death. Such information is lacking for frail older people approaching death, but could highlight how a palliative approach might be relevant for this population. Methods Cognitively intact, community dwelling adults considered to be moderately or severely frail were recruited from a medical day hospital. Those recruited nominated an informal carer and case-linked professional. Qualitative in-depth serial interviews with older people and their informal carers were conducted over an 18 month period, and single interviews with case-linked healthcare professionals. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and narrative analytical techniques were used to compile case studies. Results Thirty-four participants (13 patients, 13 informal carers and 8 healthcare professionals completed 40 individual, 14 joint and 8 professional interviews. Five patients died during the study. The analysis highlighted a dynamic balance between losses and adaptations. Three typical patterns of multi-dimensional change emerged. 1 Maintenance of psychological and existential well-being with a gradual social decline mirroring the physical deterioration. 2 a gradual reduction in both psychological and existential well-being. 3 a marked downturn in social, psychological and existential well-being before death. Frail older people sustained their well-being through maintaining a sense-of-self, garnering support from carers and community structures, and focusing on living from day to day. Their well-being lessened when they lost their sense-of-self, feeling alienated from the world, and confused over the cause of their circumstances. Death remained distant and ‘undiagnosed’. Social and community frameworks were essential for supporting their well-being. Conclusions Multidimensional end-of-life trajectories for frail older people
Juliana Burges Sbicigo
Full Text Available The association between quality of family relationships and psychological adjustment has been understudied in the literature. This study tested the predictive relationship between family environment (measured by the dimensions of cohesion, hierarchy, support and conflict and indicators of psychological adjustment (self-esteem, general self-efficacy and low levels of self-depreciation in adolescents using structural equation modeling. Participants were 656 students aged between 12 and 18 years old from public schools. They answered the Family Climate Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Perceived Self-efficacy Scale. The results indicated that the family environment (cohesion, support and low conflict was a significant predictor of psychological adaptation. This study concluded that functional family relationships are important for the expression of positive psychological characteristics during adolescence.A associação entre qualidade das relações familiares e adaptação psicológica tem sido subinvestigada na literatura. Esta pesquisa testou a relação preditiva entre ambiente familiar (através das dimensões coesão, hierarquia, apoio e conflito e indicadores de adaptação psicológica (autoestima, autoeficácia geral e baixos níveis de autodepreciação em adolescentes utilizando modelagem de equações estruturais. Participaram 656 estudantes de escolas públicas entre 12 e 18 anos, que responderam ao Inventário do Clima Familiar, à Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg e à Escala de Autoeficácia Geral Percebida. Os resultados indicaram que o ambiente familiar (coesão, apoio e baixos índices de conflito foi um preditor significativo de adaptação psicológica. Conclui-se que relações familiares funcionais são importantes para a expressão de características psicológicas positivas na adolescência.
Molder, te H.F.M.
Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus
This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…
Blackmon, Bret J; Lee, Joohee; Cochran, David M; Kar, Bandana; Rehner, Timothy A; Baker, Alvin M
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among depression, psychological resilience, and other sociodemographic factors of individuals who were highly exposed to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in 2010. A spatially stratified random sample of 294 Mississippi Gulf Coast residents living in close proximity to the Gulf of Mexico were surveyed. Findings indicated that low education attainment, financial hardship, and disaster-related damages increased the likelihood of depression, whereas psychological resilience and having health insurance reduced the odds of depression. Implications for enhancing psychological resilience and increasing access to health insurance are discussed.
Singleton, Royce Jr.
Describes eight classroom activities which instruct college level sociology students about major concepts and principles of social psychology. Concepts include gestalt psychology, nonverbal communication, adaptation level, relative deprivation, selective exposure, labeling, sexism, and perceptual distortion. (Author/DB)
Betul Dilara seker
Conclusion: Psychological and sociocultural adaptation of students are not associated with each other. As students perceived discrimination level increases, they have more sociocultural adaptation difficulties. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 504-514
Currently cancer is the first cause of death in Western society, but also: many patients survive, due to improved treatments. During the past 30 years psycho-oncology has grown from a non-issue to an important aspect of cancer-rehabilitation. Psychological adaptation to cancer is a complex process,
Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.
Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…
Canter, David V.
The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime
Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…
For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central
Presented is a technical report concerning the use of a mathematical model describing certain aspects of the duplication and selection processes in natural genetic adaptation. This reproductive plan/model occurs in artificial genetics (the use of ideas from genetics to develop general problem solving techniques for computers). The reproductive…
Batchelder, William H
Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chronic insomnia in workers poisoned by inorganic mercury: psychological and adaptive aspects Insônia crônica em trabalhadores contaminados por mercúrio inorgânico: aspectos psicológicos e adaptativos
SUELI REGINA G. ROSSINI
Full Text Available Insomnia is one of the symptoms of inorganic mercury poisoning (IMP. The objective of this study is to analyze the chief psychological aspects in the adjustment of workers with chronic insomnia associated with IMP. For this purpose the Preventive Clinical Interview and the Ryad Simon Operational Adaptive Diagnostic Scale (Escala Diagnóstica Adaptativa Operacionalizada-EDAO were utilized. Fifteen subjects with mean age of 40 years (10 males and 5 females were studied. Nine were diagnosed with High Adaptive Inefficacy, five with Moderate Inefficient Adaptation and only one with Mild Inefficient Adaptation. Impairment occurred in four adaptive sectors: affective relationship, social-cultural, productivity and organic. Adaptive efficiency indicated that in all the 15 subjects studied the adaptive solutions were frustrating and led to psychic suffering and/or environmental conflict confirming the severity of the involvement in chronic IMP.Insônia é um dos sintomas da contaminação por mercúrio inorgânico. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os principais aspectos psicológicos presentes na organização adaptativa de trabalhadores com insônia crônica associada à contaminação por mercúrio inorgânico. Utilizaram a Entrevista Clínica Preventiva e a Escala Diagnóstica Adaptativa Operacionalizada (EDAO de Ryad Simon. Foram estudadas 15 pessoas, com média de idade de 40 anos (10M; 5 F. Nove foram diagnosticadas como tendo Adaptação Ineficaz Severa; cinco, Adaptação Ineficaz Moderada; e somente um, Adaptação Ineficaz Leve. O comprometimento na adaptação ocorreu nos quatro setores adaptativos: afetivo-emocional, sócio-cultural, da produtividade e orgânico. A eficácia adaptativa indicou que em todos as15 pessoas estudadas, as soluções adaptativas encontradas foram frustrantes e levaram a sofrimento psíquico e/ou atritos ambientais, evidenciando a severidade de comprometimento na intoxicação crônica por mercúrio inorgânico.
As a chronic disease, diabetes in children has repercussions on self-esteem, which, in return, influences children's self-confidence as well as their self-care skills. The young patient establishes strategies for adapting to the disease, or coping strategies, which depend on the child's age (problem solving) and mirror the adult parent. Self-esteem is also established and maintained in favor of successful social integration among the child's peers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Henriques, Gregg R
A new form of knowledge technology is used to diagnose psychology's epistemological woes and provide a solution to the difficulties. The argument presented is that psychology has traditionally spanned two separate but intimately related problems: (a) the problem of animal behavior and (b) the problem of human behavior. Accordingly, the solution offered divides the field into two broad, logically consistent domains. The first domain is psychological formalism, which is defined as the science of mind, corresponds to animal behavior, and consists of the basic psychological sciences. The second domain is human psychology, which is defined as the science of human behavior at the individual level and is proposed as a hybrid that exists between psychological formalism and the social sciences. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shafaei, Azadeh; Nejati, Mehran; Abd Razak, Nordin
This study aims to investigate the relationship between acculturation attitude (i.e. adjustment and attachment attitudes) and individuals' psychological adaptation (i.e. life satisfaction, depression and self-esteem). Additionally, the relationship between the dimensions of psychological adaptation with psychological well-being and their mediation…
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.
Staats, Arthur W.
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in cha...
Staats, Arthur W.
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175
Staats, A W
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.
Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon
For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not
Moritz Caspar Franz Oberstadt
Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is inevitably fatal. To be diagnosed with a terminal illness such as ALS deeply affects one’s personal existence and goes along with significant changes regarding the physical, emotional, and social domains of the patients’ life. ALS patients have to face a rapidly debilitating physical decline which restrains mobility and impairs all activities of daily living. This progressive loss of autonomy may lead to a sense of hopelessness and loss of quality of life, which in turn may even result in thoughts about physician-assisted suicide. Here, we would like to propose a psychotherapeutic manualized, individual, semi-structured intervention to relieve distress and promote psychological well-being in ALS patients. This short-term intervention was originally developed for advanced cancer patients. “Managing Cancer and Living Meaningfully (CALM” focuses on the four dimensions: (i symptom management and communication with healthcare providers, (ii changes in self and relations with close others, (iii spirituality, sense of meaning and purpose and (iv thinking of the future, hope, and mortality. We suggest to supplement the concept by two additional dimensions which take into account specific issues of ALS patients: (v communication skills, and (vi emotional expression and control. This therapeutic concept named “ManagIng Burden in ALS and Living Meaningfully (mi-BALM” may be a further treatment option to help improving quality of life of ALS patients.
An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krotee, March L.
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Skinner, T. C.
of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...
Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin
Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.
David F. Bjorklund
Developmental thinking is gradually becoming integrated within mainstream evolutionary psychology. This is most apparent with respect to the role of parenting, with proponents of life history theory arguing that cognitive and behavioral plasticity early in life permits children to select different life history strategies, with such strategies being adaptive solutions to different fitness trade-offs. I argue that adaptations develop and are based on the highly plastic nature of infants’ and ch...
Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.
This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8
Lucian Gideon Conway
Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.
Adrian, Stine Willum
During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...
E. N. Verigo
Full Text Available This work deals with the psychological rehabilitation of patients with anophthalmia having eye protesis as the main role on the problem. Stages of psychological reaction after eye lost and also the difficulties of adaptation of fellows with both eyesight lost is widely discussed. In order to help practitioners, recommendations on dealing this kind of patients has been given.
E. N. Verigo
Full Text Available This work deals with the psychological rehabilitation of patients with anophthalmia having eye protesis as the main role on the problem. Stages of psychological reaction after eye lost and also the difficulties of adaptation of fellows with both eyesight lost is widely discussed. In order to help practitioners, recommendations on dealing this kind of patients has been given.
there is a very real and palpable sense that psychologists working with deployed service personnel have an imperative to assist those who give of themselves to defend their countries. Deployment psychology's introduction begins and ends with testimonial accounts from US soldiers' experiences in theatres of war and ...
He Xuhong; Huang Xiangrui
The paper concerns in the results of analysis for nuclear power plant (NPP) operator job and analysis for human errors related NPP accidents. Based on the principle of ergonomics a full psychological selection system of the professional adaptability of NPP operators including cognitive ability, personality and psychological health was established. The application way and importance of the professional adaptability research are discussed. (authors)
David F. Bjorklund
Full Text Available Developmental thinking is gradually becoming integrated within mainstream evolutionary psychology. This is most apparent with respect to the role of parenting, with proponents of life history theory arguing that cognitive and behavioral plasticity early in life permits children to select different life history strategies, with such strategies being adaptive solutions to different fitness trade-offs. I argue that adaptations develop and are based on the highly plastic nature of infants’ and children’s behavior/cognition/brains. The concept of evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms is introduced, defined as information processing mechanisms evolved to solve recurrent problems faced by ancestral populations that are expressed in a probabilistic fashion in each individual in a generation and are based on the continuous and bidirectional interaction over time at all levels of organization, from the genetic through the cultural. Early perceptual/cognitive biases result in behavior that, when occurring in a species-typical environment, produce continuous adaptive changes in behavior (and cognition, yielding adaptive outcomes. Examples from social learning and tool use are provided, illustrating the development of adaptations via evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms. The integration of developmental concepts into mainstream evolutionary psychology (and evolutionary concepts into mainstream developmental psychology will provide a clearer picture of what it means to be human.
The author validated Berry's model of acculturation (J. W. Berry, 1990a, 1990b, 1991; J. W. Berry, U. Kim, S. Power, M. Young, & M. Bujaki, 1989) and examined the relation between acculturation attitudes and sociocultural and psychological adaptation among Croatian and Polish immigrants to Italy, 2 groups whose cultures are not very different from the Italian culture. Moreover, the author investigated the relation between the need for cognitive closure (NCC; M. D. Webster & A. W. Kruglanski, 1994) and psychological and sociocultural adaptation. The participants completed a questionnaire including measures of sociocultural adaptation, psychological adaptation, social relationships, acculturation attitudes, and NCC. The results of a multivariate analysis of variance revealed main effects of acculturation strategies for both forms of adaptation and a main effect of NCC for psychological adaptation. The Croatian and Polish immigrants differed in the level of sociocultural adaptation but not in the level of psychological adaptation.
After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious
The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…
Skinner, T. C.
Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...
Dekker, Joost; de Groot, Vincent
Psychological adjustment has a major impact on chronic disease health outcomes. However, the classification of psychological adjustment is unclear in the current version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We aim (i) to characterize the process of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, and (ii) to analyze how various categories of the psychological adjustment process could be incorporated into the ICF. We provide a summary of models of psychological adjustment to chronic disease. We also evaluate various options for incorporating categories of psychological adjustment into the ICF. Acute and ongoing illness stressors; emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses; personal background; and social and environmental background are major categories in the adjustment process. These categories could, in principle, be integrated with various components of the ICF. Any future revision of the ICF should explicitly incorporate psychological adjustment and its (sub)categories. The ICF could incorporate categories of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, although several adaptations and clarifications will be required. Implications for Rehabilitation In the context of an ageing society and large numbers of people living with chronic diseases, it is essential to understand psychological adjustment to chronic disease. However, the classification of psychological adjustment to chronic disease is unclear in the current version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We demonstrate that the ICF could incorporate categories of psychological adjustment to chronic disease, although several adaptations and clarifications would first be required. We suggest that these adaptations and clarifications should be considered in any future revision of the ICF.
Van Heerden, Adelaide
Full Text Available African Military Psychology community. Twenty-two years into democracy, this book Military psychology for Africa brings ‘wholeness’ for African soldiers, their families, psychological scientists, university scholars and practitioners. The scope...
van der Ark, L.A.; Bolt, D.M.; Wang, W.-C.; Douglas, J.A.; Wiberg, M.
The research articles in this volume cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation
Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...
Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri
In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.
Zucchero, Renee' A.
Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…
Cheung, Fanny M.
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…
This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...
The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de
With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs
As an alternative to dominant cognitive-constructivist approaches to educational technology, this article makes the case for what has been termed a discursive, or postcognitive, psychological research paradigm. It does so by adapting discursive psychological analyses of conversational activity to the study of educational technology use. It applies…
the psychological, the pathological, or the influence of childhood conflicts. A number of contemporary psychobiographers (...) are, however, aware of such dangers, and are avoiding them by integrating the psychological with the social and historical, by analyzing not just pathology but also strengths and adaptive capacities, ...
Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole
We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.
The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...
The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.
of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...
Shin, Hong Im; Kim, Juyoung
Does using a foreign language result in forming different moral decisions than using our mother tongue? Two studies were conducted to investigate whether there is a relationship between foreign language effects (differences between native vs. foreign language conditions) and psychological distance. Study 1 tested four moral dilemmas adapted from…
Kennedy, Janice H.; Kennedy, Charles E.
The effective practice of school psychology requires a strong research and theoretical base, a framework that encompasses developmental processes and outcomes, both adaptive and maladaptive, which facilitates assessment and intervention and offers insight into classroom and family dynamics. Attachment theory provides the school psychologist with…
Nagy, Laura M.; Baer, Ruth A.
Mindfulness, which is best understood as nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness, originated in ancient Eastern traditions but has been adapted for use in Western, secular settings. The present article reviews the quickly burgeoning field of mindfulness research for teachers of psychology, including the most common mindfulness-based treatments…
Human beings have always tackled their problems and the adversities of life by drawing on their own resources, resilience, and values, and yet the focus on pathology has effectively long dominated the cognitive approach of psychologists to ill-being. Psychological interventions in rehabilitation medicine were formed around the codification and containment of the ill-being, in an almost surgical or antibiotic sense of "correcting" the negativity: identifying and removing or combating the ill-being, or, if possible, its sources; the distance to be covered was from negativity to zero: absence of ill-being as a synonym for well-being. But what makes a 20-year-old tetraplegic look to the future? Where does someone who has been waiting for heart transplant for one, two or three years find the strength to carry on while living on 18 drugs and no more than two little bottles of water a day? In its use in the context of health care, positive psychology is that part of psychology that takes on the task--among others--of deciphering the mechanisms through which it becomes possible to adapt to a chronic illness. But not only. Positive psychology also offers the opportunity to systematise knowledge concerning the possibility of overreaching the distance from negativity to zero, of going beyond, of nourishing positivity, enriching and improving oneself, despite the presence of an organic disease or a disability. Positive psychotherapy does not negate painful or unpleasant experiences, but encourages the use of resources to understand weaknesses and it is contributing substantially to drawing our attention back to optimism, courage, positive emotions, flexibility, creativity, faith, hopes, honesty, perseverance, flourishing and on their relationships with physical health. A different language from the one that years of pragmatism have accustomed us to. If positive psychology can help our patients to see, through the pain, anger and fear, something that makes their life still
Staats, A W
Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.
Migrant Adaptation - A Cross-Cultural Problem. A Review of Research on Migration, Minority Groups and Cultural Differences, with Special Regard to Children. Educational and Psychological Interactions, No. 59.
Ekstrand, L. H.
Research pertinent to the adaptation of immigrant children is reviewed in a cross-cultural perspective. The report focuses on research that has yielded empirical data, although a number of other papers of basic importance have been included in the review. The first chapter discusses definitions and implications of various types of cross-cultural…
Anders Richards, Donald
The place of the encounter group within the framework of humanistic psychology is examined and an assessment of the moral significance of the humanistic psychology movement and the encounter group technique is attempted. (Editor)
... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. ...
Chmel, Roman; Pastor, Zlatko; Nováčková, Marta; Matěcha, Jan; Čekal, Miloš; Zámečníková, Renata; Froněk, Jiří
Uterus transplantation is a life-giving and quality-of-life enhancing transplantation. Life with transplanted uterus is a transitional phase of life for both recipients and their partners. Six deliveries of healthy children from five transplanted mothers out of 9 uterus transplantations in Sweden may encourage untimely hopes of thousands of women with absolute uterine factor infertility worldwide. Psychological evaluation might be included into all trials regarding new treatment methods and treatment procedures. Main psychological issues connected with the infertility treatment in women with absent uterus are clearly defined (especially in vitro fertilization, uterus transplantation, compliance with immunosuppressive treatment, ultrasound examinations of uterine vascular perfusion, rejection signs surveillance, embryo transfer, pregnancy, cesarean section, preterm delivery risk, puerperium, hysterectomy and immunosuppressive treatment termination). The role of psychological evaluation of participants before the admission to complicated treatment process is to choose those who will be able to cope all mentioned difficulties and unexpected complications including potential failure of the whole treatment without serious negative impact on their psychological situation. Up to now experience with psychological stability of our 7 uterus recipients and 3 uterus living donors are good although post-transplant period is especially in recipients connected with everyday psychological adaptation on the significant life changes. We are aware that psychological evaluation of our study participants will require further 3 years of follow up with publication of our results.
For creating common with the Russian side approaches to social and psychological rehabilitation and adaptation of the population within the framework of the Common activity programme the formation of information base of techniques of social and psychological (authors)
Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James
Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…
Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…
Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio
The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…
Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.
Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…
Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor
Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334 ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010
Gorczyca, Rafał; Filip, Rafał; Walczak, Ewa
Pain is defined "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". Pain is a sensation of the body, and is always an unpleasant emotional experience. The role of psychology is auxiliary and supplemental to medicine. This is an aid addressed to the patient, physician and patient's caregivers: professional caregivers, family members and significant others. At each stage of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, psychology offers help, both from the cognitive and practical aspects. The objective of the article is to present important psychological aspects of studies concerning pain, and the psychological methods and techniques of pain treatment. Pain is the leading reason for patients seeking medical care and is one of the most disabling, burdensome, and costly conditions. Pain accompanies many diseases, each one of which generates unique/separate diagnostic, therapeutic and research problems. DEPRESSION AND RELATED PSYCHICAL DISORDERS: There is a significant relationship between depression and pain symptoms, as well as between pain and suicidal thoughts. Patients with a long history of pain disorders also have increased depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as suicidal thoughts. Patients with more severe depression and anxiety symptoms also have an increase in pain problems. The intensity of pain correlates with the intensity of psychopathological symptoms - both with mood lowering and with anxiety symptoms and worry. Active pain coping strategies strive to function in spite of pain, or to distract oneself from pain, are associated with adaptive functioning. Passive strategies involve withdrawal or relinquishing control to an external force or agent and are related to greater pain and depression. Pain catastrophizing is a negatively distorted perception of pain as awful, horrible and unbearable. Catastrophizing is strongly associated with depression and pain. Studies in which
Full Text Available On the basis of scientific literature analysis, the article focuses on the conceptual framework of adaptation of employees and management of this adaptation in the merged organisations. The article reasons the aspect of change and transition in the post-merger context. The author discusses psychological and behavioural responses of organisation staff towards the post-merger and introduces transition phases of employees. There are also highlighted specific features of staff adaptation management in the merged organisations.
Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper
Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...
Risk factors lead to social exclusion and their accumulation can lead to homelessness. This inevitably contributes to a progressive increase in psychological distress or aggravates a pre-existing mental illness. Over the years, homeless people, who are never happy, develop various survival strategies and mental defenses that can sometimes prove effective. Other individuals who are less"adapted" to living in the street may suffer from both mental and physical collapse. Proactive programs designed to facilitate access to healthcare and welfare have been created in order to offer solutions designed to enable homeless people to leave the street, through access to medical care, accommodation and civil rights. The psychiatric sector has been slow to adapt to the needs of this population, although several teams specializing in mental illness and precariousness have been created These teams explore every possible avenue to help homeless people with mental health issues to recover a psychological balance that allows them to choose a recovery pathway and thus to regain a dignified lifestyle.
Beginning around 1879, a Neoscholastic psychology developed, an experimental psychology with a soul. Opposed to materialism, it sought to renew Scholastic philosophy by incorporating the findings of the natural sciences. Neoscholastic psychology is an important chapter in the history of the relationships between science and religion in the 20th century. Neoscholastic psychology was both experimental and philosophical. This article presents the main accomplishments of North American Neoscholastic psychology in academic and applied areas. Neoscholastic psychologists championed scientific psychology while insisting on a better conception of human nature. Philosophical critiques led to a decline of Neoscholasticism; after the 1960s it was no longer official Catholic philosophy. Neoscholasticism gave psychologists concerned with philosophical questions impetus to turn to phenomenology, existentialism, and humanistic psychology.
Full Text Available The article describes the main directions and reveals the content of psychological work in the bodies of internal affairs which is continuously implemented at each stage of staff performance. Among the leading areas of activity of psychologists are the following: professional psychological selection of candidates for service; psychological diagnosis of employees in the course of support of official activity; the study of the socio-psychological climate in the collectives and the moral and psychological state of the personnel; carrying out special psychophysiological studies using a polygraph; adaptation of young employees; professional psychological training of personnel; psychological prevention and correction of negative psychoemotional states; psychological counseling of personal, family and professional problems of employees. Taking into account the described state of the departmental psychological service, the prospective directions of its development are outlined, and the need to implement a systemic, integrated approach when solving problems related to the psychological maintenance of staff performance is emphasized.
Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper
Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed...
Cheung, Fanny M
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...
Oakland, Thomas D
International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development. Nine issues that will help shape the future of international school psychology are also identified. The importance of psychology, including school psychology, in promoting children's needs and rights is underscored. (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved.
Vossler, Andreas; Steffen , Edith; Joseph, Stephen
The aim of this chapter is to explore the relation between the professional specialty of counseling psychology and positive psychology. Following a brief historical overview of counseling psychology, we explore its theoretical convergence with positive psychology and examine how the ideas from positive psychology have been received by counseling psychologists. We argue that although counseling psychology has its roots in ideas that are consistent with positive psychology, the profession has d...
Mirjana Nastran Ule
Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.
Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Kayis, Ahmet Rifat; Akin, Ahmet
Authenticity is associated with adaptive psychological characteristics and may be predictive of psychological vulnerability. The study was conducted with Turkish university students (N = 303; 158 women, 145 men; M age = 20.1 yr.). Participants completed the Turkish version of Authenticity Scale and the Psychological Vulnerability Scale. Psychological vulnerability was correlated positively with two subfactors of authenticity, accepting external influence and self-alienation, and negatively with the authentic living factor of authenticity. Self-alienation, accepting external influence, and authentic living were related to psychological vulnerability, accounting for 33% of the variance collectively. Authenticity is an important predictor of psychological vulnerability.
It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....
Adler, Joanna R.
This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...
This paper aims to discuss the relationships between economics, psychology, and happiness. Economics was originally a moral philosophy which focused on some psychological processes of economic events. However, nineteenth century economists tried to change the nature of economics from that of being a moral philosophy to that of a more specialized scientific area. Some of the twentieth century psychologists have tried to reinstate economics as a moral science with the help of psychological cons...
Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko
The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...
Out of the eight points of methodological criticism against contemporary psychology formulated by Watson (Psychological Bulletin 31:755-776, 1934) and put forward by Toomela in this issue, the overemphasis on prediction, the neglect of individual differences, the habit of the differences between the mental states of subjects in objective experimental conditions are particularly important. Modem cognitive psychology has began to remedy those problems, in part by proposing broad, integrative theories. It is not useful to subdivide psychology into "schools of thought" defined by their methodological practices.
formed a real foundation for endogenous, and, therefore, sustainable, strategies for adaptation to climate change. The stories reinforce what we already knew: that successful adaptation must come from the people who are living on the front lines, facing the many problems caused by climate change and climate variation.
Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.
Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…
Montgomery, R L; Haemmerlie, F M; Ray, D M
This study assessed optimism held by 300 college students at a midwestern university using Scheier and Carver's Life Orientation Test. Optimism ratings were compared to measures of psychological functioning. Analysis showed that optimism was significantly associated with all of the adjustment measures (social, academic, personal, and goal commitment) assessed with Baker and Siryk's Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, higher self-esteem measured with Rosenberg's Self-esteem scale, and with lower ratings of loneliness as assessed with the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale.
This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare
Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf
Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...
Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen
Examines the influence of globalization on psychological functioning, describing globalization worldwide and its psychological consequences. Notes that most people now develop bicultural identities that combine local identity with global culture-related identity. Identity confusion is increasing among young people in non-western cultures because…
Helton Marculino de Souza
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.
Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.
Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,
Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.
Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…
This article presents an address on anthropomorphism in psychology. Anthropomorphism assures that human beings are given human characteristics when participating in psychological research. This is significant because the research community does not often report results of studies in the language of feelings, thoughts, or desires, which has led to…
Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.
Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's
This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) and national development. The specific objective of the paper is to explore and establish the importance of psychological empowerment of the masses and particularly the.
The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID) compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.
Wada, Kenji; Yamamoto, Mikie; Nakashima, Kenji
Physical function was declined in aging as well as sensory function in human. Motor slowness and unbalance gait occur as well as decline of ability visual acuity and hearing let elderly people live in limited daily activity. Psychological functions are also thought to be decline in aging. In International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health(ICF), psychological functions are classified into attention, memory, psychomotor, emotion, perception, thought, higher-level cognitive functions, language, calculation, sequencing complex movements, experience of self and time functions and unspecified functions. It is difficult to assess an individual psychological function itself, because some functions may affect each other and results of evaluations of a psychological function may not represent the meaning of the function. There were numerous reports on physical function in aging in a cross sectional or a longitudinal study design. In this article, we review changes of psychological function in aging.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...
Hoskovcová, Simona; Hoskovec, Jirí; Plháková, Alena; Sebek, Michael; Svancara, Josef; Voboril, Dalibor
The paper is aimed at presenting the development of the Czech historiography of psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychotherapy is mentioned as a special thematic development. Contemporary problems and perspectives in the field of the history of psychology in the Czech Republic are discussed, sources of information are given.
In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, we showed that the swallowtail, which is one of these morphologies, was able to describe geometrically the structural organisation of the psyche according to Jung, with its collective unconscious, personal unconscious and conscious. Moreover, we have correlated this morphology with Jung's evolutive processes like individualization and individuation. These comparisons incited us to think that some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory are the geometrical dealing of Jung's archetypes.
Exceptional Parent, 1987
Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)
Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob
intense relational mechanisms provide an effective means for contingency adaptation and therefore reduce the probability of premature termination. However, in situations where relationships are already governed by longer duration contracts, we argue that investments in relational mechanism create...
Collisson, Brian; Rusbasan, David
The question of renaming graduate psychology programs to psychological science is a timely and contentious issue. To better understand why some programs, but not others, are changing names, we surveyed chairpersons (Study 1) and faculty (Study 2) within graduate psychology and psychological science programs. Within psychology programs, a name…
Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob
We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible...... and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...
Andersen, Torben Juul
This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...
This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....
In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of
Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz
Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport
Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.
The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Charles, Eric P
What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).
Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø
This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...
This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.
Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA
Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.
Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter
Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.
Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.
This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual
Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment.
Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua
Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...
Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia
We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...
This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.
Keutzer, Carolin S.
Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)
Oakland, Thomas D.
International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…
Roldus Andy Bunga
Abstract Obesity has become a leading public health concern. Over 1 billion people are now overweight or obese, and the prevalence of these conditions is rising rapidly. Psychological aspects of obesity are so important, psychological assessments and interventions have become an integral part of a multidisciplinary approach to treating obesity. Multiple environmental, genetic, neuro-endocrinological, and psychosocial factors contribute to the development of obesity. Though there are many d...
Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia
Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions
An historical analysis about the evolution of health psychology in Colombia is made, taking as starting point someinvestigations carried out in the field of the behavioral medicine in the decade of the 70’s, and concluding with thedescription of 25 investigation groups that right now exist in many universities of the country, which carry out researchactivities in psychology and health. It is underlined that the development of this investigation field and practice inpsychology have been bound ...
Andersen, Torben Juul
concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation......This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....
Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose
Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....
Chulkova, V A; Pesterëva, E V
In providing psychological care to an oncological patient a physician and a medical psychologist come from a variety of professional positions that require different approaches and methods. It is proposed a three-phase model of the dynamics of the psychological state of the person in the situation of cancer reflecting the process of psychological adaptation of a particular patient. Focusing on this model, the authors conclude that psychological care to cancer patient, performed by a doctor and a medical psychologist, are different kinds of psychological care that does not replace but complement each other.
Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz
Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning.
The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...
MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah
Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…
Hulme, Julie A.; Skinner, Rebecca; Worsnop, Francesca; Collins, Elizabeth; Banyard, Philip; Kitching, Helen J.; Watt, Roger; Goodson, Simon
The concept of psychological literacy has grown in importance within psychology education at all levels, in the UK and globally, in recent years. Increasingly, psychology educators and policy makers are seeking to emphasise the relevance and usefulness of psychology within everyday life, within the workplace, and as an element of global…
Kalat, James W.
Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…
vital sector is under threat. While it is far from the only development challenge facing local farmers, extreme variations in the climate of West Africa in the past several decades have dealt the region a bad hand. Drought and flood now follow each other in succession. Adaptation is... “The floods spoiled our harvests and we.
Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob
and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...
be given greater access to relevant information to help them adapt their farming practices and socio- economic strategies to climate change? To address this challenge, the project “InfoClim,” led by Senegal's. Ecological Monitoring Centre. (CSE) with support from the. CCAA program, aims at improving the access of farmers ...
Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin
differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...
Bartone, P T; Adler, A B; Vaitkus, M A
U.S. military forces are increasingly involved in a variety of multinational peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance missions. How well combat-trained units and soldiers adapt to these new roles will determine U.S. success in such operations, as well as the future health and readiness of the force. In preparing soldiers for such missions, it is critical that leaders and health care providers have a clear understanding of the nature of the stressors they are likely to encounter. This report summarizes findings from a longitudinal, descriptive case study of a U.S. Army medical unit performing a peacekeeping mission in the former Yugoslavia. The goal of the investigation was to identify key sources of stress and to delineate the effect of these stressors on the health, morale, and mental readiness of soldiers. Findings suggest a range of psychological stressors that varies somewhat across operational phases of a peacekeeping mission. Furthermore, the degree of stress experienced in various areas correlates significantly with depression, psychiatric symptoms, and low reported morale. The range of stressors is reduced and summarized in a conceptually derived model of five underlying dimensions of psychological stress salient to soldier adaptation in peacekeeping operations: isolation, ambiguity, powerlessness, boredom, and danger/threat. This model provides a useful heuristic for organizing thinking about stress in peacekeeping operations and leads to several recommendations for "countermeasures" that organizational leaders can take to maintain soldier psychological readiness during peacekeeping operations.
Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza
This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.
Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio
The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.
Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.
Merkt, Julia; Reinelt, Tilman; Petermann, Franz
The term compensation is widely used in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992) to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: we will (1) introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2) discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3) set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand) is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation, and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.
Full Text Available The term compensation is widely used in the context of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992 to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: We will (1 introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2 discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3 set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.
Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.
An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.
Labrador Pavon, I.
This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs
Labrador Pavon, I.
This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref
Björn PETERS, M.Sc.
Full Text Available Twenty subjects with lower limb disabilities participated in a simulator study. The purpose of the study was to investigate how an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC system together with two different hand controls for accelerator and brake influenced workload, comfort and driving behaviour and to further develop a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for drivers with disabilities. The installed ACC system could maintain a constant speed selected and set by the driver and it also adapted speed in order to keep a safe distance to a leading vehicle. Furthermore, it included a stop-and-go function. Two common types of hand controls for accelerator and brake were used. The hand controls were different both with respect to function, single or dual levers, and position, on the steering column or between the front seats. The subjects were all experienced drivers of adapted cars equipped with hand controls. All subjects drove 100km at two occasions, with and without the ACC system available but with the same hand control. Subjective workload was found to be significantly lower and performance better for the ACC condition. The difference in speed variation between manual and ACC supported driving increased with the distance driven which seems to support the previous finding. The subjects thought they could control both speed and distance to leading vehicles better while the ACC was available. ACC driving did not influence reaction time, speed level, lateral position or variation in lateral position. Headway during car following situations was shorter for the ACC condition compared to manual driving. The ACC was well received, trusted and wanted. It was concluded that the ACC system substantially decreased workload, increased comfort and did not influence safety negatively. The only difference found between the two types of hand controls was that drivers using the dual lever system had less variation in lateral position. The applied evaluation method proved
The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...
In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...
Fiese, Barbara H
To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna
Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...
Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A
Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Laws, Keith R
Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.
Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.
In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657
Sadyrin, Vladimir Vitalievich; Potapova, Marina Vladimirovna; Gnatyshina, Elena Alexandrovna; Uvarina, Nataliya Viktorovna; Danilova, Viktoriya Valerievna
Modern scientific literature views issues on adaptation based on various aspects: biological, medical, pedagogical, sociological, cybernetic, interdisciplinary, etc. The given article is devoted to the analysis of the problem of adaptation as social and psychological phenomenon including peculiarities of its functioning in the conditions of social…
Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.
Shafaei, Azadeh; Nejati, Mehran; Abd Razak, Nordin
This study investigates the influence of length of stay in a foreign country on international students' adjustment and attachment attitude and examines the relationship between such acculturation attitude with psychological and sociocultural adaptations in a host country. Moreover, it investigates whether psychological and sociocultural…
Stites, Shana D.; Warholic, Christina L.
Preparing students to enter the field of psychology as competent professionals requires that multicultural practices be infused into all areas of training. This article describes how the Grand Rounds model was adapted to a graduate clinical psychology training program to foster applied learning in multicultural competence. This extension of Grand…
Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.
The Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale – Intellectual Disability (BPNSFS-ID), an adapted version of the original BPNSFS (Chen, Vansteenkiste, et al., 2015), operationalizes satisfaction and frustration with the three basic psychological needs according to self-determination
Sibicky, Mark E.
This article describes an assignment in a History of Psychology course used to enhance student retention of material and increase student interest and discussion of the long-standing debate between humanistic and mechanistic models in psychology. Adapted from William James's (1955) automatic sweetheart question, the assignment asks students to…
Plomin, Robert; Walker, Sheila O
Molecular genetics, one of the most energetic and exciting areas of science, is slowly but surely coming to educational psychology. We review recent molecular genetic research on learning disabilities as a sign of things to come in educational psychology. We also consider some misconceptions about genetics that have slowed the acceptance of genetics in educational psychology. Diverse samples of children with learning disabilities have been studied, primarily in the UK and the USA. Linkage analysis can detect genes that have large effects on learning disabilities. Association analysis can detect genes of much smaller effect size, which is important because common disorders such as learning disabilities are likely to be influenced by many genes as well as by many environmental factors. For reading disability, replicated linkages have been identified on chromosomes 6, 15 and 18. A gene responsible for a rare type of language impairment has recently been identified. For common language impairment, linkages on chromosomes 16 and 19 have recently been reported. More than 200 genetic disorders, most extremely rare, include mental retardation among their symptoms, and chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of mental retardation. Although finding specific genes associated with learning disabilities is unlikely to have much of a direct application for teachers in the classroom, such findings will have far-reaching implications for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of learning disabilities and for research in educational psychology. Educational psychology has been slower to accept evidence for the importance of genetics than other areas of psychology in part because of misconceptions about what it means to say that genetics is important for common complex disorders such as learning disabilities.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
Full Text Available "nHuman beings have always experienced disasters. A disaster may be brief,but its psychological effects may last for many years. These psychological effects are increasingly well documented."nDisasters affect not only those immediately involved, but also those whoknow the victims. This is perhaps particularly so when the victims arechildren. Commonly when adults hear news of disasters they ask first: What about the children? Of course, typically it is worse for the parents."nIn this article the definition and classification of disaster and the effects ofdisaster on survivors and their relatives will be discussed.
Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.
Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan
Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.
Up to the time of the disaster, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was regarded as one of the best in the USSR, and the city of Pripyat, housing the plant's staff, was rightly called one of the most comfortable. Also, the psychological climate of the plant provided no causes for worry. This was a worked-in team, composed of seasoned and knowledgeable experts. How can one then explain the events that happened in such an unlikely place. Isn't there a danger that the situation will repeat itself? The author considers the question and other psychological aspects of the Chernobyl incident
Gendron, Bénédicte; Kouremenou, Eleni-Sofia; Rusu, Carmen
The start of university life requires a period of adaptation, which can sometimes have an impact on the mental health of students. The latest results from the Observatoire National de la Vie Etudiante (OVE, 2013) show that more that 40% of university students report symptoms of psychological fragility (sleep problems, fatigue, depression, stress…
Vleioras, G.; Bosma, H.A.
A successful identity formation is related to being psychologically well (Erikson, 1963). This link seems to be lost in the identity style literature that focuses either on the maturity of the identity styles, or on adaptive and maladaptive behaviour correlates of identity styles. In this study, we
individual's ability to adapt thus leading to emotional distress reactions and occupational ... The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of alcohol use and factors associated with psychological well-being of health care workers at a ..... arthritis or history of current stressor predict hazardous or harmful alcohol use.
Paauglių psichologinio prisitaikymo ir socialinės paramos sąsajos SANTRAUKA Psichologinio atsparumo tema jau keletą dešimtmečių domina tyrėjus, tačiau vis dar stinga aiškios teorinės psichologinio atsparumo sampratos, nevienodai apibrėžiamas atsparumo procesas. Tyrimuose dažnai nagrinėjami bendrieji paauglystės prisitaikymo ypatumai, nepakanka prisitaikymo tyrimų, apimančių ankstyvosios paauglystės laikotarpį, ir nagrinėjančių socialinės paramos įtaką aukšto prisitaikymo lygio paaugliams, gyv...
Hall, Ruby A.s.; Hoffenkamp, Hannah N.; Braeken, Johan; Tooten, Anneke; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Van Bakel, Hedwig J.a.
BACKGROUND: Maternal postpartum distress is often construed as a marker of vulnerability to poor parenting. Less is known, however, about the impact of postpartum distress on parenting an infant born prematurely. The present study investigated whether high distress levels, which are particularly
Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Klippel, Judith A.; DeJoy, David M.
Compares behavioral medicine and health psychology to establish counseling psychology's relationship with these approaches. Surveys three areas of training and application that the current research suggests will offer opportunities for meaningful participation by counseling psychologists. (JAC)
Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/11/0059-0066. Author Affiliations.
This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…
Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.
The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs;…
patient's difficulties to psychological dysfunction. Much of this frustration is rooted in the conceptualization that medical science has long held of pain as a purely somatosensory phenomenon. This approach fails to consider the mediating effect that emotion, personality, psychopathological conditions and social influences ...
Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.
William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…
Journal Homepage Image. The journal has a multidisciplinary focus. It is not intended ... Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of Secondary School Adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Gonsiorek, John C.
In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…
Reviews the present educational system in Greece at all levels and describes special education services. Describes the place of school psychology in Greek educational and professional structures and the major problems that the field is currently facing. Delineates emerging trends and presents recommendations for the alleviation of problems.…
Jones, Reginald L., Ed.
This book is the third edition of a resource for advanced students and professionals in black psychology in the form of 41 papers organized under 5 subheadings. The "overview" section includes one classic article and offers a new, world view paper. A "perspectives" section treats Afrocentric, humanistic, historical,…
McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.
The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036
Oscar R. Oro
Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach.
Suedfeld, P; Steel, G D
Capsule habitats make it possible for human beings to survive and function in environments that would otherwise be lethal, such as space, the ocean depths, and the polar regions. The number of people entering capsules in the course of their work or for purposes of recreation is constantly increasing. However, long-term living in such habitats imposes physical and psychological risks as well as offering opportunities and benefits. This paper reviews what is known about the environmental, social, and personality aspects of adaptation to capsules, including sources of stress, selection criteria, obstacles to and facilitators of adequate coping, changes in group interaction, the role of temporal factors, and post-mission consequences.
The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP) and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on ...
This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical base...
Petrie, Trent A.; And Others
Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…
Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.
This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…
Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta
The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…
Boneau, C. Alan
Utilizes a survey of authors of psychology textbooks to compile a list of the terms and concepts in psychology's 10 subfields that should be general knowledge to psychology students. Reports the "Top 100" concepts and ranks lists of the 100 highest-rated terms for each of the 10 subfields. (FMW)
Gordon, Wayne A.
Behavioral medicine is a field which attempts to integrate social, behavioral, and biological sciences through an application of bio-behavioral methods to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness. Because behavioral medicine overlaps many psychological disciplines, some disciplines of psychology such as medical psychology and…
Corbishley, M. Anne; Yost, Elizabeth B.
Because career decision making affects all aspects of a person's life, career counseling must take into account client expectations, psychological characteristics and personality traits, nonverbal cues, and psychological variables affecting the counselor-client relationship. (SK)
Manners, Ian James
The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....
Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter
Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...
Schrank, B; Brownell, T; Tylee, A; Slade, M
This paper reviews the literature on positive psychology with a special focus on people with mental illness. It describes the characteristics, critiques, and roots of positive psychology and positive psychotherapy, and summarises the existing evidence on positive psychotherapy. Positive psychology aims to refocus psychological research and practice on the positive aspects of experience, strengths, and resources. Despite a number of conceptual and applied research challenges, the field has rapidly developed since its introduction at the turn of the century. Today positive psychology serves as an umbrella term to accommodate research investigating positive emotions and other positive aspects such as creativity, optimism, resilience, empathy, compassion, humour, and life satisfaction. Positive psychotherapy is a therapeutic intervention that evolved from this research. It shows promising results for reducing depression and increasing well-being in healthy people and those with depression. Positive psychology and positive psychotherapy are increasingly being applied in mental health settings, but research evidence involving people with severe mental illness is still scarce. The focus on strengths and resources in positive psychology and positive psychotherapy may be a promising way to support recovery in people with mental illness, such as depression, substance abuse disorders, and psychosis. More research is needed to adapt and establish these approaches and provide an evidence base for their application.
Eiser, Alan S
The discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming and development of sleep laboratory techniques ushered in a new era in the study of dreams. For the first time, direct and systematic investigation could be made of such topics as the occurrence, qualities, recollection, and childhood development of dreaming. Experimental methodologies permitted investigation of the responsiveness of dreams to external stimulation and the effects of deprivation of REM sleep. Much effort was devoted to searching for parallels between physiological aspects of REM sleep and characteristics of associated dreams, with modest results. The leading theory of dreaming in the early decades of this research was the psychoanalytic, which views dreams as highly meaningful reflections of unconscious mental functioning. With developments in understanding of the neurophysiology of REM sleep, new theories of dreaming were proposed. The most prominent, the activation-synthesis hypothesis, derived its view of dreaming directly from the neurophysiology of REM sleep, in particular the role of the brain stem, and in its original form regarded dreams as not essentially meaningful. Further developments in neurobiological research, including lesion and brain imaging studies, have established a clearer view of the functional neuroanatomy of REM sleep and dreaming. To what degree, and in what way, implications can be drawn from these findings for the psychology of dreaming is controversial. Some more recent theories of dreaming emphasize an adaptive function related to emotion and a role in learning and memory consolidation.
Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
The paper provides a survey of 18 years' progress that my colleagues, students (both former and current) and I made in a prominent research area in Psychometrics-Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). We start with a historical review of the establishment of a large sample foundation for CAT. It is worth noting that the asymptotic results were derived under the framework of Martingale Theory, a very theoretical perspective of Probability Theory, which may seem unrelated to educational and psychological testing. In addition, we address a number of issues that emerged from large scale implementation and show that how theoretical works can be helpful to solve the problems. Finally, we propose that CAT technology can be very useful to support individualized instruction on a mass scale. We show that even paper and pencil based tests can be made adaptive to support classroom teaching.
Julio Alfonso Piña López
Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.
Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn
While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…
Robertson, Peter J.
Positive psychology has been an influential movement within psychology in the early years of the twenty-first century. It is now timely to assess the value of its contribution to career education and guidance. This paper provides a critique of this perspective. Positive psychology can enrich approaches to career development. It can provide a…
Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with
Cameron, R. J.
This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…
Discusses positive psychology, which focuses on health and well-being utilizing the elements of belief, hope, self-esteem, responsibility, elation, and wisdom as the basis of psychological theory and practice. Describes efforts to change the psychology field, including identifying promising young professionals, establishing monetary prizes, and…
Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer
A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…
Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.
The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…
Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen
Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…
Nastasi, Bonnie K.
Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…
Kendler, Howard H.
Controversies are rampant in contemporary psychology concerning the appropriate method for observing consciousness and the role inner experience should play in psychological theorizing. These conflicting orientations reflect, in part, methodological differences between natural science and human science interpretations of psychology. Humanistic…
Dalal, Ajit K.
Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…
Stone, George C.; And Others
Maintains that medical students should learn more about psychology. Briefly describes why medical students have not learned more about psychology, discusses the aspects of psychology most relevant to the needs of medical students, and suggests teaching formats to accomplish this goal. (JR)
Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter
a management framework, as well as of identified challenges and pathologies, are needed. Further discussion and systematic assessment of the approach is required, together with greater attention to its definition and description, enabling the assessment of new approaches to managing uncertainty, and AM itself.......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...
James A. Crowder
Full Text Available Having artificially intelligent machines that think, learn, reason, experience, and can function autonomously, without supervision, is one of the most intriguing goals in all of Computer Science. As the types of problems we would like machines to solve get more complex, it is becoming a necessary goal as well. One of the many problems associated with this goal is that what learning and reasoning are have so many possible meanings that the solution can easily get lost in the sea of opinions and options. The goal of this paper is to establish some foundational principles, theory, and concepts that we feel are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. With this fully autonomous, learning, reasoning, artificially intelligent system (an artificial brain, comes the need to possess constructs in its hardware and software that mimic processes and subsystems that exist within the human brain, including intuitive and emotional memory concepts. Presented here is a discussion of the psychological constructs of artificial intelligence and how they might play out in an artificial mind.
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…
Liliya Anatolyevna Kudrich
Full Text Available By 2020 the prevalence of HIV in the Russian Federation may increase by 250%, unless we provide appropriate treatment to as many HIV-infected people as possible (V.I. Skvortsova, 2015. Previous research in this field shows that the psychotraumatic character of the disease lowers the psychological resource of HIV-infected individuals. In most cases, they are not psychologically prepared for the negative life events, unable to find an optimal behavioral pattern when their life stereotypes are being destroyed. In fact, being HIV-infected is an example of an acute event (V.V. Pokrovsky, 1993. The ability to overcome the life crisis and effectiveness of using adaptation and compensatory mechanisms to fight the disease depend on the level of adaptation to the fact of being infected and resistance to stress. The aim of the current study was to determine social and psychological features of HIV-infected individuals and assess their influence on the stress resistance and adaptation abilities of HIV+ patients. We observed men and women aged 21-30 who had been HIV+ for 1-5 years. Investigation methods included the following diagnostic tools: The Cattel Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form C, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (conducted by Spielberger, adapted for use in Russia by Hanin, The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (The Holmes-Rahe Stress Inventory, The Social and Psychological Adaptation Questionnaire (by C. Rogers and R. Diamond, methods of mathematical statistics. As a result of the study, we have developed comparative factor profiles of individual psychological features of HIV-infected individuals that show their dependence on the social environment and form certain behavioral patterns. We have revealed significant difference in state and trait anxiety between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals. Self-blame, inadequate self-esteem and level of aspiration indicate low cognitive assessment of the condition by the patients
Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262
Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Full Text Available Literacy is a complex cultural and social phenomenon with multiple effects on both, the individual and social levels. This article presents multidimensional model of literacy with linguistic, cognitive, socio-cultural, developmental and educational dimensions. A use of literacy is a literacy event and it means the use and/or presence of all dimensions of literacy. The use of new technologies and the emergence of digital literacy brought about a new meaning of literacy. There are two main processes to stress: (a the writing (text is more and more dominated by images and (b the book is going to be replaced by the screen. These facts raise at least two questions: what is the future of literacy and what are psychological, social and cultural effects of these changes? The aim of this article is to present a psychological view of literacy skills with a very modest aspiration to offer a better understanding of library users and non users.
Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters.
This paper addresses issues of allocating public resources efficiently between mental health conditions that are associated with different levels of disability, and presents an adaptation of an established framework to help decision-making in this area. The adapted framework refers to psychological interventions that are universal, indicated,…
Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to introduce a new approach called network analysis for its application in the field of psychology. In this paper we present the network model in a brief, entertaining and simple way and, as far as possible, away from technicalities and the statistical point of view. The aim of this outline is, on the one hand, to take the first steps in network analysis, and on the other, to show the theoretical and clinical implications underlying this model. Firstly, the roots of this approach are discussed as well as its way of understanding psychological phenomena, specifically psychopathological problems. The concepts of network, node and edge, the types of networks and the procedures for their estimation are all addressed. Next, measures of centrality are explained and some applications in the field of psychology are mentioned. Later, this approach is exemplified with a specific case, which estimates and analyzes a network of personality traits within the Big Five model. The syntax of this analysis is provided. Finally, by way of conclusion, a brief recapitulation is provided, and some cautionary reflections and future research lines are discussed.
Renzi, C; Pescatori, M
One of the main problems in coloproctology is chronic idiopathic anal pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychosomatic components of proctalgia to identify which, if any, component is associated with this pain and to what extent. Twenty patients with proctalgia were observed (mean age, 46 years). Psychologic consultations were required by the surgeons, because of persistent symptoms, to allow a better understanding of the problem and a more integrated therapy. The psychologic investigation consisted of three interviews and administration of the following tests: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing Anxiety Scale Questionnaire (1-10), Rorschach test (Klopfer and Davidson method), and Draw-A-Person test by Karen Machover. This sample was compared with a control group composed of 40 healthy subjects, homogeneous in age, social and working conditions, and investigation procedures. Patients showed depression and anxiety according to standard validated questions (Institute for Personality and Ability Testing Anxiety Scale Questionnaire) and personality disorders; they had a strong tendency to use primitive defense mechanisms and showed a lack of personality formation. Psychologic investigation allows a progressive clarification of all the components of anal pain. This might be useful not only for research purposes but also for a more effective approach to these patients.
Henrich, Joseph; Broesch, James
Unlike other animals, humans are heavily dependent on cumulative bodies of culturally learned information. Selective processes operating on this socially learned information can produce complex, functionally integrated, behavioural repertoires—cultural adaptations. To understand such non-genetic adaptations, evolutionary theorists propose that (i) natural selection has favoured the emergence of psychological biases for learning from those individuals most likely to possess adaptive informatio...
la Cour, Peter; Sternhagen Nielsen, Anni Brit; Andersen, Soren Bo
The Psychological Well-Being–Post-Traumatic Changes Questionnaire (PWB-PTCQ) is an 18-item self-report measure for assessing perceived changes in psychological well-being following traumatic events. The aim of the study was to translate, adapt, and test a Danish-language version of the questionna......The Psychological Well-Being–Post-Traumatic Changes Questionnaire (PWB-PTCQ) is an 18-item self-report measure for assessing perceived changes in psychological well-being following traumatic events. The aim of the study was to translate, adapt, and test a Danish-language version...... of the questionnaire and to compare the measure with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). The PWB-PTCQ, the PTGI, and scales measuring psychological distress were administered to 290 soldiers a mean of 8 months after they returned from deployment. The psychometric properties of the PWB-PTCQ were satisfactory...
Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were
Liu, L-F; Bian, Q-T; Zhai, J-G
We conducted this study to analyze the psychological characteristics of obese children. We selected 60 cases of obese children as obesity group and according to 1:1 matching principle, we selected 60 normal weight children as the control group. We investigated and analyzed children's family behavior, mental health, temperament, self-consciousness and social adaptability. The proportion of children with adverse behavior in the obesity group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p psychological health assessment, we compared the emotional disorder, social adjustment disorder, bad habits and behavior disorder score of both groups, and the differences were statistically significant (p obesity group were significantly higher than that in the control group (p aspects; the differences were statistically significant (p obesity group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p obesity. Obese children often have mental and behavioral disorders, aversion, high emotional nature, low distractibility and threshold of reaction, damaged self-awareness, low self-evaluation, are not gregarious, demonstrate unhappiness and satisfaction and have poor social adaptation ability. Obesity is a cause for social concern. We need to strengthen the mental health education of obesity and promote the healthy development of children both physically and mentally.
Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...
Buduk-ool, L K; Khovalyg, A M
Peculiarities There was performed the study of the mental status of first-year students enrolled in the Tuvan state University. There were detected levels of reactive and personal anxiety, adaptive capacity, the level of social and psychological adaptation and aggression. Adaptation potential in students is within limits of the satisfactory one, there was no detected person with poor adaptive capacity and failure of adaptation, that indicates to the genetically fixed ability of the students’ body to adapt to living conditions. In a state of psychological adjustment there was revealed the more higher level of anxiety in Tuvan students, which is caused by the poor living conditions. More satisfactory condition is typical for the social and psychological adaptation, since in all students values of test scales are within normal limits.There were shown gender differences in adaptation and psychological status of students. Boys have more lower indices of indirect and verbal aggression, anger, resentment, suspicion, guilt. Girls are characterized by higher hostility, at that it even exceeds standard values. In the group of students with a high personal anxiety no differences in adaptive capacities were found, and in students with moderate personal anxiety there were significantly more boys with stress adaptation than girls. Analysis of the socio-psychological adaptation of first-year students shows that in all students values of the test scales are normal, but in young men, indices are higher that indicates to a more successful socialization in the environment of the university. Correlation analysis of indices of aggressiveness and socio-psychological adaptation revealed weak negative relationships between index of aggressiveness with maladaptiveness, non-acceptance of others, emotional comfort in boys. In girls “aggressiveness” positively correlates with the such indices as acceptance of others and adaptation. Factor analysis in young men revealed the first factor
Full Text Available Human actions have contributed to numerous environmental challenges, including climate change and a significant loss of the world’s biodiversity. As the scientific study of human thought and behaviour, psychology has much to offer in better understanding these issues, as well as fostering greater sustainability in human actions. Yet, despite this recognition, and increasing calls from leaders in psychology education to produce graduates capable of applying their disciplinary knowledge to such real-world issues to solve worldwide behaviourally-based problems; this may not be adequately addressed in current psychology training. The present study assessed the content of all APAC (Australian Psychology Accreditation Council approved psychology programs within Australia to determine the proportion which offered a psychology-focused course (unit specifically in conservation or sustainability. Based on the data advertised through each university website, it appears that only one of 39 programs currently offers such a course, with one other university implementing a conservation psychology course in 2013. Thus 95% of current APAC-accredited programs in Australia do not have a strong focus on training psychology graduates to contribute to addressing these important issues. The need for greater integration of conservation psychology content into undergraduate psychology education in Australia and beyond is discussed.
Rungreangkulkij, Somporn; Chafetz, Linda; Chesla, Catherine; Gilliss, Catherine
The paper presents data on families of a person with schizophrenia in rural Thailand, using the resiliency model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation. The aim is to assess the impact of family factors on psychological morbidity of the mothers and relatives of a person with schizophrenia. One hundred and eight Thai families were interviewed based on family assessment instruments. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The findings suggest that in a stable stage of illness, other stresses of family life may have stronger impact on psychological status of family members, than the illness. Implications for clinical nurses and researchers are presented.
Kanas, N.; Sandal, G.; Boyd, J. E.; Gushin, V. I.; Manzey, D.; North, R.; Leon, G. R.; Suedfeld, P.; Bishop, S.; Fiedler, E. R.; Inoue, N.; Johannes, B.; Kealey, D. J.; Kraft, N.; Matsuzaki, I.; Musson, D.; Palinkas, L. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Sipes, W.; Stuster, J.; Wang, J.
The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to review the current knowledge of cultural, psychological, psychiatric, cognitive, interpersonal, and organizational issues that are relevant to the behavior and performance of astronaut crews and ground support personnel and (b) to make recommendations for future human space missions, including both transit and planetary surface operations involving the Moon or Mars. The focus will be on long-duration missions lasting at least six weeks, when important psychological and interpersonal factors begin to take their toll on crewmembers. This information is designed to provide guidelines for astronaut selection and training, in-flight monitoring and support, and post-flight recovery and re-adaptation.
Weaver, Kenneth A
The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A
In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Chiu, Chi-Yue; Kwan, Letty Yan-Yee
In globalized societies, people often encounter symbols of diverse cultures in the same space at the same time. Simultaneous exposure to diverse cultures draws people's attention to cultural differences and promotes catergorical perceptions of culture. Local cultural identification and presence of cultural threat increase the likelihood of resisting inflow of foreign cultures (exclusionary reactions). When cultures are seen as intellectual resources, foreign cultural exposure affords intercultural learning and enhances individual creativity (integrative reactions). Psychological studies of globalization attest to the utility of treating cultures as evolving, interacting systems, rather than static, independent entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The underwater environment is an extreme environment that requires a process of human adaptation with specific psychophysiological demands to ensure survival and productive activity. From the standpoint of existing models of intelligence, personality and performance, in this explanatory study we have analyzed the contribution of individual differences in explaining the adaptation of military personnel in a stressful environment. Structural equation analysis was employed to verify a model representing the direct effects of psychological variables on individual adaptation to an adverse environment, and we have been able to confirm, during basic military diving courses, the structural relationships among these variables and their ability to predict a third of the variance of a criterion that has been studied very little to date. In this way, we have confirmed in a sample of professionals (N = 575 the direct relationship of emotional adjustment, conscientiousness and general mental ability with underwater adaptation, as well as the inverse relationship of emotional reactivity. These constructs are the psychological basis for working under water, contributing to an improved adaptation to this environment and promoting risk prevention and safety in diving activities.
Janicke, David M.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Mullins, Larry L.; Robins, Paul M.; Wu, Yelena P.
Objective As a field, pediatric psychology has focused considerable efforts on the education and training of students and practitioners. Alongside a broader movement toward competency attainment in professional psychology and within the health professions, the Society of Pediatric Psychology commissioned a Task Force to establish core competencies in pediatric psychology and address the need for contemporary training recommendations. Methods The Task Force adapted the framework proposed by the Competency Benchmarks Work Group on preparing psychologists for health service practice and defined competencies applicable across training levels ranging from initial practicum training to entry into the professional workforce in pediatric psychology. Results Competencies within 6 cluster areas, including science, professionalism, interpersonal, application, education, and systems, and 1 crosscutting cluster, crosscutting knowledge competencies in pediatric psychology, are presented in this report. Conclusions Recommendations for the use of, and the further refinement of, these suggested competencies are discussed. PMID:24719239
Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.
Kendler, Howard H
Controversies are rampant in contemporary psychology concerning the appropriate method for observing consciousness and the role inner experience should play in psychological theorizing. These conflicting orientations reflect, in part, methodological differences between natural science and human science interpretations of psychology. Humanistic psychology and philosophical phenomenology both employ a human science approach to psychology that seeks to explain behavior in terms of a person's subjective existence. Maslow's and Heidegger's formulations are both fulfillment theories in that they specify moral values that suggest how life ought to be lived. Natural science methodology rejects the possibility that moral imperatives can be validated, whereas human science methodology allows phenomenological convictions to justify recommendations about a fulfilled life and a good society. The social role of psychology is analyzed within the framework of phenomenological convictions and scientific truth. 2005 APA, all rights reserved
What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations...... meaning, and posits psychology as one of the critical methods of organizing normative values in society; at the same time it carefully notes the discipline’s history of being sidetracked by overemphasis on theoretical constructs and physical causes—what the author terms “the psychologizing of morality......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...
Neal, Tess M S
This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.
Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Steve; Holland, Elise
This chapter explores the ways in which the concept of "humanness" illuminates a wide and fascinating variety of psychological phenomena. After introducing the concept--everyday understandings of what it is to be human--we present a model of the diverse ways in which humanness can be denied to people. According to this model people may be perceived as lacking uniquely human characteristics, and thus likened to animals, or as lacking human nature, and thus likened to inanimate objects. Both of these forms of dehumanization occur with varying degrees of subtlety, from the explicit uses of derogatory animal metaphors, to stereotypes that ascribe lesser humanness or simpler minds to particular groups, to nonconscious associations between certain humans and nonhumans. After reviewing research on dehumanization through the lens of our model we examine additional topics that the psychology of humanness clarifies, notably the perception of nonhuman animals and the objectification of women. Humanness emerges as a concept that runs an integrating thread through a variety of research literatures.
Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.
The book is devoted to psychologic investigations into different aspects of NPP operative personnel activities. The whole set of conditions on which successful and accident-free personnel operation depends, is analysed. Based on original engineering and socio-psychologic investigations complex psychologic support for NPP personnel and a system of training and upkeep of operative personnel skills are developed. The methods proposed have undergone a practical examination and proved their efficiency. 154 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs
The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...
Collins, Jennifer; Meng, Chelsea; Eng, Anna
The causes of severe obesity are multifactorial and include metabolic, dietary, physical, and psychological aspects. Additionally, the impact of severe obesity affects more than one's physical health. This article attempts to explore the psychological impact of severe obesity specifically in the areas of mood, eating disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and quality of life. Additionally, obesity treatment options of lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery that include psychological assessment and/or cognitive behavioral intervention are discussed.
Full Text Available Sport with its emphasised efficiency component clearly reflects cognitive contents and the way they are linked to experience and behaviour. Beliefs, subjective judgements, attitudes, etc. define the attitude to sport, training, competition and results. Their contents can be defined by a psychological examination. We assess their meaning, appropriateness or inappropriateness. They can also be changed by using diverse cognitive-behavioural or reeducative procedures. Psychological work is carried out through systematic psychological preparation, crisis interventions and special psychological preparation within the framework of a training process. Cognitive forms of work represent a significant part of ideomotor, verbal, intellectual and situational training.
Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie
An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); L. Rutledge (Lloyd); L. Hardman (Lynda); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco)
textabstractHaving the content of a presentation adapt to the needs, resources and prior activities of a user can be an important benefit of electronic documents. While part of this adaptation is related to the encodings of individual data streams, much of the adaptation can/should be guided by the
Bolhuis, Johan J.; Brown, Gillian R.; Richardson, Robert C.; Laland, Kevin N.
Evolutionary Psychology (EP) views the human mind as organized into many modules, each underpinned by psychological adaptations designed to solve problems faced by our Pleistocene ancestors. We argue that the key tenets of the established EP paradigm require modification in the light of recent findings from a number of disciplines, including human genetics, evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and paleoecology. For instance, many human genes have been subject to recent selective sweeps; humans play an active, constructive role in co-directing their own development and evolution; and experimental evidence often favours a general process, rather than a modular account, of cognition. A redefined EP could use the theoretical insights of modern evolutionary biology as a rich source of hypotheses concerning the human mind, and could exploit novel methods from a variety of adjacent research fields. PMID:21811401
Full Text Available The paper is aimed at identifying the influence of socio-psychological factors on the formation of subjective wellbeing of a married person. The following methods were used: questionnaire, psycho diagnostic techniques for investigating satisfaction with marriage, personal self-fulfillment in the family (on the operational level and the level of values and role sets, socio-psychological adaptation, conformity of family values and role expectations in marriage. The data about the content, structural components (cognitive and evaluation, value and motivational, emotional and behavioral and functions (regulatory, prognostic, developmental of subjective well-being of a married person have been presented. Socio-psychological factors of subjective well-being of a married person have been specified.
Bolhuis, Johan J; Brown, Gillian R; Richardson, Robert C; Laland, Kevin N
Evolutionary Psychology (EP) views the human mind as organized into many modules, each underpinned by psychological adaptations designed to solve problems faced by our Pleistocene ancestors. We argue that the key tenets of the established EP paradigm require modification in the light of recent findings from a number of disciplines, including human genetics, evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and paleoecology. For instance, many human genes have been subject to recent selective sweeps; humans play an active, constructive role in co-directing their own development and evolution; and experimental evidence often favours a general process, rather than a modular account, of cognition. A redefined EP could use the theoretical insights of modern evolutionary biology as a rich source of hypotheses concerning the human mind, and could exploit novel methods from a variety of adjacent research fields.
Eklund, A.; Bergstrom, G.; Bodin, L.
Background: Psychological, behavioral and social factors have long been considered important in the development of persistent pain. Little is known about how chiropractic low back pain (LBP) patients compare to other LBP patients in terms of psychological/behavioral characteristics. Methods......: In this cross-sectional study, the aim was to investigate patients with LBP as regards to psychosocial/behavioral characteristics by describing a chiropractic primary care population and comparing this sample to three other populations using the MPI-S instrument. Thus, four different samples were compared. A......: The data show statistically significant overall differences across samples for the subgroups based on psychological and behavioral characteristics. The cluster classifications placed (in terms of the proportions of the adaptive copers and dysfunctional subgroups) sample A between B and the two secondary...
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.
Burke, Susie E L; Sanson, Ann V; Van Hoorn, Judith
We review recent evidence on the psychological effects of climate change on children, covering both direct and indirect impacts, and discuss children's psychological adaptation to climate change. Both the direct and flow-on effects of climate change place children at risk of mental health consequences including PTSD, depression, anxiety, phobias, sleep disorders, attachment disorders, and substance abuse. These in turn can lead to problems with emotion regulation, cognition, learning, behavior, language development, and academic performance. Together, these create predispositions to adverse adult mental health outcomes. Children also exhibit high levels of concern over climate change. Meaning-focused coping promotes well-being and environmental engagement. Both direct and indirect climate change impacts affect children's psychological well-being. Children in the developing world will suffer the worst impacts. Mental health professionals have important roles in helping mitigate climate change, and researching and implementing approaches to helping children cope with its impacts.
According to Jean Piaget (1970), psychology is applicable to all human activities and situations, education and psychotherapy, work and leisure in nearly all sectors of employment particularly in the military (emphasis mine). There are however some individuals who believe that psychology might only be applicable to the ...
This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…
Jorna, R J; van Heusden, B
In both information science (e.g. learning, networks and interface design) and management science (e.g. knowledge creation and knowledge management) psychology and semiotics are almost absent. In this paper we take this observation as a starting point. From a psychological perspective we will
Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.
An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…
Full Text Available Hui Chien Ong,¹ Norhayati Ibrahim,² Suzaily Wahab³ ¹Biomedical Science Programme, ²Health Psychology Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, ³Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. “Community rejection” was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with “positive reframing”. Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. Keywords: family caregivers, social stigma, coping skills, psychological stress, schizophrenia
Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan
This paper investigates intergenerational care in family life in Denmark. It compares different patterns of care between three groups of families: 1) Monoethnic Danish Families (n=701), 2) Monoethnic South Asian Families (n =5) and 3) Multiethnic Families (n=15). Through the use of network analysis...... and a longitudinal approach, differences and similarities in practices of care are identified. The care patterns are studied with a focus on young adults age 30-35. Quantitative as well as qualitative methods are employed. By utilising in-depth qualitative interview data the paper explores the interplay between...... institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults...
Reuben, D B
The intense situational and physiologic stresses that accompany postgraduate training may have serious psychosocial ramifications. Although only a small proportion of residents have overt psychiatric illness, virtually all display some psychologic impairment. Contributing factors include life-changes, stresses associated with providing patient care, loss of social support, long working hours, sleep deprivation, and underlying personality traits of residents. The manifestations of this impairment are variable and may be subtle. In response to these problems, residency programs have taken steps to provide psychosocial support. Unfortunately, most programs do not offer formal support groups or seminars to discuss difficulties that accompany residency. Further definition of the psychosocial effects of residency may prompt changes that make the training of physicians a more humane process.
Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna
A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…
Is it truly important to "internationalize" counseling psychology? If so, how can we best do this? This reaction to Leong and Ponterotto (2003) documents four general points about international psychology today--its origins, growth, ethnocentrism, and diversity--and relates these to their bold and comprehensive proposal to…
Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B.; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad W.; Garrett, Neal R.; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J.; Stanford, Clark M.; Wolfaardt, Johan
Consensus regarding outcomes of the treatment of tooth loss, especially the psychologic outcomes, is needed to guide discovery of best practices and enable a better understanding of patient management for this chronic condition. This paper presents the findings of the ORONet Psychological Working
Goodwin-Smith, Ian; Pearson, Elissa; Ranzijn, Rob; Campbell, Alan; Lushington, Kurt
This work identifies the human service sector as an important and growing destination for psychology graduates. It further identifies a number of key themes which flow from that observation and which are important to configuring psychology education in a way which takes account of emerging trends. The major theme identified in the research is the…
The relationship between psychology and education has waxed and waned over the past century. In addition, a core issue for psychologists is how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in applied settings such as schools. While acknowledging the work that has been done, it is apparent that the effective dissemination of psychology to…
Aulthouse, Michelle; Kolbert, Jered B.; Bundick, Matthew J.; Crothers, Laura M.
The article details how school counselors can use principles of positive psychology to promote students' career development by facilitating students' pursuit of purpose and meaning. Specifically, the publication identifies how school counselors can actively employ with their students five constructs of positive psychology--namely strengths,…
Cohen, Greta L., Ed.
This monograph documents the speeches presented at the 1988 Symposium on Sports Psychology and the Coach. Presentations ranged from empirical research studies to anecdotal methodologies for coping with problems of anxiety. The following presentations are included: (1) "The Coach as Psychologist: When and How" (Robert Rotella); (2) "Psychology for…
Harris, Karen R.
In my response to Alexander's (2018) paper marking the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association and the field of educational psychology, I have taken the perspective of a member of our discipline from some time in the future who is contributing to a larger work looking back at the history and development of our field (thus, a…
The need for humanistically-oriented research may be viewed as the unfinished business of humanistic psychology. Additional research is needed to support some of the theoretical positions of humanistic psychology which have emerged from clinical practice, education, and management consultation rather than from laboratories and field studies. The…
The question "Is psychology applied enough?" can be regarded in two ways. In the first place, it could refer to the distinction "pure versus applied science", and the reproach that modern scientific experimental psychology has little to offer to the practitioner. It is argued that this distinction
The aim of this paper is two-fold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching psychology to computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where psychology is relevant to computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students' education. The second aim is to consider findings…
The term psychology refers both to an institutional discipline and to a subject matter. Henriques, in his article "Psychology Defined" (this issue) , emphasizes the second reference, and its focus can be sharpened by taking into account the first reference. On the one hand, epistemic progress in
Mathematics teachers need to study diverse psychologies of learning so that individual learners may be guided to attain as optimally as possible. This paper discusses meaning theory in mathematics teaching and describes a variety of learning theories such as behaviorism, developmental psychology, and problem solving. (ASK)
Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... The African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues is dedicated to the Scientific investigation of psychological and social issues and related phenomenon in Africa. The journal does not undertake to specify rigidly an appropriate domain of context, but intends rather to reflect current significant ...
Hunsberger, Peter Hume
Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author…
Blomstedt, Bob; And Others
Several concepts detailed in Gestalt psychology/therapy appear to have a close relationship with many concepts being applied in bilingual education. The primary contribution of Gestalt psychology to learning theory in the U.S. is an emphasis on perception and reintegration of relationships within an organized whole. To the teacher this means that…
Psychological time comprises different forms of time. Each form of time corresponds to different psychological mechanisms. The human being is subject to distortions of time under the effect of emotions. The effectiveness of social interaction depends on our aptitude to synchronise ourselves with others.
Ranyard, Rob; Antonides, Gerrit
This chapter provides an overview of possible avenues for research in relation to various key economic-psychological problems. Theoretical research mainly comprises (mathematical) modelling of economic psychological processes. The starting point for theoretical research often is literature search
Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt
Organizational psychology may be seen as consisting of a number of mutually conflictual currents developed over several decades. This article discusses five currents in organizational psychology that have both been dominant in Scandinavia and have had particular significance in relation...... to the field of organizational development: The social psychological, the socio-technical, the humanistic, the work psychological and the social constructionist currents. Central arguments and works from leading scholars are discussed. It is argued that although treated differently the notions of the small...... group, group dynamics, resistance to change and process consultation constitute pivotal and through going tenets in all the currents. These notions, it is argued, link the discipline of organizational psychology together into a mutually discordant, but anyway relatively consistent research area...
Snoek, F. J.; Skinner, T. C.
-destructive behaviour and interpersonal/family conflicts. A literature search was undertaken using MedLine and PsychInfo, including studies published in English peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2001, reporting on the effects of psychological interventions in the areas mentioned. Case studies were excluded from......Background: In past decades clinicians have increasingly recognized the importance of psychological support for people with diabetes and their families, and many have recommended integrating psychological counselling into routine diabetes care. It is therefore important to consider whether...... psychological interventions in diabetes are effective in improving clinical outcomes. Methods: This review was limited to the literature reporting on the treatment of five common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management: depression, eating disorders, anxiety/stress, self...
Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith
To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.
Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan
Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...
Snoek, F. J.; Skinner, T. C.
Background: In past decades clinicians have increasingly recognized the importance of psychological support for people with diabetes and their families, and many have recommended integrating psychological counselling into routine diabetes care. It is therefore important to consider whether...... psychological interventions in diabetes are effective in improving clinical outcomes. Methods: This review was limited to the literature reporting on the treatment of five common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management: depression, eating disorders, anxiety/stress, self......-destructive behaviour and interpersonal/family conflicts. A literature search was undertaken using MedLine and PsychInfo, including studies published in English peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2001, reporting on the effects of psychological interventions in the areas mentioned. Case studies were excluded from...
Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, Finn; Heitmann, Berit L
BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...
Salazar-Barajas, Martha Elba; Salazar-González, Bertha Cecilia; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther Carlota
Various disciplines focus on a multiplicity of aspects of aging: lifestyles, personal biological factors, psychological conditions, health conditions, physical environment, and social and economic factors. The aforementioned are all related to the determinants of active aging. The aim is to describe the development of a middle-range theory based on coping and adaptation with active aging. Concepts and relationships derived from Roy's model of adaptation are included. The proposed concepts are hope, health habits, coping with aging, social relations, and active aging.
Elena T. Sokolova
Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality
Vallone, Roberta; Placidi, Silvia; Pennacchia, Massimo; Gentile, Simonetta; Drago, Fabrizio
At present, syncope is still a matter of great concern and anxiety for both parents and children. Neurocardiogenic syncope is the most common type of syncope in children with an incidence of 70%. It usually has a benign etiology, with rapid loss of consciousness and spontaneous resolution. In case of neurocardiogenic syncope, it is important to assess the emotional and/or adaptive capacity of the patient. From a psychological point of view, the presence of a traumatic area of development has been reported in pediatric patients with syncope. This area is characterized by symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, self-withdrawal, somatic complaints and dissociation. Neurocardiogenic syncope in pediatric age can be the expression of a psychosomatic disorder underlying psychopathological vulnerability.
Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker
In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...
Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.
Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.
Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth
Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region.
Spies, Alan R; Wilkin, Noel E; Bentley, John P; Bouldin, Alicia S; Wilson, Marvin C; Holmes, Erin R
To adapt and evaluate an instrument that measures perceived psychological contract violations in pharmacy students by schools and colleges of pharmacy. A psychological contract violations measure was developed from existing literature and the 1997 ACPE Guidelines and pilot-tested with second-year pharmacy students at 2 schools of pharmacy. A revised measure then was administered to second-year pharmacy students at 6 schools of pharmacy. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants were asked to indicate the level of obligations they received compared to what was promised by the school of pharmacy. Exploratory factor analysis on the psychological contract violations measure was conducted using principal components analysis resulting in 7 factors, which led to a revised measure with 26 items. Using a sample of 339 students, the proposed 7-factor measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. In general, the results supported the hypothesized model. The final 23-item scale demonstrated both reliability and validity. Some students perceived certain aspects of the psychological contract that exists with their school of pharmacy were being violated. The psychological contract violations measure may serve as a valuable tool in helping to identify areas where their students believe that schools/colleges of pharmacy have not fulfilled promised obligations.
González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, Ma Angeles
The journal Psychological Science (PS) has undergone various changes over 22 years since its birth in 1990. Analysis of Web of Science's records shows that the publication has increased in volume and collaborations between authors, and has become more international. Keyword analysis suggests the new role of neuroscience in contemporary psychology and indicates that the PS of today is more oriented than in the 1990s towards psychosocial and emotional issues as well as natural situations in our daily lives (ecological validity). © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.
Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…
María Jesús Hernández Jiménez
Full Text Available Violence against women in relationships young people has become in recent years a public health problem of major social. This article, with a view to the prevention, seeks to address the psychological characteristics of the perpetrator of pair in young relations. An initial review of the personality features investigated in previous studies and their influence on violent behaviour was carried out. Following this, an empirical study on a sample of young people was performed. Methods: We conducted a study with 100 young people of Valencia. Of these, 50 are young offenders and 50 couple, young students of compulsory secondary education. Data are obtained and analyzed psychological characteristics differences between groups. Results: The study conducted shows that in general, young offenders have one hand high scores on neuroticism, impulsivity, external locus of control, psychoticism and antisocial behavior. Furthermore show low scores on self-control, empathy, selfesteem and frustration tolerance. Conclusions: The results of this paper make it abundantly clear that violence in young relationships is important enough to be considered from different sectors of society and justifies the need to develop and implement prevention programs adapted adolescents and their characteristics.
Measures to be taken by management at equilibrating employees' psychological contract breach, reducing labour turnover and increasing commitment are suggested. Keywords: Mergers, acquisition, Commitment, psychological contract breach, and psychological contract violation, human resource management.
Burchard, E. C.
The physiological and psychological factors of manned space flight had a particular significance in the Skylab missions during which astronauts were subjected to a life in a space environment for longer periods of time than on previous space missions. The Skylab missions demonstrated again the great adaptability of human physiology to the environment of man. The results of Skylab have indicated also approaches for enhancing the capability of man to tolerate the physiological and psychological stresses of space flight.
Bottos, A M; Zanon, E; Sartori, M T; Girolami, A
Parents of children affected by haemophilia must face, often without prior knowledge, the difficult challenge imposed by such a pathology. To satisfy the need of information, guideline and psychological support for a better quality of life, 30 parents with haemophiliac children have participated in a programme of counselling and psychological support. Such a programme has the aim of guiding the group trough a process of discovery, comparison and personal growth and stimulating adaptive processes of problem-solving and decision-making. The aim of this paper was to verify how the programme influenced coping strategies and other psychological constructs such as depression and anxiety. Subjects of this study were administered the following psychological tests: COPE (coping, orientation to problems experienced), BDI (beck depression inventory), STAI-Y form (state-trait anxiety inventory) at the beginning and at the end of the programme. The results show that by the end of the programme subjects are characterized by a greater use of problem-focused coping strategies, typical of individuals who think that the situation is susceptible to change, and a minor use of emotion-focused coping strategies, related to individuals who regard the situation as immutable. The use of avoidance -focused coping strategies seems to remain at the same level even if it was low. Also the other psychological aspects investigated, namely depression and anxiety, did receive a positive influence. The results show how significant such programme has been for parents.
Martone, Maryann E; Garcia-Castro, Alexander; VandenBos, Gary R
Routine data sharing, defined here as the publication of the primary data and any supporting materials required to interpret the data acquired as part of a research study, is still in its infancy in psychology, as in many domains. Nevertheless, with increased scrutiny on reproducibility and more funder mandates requiring sharing of data, the issues surrounding data sharing are moving beyond whether data sharing is a benefit or a bane to science, to what data should be shared and how. Here, we present an overview of these issues, specifically focusing on the sharing of so-called "long tail" data, that is, data generated by individual laboratories as part of largely hypothesis-driven research. We draw on experiences in other domains to discuss attitudes toward data sharing, cost-benefits, best practices and infrastructure. We argue that the publishing of data sets is an integral component of 21st-century scholarship. Moreover, although not all issues around how and what to share have been resolved, a consensus on principles and best practices for effective data sharing and the infrastructure for sharing many types of data are largely in place. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Wilsher, Margaret L
Sarcoidosis is a chronic illness associated with emotional and physical consequences which impact on quality of life. Although the impact of fatigue is well understood, emotional impacts of sarcoidosis are less commonly recognized and addressed in routine clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to highlight that sarcoidosis can result in considerable psychological distress. Not only is there a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in sarcoidosis, but clinical depressive and anxiety disorders are more common than seen in the general population. Patients with sarcoidosis have perceptions and beliefs about their disease that may impact on their willingness to engage in recommended therapies. They may also exhibit a disordered perception of their disease and a personality profile of neuroticism. Understanding the minimally important clinical difference in the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) and validation of the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ) across different populations supports the use of these tools in routine clinical practice and clinical trials. Understanding the global impact of sarcoidosis is important for patients and clinicians, and use of validated instruments, such as the SHQ and FAS, allows for more comprehensive assessment of the disease and the impact of any interventions.
Seligman, M E; Csikszentmihalyi, M
A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
Full Text Available Domestic cows (Bos taurus are consumed worldwide as beef and veal, kept as dairy product producers, employed as draft animals in labor, and are used for a long list of other products, including leather and manure. But despite global reliance on cows for thousands of years, most people’s perception of them is as plodding herd animals with little individual personality and very simple social relationships or preferences. Yet, a review of the scientific literature on cow behavior points to more complex cognitive, emotional and social characteristics. Moreover, when cow behavior is addressed, it is almost entirely done within the framework of and applied to their use as food commodities. Therefore, there is relatively little attention to the study of cow intelligence, personality and sociality at a basic comparative level. In this review, we examine the current state of scientific knowledge about cows within an objective comparative framework, describing their cognitive, emotional, and social characteristics. Our aim is to provide a more veridical and objective current summary of cow psychology on its own terms and in ways which will facilitate better-informed comparisons with other animals. Moreover, an understanding of the capabilities and characteristics of domestic cows will, it is hoped, advance our understanding of who they are as individuals.
Betrayal is the sense of being harmed by the intentional actions or omissions of a trusted person. The most common forms of betrayal are harmful disclosures of confidential information, disloyalty, infidelity, dishonesty. They can be traumatic and cause considerable distress. The effects of betrayal include shock, loss and grief, morbid pre-occupation, damaged self-esteem, self-doubting, anger. Not infrequently they produce life-altering changes. The effects of a catastrophic betrayal are most relevant for anxiety disorders, and OC D and PTSD in particular. Betrayal can cause mental contamination, and the betrayer commonly becomes a source of contamination. In a series of experiments it was demonstrated that feelings of mental contamination can be aroused by imagining unacceptable non-consensual acts. The magnitude of the mental contamination was boosted by the introduction of betrayal themes. Feelings of mental contamination can also be aroused in some 'perpetrators' of non-consensual acts involving betrayal. The psychological significance of acts of betrayal is discussed. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nogueira, Maria José; Barros, Luisa; Sequeira, Carlos
Psychological vulnerability is related to cognitive beliefs that reflect dependence on one's sense of self-worth and to maladaptive functioning. It is a disadvantage that renders people less protected to face negative life experiences. The purpose of this study was to adapt and test the psychometric properties of the Psychological Vulnerability Scale in a sample of 267 Portuguese higher education students. A psychometric study of the Psychological Vulnerability Scale, after translation into Portuguese, was performed with a convenience sample of higher education students. Participants were asked to fill in the sociodemographic questionnaire, the Psychological Vulnerability Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and a one-item question about the Perception of Vulnerability. The mean age of the participants was 20.5 years ( SD = 3.3). A factor analysis confirmed the original one-factor structure, explaining 42.9% of the total variance. The Psychological Vulnerability Scale showed adequate internal consistency and excellent test-retest stability. Convergent validity was confirmed by positive correlations with the Brief Symptom Inventory and Perception of Vulnerability. Overall, the Psychological Vulnerability Scale showed good validity, reliability, and stability over time. The Psychological Vulnerability Scale is now ready to be used by practitioners and researchers to measure the psychological vulnerability among Portuguese higher education students. These data add to the body of knowledge of psychiatric and mental health nursing and provides support for the use of the Psychological Vulnerability Scale in higher education students.
Shamil R. Khisambeyev
Full Text Available Psychological effects of climate change constitute one of the subjects of study of ecological psychology. Ecological psychology is formed and developed at the junction of ecology, different directions of psychology, psychotherapy, pedagogy, philosophy and other disciplines. The article is devoted to review those areas of psychological research, which consider the human psyche in the logic of interac¬tion with the environment. As a result, we hope to answer the fundamental ques¬tion of whether ecological psychology may be regarded as an independent area of psychological research, which has its object and methods that distinguish it from other areas of psychological theory and practice.
Busemeyer, Jerome R; Wang, Zheng; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina
This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed. (paper)
Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Wang, Zheng; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina
This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed.
Fuller, J R
The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.
Psychology, along with a wide range of other academic disciplines, has influenced research in both consumer behaviour and marketing. However, the influence of one area of psychology – namely, behaviourism – on research on consumers and marketing has been less prominent. Behaviourism has influenced consumer and marketing research through the application of classical and operant conditioning, matching and foraging theories, amongst other frameworks, during the past 50 years. This article provid...
Li, Lingyan; Li, Shichen; Wang, Yuping; Yi, Jinyao; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao
The study aimed to explore latent profiles of coping in Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and examine the differences of psychological distress, demographic, and medical characteristics across profiles. Latent profile analysis was used to identify 3 classes of copers based on data from 618 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer who completed questionnaires assessing their coping strategies and psychological distress. "Adaptive coper," reporting most use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies, behaviors of acceptance and shifting attention, and least use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, had the best psychological adjustment. "Negative coper," characterized by most use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, least use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies except "putting in perspective," and median levels of medical coping behaviors, had the worst psychological adjustment. "Inconsistent coper," with great use of all cognitive coping strategies, and most behaviors of fighting against the disease, and fewest behaviors of attention shift, had relatively high levels of psychological distress. Younger age, less education, shorter time since diagnosis, widowed, living in rural areas, and undergoing chemotherapy are possible markers for patients with less adaptive coping patterns. Interventions should be developed according to the different coping profiles of patients, and the key group to target is "negative copers," who may benefit from cognitive behavioral approaches that combine emotion, cognition and behavior, which could help them more effectively appraise and cope with stressful events.
Marsh, Tim; Boag, Simon
Evolutionary psychology has seen the majority of its success exploring adaptive features of the mind believed to be ubiquitous across our species. This has given rise to the belief that the adaptationist approach has little to offer the field of differential psychology, which concerns itself exclusively with the ways in which individuals systematically differ. By framing the historical origins of both disciplines, and exploring the means through which they each address the unique challenges of psychological description and explanation, the present article identifies the conceptual and theoretical problems that have kept differential psychology isolated not only from evolutionary psychology, but from explanatory approaches in general. Paying special attention to these conceptual problems, the authors review how these difficulties are being overcome by contemporary evolutionary research, and offer instructive suggestions concerning how differential researchers (and others) can best build upon these innovations. PMID:24065949
Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene
As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.
Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the theories and findings of mainstream social psychology and of cultural evolutionary theory can be mutually beneficial. Social psychology provides cultural evolution with a set of empirically verified microevolutionary cultural processes, such as conformity, model-based biases, and content biases, that are responsible for specific patterns of cultural change. Cultural evolutionary theory provides social psychology with ultimate explanations for, and an understanding of the population-level consequences of, many social psychological phenomena, such as social learning, conformity, social comparison, and intergroup processes, as well as linking social psychology with other social science disciplines such as cultural anthropology, archaeology, and sociology.
Bretherton, Susan Jane; McLean, Louise Anne
To investigate the influence of perceived stress, optimism and perceived control of internal states on the psychological adjustment of older adults. The sample consisted of 212 older adults, aged between 58 and 103 (M = 80.42 years, SD = 7.31 years), living primarily in retirement villages in Melbourne, Victoria. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Perceived Control of Internal States Scale and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref. Optimism significantly mediated the relationship between older people's perceived stress and psychological health, and perceived control of internal states mediated the relationships among stress, optimism and psychological health. The variables explained 49% of the variance in older people's psychological adjustment. It is suggested that strategies to improve optimism and perceived control may improve the psychological adjustment of older people struggling to adapt to life's stressors. © 2014 ACOTA.
Halland, E.; De Vibe, M.; Solhaug, I.; Friborg, O.; Rosenvinge, J. H.; Tyssen, R.; Sørlie, T.; Bjørndal, A.
Background: Students of clinical psychology and medicine experience high levels of mental distress and low levels of life satisfaction. Using adaptive coping strategies can modify the negative effect of stressors on health. Mindfulness, it has been claimed, more adaptive coping with stress, yet few studies have investigated whether mindfulness…
Warchal, Judith R.; Graham, Louise B.
This article integrates the guidelines of American Red Cross and the "Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide" (Brymer et al., 2006) with adult development theories to demonstrate the promotion of adaptive functioning in adults after a disaster. Case examples and recommendations for counselors working in disaster situations are…
Human memory has been thoroughly studied and modeled in psychology, but mainly in laboratory setting under simplified conditions. For application in practical adaptive educational systems we need simple and robust models which can cope with aspects like varied prior knowledge or multiple-choice questions. We discuss and evaluate several models of…
Chen, Jing; Cheng, Peng
Improving customer satisfaction degree is important in e-Education. This paper describes a new approach to adaptive e-Education taking into account the full spectrum of Web service techniques and activities. It presents a multi-agents architecture based on artificial psychology techniques, which makes the e-Education process both adaptable and dynamic, and hence up-to-date. Knowledge base techniques are used to support the e-Education process, and artificial psychology techniques to deal with user psychology, which makes the e-Education system more effective and satisfying.
Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W
This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were specific to train drivers: high emotional and mental demands, small amount of autonomy and skill discretion. No evidence of a high emotional workload, a high mental workload or short-term stress reactivity was found. In general, the drivers' fatigue complaints and recovery needs after work were comparable to that of other workers. However, severe sleepiness and high need for recovery did affect a substantial proportion of train drivers. The ability to stay aware, to anticipate, to remain attentive and to cope with fatigue are psychological and cognitive skills that are required to adequately and safely perform the train drivers' job. Including these requirements in periodic assessments of train drivers is recommended. A systematic literature search was performed, aimed at assessing the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers. Based on this information and interviews with experts, a list of psychological and cognitive requirements that needed to perform the train drivers’ job adequately and safely was proposed.
Julia K. Boehm
Full Text Available The management of depression and other negative psychological states in cardiac patients has been a focus of multiple treatment trials, though such trials have not led to substantial improvements in cardiac outcomes. In contrast, there has been minimal focus on interventions to increase positive psychological states in cardiac patients, despite the fact that optimism and other positive states have been associated with superior cardiovascular outcomes. Our objective was to develop an 8-week, phone-based positive psychology intervention for patients hospitalized with acute cardiac disease (acute coronary syndrome or decompensated heart failure. Such an intervention would consist of positive psychology exercises adapted for this specific population, and it would need to be feasible for practitioners and patients in real-world settings. By adapting exercises that were previously validated in healthy individuals, we were able to generate a positive psychology telemedicine intervention for cardiac patients that focused on optimism, kindness, and gratitude. In addition, we successfully created a companion treatment manual for subjects to enhance the educational aspects of the intervention and facilitate completion of exercises. Finally, we successfully performed a small pilot trial of this intervention, and found that the positive psychology intervention appeared to be feasible and well-accepted in a cohort of patients with acute cardiac illness. Future studies should further develop this promising intervention and examine its impact on psychological and medical outcomes in this vulnerable population of cardiac patients.
Ahmad Marzuki Najib
Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological well-being among hearing-impaired students. Emotional intelligence consists of five dimensions namely intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management and general mood. A total of 130 hearing-impaired students were chosen as participants via simple random sampling at four polytechnics in Malaysia. The Bar-On Emotional Quotient: Short (EQ-i: S and Ryff‘s Psychological Well-Being instruments were utilised to measure emotional intelligence and psychological well-being. It was found that in general, hearing impaired students have moderate emotional intelligence level and psychological well-being. Results also found that intrapersonal, interpersonal and adaptability dimensions correlated significantly with psychological well-being. No correlations were found between stress management and general mood dimensions with psychological well-being. Though limited by their ability to speak and to hear, emotional intelligence among hearing-impaired students does play a role in enhancing their individual capability to learn and to experience positive psychological well-being in life.
Huffman, Jeff C; Mastromauro, Carol A; Boehm, Julia K; Seabrook, Rita; Fricchione, Gregory L; Denninger, John W; Lyubomirsky, Sonja
The management of depression and other negative psychological states in cardiac patients has been a focus of multiple treatment trials, though such trials have not led to substantial improvements in cardiac outcomes. In contrast, there has been minimal focus on interventions to increase positive psychological states in cardiac patients, despite the fact that optimism and other positive states have been associated with superior cardiovascular outcomes. Our objective was to develop an 8-week, phone-based positive psychology intervention for patients hospitalized with acute cardiac disease (acute coronary syndrome or decompensated heart failure). Such an intervention would consist of positive psychology exercises adapted for this specific population, and it would need to be feasible for practitioners and patients in real-world settings. By adapting exercises that were previously validated in healthy individuals, we were able to generate a positive psychology telemedicine intervention for cardiac patients that focused on optimism, kindness, and gratitude. In addition, we successfully created a companion treatment manual for subjects to enhance the educational aspects of the intervention and facilitate completion of exercises. Finally, we successfully performed a small pilot trial of this intervention, and found that the positive psychology intervention appeared to be feasible and well-accepted in a cohort of patients with acute cardiac illness. Future studies should further develop this promising intervention and examine its impact on psychological and medical outcomes in this vulnerable population of cardiac patients.
Rutkowska, Katarzyna; Bergier, Józef
Many sports (for instance soccer) are stereotypically perceived as a male activity. Even so, more and more women decide to become competitive athletes. Since the theory of sport requires comprehensive explanations and the practice of sport needs clear guidelines, interdisciplinary studies into the nature of sport, including its psychological aspects, are necessary. Analysing the psychological profile of female soccer players, particularly those who are about to become professional athletes, can provide many interesting insights into the specific character of female youth sport and show where improvements can be made in athletic training programmes (especially in mental training). It is therefore important to study psychological gender that determines social behaviours and to analyse female athletes' emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a set of emotional competencies that determine the effectiveness of human behaviours. Psychological gender and emotional intelligence have a significant effect on human adaptability and the efficiency of psychosocial functioning. This research was undertaken with the dual purpose of identifying the psychological gender and emotional intelligence of female soccer players. It involved 54 secondary-school girls, some of whom attended a sports class and others played on the Polish national team. The following tools were used to carry out the research: the Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP [This and the other acronyms derive from the Polish language]-developed by Kuczyńska) and the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE; created by Jaworowska and Matczak). As shown by the analysis of the results, most female soccer players in the study were androgynous and the level of their emotional intelligence was significantly higher than in other participants. This also seems to point to their significantly greater adaptability. At the same time, the level of emotional intelligence in many players was average or low
Full Text Available Many sports (for instance soccer are stereotypically perceived as a male activity. Even so, more and more women decide to become competitive athletes. Since the theory of sport requires comprehensive explanations and the practice of sport needs clear guidelines, interdisciplinary studies into the nature of sport, including its psychological aspects, are necessary. Analysing the psychological profile of female soccer players, particularly those who are about to become professional athletes, can provide many interesting insights into the specific character of female youth sport and show where improvements can be made in athletic training programmes (especially in mental training. It is therefore important to study psychological gender that determines social behaviours and to analyse female athletes’ emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a set of emotional competencies that determine the effectiveness of human behaviours. Psychological gender and emotional intelligence have a significant effect on human adaptability and the efficiency of psychosocial functioning. This research was undertaken with the dual purpose of identifying the psychological gender and emotional intelligence of female soccer players. It involved 54 secondary-school girls, some of whom attended a sports class and others played on the Polish national team. The following tools were used to carry out the research: the Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP [This and the other acronyms derive from the Polish language]-developed by Kuczyńska and the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE; created by Jaworowska and Matczak. As shown by the analysis of the results, most female soccer players in the study were androgynous and the level of their emotional intelligence was significantly higher than in other participants. This also seems to point to their significantly greater adaptability. At the same time, the level of emotional intelligence in many players was
Rutkowska, Katarzyna; Bergier, Józef
Many sports (for instance soccer) are stereotypically perceived as a male activity. Even so, more and more women decide to become competitive athletes. Since the theory of sport requires comprehensive explanations and the practice of sport needs clear guidelines, interdisciplinary studies into the nature of sport, including its psychological aspects, are necessary. Analysing the psychological profile of female soccer players, particularly those who are about to become professional athletes, can provide many interesting insights into the specific character of female youth sport and show where improvements can be made in athletic training programmes (especially in mental training). It is therefore important to study psychological gender that determines social behaviours and to analyse female athletes’ emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a set of emotional competencies that determine the effectiveness of human behaviours. Psychological gender and emotional intelligence have a significant effect on human adaptability and the efficiency of psychosocial functioning. This research was undertaken with the dual purpose of identifying the psychological gender and emotional intelligence of female soccer players. It involved 54 secondary-school girls, some of whom attended a sports class and others played on the Polish national team. The following tools were used to carry out the research: the Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP [This and the other acronyms derive from the Polish language]-developed by Kuczyńska) and the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE; created by Jaworowska and Matczak). As shown by the analysis of the results, most female soccer players in the study were androgynous and the level of their emotional intelligence was significantly higher than in other participants. This also seems to point to their significantly greater adaptability. At the same time, the level of emotional intelligence in many players was average or low
Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.
Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…
MacDonald, Paul S
Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way of build......The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way...... to account for developmental processes must emerge from a triadic system, rather than following the procedures of a binary logic, in order to have any correspondence between concept building and phenomenological world in psychology. Then, I sketch an epistemological approach called method of complementary...... negation that could help cultural psychology to build more developmental abstract models of very concrete human phenomena....
Roediger, Henry L
Fame in psychology, as in all arenas, is a local phenomenon. Psychologists (and probably academics in all fields) often first become well known for studying a subfield of an area (say, the study of attention in cognitive psychology, or even certain tasks used to study attention). Later, the researcher may become famous within cognitive psychology. In a few cases, researchers break out of a discipline to become famous across psychology and (more rarely still) even outside the confines of academe. The progression is slow and uneven. Fame is also temporally constricted. The most famous psychologists today will be forgotten in less than a century, just as the greats from the era of World War I are rarely read or remembered today. Freud and a few others represent exceptions to the rule, but generally fame is fleeting and each generation seems to dispense with the lessons learned by previous ones to claim their place in the sun. © The Author(s) 2016.
We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...... with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time...
Innis’ and Brinkmann’s papers (this issue) tackle two key aspects in cultural psychology: the mediating role played by the different systems of meanings throughout history in making sense of the world, and the normative role of those systems, including psychology itself. This paper offers...... a reflection on these two issues. It begins by highlighting the contribution of psychology and history, as emerging disciplines in the 19th Century, to the creation of a normative framework for the subject of modernity according to the needs of modern nation states. It also alludes to both disciplines’ common...... accounts. Drawing on this assumption, it is discussed how past events are constructed, thus bringing mediation and meaning-making to the fore. Special attention is paid to narratives as symbolic meaning-making tools. We will conclude by discussing usage of the past and the role that cultural psychology can...
Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.
Deguitre, Marie; Pascal-Verdelhan, Chantal; Saez, Catherine; Calmels, Marie-Jeanne; Nesensohn, Jessica; Legras, Stéphanie; Paradis, Martine
Body mediation is today used as a tool for establishing a relationship with a young person experiencing psychological suffering. It is particularly useful in adolescence, a period marked by the destabilisation of emotional and relational fields.
The author proposes a conceptual model to explain the diverse roles of social capital--resources embedded in social networks--in the social production of health. Using a unique national U.S. sample, the author estimated a path analysis model to examine the direct and indirect effects of social capital on psychological distress and its intervening effects on the relationships between other structural antecedents and psychological distress. The results show that social capital is inversely associated with psychological distress, and part of that effect is indirect through subjective social status. Social capital also acts as an intervening mechanism to link seven social factors (age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, occupational prestige, annual family income, and voluntary participation) with psychological distress. This study develops the theory of social capital as network resources and demonstrates the complex functions of social capital as a distinct social determinant of health.
Zimbardo, Philip G
Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties.
Duffy, Ryan D; Blustein, David L; Diemer, Matthew A; Autin, Kelsey L
In the current article, we build on research from vocational psychology, multicultural psychology, intersectionality, and the sociology of work to construct an empirically testable Psychology of Working Theory (PWT). Our central aim is to explain the work experiences of all individuals, but particularly people near or in poverty, people who face discrimination and marginalization in their lives, and people facing challenging work-based transitions for which contextual factors are often the primary drivers of the ability to secure decent work. The concept of decent work is defined and positioned as the central variable within the theory. A series of propositions is offered concerning (a) contextual predictors of securing decent work, (b) psychological and economic mediators and moderators of these relations, and (c) outcomes of securing decent work. Recommendations are suggested for researchers seeking to use the theory and practical implications are offered concerning counseling, advocacy, and public policy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Serafín Aldea Muñoz
Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.
Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt
). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....
Litver, B.Ya.; Ivanov, E.V.
It is pointed out that a comprehensjve hygienic evaluation of the impact of ionizing radiations on man needs to take into account not only the biologic effects of these radiations, but also their psychologic and emotional effects, which may aggravate or lessen the disturbances caused by radiation. Several methods of psychologic examination of persons handling ionizing radiation sources are proposed, and the desirability of applying these methods in the dispensary system is indicated
This paper looks at the program for social psychology presented by Floyd Allport in his Social Psychology of 1924. It contextualizes Allport's program in terms of intellectual currents of the time and the views of his teachers at Harvard University, specifically the philosopher Ralph Barton Perry and the psychologists Edwin B. Holt and Hugo Münsterberg. Finally, the paper analyzes responses to Allport's program at the time and later, retrospective responses. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Heaney, Caroline; Walker, Natalie; Green, Alison; Rostron, Claire
Whilst the benefits of sport psychology intervention during injury rehabilitation are well documented it appears that it remains underutilised by physiotherapists (Alexanders, Anderson and Henderson, 2015, Physiotherapy, 101, 95-102). A lack of education in this field for physiotherapists has been suggested as a causative factor. Preliminary studies undertaken on North American populations have shown support for sport psychology education interventions but no studies have examined physiothera...
Bock, Jens-Oliver; Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut
Previous studies investigated the determinants of individuals' decision to vaccinate against influenza primarily focusing on social as well as certain proximal determinants, for example, behavioral beliefs. Thus, so far, the analysis of psychological factors as determinants of influenza vaccination was mainly limited to beliefs, attitudes or perceptions that were directly related to influenza vaccination and its perceived impact. However, considering general psychological factors, like general self-efficacy, optimism or subjective well-being, might further enhance the understanding of why certain people vaccinate while others do not. The aim was to investigate the relationship between various general psychological factors and older people's decision to vaccinate against seasonal flu. The data of individuals aged 60 or older (n = 5037; in 2014) were used from the Germany Ageing Survey. The data were collected in face-to-face interviews and in self-administered questionnaires. They include questions on the use of influenza vaccination and the psychological factors of optimism, self-efficacy, self-esteem, perceived stress, self-regulation, life satisfaction, and negative affect as well as positive affect. The psychological determinants of regular influenza vaccination were investigated using multiple logistic regressions. 53.2% of all participants were regular users of influenza vaccination. There were significant bivariate correlations of all cited psychological factor with influenza vaccination except for life satisfaction and negative affect. After controlling for numerous potential socio-demographic, morbidity- and lifestyle-related confounders, regular influenza vaccination was still positively associated with lower levels of self-esteem and a higher level of perceived stress. There are significant associations of general individual psychological constructs with the decision to vaccinate against influenza. Future research might determine the impact of
McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S
Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...
Mesquita, Batja; Leu, Janxin
Bringing together leading authorities, this definitive handbook provides a comprehensive review of where the field of cultural psychology is today and where it may be headed in the future. Major theoretical perspectives are explained, and methodological issues and challenges are discussed. The volume examines how topics fundamental to psychology--identity and social relations, the self, cognition, emotion and motivation, and development--are influenced by cultural meanings and practices. It a...
Ploeger, A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.
Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a metatheoretical framework for psychology. We argue that evolutionary psychology should be expanded if it is to offer new insights regarding the major issues in psychology. Evolutionary developmental biology can provide valuable new insights into issues
Bornstein, Robert F
In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), and as is true in most health care professions, the primary focus of EBPP has been on treatment. Comparatively little attention has been devoted to applying the principles of EBPP to psychological assessment, despite the fact that assessment plays a central role in myriad domains of empirical and applied psychology (e.g., research, forensics, behavioral health, risk management, diagnosis and classification in mental health settings, documentation of neuropsychological impairment and recovery, personnel selection and placement in organizational contexts). This article outlines the central elements of evidence-based psychological assessment (EBPA), using the American Psychological Association's tripartite definition of EBPP as integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences. After discussing strategies for conceptualizing and operationalizing evidence-based testing and evidence-based assessment, 6 core skills and 3 meta-skills that underlie proficiency in psychological assessment are described. The integration of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences is discussed in terms of the complex interaction of patient and assessor identities and values throughout the assessment process. A preliminary framework for implementing EBPA is offered, and avenues for continued refinement and growth are described.
Edwards, M.; Byrne, A.
At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)
Aich, Tapas Kumar
Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!
Edwards, M.; Byrne, A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)
At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)
Seppo E. Iso-Ahola
Full Text Available Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1 scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative; (2 non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3 statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4 psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance, not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.
Pergamenshchik, L.A.; Furmanov, I.A.; Mejkshane, T.V.; Sazonov, S.S.
The modern social psychological situation in the Republic of Belarus is stipulated not only political and economic crisis, but also by occurring ecological and industrial accidents. Such processes are characteristic for many countries of the world. At the having suffered population a number of the common symptoms of social and psychological discomforts are observed. On a conference the following questions were discussed: theoretical problems of adaptation and social psychological rehabilitation of the having suffered population; an experience of psychological diagnostic researches in the contaminated zones; models of influence of low dozes of radiation on the children and adult psychics; an experience of researches of mental states in a post catastrophe period; sex and age feature of adaptation of the schoolboys to the stress factors; a technology of a psychological aid in a post catastrophe period; an experience of establishment and work of a consulting network of the psychological aid in the contaminated and clean regions; an experience of the individual and group psychological aid to the having suffered population; organisational problems of work of the psychological aid centres at children's gardens, schools, sanitation establishments; preparation of the experts for the psychological aid to the having suffered population
Hills, Peter J.; Holland, Andrew M.; Lewis, Michael B.
Adults can be adapted to a particular facial distortion in which both eyes are shifted symmetrically (Robbins, R., McKone, E., & Edwards, M. (2007). "Aftereffects for face attributes with different natural variability: Adapter position effects and neural models." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33," 570-592),…
The older person with a stroke requires adapted therapeutic interventions to take into account normal age-related changes. The Feldenkrais® Method presents a model for learning to promote adaptability that addresses key functional changes seen with normal aging. Clinical examples related to specific functional tasks are discussed to highlight major treatment modifications and neuromuscular, psychological, emotional, and sensory considerations.
Full Text Available Evidence from extreme environments suggests that there are relationships between difficulties of adaptation and psychological factors such as personality. In the framework of microgravity research on humans, the aim of this exploratory study was to investigate inter-individual differences of parabonauts on the basis of quality of adaptation to the physical demands of parabolic flights. The personality characteristics of two groups of parabonauts with a different quality of adaptation (an Adaptive group, N = 7, and a Maladaptive group, N = 15 were assessed using the Sensation Seeking Scale, Brief COPE, and MSSQ-Short. Compared to the Maladaptive group, the individuals of the Adaptive group scored higher on Boredom Susceptibility (i.e., a subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale, lower on scales of susceptibility to motion sickness (MSSQ-Short and tended to score lower on Instrumental Support Seeking (i.e., a subscale of the Brief COPE. These results suggest that individuals of the Adaptive group are more intolerant to monotony, present an aversion to repetitive and routine activities, are less susceptible to motion sickness and less dependent on problem-focused strategies. These characteristics may have contributed to developing a certain degree of flexibility in these subjects when faced with the parabolic flight situation and thus, may have favored them. The identification of differences of personality characteristics between individuals who have expressed difficulties of adaptation from those who have adapted successfully could help to prevent the risk of maladaptation and improve the well-being of (future commercial or occupational aerospace passengers. More generally, these results could be extended to extreme environments and professional and/or sports domains likely to involve risk taking and unusual situations.
R. Elisabeth Cornwell
Full Text Available Sociobiology and its descendant evolutionary psychology (EP have struggled to gain ground within the social sciences over the past 30 years. While some have heralded the Triumph of Sociobiology (Alcock, 2001, others have critiqued it as a poor approach to understanding human behavior and would prefer that a Darwinian perspective remain outside the domain of human social sciences. We attempt to assess just how successful (or not it has been by examining how it has been covered in introductory psychology textbooks over the past 30 years. Our findings indicate that a Darwinian perspective has gained influence and acceptance within the field of psychology over the past three decades. However, we also find that EP as a sub-discipline is often perceived as narrowly defined and limited to research on mating strategies. We address how these perceptions may affect the future of EP, and possible steps needed to increase both the acceptance and importance of evolutionary theory to psychology.
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi
In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user...... test set, the results are important as a proof of existence of differences and of the need for adaptation. The fact that there are individual differences makes the results significant for the development of games and interaction. It indicates that it is necessary to adapt the game and interaction......, if we desire to make the most appropriate game and interaction for the individual. Hence, we investigate adaptation as an important issue for playware. With simple playware games, we show that the adaptation will speed the game up and down to find the appropriate level that matches the reaction speed...
Uden, M.H.F. van; Pieper, J.Z.T.
In this paper we will show you a part of a course "Clinical Psychology of Religion" that has been developed in the Netherlands for introducing mental health professionals in the field of clinical psychology of religion. Clinical psychology of religion applies insights from general psychology of
Nicolas, Michel; Bishop, Sheryl; Weiss, Karine; Gaudino, Marvin
Life in isolated and confined environments (ICEs, e.g., polar stations, submarine or space missions), is subject to important constraints which can generate psychosociological impaired outcomes. This study investigated psychological, social, occupational and cultural variables which are among the most important determinants in adaptation to a one-year wintering in Antarctica with 13 international participants. Our findings confirm and give further insight into the role of social (Cohesiveness, Social Support) and occupational (Implementation / Preparedness, Counterproductive Activity, Decision Latitude and Psychological Job Demands) dimensions of adaptation to ICE environments. Relationships between various social and occupational dimensions studies reflected detrimental effects ranging from decrements in cohesiveness, social support and work performance which differed across professional status and multicultural factors. These psychosocial issues have important implications for pre-mission selection and training, monitoring and support of crews during the mission and post-mission readaptation. Operational recommendations are suggested to improve adaptation, success and well-being for long-term ICE missions, e.g., to Mars and beyond.
This article introduces the reader to community psychology practice by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology practice looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology practice. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology practice for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology practice offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Mihura, Joni L; Roy, Manali; Graceffo, Robert A
We surveyed American Psychological Association-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs' (n = 83) training in psychological assessment-specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method-self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships' assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and (c) the American Psychological Association's requirements for preinternship assessment competencies.
This paper considers one theme in the contemporary legacy of Potter and Wetherell's (1987) Discourse and Social Psychology. It overviews the context that led to that book and considers a series of critical responses from both experimental and critical/qualitative social psychologists. It refutes criticisms and corrects confusions. Focusing on contemporary discursive psychology, it highlights (a) its rigorous use of records of actual behaviour; (b) its systematic focus on normative practices. In methodological terms, it (a) highlights limitations in the use of open-ended interviews; (b) considers the way naturalistic materials provide access to participants' own orientations and displays; (c) builds a distinctive logic of sampling and generalization. In theoretical terms, it (a) highlights the way discourse work can identify foundational psychological matters; (b) offers a novel approach to emotion and embodiment; (c) starts to build a matrix of dimensions which are central to the constructing and recognizing of different kinds of social actions. It now offers a fully formed alternative social psychology which coordinates theory and method and a growing body of empirical work. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Stojnov Dušan B.
Full Text Available The paper considers diverse approaches to human subjectivity conceptualization. On the one hand, a summary is made of an established psychological view of personality as an intrinsic psychological entity responsible for stylistic differences in the behavior of isolated individuals, founded on the traditional Cartesian view. On the other hand more recent views are presented, which take human subjectivity as personhood i.e. responsible action of moral subjects, placed within amongst-people space, and implying allied activity of persons in a social community. In addition, consideration is given to new methodological demands for psychologists who want to research the domain of human personhood as well as to deviations of a "new paradigm" of psychological investigations from scientific tradition in viewing methods that has prevailed in psychology until recently. Clarification of demands for studying personhood is a new trend in psychology, so it should be stressed that such orientation, despite its long-lasting past, virtually has a very short history.
Full Text Available This is a study of a Hong Kong Chinese film adaptation of Ghosts made in 1960. It deals with processes of cross-cultural and cross-media adaptation, and probes issues of how stage techniques are turned into cinematographic devices. Ibsen’s plays, except Ghosts, have been adapted numerous times for the Chinese stage and screen in Hong Kong and China. Unlike in China, the reception of Ibsen in Hong Kong is not meant for political purposes. In most Hong Kong adaptations, Ibsen is valued for the purpose of theatrical experimentation. Among the stage adaptations, A Doll’s House and The Master Builder are the most popular. However, there was a film adaptation of Ghosts in 1960, which has never been discussed in Ibsen scholarship. In this adaptation, Director Tso Kea borrowed the plot from Ghosts and made a perfect Chinese melodrama film highlighting the Chinese emotions and relations in a wealthy family that undergoes a crisis. In traditional Chinese drama, there is the lack of psychological rendering in characterization and characters act according to moral considerations. In Tso Kea’s film, the portrayal of the mother provides a new sense of characterization by combining Mrs Alving with the traditional Chinese mother figure. The borrowing from Ibsen makes it possible for the Chinese film to create a character with emotional and psychological complexities. Images from the film are selected as illustration in the article.
Leslie, Julian C
Herbert Spencer's Principles of Psychology (1855, first edition) was regarded by his contemporaries, including William James and John Dewey, as a major contribution to what was then a very new discipline. In this book he first expounded his ideas about both evolution of species and how behavior of the individual organism adapts through interaction with the environment. His formulation of the principle that behavior changes in adaptation to the environment is closely related to the version of ...
Constance I. Millar; Christopher W. Swanston; David L. Peterson
Federal agencies have led the development of adaptation principles and tools in forest ecosystems over the past decade. Successful adaptation efforts generally require organizations to: (1) develop science-management partnerships, (2) provide education on climate change science, (3) provide a toolkit of methods and processes for vulnerability assessment and adaptation...
Carmin, J.; Tierney, K.; Chu, E.; Hunter, L.M.; Roberts, J.T.; Shi, L.; Dunlap, R.E.; Brulle, R.J.
Climate change adaptation involves major global and societal challenges such as finding adequate and equitable adaptation funding and integrating adaptation and development programs. Current funding is insufficient. Debates between the Global North and South center on how best to allocate the
Shamil R. Khisambeyev; Viktor I. Panov
Psychological eff ects of climate change constitute one of the subjects of study of ecological psychology. Ecological psychology is formed and developed at the junction of ecology, diff erent directions of psychology, psychotherapy, pedagogy, philosophy and other disciplines. The article is devoted to review those areas of psychological research, which consider the human psyche in the logic of interaction with the environment. As a result, we hope to answer the fundamental question of whether...
Since economic psychology is primarily interested in (a) how people in general react to the economic aspects of their environment, and (b) how these reactions change the economic components of their environment, as yet individual differences are not an important issue in economic-psychological research. After a brief look at how economic psychology used to deal with individual differences in the past, some suggestions are given, based on literature from social psychology, economic psychology,...
Merced, Matthew; Stutman, Zachariah E.; Mann, Sandra T.
Psychology graduate students in the United States are expected to demonstrate competency in the history of psychology. Despite the topic's importance, there are limited guidelines. The present study examined history and systems of psychology (HSP) course syllabi from American Psychological Association accredited Doctor of Psychology programs. Of…
Silverstein, Steven M; Uhlhaas, Peter J
Gestalt views of psychopathology are almost completely ignored in mainstream psychology and psychiatry. However, a review of available evidence indicates a remarkable consistency between these views and current data from experimental psychopathology and cognitive neuroscience. This consistency is especially pronounced in the area of schizophrenia. In addition, there is a convergence of cognitive and neurobiological evidence regarding the validity of early Gestalt views of both normal brain-behavior relationships and disordered ones, as in schizophrenia. This article reviews some contributions of Gestalt psychology regarding schizophrenia and examines these views in light of more recent findings from cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and experimental psychopathology. We conclude that Gestalt theory is a viable theoretical framework from which to understand schizophrenia. Specifically, it appears that a breakdown of Gestalt organizational processes may characterize both the cognitive and the brain processes in schizophrenia.
Jordan, W.S. III
In Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy (PANE), the Supreme Court held that the National Environmental Policy Act does not require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider the probable impact of its actions on psychological health. The Court's opinion, however, supports the conclusion that NEPA generally requires federal agencies to consider such probable impacts. This article examines the scope of federal responsibility following this decision. It delineates the causal relationship test that the Court adopted in PANE, and discusses possible obstacles to the consideration of psychological impacts under NEPA. It divides federal actions into four categories, then considers the benefits and burdens of the ruling using the NRC's responsibility to consider psychological health effects before licensing new nuclear reactors. 221 references
Within social sciences, the standards of beauty were for a long time considered to be culturally determined, meaning that different people with different life experiences in different cultures acquire different standards of beauty, as captured in the famous sentence "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder". However, two groups of findings have challenged this common assumption: first, people in different cultures generally agree on which faces are attractive; second, preferences emerge early in life, before cultural standards of beauty are likely to be assimilated. Evolutionary psychology explores the psychological adaptations (evolved psychological mechanisms constructed by natural selection) that constitute human nature. From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, beauty is not a cultural construct and appreciating beauty is not learned but is rather a biological adaptation, a part of universal human nature: the preferences for some physical characteristics reflect adaptations for mate choice because they signal aspects of mate quality. Theory of natural selection explains the adaptations, which help organisms in their tasks of survival. However, an organism can be adapted and survive for many years without passing its qualities to future generations--to pass them it must reproduce. The theory of sexual selection explains the adaptations that have arisen as a consequence of successful mating. In order to gain reproductive success, women and men adopt certain mate selection strategies--integrated sets of adaptations, not necessarily conscious, which organize and guide the individual's reproductive efforts.
Ong, Hui Chien; Ibrahim, Norhayati; Wahab, Suzaily
Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. “Community rejection” was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with “positive reframing”. Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. PMID:27574475
Waterman, Alan S
Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical bases in which it leans on. One of these transformations arises of its encounter with the positive Psychology, of recent appearance too. The theoretical work in this field is of interest because from a classic perspec- tive, from a biological view, aging is regarded as the decline in physical and psychic strengths and, therefore, the loss of those features and positive qualities that were fundamental during the youthful and mature life. Old age would be marked by a deterioration, fragility and loss of progressive selfregulation of the individual person. This view lead to ignoring clearly positive aspects of old the age such as the gathering experience or the greater availability of free time that would allow elderly people to search for ways of personal realization, among others. Of the journey for the different concepts in those that positive psychology and gerontology go being defined a group of characteristic of what we can call the psychic aging. In the first place a change appears in the perspective about what this process implies. Aging is not seen as a relentless and universal process of decline, but rather besides a great variability, it presents different aspects in those that we see the development of potentialities and resources that were not present in other ages.
Olazaran-Rodriguez, J; Aguera-Ortiz, L F; Muniz-Schwochert, R
The psychological and behavioural symptoms of dementia (BPSD) [corrected] give rise to personal suffering, are the cause of added deterioration and worsen the economic and social cost of dementias. To offer a systematic approach to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of BPSD. [corrected]. The study adopts a global perspective that takes into account biological, psychological and social factors in an attempt to avoid both excessive medicalisation and a purely psychology-based attitude. Satisfying basic needs, treating medical and psychiatric comorbidity, the adaptation of the setting, and the specific pharmacological treatment of dementia, as well as offering patients and their caregivers the counselling and support they need, all contribute to prevent the onset of BPSD. [corrected]. The diagnosis of BPSD [corrected] is based on the patient's medical history and on observation. It is useful to identify a primary or destabilising BPSD [corrected] on which to deploy hypotheses and specific treatments based on modifying the environment, drugs, non-pharmacological therapies and continuous assessment. Any action taken must be integrated within a person-focused care plan aimed at accomplishing the patients' and their caregivers' welfare and quality of life. BPSD [corrected] are the result of biological, psychological and social factors. In the present scenario, in which there are no curative treatments in most cases of dementia, a systematic and multidisciplinary approach aimed at preventing and treating BPSD [corrected] is a highly cost-effective therapeutic opportunity in both personal and social terms.
James, Richard J E; O'Malley, Claire; Tunney, Richard J
This manuscript reviews the extant literature on key issues related to mobile gambling and considers whether the potential risks of harm emerging from this platform are driven by pre-existing comorbidities or by psychological processes unique to mobile gambling. We propose an account based on associative learning that suggests this form of gambling is likely to show distinctive features compared with other gambling technologies. Smartphones are a rapidly growing platform on which individuals can gamble using specifically designed applications, adapted websites or text messaging. This review considers how mobile phone use interacts with psychological processes relevant to gambling, the games users are likely to play on smartphones, and the interactions afforded by smartphones. Our interpretation of the evidence is that the schedules of reinforcement found in gambling interact with the ways in which people tend to use smartphones that may expedite the acquisition of maladaptive learned behaviours such as problem gambling. This account is consistent with existing theories and frameworks of problem gambling and has relevance to other forms of mobile phone use. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.
Kim, Jeong Han; McMahon, Brian T; Hawley, Carolyn; Brickham, Dana; Gonzalez, Rene; Lee, Dong-Hun
Psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID) is an area of study where a positive psychology perspective, especially the study of virtues and character strengths, can be implemented within the rehabilitation framework. A carefully developed theory to guide future interdisciplinary research is now timely. A traditional literature review between philosophy and rehabilitation psychology was conducted in order to develop a virtue-based psychosocial adaptation theory, merging important perspectives from the fields of rehabilitation and positive psychology. The virtue-based psychosocial adaptation model (V-PAM) to CID is proposed in the present study. The model involves five qualities or constructs: courage, practical wisdom, commitment to action, integrity and emotional transcendence. Each of these components of virtue contributes to an understanding of psychosocial adaptation. The present study addresses the implications and applications of V-PAM that will advance this understanding.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji
This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special...
Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G
AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support in the assoc......AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...
Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana
Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.
Furness, Ella; Nelson, Harry
This study develops a multidisciplinary framework composed of a range of determinants of adaptive capacity to climate change found in economic, sociological, political, geographical and psychological literature. The framework is then used to carry out a survey of community managed forest organisations to measure their adaptive capacity and establish the characteristics that enable their adaptation. The research finds that adaptive organisations spend a substantial amount of time on community ...
Kamilla L. Venner
Conclusions: Results suggest that culturally adapted EBTs yield significant improvements in alcohol use, psychological distress, and legal problems among AI/ANs. Future research using RCT methodology is needed to examine efficacy and effectiveness.
Some individuals who are destitute report to be happy, while others who are very wealthy report to be miserable. There are many possible explanations for this paradox; the author focuses on the role of adaptation. Adaptation is the subject of much work in economics, but its definition is a psychological one. Adaptations are defense mechanisms; there are bad ones like paranoia, and healthy ones like humor, anticipation, and sublimation. Set point theory--which is the subject of much debate in ...