WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptation physiological

  1. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  2. Dietary Antioxidants as Modifiers of Physiologic Adaptations to Exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Mankowski (Robert T.); S.D. Anton (Stephen D.); T.W. Buford (Thomas W.); C. Leeuwenburgh (Christiaan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Adaptive responses to exercise training (ET) are crucial in maintaining physiologic homeostasis and health span. Exercise-induced aerobic bioenergetic reactions in the mitochondria and cytosol increase production of reactive oxygen species, where excess of reactive oxygen

  3. PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE RESPONSES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the interaction between chicken genotypes (Naked-neck, Na, from Ethiopia; New Hampshire, NH; Lohmann White, LW; and F1 crosses of Na males with females of NH [Na´NH] and LW [Na´LW]) and ambient temperatures (normal and high) on physiological indicators ...

  4. Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzell, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive automation has been proposed as a solution to current problems of human-automation interaction. Past research has shown the potential of this advanced form of automation to enhance pilot engagement and lower cognitive workload. However, there have been concerns voiced regarding issues, such as automation surprises, associated with the use of adaptive automation. This study examined the use of psychophysiological self-regulation training with adaptive automation that may help pilots deal with these problems through the enhancement of cognitive resource management skills. Eighteen participants were assigned to 3 groups (self-regulation training, false feedback, and control) and performed resource management, monitoring, and tracking tasks from the Multiple Attribute Task Battery. The tracking task was cycled between 3 levels of task difficulty (automatic, adaptive aiding, manual) on the basis of the electroencephalogram-derived engagement index. The other two tasks remained in automatic mode that had a single automation failure. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  5. Physiological adaptation to recurrent social stress of extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhenhong

    2017-02-01

    The present studies examined the influence of extraversion on physiological reactivity, recovery, and physiological habituation-sensitization to repeated social stressors. In Study 1, subjective and physiological data were collected from 97 college students who were categorized as high (n = 51) and low (n = 46) on extraversion (NEO-FFI) across five laboratory stages: baseline, stress 1, poststress 1, stress 2, and poststress 2. Results indicated high extraversion (HE) participants exhibited relative lesser heart rate (HR) reactivity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawals to, and more complete HR and RSA recovery after the first social stress, and also exhibited relative lesser HR reactivity to the second social stress. When repeatedly exposed to a social stressor, HE participants showed pronounced systolic blood pressure (SBP) adaptation, low extraversion (LE) participants displayed diastolic blood pressure (DBP) sensitization. In Study 2, data were collected from another 78 participants (HE: n = 40, LE: n = 38) across the same laboratory stages with speech performance videotaped. After controlling for the speech styles, Study 2 found the same HR response and SBP/DBP adaptation pattern across extraversion groups to social stress as Study 1 but not RSA reactivity. These findings suggest extraverts exhibit more adaptive physiological reactivity to recurrent social stressors, which thus might benefit their health. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  7. Mitochondrial adaptations to physiological vs. pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, E. Dale; Doenst, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a stereotypic response of the heart to increased workload. The nature of the workload increase may vary depending on the stimulus (repetitive, chronic, pressure, or volume overload). If the heart fully adapts to the new loading condition, the hypertrophic response is considered physiological. If the hypertrophic response is associated with the ultimate development of contractile dysfunction and heart failure, the response is considered pathological. Although divergent signalling mechanisms may lead to these distinct patterns of hypertrophy, there is some overlap. Given the close relationship between workload and energy demand, any form of cardiac hypertrophy will impact the energy generation by mitochondria, which are the key organelles for cellular ATP production. Significant changes in the expression of nuclear and mitochondrially encoded transcripts that impact mitochondrial function as well as altered mitochondrial proteome composition and mitochondrial energetics have been described in various forms of cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we review mitochondrial alterations in pathological and physiological hypertrophy. We suggest that mitochondrial adaptations to pathological and physiological hypertrophy are distinct, and we shall review potential mechanisms that might account for these differences. PMID:21257612

  8. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Peñuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-02-01

    Urban environments that are stressful for plant function and growth will become increasingly widespread in future. In this opinion article, we define the concept of 'urban plant physiology', which focuses on plant responses and long term adaptations to urban conditions and on the capacity of urban vegetation to mitigate environmental hazards in urbanized settings such as air and soil pollution. Use of appropriate control treatments would allow for studies in urban environments to be comparable to expensive manipulative experiments. In this opinion article, we propose to couple two approaches, based either on environmental gradients or manipulated gradients, to develop the concept of urban plant physiology for assessing how single or multiple environmental factors affect the key environmental services provided by urban forests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutrition and human physiological adaptations to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Putcha, L.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Space flight provides a model for the study of healthy individuals undergoing unique stresses. This review focuses on how physiological adaptations to weightlessness may affect nutrient and food requirements in space. These adaptations include reductions in body water and plasma volume, which affect the renal and cardiovascular systems and thereby fluid and electrolyte requirements. Changes in muscle mass and function may affect requirements for energy, protein and amino acids. Changes in bone mass lead to increased urinary calcium concentrations, which may increase the risk of forming renal stones. Space motion sickness may influence putative changes in gastro-intestinal-hepatic function; neurosensory alterations may affect smell and taste. Some or all of these effects may be ameliorated through the use of specially designed dietary countermeasures.

  10. Cross-Adaptation: Heat and Cold Adaptation to Improve Physiological and Cellular Responses to Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Oliver R; Taylor, Lee; Watt, Peter W; Maxwell, Neil S

    2017-09-01

    To prepare for extremes of heat, cold or low partial pressures of oxygen (O 2 ), humans can undertake a period of acclimation or acclimatization to induce environment-specific adaptations, e.g. heat acclimation (HA), cold acclimation (CA), or altitude training. While these strategies are effective, they are not always feasible due to logistical impracticalities. Cross-adaptation is a term used to describe the phenomenon whereby alternative environmental interventions, e.g. HA or CA, may be a beneficial alternative to altitude interventions, providing physiological stress and inducing adaptations observable at altitude. HA can attenuate physiological strain at rest and during moderate-intensity exercise at altitude via adaptations allied to improved O 2 delivery to metabolically active tissue, likely following increases in plasma volume and reductions in body temperature. CA appears to improve physiological responses to altitude by attenuating the autonomic response to altitude. While no cross-acclimation-derived exercise performance/capacity data have been measured following CA, post-HA improvements in performance underpinned by aerobic metabolism, and therefore dependent on O 2 delivery at altitude, are likely. At a cellular level, heat shock protein responses to altitude are attenuated by prior HA, suggesting that an attenuation of the cellular stress response and therefore a reduced disruption to homeostasis at altitude has occurred. This process is known as cross-tolerance. The effects of CA on markers of cross-tolerance is an area requiring further investigation. Because much of the evidence relating to cross-adaptation to altitude has examined the benefits at moderate to high altitudes, future research examining responses at lower altitudes should be conducted, given that these environments are more frequently visited by athletes and workers. Mechanistic work to identify the specific physiological and cellular pathways responsible for cross-adaptation between

  11. Cyanobacteria in Antarctica: ecology, physiology and cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, K D; Shukla, S P; Shukla, P N; Giri, D D; Singh, J S; Singh, P; Kashyap, A K

    2004-07-01

    Cyanobacterial species composition of fresh water and terrestrial ecosystems and chemical environment of water in Schirmacher Oasis in Continental Antarctica was investigated. Over 35 species of cyanobacteria were recorded. Diazotrophic species both heterocystous and unicellular contributed more than half to the count except in lake ecosystem. The species composition varied among the fresh water as well as terrestrial ecosystems. The physico-chemical analyses of water revealed its poor nurient content which might have supported the growth of diazotrophic cyanobacteria in an Antarctic environment. Among the cyanobacteria Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Nostoc commune were the dominant flora in most of the habitats. The physiological characteristics of isolated cyanobacteria strains indicated that N2-fixation, nitrate uptake, nitrate-reduction, ammonium-uptake, GS-transferase activity and photosynthesis was unaffected at low temperature (5 degrees C) which indicated low temperature adaptation for Antarctic cyanobacteria. This phenomenon was not evident in different strains of tropical origin. The temperature optima for N2-fixation for the different Antarctic cyanobacterial strains was in the range of 15-25 degrees C, nearly 10 degrees C lower than their respective reference strains of tropical origin. Similar results were obtained for cyanobacteria-moss association. The low endergonic activation energy exhibited by the above metabolic activities supported the view that cyanobacteria were adapted to Antarctic ecosystem.

  12. Stress inoculation training supported by physiology-driven adaptive virtual reality stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Sinisa; Horvat, Marko; Kukolja, Davor; Dropuljić, Branimir; Cosić, Kresimir

    2009-01-01

    Significant proportion of psychological problems related to combat stress in recent large peacekeeping operations underscores importance of effective methods for strengthening the stress resistance of military personnel. Adaptive control of virtual reality (VR) stimulation, based on estimation of the subject's emotional state from physiological signals, may enhance existing stress inoculation training (SIT). Physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation can tailor the progress of stressful stimuli delivery to the physiological characteristics of each individual, which is indicated for improvement in stress resistance. Therefore, following an overview of SIT and its applications in the military setting, generic concept of physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation is presented in the paper. Toward the end of the paper, closed-loop adaptive control strategy applicable to SIT is outlined.

  13. Human Adaptation to Space: Space Physiology and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews human physiological responses to spaceflight, and the countermeasures taken to prevent adverse effects of manned space flight. The topics include: 1) Human Spaceflight Experience; 2) Human Response to Spaceflight; 3) ISS Expeditions 1-16; 4) Countermeasure; and 5) Biomedical Data;

  14. Avoid, attack or do both? Behavioral and physiological adaptations in natural enemies faced with novel hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Sam P

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confronted with well-defended, novel hosts, should an enemy invest in avoidance of these hosts (behavioral adaptation, neutralization of the defensive innovation (physiological adaptation or both? Although simultaneous investment in both adaptations may first appear to be redundant, several empirical studies have suggested a reinforcement of physiological resistance to host defenses with additional avoidance behaviors. To explain this paradox, we develop a mathematical model describing the joint evolution of behavioral and physiological adaptations on the part of natural enemies to their host defenses. Our specific goals are (i to derive the conditions that may favor the simultaneous investment in avoidance and physiological resistance and (ii to study the factors that govern the relative investment in each adaptation mode. Results Our results show that (i a simultaneous investment may be optimal if the fitness costs of the adaptive traits are accelerating and the probability of encountering defended hosts is low. When (i holds, we find that (ii the more that defended hosts are rare and/or spatially aggregated, the more behavioral adaptation is favored. Conclusion Despite their interference, physiological resistance to host defensive innovations and avoidance of these same defenses are two strategies in which it may be optimal for an enemy to invest in simultaneously. The relative allocation to each strategy greatly depends on host spatial structure. We discuss the implications of our findings for the management of invasive plant species and the management of pest resistance to new crop protectants or varieties.

  15. Physiological Adaptations to Training in Competitive Swimming: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Mário J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize longitudinal studies on swimming physiology and get implications for daily practice. A computerized search of databases according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (i present two testing points; (ii on swimming physiology; (iii using adult elite swimmers; (iv no case-studies or with small sample sizes. Two independent reviewers used a checklist to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Thirty-four studies selected for analysis were gathered into five main categories: blood composition (n=7, endocrine secretion (n=11, muscle biochemistry (n=7, cardiovascular response (n=8 and the energetic profile (n=14. The mean quality index was 10.58 ± 2.19 points demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between reviewers (K = 0.93. It can be concluded that the mixed findings in the literature are due to the diversity of the experimental designs. Micro variables obtained at the cellular or molecular level are sensitive measures and demonstrate overtraining signs and health symptoms. The improvement of macro variables (i.e. main physiological systems is limited and may depend on the athletes’ training background and experience.

  16. Physiology-driven adaptive virtual reality stimulation for prevention and treatment of stress related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosić, Kresimir; Popović, Sinisa; Kukolja, Davor; Horvat, Marko; Dropuljić, Branimir

    2010-02-01

    The significant proportion of severe psychological problems related to intensive stress in recent large peacekeeping operations underscores the importance of effective methods for strengthening the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. Adaptive control of virtual reality (VR) stimulation presented in this work, based on estimation of the person's emotional state from physiological signals, may enhance existing stress inoculation training (SIT). Physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation can tailor the progress of stressful stimuli delivery to the physiological characteristics of each individual, which is indicated for improvement in stress resistance. Following an overview of physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation, its major functional subsystems are described in more detail. A specific algorithm of stimuli delivery applicable to SIT is outlined.

  17. Physiological Adaptations to Sprint Interval Training with Matched Exercise Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Lun; Hsu, Wei-Chieh; Cheng, Ching-Feng

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine how high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols featuring matched times but distinct sprint durations affect cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses and performance. Thirty-eight recreationally active men (age 21 ± 2 yr) were assigned to one of three interval training groups: long-duration high-intensity (HIIT60s; 8 × 60 s at 85%-90% V˙O2max; 120-s recovery at 30% V˙O2max), short-duration high-intensity (HIIT10s; 48 × 10 s at 85%-90% V˙O2max; 20-s recovery at 30% V˙O2max), and control (regular physical activity without HIIT). Before and after a 4-wk training period (three sessions per week), participants performed graded exercise tests and repeated sprint tests, based on which their aerobic and anaerobic capacities were assessed. Skinfold thickness, blood, and metabolic responses were also measured before and after intervention. After the 4-wk training period, V˙O2max was significantly increased (P training (P 0.05), but testosterone concentration in the HIIT10s was higher after training than before (P performance and lower skinfold thickness in HIIT60s versus HIIT10s reflected similar adaptations, but the higher repeated sprint performance was observed only in responses to HIIT60s, which may elicit greater anaerobic adaptations.

  18. Phenotyping for drought adaptation in wheat using physiological traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneveux, Philippe; Jing, Ruilian; Misra, Satish C.

    2012-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum spp) is one of the first domesticated food crops. It represents the first source of calories (after rice) and an important source of proteins in developing countries. As a result of the Green Revolution, wheat yield sharply increased due to the use of improved varieties, irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. The rate of increase in world wheat production, however, slowed after 1980, except in China, India, and Pakistan. Being adapted to a wide range of moisture conditions, wheat is grown on more land area worldwide than any other crop, including in drought prone areas. In these marginal rain-fed environments where at least 60 m ha of wheat is grown, amount and distribution of rainfall are the predominant factors influencing yield variability. Intensive work has been carried out in the area of drought adaptation over the last decades. Breeding strategies for drought tolerance improvement include: definition of the target environment, choice and characterization of the testing environment, water stress management and characterization, and use of phenotyping traits with high heritability. The use of integrative traits, facilitated by the development and application of new technologies (thermal imaging, spectral reflectance, stable isotopes) is facilitating high throughput phenotyping and indirect selection, consequently favoring yield improvement in drought prone environments. PMID:23181021

  19. Phenotyping for drought adaptation in wheat using physiological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eMonneveux

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum spp is one of the first domesticated food crops. It represents the first source of calories (after rice and an important source of proteins in developing countries. As a result of the Green Revolution, wheat yield sharply increased due to the use of improved varieties, irrigation, pesticides and fertilizers. The rate of increase in world wheat production however slowed after 1980, except in China, India and Pakistan. Being adapted to a wide range of moisture conditions, wheat is grown on more land area worldwide than any other crop, including in drought prone areas. In these marginal rain-fed environments where at least 60m ha of wheat is grown, amount and distribution of rainfall are the predominant factors influencing yield variability. Intensive work has been carried out in the area of drought adaptation over the last decades. Breeding strategies for drought tolerance improvement include: definition of the target environment, choice and characterisation of the testing environment, water stress management and characterization, and use of phenotyping traits with high heritability. The use of integrative traits, facilitated by the development and application of new technologies (thermal imaging, spectral reflectance, stable isotopes is facilitating high throughput phenotyping and indirect selection, consequently favoring yield improvement in drought prone environments.

  20. Physiological assessment of military professional adaptation and organism functional status of higher military schools resident students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondrashov V.V.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of organism functional status of resident students of military medical higher schools in different situations and modes of professional education (during their study day, round-the clock shifts in a clinic, duties, and an examination period in the process of military professional adaptation have been analyzed. The technique of functional body status optimization which takes into account both psycho-physiological specificity of military professional training as well as the regularities of psycho-physiologic reserve-capacity changes and military professional adaptation has been worked out. It constitutes the sum total of physiologically proved structural and functional components such as adaptation improvements, correction and recreation of functional body status

  1. Our ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Hochachka, Peter W.; Gunga, Hanns Christian; Kirsch, Karl

    1998-01-01

    There are well known mechanistic similarities in human physiology between adaptations for endurance performance and hypoxia tolerance. By using background principles arising from recent studies of the evolution of the diving response in marine mammals, here we analyze human responses to hypobaric hypoxia based on studies with several different low and high altitude human lineages. As in the evolution of the diving response in pinnipeds, we found “conservative” and “adaptable” physiological ch...

  2. Target of physiological gait: Realization of speed adaptive control for a prosthetic knee during swing flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wujing; Yu, Hongliu; Zhao, Weiliang; Li, Jin; Wei, Xiaodong

    2017-10-13

    Prosthetic knee is the most important component of lower limb prosthesis. Speed adaptive for prosthetic knee during swing flexion is the key method to realize physiological gait. This study aims to discuss the target of physiological gait, propose a speed adaptive control method during swing flexion and research the damping adjustment law of intelligent hydraulic prosthetic knee. According to the physiological gait trials of healthy people, the control target during swing flexion is defined. A new prosthetic knee with fuzzy logical control during swing flexion is designed to realize the damping adjustment automatically. The function simulation and evaluation system of intelligent knee prosthesis is provided. Speed adaptive control test of the intelligent prosthetic knee in different velocities are researched. The maximum swing flexion of the knee angle is set between sixty degree and seventy degree as the target of physiological gait. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the prosthetic knee with fuzzy logical control is able to realize physiological gait under different speeds. The faster the walking, the bigger the valve closure percentage of the hydraulic prosthetic knee. The proposed fuzzy logical control strategy and intelligent hydraulic prosthetic knee are effective for the amputee to achieve physiological gait.

  3. Cardiac adaptation in athletes of black ethnicity: differentiating pathology from physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Navin; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2012-08-01

    Cardiac adaptation to intense physical exercise is determined by factors including age, gender, body size, sporting discipline and ethnicity. Differentiating physiology from pathological conditions such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is challenging, but relevant, as HCM remains the commonest cause of sudden death in young athletes. Marked electrocardiographic repolarisation changes and echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy have been demonstrated in athletes of black ethnicity. Such changes highlight the overlap between 'athlete's heart' and morphologically mild HCM with potential for false-positive diagnoses and disqualification from competitive sport. The focus of this article is to provide practical considerations in differentiating physiological adaptation to exercise from cardiac pathology in athletes of black ethnicity.

  4. Physiological Adaptations following Resistance Training in Youth Athletes-A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Marzilger, Robert; Bohm, Sebastian; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2016-11-01

    To understand the mechanisms for the effects of resistance training on functional parameters, and to assess the injury risk of the involved tissues, it is necessary to examine the underlying morphological and structural changes of the respective tissues. The presented information on physiological adaptations have been deduced from cross-sectional studies comparing youth athletes with controls and children with adults as well as from longitudinal studies examining the effects of resistance training in untrained children and adolescents and in youth athletes. The evidence indicates, that training induced changes in motor performance rely partly on enhanced neuromuscular control, and partly on morphological adaptation of muscles and tendons, such as changes in muscle, muscle fiber and tendon cross-sectional area, muscle composition, and tendon material properties, with the bone also adapting by increasing bone mineral content and cortical area. Although the training induced adaptations of the investigated tissues follows similar principles in children as in adults, the magnitude of the adaptive response appears to be more subtle. As studies investigating physiological adaptation in youth athletes are sparse, more research in this area is warranted to elucidate the specific physiological stimulus-response relationship necessary for effective training programs and injury prevention.

  5. ARG1 Functions in the Physiological Adaptation of Undifferentiated Plant Cells to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanska, Agata K.; Schultz, Eric R.; Yao, JiQiang; Sng, Natasha J.; Zhou, Mingqi; Callaham, Jordan B.; Ferl, Robert J.; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2017-11-01

    Scientific access to spaceflight and especially the International Space Station has revealed that physiological adaptation to spaceflight is accompanied or enabled by changes in gene expression that significantly alter the transcriptome of cells in spaceflight. A wide range of experiments have shown that plant physiological adaptation to spaceflight involves gene expression changes that alter cell wall and other metabolisms. However, while transcriptome profiling aptly illuminates changes in gene expression that accompany spaceflight adaptation, mutation analysis is required to illuminate key elements required for that adaptation. Here we report how transcriptome profiling was used to gain insight into the spaceflight adaptation role of Altered response to gravity 1 (Arg1), a gene known to affect gravity responses in plants on Earth. The study compared expression profiles of cultured lines of Arabidopsis thaliana derived from wild-type (WT) cultivar Col-0 to profiles from a knock-out line deficient in the gene encoding ARG1 (ARG1 KO), both on the ground and in space. The cell lines were launched on SpaceX CRS-2 as part of the Cellular Expression Logic (CEL) experiment of the BRIC-17 spaceflight mission. The cultured cell lines were grown within 60 mm Petri plates in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs) that were housed within the Biological Research In Canisters (BRIC) hardware. Spaceflight samples were fixed on orbit. Differentially expressed genes were identified between the two environments (spaceflight and comparable ground controls) and the two genotypes (WT and ARG1 KO). Each genotype engaged unique genes during physiological adaptation to the spaceflight environment, with little overlap. Most of the genes altered in expression in spaceflight in WT cells were found to be Arg1-dependent, suggesting a major role for that gene in the physiological adaptation of undifferentiated cells to spaceflight.

  6. Animal welfare: What are the relationships between physiological and behavioural measures of adaptation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, S.; Auperin, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Geverink, N.A.; Jones, B.C.; Lepage, O.; Mignon-Grasteau, S.; Mormede, P.; Prunet, P.; Beaumont, C.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the behavioural adaptation of an animal to its environment is complex, notably because numerous criteria can be taken into consideration. A better understanding of the relationships between criteria, particularly between behavioural and physiological respon-ses, might help reduce the

  7. Physiological adaptation of endothelial function to pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, V.A.L. van; Gansewinkel, T.A.G. van; Haas, S.; Kuijk, S.M.J. van; Drongelen, J. van; Ghossein-Doha, C.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish reference values for flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and brachial artery diameter (BAD) in pregnancy and to provide insight into the physiological and pathological course of endothelial adaptation throughout human singleton pregnancy. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed

  8. Physiology of adaptation of first-year students to studies at higher educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikhina, A V

    2011-07-01

    Changes in anthropometric and hematological values and parameters of cardiovascular function indicated sufficiently effective adaptation of first-year students to studies at higher educational institutions. On the other hand, a certain strain of the physiological optimum caused by examination stress was found in the students.

  9. Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratollah Hedayatpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is characterized by initial unfavorable effects such as subcellular muscle damage, pain, reduced fiber excitability, and initial muscle weakness. However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. Eccentric exercise-induced adaptations include muscle hypertrophy, increased cortical activity, and changes in motor unit behavior, all of which contribute to improved muscle function. In this brief review, neuromuscular adaptations to different forms of exercise are reviewed, the positive training effects of eccentric exercise are presented, and the implications for training are considered.

  10. Differential and Conditional Activation of PKC-Isoforms Dictates Cardiac Adaptation during Physiological to Pathological Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Shaon; Datta, Kaberi; Mitra, Arkadeep; Pathak, Kanchan; Datta, Ritwik; Bansal, Trisha; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2014-01-01

    A cardiac hypertrophy is defined as an increase in heart mass which may either be beneficial (physiological hypertrophy) or detrimental (pathological hypertrophy). This study was undertaken to establish the role of different protein kinase-C (PKC) isoforms in the regulation of cardiac adaptation during two types of cardiac hypertrophy. Phosphorylation of specific PKC-isoforms and expression of their downstream proteins were studied during physiological and pathological hypertrophy in 24 week male Balb/c mice (Mus musculus) models, by reverse transcriptase-PCR, western blot analysis and M-mode echocardiography for cardiac function analysis. PKC-δ was significantly induced during pathological hypertrophy while PKC-α was exclusively activated during physiological hypertrophy in our study. PKC-δ activation during pathological hypertrophy resulted in cardiomyocyte apoptosis leading to compromised cardiac function and on the other hand, activation of PKC-α during physiological hypertrophy promoted cardiomyocyte growth but down regulated cellular apoptotic load resulting in improved cardiac function. Reversal in PKC-isoform with induced activation of PKC-δ and simultaneous inhibition of phospho-PKC-α resulted in an efficient myocardium to deteriorate considerably resulting in compromised cardiac function during physiological hypertrophy via augmentation of apoptotic and fibrotic load. This is the first report where PKC-α and -δ have been shown to play crucial role in cardiac adaptation during physiological and pathological hypertrophy respectively thereby rendering compromised cardiac function to an otherwise efficient heart by conditional reversal of their activation. PMID:25116170

  11. Principles of exercise physiology: responses to acute exercise and long-term adaptations to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Brown, Anita M; Frontera, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity and fitness are associated with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, and diabetes. This review discusses the body's response to an acute bout of exercise and long-term physiological adaptations to exercise training with an emphasis on endurance exercise. An overview is provided of skeletal muscle actions, muscle fiber types, and the major metabolic pathways involved in energy production. The importance of adequate fluid intake during exercise sessions to prevent impairments induced by dehydration on endurance exercise, muscular power, and strength is discussed. Physiological adaptations that result from regular exercise training such as increases in cardiorespiratory capacity and strength are mentioned. The review emphasizes the cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations that lead to improvements in maximal oxygen capacity. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [The physiological analysis of cross adaptation to regular cold exposure and physical activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son'kin, V D; Iakushkin, A V; Akimov, E B; Andreev, R S; Kalenov, Iu N; Kozlov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Research is devoted to the comparative analysis of results of cold adaptation and physical training. The adaptive shifts occurring in an organism under the influence of a hardening (douche by a cold shower 2 times a day 2 minutes long within 6 weeks) and running training on the treadmill (30 minutes at 70-80% of individual VO2max, 3 times a week, within 6 weeks) were compared at 6 the same subjects. The interval between the two cycles of training was no less than 3 months. The indicators registered during ramp test and standard cold exposure test before and after each cycle of trainings were compared. It is shown that patterns of adaptive shifts at adaptation to factors of various modality strongly differ. Shifts at adaptation to physical activities were as a whole more expressed, than at adaptation to regular cold exposition. An individual variety of adaptive reactions suggests the feasibility of developing new approaches to the theory of the adaptation, connected with studying of physiological individuality.

  13. Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ) and mitochondrial content. This brief review considers the role of exercise intensity in mediating physiological adaptations to training, with a focus on the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism. With respect to skeletal muscle adaptations, cellular stress and the resultant metabolic signals for mitochondrial biogenesis depend largely on exercise intensity, with limited work suggesting that increases in mitochondrial content are superior after HIIT compared to MICT, at least when matched-work comparisons are made within the same individual. It is well established that SIT increases mitochondrial content to a similar extent to MICT despite a reduced exercise volume. At the whole-body level, V̇O2 max is generally increased more by HIIT than MICT for a given training volume, whereas SIT and MICT similarly improve V̇O2 max despite differences in training volume. There is less evidence available regarding the role of exercise intensity in mediating changes in skeletal muscle capillary density, maximum stroke volume and cardiac output, and blood volume. Furthermore, the interactions between intensity and duration and frequency have not been thoroughly explored. While interval training is clearly a potent stimulus for physiological remodelling in humans, the integrative response to this type of exercise warrants further attention, especially in comparison to traditional endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  14. Planning a sports training program using Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization with emphasis on physiological constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumyaito, Nattapon; Yupapin, Preecha; Tamee, Kreangsak

    2018-01-08

    An effective training plan is an important factor in sports training to enhance athletic performance. A poorly considered training plan may result in injury to the athlete, and overtraining. Good training plans normally require expert input, which may have a cost too great for many athletes, particularly amateur athletes. The objectives of this research were to create a practical cycling training plan that substantially improves athletic performance while satisfying essential physiological constraints. Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization using ɛ-constraint methods were used to formulate such a plan and simulate the likely performance outcomes. The physiological constraints considered in this study were monotony, chronic training load ramp rate and daily training impulse. A comparison of results from our simulations against a training plan from British Cycling, which we used as our standard, showed that our training plan outperformed the benchmark in terms of both athletic performance and satisfying all physiological constraints.

  15. ACTIONS OF PROLACTIN IN THE BRAIN: FROM PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS TO STRESS AND NEUROGENESIS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz eTorner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin is one of the most versatile hormones known. It is considered an adaptive hormone due to the key roles it plays in the modulation of the stress response and during pregnancy and lactation. Within the brain, prolactin acts as a neuropeptide to promote physiological responses related to reproduction, stress adaptation, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection. The action of prolactin on the nervous system contributes to the wide array of changes that occur in the female brain during pregnancy and result in the attenuation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis. Together, all these changes promote behavioral and physiological adaptations of the new mother to enable reproductive success. Brain adaptations driven by prolactin are also important for the regulation of maternal emotionality and wellbeing Prolactin also affects the male brain during the stress response but its effects have been less studied. Prolactin regulates neurogenesis both in the subventricular zone and in the hippocampus. Therefore, alterations in the prolactin system due to stress, or exposure to substances that reduce neurogenesis or other conditions, could contribute to maladaptive responses and pathological behavioral outcomes. Here we review the prolactin system and the role it plays in the modulation of stress response and emotion regulation. We discuss the effects of prolactin on neurogenesis and neuroprotection, the putative neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects, and their contribution to the onset of psychopathological states like depression.

  16. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  17. Myosin heavy chain and physiological adaptation of the rat diaphragm in elastase-induced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stedman Hansell H

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several physiological adaptations occur in the respiratory muscles in rodent models of elastase-induced emphysema. Although the contractile properties of the diaphragm are altered in a way that suggests expression of slower isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHC, it has been difficult to demonstrate a shift in MHCs in an animal model that corresponds to the shift toward slower MHCs seen in human emphysema. Methods We sought to identify MHC and corresponding physiological changes in the diaphragms of rats with elastase-induced emphysema. Nine rats with emphysema and 11 control rats were studied 10 months after instillation with elastase. MHC isoform composition was determined by both reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry by using specific probes able to identify all known adult isoforms. Physiological adaptation was studied on diaphragm strips stimulated in vitro. Results In addition to confirming that emphysematous diaphragm has a decreased fatigability, we identified a significantly longer time-to-peak-tension (63.9 ± 2.7 ms versus 53.9 ± 2.4 ms. At both the RNA (RT-PCR and protein (immunocytochemistry levels, we found a significant decrease in the fastest, MHC isoform (IIb in emphysema. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of MHC shifts and corresponding physiological changes in the diaphragm in an animal model of emphysema. It is established that rodent emphysema, like human emphysema, does result in a physiologically significant shift toward slower diaphragmatic MHC isoforms. In the rat, this occurs at the faster end of the MHC spectrum than in humans.

  18. Short-term adaptation to a simple motor task: a physiological process preserved in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, L; Ciccarelli, O; Manfredonia, F; Thornton, J S; Agosta, F; Barkhof, F; Beckmann, C; De Stefano, N; Enzinger, C; Fazekas, F; Filippi, M; Gass, A; Hirsch, J G; Johansen-Berg, H; Kappos, L; Korteweg, T; Manson, S C; Marino, S; Matthews, P M; Montalban, X; Palace, J; Polman, C; Rocca, M; Ropele, S; Rovira, A; Wegner, C; Friston, K; Thompson, A; Yousry, T

    2009-04-01

    Short-term adaptation indicates the attenuation of the functional MRI (fMRI) response during repeated task execution. It is considered to be a physiological process, but it is unknown whether short-term adaptation changes significantly in patients with brain disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to investigate short-term adaptation during a repeated right-hand tapping task in both controls and in patients with MS, we analyzed the fMRI data collected in a large cohort of controls and MS patients who were recruited into a multi-centre European fMRI study. Four fMRI runs were acquired for each of the 55 controls and 56 MS patients at baseline and 33 controls and 26 MS patients at 1-year follow-up. The externally cued (1 Hz) right hand tapping movement was limited to 3 cm amplitude by using at all sites (7 at baseline and 6 at follow-up) identically manufactured wooden frames. No significant differences in cerebral activation were found between sites. Furthermore, our results showed linear response adaptation (i.e. reduced activation) from run 1 to run 4 (over a 25 minute period) in the primary motor area (contralateral more than ipsilateral), in the supplementary motor area and in the primary sensory cortex, sensory-motor cortex and cerebellum, bilaterally. This linear activation decay was the same in both control and patient groups, did not change between baseline and 1-year follow-up and was not influenced by the modest disease progression observed over 1 year. These findings confirm that the short-term adaptation to a simple motor task is a physiological process which is preserved in MS.

  19. Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

    2009-12-01

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

  20. RLS adaptive filtering for physiological interference reduction in NIRS brain activity measurement: a Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Sun, J W; Rolfe, P

    2012-01-01

    The non-invasive measurement of cerebral functional haemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments is often affected by physiological interference. The suppression of this interference is crucial for reliable recovery of brain activity measurements because it can significantly affect the signal quality. In this study, we present a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm for adaptive filtering to reduce the magnitude of the physiological interference component. To evaluate it, we implemented Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layer slab model of a human adult head with a multidistance source–detector arrangement, of a short pair and a long pair, for NIRS measurement. We derived measurements by adopting different interoptode distances, which is relevant to the process of optimizing the NIRS probe configuration. Both RLS and least mean squares (LMS) algorithms were used to attempt the removal of physiological interference. The results suggest that the RLS algorithm is more capable of minimizing the effect of physiological interference due to its advantages of faster convergence and smaller mean squared error (MSE). The influence of superficial layer thickness on the performance of the RLS algorithm was also investigated. We found that the near-detector position is an important variable in minimizing the MSE and a short source–detector separation less than 9 mm is robust to superficial layer thickness variation. (paper)

  1. RLS adaptive filtering for physiological interference reduction in NIRS brain activity measurement: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Sun, J W; Rolfe, P

    2012-06-01

    The non-invasive measurement of cerebral functional haemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments is often affected by physiological interference. The suppression of this interference is crucial for reliable recovery of brain activity measurements because it can significantly affect the signal quality. In this study, we present a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm for adaptive filtering to reduce the magnitude of the physiological interference component. To evaluate it, we implemented Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layer slab model of a human adult head with a multidistance source-detector arrangement, of a short pair and a long pair, for NIRS measurement. We derived measurements by adopting different interoptode distances, which is relevant to the process of optimizing the NIRS probe configuration. Both RLS and least mean squares (LMS) algorithms were used to attempt the removal of physiological interference. The results suggest that the RLS algorithm is more capable of minimizing the effect of physiological interference due to its advantages of faster convergence and smaller mean squared error (MSE). The influence of superficial layer thickness on the performance of the RLS algorithm was also investigated. We found that the near-detector position is an important variable in minimizing the MSE and a short source-detector separation less than 9 mm is robust to superficial layer thickness variation.

  2. PhysioNet 2010 Challenge: A Robust Multi-Channel Adaptive Filtering Approach to the Estimation of Physiological Recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ikaro

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 PhysioNet Challenge was to predict the last few seconds of a physiological waveform given its previous history and M-1 different concurrent physiological recordings. A robust approach was implemented by using a bank of adaptive filters to predict the desired channel. In all, M channels (the M-1 original signals, and 1 signal derived from the previous history of the target signal) were used to estimate the missing data. For each channel, a Gradient Adaptive Lattice Laguerre filter (GA...

  3. Adaptive divergence in a scleractinian coral: physiological adaptation of Seriatopora hystrix to shallow and deep reef habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oppen Madeleine JH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Divergent natural selection across environmental gradients has been acknowledged as a major driver of population and species divergence, however its role in the diversification of scleractinian corals remains poorly understood. Recently, it was demonstrated that the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix and its algal endosymbionts (Symbiodinium are genetically partitioned across reef environments (0-30 m on the far northern Great Barrier Reef. Here, we explore the potential mechanisms underlying this differentiation and assess the stability of host-symbiont associations through a reciprocal transplantation experiment across habitats ('Back Reef', 'Upper Slope' and 'Deep Slope', in combination with molecular (mtDNA and ITS2-DGGE and photo-physiological analyses (respirometry and HPLC. Results The highest survival rates were observed for native transplants (measured 14 months after transplantation, indicating differential selective pressures between habitats. Host-symbiont assemblages remained stable during the experimental duration, demonstrating that the ability to "shuffle" or "switch" symbionts is restricted in S. hystrix. Photo-physiological differences were observed between transplants originating from the shallow and deep habitats, with indirect evidence of an increased heterotrophic capacity in native deep-water transplants (from the 'Deep Slope' habitat. Similar photo-acclimatisation potential was observed between transplants originating from the two shallow habitats ('Back Reef' and 'Upper Slope', highlighting that their genetic segregation over depth may be due to other, non-photo-physiological traits under selection. Conclusions This study confirms that the observed habitat partitioning of S. hystrix (and associated Symbiodinium is reflective of adaptive divergence along a depth gradient. Gene flow appears to be reduced due to divergent selection, highlighting the potential role of ecological mechanisms, in addition to

  4. Local adaptation to altitude underlies divergent thermal physiology in tropical killifishes of the genus Aphyosemion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J McKenzie

    Full Text Available In watersheds of equatorial West Africa, monophyletic groups of killifish species (genus Aphyosemion occur in discrete altitudinal ranges, low altitude species (LA, sea level to ∼350 m or high altitude species (HA, 350 to 900 m. We investigated the hypothesis that local adaptation to altitude by the LA and HA species would be revealed as divergent effects of temperature on their physiological energetics. Two species from each group (mass ∼350 mg were acclimated to 19, 25 and 28°C, with 19 and 28°C estimated to be outside the thermal envelope for LA or HA, respectively, in the wild. Wild-caught animals (F0 generation were compared with animals raised in captivity at 25°C (F1 generation to investigate the contribution of adaptation versus plasticity. Temperature significantly increased routine metabolic rate in all groups and generations. However, LA and HA species differed in the effects of temperature on their ability to process a meal. At 25°C, the specific dynamic action (SDA response was completed within 8 h in all groups, but acclimation to temperatures beyond the thermal envelope caused profound declines in SDA performance. At 19°C, the LA required ∼14 h to complete the SDA, whereas the HA required only ∼7 h. The opposite effect was observed at 28°C. This effect was evident in both F0 and F1. Reaction norms for effects of temperature on SDA therefore revealed a trade-off, with superior performance at warmer temperatures by LA being associated with inferior performance at cooler temperatures, and vice-versa in HA. The data indicate that divergent physiological responses to temperature in the LA and HA species reflect local adaptation to the thermal regime in their habitat, and that local adaptation to one thermal environment trades off against performance in another.

  5. Omics Approaches for Identifying Physiological Adaptations to Genome Instability in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edifizi, Diletta; Schumacher, Björn

    2017-11-04

    DNA damage causally contributes to aging and age-related diseases. The declining functioning of tissues and organs during aging can lead to the increased risk of succumbing to aging-associated diseases. Congenital syndromes that are caused by heritable mutations in DNA repair pathways lead to cancer susceptibility and accelerated aging, thus underlining the importance of genome maintenance for withstanding aging. High-throughput mass-spectrometry-based approaches have recently contributed to identifying signalling response networks and gaining a more comprehensive understanding of the physiological adaptations occurring upon unrepaired DNA damage. The insulin-like signalling pathway has been implicated in a DNA damage response (DDR) network that includes epidermal growth factor (EGF)-, AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPK)- and the target of rapamycin (TOR)-like signalling pathways, which are known regulators of growth, metabolism, and stress responses. The same pathways, together with the autophagy-mediated proteostatic response and the decline in energy metabolism have also been found to be similarly regulated during natural aging, suggesting striking parallels in the physiological adaptation upon persistent DNA damage due to DNA repair defects and long-term low-level DNA damage accumulation occurring during natural aging. These insights will be an important starting point to study the interplay between signalling networks involved in progeroid syndromes that are caused by DNA repair deficiencies and to gain new understanding of the consequences of DNA damage in the aging process.

  6. Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on physiological and muscle metabolic adaptations to sprint interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Christopher; Wylie, Lee J; Blackwell, Jamie R; Fulford, Jonathan; Black, Matthew I; Kelly, James; McDonagh, Sinead T J; Carter, James; Bailey, Stephen J; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    We hypothesized that 4 wk of dietary nitrate supplementation would enhance exercise performance and muscle metabolic adaptations to sprint interval training (SIT). Thirty-six recreationally active subjects, matched on key variables at baseline, completed a series of exercise tests before and following a 4-wk period in which they were allocated to one of the following groups: 1 ) SIT and [Formula: see text]-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (SIT+PL); 2 ) SIT and [Formula: see text]-rich beetroot juice (~13 mmol [Formula: see text]/day; SIT+BR); or 3 ) no training and [Formula: see text]-rich beetroot juice (NT+BR). During moderate-intensity exercise, pulmonary oxygen uptake was reduced by 4% following 4 wk of SIT+BR and NT+BR ( P 0.05). The relative proportion of type IIx muscle fibers in the vastus lateralis muscle was reduced in SIT+BR only ( P interval training. Compared with placebo, dietary nitrate supplementation reduced the O 2 cost of submaximal exercise, resulted in greater improvement in incremental (but not severe-intensity) exercise performance, and augmented some muscle metabolic adaptations to training. Nitrate supplementation may facilitate some of the physiological responses to sprint interval training. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Background adaptation and water acidification affect pigmentation and stress physiology of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Salm, A L; Spanings, F A T; Gresnigt, R; Bonga, S E Wendelaar; Flik, G

    2005-10-01

    The ability to adjust skin darkness to the background is a common phenomenon in fish. The hormone alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) enhances skin darkening. In Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus L., alphaMSH acts as a corticotropic hormone during adaptation to water with a low pH, in addition to its role in skin colouration. In the current study, we investigated the responses of this fish to these two environmental challenges when it is exposed to both simultaneously. The skin darkening of tilapia on a black background and the lightening on grey and white backgrounds are compromised in water with a low pH, indicating that the two vastly different processes both rely on alphaMSH-regulatory mechanisms. If the water is acidified after 25 days of undisturbed background adaptation, fish showed a transient pigmentation change but recovered after two days and continued the adaptation of their skin darkness to match the background. Black backgrounds are experienced by tilapia as more stressful than grey or white backgrounds both in neutral and in low pH water. A decrease of water pH from 7.8 to 4.5 applied over a two-day period was not experienced as stressful when combined with background adaptation, based on unchanged plasma pH and plasma alphaMSH, and Na levels. However, when water pH was lowered after 25 days of undisturbed background adaptation, particularly alphaMSH levels increased chronically. In these fish, plasma pH and Na levels had decreased, indicating a reduced capacity to maintain ion-homeostasis, implicating that the fish indeed experience stress. We conclude that simultaneous exposure to these two types of stressor has a lower impact on the physiology of tilapia than subsequent exposure to the stressors.

  8. Ultrasound evaluation of stress injuries and physiological adaptations in the fingers of adolescent competitive rock climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathryn; Jaramillo, Diego; Rubesova, Erika

    2018-03-01

    The impact of high-intensity, repetitive training on the fingers of adolescent climbers is relatively unknown. To evaluate this effect by ultrasound (US) and to confirm some findings by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The US study was performed in 20 adolescent rock climbers (ages 10-17 years) and 6 non-climbing controls (ages 11-15 years). US was used to examine the third digit of the right hand for differences in thickness of soft tissue, flexor and extensor tendon, volar plate and bony and growth plate adaptations. In four climbers with finger deformity or pain, 3-T MR images were compared with US findings. Number of hours/week and years of climbing were used to group climbers in three levels (3=most intense training). Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. Compared with non-climbing controls, climbers demonstrated significantly thicker flexor tendons, volar plates and soft tissues. Joint effusions were found in 13/19 (68%) climbers. Significant phalangeal malalignment was seen in 10/19 (53%) climbers. Growth plate deformities were identified in three level 3 climbers. US findings correlated with MRI for effusions, phalangeal growth plate injury, malalignment and adaptive changes. MRI additional showed capsule rupture (n=1), stress fracture (n=1) and phalangeal physeal stress injury (n=1). Competitive rock climbing results in physiological adaptations in the fingers, an example being significant soft-tissue hypertrophy of the flexor. US demonstrated several non-physiological changes in response to repetitive stress in half of the climbers. MRI showed additional stress injuries to the growth plate, joints and bone.

  9. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Postnova

    Full Text Available Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8 in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  10. Physiological and pathological adaptations in dairy cows that may increase susceptibility to periparturient diseases and disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Loor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows undergo tremendous metabolic and physiological adaptations around parturition to support lactation. The liver  is central to many of these processes, including gluconeogenesis and metabolism of fatty acids mobilized from adipose tis-  sue. Fat accumulation may impair normal functions of the liver and increase ketogenesis, which in turn may predispose cows  to other metabolic abnormalities. Several aspects of dietary management and body condition may alter these adaptations,  affect dry matter intake, and increase or decrease susceptibility to periparturient health problems. Overfeeding energy dur-  ing the dry period is a prominent risk factor. Considerable progress has been made in recent years in describing the adap-  tive changes in the liver and other organs in normal and abnormal states, but this knowledge has not yet identified unequiv-  ocally the key steps that might be compromised during development of metabolic disorders. The potential role of signaling  compounds, such as the inflammatory cytokines released in response to environmental stressors, infectious challenge, and  oxidative stress, in the pathogenesis of periparturient disease is under investigation. New techniques such as functional  genomics, using cDNA or oligonucleotide microarrays, as well as proteomics and metabolomics, provide additional high-  throughput tools to determine the effects of nutrition, management, or stressors on tissue function in development of dis-  ease. Integrative approaches should be fruitful in unraveling the complex interactions of metabolism, immune activation,  stress physiology, and endocrinology that likely underlie development of periparturient disease. 

  11. Comparison of acute physiological adaptations between three variants of a basic head-out water exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to compare the acute physiological adaptations to several variants of the same basic head-out aquatic exercise (only with legs actions, with simultaneous legs and arms actions, with simultaneous legs and arms actions using buoyancy dumb-bells. 16 young females, clinically healthy and with a regular level of physical activity were studied. Each subjected performed a basic head-out aquatic exercise named “rocking horse”. Before and after each 6 minutes exercise, rate of perceived exertion (RPE and blood lactate (La-] were evaluated. Before, during and after eachexercise, the maximal heart rate achieved (FCmax was measured and the percentage of maximal theoretical heart rate estimated (%FCmax. The subjects perceived an increasing exertion from the exercise only with legs actions to the exercise with simultaneous legs and arms actions, to the exercise with simultaneous legs and arms actions including dumb-bells. The cardiac workout (FCmax and %FCmax was significantly lower performing the exercise only with the legs than in the other two exercise conditions. The increasing number of limb’s actions and the adoption of dumb-bells promoted an increase ofthe blood lactate. In conclusion, the increasing number of simultaneous limb’s actions and the inclusion of materials, justlike buoyancy dumb-bells, increased the acute physiological response in head-out aquatic exercises.

  12. The physiological variations of adaptation mechaniam in Glycine soja seedlings under saline and alkaline stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, S.; Li, M.; Yang, D.

    2016-01-01

    The seedlings of Glycine soja were treated with varying saline stress and alkaline stress. The growth, photosynthesis and concentrations of inorganic ions in tissue sap of stressed seedlings were measured to elucidate the mechanism of saline and alkaline stress (high pH) damage to G. soja, and the differences between physiological adaptive mechanism to alkaline stress and saline stress. Our experimental data showed alkalinity had a more severe effects on G. soja seedlings than salinity in the similar concentration, severely inhibited shoot and root growth, and photosynthesis. Diurnal change of pN showed the bimodal curves getting less obvious and transformed to be single peak with increasing stress intensity which might be an efficient energy-conserving strategy for G. soja to adapt to saline and alkaline stress. Na+/K+ were all increased, with greater degrees of increasing under alkaline than under saline stress, cations and anions were almost not accumulated under high alkaline stress, while the influx of superfluous Na+ can be balanced by the accumulation of Cl-, SO42-, H2PO4- in root under saline stress. This indicated that the roots of G. soja were injured so severely that couldn't absorb Na+ and keep ion balance under high alkaline stress including high-pH stress, which might lead to greater accumulation of Na+ in leaves under alkaline stress than that under saline stress, and then sharply reduced the growth and photosynthesis. pN of G. soja seedlings was promoted under low concentration saline and alkaline stresses. Na+/K+ were significant lower in leaves compare with that in roots, and a large amount of Na+ was accumulated in stems of G. soja seedlings under both stresses. Under alkaline stress, the K+, NO3-, Mg2+ and Ca2+ contents in leaves were increased with increasing Na+, and maintain high water content in root. Our results showed obvious differences between physiological adaptive mechanisms to saline stress and alkaline stress. This study would

  13. Eco-physiological adaptation of the land snail Achatina achatina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in tropical agro-ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian O. Chukwuka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival of land snails in an adverse environmental condition depends on the integral physiological, morphological and behavioural adaptations. These adaptations are essential in understanding the species-specific habitat requirements and in predicting their environmental responses. In this study, the monthly and the periodic patterns of eco-physiological adaptation of land snail, Achatina achatina in Nsukka tropical agro-ecosystem were assessed from December 2012 to July 2013. Standard methods were employed in sampling the land snail and determination of the water content, biochemical fuel reserves and enzyme concentrations of the samples. The present results showed that lipids were high at the beginning of aestivation and depleted as the aestivation progressed. Glycogen was significantly low throughout the aestivation months (December–March and increased in the active months (April–July. Protein content recorded a definite pattern all through the months studied. Catabolism of lactate and a decrease in activity of LDH during aestivation and substantial increase upon activation were observed. Data showed that transaminase and aspartate enzymes depleted during the aestivation months indicating that the snails may have developed potential cell injury due to oxidative stress and thermal heat. A disassociation between the physiological responses and climatic data was recorded. The physiological adaptation of A. achatina ensures regular adjustment under extreme conditions and compensates for its metabolic regulation in the tropics. It is concluded that survival of A. achatina is not environmentally predicted; rather it depends on the species-specific inherent process in predicting responses for survival.

  14. Bacterial Physiological Adaptations to Contrasting Edaphic Conditions Identified Using Landscape Scale Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish A. Malik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors relating to soil pH are important regulators of bacterial taxonomic biodiversity, yet it remains unclear if such drivers affect community functional potential. To address this, we applied whole-genome metagenomics to eight geographically distributed soils at opposing ends of a landscape soil pH gradient (where “low-pH” is ~pH 4.3 and “high-pH” is ~pH 8.3 and evaluated functional differences with respect to functionally annotated genes. First, differences in taxonomic and functional diversity between the two pH categories were assessed with respect to alpha diversity (mean sample richness and gamma diversity (total richness pooled for each pH category. Low-pH soils, also exhibiting higher organic matter and moisture, consistently had lower taxonomic alpha and gamma diversity, but this was not apparent in assessments of functional alpha and gamma diversity. However, coherent changes in the relative abundances of annotated genes between low- and high-pH soils were identified; with strong multivariate clustering of samples according to pH independent of geography. Assessment of indicator genes revealed that the acidic organic-rich soils possessed a greater abundance of cation efflux pumps, C and N direct fixation systems, and fermentation pathways, indicating adaptations to both acidity and anaerobiosis. Conversely, high-pH soils possessed more direct transporter-mediated mechanisms for organic C and N substrate acquisition. These findings highlight the distinctive physiological adaptations required for bacteria to survive in soils of various nutrient availability and edaphic conditions and more generally indicate that bacterial functional versatility with respect to functional gene annotations may not be constrained by taxonomy.

  15. Physiological cellular responses and adaptations of Rhodococcus erythropolis IBBPo1 to toxic organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Mihaela Marilena

    2014-10-01

    A new Gram-positive bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis IBBPo1 (KF059972.1) was isolated from a crude oil-contaminated soil sample by enrichment culture method. R. erythropolis IBBPo1 was able to tolerate a wide range of toxic compounds, such as antibiotics (800-1000μg/mL), synthetic surfactants (50-200μg/mL), and organic solvents (40%-100%). R. erythropolis IBBPo1 showed good tolerance to both alkanes (cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane) and aromatics (toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene) with logPOW (logarithm of the partition coefficient of the solvent in octanol-water mixture) values between 2.64 and 5.98. However, alkanes were less toxic for R. erythropolis IBBPo1 cells, compared with aromatics. The high organic solvent tolerance of R. erythropolis IBBPo1 could be due to the presence in their large genome of some catabolic (alkB, alkB1, todC1, todM, xylM), transporter (HAE1) and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (otsA1, KF059973.1) genes. Numerous and complex physiological cellular responses and adaptations involved in organic solvent tolerance were revealed in R. erythropolis IBBPo1 cells exposed 1 and 24hr to 1% organic solvents. R. erythropolis IBBPo1 cells adapt to 1% organic solvents by changing surface hydrophobicity, morphology and their metabolic fingerprinting. Considerable modifications in otsA1 gene sequence were also observed in cells exposed to organic solvents (except ethylbenzene). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Introgression of Physiological Traits for a Comprehensive Improvement of Drought Adaptation in Crop Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheshshayee M. Sreeman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Burgeoning population growth, industrial demand, and the predicted global climate change resulting in erratic monsoon rains are expected to severely limit fresh water availability for agriculture both in irrigated and rainfed ecosystems. In order to remain food and nutrient secure, agriculture research needs to focus on devising strategies to save water in irrigated conditions and to develop superior cultivars with improved water productivity to sustain yield under rainfed conditions. Recent opinions accruing in the scientific literature strongly favor the adoption of a “trait based” crop improvement approach for increasing water productivity. Traits associated with maintenance of positive tissue turgor and maintenance of increased carbon assimilation are regarded as most relevant to improve crop growth rates under water limiting conditions and to enhance water productivity. The advent of several water saving agronomic practices notwithstanding, a genetic enhancement strategy of introgressing distinct physiological, morphological, and cellular mechanisms on to a single elite genetic background is essential for achieving a comprehensive improvement in drought adaptation in crop plants. The significant progress made in genomics, though would provide the necessary impetus, a clear understanding of the “traits” to be introgressed is the most essential need of the hour. Water uptake by a better root architecture, water conservation by preventing unproductive transpiration are crucial for maintaining positive tissue water relations. Improved carbon assimilation associated with carboxylation capacity and mesophyll conductance is important in sustaining crop growth rates under water limited conditions. Besides these major traits, we summarize the available information in literature on classifying various drought adaptive traits. We provide evidences that Water-Use Efficiency when introgressed with moderately higher transpiration, would

  17. Introgression of physiological traits for a comprehensive improvement of drought adaptation in crop plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeman, Sheshshayee M.; Vijayaraghavareddy, Preethi; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Rajendrareddy, Sowmya; Arakesh, Smitharani; Bharti, Pooja; Dharmappa, Prathibha; Soolanayakanahally, Raju

    2018-04-01

    Burgeoning population growth, industrial demand and the predicted global climate change resulting in erratic monsoon rains are expected to severely limit fresh water availability for agriculture both in irrigated and rainfed ecosystems. In order to remain food and nutrient secure, agriculture research needs to focus on devising strategies to save water in irrigated conditions and to develop superior cultivars with improved water productivity to sustain yield under rainfed conditions. Recent opinions accruing in the scientific literature strongly favour the adoption of a “trait based” approach for increasing water productivity especially the traits associated with maintenance of positive tissue turgor and maintenance of increased carbon assimilation as the most relevant traits to improve crop growth rates under water limiting conditions and to enhance water productivity. The advent of several water saving agronomic practices notwithstanding, a genetic enhancement strategy of introgressing distinct physiological, morphological and cellular mechanisms on to a single elite genetic background is essential for achieving a comprehensive improvement in drought adaptation in crop plants. The significant progress made in genomics, though would provide the necessary impetus, a clear understanding of the “traits” to be introgressed is the most essential need of the hour. Water uptake by a better root architecture, water conservation by preventing unproductive transpiration is crucial for maintaining positive tissue water relations. Improved carbon assimilation associated with carboxylation capacity and mesophyll conductance is equally important in sustaining crop growth rates under water limited conditions. Besides these major traits, we summarized the available information in literature on classifying various drought adaptive traits. We provide evidences that water-use efficiency when introgressed with moderately higher transpiration, would significantly enhance

  18. Key physiological properties contributing to rhizosphere adaptation and plant growth promotion abilities of Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibach-Paldi, Sharon; Burdman, Saul; Okon, Yaacov

    2012-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that is being increasingly used in agriculture in a commercial scale. Recent research has elucidated key properties of A. brasilense that contribute to its ability to adapt to the rhizosphere habitat and to promote plant growth. They include synthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, nitric oxide, carotenoids, and a range of cell surface components as well as the ability to undergo phenotypic variation. Storage and utilization of polybetahydroxyalkanoate polymers are important for the shelf life of the bacteria in production of inoculants, products containing bacterial cells in a suitable carrier for agricultural use. Azospirillum brasilense is able to fix nitrogen, but despite some controversy, as judging from most systems evaluated so far, contribution of fixed nitrogen by this bacterium does not seem to play a major role in plant growth promotion. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of physiological properties of A. brasilense that are important for rhizosphere performance and successful interactions with plant roots. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compensation of the Metabolic Costs of Antibiotic Resistance by Physiological Adaptation in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Nadine; Schuurmans, J. Merijn; Brul, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is often associated with metabolic costs. To investigate the metabolic consequences of antibiotic resistance, the genomic and transcriptomic profiles of an amoxicillin-resistant Escherichia coli strain and the wild type it was derived from were compared. A total of 125 amino acid substitutions and 7 mutations that were located resistant cells. However, broad induction and suppression of genes were observed when comparing the expression profiles of resistant and wild-type cells. Expression of genes involved in cell wall maintenance, DNA metabolic processes, cellular stress response, and respiration was most affected in resistant cells regardless of the absence or presence of amoxicillin. The SOS response was downregulated in resistant cells. The physiological effect of the acquisition of amoxicillin resistance in cells grown in chemostat cultures consisted of an initial increase in glucose consumption that was followed by an adaptation process. Furthermore, no difference in maintenance energy was observed between resistant and sensitive cells. In accordance with the transcriptomic profile, exposure of resistant cells to amoxicillin resulted in reduced salt and pH tolerance. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in E. coli is accompanied by specifically reorganized metabolic networks in order to circumvent metabolic costs. The overall effect of the acquisition of resistance consists not so much of an extra energy requirement, but more a reduced ecological range. PMID:23716056

  20. Bacterial Physiological Adaptations to Contrasting Edaphic Conditions Identified Using Landscape Scale Metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ashish A; Thomson, Bruce C; Whiteley, Andrew S; Bailey, Mark; Griffiths, Robert I

    2017-07-05

    Environmental factors relating to soil pH are important regulators of bacterial taxonomic biodiversity, yet it remains unclear if such drivers affect community functional potential. To address this, we applied whole-genome metagenomics to eight geographically distributed soils at opposing ends of a landscape soil pH gradient (where "low-pH" is ~pH 4.3 and "high-pH" is ~pH 8.3) and evaluated functional differences with respect to functionally annotated genes. First, differences in taxonomic and functional diversity between the two pH categories were assessed with respect to alpha diversity (mean sample richness) and gamma diversity (total richness pooled for each pH category). Low-pH soils, also exhibiting higher organic matter and moisture, consistently had lower taxonomic alpha and gamma diversity, but this was not apparent in assessments of functional alpha and gamma diversity. However, coherent changes in the relative abundances of annotated genes between low- and high-pH soils were identified; with strong multivariate clustering of samples according to pH independent of geography. Assessment of indicator genes revealed that the acidic organic-rich soils possessed a greater abundance of cation efflux pumps, C and N direct fixation systems, and fermentation pathways, indicating adaptations to both acidity and anaerobiosis. Conversely, high-pH soils possessed more direct transporter-mediated mechanisms for organic C and N substrate acquisition. These findings highlight the distinctive physiological adaptations required for bacteria to survive in soils of various nutrient availability and edaphic conditions and more generally indicate that bacterial functional versatility with respect to functional gene annotations may not be constrained by taxonomy. IMPORTANCE Over a set of soil samples spanning Britain, the widely reported reductions in bacterial taxonomic richness at low pH were found not to be accompanied by significant reductions in the richness of

  1. Correlative physiological and morphological studies of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors in cat's glabrous skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iggo, A; Ogawa, H

    1977-01-01

    1. A total of fifty-four mechanoreceptor afferent units with fast conducting axons in the tibial nerve innervating the glabrous skin of the hind leg were isolated in anaesthetized cats. 2. Twenty-six rapidly adapting units (RA), eighteen slowly adapting units (SA) and ten Pacinian corpuscle units (PC) were differentiated from each other mainly on the presence of the off response in RA and PC units to a ramp stimulation, the persistence of discharges of the SA units during steady pressure on the receptive field and the classical tuning curve seen in the PC units. A few PC units in the hairy skin were also studied for comparison. 3. Lamellated corpuscles were found histologically in the skin of the receptive field of RA units and identified as Krause's corpuscle of cylindrical type by their superficial location in the cutaneous tissue and their structure revealed by electron microscopy. 4. Physiological characteristics of RA units to various forms of mechanical stimulation were studied and compared with those of the other two kinds of units. SA units had the lowest critical slope among three groups and PC units the highest. 5. The discharge pattern of RA and PC units to a ramp stimulation was found to be time-locked, whereas with SA unites only the first spike appeared at a fixed latency from the start of stimulation. 6. Some RA units showed a tuning curve which was flat from 10 to 200 Hz. Those with narrowly tuned curves had a best turning frequency at around 20 Hz. They were easily differentiated from the SA and PC units. SA units were tuned best at 5 HZ or less, and PC units at around 200 HZ. 7. The relation between the indentation velocity and amplitude of the ramp and the spike discharges was analysed in eleven RA units. In most cases the relation between identation velocity and maximum instataneous frequency was found to be best fit with a power function although other kinds of functions (linear, logarithmic, and logarithmic hyperbolic tangent) could also fit

  2. Some Physiological Adaptations to Drought in Xerohalophytic Plants Inhabiting Two Oases in Western Desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayan, A M; Farghali, K A

    2007-01-01

    Under natural drought, some physiological parameters were measured in some wild species inhabiting the western desert of Egypt. Seasonal changes of nitrogen metabolites and Na/K ratio were detected in the investigated species. Effect of seasons, species, and their interaction played an important role on total free amino acids, soluble proteins and Na/K ratio at two oases (Dakhla and Kharga). Species diversity showed more effective variable in regulating such metabolites at Kharga oasis. Plants responded to their environment in two ways, either by increasing their water binding molecules or by preventing the formation of amino acids into proteins. Some of the halophytic and xerophytic species may adjust osmotically to stress by the contribution of nitrogen metabolites. On the other hand, Zygophyllum coccineum, the succulent plant, may adapt to environmental conditions through the accumulation of free amino acids. Correlation analysis between Na+/K+ ratio with free amino acids, soluble proteins and water content in Tamarix aphylla, Salsola imbricata, Balanites aegyptiaca, Trichodesma africanum, and Z. coccineum (Kharga) indicated changes in ionic fraction or accumulating soluble organic compounds which were osmotically active and contribute to osmotic adjustment. Correlations were found between chlorophyll content, ionic and nitrogen metabolites. In Acacia nilotica, Suaeda monoica and Z. coccineum at Dakhla oasis, changes in soluble proteins or ionic ratio could be caused by chlorophyll response to stress, while S. imbricata and T. aphylla may control cellular protein contents. On the other hand, the sharing of both free amino acids and ionic fraction may play an important role of osmoregulation in S. imbricata, Citrullus colocynthis and Z. coccineum at Kharga oasis. (author)

  3. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    welfare can be very good when it is occurring. Other adaptation is difficult and may involve lower or higher level emergency physiological responses or abnormal behaviour, often with bad feelings such as pain or fear. In that case, welfare is poor or very poor even if complete adaptation eventually occurs and there is no long-term threat to the life of the individual. In some circumstances, adaptation may be unsuccessful, the individual is not able to cope, stress occurs and welfare is ultimately very poor.

  4. Physiological adaptation of endothelial function to pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes van Balen, V A; van Gansewinkel, T A G; de Haas, S; van Kuijk, S M J; van Drongelen, J; Ghossein-Doha, C; Spaanderman, M E A

    2017-12-01

    To establish reference values for flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and brachial artery diameter (BAD) in pregnancy and to provide insight into the physiological and pathological course of endothelial adaptation throughout human singleton pregnancy. A meta-analysis was performed following a systematic review of current literature on FMD, as a derivative for endothelial function, and BAD, throughout uncomplicated and complicated pregnancy. PubMed (NCBI) and EMBASE (Ovid) electronic databases were used for the literature search, which was performed from inception to 9 June 2016. To allow judgment of changes in comparison with the non-pregnant state, studies were required to report both non-pregnant mean reference of FMD (matched control group, prepregnancy or postpartum measurement) and mean FMD at a predetermined and reported gestational age. Pooled mean differences between the reference and pregnant FMD values were calculated for predefined intervals of gestational age. Fourteen studies that enrolled 1231 participants met the inclusion criteria. Publication dates ranged from 1999 to 2014. In uncomplicated pregnancy, FMD was increased in the second and third trimesters. Between 15 and 21 weeks of gestation, absolute FMD increased the most, by a mean (95% CI) of 1.89% (0.25-3.53%). This was a relative increase of 22.5% (3.0-42.0%) compared with the non-pregnant reference. BAD increased progressively, in a steady manner, by the second trimester but not significantly in the first half of the second trimester. We could not discern differences in FMD and BAD between complicated and uncomplicated pregnancies at 29-35 weeks' gestation, reported in the three studies that met our inclusion criteria. Despite the increase in FMD and BAD throughout gestation, both reference curves were characterized by wide 95% CIs. During healthy pregnancy, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and BAD increase. Women with a complicated pregnancy had FMD values within the lower range when

  5. Dual-flow-RootChip reveals local adaptations of roots towards environmental asymmetry at the physiological and genetic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Claire E; Shrivastava, Jagriti; Brugman, Rik; Heinzelmann, Elisa; van Swaay, Dirk; Grossmann, Guido

    2018-02-01

    Roots grow in highly dynamic and heterogeneous environments. Biological activity as well as uneven nutrient availability or localized stress factors result in diverse microenvironments. Plants adapt their root morphology in response to changing environmental conditions, yet it remains largely unknown to what extent developmental adaptations are based on systemic or cell-autonomous responses. We present the dual-flow-RootChip, a microfluidic platform for asymmetric perfusion of Arabidopsis roots to investigate root-environment interactions under simulated environmental heterogeneity. Applications range from investigating physiology, root hair development and calcium signalling upon selective exposure to environmental stresses to tracing molecular uptake, performing selective drug treatments and localized inoculations with microbes. Using the dual-flow-RootChip, we revealed cell-autonomous adaption of root hair development under asymmetric phosphate (Pi) perfusion, with unexpected repression in root hair growth on the side exposed to low Pi and rapid tip-growth upregulation when Pi concentrations increased. The asymmetric root environment further resulted in an asymmetric gene expression of RSL4, a key transcriptional regulator of root hair growth. Our findings demonstrate that roots possess the capability to locally adapt to heterogeneous conditions in their environment at the physiological and transcriptional levels. Being able to generate asymmetric microenvironments for roots will help further elucidate decision-making processes in root-environment interactions. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Training Load Monitoring in Team Sports: A Novel Framework Separating Physiological and Biomechanical Load-Adaptation Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrenterghem, Jos; Nedergaard, Niels Jensby; Robinson, Mark A; Drust, Barry

    2017-11-01

    There have been considerable advances in monitoring training load in running-based team sports in recent years. Novel technologies nowadays offer ample opportunities to continuously monitor the activities of a player. These activities lead to internal biochemical stresses on the various physiological subsystems; however, they also cause internal mechanical stresses on the various musculoskeletal tissues. Based on the amount and periodization of these stresses, the subsystems and tissues adapt. Therefore, by monitoring external loads, one hopes to estimate internal loads to predict adaptation, through understanding the load-adaptation pathways. We propose a new theoretical framework in which physiological and biomechanical load-adaptation pathways are considered separately, shedding new light on some of the previously published evidence. We hope that it can help the various practitioners in this field (trainers, coaches, medical staff, sport scientists) to align their thoughts when considering the value of monitoring load, and that it can help researchers design experiments that can better rationalize training-load monitoring for improving performance while preventing injury.

  7. Life under water: physiological adaptations to diving and living at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Michael

    2012-07-01

    This review covers the field of diving physiology by following a chronological approach and focusing heavily on marine mammals. Because the study of modern diving physiology can be traced almost entirely to the work of Laurence Irving in the 1930s, this particular field of physiology is different than most in that it did not derive from multiple laboratories working at many locations or on different aspects of a similar problem. Because most of the physiology principles still used today were first formulated by Irving, it is important to the study of this field that the sequence of thought is examined as a progression of theory. The review covers the field in roughly decadal blocks and traces ideas as they were first suggested, tested, modified and in some cases, abandoned. Because diving physiology has also been extremely dependent on new technologies used in the development of diving recorders, a chronological approach fits well with advances in electronics and mechanical innovation. There are many species that dive underwater as part of their natural behavior, but it is mainly the marine mammals (seals, sea lions, and whales) that demonstrate both long duration and dives to great depth. There have been many studies on other diving species including birds, snakes, small aquatic mammals, and humans. This work examines these other diving species as appropriate and a listing of reviews and relevant literature on these groups is included at the end. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1853-1872, 2012.

  8. Arg1 functions in the physiological adaptation of undifferentiated plant cells to spaceflight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this study transcriptome profiling was used to gain insight into the spaceflight adaptation role of Altered response to gravity-1 (Arg1) a gene known to affect...

  9. An approximation to the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron model allows fast and predictive fitting to physiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreen eHertäg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For large-scale network simulations, it is often desirable to have computationally tractable, yet in a defined sense still physiologically valid neuron models. In particular, these models should be able to reproduce physiological measurements, ideally in a predictive sense, and under different input regimes in which neurons may operate in vivo. Here we present an approach to parameter estimation for a simple spiking neuron model mainly based on standard f-I curves obtained from in vitro recordings. Such recordings are routinely obtained in standard protocols and assess a neuron's response under a wide range of mean input currents. Our fitting procedure makes use of closed-form expressions for the firing rate derived from an approximation to the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire (AdEx model. The resulting fitting process is simple and about two orders of magnitude faster compared to methods based on numerical integration of the differential equations. We probe this method on different cell types recorded from rodent prefrontal cortex. After fitting to the f-I current-clamp data, the model cells are tested on completely different sets of recordings obtained by fluctuating ('in-vivo-like' input currents. For a wide range of different input regimes, cell types, and cortical layers, the model could predict spike times on these test traces quite accurately within the bounds of physiological reliability, although no information from these distinct test sets was used for model fitting. Further analyses delineated some of the empirical factors constraining model fitting and the model's generalization performance. An even simpler adaptive LIF neuron was also examined in this context. Hence, we have developed a 'high-throughput' model fitting procedure which is simple and fast, with good prediction performance, and which relies only on firing rate information and standard physiological data widely and easily available.

  10. Evolution of thermal physiology in Liolaemus lizards: adaptation, phylogenetic inertia, and niche tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labra, Antonieta; Pienaar, Jason; Hansen, Thomas F

    2009-08-01

    Microevolutionary studies often find that complex quantitative characters are highly evolvable and adapted to the local environment, while macroevolutionary studies often show evidence of strong phylogenetic effects and stasis. In this contribution, we show how phylogenetic comparative methods can be used to test hypotheses that may help resolve this paradox. As a test case, we studied the interplay between adaptation and phylogenetic inertia on the thermobiology of 32 species of Liolaemus (Squamata: Liolaemidae), a genus of South American lizards living under diverse climatic conditions. Despite a strong phylogenetic effect in the preferred (selected) body temperature, we found clear evidence that this variable is adapted to local temperature and climate. After controlling for adaptation to the thermal environment, little influence of phylogeny was left. This indicates that the phylogenetic effect was not caused by a lag or slowness in adaptation but primarily by the distribution of the thermal environments on the phylogeny. This can be due to thermal niche tracking. In contrast, we found little or no evidence for adaptation to the thermal environment in either cooling or heating rates, critical thermal minimum, or body size.

  11. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, S.; Ghossein-Doha, C.; Kuijk, S.M. van; Drongelen, J. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the physiological pattern of gestational plasma volume adjustments in normal singleton pregnancy and compare this with the pattern in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of

  12. Cognitive behavioral stress management effects on psychosocial and physiological adaptation in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H; Lechner, Suzanne; Diaz, Alain; Vargas, Sara; Holley, Heather; Phillips, Kristin; McGregor, Bonnie; Carver, Charles S; Blomberg, Bonnie

    2009-07-01

    A diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment are psychologically stressful events, particularly over the first year after diagnosis. Women undergo many demanding and anxiety-arousing treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Psychosocial interventions that promote psychosocial adaptation to these challenges may modulate physiological processes (neuroendocrine and immune) that are relevant for health outcomes in breast cancer patients. Women with Stages 1-3 breast cancer recruited 4-8 weeks after surgery were randomized to either a 10-week group-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention or a 1-day psychoeducational control group and completed questionnaires and late afternoon blood samples at study entry and 6 and 12 months after assignment to experimental condition. Of 128 women initially providing psychosocial questionnaire and blood samples at study entry, 97 provided complete data for anxiety measures and cortisol analysis at all time points, and immune assays were run on a subset of 85 of these women. Those assigned to a 10-week group-based CBSM intervention evidenced better psychosocial adaptation (lower reported cancer-specific anxiety and interviewer-rated general anxiety symptoms) and physiological adaptation (lower cortisol, greater Th1 cytokine [interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma] production and IL-2:IL-4 ratio) after their adjuvant treatment compared to those in the control group. Effects on psychosocial adaptation indicators and cortisol appeared to hold across the entire 12-month observation period. Th1 cytokine regulation changes held only over the initial 6-month period. This intervention may have facilitated a "recovery or maintenance" of Th1 cytokine regulation during or after the adjuvant therapy period. Behavioral interventions that address dysregulated neuroendocrine function could play a clinically significant role in optimizing host immunologic resistance during a vulnerable period.

  13. PhysioNet 2010 Challenge: A Robust Multi-Channel Adaptive Filtering Approach to the Estimation of Physiological Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ikaro

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 PhysioNet Challenge was to predict the last few seconds of a physiological waveform given its previous history and M-1 different concurrent physiological recordings. A robust approach was implemented by using a bank of adaptive filters to predict the desired channel. In all, M channels (the M-1 original signals, and 1 signal derived from the previous history of the target signal) were used to estimate the missing data. For each channel, a Gradient Adaptive Lattice Laguerre filter (GALL) was trained to estimate the desired channel. The GALL filter was chosen because of its fast convergence, stability, and ability to model a long response using relatively few parameters. The prediction of each of the channels (the output of each of the GALL filters) was then linearly combined using time-varying weights determined through a Kalman filter. This approach is extensible to recordings with any number of signals, other types of signals, and other problem domains. The code for the algorithm is freely available at PhysioNet under the GPL.

  14. Physiological and comparative evidence fails to confirm an adaptive role for aging in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A

    2015-01-01

    The longstanding debate about whether aging may have evolved for some adaptive reason is generally considered to pit evolutionary theory against empirical observations consistent with aging as a programmed aspect of organismal biology, in particular conserved aging genes. Here I argue that the empirical evidence on aging mechanisms does not support a view of aging as a programmed phenomenon, but rather supports a view of aging as the dysregulation of complex networks that maintain organismal homeostasis. The appearance of programming is due largely to the inadvertent activation of existing pathways during the process of dysregulation. It is argued that aging differs markedly from known programmed biological phenomena such as apoptosis in that it is (a) very heterogeneous in how it proceeds, and (b) much slower than it would need to be. Furthermore, the taxonomic distribution of aging across species does not support any proposed adaptive theories of aging, which would predict that aging rate would vary on a finer taxonomic scale depending on factors such as population density. Thus, while there are problems with the longstanding non-adaptive paradigm, current evidence does not support the notion that aging is programmed or that it may have evolved for adaptive reasons.

  15. Background adaptation and water acidification affect pigmentation and stress physiology of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Spanings, F.A.T.; Gresnigt, R.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Flik, G.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to adjust skin darkness to the background is a common phenomenon in fish. The hormone alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) enhances skin darkening. In Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus L., alphaMSH acts as a corticotropic hormone during adaptation to water with a

  16. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microalgae are able to physiological acclimatization low doses of petroleum and diesel oil. ► When petroleum or oil concentration exceeds these limits, survival depend of rare mutations. ► Petroleum-resistant and diesel oil mutants occur spontaneously prior to oil exposure. ► After 300 generations of artificial selection resistant strains were obtained. ► Cyanobacteria has more difficulties to achieve petroleum resistance than Chlorophyta. - Abstract: There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant cells arising from rare spontaneous mutations was accomplished. In addition, an analysis was done as to the maximum capacity of

  17. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, Eduardo, E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microalgae are able to physiological acclimatization low doses of petroleum and diesel oil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When petroleum or oil concentration exceeds these limits, survival depend of rare mutations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Petroleum-resistant and diesel oil mutants occur spontaneously prior to oil exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After 300 generations of artificial selection resistant strains were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanobacteria has more difficulties to achieve petroleum resistance than Chlorophyta. - Abstract: There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant

  18. Adaptation of endothelial cells to physiologically-modeled, variable shear stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Uzarski

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell (EC function is mediated by variable hemodynamic shear stress patterns at the vascular wall, where complex shear stress profiles directly correlate with blood flow conditions that vary temporally based on metabolic demand. The interactions of these more complex and variable shear fields with EC have not been represented in hemodynamic flow models. We hypothesized that EC exposed to pulsatile shear stress that changes in magnitude and duration, modeled directly from real-time physiological variations in heart rate, would elicit phenotypic changes as relevant to their critical roles in thrombosis, hemostasis, and inflammation. Here we designed a physiological flow (PF model based on short-term temporal changes in blood flow observed in vivo and compared it to static culture and steady flow (SF at a fixed pulse frequency of 1.3 Hz. Results show significant changes in gene regulation as a function of temporally variable flow, indicating a reduced wound phenotype more representative of quiescence. EC cultured under PF exhibited significantly higher endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity (PF: 176.0±11.9 nmol/10(5 EC; SF: 115.0±12.5 nmol/10(5 EC, p = 0.002 and lower TNF-a-induced HL-60 leukocyte adhesion (PF: 37±6 HL-60 cells/mm(2; SF: 111±18 HL-60/mm(2, p = 0.003 than cells cultured under SF which is consistent with a more quiescent anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic phenotype. In vitro models have become increasingly adept at mimicking natural physiology and in doing so have clarified the importance of both chemical and physical cues that drive cell function. These data illustrate that the variability in metabolic demand and subsequent changes in perfusion resulting in constantly variable shear stress plays a key role in EC function that has not previously been described.

  19. Physiological responses to food deprivation in the house sparrow, a species not adapted to prolonged fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilieh, Anton; McCue, Marshall D; Pinshow, Berry

    2012-09-01

    Many wild birds fast during reproduction, molting, migration, or because of limited food availability. Species that are adapted to fasting sequentially oxidize endogenous fuels in three discrete phases. We hypothesized that species not adapted to long fasts have truncated, but otherwise similar, phases of fasting, sequential changes in fuel oxidization, and similar changes in blood metabolites to fasting-adapted species. We tested salient predictions in house sparrows (Passer domesticus biblicus), a subspecies that is unable to tolerate more than ~32 h of fasting. Our main hypothesis was that fasting sparrows sequentially oxidize substrates in the order carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. We dosed 24 house sparrows with [(13)C]glucose, palmitic acid, or glycine and measured (13)CO(2) in their breath while they fasted for 24 h. To ascertain whether blood metabolite levels reflect fasting-induced changes in metabolic fuels, we also measured glucose, triacylglycerides, and β-hydroxybutyrate in the birds' blood. The results of both breath (13)CO(2) and plasma metabolite analyses did not support our hypothesis; i.e., that sparrows have the same metabolic responses characteristic of fasting-adapted species, but on a shorter time scale. Contrary to our main prediction, we found that recently assimilated (13)C-tracers were oxidized continuously in different patterns with no definite peaks corresponding to the three phases of fasting and also that changes in plasma metabolite levels accurately tracked the changes found by breath analysis. Notably, the rate of recently assimilated [(13)C]glycine oxidization was significantly higher (P fast for longer than 32 h is likely related to their inability to accrue large lipid stores, separately oxidize different fuels, and/or spare protein during fasting.

  20. Physiological Adaptations to Hypoxic vs. Normoxic Training during Intermittent Living High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Stefan; van Herpt, Paul; D'Hulst, Gommaar; Van Thienen, Ruud; Van Leemputte, Marc; Hespel, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In the setting of "living high," it is unclear whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) should be performed "low" or "high" to stimulate muscular and performance adaptations. Therefore, 10 physically active males participated in a 5-week "live high-train low or high" program (TR), whilst eight subjects were not engaged in any altitude or training intervention (CON). Five days per week (~15.5 h per day), TR was exposed to normobaric hypoxia simulating progressively increasing altitude of ~2,000-3,250 m. Three times per week, TR performed HIIT, administered as unilateral knee-extension training, with one leg in normobaric hypoxia (~4,300 m; TR HYP ) and with the other leg in normoxia (TR NOR ). "Living high" elicited a consistent elevation in serum erythropoietin concentrations which adequately predicted the increase in hemoglobin mass ( r = 0.78, P 0.05). Muscle oxygenation during training was lower in TR HYP vs. TR NOR ( P 0.05). In conclusion, muscular and performance adaptations were largely similar following normoxic vs. hypoxic HIIT. However, hypoxic HIIT stimulated adaptations in isometric strength and muscle perfusion during intermittent sprinting.

  1. Physiological Adaptations to Hypoxic vs. Normoxic Training during Intermittent Living High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan De Smet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the setting of “living high,” it is unclear whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT should be performed “low” or “high” to stimulate muscular and performance adaptations. Therefore, 10 physically active males participated in a 5-week “live high-train low or high” program (TR, whilst eight subjects were not engaged in any altitude or training intervention (CON. Five days per week (~15.5 h per day, TR was exposed to normobaric hypoxia simulating progressively increasing altitude of ~2,000–3,250 m. Three times per week, TR performed HIIT, administered as unilateral knee-extension training, with one leg in normobaric hypoxia (~4,300 m; TRHYP and with the other leg in normoxia (TRNOR. “Living high” elicited a consistent elevation in serum erythropoietin concentrations which adequately predicted the increase in hemoglobin mass (r = 0.78, P < 0.05; TR: +2.6%, P < 0.05; CON: −0.7%, P > 0.05. Muscle oxygenation during training was lower in TRHYP vs. TRNOR (P < 0.05. Muscle homogenate buffering capacity and pH-regulating protein abundance were similar between pretest and posttest. Oscillations in muscle blood volume during repeated sprints, as estimated by oscillations in NIRS-derived tHb, increased from pretest to posttest in TRHYP (~80%, P < 0.01 but not in TRNOR (~50%, P = 0.08. Muscle capillarity (~15% as well as repeated-sprint ability (~8% and 3-min maximal performance (~10–15% increased similarly in both legs (P < 0.05. Maximal isometric strength increased in TRHYP (~8%, P < 0.05 but not in TRNOR (~4%, P > 0.05. In conclusion, muscular and performance adaptations were largely similar following normoxic vs. hypoxic HIIT. However, hypoxic HIIT stimulated adaptations in isometric strength and muscle perfusion during intermittent sprinting.

  2. Hemoglobins: models of physiological adaptation, with special reference to O2 availability and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    ) and decreased by allosteric effectors (protons, CO2, lactate, organic phosphates and chloride ions) that modulate O2 binding in response to changes in environmental and metabolic dictates. Hb-O2 affinity moreover decreases with rising temperature. This increases O2 unloading in warm tissues that consume more O2...... and mammals - and recreated woolly mammoth Hb) the treatise reviews intraspecific and interspecific adaptations (that are mediated by changes in the levels of red cell effectors and in Hb structure, respectively) in response to changes in O2 availability and temperature, demonstrating reciprocity...

  3. Physiological Adaptations to Hypoxic vs. Normoxic Training during Intermittent Living High

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan De Smet; Paul van Herpt; Gommaar D'Hulst; Ruud Van Thienen; Marc Van Leemputte; Peter Hespel; Peter Hespel

    2017-01-01

    In the setting of “living high,” it is unclear whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) should be performed “low” or “high” to stimulate muscular and performance adaptations. Therefore, 10 physically active males participated in a 5-week “live high-train low or high” program (TR), whilst eight subjects were not engaged in any altitude or training intervention (CON). Five days per week (~15.5 h per day), TR was exposed to normobaric hypoxia simulating progressively increasing altitude o...

  4. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain...... the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing...... performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle...

  5. Inhibition of MCU forces extramitochondrial adaptations governing physiological and pathological stress responses in heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Tyler P; Wu, Yuejin; Joiner, Mei-ling A; Koval, Olha M; Wilson, Nicholas R; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qinchuan; Chen, Biyi; Gao, Zhan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Wagner, Brett A; Soto, Jamie; McCormick, Michael L; Kutschke, William; Weiss, Robert M; Yu, Liping; Boudreau, Ryan L; Abel, E Dale; Zhan, Fenghuang; Spitz, Douglas R; Buettner, Garry R; Song, Long-Sheng; Zingman, Leonid V; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-07-21

    Myocardial mitochondrial Ca(2+) entry enables physiological stress responses but in excess promotes injury and death. However, tissue-specific in vivo systems for testing the role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) are lacking. We developed a mouse model with myocardial delimited transgenic expression of a dominant negative (DN) form of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). DN-MCU mice lack MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) entry in myocardium, but, surprisingly, isolated perfused hearts exhibited higher O2 consumption rates (OCR) and impaired pacing induced mechanical performance compared with wild-type (WT) littermate controls. In contrast, OCR in DN-MCU-permeabilized myocardial fibers or isolated mitochondria in low Ca(2+) were not increased compared with WT, suggesting that DN-MCU expression increased OCR by enhanced energetic demands related to extramitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis. Consistent with this, we found that DN-MCU ventricular cardiomyocytes exhibited elevated cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] that was partially reversed by ATP dialysis, suggesting that metabolic defects arising from loss of MCU function impaired physiological intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload is thought to dissipate the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and enhance formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our data show that DN-MCU hearts had preserved ΔΨm and reduced ROS during ischemia reperfusion but were not protected from myocardial death compared with WT. Taken together, our findings show that chronic myocardial MCU inhibition leads to previously unanticipated compensatory changes that affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) homeostasis, reprogram transcription, increase OCR, reduce performance, and prevent anticipated therapeutic responses to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  6. A zero phase adaptive fuzzy Kalman filter for physiological tremor suppression in robotically assisted minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Hongqiang; Yang, Chenghao; Liu, Fen; Yun, Jintian; Jin, Guoguang; Chen, Fa

    2016-12-01

    Hand physiological tremor of surgeons can cause vibration at the surgical instrument tip, which may make it difficult for the surgeon to perform fine manipulations of tissue, needles, and sutures. A zero phase adaptive fuzzy Kalman filter (ZPAFKF) is proposed to suppress hand tremor and vibration of a robotic surgical system. The involuntary motion can be reduced by adding a compensating signal that has the same magnitude and frequency but opposite phase with the tremor signal. Simulations and experiments using different filters were performed. Results show that the proposed filter can avoid the loss of useful motion information and time delay, and better suppress minor and varying tremor. The ZPAFKF can provide less error, preferred accuracy, better tremor estimation, and more desirable compensation performance, to suppress hand tremor and decrease vibration at the surgical instrument tip. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Thermoregulatory and adaptive responses of adult buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis during hyperthermia: Physiological, behavioral, and metabolic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok K. Wankar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was planned to evaluate the indigenous animal adaptive capabilities during optimum temperature versus heat stress (HS. Materials and Methods: Four adult buffaloes were exposed at 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, and 40°C for 21 days at every treatment in environmentally controlled chamber and physio-biochemical variation and animal behavior was observed. Results: The study revealed significantly increased rectal temperature, respiration rate, water intake, sodium, reactive oxygen metabolites, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase while, pulse rate and thyroid hormones decreased during thermal stress. Panting, restlessness, salivation, and sweating were higher during HS while, rumination and urination contrastingly lowered. Conclusion: The results reflect the impact of hyperthermia both acute and chronic, on the animals forcing various physiobiochemical, endocrinal, and behavioral changes for acclimatization during a stressful period aimed at maintaining homeothermy.

  8. Cofactors As Metabolic Sensors Driving Cell Adaptation in Physiology and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Rabhi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin architectures and epigenetic fingerprint regulation are fundamental for genetically determined biological processes. Chemical modifications of the chromatin template sensitize the genome to intracellular metabolism changes to set up diverse functional adaptive states. Accumulated evidence suggests that the action of epigenetic modifiers is sensitive to changes in dietary components and cellular metabolism intermediates, linking nutrition and energy metabolism to gene expression plasticity. Histone posttranslational modifications create a code that acts as a metabolic sensor, translating changes in metabolism into stable gene expression patterns. These observations support the notion that epigenetic reprograming-linked energy input is connected to the etiology of metabolic diseases and cancer. In the present review, we introduce the role of epigenetic cofactors and their relation with nutrient intake and we question the links between epigenetic regulation and the development of metabolic diseases.

  9. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, F M; Bangsbo, J

    2010-10-01

    The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle substrate levels, glycolytic and oxidative enzymes activity, and membrane transport proteins involved in pH regulation. Instead they appear to be related to a reduced energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and a higher expression of muscle Na(+) ,K(+) pump α-subunits, which via a higher Na(+) ,K(+) pump activity during exercise may delay fatigue development during intense exercise. In conclusion, athletes from disciplines involving periods of intense exercise can benefit from the inclusion of speed endurance sessions in their training programs. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, S; Ghossein-Doha, C; van Kuijk, S M J; van Drongelen, J; Spaanderman, M E A

    2017-02-01

    To describe the physiological pattern of gestational plasma volume adjustments in normal singleton pregnancy and compare this with the pattern in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction. We performed a meta-analysis of the current literature on plasma volume adjustments during physiological and complicated pregnancies. Literature was retrieved from PubMed (NCBI) and EMBASE (Ovid) databases. Included studies reported both reference plasma volume measurements (non-pregnant, prepregnancy or postpartum) and measurements obtained during predetermined gestational ages. Mean differences bet ween the reference and pregnancy plasma volume measurements were calculated for predefined intervals of gestational age using a random-effects model described by DerSimonian and Laird. Thirty studies were included in the meta-analysis with publication dates ranging from 1934 to 2007. Plasma volume increased in the first weeks of pregnancy, with the steepest increase occurring during the second trimester. Plasma volume continued to increase in the third trimester with a pooled maximum increase of 1.13 L (95% CI, 1.07-1.19 L), an increase of 45.6% (95% CI, 43.0-48.1%) in physiological pregnancies compared with the reference value. The plasma volume expansion in gestational hypertensive and growth-restricted pregnancies was 0.80 L (95% CI, 0.59-1.02 L), an increase of 32.3% (95% CI, 23.6-41.1%) in the third trimester, a smaller increase than in physiological pregnancies (P embarazo: una revisi\\xF3n sistemática y metaanálisis RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Describir el patrón fisiológico de los cambios en el volumen del plasma gestacional en embarazos normales con feto único y compararlo con el patrón en los embarazos complicados por hipertensión gestacional, preeclampsia o restricción del crecimiento fetal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un metaanálisis de la literatura actual sobre los cambios en el volumen de plasma durante

  11. Physiological adaptations to prolonged fasting in the overwintering striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Bowman, Jeff; Sadowski, Carrie; Nituch, Larissa A; Bruce, Laura; Halonen, Toivo; Puukka, Katri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2013-12-01

    Wintertime physiology of captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in response to cold ambient temperature (Ta) and fasting was investigated with body temperature (Tb) and activity recordings and analyses of hematology, plasma biochemistry and tissue fatty acids (FA). After 105 days of food deprivation, the skunks were in phase II of fasting indicated by the elevated plasma nonesterified FA and glycerol but no accumulation of nitrogen end products. Shorter-chain saturated and monounsaturated FA together with C18-20 n-3 polyunsaturated FA were preferentially mobilized. Individual amino acids responded to fasting in a complex manner, while essential and nonessential amino acid sums remained stable. Increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit suggested dehydration. The activity levels were lower in mid-January-early March, and the activity bouts were mostly displayed between 17:00-23:00 h. Daily torpor was observed in two females with 29 and 46 bouts. The deepest torpor (Tb<31 °C) occurred between dawn and early afternoon and lasted for 3.3 ± 0.18 h. The average minimum Tb was 29.2 ± 0.15 °C and the lowest recorded Tb was 25.8 °C. There was significant relation between the average 24-h Tb and Ta. Increases in wintertime Ta, as predicted by climate change scenarios, could influence torpor patterns in the species. © 2013.

  12. Physiological performance of warm-adapted marine ectotherms: Thermal limits of mitochondrial energy transduction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eloy; Hendricks, Eric; Menze, Michael A; Torres, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Thermal regimes in aquatic systems have profound implications for the physiology of ectotherms. In particular, the effect of elevated temperatures on mitochondrial energy transduction in tropical and subtropical teleosts may have profound consequences on organismal performance and population viability. Upper and lower whole-organism critical temperatures for teleosts suggest that subtropical and tropical species are not susceptible to the warming trends associated with climate change, but sub-lethal effects on energy transduction efficiency and population dynamics remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to compare the thermal sensitivity of processes associated with mitochondrial energy transduction in liver mitochondria from the striped mojarra (Eugerres plumieri), the whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) and the palometa (Trachinotus goodei), to those of the subtropical pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides) and the blue runner (Caranx crysos). Mitochondrial function was assayed at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C and results obtained for both tropical and subtropical species showed a reduction in the energy transduction efficiency of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in most species studied at temperatures below whole-organism critical temperature thresholds. Our results show a loss of coupling between O2 consumption and ATP production before the onset of the critical thermal maxima, indicating that elevated temperature may severely impact the yield of ATP production per carbon unit oxidized. As warming trends are projected for tropical regions, increasing water temperatures in tropical estuaries and coral reefs could impact long-term growth and reproductive performance in tropical organisms, which are already close to their upper thermal limit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Induction of Osmoadaptive Mechanisms and Modulation of Cellular Physiology Help Bacillus licheniformis Strain SSA 61 Adapt to Salt Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Sangeeta; Aggarwal, Chetana; Thakur, Jyoti Kumar; Bandeppa, G. S.; Khan, Md. Aslam; Pearson, Lauren M.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Giometti, Carol S.; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-01-06

    Bacillus licheniformis strain SSA 61, originally isolated from Sambhar salt lake, was observed to grow even in the presence of 25 % salt stress. Osmoadaptive mechanisms of this halotolerant B. licheniformis strain SSA 61, for long-term survival and growth under salt stress, were determined. Proline was the preferentially accumulated compatible osmolyte. There was also increased accumulation of antioxidants ascorbic acid and glutathione. Among the different antioxidative enzymes assayed, superoxide dismutase played the most crucial role in defense against salt-induced stress in the organism. Adaptation to stress by the organism involved modulation of cellular physiology at various levels. There was enhanced expression of known proteins playing essential roles in stress adaptation, such as chaperones DnaK and GroEL, and general stress protein YfkM and polynucleotide phosphorylase/polyadenylase. Proteins involved in amino acid biosynthetic pathway, ribosome structure, and peptide elongation were also overexpressed. Salt stress-induced modulation of expression of enzymes involved in carbon metabolism was observed. There was up-regulation of a number of enzymes involved in generation of NADH and NADPH, indicating increased cellular demand for both energy and reducing power.

  14. Identification of Cognitive Distraction Using Physiological Features for Adaptive Driving Safety Supporting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki Kawanaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was identified that traffic accidents relate closely to the driver’s mental and physical states immediately before the accident by our questionnaire survey. Distraction is one of the key human factors involved in traffic accidents. We reproduced driver’s cognitive distraction on a driving simulator by means of imposing cognitive loads such as doing arithmetic and having conversation while driving. Visual features such as test subjects’ gaze direction, pupil diameter, and head orientation, together with heart rate from ECG, were used in this study to detect the cognitive distraction. We improved detection accuracy obtained from earlier studies by using the AdaBoost. This paper also suggests a multiclass identification using Error-Correcting Output Coding, which can identify the degree of cognitive load. Finally, we verified the effectiveness of the multiclass identification by conducting a series of experiments. All these aimed at developing a constituent technology of a driver monitoring system that is expected to create adaptive driving safety supporting system to lower the number of traffic accidents.

  15. RNA sequencing of Populus x canadensis roots identifies key molecular mechanisms underlying physiological adaption to excess zinc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariani

    Full Text Available Populus x canadensis clone I-214 exhibits a general indicator phenotype in response to excess Zn, and a higher metal uptake in roots than in shoots with a reduced translocation to aerial parts under hydroponic conditions. This physiological adaptation seems mainly regulated by roots, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are still poorly understood. Here, differential expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology was used to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to excess Zn in root. In order to maximize specificity of detection of differentially expressed (DE genes, we consider the intersection of genes identified by three distinct statistical approaches (61 up- and 19 down-regulated and validate them by RT-qPCR, yielding an agreement of 93% between the two experimental techniques. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to oxidation-reduction processes, transport and cellular iron ion homeostasis were enriched among DE genes, highlighting the importance of metal homeostasis in adaptation to excess Zn by P. x canadensis clone I-214. We identified the up-regulation of two Populus metal transporters (ZIP2 and NRAMP1 probably involved in metal uptake, and the down-regulation of a NAS4 gene involved in metal translocation. We identified also four Fe-homeostasis transcription factors (two bHLH38 genes, FIT and BTS that were differentially expressed, probably for reducing Zn-induced Fe-deficiency. In particular, we suggest that the down-regulation of FIT transcription factor could be a mechanism to cope with Zn-induced Fe-deficiency in Populus. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in adaption to excess Zn in Populus spp., but could also constitute a starting point for the identification and characterization of molecular markers or biotechnological targets for possible improvement of phytoremediation performances of poplar trees.

  16. Physiological adaptations of ruminants and their potential relevance for production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Clauss

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Herbivores face the dilemma that the level of feed intake is negatively related to factors that determine digestive efficiency, such as thoroughness of ingesta comminution by chewing, and retention of digesta in the digestive tract. Ruminants have evolved particular adaptations to solve this dilemma. Most ruminants share the characteristic of “digesta washing”: fluid moves through their digestive tract faster than particles, thus effectively washing very fine particles, such as bacteria, out of the digesta plug. As the forestomach is followed by auto-enzymatic digestion, this allows a continuous, increased harvest of microbes from the forestomach. True rumination only evolved twice, in the camelids and the true ruminants. These both evolved a density-dependent sorting mechanism based on physical separation of the digesta by the process of flotation and sedimentation, ensuring that the process of rumination is applied to large particles. Differences in this sorting mechanism might facilitate a faster digesta processing in true ruminants as compared with camelids. The hallmark of ruminant digestive anatomy is the omasum, in which the fluid required for both digesta washing and the reticular separation mechanism is re-absorbed. In ruminants of the tribe Bovini, the omasum has reached the largest size and this group has a particularly great forestomach fluid throughput. Increasing the degree of digesta washing even more should increase microbial harvest from the forestomach and reduce the susceptibility to acidosis. At the same time, it should result in a metabolic state of the microbiome more tuned towards biomass production and less towards methanogenesis. Enhancing the forestomach fluid throughput by selective breeding could represent a promising way to further advance the productivity of the ruminant digestive tract.

  17. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal

  18. Preliminary results from digestive adaptation: a new surgical proposal for treating obesity, based on physiology and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Santoro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Most bariatric surgical techniques include essentially non-physiological features like narrowing anastomoses or bands, or digestive segment exclusion, especially the duodenum. This potentially causes symptoms or complications. The aim here was to report on the preliminary results from a new surgical technique for treating morbid obesity that takes a physiological and evolutionary approach. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case series description, in Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein and Hospital da Polícia Militar, São Paulo, and Hospital Vicentino, Ponta Grossa, Paraná. METHODS: The technique included vertical (sleeve gastrectomy, omentectomy and enterectomy that retained three meters of small bowel (initial jejunum and most of the ileum, i.e. the lower limit for normal adults. The operations on 100 patients are described. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was nine months (range: one to 29 months. The mean reductions in body mass index were 4.3, 6.1, 8.1, 10.1 and 10.7 kg/m², respectively at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. All patients reported early satiety. There was major improvement in comorbidities, especially diabetes. Operative complications occurred in 7% of patients, all of them resolved without sequelae. There was no mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This procedure creates a proportionally reduced gastrointestinal tract, leaving its basic functions unharmed and producing adaptation of the gastric chamber size to hypercaloric diet. It removes the sources of ghrelin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and resistin production and leads more nutrients to the distal bowel, with desirable metabolic consequences. Patients do not need nutritional support or drug medication. The procedure is straightforward and safe.

  19. Simulating Physiological Response with a Passive Sensor Manikin and an Adaptive Thermal Manikin to Predict Thermal Sensation and Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, John P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chaney, Larry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hepokoski, Mark [ThermoAnalytics Inc.; Curran, Allen [ThermoAnalytics Inc.; Burke, Richard [Measurement Technology NW; Maranville, Clay [Ford Motor Company

    2015-04-14

    Reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort can be difficult to obtain within automotive environments, especially under transient and asymmetric heating and cooling scenarios. Evaluation of HVAC system performance in terms of comfort commonly requires human subject testing, which may involve multiple repetitions, as well as multiple test subjects. Instrumentation (typically comprised of an array of temperature sensors) is usually only sparsely applied across the human body, significantly reducing the spatial resolution of available test data. Further, since comfort is highly subjective in nature, a single test protocol can yield a wide variation in results which can only be overcome by increasing the number of test replications and subjects. In light of these difficulties, various types of manikins are finding use in automotive testing scenarios. These manikins can act as human surrogates from which local skin and core temperatures can be obtained, which are necessary for accurately predicting local and whole body thermal sensation and comfort using a physiology-based comfort model (e.g., the Berkeley Comfort Model). This paper evaluates two different types of manikins, i) an adaptive sweating thermal manikin, which is coupled with a human thermoregulation model, running in real-time, to obtain realistic skin temperatures; and, ii) a passive sensor manikin, which is used to measure boundary conditions as they would act on a human, from which skin and core temperatures can be predicted using a thermophysiological model. The simulated physiological responses and comfort obtained from both of these manikin-model coupling schemes are compared to those of a human subject within a vehicle cabin compartment transient heat-up scenario.

  20. Physiological and health-related adaptations to low-volume interval training: influences of nutrition and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, Martin J; Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Interval training refers to the basic concept of alternating periods of relatively intense exercise with periods of lower-intensity effort or complete rest for recovery. Low-volume interval training refers to sessions that involve a relatively small total amount of exercise (i.e. ≤10 min of intense exercise), compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols that are generally reflected in public health guidelines. In an effort to standardize terminology, a classification scheme was recently proposed in which the term 'high-intensity interval training' (HIIT) be used to describe protocols in which the training stimulus is 'near maximal' or the target intensity is between 80 and 100 % of maximal heart rate, and 'sprint interval training' (SIT) be used for protocols that involve 'all out' or 'supramaximal' efforts, in which target intensities correspond to workloads greater than what is required to elicit 100 % of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Both low-volume SIT and HIIT constitute relatively time-efficient training strategies to rapidly enhance the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism and elicit physiological remodeling that resembles changes normally associated with high-volume MICT. Short-term SIT and HIIT protocols have also been shown to improve health-related indices, including cardiorespiratory fitness and markers of glycemic control in both healthy individuals and those at risk for, or afflicted by, cardiometabolic diseases. Recent evidence from a limited number of studies has highlighted potential sex-based differences in the adaptive response to SIT in particular. It has also been suggested that specific nutritional interventions, in particular those that can augment muscle buffering capacity, such as sodium bicarbonate, may enhance the adaptive response to low-volume interval training.

  1. Physiological Adaptations Involved in Alkane Assimilation at a Low Temperature by Rhodococcus sp. Strain Q15†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, L. G.; Slagman, S. J.; Pietrantonio, F.; Bourbonnière, L.; Koval, S. F.; Lawrence, J. R.; Inniss, W. E.; Greer, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    We examined physiological adaptations which allow the psychrotroph Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15 to assimilate alkanes at a low temperature (alkanes are contaminants which are generally insoluble and/or solid at low temperatures). During growth at 5°C on hexadecane or diesel fuel, strain Q15 produced a cell surface-associated biosurfactant(s) and, compared to glucose-acetate-grown cells, exhibited increased cell surface hydrophobicity. A transmission electron microscopy examination of strain Q15 grown at 5°C revealed the presence of intracellular electron-transparent inclusions and flocs of cells connected by an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) when cells were grown on a hydrocarbon and morphological differences between the EPS of glucose-acetate-grown and diesel fuel-grown cells. A lectin binding analysis performed by using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) showed that the EPS contained a complex mixture of glycoconjugates, depending on both the growth temperature and the carbon source. Two glycoconjugates [β-d-Gal-(1-3)-d-GlcNAc and α-l-fucose] were detected only on the surfaces of cells grown on diesel fuel at 5°C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed strain Q15 cells on the surfaces of octacosane crystals, and using CSLM, we observed strain Q15 cells covering the surfaces of diesel fuel microdroplets; these findings indicate that this organism assimilates both solid and liquid alkane substrates at a low temperature by adhering to the alkane phase. Membrane fatty acid analysis demonstrated that strain Q15 adapted to growth at a low temperature by decreasing the degree of saturation of membrane lipid fatty acids, but it did so to a lesser extent when it was grown on hydrocarbons at 5°C; these findings suggest that strain Q15 modulates membrane fluidity in response to the counteracting influences of low temperature and hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:10388690

  2. Mimicking exercise in three-dimensional bioengineered skeletal muscle to investigate cellular and molecular mechanisms of physiological adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Andreas M; Turner, Daniel C; Martin, Neil R W; Sharples, Adam P

    2018-03-01

    Bioengineering of skeletal muscle in vitro in order to produce highly aligned myofibres in relevant three dimensional (3D) matrices have allowed scientists to model the in vivo skeletal muscle niche. This review discusses essential experimental considerations for developing bioengineered muscle in order to investigate exercise mimicking stimuli. We identify current knowledge for the use of electrical stimulation and co-culture with motor neurons to enhance skeletal muscle maturation and contractile function in bioengineered systems in vitro. Importantly, we provide a current opinion on the use of acute and chronic exercise mimicking stimuli (electrical stimulation and mechanical overload) and the subsequent mechanisms underlying physiological adaptation in 3D bioengineered muscle. We also identify that future studies using the latest bioreactor technology, providing simultaneous electrical and mechanical loading and flow perfusion in vitro, may provide the basis for advancing knowledge in the future. We also envisage, that more studies using genetic, pharmacological, and hormonal modifications applied in human 3D bioengineered skeletal muscle may allow for an enhanced discovery of the in-depth mechanisms underlying the response to exercise in relevant human testing systems. Finally, 3D bioengineered skeletal muscle may provide an opportunity to be used as a pre-clinical in vitro test-bed to investigate the mechanisms underlying catabolic disease, while modelling disease itself via the use of cells derived from human patients without exposing animals or humans (in phase I trials) to the side effects of potential therapies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Metabolite profiles of nodulated alfalfa plants indicate that distinct stages of nodule organogenesis are accompanied by global physiological adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsch, Aiko; Tellström, Verena; Patschkowski, Thomas; Küster, Helge; Niehaus, Karsten

    2006-09-01

    An effective symbiosis between Sinorhizobium meliloti and its host plant Medicago sativa is dependent on a balanced physiological interaction enabling the microsymbiont to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Maintenance of the symbiotic interaction is regulated by still poorly understood control mechanisms. A first step toward a better understanding of nodule metabolism was the determination of characteristic metabolites for alfalfa root nodules. Furthermore, nodules arrested at different developmental stages were analyzed in order to address metabolic changes induced during the progression of nodule formation. Metabolite profiles of bacteroid-free pseudonodule extracts indicated that early nodule developmental processes are accompanied by photosynthate translocation but no massive organic acid formation. To determine metabolic adaptations induced by the presence of nonfixing bacteroids, nodules induced by mutant S. meliloti strains lacking the nitrogenase protein were analyzed. The bacteroids are unable to provide ammonium to the host plant, which is metabolically reflected by reduced levels of characteristic amino acids involved in ammonium fixation. Elevated levels of starch and sugars in Fix(-) nodules provide strong evidence that plant sanctions preventing a transformation from a symbiotic to a potentially parasitic interaction are not strictly realized via photosynthate supply. Instead, metabolic and gene expression data indicate that alfalfa plants react to nitrogen-fixation-deficient bacteroids with a decreased organic acid synthesis and an early induction of senescence. Noneffective symbiotic interactions resulting from plants nodulated by mutant rhizobia also are reflected in characteristic metabolic changes in leaves. These are typical for nitrogen deficiency, but also highlight metabolites potentially involved in sensing the N status.

  4. Intraspecific variation in stomatal traits, leaf traits and physiology reflects adaptation along aridity gradients in a South African shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane E; Adams, Christopher A; Holsinger, Kent E

    2016-01-01

    Trait-environment relationships are commonly interpreted as evidence for local adaptation in plants. However, even when selection analyses support this interpretation, the mechanisms underlying differential benefits are often unknown. This study addresses this gap in knowledge using the broadly distributed South African shrub Protea repens. Specifically, the study examines whether broad-scale patterns of trait variation are consistent with spatial differences in selection and ecophysiology in the wild. In a common garden study of plants sourced from 19 populations, associations were measured between five morphological traits and three axes describing source climates. Trait-trait and trait-environment associations were analysed in a multi-response model. Within two focal populations in the wild, selection and path analyses were used to test associations between traits, fecundity and physiological performance. Across 19 populations in a common garden, stomatal density increased with the source population's mean annual temperature and decreased with its average amount of rainfall in midsummer. Concordantly, selection analysis in two natural populations revealed positive selection on stomatal density at the hotter, drier site, while failing to detect selection at the cooler, moister site. Dry-site plants with high stomatal density also had higher stomatal conductances, cooler leaf temperatures and higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates than those with low stomatal density, but no such relationships were present among wet-site plants. Leaf area, stomatal pore index and specific leaf area in the garden also co-varied with climate, but within-population differences were not associated with fitness in either wild population. The parallel patterns of broad-scale variation, differences in selection and differences in trait-ecophysiology relationships suggest a mechanism for adaptive differentiation in stomatal density. Densely packed stomata may improve performance by

  5. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  6. Physiological adaptation after a 12-week physical activity program for patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Alexandre Slowetzky; Teixeira, Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz; de Mesquita, Maria Luiza Guedes; Rodrigues, Graciele Massoli; Rubin, Daniela Andrea; Carreiro, Luiz Renato Rodrigues

    2016-06-23

    Physical activity programs are a powerful tool against several diseases including obesity and their comorbidities. Prader-Willi syndrome is the most common genetic disease associated with obesity, and brings with it behavioral and emotional problems that need complex management. Research into the effect of physical activity programs on Prader-Willi syndrome is limited and it is frequently argued that if a physical activity program is too complex, the participants are more likely to drop out. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the physiological adaptation effect of a physical activity program with increasing complexity and load, in a boy and a girl with Prader-Willi syndrome by assessing changes in lipid profile, body composition, and physical fitness parameters. Case 1 was an 11-year-old girl, mixed race (brown), with an intelligence quotient of 68, 52.0 % body fat, and a body mass index of 45.3 kg/m(2). The Prader-Willi syndrome diagnosis was made when she was 5-years old and was found to be due to an imprinting genomic defect. Case 2 was a 14-year-old boy, mixed race (brown), with an intelligence quotient of 74, 48.8 % body fat, and a body mass index of 37.3 kg/m(2). The diagnosis was made when he was 10-years old and was found to be caused by gene deletion. Both participants presented physical characteristics and behavior problems typical of Prader-Willi syndrome. Case 2 presented high blood pressure, high cholesterol and sleep apnea and had to use continuous positive airway pressure to sleep. Both participants were assessed for 12 weeks (three times a week) using a physical activity program designed to improve strength and muscle hypertrophy. The work load was progressively adjusted as necessary and new exercises were added to the program. Prior to the program, the participants' parents received instructions about managing problem behavior and advice about nutrition. After physical activity program several health markers assessed by biological tests and

  7. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . Dar es Salaam. Durban. Bloemfontein. Antananarivo. Cape Town. Ifrane ... program strategy. A number of CCAA-supported projects have relevance to other important adaptation-related themes such as disaster preparedness and climate.

  8. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  9. The Impact of Experimental Hypoxia and Subsequent Normoxia on the Content of Some Ions and Markers of Physiological Stress-adaptation in Gastropod Species Lymnaea stagnalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubyaga J.А.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of hypoxia and subsequent normoxiaon the maintenance of respiratory pigment hemocyanin, total protein, lactate and some ions (Na +, K +, Ca2+, NH4+, Mg2+ in the mantle liquid in palaearctic gastropod species Lymnaea stagnalis. It was shown that short-term experimental hypoxia leads to the activation of the physiological mechanisms of stress adaptation in widespread Palaearctic eurybiotic gastropod species and does not lead to the activation of the stress-resistance mechanisms on the biochemical and molecular levels.

  10. Physiology and the Biomedical Engineering Curriculum: Utilizing Emerging Instructional Technologies to Promote Development of Adaptive Expertise in Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Regina K.

    2013-01-01

    A mixed-methods research study was designed to test whether undergraduate engineering students were better prepared to learn advanced topics in biomedical engineering if they learned physiology via a quantitative, concept-based approach rather than a qualitative, system-based approach. Experiments were conducted with undergraduate engineering…

  11. Adaptive Calibration of Children's Physiological Responses to Family Stress: The Utility of Evolutionary Developmental Theory--Comment on Del Giudice et al. (2012) and Sturge-Apple et al. (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2012-01-01

    Children's physiological reactions to stress are presented from the broader theoretical perspective of adaptive calibration to the environment, as rooted in life history theory. Del Giudice, Hinnant, Ellis, and El-Sheikh (2012) focus on children's physiological responses to a stressful task as a consequence of their history of family stress.…

  12. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nairobi, Kenya. 28 Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific and Endogenous Knowledge. Cap Verde, Gambia,. Guinea, Guinea Bissau,. Mauritania and Senegal. Environment and Development in the Third World. (ENDA-TM). Dakar, Senegal. 29 Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk ...

  13. Alkanols and chlorophenols cause different physiological adaptive responses on the level of cell surface properties and membrane vesicle formation in Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Thomas; Vazquez, José; Bastisch, Christian; Veron, Wilfried; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Nietzsche, Sandor; Wick, Lukas Y; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2012-01-01

    In order to cope with the toxicity imposed by the exposure to environmental hydrocarbons, many bacteria have developed specific adaptive responses such as modifications in the cell envelope. Here we compared the influence of n-alkanols and chlorophenols on the surface properties of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E. In the presence of toxic concentrations of n-alkanols, this strain significantly increased its cell surface charge and hydrophobicity with changes depending on the chain length of the added n-alkanols. The adaptive response occurred within 10 min after the addition of the solvent and was demonstrated to be of physiological nature. Contrary to that, chlorophenols of similar hydrophobicity and potential toxicity as the corresponding alkanols caused only minor effects in the surface properties. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of differences in the cellular adaptive response of bacteria to compound classes of quasi equal hydrophobicity and toxicity. The observed adaptation of the physico-chemical surface properties of strain DOT-T1E to the presence of alkanols was reversible and correlated with changes in the composition of the lipopolysaccharide content of the cells. The reaction is explained by previously described reactions allowing the release of membrane vesicles that was demonstrated for cells affected by 1-octanol and heat shock, whereas no membrane vesicles were released after the addition of chlorophenols.

  14. Health and Physiological Adaptations of Small-Sided Ball Games in Untrained Older Adults Aged 65-93 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob

    Introduction. Aging is associated with a physiological decline that contributes to loss of physical function and increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events and development of type 2 diabetes. The vast majority of research has focused on traditional exercise activities such as brisk walking...... was consistently shown to improve physical function in untrained elderly (I, II, III). Also reduced heart rate at rest and during submaximal exercise as well as a drop in body fat was evident (I, II). Muscle mass was unaffected by floorball training and small-sided ball game training followed by low protein intake......, cycling or resistance training in the prevention of this physiological decline with age. However, untrained elderly may be reluctant to participate in multiple training sessions a week, and may also be unwilling to take part in intense exercise due to motivational reasons. Thus, efficient and motivating...

  15. Health and Physiological Adaptations of Small-Sided Ball Games in Untrained Older Adults Aged 65-93 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob

    Introduction. Aging is associated with a physiological decline that contributes to loss of physical function and increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events and development of type 2 diabetes. The vast majority of research has focused on traditional exercise activities such as brisk walking......, cycling or resistance training in the prevention of this physiological decline with age. However, untrained elderly may be reluctant to participate in multiple training sessions a week, and may also be unwilling to take part in intense exercise due to motivational reasons. Thus, efficient and motivating...... was consistently shown to improve physical function in untrained elderly (I, II, III). Also reduced heart rate at rest and during submaximal exercise as well as a drop in body fat was evident (I, II). Muscle mass was unaffected by floorball training and small-sided ball game training followed by low protein intake...

  16. Effects of body temperature on post-anoxic oxidative stress from the perspective of postnatal physiological adaptive processes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletkiewicz, H; Rogalska, J; Nowakowska, A; Wozniak, A; Mila-Kierzenkowska, C; Caputa, M

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that decrease in body temperature provides protection to newborns subjected to anoxia/ischemia. We hypothesized that the normal body temperature of 33°C in neonatal rats (4°C below normal body temperature in adults) is in fact a preadaptation to protect CNS from anoxia and further reductions as well as elevations in temperature may be counterproductive. Our experiments aimed to examine the effect of changes in body temperature on oxidative stress development in newborn rats exposed to anoxia. Two-day-old Wistar rats were divided into 4 temperature groups: i. hypothermic at body temperature of 31°C, ii. maintaining physiological neonatal body temperature of 33°C, iii. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 37°C, and i.v. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 39°C. The temperature was controlled starting 15 minutes before and afterword during 10 minutes of anoxia as well as for 2 hours post-anoxia. Cerebral concentrations of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes had been determined post mortem: immediately after anoxia was finished and 3, 7, and 14 days later. There were no post-anoxic changes in the concentration of MDA, CD and in antioxidant enzymes activity in newborn rats kept at their physiological body temperature of 33°C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at body temperature elevated to 37°C or 39°C as well as under hypothermic conditions (31°C) intensified post-anoxic oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool. Overall, these findings suggest that elevated body temperature (hyperthermia or fever), as well as exceeding cooling beyond the physiological level of body temperature of newborn rats, may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions. Our findings provide new insights into the role of body temperature in anoxic insult in vivo.

  17. Effect of walking stress on growth, physiological adaptability and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes in a semi-arid tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Syed M. K.

    2012-03-01

    Sheep in hot semi-arid environments are mostly reared using extensive systems. In addition to thermal stress and feed scarcity, the animals need to walk long distances for grazing in this ecological zone. A study was conducted to assess the effect of long-distance walking on adaptive capability in terms of physiological, biochemical and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes. Fourteen adult Malpura non-pregnant ewes weighing between 33 and 35 kg were used in the study. The ewes were randomly allocated into two groups of seven animals each: GI ( n = 7; Control), and GII ( n = 7; walking stress). The animals were stall-fed with a diet consisting of 70% roughage and 30% concentrate. Both GI and GII ewes had uniform access to feed and water. The walking stress group (GII) ewes were made to walk 14 km in two spans between 0900 and 1500 hours with 1 h 30 min for each span (7 km) of walking. The ewes subjected to walking stress (GII) were prevented from grazing by applying a face mask made of cotton thread. The study was conducted for a period of two estrous cycles (35 days) during the autumn season (October-November). Physiological responses were recorded twice daily at 0800 and 1400 hours at weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at weekly intervals to study the effects of walking stress on blood biochemical and endocrine parameters. The results indicate that walking stress had significant ( P reproductive hormone levels. The significant changes in RR, RT, plasma cortisol, T3 and T4 show that Malpura ewes have the capability to adapt to long-distance walking, and that adrenal and thyroid gland hormones play a significant role in such adaptation.

  18. Can multi-generational exposure to ocean warming and acidification lead to the adaptation of life history and physiology in a marine metazoan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbin, Emma M; Chakravarti, Leela J; Jarrold, Michael D; Christen, Felix; Turpin, Vincent; Massamba N'Siala, Gloria; Blier, Pierre U; Calosi, Piero

    2017-02-15

    Ocean warming and acidification are concomitant global drivers that are currently threatening the survival of marine organisms. How species will respond to these changes depends on their capacity for plastic and adaptive responses. Little is known about the mechanisms that govern plasticity and adaptability or how global changes will influence these relationships across multiple generations. Here, we exposed the emerging model marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica to conditions simulating ocean warming and acidification, in isolation and in combination over five generations to identify: (i) how multiple versus single global change drivers alter both juvenile and adult life-history traits; (ii) the mechanistic link between adult physiological and fitness-related life-history traits; and (iii) whether the phenotypic changes observed over multiple generations are of plastic and/or adaptive origin. Two juvenile (developmental rate; survival to sexual maturity) and two adult (average reproductive body size; fecundity) life-history traits were measured in each generation, in addition to three physiological (cellular reactive oxygen species content, mitochondrial density, mitochondrial capacity) traits. We found that multi-generational exposure to warming alone caused an increase in juvenile developmental rate, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial density, decreases in average reproductive body size and fecundity, and fluctuations in mitochondrial capacity, relative to control conditions. Exposure to ocean acidification alone had only minor effects on juvenile developmental rate. Remarkably, when both drivers of global change were present, only mitochondrial capacity was significantly affected, suggesting that ocean warming and acidification act as opposing vectors of stress across multiple generations. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Pressure Induced Changes in Adaptive Immune Function in Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas; implications for dive physiology and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Thompson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased pressure, associated with diving, can alter cell function through several mechanisms and has been shown to impact immune functions performed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in humans. While marine mammals possess specific adaptations which protect them from dive related injury, it is unknown how their immune system is adapted to the challenges associated with diving. The purpose of this study was to measure PBMC activation (IL2R expression and Concanavalin A induced lymphocyte proliferation (BrdU incorporation in belugas following in vitro pressure exposures during baseline, Out of Water Examination (OWE and capture/release conditions. Beluga blood samples (n=4 were obtained from animals at the Mystic Aquarium and from free ranging animals in Alaska (n=9. Human blood samples (n=4 (Biological Specialty Corporation were run for comparison. In vivo catecholamines and cortisol were measured in belugas to characterize the neuroendocrine response. Comparison of cellular responses between controls and pressure exposed cells, between conditions in belugas, between belugas and humans as well as between dive profiles, were run using mixed generalized linear models (α=0.05. Cortisol was significantly higher in wild belugas and OWE samples as compared with baseline for aquarium animals. Both IL2R expression and proliferation displayed significant pressure induced changes, and these responses varied between conditions in belugas. Both belugas and humans displayed increased IL2R expression, while lymphocyte proliferation decreased for aquarium animals and increased for humans and wild belugas. Results suggest beluga PBMC function is altered during diving and changes may represent dive adaptation as the response differs from humans, a non-dive adapted mammal. In addition, characteristics of a dive (i.e., duration, depth as well as neuroendocrine activity can alter the response of beluga cells, potentially impacting the ability of animals

  20. Application of Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Task Allocation Techniques for Controlling Operator Hazardous States of Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2001-01-01

    Prinzel, Hadley, Freeman, and Mikulka found that adaptive task allocation significantly enhanced performance only when used at the endpoints of the task workload continuum (i.e., very low or high workload), but that the technique degraded performance if invoked during other levels of task demand. These researchers suggested that other techniques should be used in conjunction with adaptive automation to help minimize the onset of hazardous states of awareness (HSA) and keep the operator 'in-the-loop.' The paper reports on such a technique that uses psychophysiological self-regulation to modulate the level of task engagement. Eighteen participants were assigned to three groups (self-regulation, false feedback, and control) and performed a compensatory tracking task that was cycled between three levels of task difficulty on the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) record. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower NASA-TLX scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. Furthermore, the false feedback and control groups had significantly more task allocations resulting in return-to-manual performance decrements and higher EEG difference scores. Theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  1. Environmental and Physiological Aspects of Adaptation of Foreign Students Studying in Russia (on the Example of the Volgograd Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevryukova G.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most powerful factors of environment that has impact on human body, is low temperature. The degree of its influence depends on the area, containment of the cooling surface of the body, the duration and power of exposure, as well as a number of related factors (humidity of atmospheric air, speed of movement. The ability of thermoregulation in humans provides a constant temperature of the body within certain limits of temperature fluctuations of the environment. These fluctuations are not the same for different people. An important role is played by the individual endurance to cold at the same ambient temperature. The ability to maintain homeostatic temperature balance in the system “organism-environment” is one of the most important features of a living system. The article considers the specifics of adaptation of students from warm countries to the climatic conditions of the Volgograd region. The authors describe the climatic characteristics of the Volgograd region. The weather in winter is characterized by the cyclones, which cause heavy snowfalls, blizzards, strong winds up to 13-18 m/s, temperature decrease (to – 28°С.The article presents the results of the evaluation of the average temperature of the body, the parameters of physical development, data cold test. Increasing the average body temperature after the winter period shows the developing process of adapting the body of international students. At the same time the negative reaction to the cold test was revealed with greater manifestations of students from Turkmenistan. It indicates the presence of adverse reactions and the formation of the difficulties of adaptation processes.

  2. Effects of reduced-volume of sprint interval training and the time course of physiological and performance adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, T; Babraj, J

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to determine the time course of training adaptations to two different sprint interval training programmes with the same sprint: rest ratio (1:8) but different sprint duration. Nine participants (M: 7; F: 2) were assigned to 15-second training group (15TG) consisting of 4-6 × 15-second sprints interspersed with 2-minute recovery, whereas eight participants (M: 5; F: 3) were assigned to 30-second training group (30TG) consisting of 4-6 × 30 second sprints interspersed with 4-minute recovery. Both groups performed their respective training twice per week over 9 weeks and changes in peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) and time to exhaustion (TTE) were assessed every 3 weeks. Additional eight healthy active adults (M: 6; F: 2) completed the performance assessments 9 weeks apart without performing training (control group, CON). Following 9 weeks of training, both groups improved V˙O2peak (15TG: 12.1%; 30TG: 12.8%, Pinterval training, endurance capacity (TTE) is more sensitive to such training over a longer time frame in moderately-trained individuals. Furthermore, a 50% reduction in sprint duration does not diminish overall training adaptations over 9 weeks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overkamp, Wout; Ercan, Onur; Herber, Martijn; van Maris, Antonius J A; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h(-1) ) are an unexplored research area in Bacillus subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. To this end, a chemostat modified for culturing an asporogenous B. subtilis sigF mutant strain at extremely low growth rates (also named a retentostat) was set up, and biomass accumulation, culture viability, metabolite production and cell morphology were analysed. During retentostat culturing, the specific growth rate decreased to a minimum of 0.00006 h(-1) , corresponding to a doubling time of 470 days. The energy distribution between growth and maintenance-related processes showed that a state of near-zero growth was reached. Remarkably, a filamentous cell morphology emerged, suggesting that cell separation is impaired under near-zero growth conditions. To evaluate the corresponding molecular adaptations to extremely low specific growth, transcriptome changes were analysed. These revealed that cellular responses to near-zero growth conditions share several similarities with those of cells during the stationary phase of batch growth. However, fundamental differences between these two non-growing states are apparent by their high viability and absence of stationary phase mutagenesis under near-zero growth conditions. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Do Telomeres Adapt to Physiological Stress? Exploring the Effect of Exercise on Telomere Length and Telomere-Related Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a tissue degeneration phenotype marked by a loss of tissue regenerative capacity. Regenerative capacity is dictated by environmental and genetic factors that govern the balance between damage and repair. The age-associated changes in the ability of tissues to replace lost or damaged cells is partly the cause of many age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and sarcopenia. A well-established marker of the aging process is the length of the protective cap at the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and with increasing chronological age and short telomeres have been associated with a range of age-related diseases. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to exercise (i.e., exercise training is associated with telomere length maintenance; however, recent evidence points out several controversial issues concerning tissue-specific telomere length responses. The goals of the review are to familiarize the reader with the current telomere dogma, review the literature exploring the interactions of exercise with telomere phenotypes, discuss the mechanistic research relating telomere dynamics to exercise stimuli, and finally propose future directions for work related to telomeres and physiological stress.

  5. Whole transcriptome analysis of the fasting and fed Burmese python heart: insights into extreme physiological cardiac adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christopher E; Cozza, Steven; Riquelme, Cecilia A; McCombie, W Richard; Heimiller, Joseph K; Marr, Thomas G; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2011-01-01

    The infrequently feeding Burmese python (Python molurus) experiences significant and rapid postprandial cardiac hypertrophy followed by regression as digestion is completed. To begin to explore the molecular mechanisms of this response, we have sequenced and assembled the fasted and postfed Burmese python heart transcriptomes with Illumina technology using the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome as a reference. In addition, we have used RNA-seq analysis to identify differences in the expression of biological processes and signaling pathways between fasted, 1 day postfed (DPF), and 3 DPF hearts. Out of a combined transcriptome of ∼2,800 mRNAs, 464 genes were differentially expressed. Genes showing differential expression at 1 DPF compared with fasted were enriched for biological processes involved in metabolism and energetics, while genes showing differential expression at 3 DPF compared with fasted were enriched for processes involved in biogenesis, structural remodeling, and organization. Moreover, we present evidence for the activation of physiological and not pathological signaling pathways in this rapid, novel model of cardiac growth in pythons. Together, our data provide the first comprehensive gene expression profile for a reptile heart.

  6. Physiological and molecular characterization of atypical lipid-dependent Malassezia yeasts from a dog with skin lesions: adaptation to a new host?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, C; Latrofa, M S; Figueredo, L A; da Silva Machado, M L; Ferreiro, L; Guillot, J; Boekhout, T; Otranto, D

    2011-05-01

    Three lipid-dependent Malassezia isolates (here named 114A, 114B and 114C) recovered from a dog with skin lesions were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. All presented ovoid cells and buds formed on a narrow base. Most of the results from physiological tests were consistent with those of Malassezia furfur. The phylogenetic analysis of ITS-1 and LSU nucleotide sequences was concordant in placing all three clinical Malassezia isolates close to M. furfur. However, the phylogenetic data on the chs-2 sequence revealed that clinical isolate 114A is distinct from M. furfur and was closely affiliated to the sequence of M. pachydermatis with high nodal support. In particular, lipid-dependent isolates 114A displayed chs-2 sequences similar (100%) to that of the non-lipid dependent species Malassezia pachydermatis. The presence of the genetic and physiological polymorphisms detected in these three isolates of M. furfur could have resulted from a process of adaptation of this anthropophilic species to a new host.

  7. Gut physiology mediates a trade-off between adaptation to malnutrition and susceptibility to food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendravarma, Roshan K; Narasimha, Sunitha; Chakrabarti, Sveta; Babin, Aurelie; Kolly, Sylvain; Lemaitre, Bruno; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2015-10-01

    The animal gut plays a central role in tackling two common ecological challenges, nutrient shortage and food-borne parasites, the former by efficient digestion and nutrient absorption, the latter by acting as an immune organ and a barrier. It remains unknown whether these functions can be independently optimised by evolution, or whether they interfere with each other. We report that Drosophila melanogaster populations adapted during 160 generations of experimental evolution to chronic larval malnutrition became more susceptible to intestinal infection with the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila. However, they do not show suppressed immune response or higher bacterial loads. Rather, their increased susceptibility to P. entomophila is largely mediated by an elevated predisposition to loss of intestinal barrier integrity upon infection. These results may reflect a trade-off between the efficiency of nutrient extraction from poor food and the protective function of the gut, in particular its tolerance to pathogen-induced damage. © 2015 The Authors Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  8. Adaptive Response and Tolerance to Acetic Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii: A Physiological Genomics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Margarida; Guerreiro, Joana F.; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Acetic acid is an important microbial growth inhibitor in the food industry; it is used as a preservative in foods and beverages and is produced during normal yeast metabolism in biotechnological processes. Acetic acid is also a major inhibitory compound present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates affecting the use of this promising carbon source for sustainable bioprocesses. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae response and adaptation to acetic acid have been studied for years, only recently they have been examined in more detail in Zygosaccharomyces bailii. However, due to its remarkable tolerance to acetic acid and other weak acids this yeast species is a major threat in the spoilage of acidic foods and beverages and considered as an interesting alternative cell factory in Biotechnology. This review paper emphasizes genome-wide strategies that are providing global insights into the molecular targets, signaling pathways and mechanisms behind S. cerevisiae and Z. bailii tolerance to acetic acid, and extends this information to other weak acids whenever relevant. Such comprehensive perspective and the knowledge gathered in these two yeast species allowed the identification of candidate molecular targets, either for the design of effective strategies to overcome yeast spoilage in acidic foods and beverages, or for the rational genome engineering to construct more robust industrial strains. Examples of successful applications are provided. PMID:29515554

  9. Adaptive Response and Tolerance to Acetic Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii: A Physiological Genomics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Palma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid is an important microbial growth inhibitor in the food industry; it is used as a preservative in foods and beverages and is produced during normal yeast metabolism in biotechnological processes. Acetic acid is also a major inhibitory compound present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates affecting the use of this promising carbon source for sustainable bioprocesses. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae response and adaptation to acetic acid have been studied for years, only recently they have been examined in more detail in Zygosaccharomyces bailii. However, due to its remarkable tolerance to acetic acid and other weak acids this yeast species is a major threat in the spoilage of acidic foods and beverages and considered as an interesting alternative cell factory in Biotechnology. This review paper emphasizes genome-wide strategies that are providing global insights into the molecular targets, signaling pathways and mechanisms behind S. cerevisiae and Z. bailii tolerance to acetic acid, and extends this information to other weak acids whenever relevant. Such comprehensive perspective and the knowledge gathered in these two yeast species allowed the identification of candidate molecular targets, either for the design of effective strategies to overcome yeast spoilage in acidic foods and beverages, or for the rational genome engineering to construct more robust industrial strains. Examples of successful applications are provided.

  10. Adaptive Response and Tolerance to Acetic Acid inSaccharomyces cerevisiaeandZygosaccharomyces bailii: A Physiological Genomics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Margarida; Guerreiro, Joana F; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Acetic acid is an important microbial growth inhibitor in the food industry; it is used as a preservative in foods and beverages and is produced during normal yeast metabolism in biotechnological processes. Acetic acid is also a major inhibitory compound present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates affecting the use of this promising carbon source for sustainable bioprocesses. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae response and adaptation to acetic acid have been studied for years, only recently they have been examined in more detail in Zygosaccharomyces bailii . However, due to its remarkable tolerance to acetic acid and other weak acids this yeast species is a major threat in the spoilage of acidic foods and beverages and considered as an interesting alternative cell factory in Biotechnology. This review paper emphasizes genome-wide strategies that are providing global insights into the molecular targets, signaling pathways and mechanisms behind S. cerevisiae and Z. bailii tolerance to acetic acid, and extends this information to other weak acids whenever relevant. Such comprehensive perspective and the knowledge gathered in these two yeast species allowed the identification of candidate molecular targets, either for the design of effective strategies to overcome yeast spoilage in acidic foods and beverages, or for the rational genome engineering to construct more robust industrial strains. Examples of successful applications are provided.

  11. Physiological adaptation of Escherichia coli after transfer onto refrigerated ground meat and other solid matrices: a molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernec, Anthony; Robichaud-Rincon, Philippe; Saucier, Linda

    2012-10-01

    Bacteria on meat are subjected to specific living conditions that differ drastically from typical laboratory procedures in synthetic media. This study was undertaken to determine the behavior of bacteria when transferred from a rich-liquid medium to solid matrices, as is the case during microbial process validation. Escherichia coli cultured in Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) broth to different growth phases were inoculated in ground beef (GB) and stored at 5°C for 12 days or spread onto BHI agar and cooked meat medium (CMM), and incubated at 37°C for several hours. We monitored cell densities and the expression of σ factors and genes under their control over time. The initial growth phase of the inoculum influenced growth resumption after transfer onto BHI agar and CMM. Whatever the solid matrix, bacteria adapted to their new environment and did not perceive stress immediately after inoculation. During this period, the σ(E) and σ(H) regulons were not activated and rpoD mRNA levels adjusted quickly. The rpoS and gadA mRNA levels did not increase after inoculation on solid surfaces and displayed normal growth-dependent modifications. After transfer onto GB, dnaK and groEL gene expression was affected more by the low temperature than by the composition of a meat environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genus-Wide Comparative Genomics of Malassezia Delineates Its Phylogeny, Physiology, and Niche Adaptation on Human Skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxi Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia is a unique lipophilic genus in class Malasseziomycetes in Ustilaginomycotina, (Basidiomycota, fungi that otherwise consists almost exclusively of plant pathogens. Malassezia are typically isolated from warm-blooded animals, are dominant members of the human skin mycobiome and are associated with common skin disorders. To characterize the genetic basis of the unique phenotypes of Malassezia spp., we sequenced the genomes of all 14 accepted species and used comparative genomics against a broad panel of fungal genomes to comprehensively identify distinct features that define the Malassezia gene repertoire: gene gain and loss; selection signatures; and lineage-specific gene family expansions. Our analysis revealed key gene gain events (64 with a single gene conserved across all Malassezia but absent in all other sequenced Basidiomycota. These likely horizontally transferred genes provide intriguing gain-of-function events and prime candidates to explain the emergence of Malassezia. A larger set of genes (741 were lost, with enrichment for glycosyl hydrolases and carbohydrate metabolism, concordant with adaptation to skin's carbohydrate-deficient environment. Gene family analysis revealed extensive turnover and underlined the importance of secretory lipases, phospholipases, aspartyl proteases, and other peptidases. Combining genomic analysis with a re-evaluation of culture characteristics, we establish the likely lipid-dependence of all Malassezia. Our phylogenetic analysis sheds new light on the relationship between Malassezia and other members of Ustilaginomycotina, as well as phylogenetic lineages within the genus. Overall, our study provides a unique genomic resource for understanding Malassezia niche-specificity and potential virulence, as well as their abundance and distribution in the environment and on human skin.

  13. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological and Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalcakan Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT and continuous endurance training (CET on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4-6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30-50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model.

  14. Genome-guided analysis of physiological capacities of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans provides insights into environmental adaptations and syntrophic acetate oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Müller

    Full Text Available This paper describes the genome-based analysis of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans strain Re1, a syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacterium (SAOB. Principal issues such as environmental adaptations, metabolic capacities, and energy conserving systems have been investigated and the potential consequences for syntrophic acetate oxidation discussed. Briefly, in pure culture, T. acetatoxydans grows with different organic compounds and produces acetate as the main product. In a syntrophic consortium with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, it can also reverse its metabolism and instead convert acetate to formate/H2 and CO2. It can only proceed if the product formed is continuously removed. This process generates a very small amount of energy that is scarcely enough for growth, which makes this particular syntrophy of special interest. As a crucial member of the biogas-producing community in ammonium-rich engineered AD processes, genomic features conferring ammonium resistance, bacterial defense, oxygen and temperature tolerance were found, as well as attributes related to biofilm formation and flocculation. It is likely that T. acetatoxydans can form an electrochemical gradient by putative electron-bifurcating Rnf complex and [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases, as observed in other acetogens. However, genomic deficiencies related to acetogenic metabolism and anaerobic respiration were discovered, such as the lack of formate dehydrogenase and F1F0 ATP synthase. This has potential consequences for the metabolic pathways used under SAO and non-SAO conditions. The two complete sets of bacteriophage genomes, which were found to be encoded in the genome, are also worthy of mention.

  15. Leaf Physiological and Proteomic Analysis to Elucidate Silicon Induced Adaptive Response under Salt Stress in Rosa hybrida 'Rock Fire'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivannan, Abinaya; Ko, Chung Ho; Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2017-08-14

    understanding on potential mechanism(s) adapted by rose due to the exogenous Si supplementation during the salinity stress.

  16. Genus-Wide Comparative Genomics of Malassezia Delineates Its Phylogeny, Physiology, and Niche Adaptation on Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangxi; Zhao, He; Li, Chenhao; Rajapakse, Menaka Priyadarsani; Wong, Wing Cheong; Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W; Reeder, Nancy L; Reilman, Raymond A; Scheynius, Annika; Sun, Sheng; Billmyre, Blake Robert; Li, Wenjun; Averette, Anna Floyd; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Heitman, Joseph; Theelen, Bart; Schröder, Markus S; De Sessions, Paola Florez; Butler, Geraldine; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Boekhout, Teun; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Dawson, Thomas L

    2015-11-01

    Malassezia is a unique lipophilic genus in class Malasseziomycetes in Ustilaginomycotina, (Basidiomycota, fungi) that otherwise consists almost exclusively of plant pathogens. Malassezia are typically isolated from warm-blooded animals, are dominant members of the human skin mycobiome and are associated with common skin disorders. To characterize the genetic basis of the unique phenotypes of Malassezia spp., we sequenced the genomes of all 14 accepted species and used comparative genomics against a broad panel of fungal genomes to comprehensively identify distinct features that define the Malassezia gene repertoire: gene gain and loss; selection signatures; and lineage-specific gene family expansions. Our analysis revealed key gene gain events (64) with a single gene conserved across all Malassezia but absent in all other sequenced Basidiomycota. These likely horizontally transferred genes provide intriguing gain-of-function events and prime candidates to explain the emergence of Malassezia. A larger set of genes (741) were lost, with enrichment for glycosyl hydrolases and carbohydrate metabolism, concordant with adaptation to skin's carbohydrate-deficient environment. Gene family analysis revealed extensive turnover and underlined the importance of secretory lipases, phospholipases, aspartyl proteases, and other peptidases. Combining genomic analysis with a re-evaluation of culture characteristics, we establish the likely lipid-dependence of all Malassezia. Our phylogenetic analysis sheds new light on the relationship between Malassezia and other members of Ustilaginomycotina, as well as phylogenetic lineages within the genus. Overall, our study provides a unique genomic resource for understanding Malassezia niche-specificity and potential virulence, as well as their abundance and distribution in the environment and on human skin.

  17. Lack of Physiological Depth Patterns in Conspecifics of Endemic Antarctic Brown Algae: A Trade-Off between UV Stress Tolerance and Shade Adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Iván; Huovinen, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    A striking characteristic of endemic Antarctic brown algae is their broad vertical distribution. This feature is largely determined by the shade adaptation in order to cope with the seasonal variation in light availability. However, during spring-summer months, when light penetrates deep in the water column these organisms have to withstand high levels of solar radiation, including UV. In the present study we examine the light use characteristics in parallel to a potential for UV tolerance (measured as content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and maximum quantum yield of fluorescence) in conspecific populations of four Antarctic brown algae (Ascoseira mirabilis, Desmarestia menziesii, D. anceps and Himantothallus grandifolius) distributed over a depth gradient between 5 and 30 m. The main results indicated that a) photosynthetic efficiency was uniform along the depth gradient in all the studied species, and b) short-term (6 h) exposure to UV radiation revealed a high tolerance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence, phlorotannin content and antioxidant capacity. Multivariate analysis of similarity indicated that light requirements for photosynthesis, soluble phlorotannins and antioxidant capacity are the variables determining the responses along the depth gradient in all the studied species. The suite of physiological responses of algae with a shallower distribution (A. mirabilis and D. menziesii) differed from those with deeper vertical range (D. anceps and H. grandifolius). These patterns are consistent with the underwater light penetration that defines two zones: 0-15 m, with influence of UV radiation (1% of UV-B and UV-A at 9 m and 15 m respectively) and a zone below 15 m marked by PAR incidence (1% up to 30 m). These results support the prediction that algae show a UV stress tolerance capacity along a broad depth range according to their marked shade adaptation. The high contents of phlorotannins and antioxidant potential appear to be strongly

  18. Lack of Physiological Depth Patterns in Conspecifics of Endemic Antarctic Brown Algae: A Trade-Off between UV Stress Tolerance and Shade Adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Gómez

    Full Text Available A striking characteristic of endemic Antarctic brown algae is their broad vertical distribution. This feature is largely determined by the shade adaptation in order to cope with the seasonal variation in light availability. However, during spring-summer months, when light penetrates deep in the water column these organisms have to withstand high levels of solar radiation, including UV. In the present study we examine the light use characteristics in parallel to a potential for UV tolerance (measured as content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and maximum quantum yield of fluorescence in conspecific populations of four Antarctic brown algae (Ascoseira mirabilis, Desmarestia menziesii, D. anceps and Himantothallus grandifolius distributed over a depth gradient between 5 and 30 m. The main results indicated that a photosynthetic efficiency was uniform along the depth gradient in all the studied species, and b short-term (6 h exposure to UV radiation revealed a high tolerance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence, phlorotannin content and antioxidant capacity. Multivariate analysis of similarity indicated that light requirements for photosynthesis, soluble phlorotannins and antioxidant capacity are the variables determining the responses along the depth gradient in all the studied species. The suite of physiological responses of algae with a shallower distribution (A. mirabilis and D. menziesii differed from those with deeper vertical range (D. anceps and H. grandifolius. These patterns are consistent with the underwater light penetration that defines two zones: 0-15 m, with influence of UV radiation (1% of UV-B and UV-A at 9 m and 15 m respectively and a zone below 15 m marked by PAR incidence (1% up to 30 m. These results support the prediction that algae show a UV stress tolerance capacity along a broad depth range according to their marked shade adaptation. The high contents of phlorotannins and antioxidant potential appear to be

  19. GnRH-induced Ca2+ signaling patterns and gonadotropin secretion in pituitary gonadotrophs. Functional adaptations to both ordinary and extraordinary physiological demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa eDurán-Pastén

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary gonadotrophs are a small fraction of the anterior pituitary population, yet they synthesize gonadotropins: luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating (FSH, essential for gametogenesis and steroidogenesis. LH is secreted via a regulated pathway while FSH release is mostly constitutive and controlled by synthesis. Although gonadotrophs fire action potentials spontaneously, the intracellular Ca2+ rises produced do not influence secretion, which is mainly driven by Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH, a decapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus and released in a pulsatile manner into the hypophyseal portal circulation. GnRH binding to G protein coupled receptors triggers Ca2+ mobilization from InsP3-sensitive intracellular pools, generating the global Ca2+ elevations necessary for secretion. Ca2+ signaling responses to increasing [GnRH] vary in stereotyped fashion from subthreshold to baseline spiking (oscillatory, to biphasic (spike-oscillatory or spike-plateau. This progression varies somewhat in gonadotrophs from different species and biological preparations. Both baseline spiking and biphasic GnRH-induced Ca2+ signals control LH/FSH synthesis and exocytosis. Estradiol and testosterone regulate gonadotropin secretion through feedback mechanisms, while FSH synthesis and release are influenced by activin, inhibin and follistatin. Adaptation to physiological events like the estrous cycle, involves changes in GnRH sensitivity and LH/FSH synthesis: in proestrus, estradiol feedback regulation abruptly changes from negative to positive, causing the pre-ovulatory LH surge. Similarly, when testosterone levels drop after orquiectomy the lack of negative feedback on pituitary and hypothalamus boosts both GnRH and LH secretion, gonadotrophs GnRH sensitivity increases and Ca2+ signaling patterns change. In addition, gonadotrophs proliferate and grow. These plastic changes denote a more vigorous functional adaptation in response to an extraordinary

  20. Fitness and health benefits of team handball training for young untrained women - A cross-disciplinary RCT on physiological adaptations and motivational aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Therese; Wikman, Johan Michael; Fristrup, Bjørn

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The present study evaluated the effects of regular participation in small-sided team handball training on body composition, osteogenic response, physical performance, and cardiovascular risk factors, as well as well-being and motivation, in young untrained women. Methods: Twenty......-eight untrained 20- to 30-year-old women were randomized to a handball training group (HG; n = 14, height 170 ± 5 cm, weight 73 ± 11 kg, VO2peak 37.7 ± 4.1 mL/min/kg) that trained 1.7 ± 0.3 time per week over 12 weeks (70 min 4v4 handball sessions) or an inactive control group (CG; n = 14, 169 ± 5 cm, 71 ± 12 kg......, 38.1 ± 3.7 mL/min/kg). Physiological and psychological and motivational training adaptations were assessed pre- and post-intervention by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans, blood sampling, physical tests, and questionnaires. Results: The average heart rate (HR) over all training sessions...

  1. DAF-16 and TCER-1 Facilitate Adaptation to Germline Loss by Restoring Lipid Homeostasis and Repressing Reproductive Physiology in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrit, Francis Raj Gandhi; Steenkiste, Elizabeth Marie; Ratnappan, Ramesh; Chen, Shaw-Wen; McClendon, T. Brooke; Kostka, Dennis; Yanowitz, Judith; Olsen, Carissa Perez; Ghazi, Arjumand

    2016-01-01

    Elimination of the proliferating germline extends lifespan in C. elegans. This phenomenon provides a unique platform to understand how complex metazoans retain metabolic homeostasis when challenged with major physiological perturbations. Here, we demonstrate that two conserved transcription regulators essential for the longevity of germline-less adults, DAF-16/FOXO3A and TCER-1/TCERG1, concurrently enhance the expression of multiple genes involved in lipid synthesis and breakdown, and that both gene classes promote longevity. Lipidomic analyses revealed that key lipogenic processes, including de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride production, desaturation and elongation, are augmented upon germline removal. Our data suggest that lipid anabolic and catabolic pathways are coordinately augmented in response to germline loss, and this metabolic shift helps preserve lipid homeostasis. DAF-16 and TCER-1 also perform essential inhibitory functions in germline-ablated animals. TCER-1 inhibits the somatic gene-expression program that facilitates reproduction and represses anti-longevity genes, whereas DAF-16 impedes ribosome biogenesis. Additionally, we discovered that TCER-1 is critical for optimal fertility in normal adults, suggesting that the protein acts as a switch supporting reproductive fitness or longevity depending on the presence or absence of the germline. Collectively, our data offer insights into how organisms adapt to changes in reproductive status, by utilizing the activating and repressive functions of transcription factors and coordinating fat production and degradation. PMID:26862916

  2. EARLY DARK ADAPTATION IN LIMULUS POLYPHEMUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VISION, ADAPTATION(PHYSIOLOGY)), THRESHOLDS(PHYSIOLOGY), NERVE CELLS, RETINA, PHOTORECEPTORS, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, NERVE IMPULSES, OPTIC NERVE, EYE, PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, ARTHROPODA

  3. Short-term heat acclimation training improves physical performance: a systematic review, and exploration of physiological adaptations and application for team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Samuel; Esterman, Adrian; Eston, Roger; Bowering, K Jane; Norton, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated that longer-term heat acclimation training (≥8 heat exposures) improves physical performance. The physiological adaptations gained through short-term heat acclimation (STHA) training suggest that physical performance can be enhanced within a brief timeframe. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if STHA training (≤7 heat exposures) can improve physical performance in healthy adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus™ databases were searched for available literature. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: STHA intervention, performance measure outcome, apparently healthy participants, adult participants (≥18 years of age), primary data, and human participants. A modified McMaster critical appraisal tool determined the level of bias in each included study. Eight papers met the inclusion criteria. Studies varied from having a low to a high risk of bias. The review identified aerobic-based tests of performance benefit from STHA training. Peak anaerobic power efforts have not been demonstrated to improve. At the review level, this systematic review did not include tolerance time exercise tests; however, certain professions may be interested in this type of exercise (e.g. fire-fighters). At the outcome level, the review was limited by the moderate level of bias that exists in the field. Only two randomized controlled trials were included. Furthermore, a limited number of studies could be identified (eight), and only one of these articles focused on women participants. The review identified that aerobic-based tests of performance benefit from STHA training. This is possibly through a number of cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic adaptations improving the perception of effort and fatigue through a reduction in anaerobic energy release and elevation of the anaerobic threshold. These results should be viewed with caution due to the level of available evidence, and the limited number of papers that

  4. Insights into the physiology and ecology of the brackish-water-adapted Cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena CCY9414 based on a genome-transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Voss

    Full Text Available Nodularia spumigena is a filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacterium that dominates the annual late summer cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea. But N. spumigena also is common in brackish water bodies worldwide, suggesting special adaptation allowing it to thrive at moderate salinities. A draft genome analysis of N. spumigena sp. CCY9414 yielded a single scaffold of 5,462,271 nucleotides in length on which genes for 5,294 proteins were annotated. A subsequent strand-specific transcriptome analysis identified more than 6,000 putative transcriptional start sites (TSS. Orphan TSSs located in intergenic regions led us to predict 764 non-coding RNAs, among them 70 copies of a possible retrotransposon and several potential RNA regulators, some of which are also present in other N2-fixing cyanobacteria. Approximately 4% of the total coding capacity is devoted to the production of secondary metabolites, among them the potent hepatotoxin nodularin, the linear spumigin and the cyclic nodulapeptin. The transcriptional complexity associated with genes involved in nitrogen fixation and heterocyst differentiation is considerably smaller compared to other Nostocales. In contrast, sophisticated systems exist for the uptake and assimilation of iron and phosphorus compounds, for the synthesis of compatible solutes, and for the formation of gas vesicles, required for the active control of buoyancy. Hence, the annotation and interpretation of this sequence provides a vast array of clues into the genomic underpinnings of the physiology of this cyanobacterium and indicates in particular a competitive edge of N. spumigena in nutrient-limited brackish water ecosystems.

  5. Physiological responses of emerald ash borer larvae to feeding on different ash species reveal putative resistance mechanisms and insect counter-adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigsby, C M; Showalter, D N; Herms, D A; Koch, J L; Bonello, P; Cipollini, D

    2015-07-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an Asian wood-boring beetle, has devastated ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North American forests and landscapes since its discovery there in 2002. In this study, we collected living larvae from EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandschurica), and susceptible white (Fraxinus americana) and green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) ash hosts, and quantified the activity and production of selected detoxification, digestive, and antioxidant enzymes. We hypothesized that differences in larval physiology could be used to infer resistance mechanisms of ash. We found no differences in cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, carboxylesterase, sulfotransferase, and tryptic BApNAase activities between larvae feeding on different hosts. Despite this, Manchurian ash-fed larvae produced a single isozyme of low electrophoretic mobility that was not produced in white or green ash-fed larvae. Additionally, larvae feeding on white and green ash produced two serine protease isozymes of high electrophoretic mobility that were not observed in Manchurian ash-fed larvae. We also found lower activity of β-glucosidase and higher activities of monoamine oxidase, ortho-quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase in Manchurian ash-fed larvae compared to larvae that had fed on susceptible ash. A single isozyme was detected for both catalase and superoxide dismutase in all larval groups. The activities of the quinone-protective and antioxidant enzymes are consistent with the resistance phenotype of the host species, with the highest activities measured in larvae feeding on resistant Manchurian ash. We conclude that larvae feeding on Manchurian ash could be under quinone and oxidative stress, suggesting these may be potential mechanisms of resistance of Manchurian ash to EAB larvae, and that quinone-protective and antioxidant enzymes are important counter-adaptations of larvae for dealing with these resistance

  6. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Nasal Physiology Jeremiah A. Alt, MD, PhD Noam Cohen, MD, ... control the inflammation. CONCLUSION An understanding of the physiology of the nose is critical to understand nasal ...

  7. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  8. Upper respiratory tract nociceptor stimulation and stress response following acute and repeated Cyfluthrin inhalation in normal and pregnant rats: Physiological rat-specific adaptions can easily be misunderstood as adversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauluhn, Juergen

    2018-01-05

    This paper reviews the results from past regulatory and mechanistic inhalation studies in rats with the type II pyrethroid Cyfluthrin. Apart from many chemical irritants, Cyfluthrin was shown to be a neuroexcitatory agent without any inherent tissue-destructive or irritant property. Thus, any Cyfluthrin-induced neuroexcitatory afferent sensory stimulus from peripheral nociceptors in the upper respiratory tract is likely to be perceived as a transient stimulus triggering annoyance and/or avoidance by both rats and humans. However, while thermolabile rats respond to such stresses reflexively, homeothermic humans appear to respond psychologically. With this focus in mind, past inhalation studies in rats and human volunteers were reevaluated and assessed to identify common denominators to such neuroexcitatory stimuli upon inhalation exposure. This analysis supports the conclusion that the adaptive physiological response occurring in rats secondary to such chemosensory stimuli requires inhalation exposures above the chemosensory threshold. Rats, a species known to undergo adaptively a hibernation-like physiological state upon environmental stresses, experienced reflexively-induced bradypnea, bradycardia, hypothermia, and changes in acid-base status during inhalation exposure. After cessation of the sensory stimulus, rapid recovery occurred. Physiological data of male and female rats from a 4-week repeated inhalation study (exposure 6-h/day, 5-times/week) were used to select concentration for a 10-day developmental inhalation toxicity study in pregnant rats. Maternal hypothermia and hypoventilation were identified as likely cause of fetal and placental growth retardations because of a maternal adaptation-driven reduced feto-placental transfer of oxygen. In summary, maternal reflex-hypothermia, reduced cardiac output and placental perfusion, and disruption of the gestation-related hyperventilation are believed to be the maternally mediated causes for developmental

  9. Physiological and molecular characterization of atypical lipid-dependent Malassezia yeasts from a dog with skin lesions: adaptation to a new host?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarchia, C.; Latrofa, M.S.; Figueredo, L.A.; da Silva Machado, M.L.; Ferreiro, L.; Guillot, J.; Boekhout, T.; Otranto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Three lipid-dependent Malassezia isolates (here named 114A, 114B and 114C) recovered from a dog with skin lesions were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. All presented ovoid cells and buds formed on a narrow base. Most of the results from physiological tests were consistent with those

  10. Adaptation to thermotolerance in Rhizopus coincides with virulence as revealed by avian and invertebrate infection models, phylogeny, physiological and metabolic flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaerger, Kerstin; Schwartze, Volker U; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Nyilasi, Ildikó; Kovács, Stella A; Binder, Ulrike; Papp, Tamás; Hoog, Sybren de; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Voigt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Mucormycoses are fungal infections caused by the ancient Mucorales. They are rare, but increasingly reported. Predisposing conditions supporting and favoring mucormycoses in humans and animals include diabetic ketoacidosis, immunosuppression and haematological malignancies. However, comprehensive surveys to elucidate fungal virulence in ancient fungi are limited and so far focused on Lichtheimia and Mucor. The presented study focused on one of the most important causative agent of mucormycoses, the genus Rhizopus (Rhizopodaceae). All known clinically-relevant species are thermotolerant and are monophyletic. They are more virulent compared to non-clinically, mesophilic species. Although adaptation to elevated temperatures correlated with the virulence of the species, mesophilic strains showed also lower virulence in Galleria mellonella incubated at permissive temperatures indicating the existence of additional factors involved in the pathogenesis of clinical Rhizopus species. However, neither specific adaptation to nutritional requirements nor stress resistance correlated with virulence, supporting the idea that Mucorales are predominantly saprotrophs without a specific adaptation to warm blooded hosts.

  11. The Importance of Morphological/Physiological Heterogeneity as Adaptive Strategies in Stocks of Common Northern/Arctic Phytoplankton Species with Special Focus on the Common Diatom Chaetoceros socialis

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Kathryn Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cosmopolitan, centric diatom Chaetoceros socialis was investigated in terms of its validity as a single species characterized by its morphology, physiology and distribution. A database was constructed using my own and published literature distribution observations of C. socialis in Northern Norway, the Atlantic, Arctic and Barents Sea. From this range of observations, it is possible to establish that C. socialis is found at temperatures ranging from -1.86°C to +13.6°C. Observatio...

  12. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  13. Bergmann's Rule, Adaptation, and Thermoregulation in Arctic Animals: Conflicting Perspectives from Physiology, Evolutionary Biology, and Physical Anthropology After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joel B

    2017-05-01

    Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule played important roles in mid-twentieth century discussions of adaptation, variation, and geographical distribution. Although inherited from the nineteenth-century natural history tradition these rules gained significance during the consolidation of the modern synthesis as evolutionary theorists focused attention on populations as units of evolution. For systematists, the rules provided a compelling rationale for identifying geographical races or subspecies, a function that was also picked up by some physical anthropologists. More generally, the rules provided strong evidence for adaptation by natural selection. Supporters of the rules tacitly, or often explicitly, assumed that the clines described by the rules reflected adaptations for thermoregulation. This assumption was challenged by the physiologists Laurence Irving and Per Scholander based on their arctic research conducted after World War II. Their critique spurred a controversy played out in a series of articles in Evolution, in Ernst Mayr's Animal Species and Evolution, and in the writings of other prominent evolutionary biologists and physical anthropologists. Considering this episode highlights the complexity and ambiguity of important biological concepts such as adaptation, homeostasis, and self-regulation. It also demonstrates how different disciplinary orientations and styles of scientific research influenced evolutionary explanations, and the consequent difficulties of constructing a truly synthetic evolutionary biology in the decades immediately following World War II.

  14. Salinity adaptation of the invasive New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the Columbia River estuary (Pacific Northwest, USA): Physiological and molecular studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal; Boese, Bruce L.; Taylor, Louise; Reusser, Deborah; Rodriguez, Rusty

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine salinity stress tolerances of two populations of the invasive species New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, one population from a high salinity environment in the Columbia River estuary and the other from a fresh water lake. In 1996, New Zealand mud snails were discovered in the tidal reaches of the Columbia River estuary that is routinely exposed to salinity at near full seawater concentrations. In contrast, in their native habitat and throughout its spread in the western US, New Zealand mud snails are found only in fresh water ecosystems. Our aim was to determine whether the Columbia River snails have become salt water adapted. Using a modification of the standard amphipod sediment toxicity test, salinity tolerance was tested using a range of concentrations up to undiluted seawater, and the snails were sampled for mortality at daily time points. Our results show that the Columbia River snails were more tolerant of acute salinity stress with the LC50 values averaging 38 and 22 Practical Salinity Units for the Columbia River and freshwater snails, respectively. DNA sequence analysis and morphological comparisons of individuals representing each population indicate that they were all P. antipodarum. These results suggest that this species is salt water adaptable and in addition, this investigation helps elucidate the potential of this aquatic invasive organism to adapt to adverse environmental conditions.

  15. Physiological and performance adaptations to an in-season soccer camp in the heat: Associations with heart rate and heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchheit, M; Voss, S C; Nybo, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between adaptive responses to an in-season soccer training camp in the heat and changes in submaximal exercising heart rate (HRex, 5-min run at 9 ¿km/h), postexercise HR recovery (HRR) and HR variability (HRV). Fifteen well......) activity, plasma volume (PV) changes, and post-5-min run rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected at six occasions in temperate environmental conditions (22°C). Players also performed the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) in the same environmental conditions (22°C), both...

  16. How do Bacteria Adapt to the Red Sea? Cultivation and Genomic and Physiological Characterization of Oligotrophic Bacteria of the PS1, OM43, and SAR11 Clades

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.

    2015-05-01

    Given the high salinity, prevailing annual high temperatures, and ultra-oligotrophic conditions in the Red Sea isolation and characterization of important microbial groups thriving in this environment is important in understanding the ecological significance and metabolic capabilities of these communities. By using a high-­throughput cultivation technique in natural seawater amended with minute amounts of nutrients, members of the rare biosphere (PS1), methylotrophic Betaproteobacteria (OM43), and the ubiquitous and abundant SAR11 group (Pelagibacterales), were isolated in pure culture. Phylogenetic analyses of Red Sea isolates along with comparative genomics with close representatives from disparate provinces revealed ecotypes and genomic differentiation among the groups. Firstly, the PS1 alphaproteobacterial clade was found to be present in very low abundance in several metagenomic datasets form divergent environments. While strain RS24 (Red Sea) harbored genomic islands involved in polymer degradation, IMCC14465 (East (Japan) Sea) contained unique genes for degradation of aromatic compounds. Secondly, methylotrophic OM43 bacteria from the Red Sea (F5, G12 and H7) showed higher similarities with KB13 isolate from Hawaii, forming a ‘H-­RS’ (Hawaii-­Red Sea) cluster separate from HTCC2181 (Oregon isolate). HTCC2181 members were shown to prevail in cold, productive coastal environments and had an nqrA-­F system for energy generation by sodium motive force. On the contrary, H-­RS cluster members may be better adapted to warm and oligotrophic environments, and seem to generate energy by using a proton-­translocating NADH:Quinone oxidoreductase (complex I; nuoA-­N subunits). Moreover, F5, G12, and H7 had unique proteins related to resistance to UV, temperature and salinity, in addition to a heavy metal ‘resistance island’ as adaptive traits to cope with the environmental conditions in the Red Sea. Finally, description of the Red Sea Pelagibacterales

  17. Physiological response of Pichia pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high level production of the Hepatitis B surface antigen: catabolic adaptation, stress responses, and autophagic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanz, Ana Leticia; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Adnan, Ahmad; Nimtz, Manfred; Gurramkonda, Chandrasekhar; Khanna, Navin; Rinas, Ursula

    2012-08-08

    Pichia pastoris is an established eukaryotic host for the production of recombinant proteins. Most often, protein production is under the control of the strong methanol-inducible aox1 promoter. However, detailed information about the physiological alterations in P. pastoris accompanying the shift from growth on glycerol to methanol-induced protein production under industrial relevant conditions is missing. Here, we provide an analysis of the physiological response of P. pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high-level production of the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). High product titers and the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are supposedly of major impact on the host physiology. For a more detailed understanding of the cellular response to methanol-induced HBsAg production, the time-dependent changes in the yeast proteome and ultrastructural cell morphology were analyzed during the production process. The shift from growth on glycerol to growth and HBsAg production on methanol was accompanied by a drastic change in the yeast proteome. In particular, enzymes from the methanol dissimilation pathway started to dominate the proteome while enzymes from the methanol assimilation pathway, e.g. the transketolase DAS1, increased only moderately. The majority of methanol was metabolized via the energy generating dissimilatory pathway leading to a corresponding increase in mitochondrial size and numbers. The methanol-metabolism related generation of reactive oxygen species induced a pronounced oxidative stress response (e.g. strong increase of the peroxiredoxin PMP20). Moreover, the accumulation of HBsAg in the ER resulted in the induction of the unfolded protein response (e.g. strong increase of the ER-resident disulfide isomerase, PDI) and the ER associated degradation (ERAD) pathway (e.g. increase of two cytosolic chaperones and members of the AAA ATPase superfamily) indicating that potential degradation of HBsAg could proceed via the

  18. Physiological response of Pichia pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high level production of the Hepatitis B surface antigen: catabolic adaptation, stress responses, and autophagic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pichia pastoris is an established eukaryotic host for the production of recombinant proteins. Most often, protein production is under the control of the strong methanol-inducible aox1 promoter. However, detailed information about the physiological alterations in P. pastoris accompanying the shift from growth on glycerol to methanol-induced protein production under industrial relevant conditions is missing. Here, we provide an analysis of the physiological response of P. pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high-level production of the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). High product titers and the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are supposedly of major impact on the host physiology. For a more detailed understanding of the cellular response to methanol-induced HBsAg production, the time-dependent changes in the yeast proteome and ultrastructural cell morphology were analyzed during the production process. Results The shift from growth on glycerol to growth and HBsAg production on methanol was accompanied by a drastic change in the yeast proteome. In particular, enzymes from the methanol dissimilation pathway started to dominate the proteome while enzymes from the methanol assimilation pathway, e.g. the transketolase DAS1, increased only moderately. The majority of methanol was metabolized via the energy generating dissimilatory pathway leading to a corresponding increase in mitochondrial size and numbers. The methanol-metabolism related generation of reactive oxygen species induced a pronounced oxidative stress response (e.g. strong increase of the peroxiredoxin PMP20). Moreover, the accumulation of HBsAg in the ER resulted in the induction of the unfolded protein response (e.g. strong increase of the ER-resident disulfide isomerase, PDI) and the ER associated degradation (ERAD) pathway (e.g. increase of two cytosolic chaperones and members of the AAA ATPase superfamily) indicating that potential degradation of HBsAg could

  19. Eco-physiological adaptation of dominant tree species at two contrasting karst habitats in southwestern China [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2d9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouren Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the eco-physiological adaptation of indigenous woody species to their habitats in karst areas of southwestern China. Two contrasting forest habitats were studied: a degraded habitat in Daxiagu and a well-developed habitat in Tianlongshan, and the eco-physiological characteristics of the trees were measured for three growth seasons. Photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs, and transpiration rate (Tr of the tree species in Daxiagu were 2-3 times higher than those in Tianlongshan under ambient conditions. However, this habitat effect was not significant when measurements were taken under controlled conditions. Under controlled conditions, Pn, gs, and Tr of the deciduous species were markedly higher than those for the evergreen species. Habitat had no significant effect on water use efficiency (WUE or photochemical characteristics of PSII. The stomatal sensitivity of woody species in the degraded habitat was much higher than that in the well-developed habitat. Similarly, the leaf total nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents expressed on the basis of either dry mass or leaf area were also much higher in Daxiagu than they were in Tianlongshan. The mass-based leaf total N content of deciduous species was much higher than that of evergreen species, while leaf area-based total N and P contents of evergreens were significantly higher than those of deciduous species. The photosynthetic nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE of deciduous species were much higher than those of evergreens. Further, the PPUE of the woody species in Tianlongshan was much higher than that  of the woody species in Daxiagu. The results from three growth seasons imply that the tree species were able to adapt well to their growth habitats. Furthermore, it seems that so-called “temporary drought stress” may not occur, or may not be severe for most woody plants in karst areas of southwestern China.

  20. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  1. WE-EF-BRD-03: I Want It Now!: Advances in MRI Acquisition, Reconstruction and the Use of Priors to Enable Fast Anatomic and Physiologic Imaging to Inform Guidance and Adaptation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Y. [Mayo Clinic Arizona (United States)

    2015-06-15

    MRI-guided treatment is a growing area of medicine, particularly in radiotherapy and surgery. The exquisite soft tissue anatomic contrast offered by MRI, along with functional imaging, makes the use of MRI during therapeutic procedures very attractive. Challenging the utility of MRI in the therapy room are many issues including the physics of MRI and the impact on the environment and therapeutic instruments, the impact of the room and instruments on the MRI; safety, space, design and cost. In this session, the applications and challenges of MRI-guided treatment will be described. The session format is: Past, present and future: MRI-guided radiotherapy from 2005 to 2025: Jan Lagendijk Battling Maxwell’s equations: Physics challenges and solutions for hybrid MRI systems: Paul Keall I want it now!: Advances in MRI acquisition, reconstruction and the use of priors to enable fast anatomic and physiologic imaging to inform guidance and adaptation decisions: Yanle Hu MR in the OR: The growth and applications of MRI for interventional radiology and surgery: Rebecca Fahrig Learning Objectives: To understand the history and trajectory of MRI-guided radiotherapy To understand the challenges of integrating MR imaging systems with linear accelerators To understand the latest in fast MRI methods to enable the visualisation of anatomy and physiology on radiotherapy treatment timescales To understand the growing role and challenges of MRI for image-guided surgical procedures My disclosures are publicly available and updated at: http://sydney.edu.au/medicine/radiation-physics/about-us/disclosures.php.

  2. The biomechanical, chemical and physiological adaptations of the eggs of two Australian megapodes to their nesting strategies and their implications for extinct titanosaur dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet-Tinner, G; Lindsay, S; Thompson, M B

    2017-08-01

    Megapodes are galliform birds endemic to Australasia and unusual among modern birds in that they bury their eggs for incubation in diverse substrates and using various strategies. Alectura lathami and Leipoa ocellata are Australian megapodes that build and nest in mounds of soil and organic matter. Such unusual nesting behaviours have resulted in particular evolutionary adaptations of their eggs and eggshells. We used a combination of scanning electron microscopy, including electron backscatter diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, to determine the fine structure of the eggshells and micro-CT scanning to map the structure of pores. We discovered that the surface of the eggshell of A. lathami displays nodes similar to those of extinct titanosaur dinosaurs from Transylvania and Auca Mahuevo egg layer #4. We propose that this pronounced nodular ornamentation is an adaptation to an environment rich in organic acids from their nest mound, protecting the egg surface from chemical etching and leaving the eggshell thickness intact. By contrast, L. ocellata nests in mounds of sand with less organic matter in semiarid environments and has eggshells with weakly defined nodes, like those of extinct titanosaurs from AM L#3 that also lived in a semiarid environment. We suggest the internode spaces in both megapode and titanosaur species act as funnels, which concentrate the condensed water vapour between the nodes. This water funnelling in megapodes through the layer of calcium phosphate reduces the likelihood of bacterial infection by creating a barrier to microbial invasion. In addition, the accessory layer of both species possesses sulphur, which reinforces the calcium phosphate barrier to bacterial and fungal contamination. Like titanosaurs, pores through the eggshell are Y-shaped in both species, but A. lathami displays unique mid-shell connections tangential to the eggshell surface and that connect some adjacent pores, like the eggshells of titanosaur of AM

  3. Expression of the citrus CsTIP2;1 gene improves tobacco plant growth, antioxidant capacity and physiological adaptation under stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cristina P S; Neves, Diana M; Cidade, Luciana C; Mendes, Amanda F S; Silva, Delmira C; Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Coelho-Filho, Mauricio A; Gesteira, Abelmon S; Soares-Filho, Walter S; Costa, Marcio G C

    2017-05-01

    Overexpression of the citrus CsTIP2;1 improves plant growth and tolerance to salt and drought stresses by enhancing cell expansion, H 2 O 2 detoxification and stomatal conductance. Tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) are a subfamily of aquaporins, belonging to the major intrinsic protein family. In a previous study, we have shown that a citrus TIP isoform, CsTIP2;1, is highly expressed in leaves and also transcriptionally regulated in leaves and roots by salt and drought stresses and infection by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the causal agent of the Huanglongbing disease, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of the flow of water and nutrients required during both normal growth and stress conditions. Here, we show that the overexpression of CsTIP2;1 in transgenic tobacco increases plant growth under optimal and water- and salt-stress conditions and also significantly improves the leaf water and oxidative status, photosynthetic capacity, transpiration rate and water use efficiency of plants subjected to a progressive soil drying. These results correlated with the enhanced mesophyll cell expansion, midrib aquiferous parenchyma abundance, H 2 O 2 detoxification and stomatal conductance observed in the transgenic plants. Taken together, our results indicate that CsTIP2;1 plays an active role in regulating the water and oxidative status required for plant growth and adaptation to stressful environmental conditions and may be potentially useful for engineering stress tolerance in citrus and other crop plants.

  4. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  5. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  6. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bente...

  7. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  8. Adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma HSP70 level, and PBMC HSP70 mRNA expression in Osmanabadi goats subjected to combined (heat and nutritional) stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilja, Shaji; Sejian, V.; Bagath, M.; Mech, A.; David, C. G.; Kurien, E. K.; Varma, Girish; Bhatta, Raghavendra

    2016-09-01

    A study was conducted to assess the impact of heat and nutritional stress simultaneously on the adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) level, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) HSP70 gene expression in goats. Twenty-four adult Osmanabadi bucks (average body weight (BW) 16.0 kg) were used in the present study. The bucks were divided into four groups viz., C ( n = 6; control), HS ( n = 6; heat stress), NS ( n = 6; nutritional stress), and CS ( n = 6; combined stress). The study was conducted for a period of 45 days. C and HS bucks had ad libitum access to their feed while NS and CS bucks were under restricted feed (30 % intake of C bucks) to induce nutritional stress. The HS and CS bucks were exposed to solar radiation for 6 h a day between 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. to induce heat stress. The data was analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The standing time differed significantly ( P Water intake recorded was significantly ( P < 0.01) higher in both the HS and CS groups. The highest respiration rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and rectal temperature (RT) during the afternoon were also recorded in the CS group. Further, skin temperature of the head, flank, and scrotum during the afternoon was also higher ( P < 0.01) in the CS group. In addition, both plasma HSP70 concentration and PBMC HSP70 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript expression were also significantly ( P < 0.01) higher in the CS group. It can be concluded from this study that when two stressors occur simultaneously, they may have severe impact on adaptive capabilities of Osmanabadi bucks as compared to that would occur individually. Further, the study indicated that lying time, drinking frequency, RR, RT, plasma HSP70, and PBMC HSP70 gene expression may act as ideal biological markers for assessing the impact of CS on adaptive capabilities in bucks.

  9. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  10. Physiology and behaviour of marine Thioploca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgslund, Signe; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Kuenen, J Gijs

    2009-01-01

    reduce nitrate to ammonium and we found that dinitrogen was not produced, neither through denitrification nor through anammox activity. Unexpectedly, polyphosphate storage was not detectable by microautoradiography in physiological assays or by staining and microscopy. Carbon dioxide fixation increased...... as an adaptation to infrequent high sulphate reduction rates in the seabed. The physiology and behaviour of Thioploca are summarized and the adaptations to an environment, dominated by infrequent oxygen availability and periods of high sulphide abundance, are discussed....

  11. Physiology of man and animals in the Tenth Five-Year Plan: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Congress of the I. P. Pavlov All-Union Physiological Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Research in the field of animal and human physiology is reviewed. The following topics on problems of physiological science and related fields of knowledge are discussed: neurophysiology and higher nervous activity, physiology of sensory systems, physiology of visceral systems, evolutionary and ecological physiology, physiological cybernetics, computer application in physiology, information support of physiological research, history and theory of development of physiology. Also discussed were: artificial intelligence, physiological problems of reflex therapy, correlation of structure and function of the brain, adaptation and activity, microcirculation, and physiological studies in nerve and mental diseases.

  12. Swimming physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmér, I

    1992-05-01

    Swimming takes place in a medium, that presents different gravitational and resistive forces, respiratory conditions and thermal stress compared to air. The energy cost of propulsion in swimming is high, but a considerable reduction occurs at a given velocity as result of regular swim training. In medley swimmers the energy cost is lowest for front crawl, followed by backstroke, butterfly and breast-stroke. Cardiac output is probably not limiting for performance since swimmers easily achieve higher values during running. Maximal heart rate, however, is lowered by approx. 10 beats/min during swimming compared to running. Most likely active muscle mass is smaller and rate of power production lesser in swimming. Local factors, such as peripheral circulation, capillary density, perfusion pressure and metabolic capacity of active muscles, are important determinants of the power production capacity and emphasize the role of swim specific training movements. Improved swimming technique and efficiency are likely to explain much of the continuous progress in performance. Rational principles based on improved understanding of the biomechanics and physiology of swimming should be guidelines for swimmers and coaches in their efforts to explore the limits of human performance.

  13. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  14. A review of research in sports physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, P M; Winter, E M; Doust, J

    1994-02-01

    The physiology of sport encompasses a wide and diverse range of scientific interests. The intention, and major challenge of the review, is to collate the most pertinent of these interests into a coherent strategy for future research in sports physiology. The unifying concept of this review is the potential contribution of future research in sports physiology to the development of the elite competitor. The review promotes this theme through an indepth appraisal of current knowledge and identification of key areas of research that would most profitably advance the understanding and application of sports physiology. Central to this theme are the physiological limitations to exercise performance of the elite competitor and the adaptation of these physiological systems to further training, possibly leading to overtraining. Indeed, the potential to adapt to, or recover from, the ever increasing demands of training and competition is considered in sections on the development of strength and power, the child athlete and the limitations to performance in multiple sprint activities such as hockey and football. Throughout the review it is recognized that sports physiology is increasingly reliant upon advances in analytical techniques and quantitative measurement. Physiological measurement, the validity and accuracy of present and future procedures, and the correct interpretation of these data are therefore considered in detail in the final section of the review.

  15. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polyamines in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  18. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  19. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  20. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  1. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 20161

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    No.8, 2016. our understanding of how the cell recy- cles its content. His discoveries opened the path to understanding the fundamental importance of autophagy in many physiological processes, such as in the adaptation to starvation or response to infection. Mutations in autophagy genes can cause disease, and.

  2. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  3. Physiologic time: A hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Damien; West, Bruce J.

    2013-06-01

    The scaling of respiratory metabolism with body size in animals is considered by many to be a fundamental law of nature. One apparent consequence of this law is the scaling of physiologic time with body size, implying that physiologic time is separate and distinct from clock time. Physiologic time is manifest in allometry relations for lifespans, cardiac cycles, blood volume circulation, respiratory cycle, along with a number of other physiologic phenomena. Herein we present a theory of physiologic time that explains the allometry relation between time and total body mass averages as entailed by the hypothesis that the fluctuations in the total body mass are described by a scaling probability density.

  4. A review on biological adaptation: with applications in engineering science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMin Luo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological adaptation refers to that organisms change themselves at morphological, physiological, behavioral and molecular level to better survive in a changing environment. It includes phenotype adaptation and molecular adaptation. Biological adaptation is a driving force of evolution. Biological adaptation was described from Darwinian theory of evolution to the theory of molecular evolution in present paper. Adaptive control and adaptive filtering were briefly described also.

  5. Transcriptomic dissection of the horizontally acquired response regulator EsrB reveals its global regulatory roles in the physiological adaptation and activation of T3SS and the cognate effector repertoire in Edwardsiella piscicida during infection toward turbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhao, Luyao; Yang, Minjun; Yin, Kaiyu; Zhou, Xiaohui; Leung, Ka Yin; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing; Wang, Qiyao

    2017-10-03

    Edwardsiella piscicida is the leading pathogen threatening worldwide aquaculture industries. The 2-component system (TCS) EsrA-EsrB is essential for the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, little is known about the regulon and regulatory mechanism of EsrA-EsrB or about the factors that mediate the interaction of TCS with bacterial hosts. Here, our RNA-seq analysis indicated that EsrB strongly induces type III and type VI secretion systems (T3/T6SS) expression and that it modulates the expression of both physiology- and virulence-associated genes in E. piscicida grown in DMEM. EsrB binds directly to a highly conserved 18-bp DNA motif to regulate the expression of T3SS and other genes. EsrB/DMEM-activated genes include 3 known and 6 novel T3SS-dependent effectors. All these effector genes are highly induced by EsrB during the late stage of in vivo infection in fish. Furthermore, although in vivo colonization by the bacterium relies on EsrB and T3/T6SS expression, it does not require the expression of individual effectors other than EseJ. The mutant lacking these 9 effectors showed significant defects in in vivo colonization and virulence toward turbot, and, more importantly, a high level of protection against challenges by wild-type E. piscicida, suggesting that it may represent a promising live attenuated vaccine. Taken together, our data demonstrate that EsrB plays a global regulatory role in controlling physiologic responses and the expression of T3SS and its cognate effector genes. Our findings will facilitate further work on the mechanism of molecular pathogenesis of this bacterium during infection.

  6. How to understand and outwit adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeller, Oliver; Gong, Delquin; Weiner, Orion D.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation is the ability of a system to respond and reset itself even in the continuing presence of a stimulus. On one hand, adaptation is a physiological necessity that enables proper neuronal signaling and cell movement. On the other hand, adaptation can be a source of annoyance, as it can make biological systems resistant to experimental perturbations. Here we speculate where adaptation may live in eukaryotic chemotaxis and how it can be encoded in the signaling network. We then discuss t...

  7. The Physiology of Fear and Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garner, Tom Alexander; Grimshaw, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The potential value of a looping biometric feedback system as a key component of adaptive computer video games is significant. Psychophysiological measures are essential to the development of an automated emotion recognition program, capable of interpreting physiological data into models of affect...... and systematically altering the game environment in response. This article presents empirical data the analysis of which advocates electrodermal activity and electromyography as suitable physiological measures to work effectively within a computer video game-based biometric feedback loop, within which sound...

  8. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  9. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  10. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  11. Cyclomorphosis in Tardigrada: adaptation to environmental constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Persson, Dennis; Ramløv, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Tardigrades exhibit a remarkable resilience against environmental extremes. In the present study, we investigate mechanisms of survival and physiological adaptations associated with sub-zero temperatures and severe osmotic stress in two commonly found cyclomorphic stages of the marine eutardigrade...

  12. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  13. Physiology of Alpine skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, R E; Montgomery, D L

    1988-10-01

    Physiological profiles of elite Alpine skiers reveal the importance of muscular strength, anaerobic power, anaerobic endurance, aerobic endurance, coordination, agility, balance, and flexibility. On-hill snow training and dryland training programmes should focus on the elevation of these fitness components. Physical characteristics of elite skiers reveal an average height and body mass. Today, successful skiers are taller and heavier than their predecessors. Slalom skiers tend to be leaner than skiers in other events while the downhill racers are the heaviest. Elite skiers have strong legs when peak torque is measured during isometric and isokinetic conditions involving knee extension, which may be a specific adaptation since the skier is in a crouched position for a prolonged period when racing. Leg strength correlates significantly with performance in the downhill and giant slalom events. The glycolytic contribution in the slalom and giant slalom events is about 40% of the total energy cost. Following a race, blood lactate concentration averages 9 to 13 mmol/L. A muscle lactate concentration of 24 mmol/kg wet muscle tissue has been reported. Elite skiers have higher lactate values than advanced or novice skiers. The aerobic demands of competitive Alpine skiing may approach (90 to 95%) of the athlete's maximal aerobic power. Maximal heart rate is achieved during the latter part of the race. Elite skiers have a high VO2max. This may reflect their training programme and not the actual demands of the sport. When turning, muscular activity acts to impede blood flow and oxygen delivery. As a consequence, anaerobic metabolism is increased. Glycogen studies show significant utilisation from both slow and fast twitch muscle fibres. Skilled and unskilled skiers differ with respect to glycogen utilisation. Skilled skiers have greater glycogen depletion in the slow twitch fibres compared to unskilled skiers. Muscle glycogen decreases by about 32 mmol/kg wet muscle tissue

  14. COMPARATIVE GUT PHYSIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Comparative physiology of digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, J B; Cottrell, J J; Bravo, D M

    2015-02-01

    The digestive systems of all species have been shaped by environmental pressures over long evolutionary time spans. Nevertheless, all digestive systems must achieve the same end points, the ingestion of biological material and its conversion to molecules that serve as energy substrates and structural components of tissues. A range of strategies to extract nutrients, including for animals reliant primarily on foregut fermentation, hindgut fermentation, and enzymatic degradation, have evolved. Moreover, animals have adapted to different foodstuffs as herbivores (including frugivores, folivores, granivores, etc.), carnivores, and omnivores. We present evidence that humans have diverged from other omnivores because of the long history of consumption of cooked or otherwise prepared food. We consider them to be cucinivores. We present examples to illustrate that the range of foodstuffs that can be efficiently assimilated by each group or species is limited and is different from that of other groups or species. Differences are reflected in alimentary tract morphology. The digestive systems of each group and of species within the groups are adaptable, with constraints determined by individual digestive physiology. Although overall digestive strategies and systems differ, the building blocks for digestion are remarkably similar. All vertebrates have muscular tubular tracts lined with a single layer of epithelial cells for most of the length, use closely related digestive enzymes and transporters, and control the digestive process through similar hormones and similarly organized nerve pathways. Extrapolations among species that are widely separated in their digestive physiologies are possible when the basis for extrapolation is carefully considered. Divergence is greatest at organ or organismal levels, and similarities are greatest at the cell and molecular level.

  15. The Physiology of Microbial Symbionts in Fungus-Farming Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Costa, Rafael

    with their symbionts are main decomposer of organic matter in Africa, and this is reflect of a metabolic complementarity to decompose plant biomass in the genome of the three organisms involved in this symbiosis. Many of the physiological aspects of this symbiosis remain obscure, and here I focus on physiology...... termites where this is either absent or minimal, and this indicates evolutionary adaptations to dietary intakes displayed by different termite species. In addition to these two physiological aspects of this tripartite symbiosis, we questioned the physiological mechanisms displayed by Termitomyces...

  16. Efeito do manejo do lençol freático na adaptação fisiomorfológica de duas espécies de trigo ao encharcamento Effect of the water table management in the morpho-physiological adaptation of two wheat species to waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo de O. Calheiros

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de três manejos do lençol freático na indução de adaptações fisiomorfológicas dos trigos Triticum aestivum L. e Triticum durum L. à hipoxia, caracterizando e inferindo a influência relativa dos principais fatores físicos e biológicos interferentes. O experimento foi conduzido na ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP, simulando-se ao máximo um meio físico/condição natural de uma várzea. Após a indução na fase vegetativa, através de períodos hipóxicos com duração progressiva, o grau de adaptação foi avaliado através de inundação permanente, incluindo o florescimento/formação de grãos. Observou-se: resposta diferenciada de exigência e/ou capacidade de extração de nutrientes entre as duas espécies; que a adubação foliar foi ineficiente para suprir as deficiências nutricionais da planta; que os manejos com curtos períodos de hipoxia induziram o trigo a adaptações fisiomorfológicas, porém não na intensidade ou eficiência de que resultassem parâmetros de produção em níveis adequados; enfim, que o manejo com o lençol freático mantido a 15 cm de profundidade durante todo o ciclo cultural foi o que propiciou melhor desempenho do trigo em cultivo sob encharcamento.The effect of three different water table managements in the morpho-physiological adaptation to waterlogging of Triticum aestivum, L. and Triticum durum, L., and the relative influence of the main physical and biological interferance factors were studied. The trial was conducted at ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP, under simulated conditions of a natural low land. After introduction of stress adaptation during the vegetative growth stage, while applying progressive times of hipoxics periods, there were observed different requirements and/or extraction capacities of nutrients between the two species; the fertilization on leaves was not enough to avoid nutritional deficiencies in wheat under hipoxia. The water table management used resulted in

  17. Environmental Physiology and Diving Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Bosco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Man’s experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival. This summary will illustrate briefly the physiological changes induced by immersion, swimming, breath-hold diving and exploring while using special equipment in the water. Cardiac, circulatory and pulmonary vascular adaptation and the pathophysiology of novel syndromes have been demonstrated, which will allow selection of individual characteristics in order to succeed in various environments. Training and treatment for these new microenvironments will be suggested with description of successful pioneers in this field. This is a summary of the physiology and the present status of pathology and therapy for the field.

  18. Environmental Physiology and Diving Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Gerardo; Rizzato, Alex; Moon, Richard E.; Camporesi, Enrico M.

    2018-01-01

    Man’s experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival. This summary will illustrate briefly the physiological changes induced by immersion, swimming, breath-hold diving and exploring while using special equipment in the water. Cardiac, circulatory and pulmonary vascular adaptation and the pathophysiology of novel syndromes have been demonstrated, which will allow selection of individual characteristics in order to succeed in various environments. Training and treatment for these new microenvironments will be suggested with description of successful pioneers in this field. This is a summary of the physiology and the present status of pathology and therapy for the field. PMID:29456518

  19. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  20. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  1. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...... to describing the stages of development from embryogenesis to senescence and the many physiological and environmental factors that regulate them. The result provides students with an improved understanding of the integration of hormones and other signaling agents in developmental regulation...

  2. Physiology of Ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoufeh Bonakdaran

    2016-01-01

    Considering the emphasis of Islam on the importance of fasting, Muslims attempt to fast from dawn until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting is associated with several benefits for normal and healthy individuals. However, it could pose high risks to the health of diabetic patients due to certain physiological changes. This study aimed to compare the physiological changes associated with fasting in healthy individuals and diabetic patients during Ramadan. Furthermore, we reviewed t...

  3. Physiologic and Pharmacokinetic Changes in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged eCostantine

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Physiologic changes in pregnancy induce profound alterations to the pharmacokinetic properties of many medications. These changes affect distribution, absorption, metabolism, and excretion of drugs, and thus may impact their pharmacodynamic properties during pregnancy. Pregnant women undergo several adaptations in many organ systems. Some adaptations are secondary to hormonal changes in pregnancy, while others occur to support the gravid woman and her developing fetus. Some of the changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy include, for example, increased maternal fat and total body water, decreased plasma protein concentrations, especially albumin, increased maternal blood volume, cardiac output and blood flow to the kidneys and uteroplacental unit, and decreased blood pressure. The maternal blood volume expansion occurs at a larger proportion than the increase in red blood cell mass, which results in physiologic anemia and hemodilution. Other physiologic changes include increased tidal volume, partially compensated respiratory alkalosis, delayed gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility, and altered activity of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. Understating these changes and their profound impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs in pregnancy is essential to optimize maternal and fetal health.

  4. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed...

  5. Ecophysiological adaptations of coexisting Sphagnum mosses

    OpenAIRE

    HÁJEK, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    I studied ecological and physiological adaptations of peat misses (Sphagnum species) coexisting along the environmental gradients in mires. Production, decomposition, water relations, desiccation tolerance and nutrient economy of Sphagnum species were evaluates along the hummock-hollow gradient of water table, while the light adaptations were assessed in an open and forested mire

  6. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  7. Lung evolution as a cipher for physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S; Rehan, V K

    2009-06-10

    In the postgenomic era, we need an algorithm to readily translate genes into physiologic principles. The failure to advance biomedicine is due to the false hope raised in the wake of the Human Genome Project (HGP) by the promise of systems biology as a ready means of reconstructing physiology from genes. like the atom in physics, the cell, not the gene, is the smallest completely functional unit of biology. Trying to reassemble gene regulatory networks without accounting for this fundamental feature of evolution will result in a genomic atlas, but not an algorithm for functional genomics. For example, the evolution of the lung can be "deconvoluted" by applying cell-cell communication mechanisms to all aspects of lung biology development, homeostasis, and regeneration/repair. Gene regulatory networks common to these processes predict ontogeny, phylogeny, and the disease-related consequences of failed signaling. This algorithm elucidates characteristics of vertebrate physiology as a cascade of emergent and contingent cellular adaptational responses. By reducing complex physiological traits to gene regulatory networks and arranging them hierarchically in a self-organizing map, like the periodic table of elements in physics, the first principles of physiology will emerge.

  8. Renal adaptation during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Alkesh; Martin, Sandra L; Jain, Swati; Keys, Daniel; Edelstein, Charles L

    2013-12-01

    Hibernators periodically undergo profound physiological changes including dramatic reductions in metabolic, heart, and respiratory rates and core body temperature. This review discusses the effect of hypoperfusion and hypothermia observed during hibernation on glomerular filtration and renal plasma flow, as well as specific adaptations in renal architecture, vasculature, the renin-angiotensin system, and upregulation of possible protective mechanisms during the extreme conditions endured by hibernating mammals. Understanding the mechanisms of protection against organ injury during hibernation may provide insights into potential therapies for organ injury during cold storage and reimplantation during transplantation.

  9. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  10. Adaptation Stories

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By Reg'

    formed a real foundation for endogenous, and, therefore, sustainable, strategies for adaptation to climate change. The stories reinforce what we already knew: that successful adaptation must come from the people who are living on the front lines, facing the many problems caused by climate change and climate variation.

  11. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological sciences. Other websites ...

  12. Análise de algumas variáveis fisiológicas para avaliação do grau de adaptação de ovinos submetidos ao estresse por calor Analysis of some physiological variables for the evaluation of the degree of adaptation in sheep submitted to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Maria Cardoso Starling

    2002-09-01

    difference between the classified groups, for all the measured variables. In conclusion, the use of the physiological variables TR and FR as mainly parameters for these animals selection, is not enough for evaluate the level of adaptation under high temperatures.

  13. Physiology of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  14. Physiology of Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    This powerpoint presentation summaries physiology of lactation and the impact of a variety of clinical practices on lactation from delivery through weaning. Factors that inhibit lactogenesis stage II are explained, including retained placenta, excess blood loss during delivery, and hypoplastic brea...

  15. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  16. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    The functional anatomy of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and the neuro-anatomy and neuro-physiology of the systems that are implicated in the co-ordination of cardiac output with ventilation are reviewed in fish, including air-breathing fish, amphibians and reptiles. Recent data...

  18. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  19. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  20. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    intense relational mechanisms provide an effective means for contingency adaptation and therefore reduce the probability of premature termination. However, in situations where relationships are already governed by longer duration contracts, we argue that investments in relational mechanism create...

  1. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Penuelas, J.; Niinemets, Ü.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2015), s. 72-75 ISSN 1360-1385 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : ecosystem services * urban forest * open-lab * climate change * urban–rural gradient Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 10.899, year: 2015

  2. Physiological adaptation for milk production in desert ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkolnik, A.

    1981-08-01

    The authors have shown that the black goats herded by the Bedouins in the deserts of Israel can graze in sun-scorched conditions even when still 2 days walking distance from any water source. Upon their arrival at a water hole, they consumed volumes of water which were greater than 40% of their dehydrated body weight. After drinking, their body water content was 76% of body weight; after grazing for 4 days with no water, the water content of their body was still within the normal range for ruminants and their body solids were also well maintained. It was concluded that the amount of water consumed by the goats after grazing was not only sufficient to replenish the loss of water incurred by grazing, but to re-establish the body water content at a higher than normal level and thereby provide a water store. Using 51 Cr EDTA to measure the flow of liquid out of the reticulo-rumen, the authors showed that this increased from 73 ml/hr to 250 ml/hr between the 1st and 5th hour after drinking, but even by 5 hours after drinking over 80% of the volume consumed was still in the reticulo-rumen. It is suggested that the rumen plays a major role in the water economy of desert ruminants in that it provides an essential mechanism by which they can store water and circumvent the hazards likely to follow rapid rehydration. Similar findings were obtained in the wild ruminants mentioned above

  3. Physiological adaption to maternal malaria and other adverse exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Kapur, Anil; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2011-01-01

    of the world, malaria infection during pregnancy is the most common cause of anemia and LBW. By causing disruption to nutrient supply, as well as hypoxia, placental malaria and anemia negatively impact intrauterine fetal development. Thus, in utero exposure to placental malaria and consequent LBW may impart......, including type 2 diabetes; this potential link also opens an opportunity for early prevention of future metabolic diseases by paying greater attention to malaria during pregnancy....

  4. productive and physiological adaptive responses of ethiopian naked

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    known to result in gluconeogenesis with a resultant increase in circulating concentrations of glucose and heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio. (Siegel, 1971). Elevated blood levels of CS caused increased energy levels by acting on intermedi- ary metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, and fats (Olanrewaju et al., 2006).

  5. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible...... and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  6. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  7. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....

  8. Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J.

    2009-11-01

    Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin’s son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin’s work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective.

  9. Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2009-11-01

    Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin's son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin's work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective.

  10. The Physiology of Glucagon

    OpenAIRE

    Taborsky, Gerald J

    2010-01-01

    This short review outlines the physiology of glucagon in vivo, with an emphasis on its neural control, the author’s area of interest. Glucagon is secreted from alpha cells, which are a minority of the pancreatic islet. Anatomically, they are down stream from the majority islet beta cells. Beta-cell secretory products restrain glucagon secretion. Activation of the autonomic nerves, which innervate the islet, increases glucagon secretion.

  11. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  12. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  13. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  14. Physiology and psychology of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiser, Alan S

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming and development of sleep laboratory techniques ushered in a new era in the study of dreams. For the first time, direct and systematic investigation could be made of such topics as the occurrence, qualities, recollection, and childhood development of dreaming. Experimental methodologies permitted investigation of the responsiveness of dreams to external stimulation and the effects of deprivation of REM sleep. Much effort was devoted to searching for parallels between physiological aspects of REM sleep and characteristics of associated dreams, with modest results. The leading theory of dreaming in the early decades of this research was the psychoanalytic, which views dreams as highly meaningful reflections of unconscious mental functioning. With developments in understanding of the neurophysiology of REM sleep, new theories of dreaming were proposed. The most prominent, the activation-synthesis hypothesis, derived its view of dreaming directly from the neurophysiology of REM sleep, in particular the role of the brain stem, and in its original form regarded dreams as not essentially meaningful. Further developments in neurobiological research, including lesion and brain imaging studies, have established a clearer view of the functional neuroanatomy of REM sleep and dreaming. To what degree, and in what way, implications can be drawn from these findings for the psychology of dreaming is controversial. Some more recent theories of dreaming emphasize an adaptive function related to emotion and a role in learning and memory consolidation.

  15. [Physiological differences between cycling and running].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Grégoire

    2009-08-05

    This review compares the differences in systemic responses (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, heart rate and economy) and in underlying mechanisms of adaptation (ventilatory and hemodynamic and neuromuscular responses) between cycling and running. VO2max is specific to the exercise modality. Overall, there is more physiological training transfer from running to cycling than vice-versa. Several other physiological differences between cycling and running are discussed: HR is different between the two activities both for maximal and sub-maximal intensities. The delta efficiency is higher in running. Ventilation is more impaired in cycling than running due to mechanical constraints. Central fatigue and decrease in maximal strength are more important after prolonged exercise in running than in cycling.

  16. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  17. [Athlete's heart: frontier between physiology and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, F; Monnard, S; Ziltener, J-L; Meyer, P

    2012-07-25

    Athletes often exhibit structural and electrical cardiac adaptations that are influenced by several factors including sporting discipline, gender and ethnicity. These changes are considered physiological and reversible in most cases. However, recent data indicate that atrial and right ventricular remodeling in athletes may represent pathological changes leading to arrhythmias. Sudden cardiac death in athletes is a rare but dramatic event. The differential diagnosis between the athlete's heart and heart diseases that are potential etiologies of sudden cardiac death, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, may be challenging. New recommendations about electrocardiogram interpretation in athletes may help to improve prevention strategies.

  18. The emergence of Applied Physiology within the discipline of Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    Despite the availability and utilization of the physiology textbooks authored by Albrecht von Haller during the 18th century that heralded the modern age of physiology, not all physicians or physiologists were satisfied with its presentation, contents, or application to medicine. Initial reasons were fundamental disagreements between the "mechanists," represented by Boerhaave, Robinson, and von Haller, and the "vitalists," represented by the faculty and graduates of the Montpellier School of Medicine in France, notably, Bordeu and Barthez. Subsequently, objections originated from Europe, United Kingdom, and the United States in publications that focused not only on the teaching of physiology to medical and secondary students, but on the specific applications of the content of physiology to medicine, health, hygiene, pathology, and chronic diseases. At the turn of the 20th century, texts began to appear with applied physiology in their titles and in 1926, physician Samson Wright published a textbook entitled Applied Physiology that was intended for both medical students and the medical profession. Eleven years later, physicians Best and Taylor published The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice: A University of Toronto Texbook in Applied Physiology Although both sets of authors defined the connection between applied physiology and physiology, they failed to define the areas of physiology that were included within applied physiology. This was accomplished by the American Physiological Society (APS) Publications Committee in 1948 with the publication of the Journal of Appplied Physiology, that stated the word "applied" would broadly denote human physiology whereas the terms stress and environment would broadly include work, exercise, plus industrial, climatic and social factors. NIH established a study section (SS) devoted to applied physiology in 1964 which remained active until 2001 when it became amalgamated into other SSs. Before the end of the 20th century when

  19. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation......This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  20. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  1. The Physiology of Eructation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ivan M

    2016-04-01

    Eructation is composed of three independent phases: gas escape, upper barrier elimination, and gas transport phases. The gas escape phase is the gastro-LES inhibitory reflex that causes transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, which is activated by distension of stretch receptors of the proximal stomach. The upper barrier elimination phase is the transient relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter along with airway protection. This phase is activated by stimulation of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors of the esophageal mucosa. The gas transport phase is esophageal reverse peristalsis mediated by elementary reflexes, and it is theorized that this phase is activated by serosal rapidly adapting tension receptors. Alteration of the receptors which activate the upper barrier elimination phase of eructation by gastro-esophageal reflux of acid may in part contribute to the development of supra-esophageal reflux disease.

  2. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning.

  3. Genetic Variability In Morphological And Physiological Traits Within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic Variability In Morphological And Physiological Traits Within And Among Rice Species And Their Interspecific Progenies. ... O. sativa of temperate origin, but of tropical japonica genetic background did not show characters for adaptability to the West African upland conditions, but was similar to interspecifics and other ...

  4. Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate growth and physiological aspects of 'All Big' bell pepper, under saline stress and exogenous application of proline on the leaves. The research was conducted in pots adapted as drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, using sandy-loam eutrophic Regolithic Neosol, in the ...

  5. Physiological responses to acute experimental hypoxia in the air ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When C. batrachus was exposed for different periods at experimental hypoxia level (0.98±0.1 mg/L, DO), hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations were increased, along with decrease in mean cellular hemoglobin concentration, which reflected a physiological adaptation to enhance oxygen transport capacity. Significant ...

  6. Physiological and haematological indices of two Nigerian goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introducing an indigenous or exotic breed to unfamiliar environment paves way for livestock improvement. This study examined the physiological and haematological indices of 24Red Sokoto (RS) and West African Dwarf (WAD) goats reared under uniform condition in Ilorin, to determine adaptability of RS goats over a ...

  7. Overwintering physiology of the rice stem borer larvae, Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major rice pest around the world. A strong ability of the rice stem borer to adapt/resist cold temperature (cold hardiness) contributes to its survival through winter. However, the physiological mechanism of its cold hardiness is poorly understood. In this study, we ...

  8. Water deficit effects on morpho-physiologicals parameters in durum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various morpho-physiological characters related to the water deficit (relative water content, rate water loss, stomatal density, stomatal resistance), were studied at five durum wheat genotypes under two hydrous conditions. The relationship between traits and adaptative strategies develops by each genotype have been ...

  9. Effects of low temperature and drought on the physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water deficiency and low temperature are two important ecological factors which affect the distribution and cultivation of oil palm. To find out how oil palm adapts to the environmental conditions, the dynamics of a series of important physiological components derived from the leaves of potted oil palm seedlings under ...

  10. Physiological responses to acute experimental hypoxia in the air ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-03-05

    Mar 5, 2013 ... 2Awadhesh Pratap Singh University, Rewa 486 001 ... were increased, along with decrease in mean cellular hemoglobin concentration, which reflected a physiological adaptation to enhance ... one another, while total glutathione concentration was unaffected in any of the tissues across treatments. These.

  11. Adaptation is...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    vital sector is under threat. While it is far from the only development challenge facing local farmers, extreme variations in the climate of West Africa in the past several decades have dealt the region a bad hand. Drought and flood now follow each other in succession. Adaptation is... “The floods spoiled our harvests and we.

  12. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  13. Adaptation Insights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    be given greater access to relevant information to help them adapt their farming practices and socio- economic strategies to climate change? To address this challenge, the project “InfoClim,” led by Senegal's. Ecological Monitoring Centre. (CSE) with support from the. CCAA program, aims at improving the access of farmers ...

  14. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  15. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  16. The specificity of training prescription and physiological assessment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas; Morris, Tessa; Whyte, Greg

    2009-04-01

    The aims in this review are: (1) to identify physiological determinants of performance; (2) to consider training specificity by examining aerobic, team and racket sports, strength and power activities, and cross-training and concurrent training methods; and (3) to evaluate the role of specificity in the physiological assessment of performance determinants. Assessment of the physiological determinants of performance is an integral part of sports science support for elite athletes. Laboratory and field-based physiological assessments are fundamental elements in profiling athletes, assessing training adaptations, and interrogating programme efficacy. The relatively small and highly specific adaptations associated with high-performance training call for valid, reliable, and sensitive methods of assessment. Recent advances in the physiological assessment of athletes have led to the development of a plethora of laboratory and field-based procedures. In the assessment of the athlete, there is a tension between the high reliability and low ecological validity of laboratory assessments and the low reliability and high validity of field-based methods. In an attempt to enhance ecological validity of training and physiological assessment, various sports-specific ergometers have been designed. This development has helped to match fitness assessment procedures to the demands of the sport concerned.

  17. Decline in holm oak coppices (Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp.: biometric and physiological interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Serrada

    2017-10-01

    Research highlights: The above-ground physiological and morphological characteristics of declined stools are interpreted as poorer adaptation to site conditions. Root system architecture was found to be relevant to explain this behaviour.

  18. How to Do It. Plant Eco-Physiology: Experiments on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism, Using Minimal Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Douglas J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Features of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plants are presented. Investigations of a complex eco-physiological plant adaptation to the problems of growth in an arid environment are discussed. Materials and procedures for these investigations are described. (CW)

  19. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  20. Home geriatric physiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-01-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the ‘smart-house’ project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society. (topical review)

  1. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  2. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  3. Seasonal changes in reindeer physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Reeta Pösö

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal changes in the photoperiod, temperature and availability of food need to be converted to hormonal signals in order to induce adaptations in the physiology of the reindeer. The most reliable of the seasonal changes in the environment is the photoperiod, which affects the reindeer physiology through pineal gland and its hormone, melatonin. Usually there are large diurnal changes in the concentration of melatonin, but in the reindeer the daily rhythm disappears during the arctic summer to return again in the autumn. Seasonal changes in melatonin secretion are involved in the regulation of reproduction, the growth of pelage, thermogenesis, body mass and immune function. Melatonin may exert its effects through gene activation, but the mechanisms are not completely understood. Other hormones that show seasonality are thyroid hormones, insulin and leptin. Thus the observed physiological changes are a result of actions of several hormones. Appetite, energy production and thermogenesis are all vital for survival. During winter, when energy balance is negative, the reindeer uses mainly body fat for energy production. The use of fat stores is economical as the rate of lipolysis is controlled and the use of fatty acids in tissues such as muscle decreases. Only in severe starvation the rate of lipolysis increases enough to give rise to accumulation of ketone bodies. The protein mass is maintained and only in starved individuals muscle protein is used for energy production. The winter feed of the reindeer, the lichens, is poor in nitrogen and the nitrogen balance during winter is strongly negative. Reindeer responds to limited availability of nitrogen by increasing the recycling of urea into rumen. In general the adaptation of reindeer physiology enables the reindeer to survive the winter and although several aspects are known many others require further studies.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: Valaistus, lämpötila ja ravinnon saatavuus

  4. Adaptive sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  5. Adaptive positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  6. Adaptable positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  7. ADAPTATION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn PETERS, M.Sc.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty subjects with lower limb disabilities participated in a simulator study. The purpose of the study was to investigate how an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC system together with two different hand controls for accelerator and brake influenced workload, comfort and driving behaviour and to further develop a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for drivers with disabilities. The installed ACC system could maintain a constant speed selected and set by the driver and it also adapted speed in order to keep a safe distance to a leading vehicle. Furthermore, it included a stop-and-go function. Two common types of hand controls for accelerator and brake were used. The hand controls were different both with respect to function, single or dual levers, and position, on the steering column or between the front seats. The subjects were all experienced drivers of adapted cars equipped with hand controls. All subjects drove 100km at two occasions, with and without the ACC system available but with the same hand control. Subjective workload was found to be significantly lower and performance better for the ACC condition. The difference in speed variation between manual and ACC supported driving increased with the distance driven which seems to support the previous finding. The subjects thought they could control both speed and distance to leading vehicles better while the ACC was available. ACC driving did not influence reaction time, speed level, lateral position or variation in lateral position. Headway during car following situations was shorter for the ACC condition compared to manual driving. The ACC was well received, trusted and wanted. It was concluded that the ACC system substantially decreased workload, increased comfort and did not influence safety negatively. The only difference found between the two types of hand controls was that drivers using the dual lever system had less variation in lateral position. The applied evaluation method proved

  8. Neural regulation of innate and adaptive immunity in the gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhawan, S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE), in modulating the innate and adaptive immune function in the intestine, during physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Furthermore, this thesis attempts to advance our current understanding

  9. Patterns of host adaptation in Frankliniella occidentalis among vegetable crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current study examined the variation in life table characteristics, and physiological, biochemical, and molecular bases of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) host adaptation patterns. The main objective was to determine whether host availability affects insect preferenc...

  10. Thermodynamics Optimizes the Physiology of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladyshev Georgi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamics serves as a basis for optimal solutions of the tasks of physiology, which are solved by organisms in the characteristic process of life: evolution, development, homeostasis, and adaptation. It is stated that the quasiequilibrium thermodynamics of quasiclosed complex systems serves as an impetus of evolution, functions, and activities of all levels of biological systems’ organization.This fact predetermines the use of Gibbs’ methods and leads to a hierarchical thermodynamics in all spheres of physiology. The interaction of structurally related levels and sub-levels of biological systems is determined by the thermodynamic principle of substance stability. Thus, life is accompanied by a thermodynamic optimization of physiological functions of biological systems. Living matter, while functioning and evolving, seeks the minimum of specific Gibbs free energy of structure formation at all levels. The spontaneous search of this minimum takes place with participation of not only spontaneous, but also non-spontaneous processes, initiated by the surrounding environment. The hormone optimization of the treatment of various pathologies, presented by Dr. Sergey A. Dzugan et al. demonstrates the effectiveness of their innovative medical approach.

  11. Homeostatic reinforcement learning for integrating reward collection and physiological stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, Mehdi; Gutkin, Boris

    2014-12-02

    Efficient regulation of internal homeostasis and defending it against perturbations requires adaptive behavioral strategies. However, the computational principles mediating the interaction between homeostatic and associative learning processes remain undefined. Here we use a definition of primary rewards, as outcomes fulfilling physiological needs, to build a normative theory showing how learning motivated behaviors may be modulated by internal states. Within this framework, we mathematically prove that seeking rewards is equivalent to the fundamental objective of physiological stability, defining the notion of physiological rationality of behavior. We further suggest a formal basis for temporal discounting of rewards by showing that discounting motivates animals to follow the shortest path in the space of physiological variables toward the desired setpoint. We also explain how animals learn to act predictively to preclude prospective homeostatic challenges, and several other behavioral patterns. Finally, we suggest a computational role for interaction between hypothalamus and the brain reward system.

  12. Plant adaptation to temperature and photoperiod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. JUNTTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to environmental conditions both by adaptation and by acclimation. The ability of the plants to grow, reproduce and survive under changing climatic conditions depends on the efficiency of adaptation and acclimation. The adaptation of developmental processes in plants to temperature and photoperiod is briefly reviewed. In annual plants this adaptation is related to growth capacity and to the timing of reproduction. In perennial plants growing under northern conditions, adaptation of the annual growth cycle to the local climatic cycle is of primary importance. Examples of the role of photothermal conditions in regulation of these phenological processes are given and discussed. The genetic and physiological bases for climatic adaptation in plants are briefly examined.;

  13. STUDY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF INDIAN BOXERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Lal Khanna

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to study the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Indian National boxers as well as to assess the cardiovascular adaptation to graded exercise and actual boxing round. Two different studies were conducted. In the first study [N = 60, (junior boxers below-19 yrs, n = 30, (senior boxers-20-25 yrs, n = 30] different morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were measured. In the second study (N = 21, Light Weight category- <54 kg, n = 7; Medium weight category <64 kg, n = 7 and Medium heavy weight category <75 kg, n = 7 cardiovascular responses were studied during graded exercise protocol and actual boxing bouts. Results showed a significantly higher (p < 0.05 stature, body mass, LBM, body fat and strength of back and grip in senior boxers compared to juniors. Moreover, the senior boxers possessed mesomorphic body conformation where as the juniors' possessed ectomorphic body conformation. Significantly lower (p < 0.05 aerobic capacity and anaerobic power were noted in junior boxers compared to seniors. Further, significantly higher (p < 0.05 maximal heart rates and recovery heart rates were observed in the seniors as compared to the juniors. Significantly higher maximum heart rates were noted during actual boxing compared to graded exercise. Blood lactate concentration was found to increase with the increase of workload during both graded exercise and actual boxing round. The senior boxers showed a significantly elevated (p < 0.05 levels of hemoblobin, blood urea, uric acid and peak lactate as compared to junior boxers. In the senior boxers significantly lower levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDLC were observed as compared to junior boxers. No significant change has been noted in HDLC between the groups. The age and level of training in boxing has significant effect on Aerobic, anaerobic component. The study of physiological responses during graded exercise

  14. Detecting Virus Exposure During the Pre Symptomatic Incubation Period Using Physiological Data (with Supplementary Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    allowing the Page 4 of 32 algorithms to adapt to physiological changes between incubation and prodromal phases. One RF is trained using pre-fever...capable of indicating a general patho-physiological state during the viral incubation period in NHPs. Evaluating Algorithm Performance We...Page 1 of 32 Detecting Virus Exposure During the Pre-Symptomatic Incubation Period Using Physiological Data Lauren Milechin1, Shakti Davis1

  15. Physiological and psychological stress limits for astronautics Observations during the Skylab I-III missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The physiological and psychological factors of manned space flight had a particular significance in the Skylab missions during which astronauts were subjected to a life in a space environment for longer periods of time than on previous space missions. The Skylab missions demonstrated again the great adaptability of human physiology to the environment of man. The results of Skylab have indicated also approaches for enhancing the capability of man to tolerate the physiological and psychological stresses of space flight.

  16. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  17. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  18. Physiology in Modelica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Mateják

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modelica is an object-oriented language, in which models can be created and graphically represented by connecting instances of classes from libraries. These connections are not only assignments of values; they can also represent acausal equality. Even more, they can model Kirchhoff’s laws of circuits. In Modelica it is possible to develop library classes which are an analogy of electrical circuit components. The result of our work in this field is Physiolibrary (www.physiolibrary.org – a free, open-source Modelica library for human physiology. By graphical joining instances of Physiolibrary classes, user can create models of cardiovascular circulation, thermoregulation, metabolic processes, nutrient distribution, gas transport, electrolyte regulation, water distribution, hormonal regulation and pharmacological regulation. After simple setting of the parameters, the models are ready to simulate. After simulation, the user can examine variables as their values change over time. Representing the model as a diagram has also great educational advantages, because students are able to better understand physical principles when they see them modeled graphically.

  19. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  20. Systems physiology in dairy cattle: nutritional genomics and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K

    2013-01-01

    Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.

  1. Cold adaptation in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, I A

    1990-01-30

    Animals from polar seas exhibit numerous so called resistance adaptations that serve to maintain homeostasis at low temperature and prevent lethal freezing injury. Specialization to temperatures at or below 0 degrees C is associated with an inability to survive at temperatures above 3-8 degrees C. Polar fish synthesize various types of glycoproteins or peptides to lower the freezing point of most extracellular fluid compartments in a non-colligative manner. Antifreeze production is seasonal in boreal species and is often initiated by environmental cues other than low temperature, particularly short day lengths. Most of the adaptations that enable intertidal invertebrates to survive freezing are associated with their ability to withstand ariel exposure. Unique adaptations for freezing avoidance include the synthesis of low molecular mass ice-nucleating proteins that control and induce extracellular ice-formation. Marine poikilotherms also exhibit a range of capacity adaptations that increase the rate of some physiological processes so as to partially compensate for the effects of low temperature. However, the rate of embryonic development in a diverse range of marine organisms shows no evidence of temperature compensation. This results in a significant lengthening of the time from fertilization to hatching in polar, relative to temperate, species. Some aspects of the physiology of polar marine species, such as low metabolic and slow growth rates, probably result from a combination of low temperature and other factors such as the highly seasonal nature of food supplies. Although neuromuscular function shows a partial capacity adaptation in Antarctic fish, maximum swimming speeds are lower than for temperate and tropical species, particularly for early stages in the life history.

  2. "Their pineal glands aglow": Theosophical physiology in Ulysses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisson, Mark S

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that Joyce's engagements with the Theosophy of the Dublin literary world amount to more than simple parody. In Ulysses, Joyce portrays Theosophy's efforts to offer an alternative understanding of physiology to that of the medical establishment as a form of boundary work, an adaptation of the discourse of modern medical research to fashion modern mysticism as a science. Ultimately, Joyce rejects Theosophical physiology and its evolutionary scientism because it provides an unsatisfactory rhetorical body, a failed attempt to renegotiate the boundaries between scientific materialism and spirituality in the awkward modernity of Dublin in 1904.

  3. PHYCAA: Data-driven measurement and removal of physiological noise in BOLD fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Churchill, Nathan W.; Yourganov, Grigori; Spring, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    challenge for identifying and removing such artifact. This paper presents a multivariate, data-driven method for the characterization and removal of physiological noise in fMRI data, termed PHYCAA (PHYsiological correction using Canonical Autocorrelation Analysis). The method identifies high frequency......, autocorrelated physiological noise sources with reproducible spatial structure, using an adaptation of Canonical Correlation Analysis performed in a split-half resampling framework. The technique is able to identify physiological effects with vascular-linked spatial structure, and an intrinsic dimensionality...... with physiological noise, and real data-driven model prediction and reproducibility, for both block and event-related task designs. This is demonstrated compared to no physiological noise correction, and to the widely used RETROICOR (Glover et al., 2000) physiological denoising algorithm, which uses externally...

  4. Analyzing Physiologic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emamie

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, when preserving and restoring the gnathostomatic system the dentist controls tooth morphology to insure proper distribution of stress. So, we restore a portion of a tooth or all the teeth in such a manner as to subject the associated parts of the system to the least stress. We evaluate our diagnosis and control it in our treatment. The treatment should be based on the scientific method. We create optimal occlusion or a desirable functional state of the masticatory system.  Many persons with occlusal imperfections will not have symptoms of functional disorders. This is the psychological adaptive capacity of the neuromuscular system, teeth, dental arches, and periodontal tissues.Recent developments in dental material, technology and instruments however, have simplified the taskaf restoring rebuilding and rehabilitating diseased mouths. So, optimum oral health and function should be the prime objective of all treatment procedures. Because the ultimate aim will always be to restore the mouth to health and preserve this status throughout the life of a patient.

  5. Adaptive management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    a management framework, as well as of identified challenges and pathologies, are needed. Further discussion and systematic assessment of the approach is required, together with greater attention to its definition and description, enabling the assessment of new approaches to managing uncertainty, and AM itself.......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...

  6. Improving cellulase production by Aspergillus niger using adaptive evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Arentshorst, Mark; Allijn, Iris E; Ram, Arthur F J; de Vries, Ronald P; Gelber, Isabelle Benoit

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential of adaptive evolution as a tool in generating strains with an improved production of plant biomass degrading enzymes. RESULTS: An Aspergillus niger cellulase mutant was obtained by adaptive evolution. Physiological properties of this mutant revealed a five times

  7. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  8. Physiology modulates social flexibility and collective behaviour in equids and other large ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersick, Andrew S; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2017-08-19

    Though morphologically very similar, equids across the extant species occupy ecological niches that are surprisingly non-overlapping. Occupancy of these distinct niches appears related to subtle physiological and behavioural adaptations which, in turn, correspond to significant differences in the social behaviours and emergent social systems characterizing the different species. Although instances of intraspecific behavioural variation in equids demonstrate that the same body plan can support a range of social structures, each of these morphologically similar species generally shows robust fidelity to its evolved social system. The pattern suggests a subtle relationship between physiological phenotypes and behavioural flexibility. While environmental conditions can vary widely within relatively short temporal or spatial scales, physiological changes and changes to the behaviours that regulate physiological processes, are constrained to longer cycles of adaptation. Physiology is then the limiting variable in the interaction between ecological variation and behavioural and socio-structural flexibility. Behavioural and socio-structural flexibility, in turn, will generate important feedbacks that will govern physiological function, thus creating a coupled web of interactions that can lead to changes in individual and collective behaviour. Longitudinal studies of equid and other large-bodied ungulate populations under environmental stress, such as those discussed here, may offer the best opportunities for researchers to examine, in real time, the interplay between individual behavioural plasticity, socio-structural flexibility, and the physiological and genetic changes that together produce adaptive change.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Physiological Assessment of Water Stress in Potato Using Spectral Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Angela P; Alarcón, Andrés; Valbuena, Raúl I; Galeano, Carlos H

    2017-01-01

    Water stress in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) causes considerable losses in yield, and therefore, potato is often considered to be a drought sensitive crop. Identification of water deficit tolerant potato genotypes is an adaptation strategy to mitigate the climatic changes that are occurring in the Cundiboyacense region in Colombia. Previous studies have evaluated potato plants under water stress conditions using physiological analyses. However, these methodologies require considerable amounts of time and plant material to perform these measurements. This study evaluated and compared the physiological and spectral traits between two genotypes, Diacol Capiro and Perla Negra under two drought levels (10 and 15 days without irrigation from flowering). Reflectance information was used to calculate indexes which were associated with the physiological behavior in plants. The results showed that spectral information was correlated (ρ < 0.0001) with physiological variables such as foliar area (FA), total water content (H 2 Ot), relative growth rate of potato tubers (RGTtub), leaf area ratio (LAR), and foliar area index (AFI). In general, there was a higher concentration of chlorophyll under drought treatments. In addition, Perla Negra under water deficit treatments did not show significant differences in its physiological variables. Therefore, it could be considered a drought tolerant genotype because its physiological performance was not affected under water stress conditions. However, yield was affected in both genotypes after being subject to 15 days of drought. The results suggested that reflectance indexes are a useful and affordable approach for potato phenotyping to select parent and segregant populations in breeding programs.

  10. Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and Its Relationship to Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyfault, John P; Du, Mengmeng; Kraus, William E; Levine, James A; Booth, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on the findings and recommendations of the “Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and its Relationship to Health Outcomes” group, a part of a larger workshop entitled Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities sponsored by the National Heart, and Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging, which aimed to establish sedentary behavior research priorities. Methods The discussion within our workshop lead to the formation of critical physiological research objectives related to sedentary behaviors, that if appropriately researched would greatly impact our overall understanding of human health and longevity. Results and Conclusions Primary questions are related to physiological “health outcomes” including the influence of physical activity vs. sedentary behavior on function of a number of critical physiological systems (aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle metabolism and function, telomeres/genetic stability, and cognitive function). The group also derived important recommendations related to the “central and peripheral mechanisms” that govern sedentary behavior and how energy balance has a role in mediating these processes. General recommendations for future sedentary physiology research efforts include that studies of sedentary behavior, including that of sitting time only, should focus on the physiological impact of a “lack of human movement” in contradistinction to the effects of physical movement and that new models or strategies for studying sedentary behavior induced adaptations and links to disease development are needed to elucidate underlying mechanism(s). PMID:25222820

  11. Columbus payload requirements in human physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Juergen

    1993-03-01

    Most of the biological feedback loops in the human body are interrelated. This means that several different parameters have to be recorded simultaneously to understand the interrelationship of different subsystems within the body when fast and slow adaptation processes are to be studied. This determines the requirements for the payload in the Columbus module. In 1988 ESA asked some European scientists in different fields of physiology to provide a 'science study' for the Columbus payload requirements. Their report was the basis of a phase A study completed in December 1991, concerning the 'ANTHROLAB', a laboratory that covers all presently known research challenges in this area. Anthrolab is more or less an improvement of the Anthrorack to be flown on the German Spacelab mission D-2 and on the Columbus precursor flight E-1. Beside the present Anthrorack design, Anthrolab will also provide subelements for vestibular, neurophysiological, and biomechanical research.

  12. McArdle Disease and Exercise Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kitaoka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease Type V; MD is a metabolic myopathy caused by a deficiency in muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Since muscle glycogen is an important fuel for muscle during exercise, this inborn error of metabolism provides a model for understanding the role of glycogen in muscle function and the compensatory adaptations that occur in response to impaired glycogenolysis. Patients with MD have exercise intolerance with symptoms including premature fatigue, myalgia, and/or muscle cramps. Despite this, MD patients are able to perform prolonged exercise as a result of the “second wind” phenomenon, owing to the improved delivery of extra-muscular fuels during exercise. The present review will cover what this disease can teach us about exercise physiology, and particularly focuses on the compensatory pathways for energy delivery to muscle in the absence of glycogenolysis.

  13. Physiological water model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The water of the human body can be categorized as existing in two main compartments: intracellular water and extracellular water. The intracellular water consists of all the water within the cells and constitutes over half of the total body water. Since red blood cells are surrounded by plasma, and all other cells are surrounded by interstitial fluid, the intracellular compartment has been subdivided to represent these two cell types. The extracellular water, which includes all of the fluid outside of the cells, can be further subdivided into compartments which represent the interstitial fluid, circulating blood plasma, lymph, and transcellular water. The interstitial fluid surrounds cells outside of the vascular system whereas plasma is contained within the blood vessels. Avascular tissues such as dense connective tissue and cartilage contain interstitial water which slowly equilibrates with tracers used to determine extracellular fluid volume. For this reason, additional compartments are sometimes used to represent these avascular tissues. The average size of each compartment, in terms of percent body weight, has been determined for adult males and females. These compartments and the forces which cause flow between them are presented. The kidneys, a main compartment, receive about 25 percent of the cardiac output and filters out a fluid similar to plasma. The composition of this filtered fluid changes as it flows through the kidney tubules since compounds are continually being secreted and reabsorbed. Through this mechanism, the kidneys eliminate wastes while conserving body water, electrolytes, and metabolites. Since sodium accounts for over 90 percent of the cations in the extracellular fluid, and the number of cations is balanced by the number of anions, considering the renal handling sodium and water only should sufficiently describe the relationship between the plasma compartment and kidneys. A kidney function model is presented which has been adapted from a

  14. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  15. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  16. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  17. Measuring high-altitude adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lorna G

    2017-11-01

    High altitudes (>8,000 ft or 2,500 m) provide an experiment of nature for measuring adaptation and the physiological processes involved. Studies conducted over the past ~25 years in Andeans, Tibetans, and, less often, Ethiopians show varied but distinct O 2 transport traits from those of acclimatized newcomers, providing indirect evidence for genetic adaptation to high altitude. Short-term (acclimatization, developmental) and long-term (genetic) responses to high altitude exhibit a temporal gradient such that, although all influence O 2 content, the latter also improve O 2 delivery and metabolism. Much has been learned concerning the underlying physiological processes, but additional studies are needed on the regulation of blood flow and O 2 utilization. Direct evidence of genetic adaptation comes from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome scans and whole genome sequencing studies that have identified gene regions acted upon by natural selection. Efforts have begun to understand the connections between the two with Andean studies on the genetic factors raising uterine blood flow, fetal growth, and susceptibility to Chronic Mountain Sickness and Tibetan studies on genes serving to lower hemoglobin and pulmonary arterial pressure. Critical for future studies will be the selection of phenotypes with demonstrable effects on reproductive success, the calculation of actual fitness costs, and greater inclusion of women among the subjects being studied. The well-characterized nature of the O 2 transport system, the presence of multiple long-resident populations, and relevance for understanding hypoxic disorders in all persons underscore the importance of understanding how evolutionary adaptation to high altitude has occurred. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Variation in O 2 transport characteristics among Andean, Tibetan, and, when available, Ethiopian high-altitude residents supports the existence of genetic adaptations that improve the distribution of blood flow to vital

  18. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  19. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  20. Supporting Adaptive and Adaptable Hypermedia Presentation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); L. Rutledge (Lloyd); L. Hardman (Lynda); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractHaving the content of a presentation adapt to the needs, resources and prior activities of a user can be an important benefit of electronic documents. While part of this adaptation is related to the encodings of individual data streams, much of the adaptation can/should be guided by the

  1. Pheromonal control: reconciling physiological mechanism with signalling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peso, Marianne; Elgar, Mark A; Barron, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Pheromones are intraspecific chemical signals. They can have profound effects on the behaviour and/or physiology of the receiver, and it is still common to hear pheromones described as controlling of the behaviour of the receiver. The discussion of pheromonal control arose initially from a close association between hormones and pheromones in the comparative physiological literature, but the concept of a controlling pheromone is at odds with contemporary signal evolution theory, which predicts that a manipulative pheromonal signal negatively affecting the receiver's fitness should not be stable over evolutionary time. Here we discuss the meaning of pheromonal control, and the ecological circumstances by which it might be supported. We argue that in discussing pheromonal control it is important to differentiate between control applied to the effects of a pheromone on a receiver's physiology (proximate control), and control applied to the effects of a pheromone on a receiver's fitness (ultimate control). Critically, a pheromone signal affecting change in the receiver's behaviour or physiology need not necessarily manipulate the fitness of a receiver. In cases where pheromonal signalling does lead to a reduction in the fitness of the receiver, the signalling system would be stable if the pheromone were an honest signal of a social environment that disadvantages the receiver, and the physiological and behavioural changes observed in the receiver were an adaptive response to the new social circumstances communicated by the pheromone. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Adaptive transition rates in excitable membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon Marom

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of activity in excitable membranes occurs over a wide range of timescales. Standard computational approaches handle this wide temporal range in terms of multiple states and related reaction rates emanating from the complexity of ionic channels. The study described here takes a different (perhaps complementary approach, by interpreting ion channel kinetics in terms of population dynamics. I show that adaptation in excitable membranes is reducible to a simple Logistic-like equation in which the essential non-linearity is replaced by a feedback loop between the history of activation and an adaptive transition rate that is sensitive to a single dimension of the space of inactive states. This physiologically measurable dimension contributes to the stability of the system and serves as a powerful modulator of input-output relations that depends on the patterns of prior activity; an intrinsic scale free mechanism for cellular adaptation that emerges from the microscopic biophysical properties of ion channels of excitable membranes.

  3. Circadian regulation of hormone signaling and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamian, Hagop S; Harmer, Stacey L

    2016-08-01

    The survival and reproduction of plants depend on their ability to cope with a wide range of daily and seasonal environmental fluctuations during their life cycle. Phytohormones are plant growth regulators that are involved in almost every aspect of growth and development as well as plant adaptation to myriad abiotic and biotic conditions. The circadian clock, an endogenous and cell-autonomous biological timekeeper that produces rhythmic outputs with close to 24-h rhythms, provides an adaptive advantage by synchronizing plant physiological and metabolic processes to the external environment. The circadian clock regulates phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways to generate daily rhythms in hormone activity that fine-tune a range of plant processes, enhancing adaptation to local conditions. This review explores our current understanding of the interplay between the circadian clock and hormone signaling pathways.

  4. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  5. Physiological response in pilot/back-seat man during aerial combat maneuvers in F-4E aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverett, S. D., Jr.; Davis, H. M., Jr.; Winter, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of objective/subjective physiological data between the pilot and the back-seat man during training within the G maneuvering envelope. It appears that the psychological requirements for the pilot to be mentally alert and physiologically adapted to a continually changing environment places additional responsibility on him to the extent the physiological signs monitored are indicative of a high stress condition and are increased by a significant amount over the back-seat man who is, in most instances, riding passively.

  6. The Limits of Exercise Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have...... been informed by studying highly trained athletes, in addition to healthy or unhealthy people. Recent progress has been made in regard to skeletal muscle metabolism and personalized exercise regimes. In this perspective, we review some of the historical milestones of exercise physiology, discuss how...

  7. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological ...

  8. Electronic Textbook in Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, Naomi C.; Lilienfield, Lawrence S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an electronic textbook in human physiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center Library that was designed to enhance learning and visualization through a prototype knowledge base of core instructional materials stored in digital format on Macintosh computers. The use of computers in the medical curriculum is…

  9. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  10. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged ...

  11. Physiological aspects of paired stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1965-01-01

    In this paper some physiological and clinical aspects of paired stimulation are discussed. I) The augmenting effect of paired stimulation on rnyocardial contractility is due to potentiation (increase in speed of restitution) and fusion of two contractions. 2) While using paired stimulation the

  12. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  13. Physiological and transcriptomic modifications induced by atmospheric and soil water deficits in robusta coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Thioune, Elhadji

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is a wide-spread limiting factor in coffee production, but the development of adapted cultivars is hampered by a limited understanding of the physiological tolerance mechanism and the narrow genetic base of plant material used in breeding. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify potential genetic and physiological markers for drought tolerance. Atmospheric water vapour (humidity) is an important environmental element that influences plant growth by conditioning di...

  14. Applied physiology of rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim; King, Trish; Jenkins, David

    2008-01-01

    Rugby league football is played in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs), with matches played over two 40-minute halves separated by a 10-minute rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities of rugby league players and the physiological demands of competition, with the physiological capacities of players and the physiological demands of competition increasing as the playing level is increased. However, there is also evidence to suggest that the physiological capacities of players may deteriorate as the season progresses, with reductions in muscular power and maximal aerobic power and increases in skinfold thickness occurring towards the end of the rugby league season, when training loads are lowest and match loads and injury rates are at their highest. Player fatigue and playing intensity have been suggested to contribute to injuries in rugby league, with a recent study reporting a significant correlation (r=0.74) between match injury rates and playing intensity in semi-professional rugby league players. Studies have also reported a higher risk of injury in players with low 10-m and 40-m speed, while players with a low maximal aerobic power had a greater risk of sustaining a contact injury. Furthermore, players who completed injury were at greater risk of sustaining a subsequent injury. These findings provide some explanation for the high incidence of fatigue-related injuries in rugby league players and highlight the importance of speed and endurance training to reduce the incidence of injury in rugby league players. To date, most, but not all, studies have investigated the movement patterns and physiological demands of rugby league competition, with little emphasis on how training activities simulate the competition environment. An understanding of the movement patterns and physiological demands of specific individual positions during training and competition would allow the

  15. Structural heart adaptations in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, C; Claessens, P; Bloemen, H; Claessens, M; Verbanck, M; Fagard, R; Claessens, J

    1999-12-01

    To perform a triathlon in aerobic conditions, a variety of cardiovascular, haemodynamic and metabolic adaptations are required. The heart is the central concern and also the most important limiting factor. In this study we investigate the structural and functional heart adaptations of a group of triathletes. A group of 52 male triathletes was divided into 4 subgroups in function of their athletic results and compared with a control group of 22 healthy, very active but no athletic men. The groups had comparable anthropometric and general physical characteristics. Very significant differences in cardiac structure and cardiac function were observed between the groups. In the triathletes, we registered distinct signs of significantly mixed eccentric and concentric hypertrophy. Unlike the findings in a pathological left ventricular hypertrophy, the diastolic left ventricular function in triathletes was completely normal and even better than in the control group. The late passive diastolic filling period of the triathlete, in particular, seemed to have specific characteristics. The comparison between the subgroups of triathletes shows us that genetic factors probably play an important role in the cardiac adaptations in triathletes. In our opinion the "athletic heart" in triathletes is not a specific "physiological entity" but is a transitional phase to a dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Our study yields some arguments for the following proposition: "People are born as elite athletes, with specific characteristics of the left ventricle and with a specifically supernormal diastolic left ventricular function."

  16. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  17. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical inactivity, exercise decreases the risk for cardiovascular disease. This beneficial effect of exercise is partly due to changes in vascular function and structure. However, far less is known about vascular ...

  18. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    , plasma and extracellular volume, balance function, and biochemical parameters were measured. RESULTS: Bowel preparation led to a significant decrease in exercise capacity (median, 9 percent) and weight (median, 1.2 kg). Plasma osmolality was significantly increased from 287 to 290 mmol kg(-1), as well......PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...... healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance...

  19. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  20. Physiological responses in barley to applications of lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, N.; Maheswaran, J.; Peverill, K.; Meehan, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Chinese research and glasshouse investigations carried out in Victoria by the authors have shown that several plant species, when treated with Rare Earth Elements (REEs), retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. The physiological adaptation of the plant to retain moisture in response to REE treatment however, has not been investigated. A glasshouse trial is currently in progress to study the physiological and agronomic responses of barley (cv. Schooner) grown in pots to application of lanthanum (0, 5 and 10 kg/ha), at a concentration of 0.05%, under well-watered (field capacity) and water-deficit (25 - 30% field capacity) conditions. Lanthanum was applied both directly to the soil and as a foliar spray. The physiological measurements include, photosynthetic rate, leaf water potential, osmotic potential, relative water content, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency. Measured agronomic parameters include plant height, tiller production, leaf area development, total grain weight, total biomass, root and shoot ratio and harvest index. Analysis of plant tissue for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and La to study the relationship between application of REE and nutrient uptake is also being carried out. The paper discusses physiological and agronomic changes in barley plants in response to treatment with lanthanum, under conditions of water stress

  1. Growth form defines physiological photoprotective capacity in intertidal benthic diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Alexandre; Méléder, Vona; Blommaert, Lander; Lepetit, Bernard; Gaudin, Pierre; Vyverman, Wim; Sabbe, Koen; Dupuy, Christine; Lavaud, Johann

    2015-01-01

    In intertidal marine sediments, characterized by rapidly fluctuating and often extreme light conditions, primary production is frequently dominated by diatoms. We performed a comparative analysis of photophysiological traits in 15 marine benthic diatom species belonging to the four major morphological growth forms (epipelon (EPL), motile epipsammon (EPM-M) and non-motile epipsammon (EPM-NM) and tychoplankton (TYCHO)) found in these sediments. Our analyses revealed a clear relationship between growth form and photoprotective capacity, and identified fast regulatory physiological photoprotective traits (that is, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and the xanthophyll cycle (XC)) as key traits defining the functional light response of these diatoms. EPM-NM and motile EPL showed the highest and lowest NPQ, respectively, with EPM-M showing intermediate values. Like EPL, TYCHO had low NPQ, irrespective of whether they were grown in benthic or planktonic conditions, reflecting an adaptation to a low light environment. Our results thus provide the first experimental evidence for the existence of a trade-off between behavioural (motility) and physiological photoprotective mechanisms (NPQ and the XC) in the four major intertidal benthic diatoms growth forms using unialgal cultures. Remarkably, although motility is restricted to the raphid pennate diatom clade, raphid pennate species, which have adopted a non-motile epipsammic or a tychoplanktonic life style, display the physiological photoprotective response typical of these growth forms. This observation underscores the importance of growth form and not phylogenetic relatedness as the prime determinant shaping the physiological photoprotective capacity of benthic diatoms.

  2. Anatomy and physiology of cisternostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Iype; Grasso, Giovanni; Bernardo, Antonio; Munakomi, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Cisternostomy is defined as opening the basal cisterns to atmospheric pressure. This technique helps to reduce the intracranial pressure in severe head trauma as well as other conditions when the so-called sudden "brain swelling" troubles the surgeon. We elaborated the surgical anatomy of this procedure as well as the proposed physiology of how cisternostomy works. This novel technique may change the current trends in neurosurgery.

  3. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Sunao; Shioda, Kohei; Morita, Yuko; Kubota, Chie; Ganeko, Masashi; Takeda, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS) physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. The research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960s, with a focus primarily on sleep related EEG changes (CN...

  4. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Sunao eUchida; Kohei eShioda; Yuko eMorita; Chie eKubota; Masashi eGaneko; Noriko eTakeda; Noriko eTakeda

    2012-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS) physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep) c...

  5. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance...... preparation has significant adverse physiologic effects, which may be attributed to dehydration. The majority of these findings is small and may not be of clinical relevance in otherwise healthy patients undergoing bowel preparation and following recommendations for oral fluid intake....

  6. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  7. Physiology of in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cañal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture procedures described up to the eighties, did not made any mention to the environmental control of in vitro plant development. However, growth rate, development and many of the physiologic-morphologic features of the in vitro grown plants are influenced by the culture vessel. The increasing knowledge about the environmental control of culture vessels under sterile conditions, is helping to change micorpropagation procedures. The in vitro environment with lower rate ventilation, brings about low flow rates of matter and energy, with minimum variations of temperature, high relative humidity and large daily changes of the concentration of CO2 inside the culture vessel. The type of culture vessel (size, shape, fabric and closing system can influence the evolution of the atmosphere along the time of culture. Although submitted to different stresses factors plant can be grown in vitro, but plants can be faulty in their anatomy, morphology and physiology. As a consequence, these plants shown a phenotype unable to survive to ex vitro conditions. Different strategies can be used to control the atmosphere along the different phases of micropropagation, in heterotrophic, mixotrophic or autotrophic cultures. The election of the best strategy will be based on different factors as species, number of transplantes required, or quality-price relationship. enviromental control, tissue culture, micropropagation Keywords: in vitro enviromental, characteristic physiology,

  8. Going from bad to worse: Adaptation to poor health, health spending, longevity, and the value of life

    OpenAIRE

    Schünemann, Johannes; Strulik, Holger; Trimborn, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy persons adapt to their bad state of health and persons in bad health are usually happier than estimated by healthy persons. In this paper we investigate how adaptation to a deteriorating state of health affects health spending, life expectancy, and the value of life. We set up a life cycle model in which individuals are subject to physiological aging, calibrate it with data from gerontology, and compare behavior and outcomes of adapting and non-adapting individuals. While adaptation...

  9. Eccentric Exercise: Physiological Characteristics and Acute Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jamie; Pearson, Simon; Ross, Angus; McGuigan, Mike

    2017-04-01

    An eccentric contraction involves the active lengthening of muscle under an external load. The molecular and neural mechanisms underpinning eccentric contractions differ from those of concentric and isometric contractions and remain less understood. A number of molecular theories have been put forth to explain the unexplained observations during eccentric contractions that deviate from the predictions of the established theories of muscle contraction. Postulated mechanisms include a strain-induced modulation of actin-myosin interactions at the level of the cross-bridge, the activation of the structural protein titin, and the winding of titin on actin. Accordingly, neural strategies controlling eccentric contractions also differ with a greater, and possibly distinct, cortical activation observed despite an apparently lower activation at the level of the motor unit. The characteristics of eccentric contractions are associated with several acute physiological responses to eccentrically-emphasised exercise. Differences in neuromuscular, metabolic, hormonal and anabolic signalling responses during, and following, an eccentric exercise bout have frequently been observed in comparison to concentric exercise. Subsequently, the high levels of muscular strain with such exercise can induce muscle damage which is rarely observed with other contraction types. The net result of these eccentric contraction characteristics and responses appears to be a novel adaptive signal within the neuromuscular system.

  10. THE PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF EJACULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Angélica Lucio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Different studies dealing with ejaculation view this process as a part of the male copulatory behavior. Some of them explain ejaculation as the consequence of a neuroendocrine feedback loops or from a purely anatomical perspective. The goal of the present review is to discuss the traditional and novel themes related to the biology of ejaculation. The text begins with the description of the behavioral motor patterns that lead to ejaculation. The anatomo-physiological mechanisms are explained under the notion that ejaculation is more than genitals and an excurrent duct system; thus it is also included the participation of the striated perineal musculature. Although ejaculation is a sexual spinal reflex, it is inhibited tonically by supraspinal structures. Such supraspinal modulation may explain the prudent sperm allocation, by which males adjust the number of sperm per ejaculate while copulating under distinct competitive scenarios. In some mammals, ejaculate components facilitate seminal coagulation, an adaptation that may increase the male reproductive fitness. Finally, there is a reflection of the so-called human ejaculatory disturbances, which from an ecophysiolgical perspective could represent advantages instead of sexual malfunction as are recognize under the medical view.

  11. Physiological and molecular changes in plants grown at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Andreas; Clément, Christophe; Barka, Essaïd Ait

    2012-06-01

    Apart from water availability, low temperature is the most important environmental factor limiting the productivity and geographical distribution of plants across the world. To cope with cold stress, plant species have evolved several physiological and molecular adaptations to maximize cold tolerance by adjusting their metabolism. The regulation of some gene products represents an additional mechanism of cold tolerance. A consequence of these mechanisms is that plants are able to survive exposure to low temperature via a process known as cold acclimation. In this review, we briefly summarize recent progress in research and hypotheses on how sensitive plants perceive cold. We also explore how this perception is translated into changes within plants following exposure to low temperatures. Particular emphasis is placed on physiological parameters as well as transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation of cold-induced gene products that occur after exposure to low temperatures, leading to cold acclimation.

  12. Disciplining Physiological Psychology: Cinematographs as Epistemic Devices in the Work of Henri Bergson and Charles Scott Sherrington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Tom

    2017-12-01

    Argument This paper arrives at a normative position regarding the relevance of Henri Bergson's philosophy to historical enquiry. It does so via experimental historical analysis of the adaptation of cinematographic devices to physiological investigation. Bergson's philosophy accorded well with a mode of physiological psychology in which claims relating to mental and physiological existence interacted. Notably however, cinematograph-centered experimentation by British physiologists including Charles Scott Sherrington, as well as German-trained psychologists such as Hugo Münsterberg and Max Wertheimer, contributed to a cordoning-off of psychological from physiological questioning during the early twentieth century. Bergson invested in a mode of intellectual practice in which psychological claims had direct relevance to the interpretation of physiological nature. The in-part cinematograph-inspired breakdown of this mode had significance for subsequent interpretations of his philosophy. It is suggested that this experimental particularization of Bergson's contentions indicates that any adaptation of his thought for historical enquiry must be disciplinarily specific.

  13. Abstracts of Review Articles and Educational Materials in Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiology Teacher, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Contained are 99 abstracts of review articles, texts, books, manuals, learning programs, and audiovisual material used in teaching physiology. Specific fields include cell physiology, circulation, comparative physiology, development and aging, endocrinology and metabolism, environmental and exercise physiology, gastrointestinal physiology, muscle…

  14. The Gravity of Giraffe Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    By virtue of its tallness and terrestrial environment, the giraffe is a uniquely sensitive African animal to investigate tissue adaptations to gravitational stress. One decade ago, we studied transcapillary fluid balance and local tissue adaptations to high cardiovascular and musculoskeletal loads in adult and fetal giraffes. Previous studies by Goetz, Pattersson, Van Citters, Warren and their colleagues revealed that arterial pressure near the giraffe heart is about twice that in humans, to provide more normal blood pressure and perfusion to the brain. Another important question is how giraffes avoid pooling of blood and tissue fluid (edema) in dependent tissue of the extremities. As monitored by radiotelemetry, the blood and tissue fluid pressures that govern transcapillary exchange vary greatly with exercise. These pressures, combined with a tight skin layer, move fluid upward against gravity. Other mechanisms that prevent edema include precapillary vasoconstriction and low permeability of capillaries to plasma proteins. Other anatomical adaptations in dependent tissues of giraffes represent developmental adjustments to high and variable gravitational forces. These include vascular wall hypertrophy, thickened capillary basement membrane and other connective tissue adaptations. Our results in giraffe suggest avenues of future gravitational research in other animals including humans.

  15. Embracing changes: adaptation by adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramini, Sasha Kareema; Brown, Richard; Buckner, Ellen B

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the Roy Adaptation Model (RAM) to examine adaptive strategies of adolescents with cancer. This theory-based, descriptive study was conducted through a children's hematology/oncology clinic. Investigator-designed open-ended interview questions were generated based on the four adaptive modes--physiological, self-concept, role function, and interdependence. Respondents included adolescents and young adults who had experienced cancer as adolescents. Adolescents and young adults reported evidences of positive adaptation. Experiences congruent with the adaptive modes included responding to uncontrolled nausea, embracing changes, wanting to feel normal, having the support and protection of family, and feeling increased psychosocial maturation. Respondents reported creatively managing bodily changes, keeping positive attitudes, and demonstrating psychosocial maturation. Practice implications highlight the imperative for nurses to listen to patients in the evaluation of care. In addition, establishing survivor clinics, structuring peer support, and encouraging involvement in activities such as cancer camps can facilitate adaptation. Through the crisis of cancer, the adolescent's voice can shape the direction for nursing care.

  16. The adaptability of tendon to loading differs in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, S Peter; Hansen, Mette; Langberg, Henning

    2007-01-01

    The reason why women sustain more soft tissue injury than men during physical activity is unknown. Connective tissue properties and extracellular matrix adaptability in human tendon were investigated in models that addressed biochemical, physiological and biomechanical aspects of tendon connective...

  17. Cardiovascular adaptations in spinal cord-injured individuals : time course of arterial vascular changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Petronella Catharina Elizabeth de

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  18. Cardiovascular Adaptations in Spinal Cord-Injured Individuals. Timne course of arterial vascular changes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  19. Seventy years of pancreatic physiology: take a look back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Jean

    2014-11-01

    This review article has 4 major objectives to follow pancreatic physiology development more than close to 70 years of intensive and productive basic research. At first, the review will focus on secretion of the pancreatic enzymes with (1) the controls involved, (2) the interrelations existing between secretion and synthesis of these enzymes, (3) the enzymes' adaptation to the constituents of the diet, and (4) whether secretion of the different enzymes is parallel or nonparallel. Second, growth and regeneration of the pancreatic gland will be looked at in relation to the factors involved and the target cells implicated.

  20. Chronobiology --2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Li, Yi-Rou; Xu, Xiao-Dong

    2018-01-20

    Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines the generation of biological rhythms in various creatures and in many parts of body, and their adaptive fitness to solar- and lunar-related periodic phenomena. The synchronization of internal circadian clocks with external timing signals confers accurate phase response and tissue homeostasis. Herein we state a series of studies on circadian rhythms and introduce the brief history of chronobiology. We also present a detailed timeline of the discoveries on molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm in Drosophila, which was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The latest findings and new perspectives are further summarized to indicate the significance of circadian research.

  1. Adaptive Modular Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user...... test set, the results are important as a proof of existence of differences and of the need for adaptation. The fact that there are individual differences makes the results significant for the development of games and interaction. It indicates that it is necessary to adapt the game and interaction......, if we desire to make the most appropriate game and interaction for the individual. Hence, we investigate adaptation as an important issue for playware. With simple playware games, we show that the adaptation will speed the game up and down to find the appropriate level that matches the reaction speed...

  2. Anatomy and physiology of chronic scrotal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Abhishek P

    2017-05-01

    This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the scrotum and its contents as it pertains to chronic scrotal pain. Physiology of chronic pain is reviewed, as well as the pathophysiology involved in the development of chronic pain.

  3. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educational - Medicine Prize Related The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to people and ... this page MLA style: "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – Educational". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media ...

  4. Physiological determinants of human acute hypoxia tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    AbstractIntroduction. We investigated possible physiological determinants of variability in hypoxia tolerance in subjects given a 5-minute normobaric exposure to 25,000 ft equivalent. Physiological tolerance to hypoxia was defined as the magnitude of...

  5. Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Physiology of High-Altitude Acclimatization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Sonam Chawla1 Shweta Saxena2. Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi; Experimental Biology Division Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences Defence Research and Development Organisation Lucknow Road, Timarpur Delhi 110054 ...

  7. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  8. Physiological mechanisms of the effect of weightlessness on the body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental data show that physiological reactions observed under weightlessness conditions are caused by: (1) The direct effect of weightlessness, as a consequence of decrease (""disappearance'') of the weight of body tissues and organs; and (2) the mediated effect of weightlessness, as a result of changes in the functional state of the central nervous system and the cooperative work of the analyzers. The human body adopts to weightless conditions under the prolonged effects of it. In this case, four periods can be distinguished: The first period, a transitional process lasting from 1 to 24 hours; second period, initial adaptation to conditions of weightlessness and readjustment of all functional systems of the body; the third period, adaptation to the unusual mechanical conditions of the external environment, lasting from 3 to 8 days and more; and the fourth period, the stage of possible imbalance of the functions and the systems of some astronauts, as a result of the prolonged effect of weightlessness.

  9. The Physical, Chemical and Physiological Limits of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Schulze-Makuch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Life on Earth displays an incredible diversity in form and function, which allows it to survive not only physical extremes, but also periods of time when it is exposed to non-habitable conditions. Extreme physiological adaptations to bridge non-habitable conditions include various dormant states, such as spores or tuns. Here, we advance the hypothesis that if the environmental conditions are different on some other planetary body, a deviating biochemistry would evolve with types of adaptations that would manifest themselves with different physical and chemical limits of life. In this paper, we discuss two specific examples: putative life on a Mars-type planet with a hydrogen peroxide-water solvent and putative life on a Titan-type planetary body with liquid hydrocarbons as a solvent. Both examples would have the result of extending the habitable envelope of life in the universe.

  10. Adapting to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Christopher W. Swanston; David L. Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Federal agencies have led the development of adaptation principles and tools in forest ecosystems over the past decade. Successful adaptation efforts generally require organizations to: (1) develop science-management partnerships, (2) provide education on climate change science, (3) provide a toolkit of methods and processes for vulnerability assessment and adaptation...

  11. Adaptation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmin, J.; Tierney, K.; Chu, E.; Hunter, L.M.; Roberts, J.T.; Shi, L.; Dunlap, R.E.; Brulle, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change adaptation involves major global and societal challenges such as finding adequate and equitable adaptation funding and integrating adaptation and development programs. Current funding is insufficient. Debates between the Global North and South center on how best to allocate the

  12. Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences (J. Afr. Assoc. Physiol. Sci.) is an international, bi-annual official publication of African Association of Physiological Sciences. Both print and online forms are available. The journal is aimed at dissemination of information on diverse areas of research in Physiological ...

  13. Bengt Saltin and exercise physiology: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This perspective highlights some of the key contributions of Professor Bengt Saltin (1935-2014) to exercise physiology. The emergence of exercise physiology from work physiology as his career began is discussed as are his contributions in a number of areas. Saltin's open and question-based style of leadership is a model for the future of our field.

  14. The effects of physiology and behaviour on the near-bottom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of near-bottom populations of Karenia brevis depends on both cell physiology and behaviour. The migration distance of cells, and the subsequent exposure to light, may vary as a result of the nocturnal uptake of nitrate. The adaptive advantage of higher nocturnal uptake rates and upward migration is evident ...

  15. The Role of Physiological Arousal in Time Perception: Psychophysiological Evidence from an Emotion Regulation Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, N.; Conty, L.; Pouthas, V.

    2011-01-01

    Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect. Yet, physiological measure of arousal related with emotional timing is still lacking. We addressed this question using skin conductance response (SCR) in an emotion regulation paradigm.…

  16. Psychological Distress and Physiological Reactivity During In Vivo Exposure in People With Aviophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, B.; Spinhoven, P.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Exposure is regarded to be a crucial component of therapies for phobias. According to emotional processing theory, the success of exposure therapy is predicted by activation of subjective and physiological fear responses and their within-session habituation and between-session adaptation.

  17. A graphical simulation software for instruction in cardiovascular mechanics physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Computer supported, interactive e-learning systems are widely used in the teaching of physiology. However, the currently available complimentary software tools in the field of the physiology of cardiovascular mechanics have not yet been adapted to the latest systems software. Therefore, a simple-to-use replacement for undergraduate and graduate students' education was needed, including an up-to-date graphical software that is validated and field-tested. Methods Software compatible to Windows, based on modified versions of existing mathematical algorithms, has been newly developed. Testing was performed during a full term of physiological lecturing to medical and biology students. Results The newly developed CLabUZH software models a reduced human cardiovascular loop containing all basic compartments: an isolated heart including an artificial electrical stimulator, main vessels and the peripheral resistive components. Students can alter several physiological parameters interactively. The resulting output variables are printed in x-y diagrams and in addition shown in an animated, graphical model. CLabUZH offers insight into the relations of volume, pressure and time dependency in the circulation and their correlation to the electrocardiogram (ECG). Established mechanisms such as the Frank-Starling Law or the Windkessel Effect are considered in this model. The CLabUZH software is self-contained with no extra installation required and runs on most of today's personal computer systems. Conclusions CLabUZH is a user-friendly interactive computer programme that has proved to be useful in teaching the basic physiological principles of heart mechanics. PMID:21262003

  18. Stable isotope tracers and exercise physiology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Daniel J; Brook, Matthew S; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-05-01

    Stable isotope tracers have been invaluable assets in physiological research for over 80 years. The application of substrate-specific stable isotope tracers has permitted exquisite insight into amino acid, fatty-acid and carbohydrate metabolic regulation (i.e. incorporation, flux, and oxidation, in a tissue-specific and whole-body fashion) in health, disease and response to acute and chronic exercise. Yet, despite many breakthroughs, there are limitations to 'substrate-specific' stable isotope tracers, which limit physiological insight, e.g. the need for intravenous infusions and restriction to short-term studies (hours) in controlled laboratory settings. In recent years significant interest has developed in alternative stable isotope tracer techniques that overcome these limitations, in particular deuterium oxide (D 2 O or heavy water). The unique properties of this tracer mean that through oral administration, the turnover and flux through a number of different substrates (muscle proteins, lipids, glucose, DNA (satellite cells)) can be monitored simultaneously and flexibly (hours/weeks/months) without the need for restrictive experimental control. This makes it uniquely suited for the study of 'real world' human exercise physiology (amongst many other applications). Moreover, using D 2 O permits evaluation of turnover of plasma and muscle proteins (e.g. dynamic proteomics) in addition to metabolomics (e.g. fluxomics) to seek molecular underpinnings, e.g. of exercise adaptation. Here, we provide insight into the role of stable isotope tracers, from substrate-specific to novel D 2 O approaches, in facilitating our understanding of metabolism. Further novel potential applications of stable isotope tracers are also discussed in the context of integration with the snowballing field of 'omic' technologies. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  19. A graphical simulation software for instruction in cardiovascular mechanics physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenger Roland H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer supported, interactive e-learning systems are widely used in the teaching of physiology. However, the currently available complimentary software tools in the field of the physiology of cardiovascular mechanics have not yet been adapted to the latest systems software. Therefore, a simple-to-use replacement for undergraduate and graduate students' education was needed, including an up-to-date graphical software that is validated and field-tested. Methods Software compatible to Windows, based on modified versions of existing mathematical algorithms, has been newly developed. Testing was performed during a full term of physiological lecturing to medical and biology students. Results The newly developed CLabUZH software models a reduced human cardiovascular loop containing all basic compartments: an isolated heart including an artificial electrical stimulator, main vessels and the peripheral resistive components. Students can alter several physiological parameters interactively. The resulting output variables are printed in x-y diagrams and in addition shown in an animated, graphical model. CLabUZH offers insight into the relations of volume, pressure and time dependency in the circulation and their correlation to the electrocardiogram (ECG. Established mechanisms such as the Frank-Starling Law or the Windkessel Effect are considered in this model. The CLabUZH software is self-contained with no extra installation required and runs on most of today's personal computer systems. Conclusions CLabUZH is a user-friendly interactive computer programme that has proved to be useful in teaching the basic physiological principles of heart mechanics.

  20. Multivariate Dynamic Modeling to Investigate Human Adaptation to Space Flight: Initial Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Mindock, Jennifer; Zeffiro, Tom; Krakauer, David; Paloski, William H.; Lumpkins, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The array of physiological changes that occur when humans venture into space for long periods presents a challenge to future exploration. The changes are conventionally investigated independently, but a complete understanding of adaptation requires a conceptual basis founded in integrative physiology, aided by appropriate mathematical modeling. NASA is in the early stages of developing such an approach.

  1. Multivariate Dynamical Modeling to Investigate Human Adaptation to Space Flight: Initial Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Mindock, Jennifer; Zeffiro, Tom; Krakauer, David; Paloski, William H.; Lumpkins, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The array of physiological changes that occur when humans venture into space for long periods presents a challenge to future exploration. The changes are conventionally investigated independently, but a complete understanding of adaptation requires a conceptual basis founded in intergrative physiology, aided by appropriate mathematical modeling. NASA is in the early stages of developing such an approach.

  2. In-host adaptation and acquired triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: a dilemma for clinical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, P.; Zhang, J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Meis, J.F.; Schoustra, S.E.; Veerdonk, van de F.L.; Zwaan, B.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus causes a range of diseases in human beings, some of which are characterised by fungal persistence. A fumigatus can persist by adapting to the human lung environment through physiological and genomic changes. The physiological changes are based on the large biochemical

  3. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  4. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  5. Functional adaptation and phenotypic plasticity at the cellular and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-08-10

    Aug 10, 2009 ... The ability to adaptively alter morphological, anatomical, or physiological functional traits to local environmental variations using external environmental cues is especially well expressed by all terrestrial and most aquatic plants. A ubiquitous cue eliciting these plastic phenotypic responses is mechanical ...

  6. Neural regulation of innate and adaptive immunity in the gut

    OpenAIRE

    Dhawan, S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE), in modulating the innate and adaptive immune function in the intestine, during physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Furthermore, this thesis attempts to advance our current understanding of the gut-brain immune axis, also known as the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, coined largely due to the cholinergic nature of the vagus nerve.

  7. Cardiovascular Adaptation and Remodeling to Rigorous Athletic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Rory B; Baggish, Aaron L

    2015-07-01

    Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling is a complex process by which the cardinal hemodynamic stresses of pressure and volume lead to a host of structural or functional adaptations. In aggregate, the constellation of changes that accompany this process serve to facilitate athletic performance by minimizing the cardiac work inherent in athletic activity. Although several key determinants of athletic cardiac adaptation have been described, observed variability across athlete cohorts remains an incompletely understood area. Ongoing and future work are required to further understand this process and ultimately to determine where the boundary lies between adaptive physiology and maladaptive disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitization as a Basic Principle of Vestibular Adaptation to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eberhard R.

    2008-06-01

    The analysis of basic mechanisms of physiological adaptation to weightlessness suffers (1) on the rare flight opportunities, and (2) on the collection of data with a rough time resolution. The comparative approach using data from animal and human research might be helpful to overcome these problems even for human research. The advantage of the comparative approach became obvious for vestibular adaptation to microgravity. Neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, behavioural and psychophysical studies in snails, fish, amphibian, rodents, monkey and men clearly revealed vestibular sensitization as a basic mechanism of adaptation to weightlessness.

  9. Physiological employment standards IV: integration of women in combat units physiological and medical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Yanovich, Ran; Moran, Daniel S; Heled, Yuval

    2013-11-01

    Anthropometric and physiological factors place the average female soldier at a disadvantage relative to male soldiers in most aspects of physical performance. Aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels are lower in women than in men. Thus, women have a lower overall work capacity and must therefore exert themselves more than men to achieve the same output. The lower weight and fat-free mass and the higher body fat of women are associated with lower muscle strength and endurance, placing them at disadvantage compared with men in carrying out military tasks such as lifting and carrying weights or marching with a load. Working at a higher percentage of their maximal capacity to achieve the same performance levels as men, women tire earlier and are at increased risk of overuse injuries. Their smaller size, different bone geometry and lower bone strength also predispose women to a higher incidence of stress fractures. Although training in gender-integrated groups narrows the gaps in fitness, significant differences between the genders after basic training still remain. Nevertheless, integration of women into military combat professions is feasible in many cases. Some 'close combat roles' will still be an exception, mainly because of the extreme physical demands that are required in those units that are beyond the physiological adaptability capacities of an average female. There is no direct evidence that women have a negative impact on combat effectiveness. Once the gender differences are acknowledged and operational doctrines adjusted accordingly, female soldiers in mixed-gender units can meet the physical standards for the assigned missions.

  10. Adaptation to seasonality and the winter freeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Christine Preston

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve.

  11. Relationship between sociability toward humans and physiological stress in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon-Joo; Shin, Nam-Shik

    2017-07-28

    Sociability is an essential trait for dogs to successfully interact with humans. In this study, the relationship between sociability and physiological stress was examined. Additionally, whether differences exist between companion dogs (C group) and shelter dogs (S group) was examined. Overall, healthy 37 dogs (C group=21 and S group=16) were examined. After 5 min of walking, the dog and the owner (or the chief manager) rested freely in the experimental location for 5 min. The behavioral test with 6 categories was conducted to evaluate sociability over 4 min. The establishment of two groups (H group=dogs with high sociability; L group=dogs with low sociability) was supported by the statistical results of the behavioral tests. Saliva was collected before (P1) and after the test period (P2), and salivary cortisol levels were determined and statistically analyzed. The cortisol concentrations at P2 and the differences in concentrations between P1 and P2 (P2-P1) in the groups with high sociability were significantly lower than those in the groups with low sociability. These results may demonstrate that sociable dogs adapt more comfortably to strangers and unfamiliar situations. Meanwhile, there were significant differences in hormonal results between the C and S groups. For this reason, their sociability should be evaluated using behavioral and physiological assessments before re-adoption to ensure their successful adaptation.

  12. Stress Physiology of Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alegría, Ángel; Bron, Peter A; de Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Lemos, José A; Linares, Daniel M; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Varmanen, Pekka; Ventura, Marco; Zúñiga, Manuel; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kok, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e.g., Lactococcus lactis), probiotic (e.g., several Lactobacillus spp.), and pathogenic (e.g., Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp.) LAB. Here we present the state of the art for LAB stress behavior. We describe the multitude of stresses that LAB are confronted with, and we present the experimental context used to study the stress responses of LAB, focusing on adaptation, habituation, and cross-protection as well as on self-induced multistress resistance in stationary phase, biofilms, and dormancy. We also consider stress responses at the population and single-cell levels. Subsequently, we concentrate on the stress defense mechanisms that have been reported to date, grouping them according to their direct participation in preserving cell energy, defending macromolecules, and protecting the cell envelope. Stress-induced responses of probiotic LAB and commensal/pathogenic LAB are highlighted separately due to the complexity of the peculiar multistress conditions to which these bacteria are subjected in their hosts. Induction of prophages under environmental stresses is then discussed. Finally, we present systems-based strategies to characterize the "stressome" of LAB and to engineer new food-related and probiotic LAB with improved stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Stress Physiology of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alegría, Ángel; Bron, Peter A.; de Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Lemos, José A.; Linares, Daniel M.; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Varmanen, Pekka; Ventura, Marco; Zúñiga, Manuel; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e.g., Lactococcus lactis), probiotic (e.g., several Lactobacillus spp.), and pathogenic (e.g., Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp.) LAB. Here we present the state of the art for LAB stress behavior. We describe the multitude of stresses that LAB are confronted with, and we present the experimental context used to study the stress responses of LAB, focusing on adaptation, habituation, and cross-protection as well as on self-induced multistress resistance in stationary phase, biofilms, and dormancy. We also consider stress responses at the population and single-cell levels. Subsequently, we concentrate on the stress defense mechanisms that have been reported to date, grouping them according to their direct participation in preserving cell energy, defending macromolecules, and protecting the cell envelope. Stress-induced responses of probiotic LAB and commensal/pathogenic LAB are highlighted separately due to the complexity of the peculiar multistress conditions to which these bacteria are subjected in their hosts. Induction of prophages under environmental stresses is then discussed. Finally, we present systems-based strategies to characterize the “stressome” of LAB and to engineer new food-related and probiotic LAB with improved stress tolerance. PMID:27466284

  14. The physiological basis of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J

    2016-09-26

    Flapping flight is energetically more costly than running, although it is less costly to fly a given body mass a given distance per unit time than it is for a similar mass to run the same distance per unit time. This is mainly because birds can fly faster than they can run. Oxygen transfer and transport are enhanced in migrating birds compared with those in non-migrators: at the gas-exchange regions of the lungs the effective area is greater and the diffusion distance smaller. Also, migrating birds have larger hearts and haemoglobin concentrations in the blood, and capillary density in the flight muscles tends to be higher. Species like bar-headed geese migrate at high altitudes, where the availability of oxygen is reduced and the energy cost of flapping flight increased compared with those at sea level. Physiological adaptations to these conditions include haemoglobin with a higher affinity for oxygen than that in lowland birds, a greater effective ventilation of the gas-exchange surface of the lungs and a greater capillary-to-muscle fibre ratio. Migrating birds use fatty acids as their source of energy, so they have to be transported at a sufficient rate to meet the high demand. Since fatty acids are insoluble in water, birds maintain high concentrations of fatty acid-binding proteins to transport fatty acids across the cell membrane and within the cytoplasm. The concentrations of these proteins, together with that of a key enzyme in the β-oxidation of fatty acids, increase before migration.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. An overview of gravitational physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Jaime; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this review is on the response of humans and animals to the effects of the near weightless condition occurring aboard orbiting spacecraft. Gravity is an omnipresent force that has been a constant part of our lives and of the evolution of all living species. Emphasis is placed on the general mechanisms of adaptation to altered gravitational fields and vectors, i.e., both hypo- and hypergravity. A broad literature review of gravitational biology was conducted and the general state of our knowledge in this area is discussed. The review is specifically targeted at newcomers to the exciting and relatively new area of space and gravitational biology.

  16. Physiological function of ABCG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshimitsu

    2003-10-01

    Since ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) was discovered as the cause of Tangier disease and familial high-density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency, many investigators have been interested in the relationship between ABC transporters and the mechanism underlying abnormal lipid metabolism. ABCG1 is an ABC half transporter that facilitates efflux excess cholesterol from macrophages. To elucidate the potential physiological role of ABCG1, we have initiated a series of studies overexpressing ABCG1, using an adenovirus vector (rABCG1-Adv) in C57BL mice. Overexpression of ABCG1 in the liver of mice using recombinant ABCG1 vectors results in decreased plasma HDL levels and increased biliary cholesterol excretion, and indicates that ABCG1 can modulate plasma lipoprotein levels in vivo. ABCG1 and the other ABC transporters might play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis, especially in the liver.

  17. CH2 - Lighting and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Altomonte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the designed performances of the new CH2 building in Melbourne, Australia. CH2 is an environmentally significant project that involves biomimicry of natural systems to produce indoor conditions that are conducive to user comfort, health and productivity. This paper focuses on lighting and physiology and examines the solutions chosen for artificial and natural lighting and the likely effects these will have on building occupants. The purpose of the paper is to critically comment on the adopted strategy and, cognisance of contemporary thinking in lighting design, to judge the effectiveness of this aspect of the project with a view to later verification and post-occupancy review. The paper concludes that CH2 is an exemplar of lighting innovation that provides valuable lessons to designers of office buildings, particularly in the Melbourne CSD.

  18. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  19. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D; Burton, Rachel A; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  20. Cesium-137: A physiological disruptor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souidi, Maamar; Grison, Stephane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Today, radiation protection is a major issue for the nuclear industry throughout the world, particularly in France. The 2011 disaster of Fukushima Dai-ichi has brought back to public attention questions about the risks associated with nuclear power for civilian purposes. The risk of accidental release of radioactive molecules, including cesium-137 ( 137 Cs), from these facilities cannot be completely eliminated. The non-cancer-related health consequences of chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain poorly understood. After absorption, cesium is distributed throughout the body. The toxicity of 137 Cs is due mainly to its radiological properties. Studies in humans report that 137 Cs impairs the immune system and induces neurological disorders. Children appear more susceptible than adults to its toxic effects. In animals, and most particularly in rodents, low-dose internal contamination disrupts the sleep-wake cycle, but without behavioural disorders. Impairment of the cardiovascular system has also been observed. Physiologic systems such as the metabolism of vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones are altered, although without leading to the emergence of diseases with clinical symptoms. Recently, a metabolomics study based on contamination levels comparable to those around Chernobyl after the accident showed that it is possible to identify individual rats chronically exposed to low doses of 137 Cs, even though the exposure was too low to affect the standard clinical markers. In conclusion, the scientific evidence currently available, particularly that from experimental animal models exposed to chronic contamination, suggests that 137 Cs is likely to affect many physiologic and metabolic functions. Thus, it could contribute, with other artificial substances in the environment, to increasing the risk of developing non-cancer diseases in some regions. (authors)

  1. Anatomy and physiology for nursing students: is problem-based learning effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayner, Lidia; Gillham, David; Sansoni, Julita

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether problem-based learning (PBL) was an effective strategy for nursing students learning anatomy and physiology. Anatomy and physiology are subject areas that have posed long standing difficulty for nursing students. Since anatomy and physiology underpin clinical decision making it is important that nursing students are able to understand and retain this knowledge and apply it to practice. Problem-based learning offers potential advantages for teaching anatomy and physiology as clinical cases can provide the impetus for student problem solving. This project trialled a simple PBL scenario and investigated students' response to the task of problem solving in a laboratory setting adapted to simulate a hospital ward. The study found students learn better, retain the knowledge and merge theory with simulated practice when a PBL teaching mode is used. While PBL was effective, blended, web based and hybrid PBL models warrant investigation.

  2. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  3. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    The term ‘translational research’ was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by ‘reverse translation’ in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise. PMID:23732641

  4. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  5. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  6. Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Tait, Peter W

    2015-07-15

    Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in environmental heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global warming to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Climate researchers, epidemiologists, and policy makers engaged in climate change adaptation and health protection are not commonly drawn from heat physiology backgrounds. Injecting a scholarly consideration of physiological limitations to human heat tolerance into the adaptation and policy literature allows for a broader understanding of heat health risks to support effective human adaptation and adaptation planning. This paper details the physiological and external environmental factors that determine human thermoregulation and acclimatization. We present a model to illustrate the interrelationship between elements that modulate the physiological process of thermoregulation. Limitations inherent in these processes, and the constraints imposed by differing exposure levels, and thermal comfort seeking on achieving acclimatization, are then described. Combined, these limitations will restrict the likely contribution that acclimatization can play in future human adaptation to global warming. We postulate that behavioral and technological adaptations will need to become the dominant means for human individual and societal adaptations as global warming progresses.

  7. Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in environmental heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global warming to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Climate researchers, epidemiologists, and policy makers engaged in climate change adaptation and health protection are not commonly drawn from heat physiology backgrounds. Injecting a scholarly consideration of physiological limitations to human heat tolerance into the adaptation and policy literature allows for a broader understanding of heat health risks to support effective human adaptation and adaptation planning. This paper details the physiological and external environmental factors that determine human thermoregulation and acclimatization. We present a model to illustrate the interrelationship between elements that modulate the physiological process of thermoregulation. Limitations inherent in these processes, and the constraints imposed by differing exposure levels, and thermal comfort seeking on achieving acclimatization, are then described. Combined, these limitations will restrict the likely contribution that acclimatization can play in future human adaptation to global warming. We postulate that behavioral and technological adaptations will need to become the dominant means for human individual and societal adaptations as global warming progresses.

  8. Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Tait, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in environmental heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global warming to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Climate researchers, epidemiologists, and policy makers engaged in climate change adaptation and health protection are not commonly drawn from heat physiology backgrounds. Injecting a scholarly consideration of physiological limitations to human heat tolerance into the adaptation and policy literature allows for a broader understanding of heat health risks to support effective human adaptation and adaptation planning. This paper details the physiological and external environmental factors that determine human thermoregulation and acclimatization. We present a model to illustrate the interrelationship between elements that modulate the physiological process of thermoregulation. Limitations inherent in these processes, and the constraints imposed by differing exposure levels, and thermal comfort seeking on achieving acclimatization, are then described. Combined, these limitations will restrict the likely contribution that acclimatization can play in future human adaptation to global warming. We postulate that behavioral and technological adaptations will need to become the dominant means for human individual and societal adaptations as global warming progresses. PMID:26184272

  9. Phosphorus physiological ecology and molecular mechanisms in marine phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Senjie; Litaker, Richard Wayne; Sunda, William G

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton and indeed all life forms. Current data show that P availability is growth-limiting in certain marine systems and can impact algal species composition. Available P occurs in marine waters as dissolved inorganic phosphate (primarily orthophosphate [Pi]) or as a myriad of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) compounds. Despite numerous studies on P physiology and ecology and increasing research on genomics in marine phytoplankton, there have been few attempts to synthesize information from these different disciplines. This paper is aimed to integrate the physiological and molecular information on the acquisition, utilization, and storage of P in marine phytoplankton and the strategies used by these organisms to acclimate and adapt to variations in P availability. Where applicable, we attempt to identify gaps in our current knowledge that warrant further research and examine possible metabolic pathways that might occur in phytoplankton from well-studied bacterial models. Physical and chemical limitations governing cellular P uptake are explored along with physiological and molecular mechanisms to adapt and acclimate to temporally and spatially varying P nutrient regimes. Topics covered include cellular Pi uptake and feedback regulation of uptake systems, enzymatic utilization of DOP, P acquisition by phagotrophy, P-limitation of phytoplankton growth in oceanic and coastal waters, and the role of P-limitation in regulating cell size and toxin levels in phytoplankton. Finally, we examine the role of P and other nutrients in the transition of phytoplankton communities from early succession species (diatoms) to late succession ones (e.g., dinoflagellates and haptophytes). © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  10. Adaptation as organism design

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The problem of adaptation is to explain the apparent design of organisms. Darwin solved this problem with the theory of natural selection. However, population geneticists, whose responsibility it is to formalize evolutionary theory, have long neglected the link between natural selection and organismal design. Here, I review the major historical developments in theory of organismal adaptation, clarifying what adaptation is and what it is not, and I point out future avenues for research.

  11. The purpose of adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Andy

    2017-01-01

    A central feature of Darwin’s theory of natural selection is that it explains the purpose of biological adaptation. Here, I: emphasise the scientific importance of understanding what adaptations are for, in terms of facilitating the derivation of empirically-testable predictions; discuss the population genetical basis for Darwin’s theory of the purpose of adaptation, with reference to the “fundamental theorem of natural selection”; and show that a deeper understanding of the purpose of adapta...

  12. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous...

  13. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  14. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...

  15. Adaptive optics in microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Martin J

    2007-12-15

    The imaging properties of optical microscopes are often compromised by aberrations that reduce image resolution and contrast. Adaptive optics technology has been employed in various systems to correct these aberrations and restore performance. This has required various departures from the traditional adaptive optics schemes that are used in astronomy. This review discusses the sources of aberrations, their effects and their correction with adaptive optics, particularly in confocal and two-photon microscopes. Different methods of wavefront sensing, indirect aberration measurement and aberration correction devices are discussed. Applications of adaptive optics in the related areas of optical data storage, optical tweezers and micro/nanofabrication are also reviewed.

  16. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  17. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion—communicative expression and physiological state—to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence. PMID:26903913

  18. Physiological responses by Billbergia zebrina (Bromeliaceae) when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological responses by Billbergia zebrina (Bromeliaceae) when grown under controlled microenvironmental conditions. João Paulo Rodrigues Martins, Veerle Verdoodt, Moacir Pasqual, Maurice De Proft ...

  19. Physiological and Environmental Sensor Skin Stamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future exploration missions will require astronauts to autonomously monitor physiological and atmospheric conditions. Recent technological advances in the developing...

  20. Gravitational Effects on Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomi, Yoriko

    2015-01-01

    Physical working capacity decreases with age and also in microgravity. Regardless of age, increased physical activity can always improve the physical adaptability of the body, although the mechanisms of this adaptability are unknown. Physical exercise produces various mechanical stimuli in the body, and these stimuli may be essential for cell survival in organisms. The cytoskeleton plays an important role in maintaining cell shape and tension development, and in various molecular and/or cellular organelles involved in cellular trafficking. Both intra and extracellular stimuli send signals through the cytoskeleton to the nucleus and modulate gene expression via an intrinsic property, namely the "dynamic instability" of cytoskeletal proteins. αB-crystallin is an important chaperone for cytoskeletal proteins in muscle cells. Decreases in the levels of αB-crystallin are specifically associated with a marked decrease in muscle mass (atrophy) in a rat hindlimb suspension model that mimics muscle and bone atrophy that occurs in space and increases with passive stretch. Moreover, immunofluorescence data show complete co-localization of αB-crystallin and the tubulin/microtubule system in myoblast cells. This association was further confirmed in biochemical experiments carried out in vitro showing that αB-crystallin acts as a chaperone for heat-denatured tubulin and prevents microtubule disassembly induced by calcium. Physical activity induces the constitutive expression of αB-crystallin, which helps to maintain the homeostasis of cytoskeleton dynamics in response to gravitational forces. This relationship between chaperone expression levels and regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics observed in slow anti-gravitational muscles as well as in mammalian striated muscles, such as those in the heart, diaphragm and tongue, may have been especially essential for human evolution in particular. Elucidation of the intrinsic properties of the tubulin/microtubule and chaperone

  1. Inside the adaptation process of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis to bile

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Patricia; Sánchez García, Borja; Vinderola, Gabriel; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Ruíz García, Lorena; Margolles Barros, Abelardo; Reinheimer, Jorge A.; González de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara

    2010-01-01

    Progressive adaptation to bile might render some lactobacilli able to withstand physiological bile salt concentrations. In this work, the adaptation to bile was evaluated on previously isolated dairy strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 200 and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis 200+, a strain derived thereof with stable bile-resistant phenotype. The adaptation to bile was obtained by comparing cytosolic proteomes of both strains grown in the presence or absence of bile. Proteomics we...

  2. Physiological parameters for thermal stress in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Calderaro Dalcin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate changes in physiological parameters of dairy cows and understand which physiological parameters show greater reliability for verification of heat stress. Blood samples were collected for analysis and included hematocrit (Ht, erythrocyte count (ERY, and hemoglobin count (HEMO. In addition, physiological variables, including rectal temperature (RT, heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, and panting score (PS were recorded in 38 lactating cows. These varied according to genetic group (1/2, 3/4, and pure bred Holstein (HO. Analysis of variance considering the effects of genetic group, days, and their interaction as well as linear and quadratic effect of the black globe humidity index (BGHI was performed, as well as broken-line regression. These values were higher in pure HO than in 3/4 and 1/2 groups. The average BGHI during the morning was 74, when 70, 43, and 13% of pure HO, 3/4, and 1/2, respectively, presented RR above reference value. The RR was the best indicator of heat stress and its critical value was 116 breaths/min for 1/2, 140 for 3/4, and 168 breaths/min for pure HO cows. In the HO group, physiological variables increased linearly with BGHI, without presenting inflection in the regression. The inflection point occurred at a higher BGHI for the 1/2 group compared with the other groups. Hematocrit and HEMO were different among genetic groups and did not vary with BGHI, showing that stress was not sufficient to alter these hematological parameters. The 1/2 HO group was capable of maintaining normal physiological parameters for at least 3 BGHI units above that of HO and 1 to 3 units higher than 3/4 HO for RR and RT, respectively. Respiratory rate is the physiological parameter that best predicts heat stress in dairy cattle, and the 1/2 Holstein group is the best adapted to heat stress.

  3. Food, physiology and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varum, F J O; Hatton, G B; Basit, A W

    2013-12-05

    Gastrointestinal physiology is dynamic and complex at the best of times, and a multitude of known variables can affect the overall bioavailability of drugs delivered via the oral route. Yet while the influences of food and beverage intake as just two of these variables on oral drug delivery have been extensively documented in the wider literature, specific information on their effects remains sporadic, and is not so much contextually reviewed. Food co-ingestion with oral dosage forms can mediate several changes to drug bioavailability, yet the precise mechanisms underlying this have yet to be fully elucidated. Likewise, the often detrimental effects of alcohol (ethanol) on dosage form performance have been widely observed experimentally, but knowledge of which has only moderately impacted on clinical practice. Here, we attempt to piece together the available subject matter relating to the influences of both solid and liquid foodstuffs on the gastrointestinal milieu and the implications for oral drug delivery, with particular emphasis on the behaviour of modified-release dosage forms, formulation robustness and drug absorption. Providing better insight into these influences, and exemplifying cases where formulations have been developed or modified to circumvent their associated problems, can help to appropriately direct the design of future in vitro digestive modelling systems as well as oral dosage forms resilient to these effects. Moreover, this will help to better our understanding of the impact of food and alcohol intake on normal gut behaviour and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Computational Modeling of Space Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Griffin, Devon W.

    2016-01-01

    The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP), within NASAs Human Research Program, develops and implements computational modeling for use in the mitigation of human health and performance risks associated with long duration spaceflight. Over the past decade, DAP developed models to provide insights into space flight related changes to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and the musculoskeletal system. Examples of the models and their applications include biomechanical models applied to advanced exercise device development, bone fracture risk quantification for mission planning, accident investigation, bone health standards development, and occupant protection. The International Space Station (ISS), in its role as a testing ground for long duration spaceflight, has been an important platform for obtaining human spaceflight data. DAP has used preflight, in-flight and post-flight data from short and long duration astronauts for computational model development and validation. Examples include preflight and post-flight bone mineral density data, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle strength measurements. Results from computational modeling supplement space physiology research by informing experimental design. Using these computational models, DAP personnel can easily identify both important factors associated with a phenomenon and areas where data are lacking. This presentation will provide examples of DAP computational models, the data used in model development and validation, and applications of the model.

  5. Virtual physiological human: training challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Patricia V; Narracott, Andrew V; McCormack, Keith; Bisbal, Jesus; Martin, Carlos; Bijnens, Bart; Brook, Bindi; Zachariou, Margarita; Freixa, Jordi Villà I; Kohl, Peter; Fletcher, Katherine; Diaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa

    2010-06-28

    The virtual physiological human (VPH) initiative encompasses a wide range of activities, including structural and functional imaging, data mining, knowledge discovery tool and database development, biomedical modelling, simulation and visualization. The VPH community is developing from a multitude of relatively focused, but disparate, research endeavours into an integrated effort to bring together, develop and translate emerging technologies for application, from academia to industry and medicine. This process initially builds on the evolution of multi-disciplinary interactions and abilities, but addressing the challenges associated with the implementation of the VPH will require, in the very near future, a translation of quantitative changes into a new quality of highly trained multi-disciplinary personnel. Current strategies for undergraduate and on-the-job training may soon prove insufficient for this. The European Commission seventh framework VPH network of excellence is exploring this emerging need, and is developing a framework of novel training initiatives to address the predicted shortfall in suitably skilled VPH-aware professionals. This paper reports first steps in the implementation of a coherent VPH training portfolio.

  6. Adaptive deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beudel, M; Brown, P

    2016-01-01

    Although Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), there are still limitations in terms of effectivity, side-effects and battery consumption. One of the reasons for this may be that not only pathological but also physiological neural activity can be suppressed whilst stimulating. For this reason, adaptive DBS (aDBS), where stimulation is applied according to the level of pathological activity, might be advantageous. Initial studies of aDBS demonstrate effectiveness in PD, but there are still many questions to be answered before aDBS can be applied clinically. Here we discuss the feedback signals and stimulation algorithms involved in adaptive stimulation in PD and sketch a potential road-map towards clinical application. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  8. Management for adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Innes; Linda A. Joyce; Seppo Kellomaki; Bastiaan Louman; Aynslie Ogden; Ian Thompson; Matthew Ayres; Chin Ong; Heru Santoso; Brent Sohngen; Anita Wreford

    2009-01-01

    This chapter develops a framework to explore examples of adaptation options that could be used to ensure that the ecosystem services provided by forests are maintained under future climates. The services are divided into broad areas within which managers can identify specific management goals for individual forests or landscapes. Adaptation options exist for the major...

  9. Detachable caster adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, R. J.

    1969-01-01

    Detachable caster adapter moves heavy welding tables when fork lift trucks are not practical. A support saddle on the adapter, connected to the caster platform by means of a hinge, fits the leg of the welding table, but can be modified to fit other leg configurations.

  10. Human pathogen avoidance adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen

  11. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...

  12. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...

  13. Introduction: Adapting Idols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Bruin; dr. Koos Zwaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction book Adapting Idols Since the first series of Pop Idol aired in the UK just over a decade ago, Idols television shows have been broadcast in more than forty countries all over the world. In all those countries the global Idols format has been adapted to local cultures and production

  14. Adaptive noise cancellation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, N.

    1999-01-01

    In this report we describe the concept of adaptive noise canceling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise of interference. The method uses 'primary' input containing the corrupted signal and a 'reference' input containing noise correlated in some unknown way with the primary noise, the reference input is adaptively filtered and subtracted from the primary input to obtain the signal estimate. Adaptive filtering before subtraction allows the treatment of inputs that are deterministic or stochastic, stationary or time variable. When the reference input is free of signal and certain other conditions are met then noise in the primary input can be essentially eliminated without signal distortion. It is further shown that the adaptive filter also acts as notch filter. Simulated results illustrate the usefulness of the adaptive noise canceling technique. (author)

  15. Turbine system and adapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  16. Appraising Adaptive Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai N. Lee

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management is appraised as a policy implementation approach by examining its conceptual, technical, equity, and practical strengths and limitations. Three conclusions are drawn: (1 Adaptive management has been more influential, so far, as an idea than as a practical means of gaining insight into the behavior of ecosystems utilized and inhabited by humans. (2 Adaptive management should be used only after disputing parties have agreed to an agenda of questions to be answered using the adaptive approach; this is not how the approach has been used. (3 Efficient, effective social learning, of the kind facilitated by adaptive management, is likely to be of strategic importance in governing ecosystems as humanity searches for a sustainable economy.

  17. Adaptive Processes in Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth

    2018-01-01

    induced by hearing impairment and the compensation provided by hearing devices. These devices themselves are now able to adapt to the listener’s individual environment, attentional state, and behavior. These topics related to auditory adaptation, in the broad sense of the term, were central to the 6th......Our auditory environment is constantly changing and evolving over time, requiring us to rapidly adapt to a complex dynamic sensory input. This adaptive ability of our auditory system can be observed at different levels, from individual cell responses to complex neural mechanisms and behavior...... International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2017. The symposium addressed adaptive processes in hearing from different angles, together with a wide variety of other auditory and audiological topics. The papers in this special issue result from some...

  18. Adaptive signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 ..mu..sec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed.

  19. Adaptive signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 μsec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed

  20. Transition and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses how Danish farm families adapted to harsh and changing conditions in the period after the great western agricultural crisis in the early 1980s. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and adaptation, I analyse the creation and consolidation of different class fractions...... their agricultural production annually from 1980–2008. The result is a five-farmer typology that, together with logit regression models including background covariates, reveals how the farm families' adaptation strategies relate to educational level, financial situation, family composition and whether the farmer can...... amongst farm families due to different adaptation strategies. The data contain information about the population of self-employed farmers and their families who were between 30–35 years old in 1980 (n = 9,123). Using sequence analysis, I examine farm families' adaptation strategies for maintaining...

  1. 75 FR 57859 - Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Home Adaptation AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of... specially adapted housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain... regulations pertaining to eligibility for specially adapted housing (SAH) grants and special home adaptation...

  2. Ruminant Metabolic Systems Biology: Reconstruction and Integration of Transcriptome Dynamics Underlying Functional Responses of Tissues to Nutrition and Physiological Statea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionaz, Massimo; Loor, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput ‘omics’ data analysis via bioinformatics is one key component of the systems biology approach. The systems approach is particularly well-suited for the study of the interactions between nutrition and physiological state with tissue metabolism and functions during key life stages of organisms such as the transition from pregnancy to lactation in mammals, ie, the peripartal period. In modern dairy cows with an unprecedented genetic potential for milk synthesis, the nature of the physiologic and metabolic adaptations during the peripartal period is multifaceted and involves key tissues such as liver, adipose, and mammary. In order to understand such adaptation, we have reviewed several works performed in our and other labs. In addition, we have used a novel bioinformatics approach, Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), in combination with partly previously published data to help interpret longitudinal biological adaptations of bovine liver, adipose, and mammary tissue to lactation using transcriptomics datasets. Use of DIA with transcriptomic data from those tissues during normal physiological adaptations and in animals fed different levels of energy prepartum allowed visualization and integration of most-impacted metabolic pathways around the time of parturition. The DIA is a suitable tool for applying the integrative systems biology approach. The ultimate goal is to visualize the complexity of the systems at study and uncover key molecular players involved in the tissue’s adaptations to physiological state or nutrition. PMID:22807626

  3. The Significance of Epidermal Lipid Metabolism in Whole-Body Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Vibeke; Neess, Ditte; Færgeman, Nils J

    2017-01-01

    The skin is the largest sensory organ of the human body. The skin not only prevents loss of water and other components of the body, but also is involved in regulation of body temperature and serves as an essential barrier, protecting mammals from both routine and extreme environments. Given...... the importance of the skin in temperature regulation, it is surprising that adaptive alterations in skin functions and morphology only vaguely have been associated with systemic physiological responses. Despite that impaired lipid metabolism in the skin often impairs the epidermal permeability barrier...... and insulation properties of the skin, its role in regulating systemic physiology and metabolism is yet to be recognized....

  4. Physiological characteristics of an aging Olympic athlete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Fritzdorf, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games.......To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games....

  5. Physiological Responses of Some Drought Resistant Cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    saharan Africa One of the first physiological responses to water stress in crops is the functioning of the leaf. The aim of the present study is to determine leaf physiological responses of cowpea to water stress. The study was conducted at ...

  6. New Directions in Assessment: Developmental Exercise Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cheryl J.

    The effects of exercise in children can be assessed by physiological measures of the respiratory and cardiovascular body functions and by anthropometric measures of body composition and maturation. Several methods and techniques in these areas are available to the researcher and practitioner for attempting to assess the physiological aspect of…

  7. Physiological Bases of Bulimia, and Antidepressant Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzfeld, Andrew R.

    This paper reviews the literature on the physiological causes of bulimia and investigates the rationale behind the usage of antidepressant medication in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. No definite conclusions can be stated regarding the physiology of bulimia, but a number of hypotheses are suggested. It appears that the hypothalamus is involved…

  8. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  9. EDITORIAL A CASCADE OF BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    A CASCADE OF BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MARKERS IN PATHOLOGICAL. DISORDERS. A few years ago, a neurophysiology lecturer in the Department of Medical Physiology, University of. Nairobi, was doing ... from haemolysis of RBC is rapidly distributed into cells and excreted in kidney. It would have been.

  10. Physiology and biochemistry of honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their tremendous economic importance, honey bees are not a typical model system for studying general questions of insect physiology. This is primarily due to the fact that honey bees live in complex social settings which impact their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Not surpris...

  11. From Dietary Fiber to Host Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koh, Ara; De Vadder, Filipe; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia

    2016-01-01

    A compelling set of links between the composition of the gut microbiota, the host diet, and host physiology has emerged. Do these links reflect cause-and-effect relationships, and what might be their mechanistic basis? A growing body of work implicates microbially produced metabolites as crucial...... as energy substrates. They thus affect various physiological processes and may contribute to health and disease....

  12. Exercise Physiology. Basic Stuff Series I. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Milan; And Others

    The fundamentals of exercise physiology (the study of the physiological effects of bodily exertion) form the basis for this booklet designed for teachers of physical education. The scientific principles underlying the building of muscular strength and flexibility are described and illustrated. Topics covered include: (1) muscular strength,…

  13. Physiology of High-Altitude Acclimatization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 6 ... Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi; Experimental Biology Division Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences Defence Research and Development Organisation Lucknow Road, Timarpur Delhi 110054 ...

  14. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physiological and biochemical responses of halophyte Kalidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of a halophyte Kalidium foliatum to salinity were studied. In order to reflect salt-tolerance in K. foliatum and to analyze the physiological and biochemical mechanism for its salt tolerance, salinity threshold and biochemical parameters were studied. A halophyte ...

  16. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  17. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding...... in such problems can be much reduced by making use of symmetry-adapted basis functions. The conventional method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets is through the application of group theory, but this can be difficult. This book describes an easier method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets...

  18. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  19. Adapt or Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the role non-adaptivity plays in maintaining dynamic data structures. Roughly speaking, a data structure is non-adaptive if the memory locations it reads and/or writes when processing a query or update depend only on the query or update and not on the contents of previously...... read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost...

  20. Fuzzy controller adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myravyova, E. A.; Sharipov, M. I.; Radakina, D. S.

    2017-10-01

    During writing this work, the fuzzy controller with a double base of rules was studied, which was applied for the synthesis of the automated control system. A method for fuzzy controller adaptation has been developed. The adaptation allows the fuzzy controller to automatically compensate for parametric interferences that occur at the control object. Specifically, the fuzzy controller controlled the outlet steam temperature in the boiler unit BKZ-75-39 GMA. The software code was written in the programming support environment Unity Pro XL designed for fuzzy controller adaptation.

  1. Transformer: an adaptation framework supporting contextual adaptation behavior composition

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Ning; De Florio, Vincenzo; Holvoet, Tom

    2013-01-01

    As software systems today increasingly operate in changing and complex environments, they are expected to dynamically adapt to the changing environments sometimes with multiple co-existing adaptation goals. This paper proposes an adaptation framework to facilitate adaptation with multiple concerns by using reusable and composable adaptation modules. Rather than using one-size-fits-all approach, in this framework, system global adaptation behavior is generated by contextually fusin...

  2. Saturation diving; physiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubakk, Alf O; Ross, John A S; Thom, Stephen R

    2014-07-01

    . Furthermore, divers who are required to return to the surface quickly are under higher risk of serious injury as no adequate decompression procedures for such situations are available. Decompression also leads to the production of endothelial microparticles that may reduce endothelial function. As good endothelial function is a documented indicator of health that can be influenced by regular exercise, regular physical exercise is recommended for saturation divers. Nowadays, saturation diving is a reasonably safe and well controlled method for working under water. Until now, no long-term impact on health due to diving has been documented. However, we still have limited knowledge about the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved. In particular we know little about the effect of long exposure to hyperoxia and microparticles on the endothelium. © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  3. Adapting to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Strzepek, Kenneth; Tarp, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Mozambique, like many African countries, is already highly susceptible to climate variability and extreme weather events. Climate change threatens to heighten this vulnerability. In order to evaluate potential impacts and adaptation options for Mozambique, we develop an integrated modeling...

  4. Exploring adaptive program behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions. B...

  5. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  6. Adaptive optics in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroshnikov, Nikita G.; Larichev, Andrey V.

    2006-09-01

    We present the experimental implementation of ophthalmic diagnostic systems with adaptive optics compensation of human eye aberration. The systems feature high speed operation and utilize deformable bimorph mirrors for wavefront correction. The results of aberration measurements and correction are discussed.

  7. Adaptation and Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    on influence. These two dimensions - adaptation and influence - result in four ideal types: business-dominated social compromise, imposed social compromise, business dominance, and political confrontation. Examples from German welfare state history illustrate these four types. The paper suggests...

  8. Exploring Adaptive Program Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions. B...

  9. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing variety of applications of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability....... The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...... different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock- up concept...

  10. Adaptive Trajectory Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adaptive Trajectory Design (ATD) is an original concept for quick and efficient end-to-end trajectory designs using proven piece-wise dynamical methods. With ongoing...

  11. Adaptive multiresolution methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Kai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available These lecture notes present adaptive multiresolution schemes for evolutionary PDEs in Cartesian geometries. The discretization schemes are based either on finite volume or finite difference schemes. The concept of multiresolution analyses, including Harten’s approach for point and cell averages, is described in some detail. Then the sparse point representation method is discussed. Different strategies for adaptive time-stepping, like local scale dependent time stepping and time step control, are presented. Numerous numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions validate the adaptive schemes and illustrate the accuracy and the gain in computational efficiency in terms of CPU time and memory requirements. Another aspect, modeling of turbulent flows using multiresolution decompositions, the so-called Coherent Vortex Simulation approach is also described and examples are given for computations of three-dimensional weakly compressible mixing layers. Most of the material concerning applications to PDEs is assembled and adapted from previous publications [27, 31, 32, 34, 67, 69].

  12. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  13. Climate Change Adaptation Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Climate Change Adaptation Approaches Presented at the E2S2 Symposium May 11th, 2011 New Orleans, LA...COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Climate Change Adaptation Approaches 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...10/09).  One of the four priorities is to maintain readiness in the face of climate change .  Addressing Climate Change Risk and Vulnerability: a

  14. From equivalence to adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Borowczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate in which cases the translators use the adaptation when they are confronted with a term related to sociocultural aspects. We will discuss the notions of equivalence and adaptation and their limits in the translation. Some samples from Arte TV news and from the American film Shrek translated into Polish, German and French will be provided as a support for this article.

  15. Development of Animal Physiology Practical Guidance Oriented Guided Inquiry for Student of Biology Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Z. A. Z.; Sumarmin, R.; Violita, V.

    2018-04-01

    The guides used for practicing animal physiology need to be revised and adapted to the lecture material. This is because in the subject of Animal Physiology. The guidance of animal physiology practitioners is still conventional with prescription model instructions and is so simple that it is necessary to develop a practical guide that can lead to the development of scientific work. One of which is through practice guided inquiry guided practicum guide. This study aims to describe the process development of the practical guidance and reveal the validity, practicality, and effectiveness Guidance Physiology Animals guided inquiry inferior to the subject of Animal Physiology for students Biology Department State University of Padang. This type of research is development research. This development research uses the Plomp model. Stages performed are problem identification and analysis stage, prototype development and prototyping stage, and assessment phase. Data analysis using descriptive analysis. The instrument of data collection using validation and practical questionnaires, competence and affective field of competence observation and psychomotor and cognitive domain competence test. The result of this research shows that guidance of Inquiry Guided Initiative Guided Physiology with 3.23 valid category, practicality by lecturer with value 3.30 practical category, student with value 3.37 practical criterion. Affective effectiveness test with 93,00% criterion is very effective, psychomotor aspect 89,50% with very effective criteria and cognitive domain with value of 67, pass criterion. The conclusion of this research is Guided Inquiry Student Guided Protoxial Guidance For Students stated valid, practical and effective.

  16. Physiological Motion Axis for the Seat of a Dynamic Office Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Roman Peter; Bauer, Christoph Markus; Oetiker, Sarah; Kool, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine and verify the optimal location of the motion axis (MA) for the seat of a dynamic office chair. Background A dynamic seat that supports pelvic motion may improve physical well-being and decrease the risk of sitting-associated disorders. However, office work requires an undisturbed view on the work task, which means a stable position of the upper trunk and head. Current dynamic office chairs do not fulfill this need. Consequently, a dynamic seat was adapted to the physiological kinematics of the human spine. Method Three-dimensional motion tracking in free sitting helped determine the physiological MA of the spine in the frontal plane. Three dynamic seats with physiological, lower, and higher MA were compared in stable upper body posture (thorax inclination) and seat support of pelvic motion (dynamic fitting accuracy). Spinal kinematics during sitting and walking were compared. Results The physiological MA was at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra, causing minimal thorax inclination and high dynamic fitting accuracy. Spinal motion in active sitting and walking was similar. Conclusion The physiological MA of the seat allows considerable lateral flexion of the spine similar to walking with a stable upper body posture and a high seat support of pelvic motion. Application The physiological MA enables lateral flexion of the spine, similar to walking, without affecting stable upper body posture, thus allowing active sitting while focusing on work. PMID:27150530

  17. Role of environmental stress in the physiological response to chemical toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental physiology is the study of the physiological mechanisms that allow animals to cope with and adapt to changes in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and other natural factors of their physical environment. Nearly all toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in resting (i.e., non exercising) experimental animals acclimatized to standard environmental conditions that are usually considered ideal to the animal's physiological well-being. These ideal test conditions are clearly not representative of the fluctuations in the natural environment encountered by humans and other animals on a day-to-day basis. It behooves the toxicologist, especially those interested in extrapolating experimental data from laboratory animals to humans, to consider how variations in the natural environment will alter physiological responses to toxicants. Temperature and exercise are the two most well-studied parameters in the fields of environmental physiology and toxicology. In general, high temperatures exacerbate the toxic effects of many environmental toxicants. Moreover, exercising subjects are generally more vulnerable to airborne toxic agents. The prospect of global warming also warrants a better assessment of how higher environmental temperatures may impact on the response of humans and other species to toxic chemicals. Hence, this paper and accompanying papers from the proceedings of a symposium focus on the salient aspects of the interaction between environmental stress and physiological response to toxic agents with particular emphasis on temperature and exercise

  18. Olfactory Plasticity: Variation in the Expression of Chemosensory Receptors in Bactrocera dorsalis in Different Physiological States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Jin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in physiological conditions could influence the perception of external odors, which is important for the reproduction and survival of insect. With the alteration of physiological conditions, such as, age, feeding state, circadian rhythm, and mating status, insect can modulate their olfactory systems accordingly. Ionotropic, gustatory, and odorant receptors (IR, GR, and ORs are important elements of the insect chemosensory system, which enable insects to detect various external stimuli. In this study, we investigated the changes in these receptors at the mRNA level in Bactrocera dorsalis in different physiological states. We performed transcriptome analysis to identify chemosensory receptors: 21 IRs, 12 GRs, and 43 ORs were identified from B. dorsalis antennae, including almost all previously known chemoreceptors in B. dorsalis and a few more. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the effects of feeding state, mating status and time of day on the expression of IR, GR, and OR genes. The results showed that expression of chemosensory receptors changed in response to different physiological states, and these changes were completely different for different types of receptors and between male and female flies. Our study suggests that the expressions of chemosensory receptors change to adapt to different physiological states, which may indicate the significant role of these receptors in such physiological processes.

  19. Wearable physiological monitoring for human thermal-work strain optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Mark J; Welles, Alexander P; Friedl, Karl E

    2018-02-01

    Safe performance limits of soldiers and athletes have typically relied on predictive work-rest models of ambient conditions, average work intensity, and characteristics of the population. Bioengineering advances in noninvasive sensor technologies, including miniaturization, reduced cost, power requirements, and comfort, now make it possible to produce individual predictions of safe thermal-work limits. These precision medicine assessments depend on the development of thoughtful algorithms based on physics and physiology. Both physiological telemetry and thermal-strain indexes have been available for >50 years, but greater computing power and better wearable sensors now make it possible to provide actionable information at the individual level. Core temperature can be practically estimated from time series heart rate data and, using an adaptive physiological strain index, provides meaningful predictions of safe work limits that cannot be predicted from only core temperature or heart rate measurements. Early adopters of this technology include specialized occupations where individuals operate in complete encapsulation such as chemical protective suits. Emerging technologies that focus on heat flux measurements at the skin show even greater potential for estimating thermal-work strain using a parsimonious sensor set. Applications of these wearable technologies include many sports and military training venues where inexperienced individuals can learn effective work pacing strategies and train to safe personal limits. The same strategies can also provide a technologically based performance edge for experienced workers and athletes faced with novel and nonintuitive physiological challenges, such as health care providers in full protective clothing treating Ebola patients in West Africa in 2014. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This mini-review details how the application of computational techniques borrowed from signal processing and control theory can provide meaningful advances for

  20. Physiologic stress interventions in cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buda, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Physiologic stress interventions are designed to assess the reserve capability of coronary flow and myocardial function. In the normal individual, a sufficiently intense physiologic stress may increase coronary flow and cardiac output by 500% to 600%. However, in patients with cardiac disease, these reserve responses may be absent, or considerably blunted. Thus, physiologic stress testing has proved extremely helpful in detecting cardiac abnormalities when resting cardiac function appears normal. Although dynamic exercise remains the standard approach to physiologic stress testing, a number of other interventions have been used, including: (1) isometric exercise, (2) atrial pacing, (3) cold pressor testing, (4) postextrasystolic potentiation, (5) volume loading, and (6) negative intrathoracic pressure. Each of these may be considered an alternative physiologic intervention whenever dynamic exercise is not feasible. These alternative approaches are important since, in our experience, 20% to 30% of subjects are unable to perform dynamic exercise, or exercise inadequately to produce a sufficiently intense cardiac stress. This chapter reviews physiologic considerations, indications, contraindications, protocols, and results of these physiologic stress interventions when used in combination with cardiac radionuclide procedures

  1. Quantitative Circulatory Physiology: an integrative mathematical model of human physiology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Sean R; Hodnett, Benjamin L; Summers, Richard L; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    We have developed Quantitative Circulatory Physiology (QCP), a mathematical model of integrative human physiology containing over 4,000 variables of biological interactions. This model provides a teaching environment that mimics clinical problems encountered in the practice of medicine. The model structure is based on documented physiological responses within peer-reviewed literature and serves as a dynamic compendium of physiological knowledge. The model is solved using a desktop, Windows-based program, allowing students to calculate time-dependent solutions and interactively alter over 750 parameters that modify physiological function. The model can be used to understand proposed mechanisms of physiological function and the interactions among physiological variables that may not be otherwise intuitively evident. In addition to open-ended or unstructured simulations, we have developed 30 physiological simulations, including heart failure, anemia, diabetes, and hemorrhage. Additional stimulations include 29 patients in which students are challenged to diagnose the pathophysiology based on their understanding of integrative physiology. In summary, QCP allows students to examine, integrate, and understand a host of physiological factors without causing harm to patients. This model is available as a free download for Windows computers at http://physiology.umc.edu/themodelingworkshop.

  2. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  3. Heat adaptations in reptiles and the mechanism of their formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherlin Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the main concepts and other aspects of thermobiology of reptiles that must be taken into account considering the problems of reptiles’ thermal adaptation. The difference between the "thermobiological features” and "thermal adaptation" often used as synonyms is defined. It is shown, that in adapting reptiles to external conditions the complex of thermophysiological indicators and reactions responsible for the conditions of full activity is of great importance. The connection between the thermophysiological features defining the condition of full activity and the parameters of environment is not always unequivocal. There is an important intermediary between them - the behavioral and physiological thermoregulation, which significantly disturbs the unambiguity of this connection. Due to these thermoregulation reactions (basically behavioral the mesophilic species can successfully inhabit hot regions, but some reptiles, which need regular heating up to 30-34˚C, can inhabit cold regions. The significance of behavioral regulatory reactions, physiological temperature-dependent and thermoregulatory, temperature-controlling reactions in the complex of reptiles’ thermal adaptation is analyzed. It is determined, that the complex of thermophysiological, stabile (geographically and seasonally invariable thermoregulating indicators of homeostasis is of key value in reptiles’ adaptation to natural climatic conditions. The mechanisms forming space-time structure of daily and seasonal activity and regulation of endogenous annual feeding and breeding cycles are described. It is shown that the individual reptiles adapt to the thermal environment mainly not owing to modification of thermophysiological features, but due to the fine adjustment of space-time structures of daily and seasonal activity. It occurs with the help of behavioral regulatory reactions, which allow the homeostatic characters, included in the physiological

  4. Learning to Adapt. Organisational Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.; Hertin, J.; Gann, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of human adaptation to climate change should be based on realistic models of adaptive behaviour at the level of organisations and individuals. The paper sets out a framework for analysing adaptation to the direct and indirect impacts of climate change in business organisations with new evidence presented from empirical research into adaptation in nine case-study companies. It argues that adaptation to climate change has many similarities with processes of organisational learning. The paper suggests that business organisations face a number of obstacles in learning how to adapt to climate change impacts, especially in relation to the weakness and ambiguity of signals about climate change and the uncertainty about benefits flowing from adaptation measures. Organisations rarely adapt 'autonomously', since their adaptive behaviour is influenced by policy and market conditions, and draws on resources external to the organisation. The paper identifies four adaptation strategies that pattern organisational adaptive behaviour

  5. Anthropogenic Noise and Physiological Stress in Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jennifer B; Parks, Susan E; Langkilde, Tracy L

    2016-01-01

    The ecological impacts of increasing levels of anthropogenic noise in marine and freshwater systems are of growing public interest. Recent emphasis on the physiological approaches to identifying the impacts of noise has led to increased recognition that anthropogenic noise is an environmental stressor. We briefly review the research on noise-induced physiological stress. Additionally, we summarize findings from a controlled playback experiment that explored the relationship between traffic noise and physiological stress in anurans (frogs and toads), an aquatic group that relies on acoustic communication for survival and reproduction.

  6. Molecular Signals and Skeletal Muscle Adaptation to Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wilson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic plasticity of skeletal muscle affords a considerable degree of adaptability not seen in other bodily tissues. The mechanical properties of skeletal muscle are highly dependent on loading conditions. The extent of skeletal muscle plasticity is distinctly highlighted by a loss of muscle mass, or atrophy, after a period of reduced weight-bearing activity, for example during periods of extended bed rest, space flight and in spinal cord injury. On the other hand, increased mechanical loading, or resistance training, induces muscle growth, or hypertrophy. Endurance exercise performance is also dependent on the adaptability of skeletal muscle, especially muscles that contribute to posture, locomotion and the mechanics of breathing. However, the molecular pathways governing skeletal muscle adaptations are yet to be satisfactorily delineated and require further investigation. Researchers in the areas of exercise physiology, physiotherapy and sports medicine are endeavoring to translate experimental knowledge into effective, innovative treatments and regimens in order to improve physical performance and health in both elite athletes and the general community. The efficacy of the translation of molecular biological paradigms in experimental exercise physiology has long been underappreciated. Indeed, molecular biology tools can now be used to answer questions regarding skeletal muscle adaptation in response to exercise and provide new frameworks to improve physical performance. Furthermore, transgenic animal models, knockout animal models and in vivo studies provide tools to test questions concerned with how exercise initiates adaptive changes in gene expression. In light of these perceived deficiencies, an attempt is made here to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise. An examination will be made of the functional capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a variety of exercise conditions, namely

  7. Adenosine contribution to normal renal physiology and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Carlos; Garrido, Wallys; Alarcón, Sebastián; Yáñez, Alejandro; Sobrevia, Luis; Quezada, Claudia; San Martín, Rody

    2017-06-01

    Adenosine is a nucleoside that is particularly interesting to many scientific and clinical communities as it has important physiological and pathophysiological roles in the kidney. The distribution of adenosine receptors has only recently been elucidated; therefore it is likely that more biological roles of this nucleoside will be unveiled in the near future. Since the discovery of the involvement of adenosine in renal vasoconstriction and regulation of local renin production, further evidence has shown that adenosine signaling is also involved in the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, sodium reabsorption and the adaptive response to acute insults, such as ischemia. However, the most interesting finding was the increased adenosine levels in chronic kidney diseases such as diabetic nephropathy and also in non-diabetic animal models of renal fibrosis. When adenosine is chronically increased its signaling via the adenosine receptors may change, switching to a state that induces renal damage and produces phenotypic changes in resident cells. This review discusses the physiological and pathophysiological roles of adenosine and pays special attention to the mechanisms associated with switching homeostatic nucleoside levels to increased adenosine production in kidneys affected by CKD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual physiology of the Antarctic amphipod Abyssorchomene plebs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan H; Frank, Tamara M

    2006-10-01

    Although the visual systems of animals living in the cold, dark water of the deep sea have been investigated for some time, little is known about vision in animals inhabiting polar oceans, where temperatures are even colder and irradiance fluctuates dramatically with ice cover and season. Physiology of the compound eye of the amphipod Abyssorchomene plebs (Gammaridea: Lysianassoidea), a common Antarctic benthic scavenger, was studied electrophysiologically by electroretinography. A. plebs has a monochromatic visual system with a spectral sensitivity maximum at 487 nm, and higher sensitivity at ultraviolet wavelengths than predicted by a visual pigment template. While irradiance sensitivity determined from V/log I curves is comparable to that of mesopelagic crustaceans, temporal resolution calculated from response waveform dynamics and as determined by critical flicker fusion frequency suggest that the A. plebs eye is slower than that of crustaceans from the deep sea. A. plebs photoreceptors are physiologically adapted for a slow lifestyle in a low-light environment, where maximizing photon capture occurs at the expense of detecting fast events in the visual scene.

  9. [Scuba diving in children: Physiology, risks and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilveti, R; Osona, B; Peña, J A; Moreno, L; Asensio, O

    2015-12-01

    The increase in recreational scuba diving in recent years, including children, involves risks and the possibility of accidents. While legislation, conditions and risks of scuba diving are well documented in adults, scientific evidence in scuba diving by children and adolescents is sparse and isolated. Furthermore, existing guidelines and recommendations for adults cannot be transferred directly to children. These circumstances have led to the Group on Techniques of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pulmonology (SENP) to perform a literature search to review and update the knowledge about scuba diving in children. Physiological adaptations of the body are examined during the dive, as well as the anatomical and physiological characteristics of children that should be taken into account in scuba diving. The most common types of accidents and its causes, as well as the risks of scuba diving practice in children with previous diseases are discussed, along with details of the medical and psychological requirements for scuba diving to be considered in the assessment of child and adolescent. A list of recommendations for scuba diving with compressed air in children is presented by a group of experts. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Plant Physiology Learning Tool Based on Guided Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidatun Ni’mah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Fisiologi Tumbuhan Berbasis Inkuiri Terbimbing   Abstract: The purpose of this research was to produce an instructional materials for Plant Physiology course, including syllabus, lesson plan, worksheet, and assessment instruments, based on guided inquiry. The models of this research was adapted from the ADDIE Model which consists of (1 analysis, (2 design, (3 development, (4 implementation, and (5 evaluation. The results of the validation by experts validator and a small group readability test results showed that the developed instructional materials were categorized “Good”. The results of trials on 39 students showed that the guided inquiry-based learning improved the students’ learning outcomes. Key Words: instructional materials development, plant physiology, guided inquiry   Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran Fisiologi Tumbuhan berbasis inkuiri terbimbing yang meliputi silabus, Satuan Acara Perkuliahan (SAP, Lembar Kerja Mahasiswa (LKM, dan instrumen penilaian. Model penelitian dan pengembangan merupakan hasil adaptasi model pengembangan ADDIE yang terdiri dari (1 analysis, (2 design, (3 development, (4 implementation, dan (5 evaluation. Hasil validasi oleh validator ahli dan hasil uji keterbacaan oleh uji kelompok kecil menunjukkan bahwa perangkat pembelajaran hasil pengembangan berkategori baik. Hasil uji coba lapangan dilakukan pada 39 mahasiswa angkatan 2012/2013 Program Studi Pendidikan Biologi STKIP PGRI Banjarmasin dan menunjukkan bahwa dengan pembelajaran berbasis inkuiri terbimbing dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar mahasiswa. Kata kunci: pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran, fisiologi tumbuhan, inkuiri terbimbing

  11. Physiology of static breath holding in elite apneists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Anthony R; Drvis, Ivan; Dujic, Zeljko; MacLeod, David B; Ainslie, Philip N

    2018-03-07

    What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. Breath hold related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently within the last ∼30 years has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport. In apnea sport, people compete in disciplines relating to underwater distances or simply maximal breath hold duration - with the current (oxygen un-supplemented) static breath hold record at 11:35 min. Remarkably, many ultra-elite apneists are able to supress respiratory urges to the point where consciousness fundamentally limits a breath hold duration. Here, arterial oxygen saturations as low as ∼50% have been reported. In such cases, oxygen conservation to maintain cerebral functioning is critical, where responses ascribed to the mammalian dive reflex - e.g., sympathetically mediated peripheral vaconstriction, and vagally mediated bradycardia - are central. In defence of maintaining global cerebral oxygen delivery during prolonged breath holds, the cerebral blood flow may increase by ∼100% from resting values. Interestingly, near the termination of prolonged dry static breath holds, recent studies also indicate that reductions in the cerebral oxidative metabolism can occur, likely attributable to the extreme hypercapnia and irrespective of the hypoxemia. In this review we highlight and discuss the recent data on the cardiovascular, metabolic and particularly cerebrovascular function in competitive apneists performing maximal static breath holds. The physiological adaptation and maladaptation with regular breath hold training are also summarized, and future research areas in this unique physiological field are highlighted

  12. Physiological and Functional Alterations after Spaceflight and Bed Rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Miller, Chris A; Kofman, Igor S; Reschke, Millard F; Taylor, Laura C; Lawrence, Emily L; Wood, Scott J; Laurie, Steven S; Lee, Stuart M C; Buxton, Roxanne E; May-Phillips, Tiffany R; Stenger, Michael B; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L; Ryder, Jeffrey W; Feiveson, Alan H; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2018-04-03

    Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in multiple physiological systems, potentially impacting the ability of astronauts to perform critical mission tasks. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional task performance and to identify the key physiological factors contributing to their deficits. A test battery comprised of 7 functional tests and 15 physiological measures was used to investigate the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations to spaceflight. Astronauts were tested before and after 6-month spaceflights. Subjects were also tested before and after 70 days of 6° head-down bed rest, a spaceflight analog, to examine the role of axial body unloading on the spaceflight results. These subjects included Control and Exercise groups to examine the effects of exercise during bed rest. Spaceflight subjects showed the greatest decrement in performance during functional tasks that required the greatest demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium which was paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests that assessed postural and dynamic gait control. Other changes included reduced lower limb muscle performance and increased heart rate to maintain blood pressure. Exercise performed during bed rest prevented detrimental change in neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, however, both bed rest groups experienced functional and balance deficits similar to spaceflight subjects. Bed rest data indicates that body support unloading experienced during spaceflight contributes to postflight postural control dysfunction. Further, the bed rest results in the Exercise group of subjects confirm that resistance and aerobic exercises performed during spaceflight can play an integral role in maintaining neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, which can help in reducing decrements in functional performance. These results indicate that a countermeasure to mitigate postflight postural control dysfunction is

  13. A viewpoint on considering physiological principles to study stress resistance and resilience with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Seals, Douglas R; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2017-09-01

    Adaptation to stress is identified as one of the seven pillars of aging research. Our viewpoint discusses the importance of the distinction between stress resistance and resilience, highlights how integration of physiological principles is critical for further understanding in vivo stress resistance and resilience, and advocates for the use of early warning signs to prevent a tipping point in stress resistance and resilience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiological flexibility and acclimation to food shortage in a heterothermic primate

    OpenAIRE

    Canale, C I; Perret, M; Thery, M; Henry, P Y

    2011-01-01

    As ecosystems undergo changes worldwide, physiological flexibility is likely to be an important adaptive response to increased climate instability. Extreme weather fluctuations impose energetical constraints such as unpredictable food shortage. We tested how grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) could adjust their daily heterothermy and locomotor activity to these 'energetic accidents' with a food restriction experiment. The experimental design consisted of acute calorie restriction (2 weeks...

  15. Physiologic and behavioral effects of papoose board on anxiety in dental patients with special needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yung Chen

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the PsNS activation plays a critical role in the process of ANS modulation. This study provides not only physiologic evidence for the modulation effects of deep touch pressure on stressful conditions in dental environments but also the evidence that the application of papoose board, as a sensory adaptation technique, is not harmful for dental patients with special needs.

  16. The Analog (Computer) As a Physiology Adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Peter A.

    1979-01-01

    Defines and discusses the analog computer and its use in a physiology laboratory. Includes two examples: (1) The Respiratory Control Function and (2) CO-Two Control in the Respiratory System. Presents diagrams and mathematical models. (MA)

  17. Implantable Nanosensors: Towards Continuous Physiologic Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ruckh, Timothy T.; Clark', Heather A.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous physiologic monitoring would add greatly to both home and clinical medical treatment for chronic conditions. Implantable nanosensors are a promising platform for designing continuous monitoring systems. This feature reviews design considerations and current approaches towards such devices.

  18. Some Recent Advances in Plant Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    A popular review of plant physiological research, emphasizing those apsects of plant metabolism where there has been a recent shift in emphasis that is not yet reflected in secondary school advanced texts. (AL)

  19. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    organisms. Importantly, cell volume impacts on a wide array of physiological processes, including transepithelial transport; cell migration, proliferation, and death; and changes in cell volume function as specific signals regulating these processes. A discussion of this issue concludes the review....

  20. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Magnaporthe grisea) causes significant yield loss in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to isolate, identify and characterize the pathogen (using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods). Methodology and ...

  1. Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkin, Matthew S; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-12-01

    Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories.

  2. Physiological and molecular insights into drought tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological and molecular insights into drought tolerance. Sagadevan G Mundree, Bienyameen Baker, Shaheen Mowla, Shaun Peters, Saberi Marais, Clare Vander Willigen, Kershini Govender, Alice Maredza, Samson Muyanga, Jill M Farrant, Jennifer A Thomson ...

  3. Automatic duress alarms through physiological response monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrig, S.C.

    1977-07-01

    Physiological response monitoring under controlled conditions can provide an effective means for passively determining if the wearer is under moderate to severe stresses. By monitoring the heart rate (HR) and galvanic skin response (GSR) of an individual, it is possible to detect in real time the increase in heart rate and GSR levels due to physiological reactions to mental duress. With existing physiological monitoring equipment, however, the work load of the wearer must be well defined since it is impossible, without additional data, to distinguish mental duress responses from those resulting from moderate physical exertion. Similarly, environmental conditions should be constrained within set limits to avoid masking increases in GSR levels due to metntal stress from those associated with increased perspiration. These constraints should not prove overly restrictive and would allow an integrated security system utilizing physiological monitoring equipment to provide an effective real time, automated early warning system for detection of mental duress or death of the wearer.

  4. Cerebral blood flow: Physiologic and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 46 chapters divided among nine sections. The section titles are: Historical Perspectives; Cerebrovascular Anatomy; Cerebrovascular Physiology; Methods of Clinical Measurement; Experimental Methods; Imaging of Cerebral Circulation; Cerebrovascular Pathophysiology; Cerebrovascular Pharmacology; and Surgical and Interventional Augmentation

  5. Relationships and variability of agronomic and physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-31

    ; Makeen et al., 2007). In addition, Biradar (2007) found an association of plant height with branches per plant. The positive correlations were found among three physiological characters, biomass and TDM, biomass ...

  6. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  7. An Author's Philosophy of Physiology Textbook Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the factors that have determined the author's approach to writing medical physiology textbooks. Reviews the author's career and the events surrounding the development of each textbook. Explains the motivation behind critical decisions made during the authoring process. (DDR)

  8. Physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Shigeki; Kim, Yeon-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    The specific physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli were investigated in this study. Various physiological responses of the brain (encephaloelectrogram; EEG), autonomic nervous system (ANS), immune system and endocrine system were monitored when pleasant stimuli such as odors, emotional pictures and rakugo, a typical Japanese comical story-telling, were presented to subjects. The results revealed that (i) EEG activities of the left frontal brain region were enhanced by a pleasant odor; (ii) emotional pictures related to primitive element such as nudes and erotic couples elevated vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity; and (iii) an increase in secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and a decrease in salivary cortisol (s-cortisol) were induced by rakugo-derived linguistic pleasant emotion. Pleasant emotion is complicated state. However, by considering the evolutionary history of human being, it is possible to assess and evaluate pleasant emotion from certain physiological responses by appropriately summating various physiological parameters.

  9. Automatic duress alarms through physiological response monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehrig, S.C.

    1977-07-01

    Physiological response monitoring under controlled conditions can provide an effective means for passively determining if the wearer is under moderate to severe stresses. By monitoring the heart rate (HR) and galvanic skin response (GSR) of an individual, it is possible to detect in real time the increase in heart rate and GSR levels due to physiological reactions to mental duress. With existing physiological monitoring equipment, however, the work load of the wearer must be well defined since it is impossible, without additional data, to distinguish mental duress responses from those resulting from moderate physical exertion. Similarly, environmental conditions should be constrained within set limits to avoid masking increases in GSR levels due to metntal stress from those associated with increased perspiration. These constraints should not prove overly restrictive and would allow an integrated security system utilizing physiological monitoring equipment to provide an effective real time, automated early warning system for detection of mental duress or death of the wearer

  10. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  11. Environmental Physiology at the Johnson Space Center: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work in environmental physiology done at Johnson Space Center (JSC). The work is aimed at keeping astronauts healthy. This is a different approach than treating the sick, and is more of an occupational health model. The reduction of risks is the main emphasis for this work. They emphasis is to reduce the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and acute mountain sickness (AMS). The work in environmental physiology encompasses the following areas: (1) Pressure: hypobaric and hyperbaric (2) Gases: hypoxia and hyperoxia, hypercapnia--closed space issues, inert gas physiology / respiration (3) Temperature: hypothermia and hyperthermia, thermal comfort, Protective clothing diving, aviation, mountaineering, and space (4) Acceleration (5) Noise and Vibration (6) Exercise / Performance (6) Acclimatization / Adaptation: engineering solutions when necessary. This presentation reviews the work done at JSC in the areas of DCS and AMS.

  12. Smart sensor: a platform for an interactive human physiological state recognition study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gorochovik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a concept of making interactive human state recognition systems based on smart sensor design. The token measures on proper ADC signal processing had significantly lowered the interference level. A more reliable way of measuring human skin temperature was offered by using Maxim DS18B20 digital thermometers. They introduced a more sensible response to temperature changes compared to previously used analog LM35 thermometers. An adaptive HR measuring algorithm was introduced to suppress incorrect ECG signal readings caused by human muscular activities. User friendly interactive interface for touch sensitive GLCD screen was developed to present real time physiological data readings both in numerals and graphics. User was granted an ability to dynamically customize data processing methods according to his needs. Specific procedures were developed to simplify physiological state recording for further analysis. The introduced physiological data sampling and preprocessing platform was optimized to be compatible with “ATmega Oscilloscope” PC data collecting and visualizing software.

  13. Physiology can contribute to better understanding, management, and conservation of coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Rummer, Jodie L

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef fishes, like many other marine organisms, are affected by anthropogenic stressors such as fishing and pollution and, owing to climate change, are experiencing increasing water temperatures and ocean acidification. Against the backdrop of these various stressors, a mechanistic understanding of processes governing individual organismal performance is the first step for identifying drivers of coral reef fish population dynamics. In fact, physiological measurements can help to reveal potential cause-and-effect relationships and enable physiologists to advise conservation management by upscaling results from cellular and individual organismal levels to population levels. Here, we highlight studies that include physiological measurements of coral reef fishes and those that give advice for their conservation. A literature search using combined physiological, conservation and coral reef fish key words resulted in ~1900 studies, of which only 99 matched predefined requirements. We observed that, over the last 20 years, the combination of physiological and conservation aspects in studies on coral reef fishes has received increased attention. Most of the selected studies made their physiological observations at the whole organism level and used their findings to give conservation advice on population dynamics, habitat use or the potential effects of climate change. The precision of the recommendations differed greatly and, not surprisingly, was least concrete when studies examined the effects of projected climate change scenarios. Although more and more physiological studies on coral reef fishes include conservation aspects, there is still a lack of concrete advice for conservation managers, with only very few published examples of physiological findings leading to improved management practices. We conclude with a call to action to foster better knowledge exchange between natural scientists and conservation managers to translate physiological findings more

  14. Physiology Considerations in the Geriatric Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Alvis, Bret D.; Hughes, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    A person’s physiology is ever-changing at the structural, functional, and molecular levels as they age, and every major organ system experiences physiologic change with time. The changes to the nervous system result mostly in cognitive impairments, the cardiovascular system result in higher blood pressures with lower cardiac output, the respiratory system result in a reduction of arterial oxyhemoglobin, the gastrointestinal system result in delayed gastric emptying with a reduction of hepatic...

  15. Toward a physiology of the romantic imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    If historicist studies have equated the Romantic imagination with ideology, this essay seeks to recover a physiological imagination. Such recovery will show that historicist studies of the imagination have not been historical enough. Even as physiology attempted to make a science out of the living as opposed to the dead, it turned to concepts like life, predisposition, and potentiality to give the imagination a curious immaterial materiality, one that made materiality a site of possibility rather than determinism.

  16. Lung evolution as a cipher for physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Torday, J. S.; Rehan, V. K.

    2009-01-01

    In the postgenomic era, we need an algorithm to readily translate genes into physiologic principles. The failure to advance biomedicine is due to the false hope raised in the wake of the Human Genome Project (HGP) by the promise of systems biology as a ready means of reconstructing physiology from genes. like the atom in physics, the cell, not the gene, is the smallest completely functional unit of biology. Trying to reassemble gene regulatory networks without accounting for this fundamental ...

  17. Physiological, Psychological, and Social Effects of Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryter, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    The physiological, and behavioral effects of noise on man are investigated. Basic parameters such as definitions of noise, measuring techniques of noise, and the physiology of the ear are presented prior to the development of topics on hearing loss, speech communication in noise, social effects of noise, and the health effects of noise pollution. Recommendations for the assessment and subsequent control of noise is included.

  18. Phosphorus Physiology of the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Carribean ; Romans e al. 1994), the presence of high percentages of polyP in Trichodesmium from the Sargasso Sea is unlikely to be due to luxury uptake...2010-06 DOCTORAL DISSERTATION by Elizabeth Duncan Orchard February 2010 Phosphorus Physiology of the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium MIT/WHOI...2010-06 Phosphorus Physiology of the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium by Elizabeth Duncan Orchard Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge

  19. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  20. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang

    2014-03-10

    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.