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Sample records for adaptation mediates looming

  1. Dynamical encoding of looming, receding, and focussing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longtin, Andre; Clarke, Stephen Elisha; Maler, Leonard; CenterNeural Dynamics Collaboration

    This talk will discuss a non-conventional neural coding task that may apply more broadly to many senses in higher vertebrates. We ask whether and how a non-visual sensory system can focus on an object. We present recent experimental and modeling work that shows how the early sensory circuitry of electric sense can perform such neuronal focusing that is manifested behaviorally. This sense is the main one used by weakly electric fish to navigate, locate prey and communicate in the murky waters of their natural habitat. We show that there is a distance at which the Fisher information of a neuron's response to a looming and receding object is maximized, and that this distance corresponds to a behaviorally relevant one chosen by these animals. Strikingly, this maximum occurs at a bifurcation between tonic firing and bursting. We further discuss how the invariance of this distance to signal attributes can arise, a process that first involves power-law spike frequency adaptation. The talk will also highlight the importance of expanding the classic dual neural encoding of contrast using ON and OFF cells in the context of looming and receding stimuli. The authors acknowledge support from CIHR and NSERC.

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Turkish version of Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ (Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Altan Atalay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Most of the studies that examine cognitive vulnerability tend to focus on cognitive vulnerability for depression and explain anxiety through its intersection with depression. Looming Cognitive Style (LCS was suggested as a cognitive vulnerability model that is specific for anxiety. According to the model, people who have looming vulnerability tend to evaluate the threats coming from the environment as more overwhelming than they actually are and are constantly hypervigilant to the threat cues that may come from the environment. This pattern plays an important role in both generation and maintenance of anxiety disorders. A two-factor looming vulnerability scale was developed to assess looming cognitive style and the present study aims to adapt the scale into Turkish and examine its psychometric characteristics. Method: The sample is composed of 657 university students between the ages of 18 and 29. The participants were administered LMSQ-R as well as scales that assess anxiety, depression, and worry. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis results supported the original factor structure of the scale providing two distinct, but correlated factors as social and physical looming. In addition to that, total score and subscale scores had moderate to high correlations with other study variables and reliability scores appearing close to the original form provides support for the reliability of the scale. Conclusion: The Turkish version of the LMSQ-R is a reliable and valid scale that can be used with Turkish population.

  3. Monocular and binocular mechanisms mediating flicker adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaohua; Shevell, Steven K

    2015-12-01

    Flicker adaptation reduces subsequent temporal contrast sensitivity. Recent studies show that this adaptation likely results from neural changes in the magnocellular visual pathway, but whether this adaptation occurs at a monocular or a binocular level, or both, is unclear. Here, two experiments address this question. The first experiment exploits the observation that flicker adaptation is stronger at higher than lower temporal frequencies. Observers' two eyes adapted to 3Hz flicker with an incremental pulse at 1/4 duty cycle, either in-phase or out-of-phase in the two eyes. At the binocular level, the flicker rate was 6Hz in the out-of-phase condition if the two eyes' pulse trains sum. Similar sensitivity reduction was found in both phase conditions, as expected for independent monocular adapting mechanisms. The second experiment tested for interocular transfer of adaptation between eyes. Results showed that (1) flicker adaptation was strongest with adapting and test fields in only the same eye, (2) adaptation can be partially transferred interocularly with adaptation in only the opposite eye, and (3) adaptation was weakened when both eyes were adapted simultaneously at different contrasts, compared to test-eye adaptation alone. Taken together, the findings are consistent with mechanisms of flicker adaptation at both the monocular and binocular level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mis on looming.org? : elektrooniline heli / Andres Lõo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõo, Andres

    2004-01-01

    Võrguajakirjast www.looming.org, kuhu kogutakse infot põhiliselt kahe jaotuse põhjal: muusika ja helieksperimentalism ning kaasaegne kunst, kunsti ja meediaga seonduv. Idee autorid: Hanno Soans ja Andres Lõo. Ilmunud on looming.orgi esimene muusikakogumik "Lilled algebrale"

  5. Nrf2 mediates redox adaptations to exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Done

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the effects of acute exercise and regular exercise on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 activity and downstream targets of Nrf2 signaling. Nrf2 (encoded in humans by the NFE2L2 gene is the master regulator of antioxidant defenses, a transcription factor that regulates expression of more than 200 cytoprotective genes. Increasing evidence indicates that Nrf2 signaling plays a key role in how oxidative stress mediates the beneficial effects of exercise. Episodic increases in oxidative stress induced through bouts of acute exercise stimulate Nrf2 activation and when applied repeatedly, as with regular exercise, leads to upregulation of endogenous antioxidant defenses and overall greater ability to counteract the damaging effects of oxidative stress. The evidence of Nrf2 activation in response to exercise across variety of tissues may be an important mechanism of how exercise exerts its well-known systemic effects that are not limited to skeletal muscle and myocardium. Additionally there are emerging data that results from animal studies translate to humans.

  6. Effects of mental resource availability on looming task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Austen B; Gillath, Omri; Vitevitch, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Past research has shown that the looming bias-the tendency to judge one's distance to an approaching object as shorter than in actuality-is stronger among people who are physically weak or vulnerable. The current study examined whether the looming bias would also be stronger among people who are mentally weak or vulnerable. We tested that hypothesis by subjecting 46 young adults to cognitive load and examining their perceptions of approaching objects distance. Participants completed two blocks of the looming task, once under high cognitive load (memorizing a seven-digit number) and once under low load (memorizing a two-digit number). Participants exhibited a stronger looming bias under high load than under low load. These findings support the hypothesis that the looming bias will be stronger when people are weak or vulnerable-either physically or mentally-and in need of a larger margin-of-safety.

  7. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity-Cell-mediated Immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 6. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity - Cell-mediated Immunity. Asma Ahmed Banishree Saha Anand Patwardhan Shwetha Shivaprasad Dipankar Nandi. General Article Volume 14 Issue 6 June 2009 pp 610-621 ...

  8. PGC-1α-mediated adaptations in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Kiilerich, Kristian; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    multiple pathways and functions underline the potential importance of PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle adaptations in humans. The absence of exercise-induced PGC-1alpha-mediated gene regulation during a physical inactive lifestyle is suggested to lead to reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle......Lifestyle-related diseases are rapidly increasing at least in part due to less physical activity. The health beneficial effects of regular physical activity include metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, which are thought to be elicited by cumulative effects of transient gene responses to each...... involved in angiogenesis and the anti-oxidant defence as well as to affect expression of inflammatory markers. Exercise increases PGC-1alpha transcription and potentially PGC-1alpha activity through post-translational modifications, and concomitant PGC-1alpha-mediated gene regulation is suggested...

  9. DATA ACQUISITION FROM LOOMS USING CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri BAHTİYAR

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To make efficiency analysis and to increase efficiency of a weaving hall, it is necessary to obtain and then analyze technical and weaving data received from looms. In small and mid-size weaving halls, generally technical data of the looms are kept by responsible technical personnel. Data processing without a defined automation makes efficiency analysis of weaving hall more complex, or may decrease liability of the analysis. In this paper, a data acquisition system that uses controller area network (CAN for the efficiency analysis of looms where developed and implemented in a mid-size weaving hall is presented. In system, technical and weaving data taken from the ports of the looms are sent to central computer via CAN, and then are processed in central computer.

  10. Shear stress mediates endothelial adaptations to exercise training in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinken, Toni M; Thijssen, Dick H J; Hopkins, Nicola; Dawson, Ellen A; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J

    2010-02-01

    Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men in response to an acute bout of handgrip exercise and across an 8-week period of bilateral handgrip training. Shear stress responses were attenuated in one arm by cuff inflation to 60 mm Hg. Similar increases were observed in grip strength and forearm volume and girth in both limbs. Acute bouts of handgrip exercise increased shear rate (P<0.005) and flow-mediated dilation percentage (P<0.05) in the uncuffed limb, whereas no changes were evident in the cuffed arm. Handgrip training increased flow-mediated dilation percentage in the noncuffed limb at weeks 2, 4, and 6 (P<0.001), whereas no changes were observed in the cuffed arm. Brachial artery peak reactive hyperemia, an index of resistance artery remodeling, progressively increased with training in the noncuffed limb (P<0.001 and 0.004); no changes were evident in the cuffed arm. Neither acute nor chronic shear manipulation during exercise influenced endothelium-independent glyceryl trinitrate responses. These results demonstrate that exercise-induced changes in shear provide the principal physiological stimulus to adaptation in flow-mediated endothelial function and vascular remodeling in response to exercise training in healthy humans.

  11. Science should warn people of looming disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of special knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, it appears that a few seismic hazard assessment programs and/or methodologies were tested appropriately against real observations before being endorsed for estimation of earthquake related risks. The fatal evidence and aftermath of the past decades prove that many of the existing internationally accepted methodologies are grossly misleading and are evidently unacceptable for any kind of responsible risk evaluation and knowledgeable disaster prevention. In contrast, the confirmed reliability of pattern recognition aimed at earthquake prone areas and times of increased probability, along with realistic earthquake scaling and scenario modeling, allow us to conclude that Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering this state-of-the-art knowledge of looming disaster in advance catastrophic events. In a lieu of seismic observations long enough for a reliable probabilistic assessment or a comprehensive physical theory of earthquake recurrence, pattern recognition applied to available geophysical and/or geological data sets remains a broad avenue to follow in seismic hazard forecast/prediction. Moreover, better understanding seismic process in terms of non-linear dynamics of a hierarchical system of blocks-and-faults and deterministic chaos, progress to new approaches in assessing time-dependent seismic hazard based on multiscale analysis of seismic activity and reproducible intermediate-term earthquake prediction technique. The algorithms, which make use of multidisciplinary data available and account for fractal nature of earthquake distributions in space and time, have confirmed their

  12. Looming signals reveal synergistic principles of multisensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Céline; Thelen, Antonia; Romei, Vincenzo; Thut, Gregor; Murray, Micah M

    2012-01-25

    Multisensory interactions are a fundamental feature of brain organization. Principles governing multisensory processing have been established by varying stimulus location, timing and efficacy independently. Determining whether and how such principles operate when stimuli vary dynamically in their perceived distance (as when looming/receding) provides an assay for synergy among the above principles and also means for linking multisensory interactions between rudimentary stimuli with higher-order signals used for communication and motor planning. Human participants indicated movement of looming or receding versus static stimuli that were visual, auditory, or multisensory combinations while 160-channel EEG was recorded. Multivariate EEG analyses and distributed source estimations were performed. Nonlinear interactions between looming signals were observed at early poststimulus latencies (∼75 ms) in analyses of voltage waveforms, global field power, and source estimations. These looming-specific interactions positively correlated with reaction time facilitation, providing direct links between neural and performance metrics of multisensory integration. Statistical analyses of source estimations identified looming-specific interactions within the right claustrum/insula extending inferiorly into the amygdala and also within the bilateral cuneus extending into the inferior and lateral occipital cortices. Multisensory effects common to all conditions, regardless of perceived distance and congruity, followed (∼115 ms) and manifested as faster transition between temporally stable brain networks (vs summed responses to unisensory conditions). We demonstrate the early-latency, synergistic interplay between existing principles of multisensory interactions. Such findings change the manner in which to model multisensory interactions at neural and behavioral/perceptual levels. We also provide neurophysiologic backing for the notion that looming signals receive preferential

  13. Naine : masin või loom? / Maris Palgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palgi, Maris

    2007-01-01

    Eero Taltsi, Margus Kiisi, Maia Mölleri, Kaie Luige, Eva Orava ja Maris Palgi projektist "Maine-loom, naine-masin", mida tutvustati 2006. a. Moostes üritusel "Postsovkhoz 6", 2007. a. jaanuaris-veebruaris Tartu Kunstimajas ja Tartu Tampere Majas. Näitused avati E. Taltsi ja M. Kiisi loeng-performance'itega

  14. Different motion cues are used to estimate time-to-arrival for frontoparallel and looming trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, Finnegan J; Beardsley, Scott A; Vaina, Lucia M

    2011-12-08

    Estimation of time-to-arrival for moving objects is critical to obstacle interception and avoidance, as well as to timing actions such as reaching and grasping moving objects. The source of motion information that conveys arrival time varies with the trajectory of the object raising the question of whether multiple context-dependent mechanisms are involved in this computation. To address this question we conducted a series of psychophysical studies to measure observers' performance on time-to-arrival estimation when object trajectory was specified by angular motion ("gap closure" trajectories in the frontoparallel plane), looming (colliding trajectories, TTC) or both (passage courses, TTP). We measured performance of time-to-arrival judgments in the presence of irrelevant motion, in which a perpendicular motion vector was added to the object trajectory. Data were compared to models of expected performance based on the use of different components of optical information. Our results demonstrate that for gap closure, performance depended only on the angular motion, whereas for TTC and TTP, both angular and looming motion affected performance. This dissociation of inputs suggests that gap closures are mediated by a separate mechanism than that used for the detection of time-to-collision and time-to-passage. We show that existing models of TTC and TTP estimation make systematic errors in predicting subject performance, and suggest that a model which weights motion cues by their relative time-to-arrival provides a better account of performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Attachment, emotion regulation, and adaptation to breast cancer: assessment of a mediational hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Marisa; Brandão, Tânia; Teixeira, Joana; Coimbra, Joaquim Luis; Matos, Paula Mena

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the links between attachment, adaptation to breast cancer, and the mediating role played by emotional regulation processes. Participants were 127 women with breast cancer recruited in two public hospitals of Porto and at the Portuguese Cancer League. Women completed measures of attachment, quality of life, and emotion regulation. Path models were used to examine the associations between the constructs and to test the mediational hypotheses. Significant associations were found between attachment and adaptation. Dimensions of emotion regulation totally or partially mediated the associations between attachment and adaptation outcomes. Attachment security effects on interpersonal relations were totally mediated by communicating emotions. Also, attachment anxiety effect on physical well-being was totally mediated by rumination. Attachment avoidance effects on psychological outcomes were totally mediated by emotional control and partially mediated by communicating emotions for the case of interpersonal relations. This study highlights the importance of addressing emotional regulation jointly with attachment to deepen the comprehension of the relational processes implicated in adaptation to breast cancer. Results supported a mediational hypothesis, presenting emotional regulation processes as relevant dimensions for the understanding of attachment associations with adaptation to breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Endogenous Nuclear RNAi Mediates Behavioral Adaptation to Odor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Most eukaryotic cells express small regulatory RNAs. The purpose of one class, the somatic endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), remains unclear. Here, we show that the endo-siRNA pathway promotes odor adaptation in C. elegans AWC olfactory neurons. In adaptation, the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3, which...... as a rheostat allowing prolonged stimulation to dampen gene expression and promote cellular memory formation. PAPERFLICK:...

  17. The nature and effects of power-loom weaving of cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, David; Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In a conversation between George Wrigley and Simon Schaffer, the work in a power loom cotton mill is discussed and the effects of the introduction of factory production of cotton is analysed. This is shown against a background of re-constructed mechanical cotton looms in Lancashire, England.

  18. The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire: Measurement Invariance and Relations to Anxiety and Depression across 10 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Ryan; Riskind, John; Cheung, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ) is a self-report measure designed to assess the looming cognitive style, a tendency to interpret threats as rapidly approaching and increasing in magnitude. To date, no systematic evaluation on the psychometric properties of the LMSQ across diverse...

  19. Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Contrast adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, James M; Brainard, David H

    2007-08-01

    Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner's hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to sensitivity and examined a family of parametric models of adaptation. Our results show that both appearance and discrimination are consistent with the same mechanism of adaptation.

  20. Antecedents of Looming Cognitive Style: Associations With Reported Perceived Parenting and Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan-Atalay, Ayşe; Ayvaşık, Halise Belgin

    2018-01-01

    Looming Cognitive Style, which was proposed as cognitive vulnerability model specific for anxiety disorders, suggests that anxiety-prone individuals have a tendency to perceive threats and dangers as getting closer, becoming larger, and more agonizing every passing minute. Yet, very few studies focused on the family-related variables that are associated with development of Looming Cognitive Style. This study aims to investigate the relationship of Looming Cognitive Style with measures perceived parenting and attachment. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 389 university students aged between 18 and 35 as participants. The participants were assessed through Looming Cognitive Style, perceived parenting, attachment anxiety, and avoidance. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated Looming Cognitive Style to be significantly predicted by maternal overprotection and anxiety dimension of attachment. The results are important in understanding how parenting-related variables are related to development of cognitive vulnerabilities specific to anxiety disorders.

  1. Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Contrast adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Hillis, James M.; Brainard, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner’s hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to sensitivity and examined a family of parametric models of adaptation. Our results show that both appearance and discrimination are ...

  2. Emotional Intelligence – Sales Performance Relationship: A Mediating Role of Adaptive Selling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisker Zazli Lily

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the impact of emotional intelligence on sales performance. We posited that the impact of emotional intelligence (EI on sales performance was mediated by adaptive selling behaviour (ASB. Data were collected from 281 sales people in the financial industries in Malaysia via the WLEIS emotional intelligence scale and ADAPTS adaptive selling behaviour scale, and were quantitatively analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM. Results were in keeping with the model. Three domains of EI were not found to impact sales performance directly but through ASB. Theoretical implications and managerial ramifications were also discussed.

  3. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  4. Talent Development Environment and Workplace Adaptation: The Mediating Effects of Organisational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunasegaran, Mageswari; Ismail, Maimunah; Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Ramayah, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationship between talent development environment (TDE) variables of job focus and long-term development with the workplace adaptation (WA) of Malaysian professional returnees as mediated by the organisational support. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 respondents who are Malaysian professional…

  5. An adaptive semantic based mediation system for data interoperability among Health Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wajahat Ali; Khattak, Asad Masood; Hussain, Maqbool; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Afzal, Muhammad; Nugent, Christopher; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-08-01

    Heterogeneity in the management of the complex medical data, obstructs the attainment of data level interoperability among Health Information Systems (HIS). This diversity is dependent on the compliance of HISs with different healthcare standards. Its solution demands a mediation system for the accurate interpretation of data in different heterogeneous formats for achieving data interoperability. We propose an adaptive AdapteR Interoperability ENgine mediation system called ARIEN, that arbitrates between HISs compliant to different healthcare standards for accurate and seamless information exchange to achieve data interoperability. ARIEN stores the semantic mapping information between different standards in the Mediation Bridge Ontology (MBO) using ontology matching techniques. These mappings are provided by our System for Parallel Heterogeneity (SPHeRe) matching system and Personalized-Detailed Clinical Model (P-DCM) approach to guarantee accuracy of mappings. The realization of the effectiveness of the mappings stored in the MBO is evaluation of the accuracy in transformation process among different standard formats. We evaluated our proposed system with the transformation process of medical records between Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and Virtual Medical Record (vMR) standards. The transformation process achieved over 90 % of accuracy level in conversion process between CDA and vMR standards using pattern oriented approach from the MBO. The proposed mediation system improves the overall communication process between HISs. It provides an accurate and seamless medical information exchange to ensure data interoperability and timely healthcare services to patients.

  6. The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire: Measurement invariance and relations to anxiety and depression across 10 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ryan Y; Riskind, John H; Cheung, Mike W-L; Calvete, Esther; González-Díez, Zahira; Atalay, Ayse Altan; Curzik, Doris; Jokic-Begic, Natasa; Del Palacio-Gonzalez, Adriana; Mihić, Ljiljana; Samac, Nikola; Sica, Claudio; Sugiura, Yoshinori; Khatri, Safal; Kleiman, Evan M

    2017-06-01

    The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ) is a self-report measure designed to assess the looming cognitive style, a tendency to interpret threats as rapidly approaching and increasing in magnitude. To date, no systematic evaluation on the psychometric properties of the LMSQ across diverse cultural contexts has been done. In the present research, the measurement invariance of the LMSQ test scores was examined in 10 countries (N=4000). Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a two-factor model (i.e., physical looming and social looming) fitted the data well across countries. Partial measurement invariance was established for the LMSQ scores across the countries whereas full measurement invariance was achieved across gender. Meta-analytic structural equation modeling was applied to examine the unique contributions of the two looming factors to anxiety and depression symptoms. Results indicated that the test scores underlying two looming factors were crucial and valid predictors of symptoms. The LMSQ shows promise as a measure with cross-cultural generalizability and opens new avenues for its use in diverse cultural settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptive and innate immune reactions regulating mast cell activation: from receptor-mediated signaling to responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tkaczyk, Christine; Jensen, Bettina M; Iwaki, Shoko

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we have described studies that have demonstrated that mast cells can be activated as a consequence of adaptive and innate immune reactions and that these responses can be modified by ligands for other receptors expressed on the surface of mast cells. These various stimuli...... differentially activate multiple signaling pathways within the mast cells required for the generation and/or release of inflammatory mediators. Thus, the composition of the suite of mediators released and the physiologic ramifications of these responses are dependent on the stimuli and the microenvironment...

  8. Depression as a mediator in the relationship between perceived familial criticism and college adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puff, Jayme; Kolomeyer, Ellen; McSwiggan, Meagan; Pearte, Catherine; Lauer, Brea-Anne; Renk, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relationships among emerging adults' perceived familial criticism, their depressive symptoms, and their college adaptation. The current study examined the responses of 412 emerging adults (300 females and 112 males) who were college students at a large southeastern university. The majority of these emerging adults were Caucasian, but the remainder were from a broad range of racial backgrounds. Participants completed the Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale as a measure of their familial criticism, the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire as a measure of their college adaptation, and the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition as a measure of their depression. Results were examined using correlational and regression analyses in the context of Baron and Kenny's (J Pers Soc Psychol. 1986;51:1173-1182) method for determining mediation. Results suggested that for female emerging adults, the relationship between perceived familial criticism and college adaptation was mediated significantly by depressive symptoms. In contrast, this pattern of results did not hold for male emerging adults. Given these findings, emerging adults' depressive symptoms may serve as a useful proximal target for psychotherapeutic interventions meant to improve adaptation to college (particularly for female emerging adults), even in the context of high levels of perceived familial criticism from emerging adults' family of origin.

  9. Neutrophil-Mediated Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity: The Role of Myeloperoxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Odobasic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are no longer seen as leukocytes with a sole function of being the essential first responders in the removal of pathogens at sites of infection. Being armed with numerous pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, these phagocytes can also contribute to the development of various autoimmune diseases and can positively or negatively regulate the generation of adaptive immune responses. In this review, we will discuss how myeloperoxidase, the most abundant neutrophil granule protein, plays a key role in the various functions of neutrophils in innate and adaptive immunity.

  10. Cortical microcircuit dynamics mediating Binocular Rivalry: The role of adaptation in inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota eTheodoni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual bistability arises when two conflicting interpretations of an ambiguous stimulus or images in binocular rivalry (BR compete for perceptual dominance. From a computational point of view competition models based on cross-inhibition and adaptation have shown that noise is a crucial force for rivalry and operates in balance with adaptation in order to explain the observed alternations in perception. In particular, noise-driven transitions and adaptation-driven oscillations define two dynamical regimes and the system operates near its boundary. In order to gain insights into the microcircuit dynamics mediating spontaneous perceptual alternations we used a reduced recurrent attractor-based biophysically realistic spiking network well known for working memory, attention and decision-making, where a spike-frequency adaptation mechanism is implemented to account for perceptual bistability. We, thus, derived a consistently reduced four-variable population rate model using mean-field techniques and tested it on BR data collected from human subjects. Our model accounts for experimental data parameters such as time dominance, coefficient of variation and gamma distribution. In addition, we show that our model also operates on the boundary between noise and adaptation and agrees with Levelt’s second revised and fourth propositions. These results show for the first time that a consistent reduction of a biophysically realistic spiking network of integrate and fire neurons with spike frequency adaptation could account for BR. Moreover, we demonstrate that BR can be explained only through the dynamics of the competing neuronal pools, without taking into account the adaptation of inhibitory interneurons..However, adaptation of interneurons affects the optimal parametric space of the system, by decreasing the overall adaptation necessary for the bifurcation to occur.

  11. Temperature-Mediated Effects of Host Alternation on the Adaptation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Huiyan; Gao, Huanhuan; Hu, Zuqing; Hu, Xiangshun

    2015-04-01

    Local adaptation, an important phenomenon in ecological speciation, occurs in Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with the tobacco-adapted line proposed as a subspecies. Recent studies showed that temperature could alter the selection strength and direction in host-herbivore interactions. To understand the formation of host-adapted speciation and the effects of temperature on host adaptation, the parthenogenetic progeny of an M. persicae egg were conditioned on two hosts for >10 generations. Then, their life table parameters were studied after reciprocal transfer under a temperature gradient. The results showed that aphids habituated on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) had different optimal temperatures, including different upper thresholds of development and reproduction on original and alternative hosts. After habituation for >10 generations, local adaptation of aphids on the host of origin was formed, which was observed as the better performance of the native aphids compared with the foreign ones. The M. persicae that habituated on rape appeared more generalized to the host plants than the aphids that habituated on tobacco. The adaptation patterns of green peach aphids on two hosts varied differentially according to temperature, which verified the temperature-mediated effects of host selection on herbivores, implying the presence of a demographic basis of aphid seasonal migration. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cell-cycle dependent expression of a translocation-mediated fusion oncogene mediates checkpoint adaptation in rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kikuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most commonly occurring soft-tissue sarcoma in childhood. Most rhabdomyosarcoma falls into one of two biologically distinct subgroups represented by alveolar or embryonal histology. The alveolar subtype harbors a translocation-mediated PAX3:FOXO1A fusion gene and has an extremely poor prognosis. However, tumor cells have heterogeneous expression for the fusion gene. Using a conditional genetic mouse model as well as human tumor cell lines, we show that that Pax3:Foxo1a expression is enriched in G2 and triggers a transcriptional program conducive to checkpoint adaptation under stress conditions such as irradiation in vitro and in vivo. Pax3:Foxo1a also tolerizes tumor cells to clinically-established chemotherapy agents and emerging molecularly-targeted agents. Thus, the surprisingly dynamic regulation of the Pax3:Foxo1a locus is a paradigm that has important implications for the way in which oncogenes are modeled in cancer cells.

  13. Brown adipose tissue thermogenic adaptation requires Nrf1-mediated proteasomal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Alexander; Widenmaier, Scott B; Schlein, Christian; Johann, Kornelia; Goncalves, Renata L S; Eguchi, Kosei; Fischer, Alexander W; Parlakgül, Günes; Snyder, Nicole A; Nguyen, Truc B; Bruns, Oliver T; Franke, Daniel; Bawendi, Moungi G; Lynes, Matthew D; Leiria, Luiz O; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Inouye, Karen E; Arruda, Ana Paula; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2018-03-01

    Adipocytes possess remarkable adaptive capacity to respond to nutrient excess, fasting or cold exposure, and they are thus an important cell type for the maintenance of proper metabolic health. Although the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a critical organelle for cellular homeostasis, the mechanisms that mediate adaptation of the ER to metabolic challenges in adipocytes are unclear. Here we show that brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic function requires an adaptive increase in proteasomal activity to secure cellular protein quality control, and we identify the ER-localized transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 1 (Nfe2l1, also known as Nrf1) as a critical driver of this process. We show that cold adaptation induces Nrf1 in BAT to increase proteasomal activity and that this is crucial for maintaining ER homeostasis and cellular integrity, specifically when the cells are in a state of high thermogenic activity. In mice, under thermogenic conditions, brown-adipocyte-specific deletion of Nfe2l1 (Nrf1) resulted in ER stress, tissue inflammation, markedly diminished mitochondrial function and whitening of the BAT. In mouse models of both genetic and dietary obesity, stimulation of proteasomal activity by exogenously expressing Nrf1 or by treatment with the proteasome activator PA28α in BAT resulted in improved insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, Nrf1 emerges as a novel guardian of brown adipocyte function, providing increased proteometabolic quality control for adapting to cold or to obesity.

  14. Climate-mediated adaptation after mainland colonization of an ancestrally subtropical island lizard, Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Staton, S C; Edwards, S V; Losos, J B

    2016-11-01

    Climate-mediated evolution plays an integral role in species migration and range expansion. Gaining a clearer understanding of how climate affects demographic history and adaptation provides fundamental insight into the generation of intra- and interspecific diversity. In this study, we used the natural colonization of the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) from the island of Cuba to mainland North America to investigate the role of evolution at the niche, phenotypic and genetic levels after long-term establishment in a novel environment. The North American green anole occupies a broader range of thermal habitats than its Cuban sister species. We documented niche expansion in the mainland green anole, mediated primarily through adaptation to winter temperatures. Common garden experiments strongly suggest a genetic component to differences in thermal performance found between populations in different temperature regimes. Analysis of geographic variation in population structure based on 53 486 single nucleotide variants from RAD loci revealed increased genetic isolation between populations in different vs. similar thermal environments. Selection scans for environment-allele correlations reveal 19 genomic loci of known function that may have played a role in the physiological adaptation of A. carolinensis to temperate environments on the mainland. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. A step towards developing adaptive robot-mediated intervention architecture (ARIA) for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Esubalew T; Lahiri, Uttama; Swanson, Amy R; Crittendon, Julie A; Warren, Zachary E; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2013-03-01

    Emerging technology, especially robotic technology, has been shown to be appealing to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Such interest may be leveraged to provide repeatable, accurate and individualized intervention services to young children with ASD based on quantitative metrics. However, existing robot-mediated systems tend to have limited adaptive capability that may impact individualization. Our current work seeks to bridge this gap by developing an adaptive and individualized robot-mediated technology for children with ASD. The system is composed of a humanoid robot with its vision augmented by a network of cameras for real-time head tracking using a distributed architecture. Based on the cues from the child's head movement, the robot intelligently adapts itself in an individualized manner to generate prompts and reinforcements with potential to promote skills in the ASD core deficit area of early social orienting. The system was validated for feasibility, accuracy, and performance. Results from a pilot usability study involving six children with ASD and a control group of six typically developing (TD) children are presented.

  16. Collision avoidance and a looming sensitive neuron: size matters but biggest is not necessarily best.

    OpenAIRE

    Rind, F Claire; Santer, Roger D

    2004-01-01

    Locusts possess visual neurons that can be uniquely identified in each locust and that respond selectively to looming stimuli, giving the animal a warning of impending collision. It has been suggested that one such neuron, the lobula giant movement detector (LGMD), issues this warning by generating a peak in its response that occurs ca. 25 ms after a looming object reaches a subtense of 17 degrees on the eye. This peak is proposed to be a trigger for escape behaviour. We use both modelling an...

  17. 75 FR 39046 - Russell Brands, LLC, Fabrics Division, a Subsidiary of Fruit of the Loom, Including Employees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... subject firm. The workers are engaged in employment related to the production of yarn dyed woven fabric..., Fabrics Division, a Subsidiary of Fruit of the Loom, Including Employees Working Off-Site In New York..., 2009, applicable to workers of Russell Brands, LLC, Fabrics Division, a subsidiary of Fruit of the Loom...

  18. Attachment and adaptation to breast cancer: The mediating role of avoidant emotion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, T; Schulz, M S; Matos, P M

    2018-03-01

    Attachment insecurity is associated with difficulties in adapting to cancer. Accumulating evidence points to the influence of avoidant emotion processes in this association. This study explored this pathway by examining the association between attachment insecurity and quality of life in women with breast cancer, and by exploring the mediating role of two avoidant emotion processes in this association. Women with breast cancer (N = 155) completed measures of attachment, emotional suppression, emotional awareness and quality of life. Avoidance of attachment was positively associated with emotional suppression (β = .29, p < .01) and lack of emotional awareness (β = .27, p < .01), and negatively associated with quality of life (β = -.22, p < .05). Lack of emotional awareness partially mediated the relationship between attachment avoidance and quality of life (indirect effect β = -.12, p = .008). Attachment anxiety was not associated with any variable. Attachment avoidance may hinder the process of adaptation to breast cancer and difficulties in identifying and describing emotions may be partly responsible for this influence. Access to and ability to benefit from social and medical supports is likely to depend on being able to engage with others and recognise and process emotions effectively. Research and clinical implications are discussed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, Francesco; Romagnani, Chiara; Romagnani, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has tailored its effector functions to optimally respond to distinct species of microbes. Based on emerging knowledge on the different effector T-cell and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) lineages, it is clear that the innate and adaptive immune systems converge into 3 major kinds of cell-mediated effector immunity, which we propose to categorize as type 1, type 2, and type 3. Type 1 immunity consists of T-bet(+) IFN-γ-producing group 1 ILCs (ILC1 and natural killer cells), CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (TC1), and CD4(+) TH1 cells, which protect against intracellular microbes through activation of mononuclear phagocytes. Type 2 immunity consists of GATA-3(+) ILC2s, TC2 cells, and TH2 cells producing IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which induce mast cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation, as well as IgE antibody production, thus protecting against helminthes and venoms. Type 3 immunity is mediated by retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt(+) ILC3s, TC17 cells, and TH17 cells producing IL-17, IL-22, or both, which activate mononuclear phagocytes but also recruit neutrophils and induce epithelial antimicrobial responses, thus protecting against extracellular bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, type 1 and 3 immunity mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas type 2 responses can cause allergic diseases. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-Term Neuropsychological Profiles and Their Role as Mediators of Adaptive Functioning after Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari

    2017-01-15

    The objectives of the study were to characterize long-term neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained during early childhood, and determine whether identified neuropsychological impairments mediated the effect of TBI on long-term adaptive functioning. Participants included 16 children with severe TBI, 42 children with moderate TBI, and 72 children with orthopedic injuries (OI) sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. Children completed neuropsychological tests and caregivers completed a structured interview of child adaptive functioning at 6.9 (±1.10) years post-injury. Profile analysis and multiple mediator modeling were employed. Children with severe TBI demonstrated poorer fluid reasoning and inhibitory control than both children with moderate TBI and OI, as well as slower processing speed than the OI group. Both fluid reasoning and processing speed were significant independent mediators of the effect of severe TBI on adaptive functioning. No neuropsychological measure significantly mediated the effect of moderate TBI on adaptive functioning. Children sustaining early severe TBI demonstrate persisting neuropsychological impairments into adolescence and young adulthood. The impact of severe TBI on children's long-term adaptive functioning is mediated in part by its effects on fluid reasoning and processing speed.

  1. Mathematical modeling on T-cell mediated adaptive immunity in primary dengue infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Sourav Kumar; Dong, Yueping; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2017-09-21

    At present, dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, and the global dengue incidence is increasing day by day due to climate changing. Here, we present a mathematical model of dengue viruses (DENVs) dynamics in micro-environment (cellular level) consisting of healthy cells, infected cells, virus particles and T-cell mediated adaptive immunity. We have considered the explicit role of cytokines and antibody in our model. We find that the virus load goes down to zero within 6 days as it is common for DENV infection. From our analysis, we have identified the important model parameters and done the numerical simulation with respect to such important parameters. We have shown that the cytokine mediated virus clearance plays a very important role in dengue dynamics. It can change the dynamical behavior of the system and causes essential extinction of the virus. Finally, we have incorporated the antiviral treatment for dengue in our model and shown that the basic reproduction number is directly proportional to the antiviral treatment effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strain Mediated Adaptation Is Key for Myosin Mechanochemistry: Discovering General Rules for Motor Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biman Jana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A structure-based model of myosin motor is built in the same spirit of our early work for kinesin-1 and Ncd towards physical understanding of its mechanochemical cycle. We find a structural adaptation of the motor head domain in post-powerstroke state that signals faster ADP release from it compared to the same from the motor head in the pre-powerstroke state. For dimeric myosin, an additional forward strain on the trailing head, originating from the postponed powerstroke state of the leading head in the waiting state of myosin, further increases the rate of ADP release. This coordination between the two heads is the essence of the processivity of the cycle. Our model provides a structural description of the powerstroke step of the cycle as an allosteric transition of the converter domain in response to the Pi release. Additionally, the variation in structural elements peripheral to catalytic motor domain is the deciding factor behind diverse directionalities of myosin motors (myosin V & VI. Finally, we observe that there are general rules for functional molecular motors across the different families. Allosteric structural adaptation of the catalytic motor head in different nucleotide states is crucial for mechanochemistry. Strain-mediated coordination between motor heads is essential for processivity and the variation of peripheral structural elements is essential for their diverse functionalities.

  3. Opt2 mediates the exposure of phospholipids during cellular adaptation to altered lipid asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Saori; Obara, Keisuke; Uchibori, Kenya; Kamimura, Akiko; Azumi, Kaoru; Kihara, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane lipid asymmetry is important for various membrane-associated functions and is regulated by membrane proteins termed flippases and floppases. The Rim101 pathway senses altered lipid asymmetry in the yeast plasma membrane. The mutant lem3Δ cells, in which lipid asymmetry is disturbed owing to the inactivation of the plasma membrane flippases, showed a severe growth defect when the Rim101 pathway was impaired. To identify factors involved in the Rim101-pathway-dependent adaptation to altered lipid asymmetry, we performed DNA microarray analysis and found that Opt2 induced by the Rim101 pathway plays an important role in the adaptation to altered lipid asymmetry. Biochemical investigation of Opt2 revealed its localization to the plasma membrane and the Golgi, and provided several lines of evidence for the Opt2-mediated exposure of phospholipids. In addition, Opt2 was found to be required for the maintenance of vacuolar morphology and polarized cell growth. These results suggest that Opt2 is a novel factor involved in cell homeostasis by regulating lipid asymmetry. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Service Mediation and Negotiation Bootstrapping as First Achievements Towards Self-adaptable Cloud Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandic, Ivona; Music, Dejan; Dustdar, Schahram

    Nowadays, novel computing paradigms as for example Cloud Computing are gaining more and more on importance. In case of Cloud Computing users pay for the usage of the computing power provided as a service. Beforehand they can negotiate specific functional and non-functional requirements relevant for the application execution. However, providing computing power as a service bears different research challenges. On one hand dynamic, versatile, and adaptable services are required, which can cope with system failures and environmental changes. On the other hand, human interaction with the system should be minimized. In this chapter we present the first results in establishing adaptable, versatile, and dynamic services considering negotiation bootstrapping and service mediation achieved in context of the Foundations of Self-Governing ICT Infrastructures (FoSII) project. We discuss novel meta-negotiation and SLA mapping solutions for Cloud services bridging the gap between current QoS models and Cloud middleware and representing important prerequisites for the establishment of autonomic Cloud services.

  5. Chinese International Students' Social Connectedness, Social and Academic Adaptation: The Mediating Role of Global Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qian; Zhu, Chang; Cao, Chun

    2018-01-01

    This study examined global competence of Chinese international students sojourning in a non-Anglophone European country as a mediator between foreign language proficiency (i.e., English and local language) and social and academic adaptation, and social connectedness in international community. A sample of 206 Chinese students in Belgium responded…

  6. Impacts of Organizational Knowledge Sharing Practices on Employees' Job Satisfaction: Mediating Roles of Learning Commitment and Interpersonal Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Shaukat; Kanwal, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically impacts of organizational knowledge-sharing practices (KSP) on employees' job satisfaction (JS), interpersonal adaptability (IA) and learning commitment (LC). Indirect effects of KSP on JS are also confirmed through mediating factors (LC and IA). Design/methodology/approach:…

  7. When gains loom larger than losses: reversed loss aversion for small amounts of money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinck, Fieke; Van Dijk, Eric; Van Beest, Ilja; Mersmann, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has generally shown that people are loss averse; that is, they weigh losses more heavily than gains. In a series of three experiments, we found that for small outcomes, this pattern is reversed, and gains loom larger than losses. We explain this reversal on the basis of (a) the hedonic principle, which states that individuals are motivated to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain, and (b) the assumption that small losses are more easily discounted cognitively than large losses are.

  8. The role of looming and attention capture in drivers' braking responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Hugh R; Charlton, Samuel G; Perrone, John A

    2008-07-01

    This study assessed the ability of drivers to detect the deceleration of a preceding vehicle in a simulated vehicle-following task. The size of the preceding vehicles (car, van, or truck) and following speeds (50, 70, or 100 km/h) were systematically varied. Participants selected a preferred following distance by engaging their vehicle's cruise control and when the preceding vehicle began decelerating (no brake lights were illuminated), the participant's braking latency and distances to the lead vehicle were recorded. The experiment also employed a secondary task condition to examine how the attention-capturing properties of a looming vehicle were affected by driver distraction. The results indicated that a looming stimulus is capable of redirecting a driver's attention in a vehicle following task and, as with detection of brake lights, a driver's detection of a looming vehicle is compromised in the presence of a distracting task. Interestingly, increases in vehicle size had the effect of decreasing drivers' braking latencies and drivers engaged in the secondary task were significantly closer to the lead vehicle when they began braking, regardless of the size of the leading vehicle. Performance decrements resulting from the secondary task were reflected in a time-to-collision measure but not in optic expansion rate, lending support to earlier arguments that time-to-collision estimates require explicit cognitive judgements while perception of optic expansion may function in a more automatic fashion to redirect a driver's attention when cognitive resources are low or collision is imminent.

  9. Influence of Weaving Loom Setting Parameters on Changes of Woven Fabric Structure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra ADOMAITIENĖ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacturing of fabric of different raw material there was noticed, that after removing the fabric from weaving loom and after stabilization of fabric structure, the changes of parameters of fabric structure are not regular. During this investigation it was analysed, how weaving loom technological parameters (heald cross moment and initial tension of warp should be chosen and how to predict the changes of fabric structure parameters and its mechanical properties. The dependencies of changes of half-wool fabric structure parameters (weft setting, fabric thickness and projections of fabric cross-section and mechanical properties (breaking force, elongation at break, static friction force and static friction coefficient on weaving loom setting parameters (heald cross moment and initial warp tension were analysed. The orthogonal Box plan of two factors was used, the 3-D dependencies were drawn, and empirical equations of these dependencies were established.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.780

  10. Nrf2 mediates redox adaptation in NOX4-overexpressed non-small cell lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qipeng; Yao, Bei; Li, Ning; Ma, Lei; Deng, Yanchao; Yang, Yang; Zeng, Cheng; Yang, Zhicheng [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Bing, E-mail: liubing520@gdpu.edu.cn [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Bioactive Substances, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The redox adaptation mechanisms in cancer cells are very complex and remain largely unclear. Our previous studies have confirmed that NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is abundantly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and confers apoptosis resistance on NSCLC cells. However, the comprehensive mechanisms for NOX4-mediated oxidative resistance of cancer cells remain still undentified. The present study found that NOX4-derived H{sub 2}O{sub 2} enhanced the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) stability via disruption of redox-dependent proteasomal degradation and stimulated its activity through activation of PI3K signaling. Specifically, the results showed that ectopic NOX4 expression did not induce apoptosis of A549 cells; however, inhibition of Nrf2 resulted in obvious apoptotic death of NOX4-overexpressed A549 cells, accompanied by a significant increase in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level and decrease in GSH content. Besides, inhibition of Nrf2 could suppress cell growth and efficiently reverse the enhancement effect of NOX4 on cell growth. The in vivo data confirmed that inhibition of Nrf2 could interfere apoptosis resistance in NOX4-overexpressed A549 tumors and led to cell growth inhibition. In conclusion, these results reveal that Nrf2 is critically involved in redox adaptation regulation in NOX4-overexpressed NSCLC cells. Therefore, NOX4 and Nrf2 may be promising combination targets against malignant progression of NSCLC. - Highlights: • NOX4-derived H{sub 2}O{sub 2} upregulates Nrf2 expression and activity in NSCLC. • Nrf2 confers apoptosis resistance in NOX4-overexpressed NSCLC cells. • Inhibition of Nrf2 reverses the enhancement effect of NOX4 on cell growth.

  11. Nrf2 mediates redox adaptation in NOX4-overexpressed non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qipeng; Yao, Bei; Li, Ning; Ma, Lei; Deng, Yanchao; Yang, Yang; Zeng, Cheng; Yang, Zhicheng; Liu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    The redox adaptation mechanisms in cancer cells are very complex and remain largely unclear. Our previous studies have confirmed that NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is abundantly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and confers apoptosis resistance on NSCLC cells. However, the comprehensive mechanisms for NOX4-mediated oxidative resistance of cancer cells remain still undentified. The present study found that NOX4-derived H 2 O 2 enhanced the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) stability via disruption of redox-dependent proteasomal degradation and stimulated its activity through activation of PI3K signaling. Specifically, the results showed that ectopic NOX4 expression did not induce apoptosis of A549 cells; however, inhibition of Nrf2 resulted in obvious apoptotic death of NOX4-overexpressed A549 cells, accompanied by a significant increase in H 2 O 2 level and decrease in GSH content. Besides, inhibition of Nrf2 could suppress cell growth and efficiently reverse the enhancement effect of NOX4 on cell growth. The in vivo data confirmed that inhibition of Nrf2 could interfere apoptosis resistance in NOX4-overexpressed A549 tumors and led to cell growth inhibition. In conclusion, these results reveal that Nrf2 is critically involved in redox adaptation regulation in NOX4-overexpressed NSCLC cells. Therefore, NOX4 and Nrf2 may be promising combination targets against malignant progression of NSCLC. - Highlights: • NOX4-derived H 2 O 2 upregulates Nrf2 expression and activity in NSCLC. • Nrf2 confers apoptosis resistance in NOX4-overexpressed NSCLC cells. • Inhibition of Nrf2 reverses the enhancement effect of NOX4 on cell growth.

  12. An LRR/malectin receptor-like kinase mediates resistance to non-adapted and adapted powdery mildew fungi in barley and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaraman Rajaraman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for required for nonhost resistance 8 encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates nonhost resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating nonhost resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  13. Dynamic structure mediates halophilic adaptation of a DNA polymerase from the deep-sea brines of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Masateru

    2018-01-24

    The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea are remote and unexplored environments characterized by high temperatures, anoxic water, and elevated concentrations of salt and heavy metals. This environment provides a rare system to study the interplay between halophilic and thermophilic adaptation in biologic macromolecules. The present article reports the first DNA polymerase with halophilic and thermophilic features. Biochemical and structural analysis by Raman and circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that the charge distribution on the protein’s surface mediates the structural balance between stability for thermal adaptation and flexibility for counteracting the salt-induced rigid and nonfunctional hydrophobic packing. Salt bridge interactions via increased negative and positive charges contribute to structural stability. Salt tolerance, conversely, is mediated by a dynamic structure that becomes more fixed and functional with increasing salt concentration. We propose that repulsive forces among excess negative charges, in addition to a high percentage of negatively charged random coils, mediate this structural dynamism. This knowledge enabled us to engineer a halophilic version of KOD DNA polymerase.—Takahashi, M., Takahashi, E., Joudeh, L. I., Marini, M., Das, G., Elshenawy, M. M., Akal, A., Sakashita, K., Alam, I., Tehseen, M., Sobhy, M. A., Stingl, U., Merzaban, J. S., Di Fabrizio, E., Hamdan, S. M. Dynamic structure mediates halophilic adaptation of a DNA polymerase from the deep-sea brines of the Red Sea.

  14. Micromanaging the gut: unravelling the regulatory pathways that mediate the intestinal adaptive response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A

    2018-03-01

    Short bowel syndrome occurs following the loss of a large portion of functional intestine and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The intestine exhibits pronounced diurnal rhythms in glucose absorption and mounts a profound proliferative response following massive small bowel resection. Understanding the molecular pathways that underpin this could yield novel treatment options. Two in vivo models were employed using the nocturnally active Sprague Dawley® rat, namely daytime feeding and massive small bowel resection. Glucose absorption exhibited a 24-hour periodicity in the gut and peaked during maximal nutrient delivery, mediated by rhythms in the glucose transporter sodium glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1). Feeding during the day shifted the peak in the circadian clock gene PER1 and SGLT1. RNA interference and luciferase assays demonstrated that PER1 transcriptionally regulates SGLT1, linking for the first time clock genes and intestinal glucose absorption. Intestinal proliferation also exhibited diurnal rhythmicity, with peak absorptive surface area occurring during maximal nutrient availability. mir-16 is diurnally expressed in intestinal crypts, exhibiting minimal expression during maximal nutritional availability. mir-16 overexpression increased apoptosis and arrested proliferation in vitro. mir-125a was upregulated in intestinal crypts following 80% small bowel resection, and induced apoptosis and growth arrest upon overexpression in vitro. This work provides novel insights into the role of circadian clock genes, intestinal transporters and microRNAs in regulating intestinal absorption and proliferation and is the first demonstration of a role for microRNAs in these adaptive phenomena. Modulation of these pathways may represent a new therapeutic option for the management of short bowel syndrome.

  15. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  16. Ligation-mediated PCR with a back-to-back adapter reduces amplification bias resulting from variations in GC content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Satoru; Kotomura, Naoe; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ochiai, Hiroshi

    2017-08-15

    Ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LM-PCR) is a common technique for amplification of a pool of DNA fragments. Here, a double-stranded oligonucleotide consisting of two primer sequences in back-to-back orientation was designed as an adapter for LM-PCR. When DNA fragments were ligated with this adapter, the fragments were sandwiched between two adapters in random orientations. In the ensuing PCR, ligation products linked at each end to an opposite side of the adapter, i.e. to a distinct primer sequence, were preferentially amplified compared with products linked at each end to an identical primer sequence. The use of this adapter in LM-PCR reduced the impairment of PCR by substrate DNA with a high GC content, compared with the use of traditional LM-PCR adapters. This result suggested that our method has the potential to contribute to reduction of the amplification bias that is caused by an intrinsic property of the sequence context in substrate DNA. A DNA preparation obtained from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using pulldown of a specific form of histone H3 was successfully amplified using the modified LM-PCR, and the amplified products could be used as probes in a fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heterogeneity-mediated cellular adaptation and its trade-off: searching for the general principles of diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Henry H

    2017-02-01

    Big-data-omics have promised the success of precision medicine. However, most common diseases belong to adaptive systems where the precision is all but difficult to achieve. In this commentary, I propose a heterogeneity-mediated cellular adaptive model to search for the general model of diseases, which also illustrates why in most non-infectious non-Mendelian diseases the involvement of cellular evolution is less predictable when gene profiles are used. This synthesis is based on the following new observations/concepts: 1) the gene only codes "parts inheritance" while the genome codes "system inheritance" or the entire blueprint; 2) the nature of somatic genetic coding is fuzzy rather than precise, and genetic alterations are not just the results of genetic error but are in fact generated from internal adaptive mechanisms in response to environmental dynamics; 3) stress-response is less specific within cellular evolutionary context when compared to known biochemical specificities; and 4) most medical interventions have their unavoidable uncertainties and often can function as negative harmful stresses as trade-offs. The acknowledgment of diseases as adaptive systems calls for the action to integrate genome- (not simply individual gene-) mediated cellular evolution into molecular medicine. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Energy consumption of the griffes during weaving process of jacquard loom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, energy consumption of the griffes during their serving life is reported. Griffes of the Jacquard loom with reciprocating motion and high speed are the main suffering components during the weaving process. Under the condition of high reciprocating velocity, the mechanical damage is an unavoidable issue that will lead to a fatal collapse on the mechanical parts and even operators. Therefore, finite element analysis is adopted and conducted in present research to intuitively demonstrate the energy consumption on the griffes. This will be benefit for the design and local reinforcement of the Jacquard.

  19. eLoom and Flatland: specification, simulation and visualization engines for the study of arbitrary hierarchical neural architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudell, Thomas P; Xiao, Yunhai; Healy, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    eLoom is an open source graph simulation software tool, developed at the University of New Mexico (UNM), that enables users to specify and simulate neural network models. Its specification language and libraries enables users to construct and simulate arbitrary, potentially hierarchical network structures on serial and parallel processing systems. In addition, eLoom is integrated with UNM's Flatland, an open source virtual environments development tool to provide real-time visualizations of the network structure and activity. Visualization is a useful method for understanding both learning and computation in artificial neural networks. Through 3D animated pictorially representations of the state and flow of information in the network, a better understanding of network functionality is achieved. ART-1, LAPART-II, MLP, and SOM neural networks are presented to illustrate eLoom and Flatland's capabilities.

  20. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . Dar es Salaam. Durban. Bloemfontein. Antananarivo. Cape Town. Ifrane ... program strategy. A number of CCAA-supported projects have relevance to other important adaptation-related themes such as disaster preparedness and climate.

  1. Collision avoidance and a looming sensitive neuron: size matters but biggest is not necessarily best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, F Claire; Santer, Roger D

    2004-02-07

    Locusts possess visual neurons that can be uniquely identified in each locust and that respond selectively to looming stimuli, giving the animal a warning of impending collision. It has been suggested that one such neuron, the lobula giant movement detector (LGMD), issues this warning by generating a peak in its response that occurs ca. 25 ms after a looming object reaches a subtense of 17 degrees on the eye. This peak is proposed to be a trigger for escape behaviour. We use both modelling and electrophysiological techniques to show that this early peak in LGMD response is not the 'essential functional variable' used naturally by the locust to trigger escape, but rather results from the unnaturally large stimulus used in the previous experimental work. The natural predators of Locusta in Africa, where the locust evolved, are small birds such as the fiscal shrike Lanius collaris humeralis and the carmine bee-eater Merops nubicus, with pectoral diameters of 40-45 mm (measurements from museum specimens). Locusta in flight are less than 100 mm wing tip to wing tip. When a locust views small approaching objects, the response of the LGMD continues to increase throughout the object's approach and the locust is able to trigger escape behaviours without the LGMD response peaking prior to collision.

  2. High-Frequency Intermuscular Coherence between Arm Muscles during Robot-Mediated Motor Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzamiglio, Sara; De Lillo, Martina; Naeem, Usman; Abdalla, Hassan; Turner, Duncan L

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation of arm reaching in a novel force field involves co-contraction of upper limb muscles, but it is not known how the co-ordination of multiple muscle activation is orchestrated. We have used intermuscular coherence (IMC) to test whether a coherent intermuscular coupling between muscle pairs is responsible for novel patterns of activation during adaptation of reaching in a force field. Subjects ( N = 16) performed reaching trials during a null force field, then during a velocity-dependent force field and then again during a null force field. Reaching trajectory error increased during early adaptation to the force-field and subsequently decreased during later adaptation. Co-contraction in the majority of all possible muscle pairs also increased during early adaptation and decreased during later adaptation. In contrast, IMC increased during later adaptation and only in a subset of muscle pairs. IMC consistently occurred in frequencies between ~40-100 Hz and during the period of arm movement, suggesting that a coherent intermuscular coupling between those muscles contributing to adaptation enable a reduction in wasteful co-contraction and energetic cost during reaching.

  3. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  4. Predict Moral Distress Using Workplace Stress, Stress of Conscience Mediated by Coping Using Roy Adaptation Model: A Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkrisat, Muder

    2016-12-01

    Moral distress can be predisposed when nurses are exposed to ambiguous moral situations. Is to test a conceptual model based on Roy adaptation model (RAM) to examine the relationship among workplace stress, conscience stress, and moral distress mediated by coping. A correlational, cross sectional. Data were collected from 199 licensed nurses. The findings indicated that workplace stress was related negatively to coping processes (β = -.12) and that stress of conscience was predictive of greater use of coping process (β = -.21). The results indicated that the model suggested based on RAM is saturated and is the perfect fit. However, the alternative models indicated that workplace stress moderately predicted moral distress.

  5. Thioredoxin binding protein-2 mediates metabolic adaptation in response to lipopolysaccharide in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Shin-ichi; Liu, Wenrui; Yoshihara, Eiji; Ahsan, Md Kaimul; Ramos, Dorys Adriana Lopez; Son, Aoi; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Zhang, Li; Masutani, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hajime; Yodoi, Junji

    2010-01-01

    Endotoxin triggers a reorganization of the energy metabolic pathway, including the promotion of fatty acid utilization to adapt to a high energy demand during endotoxemia. However, the factors responsible for the metabolic adaptation and characteristic pathologies resulting from defective utilization fatty acids during endotoxin response have not been fully clarified. The thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2) knockout (TBP-2) mouse is an animal model of fatty acid oxidation disorder. The aim ...

  6. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nairobi, Kenya. 28 Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific and Endogenous Knowledge. Cap Verde, Gambia,. Guinea, Guinea Bissau,. Mauritania and Senegal. Environment and Development in the Third World. (ENDA-TM). Dakar, Senegal. 29 Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk ...

  7. Mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Mediatization research shares media effects studies' ambition of answering the difficult questions with regard to whether and how media matter and influence contemporary culture and society. The two approaches nevertheless differ fundamentally in that mediatization research seeks answers...... research is concerned with long-term structural changes involving media, culture, and society, i.e. the influences of the media are understood in relation to how media are implicated in social and cultural changes and how these processes come to create new conditions for human communication and interaction....... From the perspective of mediatization research, the most important effect of the media stems from their embeddedness in culture and society....

  8. LOOM-P: a finite element mesh generation program with on-line graphic display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Takeharu; Yamazaki, Toshio.

    1977-06-01

    A description of the two-dimensional mesh generation program, LOOM-P, is given in detail. The program is developed newly to produce a mesh network for a reactor core geometry with the help of an automatic mesh generation routine built in it, under the control of the refresh-type graphic display. It is therefore similar to the edit program of the self-organizing mesh generator, QMESH-RENUM. Additional techniques are incorporated to improve the pattern of mesh elements by means of on-line conversational mode. The obtained mesh network is edited out as input data to the three-dimensional neutron diffusion theory code, FEM-BABEL. (auth.)

  9. Understanding animal fears: a comparison of the cognitive vulnerability and harm-looming models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armfield Jason M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model holds that both clinical and sub-clinical manifestations of animal fears are a result of how an animal is perceived, and can be used to explain both individual differences in fear acquisition and the uneven distribution of fears in the population. This study looked at the association between fear of a number of animals and perceptions of the animals as uncontrollable, unpredictable, dangerous and disgusting. Also assessed were the perceived loomingness, prior familiarity, and negative evaluation of the animals as well as possible conditioning experiences. Methods 162 first-year University students rated their fear and perceptions of four high-fear and four low-fear animals. Results Perceptions of the animals as dangerous, disgusting and uncontrollable were significantly associated with fear of both high- and low-fear animals while perceptions of unpredictability were significantly associated with fear of high-fear animals. Conditioning experiences were unrelated to fear of any animals. In multiple regression analyses, loomingness did not account for a significant amount of the variance in fear beyond that accounted for by the cognitive vulnerability variables. However, the vulnerability variables accounted for between 20% and 51% of the variance in all animals fears beyond that accounted for by perceptions of the animals as looming. Perceptions of dangerousness, uncontrollability and unpredictability were highly predictive of the uneven distribution of animal fears. Conclusion This study provides support for the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of specific fears and phobias and brings into question the utility of the harm-looming model in explaining animal fear.

  10. Depression as a Mediator in the Relationship between Perceived Familial Criticism and College Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puff, Jayme; Kolomeyer, Ellen; McSwiggan, Meagan; Pearte, Catherine; Lauer, Brea-Anne; Renk, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined relationships among emerging adults' perceived familial criticism, their depressive symptoms, and their college adaptation. Participants: The current study examined the responses of 412 emerging adults (300 females and 112 males) who were college students at a large southeastern university. The majority of these…

  11. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  12. Daily Hassles as Mediators of Employment/Gender Differences in Adaptational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Allen D.

    Previous research has shown that employed men are generally healthier than employed women, due in part to the dual role of women as workers and homemakers. To examine this explanation, the impact of four types of daily hassles (minor stressful events) was compared on two adaptational outcomes, psychological symptoms and health, for working men and…

  13. Divergent Roles of Interferon-γ and Innate Lymphoid Cells in Innate and Adaptive Immune Cell-Mediated Intestinal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseit, Jennifer; Kwong Chung, Cheong K. C.; Noti, Mario; Zysset, Daniel; Hoheisel-Dickgreber, Nina; Genitsch, Vera; Corazza, Nadia; Mueller, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    Aberrant interferon gamma (IFNγ) expression is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune- and inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the requirement of IFNγ for the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation remains controversial. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the role of IFNγ in experimental mouse models of innate and adaptive immune cell-mediated intestinal inflammation using genetically and microbiota-stabilized hosts. While we find that IFNγ drives acute intestinal inflammation in the anti-CD40 colitis model in an innate lymphoid cell (ILC)-dependent manner, IFNγ secreted by both transferred CD4 T cells and/or cells of the lymphopenic Rag1−/− recipient mice was dispensable for CD4 T cell-mediated colitis. In the absence of IFNγ, intestinal inflammation in CD4 T cell recipient mice was associated with enhanced IL17 responses; consequently, targeting IL17 signaling in IFNγ-deficient mice reduced T cell-mediated colitis. Intriguingly, in contrast to the anti-CD40 model of colitis, depletion of ILC in the Rag1−/− recipients of colitogenic CD4 T cells did not prevent induction of colonic inflammation. Together, our findings demonstrate that IFNγ represents an essential, or a redundant, pro-inflammatory cytokine for the induction of intestinal inflammation, depending on the experimental mouse model used and on the nature of the critical disease inducing immune cell populations involved. PMID:29416538

  14. Adaptive emotion regulation mediates the relationship between self-compassion and depression in individuals with unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Alice; Burger, Julian; Kirchner, Mareike; Berking, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    To identify the mechanisms involved in the association between self-compassion and depression, we examined whether adaptive emotion regulation would mediate the relationship between self-compassion and depression in individuals with unipolar depression. Furthermore, we explored which specific emotion regulation skills would be most important in this relationship. Sixty-nine individuals with unipolar depression were assessed with the Self-Compassion Scale and the Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire at baseline and with the Beck Depression Inventory-II 1 week later. The results showed that successful application of emotion regulation skills mediates the association between self-compassion and depression. Among eight specific emotion regulation skills, only the ability to tolerate negative emotions was identified as a significant mediator in the self-compassion-depression relationship. These findings provide preliminary evidence that systematically fostering self-compassion might help depressed individuals cope with their symptoms by enhancing their abilities to tolerate undesired emotions. Systematically fostering self-compassion through specific compassion-focused interventions might facilitate a reduction in depressive symptoms by improving the person's emotion regulation abilities, especially by improving his or her ability to tolerate negative emotions. Hence, compassion-focused interventions might be particularly promising in depressed patients with a tendency to avoid negative emotions and deficits in tolerating them. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Climate impacts, forest-dependent rural livelihoods and adaptation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate impacts, forest-dependent rural livelihoods and adaptation strategies in Africa: A review. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... stresses from poverty and economic development, another major uncertainty is looming that could alter many of the relationships between people and forests.

  16. HTLV-1 Tax-mediated TAK1 activation involves TAB2 adapter protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingsheng; Minoda, Yasumasa; Yoshida, Ryoko; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Iha, Hidekatsu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Takaesu, Giichi

    2008-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax is an oncoprotein that plays a crucial role in the proliferation and transformation of HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes. It has recently been reported that Tax activates a MAPKKK family, TAK1. However, the molecular mechanism of Tax-mediated TAK1 activation is not well understood. In this report, we investigated the role of TAK1-binding protein 2 (TAB2) in Tax-mediated TAK1 activation. We found that TAB2 physically interacts with Tax and augments Tax-induced NF-κB activity. Tax and TAB2 cooperatively activate TAK1 when they are coexpressed. Furthermore, TAK1 activation by Tax requires TAB2 binding as well as ubiquitination of Tax. We also found that the overexpression of TRAF2, 5, or 6 strongly induces Tax ubiquitination. These results suggest that TAB2 may be critically involved in Tax-mediated activation of TAK1 and that NF-κB-activating TRAF family proteins are potential cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases toward Tax

  17. Invisible Mediations: The Role of Adaptation and Dubbing Professionals in Shaping US TV for Italian Audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Barra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing global circulation of media products, professionals devoted to the process of audiovisual translation and ‘national mediation’ for foreign ready-made programmes have gained a central role in contemporary TV. Presenting the results of an ethnographical study, this essay explores the ‘invisible art’ of TV adaptation and dubbing, explaining its procedures, traditions and challenges. Adaptation has to consider both the technical necessities of the audio-visual and cross-cultural aspects of translation, while dubbing involves extremely intricate production routines, professionals with different skills, written and unwritten rules, a range of different workplaces, economic investments and traditions. The result is a new text, modified following contrasting linguistic, cultural and professional goals.

  18. The heat is on: Genetic adaptation to urbanization mediated by thermal tolerance and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brans, Kristien I; Jansen, Mieke; Vanoverbeke, Joost; Tüzün, Nedim; Stoks, Robby; De Meester, Luc

    2017-12-01

    Worldwide, urbanization leads to tremendous anthropogenic environmental alterations, causing strong selection pressures on populations of animals and plants. Although a key feature of urban areas is their higher temperature ("urban heat islands"), adaptive thermal evolution in organisms inhabiting urban areas has rarely been studied. We tested for evolution of a higher heat tolerance (CT MAX ) in urban populations of the water flea Daphnia magna, a keystone grazer in freshwater ecosystems, by carrying out a common garden experiment at two temperatures (20°C and 24°C) with genotypes of 13 natural populations ordered along a well-defined urbanization gradient. We also assessed body size and haemoglobin concentration to identify underlying physiological drivers of responses in CT MAX . We found a higher CT MAX in animals isolated from urban compared to rural habitats and in animals reared at higher temperatures. We also observed substantial genetic variation in thermal tolerance within populations. Overall, smaller animals were more heat tolerant. While urban animals mature at smaller size, the effect of urbanization on thermal tolerance is only in part caused by reductions in body size. Although urban Daphnia contained higher concentrations of haemoglobin, this did not contribute to their higher CT MAX . Our results provide evidence of adaptive thermal evolution to urbanization in the water flea Daphnia. In addition, our results show both evolutionary potential and adaptive plasticity in rural as well as urban Daphnia populations, facilitating responses to warming. Given the important ecological role of Daphnia in ponds and lakes, these adaptive responses likely impact food web dynamics, top-down control of algae, water quality, and the socio-economic value of urban ponds. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Temperature-mediated local adaptation alters the symbiotic function in arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Cai, Xiaobu; Li, Xiaolin; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Junling; Gai, Jingping

    2017-07-01

    Variation in the symbiotic function of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) has been demonstrated among distinct biotic and abiotic interactions. However, there is little knowledge on how local temperature conditions influence the functional divergence of AM symbionts in alpine ecosystems. Here, we conduct a reciprocal inoculation experiment to explore the three-way interactions among plants, AM fungal inoculum and temperature at sites of contrasting elevation. Evidence of local adaptation of plant growth was found only under low temperature conditions, with no consistent local versus foreign effect found in AM fungal performance. The origin of either the plant or the inoculum relative to the temperature was important in explaining symbiotic function. Specifically, when inoculum and temperature were sympatric but allopatric to the plant, poor adaptation by the plant to the novel environment was clearly found under both temperature conditions. Further analysis found that the symbiotic function was inversely related to fungal diversity under high temperature conditions. These results suggest that local adaptation represents a powerful factor in the establishment of novel combinations of plant, inoculum and temperature, and confirms the importance of taking into account both biotic and abiotic interactions in the prediction of the response of symbionts to global environmental change. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sigma Factor SigB Is Crucial to Mediate Staphylococcus aureus Adaptation during Chronic Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Tuchscherr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a range of infections from acute invasive to chronic and difficult-to-treat. Infection strategies associated with persisting S. aureus infections are bacterial host cell invasion and the bacterial ability to dynamically change phenotypes from the aggressive wild-type to small colony variants (SCVs, which are adapted for intracellular long-term persistence. The underlying mechanisms of the bacterial switching and adaptation mechanisms appear to be very dynamic, but are largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the role and the crosstalk of the global S. aureus regulators agr, sarA and SigB by generating single, double and triple mutants, and testing them with proteome analysis and in different in vitro and in vivo infection models. We were able to demonstrate that SigB is the crucial factor for adaptation in chronic infections. During acute infection, the bacteria require the simultaneous action of the agr and sarA loci to defend against invading immune cells by causing inflammation and cytotoxicity and to escape from phagosomes in their host cells that enable them to settle an infection at high bacterial density. To persist intracellularly the bacteria subsequently need to silence agr and sarA. Indeed agr and sarA deletion mutants expressed a much lower number of virulence factors and could persist at high numbers intracellularly. SigB plays a crucial function to promote bacterial intracellular persistence. In fact, ΔsigB-mutants did not generate SCVs and were completely cleared by the host cells within a few days. In this study we identified SigB as an essential factor that enables the bacteria to switch from the highly aggressive phenotype that settles an acute infection to a silent SCV-phenotype that allows for long-term intracellular persistence. Consequently, the SigB-operon represents a possible target to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies against chronic and therapy

  1. HVR1-mediated antibody evasion of highly infectious in vivo adapted HCV in humanised mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Verhoye, Lieven; Moctezuma, Rodrigo Velazquez

    2016-01-01

    Objective HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, but the role of neutralising antibodies (nAbs) in its natural history remains poorly defined. We analysed the in vivo role of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) for HCV virion properties, including nAb susceptibility. Design Analysis...... of HCV from human liver chimeric mice infected with cell-culture-derived prototype genotype 2a recombinant J6/JFH1 or HVR1-deleted variant J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 identified adaptive mutations, which were analysed by reverse genetics in Huh7.5 and CD81-deficient S29 cells. The increased in vivo genomic stability...

  2. The Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers metabolic adaptation to ingested material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Taubert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II (Pol(II dependent gene expression requires accessory factors termed transcriptional coregulators. One coregulator that universally contributes to Pol(II-dependent transcription is the Mediator, a multisubunit complex that is targeted by many transcriptional regulatory factors. For example, the Caenorhabditis elegans Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers the regulatory actions of the sterol response element binding protein SBP-1 and the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49 on fatty acid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that MDT-15 displays a broader spectrum of activities, and that it integrates metabolic responses to materials ingested by C. elegans. Depletion of MDT-15 protein or mutation of the mdt-15 gene abrogated induction of specific detoxification genes in response to certain xenobiotics or heavy metals, rendering these animals hypersensitive to toxin exposure. Intriguingly, MDT-15 appeared to selectively affect stress responses related to ingestion, as MDT-15 functional defects did not abrogate other stress responses, e.g., thermotolerance. Together with our previous finding that MDT-15:NHR-49 regulatory complexes coordinate a sector of the fasting response, we propose a model whereby MDT-15 integrates several transcriptional regulatory pathways to monitor both the availability and quality of ingested materials, including nutrients and xenobiotic compounds.

  3. Habituation as an adaptive shift in response strategy mediated by neuropeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiel, Evan L.; Yu, Alex J.; Giles, Andrew C.; Rankin, Catharine H.

    2017-08-01

    Habituation is a non-associative form of learning characterized by a decremented response to repeated stimulation. It is typically framed as a process of selective attention, allowing animals to ignore irrelevant stimuli in order to free up limited cognitive resources. However, habituation can also occur to threatening and toxic stimuli, suggesting that habituation may serve other functions. Here we took advantage of a high-throughput Caenorhabditis elegans learning assay to investigate habituation to noxious stimuli. Using real-time computer vision software for automated behavioral tracking and optogenetics for controlled activation of a polymodal nociceptor, ASH, we found that neuropeptides mediated habituation and performed an RNAi screen to identify candidate receptors. Through subsequent mutant analysis and cell-type-specific gene expression, we found that pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) neuropeptides function redundantly to promote habituation via PDFR-1-mediated cAMP signaling in both neurons and muscles. Behavioral analysis during learning acquisition suggests that response habituation and sensitization of locomotion are parts of a shifting behavioral strategy orchestrated by pigment dispersing factor signaling to promote dispersal away from repeated aversive stimuli.

  4. Adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, and peer liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-01-01

    A three-wave longitudinal study among ethnically diverse preadolescents (N = 597 at Time 1, ages 9-11) was conducted to examine adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, victimization, and peer liking indexed by peer acceptance and friendships. A series of nested structural equation models tested the hypothesized links among these peer-domain factors. It was hypothesized that (1) relational aggression trails both adaptive and maladaptive processes, linking to more peer victimization and more peer liking, whereas physical aggression is maladaptive, resulting in more peer victimization and less peer liking; (2) physical and relational victimization is maladaptive, relating to more aggression and less peer liking; (3) peer liking may be the social context that promotes relational aggression (not physical aggression), whereas peer liking may protect against peer victimization, regardless of its type; and (4) peer liking mediates the link between forms of aggression and forms of peer victimization. Results showed that higher levels of peer liking predicted relative increases in relational aggression (not physical aggression), which in turn led to more peer liking. On the other hand, more peer liking was predictive of relative decreases in relational aggression and relational victimization in transition to the next grade (i.e., fifth grade). In addition, relational victimization predicted relative increases in relational aggression and relative decreases in peer liking. Similarly, physical aggression was consistently and concurrently associated more physical victimization and was marginally predictive of relative increases in physical victimization in transition to the next grade. More peer liking predicted relative decreases in physical victimization, which resulted in lower levels of peer liking. The directionality and magnitude of these paths did not differ between boys and girls. © 2013 Wiley

  5. Flavonoids: A Metabolic Network Mediating Plants Adaptation to Their Real Estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidyn eMouradov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From an evolutionary perspective, the emergence of the sophisticated chemical scaffolds of flavonoid molecules represents a key step in the colonization of Earth’s terrestrial environment by vascular plants nearly 500 million years ago. The subsequent evolution of flavonoids through recruitment and modification of ancestors involved in primary metabolism has allowed vascular plants to cope with pathogen invasion and damaging UV light. The functional properties of flavonoids as a unique combination of different classes of compounds vary significantly depending on the demands of their local real estate. Apart from geographical location, the composition of flavonoids is largely dependent on the plant species, their developmental stage, tissue type, subcellular localization, and key ecological influences of both biotic and abiotic origin. Molecular and metabolic cross-talk between flavonoid and other pathways as a result of the re-direction of intermediate molecules have been well investigated. This metabolic plasticity is a key factor in plant adaptive strength and is of paramount importance for early land plants adaptation to their local ecosystems. In human and animal health the biological and pharmacological activities of flavonoids have been investigated in great depth and have shown a wide range of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties. In this paper we review the application of advanced gene technologies for targeted reprogramming of the flavonoid pathway in plants to understand its molecular functions and explore opportunities for major improvements in forage plants enhancing animal health and production.

  6. Flavonoids: a metabolic network mediating plants adaptation to their real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradov, Aidyn; Spangenberg, German

    2014-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the emergence of the sophisticated chemical scaffolds of flavonoid molecules represents a key step in the colonization of Earth's terrestrial environment by vascular plants nearly 500 million years ago. The subsequent evolution of flavonoids through recruitment and modification of ancestors involved in primary metabolism has allowed vascular plants to cope with pathogen invasion and damaging UV light. The functional properties of flavonoids as a unique combination of different classes of compounds vary significantly depending on the demands of their local real estate. Apart from geographical location, the composition of flavonoids is largely dependent on the plant species, their developmental stage, tissue type, subcellular localization, and key ecological influences of both biotic and abiotic origin. Molecular and metabolic cross-talk between flavonoid and other pathways as a result of the re-direction of intermediate molecules have been well investigated. This metabolic plasticity is a key factor in plant adaptive strength and is of paramount importance for early land plants adaptation to their local ecosystems. In human and animal health the biological and pharmacological activities of flavonoids have been investigated in great depth and have shown a wide range of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer properties. In this paper we review the application of advanced gene technologies for targeted reprogramming of the flavonoid pathway in plants to understand its molecular functions and explore opportunities for major improvements in forage plants enhancing animal health and production.

  7. FGF21 as a mediator of adaptive responses to stress and metabolic benefits of anti-diabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kook Hwan; Lee, Myung-Shik

    2015-07-01

    Most hormones secreted from specific organs of the body in response to diverse stimuli contribute to the homeostasis of the whole organism. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone induced by a variety of environmental or metabolic stimuli, plays a crucial role in the adaptive response to these stressful conditions. In addition to its role as a stress hormone, FGF21 appears to function as a mediator of the therapeutic effects of currently available drugs and those under development for treatment of metabolic diseases. In this review, we highlight molecular mechanisms and the functional importance of FGF21 induction in response to diverse stress conditions such as changes of nutritional status, cold exposure, and exercise. In addition, we describe recent findings regarding the role of FGF21 in the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes associated with obesity, liver diseases, pancreatitis, muscle atrophy, atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and diabetic nephropathy. Finally, we discuss the current understanding of the actions of FGF21 as a crucial regulator mediating beneficial metabolic effects of therapeutic agents such as metformin, glucagon/glucagon-like peptide 1 analogues, thiazolidinedione, sirtuin 1 activators, and lipoic acid. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Local adaptation in migrated interior Douglas-fir seedlings is mediated by ectomycorrhizas and other soil factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Brian J; Twieg, Brendan D; O'Neill, Gregory A; Mohn, William W; Simard, Suzanne W

    2015-08-01

    Separating edaphic impacts on tree distributions from those of climate and geography is notoriously difficult. Aboveground and belowground factors play important roles, and determining their relative contribution to tree success will greatly assist in refining predictive models and forestry strategies in a changing climate. In a common glasshouse, seedlings of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) from multiple populations were grown in multiple forest soils. Fungicide was applied to half of the seedlings to separate soil fungal and nonfungal impacts on seedling performance. Soils of varying geographic and climatic distance from seed origin were compared, using a transfer function approach. Seedling height and biomass were optimized following seed transfer into drier soils, whereas survival was optimized when elevation transfer was minimised. Fungicide application reduced ectomycorrhizal root colonization by c. 50%, with treated seedlings exhibiting greater survival but reduced biomass. Local adaptation of Douglas-fir populations to soils was mediated by soil fungi to some extent in 56% of soil origin by response variable combinations. Mediation by edaphic factors in general occurred in 81% of combinations. Soil biota, hitherto unaccounted for in climate models, interacts with biogeography to influence plant ranges in a changing climate. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Stomatal density and metabolic determinants mediate salt stress adaptation and water use efficiency in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Giancarlo; Vallone, Simona; Orsini, Francesco; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Maggio, Albino

    2012-11-15

    Increasing salinity tolerance and water-use efficiency in crop plants are two major challenges that agriculture must face in the next decades. Many physiological mechanisms and molecular components mediating crop response to environmental stresses have been identified. However, the functional inter-links between stress adaptation responses have not been completely understood. Using two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with contrasting ability to respond to salt stress, here we demonstrate that reduced stomatal density, high ascorbate level and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity coordinately contribute to improve basil adaptation and water use efficiency (WUE) in saline environment. The constitutively reduced stomatal density was associated with a "delayed" accumulation of stress molecules (and growth inhibiting signals) such as abscisic acid (ABA) and proline, in the more tolerant Genovese. Leaf volatile profiling also revealed cultivar-specific patterns, which may suggest a role for the volatile phenylpropanoid eugenol and monoterpenes in conferring stress tolerance via antioxidant and signalling functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. [Advances in molecular mechanisms of adaptive immunity mediated by type I-E CRISPR/Cas system--A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongchang; Qiu, Juanping

    2016-01-04

    To better adapt to the environment, prokaryocyte can take up exogenous genes (from bacteriophages, plasmids or genomes of other species) through horizontal gene transfer. Accompanied by the acquisition of exogenous genes, prokaryocyte is challenged by the invasion of 'selfish genes'. Therefore, to protect against the risk of gene transfer, prokaryocyte needs to establish mechanisms for selectively taking up or degrading exogenous DNA. In recent years, researchers discovered an adaptive immunity, which is mediated by the small RNA guided DNA degradation, prevents the invasion of exogenous genes in prokaryocyte. During the immune process, partial DNA fragments are firstly integrated.to the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) located within the genome DNA, and then the mature CRISPR RNA transcript and the CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) form a complex CRISPR/Cas for degrading exogenous DNA. In this review, we will first briefly describe the CRISPR/Cas systems and then mainly focus on the recent advances of the function mechanism and the regulation mechanism of the type I-E CRISPR/Cas system in Escherichia coli.

  11. Antennal pointing at a looming object in the cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Ishibashi, Wakako

    2014-01-01

    Antennal pointing responses to approaching objects were observed in the house cricket Acheta domesticus. In response to a ball approaching from the lateral side, crickets oriented the antenna ipsilateral to the ball towards it. In response to a ball approaching from the front, crickets oriented both antennae forward. Response rates of antennal pointing were higher when the ball was approaching from the front than from behind. The antennal angle ipsilateral to the approaching ball was positively correlated with approaching angle of the ball. Obstructing the cricket's sight decreased the response rate of antennal pointing, suggesting that this response was elicited mainly by visual stimuli. Although the response rates of antennal pointing decreased when the object ceased its approach at a great distance from the cricket, antennal pointing appeared to be resistant to habituation and was not substantially affected by the velocity, size and trajectory of an approaching ball. When presented with computer-generated visual stimuli, crickets frequently showed the antennal pointing response to a darkening stimulus as well as looming and linearly-expanding stimuli. Drifting gratings rarely elicited the antennal pointing. These results suggest that luminance change is sufficient to elicit antennal pointing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hemeoxygenase-1 Mediates an Adaptive Response to Spermidine-Induced Cell Death in Human Endothelial Cells

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    Hana Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spermidine (SPD is a ubiquitous polycation that is commonly distributed in living organisms. Intracellular levels of SPD are tightly regulated, and SPD controls cell proliferation and death. However, SPD undergoes oxidation in the presence of serum, producing aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonia, which exert cytotoxic effect on cells. Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1 is thought to have a protective effect against oxidative stress. Upregulation of HO-1 in endothelial cells is considered to be beneficial in the cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we demonstrate that the ubiquitous polyamine, SPD, induces HO-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. SPD-induced HO-1 expression was examined by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Involvement of reactive oxygen species, serum amine oxidase, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and transcription factor Nrf2 in the induction of HO-1 by SPD was also investigated. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1 and treatment with the specific HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP exhibited a noteworthy increase of death of SPD-stimulated HUVECs. In conclusion, these results suggest that SPD induces PI3K/Akt-Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression in human endothelial cells, which may have a role in cytoprotection of the cells against oxidative stress-induced death.

  13. Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Uniform backgrounds.

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    Hillis, James M; Brainard, David H

    2005-10-01

    Color vision is useful for detecting surface boundaries and identifying objects. Are the signals used to perform these two functions processed by common mechanisms, or has the visual system optimized its processing separately for each task? We measured the effect of mean chromaticity and luminance on color discriminability and on color appearance under well-matched stimulus conditions. In the discrimination experiments, a pedestal spot was presented in one interval and a pedestal + test in a second. Observers indicated which interval contained the test. In the appearance experiments, observers matched the appearance of test spots across a change in background. We analyzed the data using a variant of Fechner's proposal, that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to visual sensitivity. We found that saturating visual response functions together with a model of adaptation that included multiplicative gain control and a subtractive term accounted for data from both tasks. This result suggests that effects of the contexts we studied on color appearance and discriminability are controlled by the same underlying mechanism.

  14. A component of retinal light adaptation mediated by the thyroid hormone cascade.

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    Diana E Bedolla

    Full Text Available Analysis with DNA-microrrays and real time PCR show that several genes involved in the thyroid hormone cascade, such as deiodinase 2 and 3 (Dio2 and Dio3 are differentially regulated by the circadian clock and by changes of the ambient light. The expression level of Dio2 in adult rats (2-3 months of age kept continuously in darkness is modulated by the circadian clock and is up-regulated by 2 fold at midday. When the diurnal ambient light was on, the expression level of Dio2 increased by 4-8 fold and a consequent increase of the related protein was detected around the nuclei of retinal photoreceptors and of neurons in inner and outer nuclear layers. The expression level of Dio3 had a different temporal pattern and was down-regulated by diurnal light. Our results suggest that DIO2 and DIO3 have a role not only in the developing retina but also in the adult retina and are powerfully regulated by light. As the thyroid hormone is a ligand-inducible transcription factor controlling the expression of several target genes, the transcriptional activation of Dio2 could be a novel genomic component of light adaptation.

  15. Cth2 Protein Mediates Early Adaptation of Yeast Cells to Oxidative Stress Conditions.

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    Laia Castells-Roca

    Full Text Available Cth2 is an mRNA-binding protein that participates in remodeling yeast cell metabolism in iron starvation conditions by promoting decay of the targeted molecules, in order to avoid excess iron consumption. This study shows that in the absence of Cth2 immediate upregulation of expression of several of the iron regulon genes (involved in high affinity iron uptake and intracellular iron redistribution upon oxidative stress by hydroperoxide is more intense than in wild type conditions where Cth2 is present. The oxidative stress provokes a temporary increase in the levels of Cth2 (itself a member of the iron regulon. In such conditions Cth2 molecules accumulate at P bodies-like structures when the constitutive mRNA decay machinery is compromised. In addition, a null Δcth2 mutant shows defects, in comparison to CTH2 wild type cells, in exit from α factor-induced arrest at the G1 stage of the cell cycle when hydroperoxide treatment is applied. The cell cycle defects are rescued in conditions that compromise uptake of external iron into the cytosol. The observations support a role of Cth2 in modulating expression of diverse iron regulon genes, excluding those specifically involved in the reductive branch of the high-affinity transport. This would result in immediate adaptation of the yeast cells to an oxidative stress, by controlling uptake of oxidant-promoting iron cations.

  16. Executive functioning, concern about falling and quadriceps strength mediate the relationship between impaired gait adaptability and fall risk in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Brodie, Matthew A; Schoene, Daniel; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Sturnieks, Daina L; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-01-01

    Reduced ability to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be an important reason why older adults have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to identify cognitive, psychological and physical mediators of the relationship between impaired gait adaptability and fall risk in older adults. Fifty healthy older adults (mean±SD: 74±7years) were categorised as high or low fall risk, based on past falls and their performance in the Physiological Profile Assessment. High and low-risk groups were then compared in the gait adaptability test, i.e. an assessment of the ability to adapt gait in response to obstacles and stepping targets under single and dual task conditions. Quadriceps strength, concern about falling and executive function were also measured. The older adults who made errors on the gait adaptability test were 4.76 (95%CI=1.08-20.91) times more likely to be at high risk of falling. Furthermore, each standard deviation reduction in gait speed while approaching the targets/obstacle increased the odds of being at high risk of falling approximately three fold: single task - OR=3.10,95%CI=1.43-6.73; dual task - 3.42,95%CI=1.56-7.52. Executive functioning, concern about falling and quadriceps strength substantially mediated the relationship between the gait adaptability measures and fall risk status. Impaired gait adaptability is associated with high risk of falls in older adults. Reduced executive function, increased concern about falling and weaker quadriceps strength contribute significantly to this relationship. Training gait adaptability directly, as well as addressing the above mediators through cognitive, behavioural and physical training may maximise fall prevention efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensing and adaptation to low pH mediated by inducible amino acid decarboxylases in Salmonella.

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    Julie P M Viala

    Full Text Available During the course of infection, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must successively survive the harsh acid stress of the stomach and multiply into a mild acidic compartment within macrophages. Inducible amino acid decarboxylases are known to promote adaptation to acidic environments. Three low pH inducible amino acid decarboxylases were annotated in the genome of S. Typhimurium, AdiA, CadA and SpeF, which are specific for arginine, lysine and ornithine, respectively. In this study, we characterized and compared the contributions of those enzymes in response to acidic challenges. Individual mutants as well as a strain deleted for the three genes were tested for their ability (i to survive an extreme acid shock, (ii to grow at mild acidic pH and (iii to infect the mouse animal model. We showed that the lysine decarboxylase CadA had the broadest range of activity since it both had the capacity to promote survival at pH 2.3 and growth at pH 4.5. The arginine decarboxylase AdiA was the most performant in protecting S. Typhimurium from a shock at pH 2.3 and the ornithine decarboxylase SpeF conferred the best growth advantage under anaerobiosis conditions at pH 4.5. We developed a GFP-based gene reporter to monitor the pH of the environment as perceived by S. Typhimurium. Results showed that activities of the lysine and ornithine decarboxylases at mild acidic pH did modify the local surrounding of S. Typhimurium both in culture medium and in macrophages. Finally, we tested the contribution of decarboxylases to virulence and found that these enzymes were dispensable for S. Typhimurium virulence during systemic infection. In the light of this result, we examined the genomes of Salmonella spp. normally responsible of systemic infection and observed that the genes encoding these enzymes were not well conserved, supporting the idea that these enzymes may be not required during systemic infection.

  18. Population-Level Immune-Mediated Adaptation in HIV-1 Polymerase during the North American Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinloch, Natalie N.; MacMillan, Daniel R.; Le, Anh Q.; Cotton, Laura A.; Bangsberg, David R.; Buchbinder, Susan; Carrington, Mary; Fuchs, Jonathan; Harrigan, P. Richard; Koblin, Beryl; Kushel, Margot; Markowitz, Martin; Mayer, Kenneth; Milloy, M. J.; Schechter, Martin T.; Wagner, Theresa; Walker, Bruce D.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Poon, Art F. Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-associated polymorphisms in HIV-1 that persist upon transmission to HLA-mismatched hosts may spread in the population as the epidemic progresses. Transmission of HIV-1 sequences containing such adaptations may undermine cellular immune responses to the incoming virus in future hosts. Building upon previous work, we investigated the extent of HLA-associated polymorphism accumulation in HIV-1 polymerase (Pol) through comparative analysis of linked HIV-1/HLA class I genotypes sampled during historic (1979 to 1989; n = 338) and modern (2001 to 2011; n = 278) eras from across North America (Vancouver, BC, Canada; Boston, MA; New York, NY; and San Francisco, CA). Phylogenies inferred from historic and modern HIV-1 Pol sequences were star-like in shape, with an inferred most recent common ancestor (epidemic founder virus) sequence nearly identical to the modern North American subtype B consensus sequence. Nevertheless, modern HIV-1 Pol sequences exhibited roughly 2-fold-higher patristic (tip-to-tip) genetic distances than historic sequences, with HLA pressures likely driving ongoing diversification. Moreover, the frequencies of published HLA-associated polymorphisms in individuals lacking the selecting HLA class I allele was on average ∼2.5-fold higher in the modern than in the historic era, supporting their spread in circulation, though some remained stable in frequency during this time. Notably, polymorphisms restricted by protective HLA alleles appear to be spreading to a greater relative extent than others, though these increases are generally of modest absolute magnitude. However, despite evidence of polymorphism spread, North American hosts generally remain at relatively low risk of acquiring an HIV-1 polymerase sequence substantially preadapted to their HLA profiles, even in the present era. IMPORTANCE HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations in HIV-1 that persist upon transmission may

  19. Gut physiology mediates a trade-off between adaptation to malnutrition and susceptibility to food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendravarma, Roshan K; Narasimha, Sunitha; Chakrabarti, Sveta; Babin, Aurelie; Kolly, Sylvain; Lemaitre, Bruno; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2015-10-01

    The animal gut plays a central role in tackling two common ecological challenges, nutrient shortage and food-borne parasites, the former by efficient digestion and nutrient absorption, the latter by acting as an immune organ and a barrier. It remains unknown whether these functions can be independently optimised by evolution, or whether they interfere with each other. We report that Drosophila melanogaster populations adapted during 160 generations of experimental evolution to chronic larval malnutrition became more susceptible to intestinal infection with the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila. However, they do not show suppressed immune response or higher bacterial loads. Rather, their increased susceptibility to P. entomophila is largely mediated by an elevated predisposition to loss of intestinal barrier integrity upon infection. These results may reflect a trade-off between the efficiency of nutrient extraction from poor food and the protective function of the gut, in particular its tolerance to pathogen-induced damage. © 2015 The Authors Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  20. Th1-Th17 cells mediate protective adaptive immunity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans infection in mice.

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    Lin Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We sought to define protective mechanisms of immunity to Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans bloodstream infections in mice immunized with the recombinant N-terminus of Als3p (rAls3p-N vaccine plus aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH(3 adjuvant, or adjuvant controls. Deficiency of IFN-gamma but not IL-17A enhanced susceptibility of control mice to both infections. However, vaccine-induced protective immunity against both infections required CD4+ T-cell-derived IFN-gamma and IL-17A, and functional phagocytic effectors. Vaccination primed Th1, Th17, and Th1/17 lymphocytes, which produced pro-inflammatory cytokines that enhanced phagocytic killing of both organisms. Vaccinated, infected mice had increased IFN-gamma, IL-17, and KC, increased neutrophil influx, and decreased organism burden in tissues. In summary, rAls3p-N vaccination induced a Th1/Th17 response, resulting in recruitment and activation of phagocytes at sites of infection, and more effective clearance of S. aureus and C. albicans from tissues. Thus, vaccine-mediated adaptive immunity can protect against both infections by targeting microbes for destruction by innate effectors.

  1. AAV-mediated RLBP1 gene therapy improves the rate of dark adaptation in Rlbp1 knockout mice

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    Vivian W Choi

    Full Text Available Recessive mutations in RLBP1 cause a form of retinitis pigmentosa in which the retina, before its degeneration leads to blindness, abnormally slowly recovers sensitivity after exposure to light. To develop a potential gene therapy for this condition, we tested multiple recombinant adeno-associated vectors (rAAVs composed of different promoters, capsid serotypes, and genome conformations. We generated rAAVs in which sequences from the promoters of the human RLBP1, RPE65, or BEST1 genes drove the expression of a reporter gene (green fluorescent protein. A promoter derived from the RLBP1 gene mediated expression in the retinal pigment epithelium and Müller cells (the intended target cell types at qualitatively higher levels than in other retinal cell types in wild-type mice and monkeys. With this promoter upstream of the coding sequence of the human RLBP1 gene, we compared the potencies of vectors with an AAV2 versus an AAV8 capsid in transducing mouse retinas, and we compared vectors with a self-complementary versus a single-stranded genome. The optimal vector (scAAV8-pRLBP1-hRLBP1 had serotype 8 capsid and a self-complementary genome. Subretinal injection of scAAV8-pRLBP1-hRLBP1 in Rlbp1 nullizygous mice improved the rate of dark adaptation based on scotopic (rod-plus-cone and photopic (cone electroretinograms (ERGs. The effect was still present after 1 year.

  2. Helicobacter pylori Adapts to Chronic Infection and Gastric Disease via pH-Responsive BabA-Mediated Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaytsova, Jeanna A; Björnham, Oscar; Chernov, Yevgen A; Gideonsson, Pär; Henriksson, Sara; Mendez, Melissa; Sjöström, Rolf; Mahdavi, Jafar; Shevtsova, Anna; Ilver, Dag; Moonens, Kristof; Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P; Moskalenko, Roman; Aisenbrey, Christopher; Bylund, Göran; Schmidt, Alexej; Åberg, Anna; Brännström, Kristoffer; Königer, Verena; Vikström, Susanne; Rakhimova, Lena; Hofer, Anders; Ögren, Johan; Liu, Hui; Goldman, Matthew D; Whitmire, Jeannette M; Ådén, Jörgen; Younson, Justine; Kelly, Charles G; Gilman, Robert H; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Nair, G Balakrish; Papadakos, Konstantinos S; Martinez-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Sgouras, Dionyssios N; Engstrand, Lars; Unemo, Magnus; Danielsson, Dan; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Oscarson, Stefan; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A; Olofsson, Anders; Gröbner, Gerhard; Holgersson, Jan; Esberg, Anders; Strömberg, Nicklas; Landström, Maréne; Eldridge, Angela M; Chromy, Brett A; Hansen, Lori M; Solnick, Jay V; Lindén, Sara K; Haas, Rainer; Dubois, Andre; Merrell, D Scott; Schedin, Staffan; Remaut, Han; Arnqvist, Anna; Berg, Douglas E; Borén, Thomas

    2017-03-08

    The BabA adhesin mediates high-affinity binding of Helicobacter pylori to the ABO blood group antigen-glycosylated gastric mucosa. Here we show that BabA is acid responsive-binding is reduced at low pH and restored by acid neutralization. Acid responsiveness differs among strains; often correlates with different intragastric regions and evolves during chronic infection and disease progression; and depends on pH sensor sequences in BabA and on pH reversible formation of high-affinity binding BabA multimers. We propose that BabA's extraordinary reversible acid responsiveness enables tight mucosal bacterial adherence while also allowing an effective escape from epithelial cells and mucus that are shed into the acidic bactericidal lumen and that bio-selection and changes in BabA binding properties through mutation and recombination with babA-related genes are selected by differences among individuals and by changes in gastric acidity over time. These processes generate diverse H. pylori subpopulations, in which BabA's adaptive evolution contributes to H. pylori persistence and overt gastric disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dysfunctional freezing responses to approaching stimuli in persons with a looming cognitive style for physical threats

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    John H. Riskind

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Immobilizing freezing responses are associated with anxiety and may be etiologically related to several anxiety disorders. Although recent studies have sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms in freezing responses that are so problematic in many forms of anxiety, cognitive factors related to anxiety have not been investigated. This study was designed to investigate the potential moderating role of a well-documented cognitive vulnerability to anxiety, the Looming Cognitive Style (i.e., LCS; Riskind et al., 2000, which assesses the extent to which individuals tend to routinely interpret ambiguous threats (e.g., physical or social threats in a biased manner as approaching. We assessed participants’ Reaction Times (RTs when they made judgments about images of animals that differed in threat valence (threat or neutral and motion direction (approach or recede. As expected, LCS for concerns about the approach of physical dangers appeared to moderate freeze reactions. Individuals who were high on this LCS factor tended to generally exhibit a freeze-response (slower RTs and this was independent of the threat valence or motion direction of the animals. These general freezing reactions were in stark contrast to those of individuals who were low on the LCS factor for concerns about the approach of physical dangers. These participants tended to exhibit more selective and functional freezing responses that occurred only to threatening animals with approach motion; they did not exhibit freezing to neutral stimuli or any stimuli with receding motion. These findings did not appear to be explicable by a general slowing of RTs for the participants with high LCS. Moreover, the LCS factor for concerns about social threats (such as rejection or embarrassment was not related to differences in freezing; there was also no additional relationship of freezing to behavioral inhibition scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System and the Behavioral Activation System

  4. Toll‐Like Receptor‐2 Mediates Adaptive Cardiac Hypertrophy in Response to Pressure Overload Through Interleukin‐1β Upregulation via Nuclear Factor κB Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Tanaka, Kimie; Kato, Megumi; Nureki, Osamu; Hirata, Yasunobu; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei; Sata, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is induced in the heart during the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The initiating mechanisms and the role of inflammation in cardiac hypertrophy, however, remain unclear. Toll‐like receptor‐2 (TLR2) recognizes endogenous molecules that induce noninfectious inflammation. Here, we examined the role of TLR2‐mediated inflammation in cardiac hypertrophy. Methods and Results At 2 weeks after transverse aortic constriction, Tlr2−/− mice showed reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis with greater left ventricular dilatation and impaired systolic function compared with wild‐type mice, which indicated impaired cardiac adaptation in Tlr2−/− mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiment revealed that TLR2 expressed in the heart, but not in bone marrow–derived cells, is important for cardiac adaptive response to pressure overload. In vitro experiments demonstrated that TLR2 signaling can induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibroblast and vascular endothelial cell proliferation through nuclear factor–κB activation and interleukin‐1β upregulation. Systemic administration of a nuclear factor–κB inhibitor or anti–interleukin‐1β antibodies to wild‐type mice resulted in impaired adaptive cardiac hypertrophy after transverse aortic constriction. We also found that heat shock protein 70, which was increased in murine plasma after transverse aortic constriction, can activate TLR2 signaling in vitro and in vivo. Systemic administration of anti–heat shock protein 70 antibodies to wild‐type mice impaired adaptive cardiac hypertrophy after transverse aortic constriction. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that TLR2‐mediated inflammation induced by extracellularly released heat shock protein 70 is essential for adaptive cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. Thus, modulation of TLR2 signaling in the heart may provide a novel strategy for treating heart failure due to inadequate adaptation to hemodynamic

  5. Small but crucial: the novel small heat shock protein Hsp21 mediates stress adaptation and virulence in Candida albicans.

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    François L Mayer

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (sHsps have multiple cellular functions. However, the biological function of sHsps in pathogenic microorganisms is largely unknown. In the present study we identified and characterized the novel sHsp Hsp21 of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Using a reverse genetics approach we demonstrate the importance of Hsp21 for resistance of C. albicans to specific stresses, including thermal and oxidative stress. Furthermore, a hsp21Δ/Δ mutant was defective in invasive growth and formed significantly shorter filaments compared to the wild type under various filament-inducing conditions. Although adhesion to and invasion into human-derived endothelial and oral epithelial cells was unaltered, the hsp21Δ/Δ mutant exhibited a strongly reduced capacity to damage both cell lines. Furthermore, Hsp21 was required for resisting killing by human neutrophils. Measurements of intracellular levels of stress protective molecules demonstrated that Hsp21 is involved in both glycerol and glycogen regulation and plays a major role in trehalose homeostasis in response to elevated temperatures. Mutants defective in trehalose and, to a lesser extent, glycerol synthesis phenocopied HSP21 deletion in terms of increased susceptibility to environmental stress, strongly impaired capacity to damage epithelial cells and increased sensitivity to the killing activities of human primary neutrophils. Via systematic analysis of the three main C. albicans stress-responsive kinases (Mkc1, Cek1, Hog1 under a range of stressors, we demonstrate Hsp21-dependent phosphorylation of Cek1 in response to elevated temperatures. Finally, the hsp21Δ/Δ mutant displayed strongly attenuated virulence in two in vivo infection models. Taken together, Hsp21 mediates adaptation to specific stresses via fine-tuning homeostasis of compatible solutes and activation of the Cek1 pathway, and is crucial for multiple stages of C. albicans pathogenicity. Hsp21 therefore

  6. DISAIN SISTEM DATABASE ORDER PRODUKSI PADA DEPARTEMEN LOOM – WEAVING 4, DIVISI DENIM PT APAC INTI CORPORA

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    Heru Prastawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Penjadwalan dalam organisasi industri mempunyai peranan penting terutama pada level operasional. Untuk mencapai sebuah penjadwalan yang baik, semua data pendukung harus diatur untuk mendukung proses penjadwalan. Departemen Loom-Weaving 4, Divisi Denim, PT. APAC INTI Corpora, khususnya pada Departemen PPC membutuhkan sebuah sistem database untuk mendukung proses penjadwalan. Untuk menjalankan fungsinya, Departemen PPC membutuhkan informasi yang cepat, akurat dan aktual untuk dibagi dengan bagian Marketing sebagai dasar pengambilan keputusan dalam menerima atau menolak order dan menginformasikan status pembuatan order. Departemen PPC juga harus menyediakan informasi untuk pelaksanaan pembelian order oleh Departemen Produksi. Penelitian ini mengembangkan sebuat sistem database untuk memfasilitasi PPC dalam manajemen data dan menyediakan informasi order. Sistem database didesain untuk menyediakan bantuan dalam penyimpanan data order, pelaporan produksi dan merencakan perbaikan jika terdapat order tambahan. Kata Kunci: penjadwalan, order produksi, sistem database     Abstract   Scheduling in an industrial organization has an important role especially in operational level. To reach a good scheduling, all of the assistive data have to be arranged to support the scheduling process. Loom Department at Weaving 4 - Denim Division, PT Apac Inti Corpora, especially at PPC Department needs a database system to support the scheduling process. In running its function PPC Department required to provide the information quickly, accurate and actual to share with Marketing as base of decision making in accepting or refusing an order and inform the status of order workmanship. PPC Department also must provide the information for buyer order execution by Production Department. This research develops a database system to facilitate the PPC in managing data and provide the order information. Database system is designed to provide aid in archives of order data

  7. A σE-Mediated Temperature Gauge Controls a Switch from LuxR-Mediated Virulence Gene Expression to Thermal Stress Adaptation in Vibrio alginolyticus.

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    Dan Gu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In vibrios, the expression of virulence factors is often controlled by LuxR, the master quorum-sensing regulator. Here, we investigate the interplay between LuxR and σE, an alternative sigma factor, during the control of virulence-related gene expression and adaptations to temperature elevations in the zoonotic pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. An rpoE null V. alginolyticus mutant was unable to adapt to various stresses and was survival-deficient in fish. In wild type V. alginolyticus, the expression of LuxR-regulated virulence factors increased as the temperature was increased from 22°C to 37°C, but mutants lacking σE did not respond to temperature, indicating that σE is critical for the temperature-dependent upregulation of virulence genes. Further analyses revealed that σE binds directly to -10 and -35 elements in the luxR promoter that drive its transcription. ChIP assays showed that σE binds to the promoter regions of luxR, rpoH and rpoE at high temperatures (e.g., 30°C and 37°C. However, at higher temperatures (42°C that induce thermal stress, σE binding to the luxR promoter decreased, while its binding to the rpoH and rpoE promoters was unchanged. Thus, the temperature-dependent binding of σE to distinct promoters appears to underlie a σE-controlled switch between the expression of virulence genes and adaptation to thermal stress. This study illustrates how a conserved temperature response mechanism integrates into quorum-sensing circuits to regulate both virulence and stress adaptation.

  8. Rare ecomorphological convergence on a complex adaptive landscape: Body size and diet mediate evolution of jaw shape in squirrels (Sciuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelditch, Miriam Leah; Ye, Ji; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Swiderski, Donald L

    2017-03-01

    Convergence is widely regarded as compelling evidence for adaptation, often being portrayed as evidence that phenotypic outcomes are predictable from ecology, overriding contingencies of history. However, repeated outcomes may be very rare unless adaptive landscapes are simple, structured by strong ecological and functional constraints. One such constraint may be a limitation on body size because performance often scales with size, allowing species to adapt to challenging functions by modifying only size. When size is constrained, species might adapt by changing shape; convergent shapes may therefore be common when size is limiting and functions are challenging. We examine the roles of size and diet as determinants of jaw shape in Sciuridae. As expected, size and diet have significant interdependent effects on jaw shape and ecomorphological convergence is rare, typically involving demanding diets and limiting sizes. More surprising is morphological without ecological convergence, which is equally common between and within dietary classes. Those cases, like rare ecomorphological convergence, may be consequences of evolving on an adaptive landscape shaped by many-to-many relationships between ecology and function, many-to-one relationships between form and performance, and one-to-many relationships between functionally versatile morphologies and ecology. On complex adaptive landscapes, ecological selection can yield different outcomes. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Affects Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Extracellular Oxidized Cell-Free DNA: A Possible Mediator of Bystander Effect and Adaptive Response

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    V. A. Sergeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have hypothesized that the adaptive response to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR is mediated by oxidized cell-free DNA (cfDNA fragments. Here, we summarize our experimental evidence for this model. Studies involving measurements of ROS, expression of the NOX (superoxide radical production, induction of apoptosis and DNA double-strand breaks, antiapoptotic gene expression and cell cycle inhibition confirm this hypothesis. We have demonstrated that treatment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with low doses of IR (10 cGy leads to cell death of part of cell population and release of oxidized cfDNA. cfDNA has the ability to penetrate into the cytoplasm of other cells. Oxidized cfDNA, like low doses of IR, induces oxidative stress, ROS production, ROS-induced oxidative modifications of nuclear DNA, DNA breaks, arrest of the cell cycle, activation of DNA reparation and antioxidant response, and inhibition of apoptosis. The MSCs pretreated with low dose of irradiation or oxidized cfDNA were equally effective in induction of adaptive response to challenge further dose of radiation. Our studies suggest that oxidized cfDNA is a signaling molecule in the stress signaling that mediates radiation-induced bystander effects and that it is an important component of the development of radioadaptive responses to low doses of IR.

  10. Weight stigma "gets under the skin"-evidence for an adapted psychological mediation framework: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-02-01

    Research consistently shows a negative view of individuals with obesity in the general public and in various other settings. Stigma and discrimination can be considered chronic stressors, as these factors have a profound impact on the psychological well-being of the affected individuals. This article proposes a framework that entails a mediation of the adverse effects of discrimination and stigmatization on mental well-being through elevated psychological risk factors that are not unique to weight but that could affect overweight and normal-weight individuals alike. A systematic review was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychological risk factors, such as self-esteem and coping, in individuals with obesity. Forty-six articles were assessed and included for detailed analysis. The number of studies on these topics is limited to certain dimensions of psychological processes. The best evaluated association of obesity and psychosocial aspects is seen for self-esteem. Most studies establish a negative association of weight and self-esteem in children and adults. All studies with mediation analysis find a positive mediation through psychological risk factors on mental health outcomes. This review shows that elevated psychological risk factors are existent in individuals with obesity and that they may be a mediator between weight discrimination and pathopsychological outcomes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Coping Strategies as Predictors and Mediators of Disability-Related Variables and Psychosocial Adaptation: An Exploratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Wilson, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationships among four predictors (functional limitations, perceived visibility of condition, and two disability-associated affective responses-anxiety and depression), coping strategies, and two outcome measures of psychosocial adaptation to disability. Findings suggest that coping strategies add significantly to the variance in…

  12. Reflections on: "A general role for adaptations in G-Proteins and the cyclic AMP system in mediating the chronic actions of morphine and cocaine on neuronal function".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2016-08-15

    In 1991 we demonstrated that chronic morphine exposure increased levels of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A (PKA) in several regions of the rat central nervous system as inferred from measures of enzyme activity in crude extracts (Terwilliger et al., 1991). These findings led us to hypothesize that a concerted upregulation of the cAMP pathway is a general mechanism of opiate tolerance and dependence. Moreover, in the same study we showed similar induction of adenylyl cyclase and PKA activity in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in response to chronic administration of cocaine, but not of several non-abused psychoactive drugs. Morphine and cocaine also induced equivalent changes in inhibitory G protein subunits in this brain region. We thus extended our hypothesis to suggest that, particularly within brain reward regions such as NAc, cAMP pathway upregulation represents a common mechanism of reward tolerance and dependence shared by several classes of drugs of abuse. Research since that time, by many laboratories, has provided substantial support for these hypotheses. Specifically, opiates in several CNS regions including NAc, and cocaine more selectively in NAc, induce expression of certain adenylyl cyclase isoforms and PKA subunits via the transcription factor, CREB, and these transcriptional adaptations serve a homeostatic function to oppose drug action. In certain brain regions, such as locus coeruleus, these adaptations mediate aspects of physical opiate dependence and withdrawal, whereas in NAc they mediate reward tolerance and dependence that drives increased drug self-administration. This work has had important implications for understanding the molecular basis of addiction. "A general role for adaptations in G-proteins and the cyclic AMP system in mediating the chronic actions of morphine and cocaine on neuronal function". Previous studies have shown that chronic morphine increases levels of the G-protein subunits Giα and Goα, adenylate cyclase, cyclic AMP

  13. AAL service development loom--from the idea to a marketable business model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Johannes; Auinger, Klemens

    2015-01-01

    The Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) market is still in an early stage of development. Previous approaches of comprehensive AAL services are mostly supply-side driven and focused on hardware and software. Usually this type of AAL solutions does not lead to a sustainable success on the market. Research and development increasingly focuses on demand and customer requirements in addition to the social and legal framework. The question is: How can a systematic performance measurement strategy along a service development process support the market-ready design of a concrete business model for AAL service? Within the EU funded research project DALIA (Assistant for Daily Life Activities at Home) an iterative service development process uses an adapted Osterwalder business model canvas. The application of a performance measurement index (PMI) to support the process has been developed and tested. Development of an iterative service development model using a supporting PMI. The PMI framework is developed throughout the engineering of a virtual assistant (AVATAR) as a modular interface to connect informal carers with necessary and useful services. Future research should seek to ensure that the PMI enables meaningful transparency regarding targeting (e.g. innovative AAL service), design (e.g. functional hybrid AAL service) and implementation (e.g. marketable AAL support services). To this end, a further reference to further testing practices is required. The aim must be to develop a weighted PMI in the context of further research, which supports both the service engineering and the subsequent service management process.

  14. Dose-dependent transitions in Nrf2-mediated adaptive response and related stress responses to hypochlorous acid in mouse macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Courtney G.; Fu Jingqi; Xue Peng; Hou Yongyong; Pluta, Linda J.; Yang Longlong; Zhang Qiang; Thomas, Russell S.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Pi Jingbo

    2009-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is potentially an important source of cellular oxidative stress. Human HOCl exposure can occur from chlorine gas inhalation or from endogenous sources of HOCl, such as respiratory burst by phagocytes. Transcription factor Nrf2 is a key regulator of cellular redox status and serves as a primary source of defense against oxidative stress. We recently demonstrated that HOCl activates Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response in cultured mouse macrophages in a biphasic manner. In an effort to determine whether Nrf2 pathways overlap with other stress pathways, gene expression profiling was performed in RAW 264.7 macrophages exposed to HOCl using whole genome mouse microarrays. Benchmark dose (BMD) analysis on gene expression data revealed that Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response and protein ubiquitination were the most sensitive biological pathways that were activated in response to low concentrations of HOCl (< 0.35 mM). Genes involved in chromatin architecture maintenance and DNA-dependent transcription were also sensitive to very low doses. Moderate concentrations of HOCl (0.35 to 1.4 mM) caused maximal activation of the Nrf2 pathway and innate immune response genes, such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and chemokines. At even higher concentrations of HOCl (2.8 to 3.5 mM) there was a loss of Nrf2-target gene expression with increased expression of numerous heat shock and histone cluster genes, AP-1-family genes, cFos and Fra1 and DNA damage-inducible Gadd45 genes. These findings confirm an Nrf2-centric mechanism of action of HOCl in mouse macrophages and provide evidence of interactions between Nrf2, inflammatory, and other stress pathways.

  15. Nasty Viruses, Costly Plasmids, Population Dynamics, and the Conditions for Establishing and Maintaining CRISPR-Mediated Adaptive Immunity in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    Clustered, Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) abound in the genomes of almost all archaebacteria and nearly half the eubacteria sequenced. Through a genetic interference mechanism, bacteria with CRISPR regions carrying copies of the DNA of previously encountered phage and plasmids abort the replication of phage and plasmids with these sequences. Thus it would seem that protection against infecting phage and plasmids is the selection pressure responsible for establishing and maintaining CRISPR in bacterial populations. But is it? To address this question and provide a framework and hypotheses for the experimental study of the ecology and evolution of CRISPR, I use mathematical models of the population dynamics of CRISPR-encoding bacteria with lytic phage and conjugative plasmids. The results of the numerical (computer simulation) analysis of the properties of these models with parameters in the ranges estimated for Escherichia coli and its phage and conjugative plasmids indicate: (1) In the presence of lytic phage there are broad conditions where bacteria with CRISPR-mediated immunity will have an advantage in competition with non-CRISPR bacteria with otherwise higher Malthusian fitness. (2) These conditions for the existence of CRISPR are narrower when there is envelope resistance to the phage. (3) While there are situations where CRISPR-mediated immunity can provide bacteria an advantage in competition with higher Malthusian fitness bacteria bearing deleterious conjugative plasmids, the conditions for this to obtain are relatively narrow and the intensity of selection favoring CRISPR weak. The parameters of these models can be independently estimated, the assumption behind their construction validated, and the hypotheses generated from the analysis of their properties tested in experimental populations of bacteria with lytic phage and conjugative plasmids. I suggest protocols for estimating these parameters and outline the design of

  16. Microbiota-driven immune cellular maturation is essential for antibody-mediated adaptive immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Tanweer; Zaidi, Tauqeer; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Lu, Roger; Priebe, Gregory P; Pier, Gerald B

    2014-08-01

    As an immune-privileged site, the eye, and particularly the outer corneal surface, lacks resident mature immune effector cells. Physical barriers and innate mediators are the best-described effectors of immunity in the cornea. When the barriers are breached, infection can result in rapid tissue destruction, leading to loss of visual acuity and frank blindness. To determine the cellular and molecular components needed for effective adaptive immunity on the corneal surface, we investigated which immune system effectors were required for protection against Staphylococcus aureus corneal infections in mice, which are a serious cause of human eye infections. Both systemically injected and topically applied antibodies to the conserved cell surface polysaccharide poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) were effective at mediating reductions in corneal pathology and bacterial levels. Additional host factors impacting protection included intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)-dependent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment, functional CD4(+) T cells, signaling via the interleukin-17 (IL-17) receptor, and IL-22 production. In germfree mice, there was no protective efficacy of antibody to PNAG due to the lack of LY6G(+) inflammatory cell coeffector recruitment to the cornea. Protection was manifest after 3 weeks of exposure to conventional mice and acquisition of a resident microbiota. We conclude that in the anterior eye, ICAM-1-mediated PMN recruitment to the infected cornea along with endogenous microbiota-matured CD4(+) T cells producing both IL-17 and IL-22 is required for antibody to PNAG to protect against S. aureus infection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Two Distinct Mechanisms Govern RpoS-Mediated Repression of Tick-Phase Genes during Mammalian Host Adaptation by Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme Disease Spirochete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna P. Grove

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The alternative sigma factor RpoS plays a key role modulating gene expression in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, by transcribing mammalian host-phase genes and repressing σ70-dependent genes required within the arthropod vector. To identify cis regulatory elements involved in RpoS-dependent repression, we analyzed green fluorescent protein (GFP transcriptional reporters containing portions of the upstream regions of the prototypical tick-phase genes ospAB, the glp operon, and bba74. As RpoS-mediated repression occurs only following mammalian host adaptation, strains containing the reporters were grown in dialysis membrane chambers (DMCs implanted into the peritoneal cavities of rats. Wild-type spirochetes harboring ospAB- and glp-gfp constructs containing only the minimal (−35/−10 σ70 promoter elements had significantly lower expression in DMCs relative to growth in vitro at 37°C; no reduction in expression occurred in a DMC-cultivated RpoS mutant harboring these constructs. In contrast, RpoS-mediated repression of bba74 required a stretch of DNA located between −165 and −82 relative to its transcriptional start site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays employing extracts of DMC-cultivated B. burgdorferi produced a gel shift, whereas extracts from RpoS mutant spirochetes did not. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RpoS-mediated repression of tick-phase borrelial genes occurs by at least two distinct mechanisms. One (e.g., ospAB and the glp operon involves primarily sequence elements near the core promoter, while the other (e.g., bba74 involves an RpoS-induced transacting repressor. Our results provide a genetic framework for further dissection of the essential “gatekeeper” role of RpoS throughout the B. burgdorferi enzootic cycle.

  18. Spontaneous atopic dermatitis is mediated by innate immunity, with the secondary lung inflammation of the atopic march requiring adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Sean P; Moran, Tara; Floudas, Achilleas; Wurlod, Felicity; Kaszlikowska, Agnieszka; Salimi, Maryam; Quinn, Emma M; Oliphant, Christopher J; Núñez, Gabriel; McManus, Ross; Hams, Emily; Irvine, Alan D; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Ogg, Graham S; Fallon, Padraic G

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition that can occur in early life, predisposing to asthma development in a phenomenon known as the atopic march. Although genetic and environmental factors are known to contribute to AD and asthma, the mechanisms underlying the atopic march remain poorly understood. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations are a major genetic predisposer for the development of AD and progression to AD-associated asthma. We sought to experimentally address whether filaggrin mutations in mice lead to the development of spontaneous eczematous inflammation and address the aberrant immunologic milieu arising in a mouse model of filaggrin deficiency. Filaggrin mutant mice were generated on the proallergic BALB/c background, creating a novel model for the assessment of spontaneous AD-like inflammation. Independently recruited AD case collections were analyzed to define associations between filaggrin mutations and immunologic phenotypes. Filaggrin-deficient mice on a BALB/c background had profound spontaneous AD-like inflammation with progression to compromised pulmonary function with age, reflecting the atopic march in patients with AD. Strikingly, skin inflammation occurs independently of adaptive immunity and is associated with cutaneous expansion of IL-5-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Furthermore, subjects with filaggrin mutations have an increased frequency of type 2 innate lymphoid cells in the skin in comparison with control subjects. This study provides new insights into our understanding of the atopic march, with innate immunity initiating dermatitis and the adaptive immunity required for subsequent development of compromised lung function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP is a central hub for phosphotyrosine-mediated interactions in T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Sylvester

    Full Text Available TCR stimulation leads to an increase in cellular adhesion among other outcomes. The adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP is known to be rapidly phosphorylated after T cell stimulation and relays the TCR signal to adhesion molecules of the integrin family. While three tyrosine phosphorylation sites have been characterized biochemically, the binding capabilities and associated functions of several other potential phosphotyrosine motifs remain unclear. Here, we utilize in vitro phosphorylation and mass spectrometry to map novel phosphotyrosine sites in the C-terminal part of human ADAP (486-783. Individual tyrosines were then mutated to phenylalanine and their relevance for cellular adhesion and migration was tested experimentally. Functionally important tyrosine residues include two sites within the folded hSH3 domains of ADAP and two at the C-terminus. Furthermore, using a peptide pulldown approach in combination with stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC we identified SLP-76, PLCgamma, PIK3R1, Nck, CRK, Gads, and RasGAP as phospho-dependent binding partners of a central YDDV motif of ADAP. The phosphorylation-dependent interaction between ADAP and Nck was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid analysis, immunoprecipitation and binary pulldown experiments, indicating that ADAP directly links integrins to modulators of the cytoskeleton independent of SLP-76.

  20. Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Forms' (UWES-SF) Adaptation to Turkish, Validity and Reliability Studies, and the Mediator Role of Work Engagement between Academic Procrastination and Academic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapri, Burhan; Gündüz, Bülent; Akbay, Sinem Evin

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to complete the adaptation, validity and reliability studies of the long (17 items) and short (9 items) forms of UWES-SF. The secondary goal of this study is to study the mediating role of work engagement between academic procrastination and academic responsibility in high school students. The study group consists…

  1. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  2. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  3. Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R.; Santos, Ronaldo P.; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Conclusions/Significance Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources. PMID:19238213

  4. Prevalence of SOS-mediated control of integron integrase expression as an adaptive trait of chromosomal and mobile integrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambray Guillaume

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrons are found in hundreds of environmental bacterial species, but are mainly known as the agents responsible for the capture and spread of antibiotic-resistance determinants between Gram-negative pathogens. The SOS response is a regulatory network under control of the repressor protein LexA targeted at addressing DNA damage, thus promoting genetic variation in times of stress. We recently reported a direct link between the SOS response and the expression of integron integrases in Vibrio cholerae and a plasmid-borne class 1 mobile integron. SOS regulation enhances cassette swapping and capture in stressful conditions, while freezing the integron in steady environments. We conducted a systematic study of available integron integrase promoter sequences to analyze the extent of this relationship across the Bacteria domain. Results Our results showed that LexA controls the expression of a large fraction of integron integrases by binding to Escherichia coli-like LexA binding sites. In addition, the results provide experimental validation of LexA control of the integrase gene for another Vibrio chromosomal integron and for a multiresistance plasmid harboring two integrons. There was a significant correlation between lack of LexA control and predicted inactivation of integrase genes, even though experimental evidence also indicates that LexA regulation may be lost to enhance expression of integron cassettes. Conclusions Ancestral-state reconstruction on an integron integrase phylogeny led us to conclude that the ancestral integron was already regulated by LexA. The data also indicated that SOS regulation has been actively preserved in mobile integrons and large chromosomal integrons, suggesting that unregulated integrase activity is selected against. Nonetheless, additional adaptations have probably arisen to cope with unregulated integrase activity. Identifying them may be fundamental in deciphering the uneven distribution of

  5. The p36 Isoform of Murine Cytomegalovirus m152 Protein Suffices for Mediating Innate and Adaptive Immune Evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Annette; Renzaho, Angeliqué; Reddehase, Matthias J.; Lemmermann, Niels A. W.

    2013-01-01

    The MHC-class I (MHC-I)-like viral (MHC-Iv) m152 gene product of murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) was the first immune evasion molecule described for a member of the β-subfamily of herpesviruses as a paradigm for analogous functions of human cytomegalovirus proteins. Notably, by interacting with classical MHC-I molecules and with MHC-I-like RAE1 family ligands of the activatory natural killer (NK) cell receptor NKG2D, it inhibits presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8 T cells and the NKG2D-dependent activation of NK cells, respectively, thus simultaneously interfering with adaptive and innate immune recognition of infected cells. Although the m152 gene product exists in differentially glycosylated isoforms whose individual contributions to immune evasion are unknown, it has entered the scientific literature as m152/gp40, based on the quantitatively most prominent isoform but with no functional justification. By construction of a recombinant mCMV in which all three N-glycosylation sites are mutated (N61Q, N208Q, and N241Q), we show here that N-linked glycosylation is not essential for functional interaction of the m152 immune evasion protein with either MHC-I or RAE1. These data add an important functional detail to recent structural analysis of the m152/RAE1γ complex that has revealed N-glycosylations at positions Asn61 and Asn208 of m152 distant from the m152/RAE1γ interface. PMID:24351798

  6. Tanshinone II A inhibits dendritic cell-mediated adaptive immunity: potential role in anti-atherosclerotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-zhan; Lu, Yong-heng; Huang, Guang-sheng; Chen, Qi; Fu, Qiang; Li, Zhi-liang

    2014-10-01

    Antigen-presenting cells such as monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) stimulate T-cell proliferation and activation during adaptive immunity. This cellular interaction plays a role in the growth of atherosclerotic plaques. Tanshinone II A (TSN) had been shown to decrease the growth of atherosclerotic lesions. We therefore investigated the ability of TSN to inhibit human monocyte-derived DCs and their T-cellstimulatory capacity. DCs derived from human monocytes cultured with recombinant human interleukin (IL)-4 and recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were co-cultured with TSN and lipopolysaccharide for 48 h. Phosphate-buffered saline was used as a negative control. Activation markers and the capacity of DCs for endocytosis were measured by flow cytometry, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. DCs were co-cultured with lymphocytes to measure T-cell proliferation and IL-2 secretion by mixed lymphocyte reactions. TSN dose-dependently attenuated DC expression of costimulatory molecules (CD86), and decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (human loukocyte antigen-DR) and adhesion molecules (CD54). Moreover, TSN reduced secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and IL-1 by human DCs, and restored the capacity for endocytosis. Finally, TSN-preincubated DCs showed a reduced capacity to stimulate T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. TSN inhibits DC maturation and decreases the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, while impairing their capacity to stimulate T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. These effects may contribute to the influence of TSN on the progression of atherosclerotic lesions.

  7. The p36 isoform of murine cytomegalovirus m152 protein suffices for mediating innate and adaptive immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Annette; Renzaho, Angeliqué; Reddehase, Matthias J; Lemmermann, Niels A W

    2013-12-16

    The MHC-class I (MHC-I)-like viral (MHC-Iv) m152 gene product of murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) was the first immune evasion molecule described for a member of the β-subfamily of herpesviruses as a paradigm for analogous functions of human cytomegalovirus proteins. Notably, by interacting with classical MHC-I molecules and with MHC-I-like RAE1 family ligands of the activatory natural killer (NK) cell receptor NKG2D, it inhibits presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8 T cells and the NKG2D-dependent activation of NK cells, respectively, thus simultaneously interfering with adaptive and innate immune recognition of infected cells. Although the m152 gene product exists in differentially glycosylated isoforms whose individual contributions to immune evasion are unknown, it has entered the scientific literature as m152/gp40, based on the quantitatively most prominent isoform but with no functional justification. By construction of a recombinant mCMV in which all three N-glycosylation sites are mutated (N61Q, N208Q, and N241Q), we show here that N-linked glycosylation is not essential for functional interaction of the m152 immune evasion protein with either MHC-I or RAE1. These data add an important functional detail to recent structural analysis of the m152/RAE1g complex that has revealed N-glycosylations at positions Asn61 and Asn208 of m152 distant from the m152/RAE1g interface.

  8. Platelet-activating factor synthesis and receptor-mediated signaling are downregulated in ovine newborn lungs: relevance in postnatal pulmonary adaptation and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, L S; Cruz, E; Ibe, B O

    2013-12-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid with a wide range of biological activities. We studied PAF metabolism and PAF receptor (PAFR) signaling in perinatal ovine lungs to understand PAF's role in transition of the perinatal pulmonary hemodynamics and pathophysiology of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. We hypothesized that downregulation of PAF synthesis with upregulation of PAF catabolism by acetylhydrolase (PAF-Ah) in the newborn lung is needed for fetus-to-newborn pulmonary adaptation. Studies were conducted on fetal and newborn lamb pulmonary arteries (PA), veins (PV) and smooth muscle cells (SMC). PAF metabolism, PAFR binding and cell proliferation were studied by cell culture; gene expression was studied by qPCR. Fetal lungs synthesized 60% more PAF than newborn lungs. Compared with the fetal PVs and SMCs, PAF-Ah activity in newborn was 40-60% greater. PAF-Ah mRNA expression in newborn vessels was different from the expression by fetal PA. PAF-Ah gene clone activity confirmed deletion of hypoxia-sensitive site. PAFR mRNA expression by the PVs and SMC-PV of the fetus and newborn was greater than by corresponding PAs and SMC-PA. Q-PCR study of PAFR expression by the SMC-PV of both groups was greater than SMC-PA. Fetal SMCs bound more PAF than the newborn SMCs. PAFR antagonist, CV-3988, inhibited PAFR binding and DNA synthesis by the fetal SMCs, but augmented binding and DNA synthesis by newborn cells. We show different PAF-PAFR mediated effects in perinatal lungs, suggesting both transcriptional and translational regulation of PAF-Ah and PAFR expression in the perinatal lamb lungs. These indicate that the downregulation of PAF-mediated effects postnatally protects against persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

  9. Transcriptomic insights into the alternative splicing-mediated adaptation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to host niches: autophagy-related gene 8 as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Xia; Ding, Jin-Li; Gao, Yang; Peng, Yue-Jin; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) regulates various biological processes in fungi by extending the cellular proteome. However, comprehensive studies investigating AS in entomopathogenic fungi are lacking. Based on transcriptome data obtained via dual RNA-seq, the first overview of AS events was developed for Beauveria bassiana growing in an insect haemocoel. The AS was demonstrated for 556 of 8840 expressed genes, accounting for 5.4% of the total genes in B. bassiana. Intron retention was the most abundant type of AS, accounting for 87.1% of all splicing events and exon skipping events were rare, only accounting for 2.0% of all events. Functional distribution analysis indicated an association between alternatively spliced genes and several physiological processes. Notably, B. bassiana autophagy-related gene 8 (BbATG8), an indispensable gene for autophagy, was spliced at an alternative 5' splice site to generate two transcripts (BbATG8-α and BbATG8-β). The BbATG8-α transcript was necessary for fungal autophagy and oxidation tolerance, while the BbATG8-β transcript was not. These two transcripts differentially contributed to the formation of conidia or blastospores as well as fungal virulence. Thus, AS acts as a powerful post-transcriptional regulatory strategy in insect mycopathogens and significantly mediates fungal transcriptional adaption to host niches. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. America's looming creativity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The strength of the American economy does not rest on its manufacturing prowess, its natural resources, or the size of its market. It turns on one factor--the country's openness to new ideas, which has allowed it to attract the brightest minds from around the world and harness their creative energies. But the United States is on the verge of losing that competitive edge. As the nation tightens its borders to students and scientists and subjects federal research funding to ideological and religious litmus tests, many other countries are stepping in to lure that creative capital away. Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, and others are spending more on research and development and shoring up their universities in an effort to attract the world's best--including Americans. If even a few of these nations draw away just a small percentage of the creative workers from the U.S., the effect on its economy will be enormous. In this article, the author introduces a quantitative measure of the migration of creative capital called the Global Creative-Class Index. It shows that, far from leading the world, the United States doesn't even rank in the top ten in the percentage of its workforce engaged in creative occupations. What's more, the baby boomers will soon retire. And data showing large drops in foreign student applications to U.S. universities and in the number of visas issued to knowledge workers, along with concomitant increases in immigration in other countries, suggest that the erosion of talent from the United States will only intensify. To defend the U.S. economy, the business community must take the lead in ensuring that global talent can move efficiently across borders, that education and research are funded at radically higher levels, and that we tap into the creative potential of more and more workers. Because wherever creativity goes, economic growth is sure to follow.

  11. Water: A looming crisis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cloete, D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available -printing is quite di•erent to carbon foot-printing, which is about reducing emissions – with water, it’s about managing risks. Percy Sechemane Chief executive, Rand Water WE NEED to focus on regulation because most companies, and even the water indus- try... to close on their own. †e problem is that processing the average water licence takes about three and a half years. †is may lead to applicants losing interest, and the country getting a bad reputation in the international mining sector. †e Chamber...

  12. Noorte looming : [luuletused

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Sisu: Kuked ja kanad / Laura Trull ; "Ma igatsen õnne..." / Kattre Adramees ; Usk / Riinu Ansperi ; Talveüllatus / Aile Eldemeel ; Vastutus / Riinu Ansperi ; Pisike peni / Indrek Kuka ; Tere, talv! / Villi Brandt ; Minu kool / Kaisa Tamm ; Selle teeraja mälestuseks / Anni Vanin

  13. Grb7 upregulation is a molecular adaptation to HER2 signaling inhibition due to removal of Akt-mediated gene repression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Nencioni

    Full Text Available The efficacy of anti-HER2 therapeutics, such as lapatinib and trastuzumab, is limited by primary and acquired resistance. Cellular adaptations that allow breast cancer cell to survive prolonged HER2 inhibition include de-repression of the transcription factor FOXO3A with consequent estrogen receptor activation, and/or increased HER3 signaling. Here, we used low-density arrays, quantitative PCR, and western blotting to determine how HER2 signaling inhibition with lapatinib or PI3K inhibitors affects the expression of genes involved in breast cancer metastatic spread and overall prognosis. Retroviral transgenesis was used to express constitutively active forms of Akt in the HER2(+ breast cancer cell line SKBR3, and Grb7 in MCF7 cells. Specific gene silencing was obtained by siRNAs transfection. A murine BT474 xenograft cancer model was used to assess the effect of lapatinib on gene expression in vivo. We found that lapatinib induces upregulation of Grb7, an adaptor protein involved in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and promoting cell survival and cell migration. Grb7 upregulation induced by lapatinib was found to occur in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that Grb7 upregulation is recreated by PI3K inhibitors while being prevented by constitutively active Akt. Thus, Grb7 is repressed by PI3K signaling and lapatinib-mediated Akt inhibition is responsible for Grb7 de-repression. Finally, we show that Grb7 removal by RNA-interference reduces breast cancer cell viability and increases the activity of lapatinib. In conclusion, Grb7 upregulation is a potentially adverse consequence of HER2 signaling inhibition. Preventing Grb7 accumulation and/or its interaction with receptor tyrosine kinases may increase the benefit of HER2-targeting drugs.

  14. Transcription factor Nrf2 mediates an adaptive response to sulforaphane that protects fibroblasts in vitro against the cytotoxic effects of electrophiles, peroxides and redox-cycling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Larry G.; Kelleher, Michael O.; Eggleston, Ian M.; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hayes, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Sulforaphane can stimulate cellular adaptation to redox stressors through transcription factor Nrf2. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as a model, we show herein that the normal homeostatic level of glutathione in Nrf2 -/- MEFs was only 20% of that in their wild-type counterparts. Furthermore, the rate of glutathione synthesis following its acute depletion upon treatment with 3 μmol/l sulforaphane was very substantially lower in Nrf2 -/- MEFs than in wild-type cells, and the rebound leading to a ∼ 1.9-fold increase in glutathione that occurred 12-24 h after Nrf2 +/+ MEFs were treated with sulforaphane was not observed in Nrf2 -/- fibroblasts. Wild-type MEFs that had been pre-treated for 24 h with 3 μmol/l sulforaphane exhibited between 1.4- and 3.2-fold resistance against thiol-reactive electrophiles, including isothiocyanates, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (e.g. acrolein), aryl halides and alkene epoxides. Pre-treatment of Nrf2 +/+ MEFs with sulforaphane also protected against hydroperoxides (e.g. cumene hydroperoxide, CuOOH), free radical-generating compounds (e.g. menadione), and genotoxic electrophiles (e.g. chlorambucil). By contrast, Nrf2 -/- MEFs were typically ∼ 50% less tolerant of these agents than wild-type fibroblasts, and sulforaphane pre-treatment did not protect the mutant cells against xenobiotics. To test whether Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of glutathione represents the major cytoprotective mechanism stimulated by sulforaphane, 5 μmol/l buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to inhibit glutathione synthesis. In Nrf2 +/+ MEFs pre-treated with sulforaphane, BSO diminished intrinsic resistance and abolished inducible resistance to acrolein, CuOOH and chlorambucil, but not menadione. Thus Nrf2-dependent up-regulation of GSH is the principal mechanism by which sulforaphane pre-treatment induced resistance to acrolein, CuOOH and chlorambucil, but not menadione.

  15. Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

  16. Differences in the relationship between sensory adaptation of antennae and concentration of aerial pheromone in the oriental fruit moth and obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for the role of adaptation in sex pheromone-mediated mating disruption of these species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, R M; Marshall, D B

    2010-04-01

    The antennae of Grapholita molesta (Busck) are more susceptible to sex pheromone-induced sensory adaptation than the antennae of Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris). Adaptation is detectable in G. molesta at 1/1,000th the aerial concentration of pheromone (i.e., 5.0 x 10(-7) ng Z8-12:OAc/ml air) that is required to induce detectable adaptation in C. rosaceana (i.e., 5.0 x 10(-4) ng Z11-14:OAc/ml air). In addition, the predicted concentration of pheromone required to induce 50% adaptation in G. molesta (i.e., 1.2 x 10(-3) ng Z8-12:OAc/ml air) after 15 min of exposure is only one sixth the estimated aerial concentration required to induce the same level of adaptation in C. rosaceana (i.e., 7.5 x 10(-3) ng Z11-14:OAc/ml air) after 15 min of exposure. Sixteen percent and 28% adaptation of G. molesta antennae is predicted after 15 and 30 min of exposure to the equivalent of 1 ng Z8-12:OAc/m(3) air (i.e., 1 x 10(-6) ng Z8-12:OAc/ml air). The predicted level of adaptation in C. rosaceana antennae, however, is only 1.5 and 9.9% after 15 and 30 min of exposure, respectively, to the equivalent of 1 ng Z11-14:OAc/m(3) air (i.e., 1 x 10(-6) ng Z11-14:OAc/ml air). The approximately three-fold greater level of sensory adaptation in G. molesta antennae after 30 min of exposure to a pheromone concentration measured in pheromone-treated orchards (i.e., 1 ng/m(3)) may be one reason why this species is more readily controlled than C. rosaceana using mating disruption.

  17. Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by reovirus treated melanoma cells is PKR/NF-κB mediated and supports innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffey Matt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As well as inducing direct oncolysis, reovirus treatment of melanoma is associated with activation of innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses. Results Here we characterise the effects of conditioned media from reovirus-infected, dying human melanoma cells (reoTCM, in the absence of live virus, to address the immune bystander potential of reovirus therapy. In addition to RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1α and MIP-1β, reovirus-infected melanoma cells secreted eotaxin, IP-10 and the type 1 interferon IFN-β. To address the mechanisms responsible for the inflammatory composition of reoTCM, we show that IL-8 and IFN-β secretion by reovirus-infected melanoma cells was associated with activation of NF-κB and decreased by pre-treatment with small molecule inhibitors of NF-κB and PKR; specific siRNA-mediated knockdown further confirmed a role for PKR. This pro-inflammatory milieu induced a chemotactic response in isolated natural killer (NK cells, dendritic cells (DC and anti-melanoma cytotoxic T cells (CTL. Following culture in reoTCM, NK cells upregulated CD69 expression and acquired greater lytic potential against tumour targets. Furthermore, melanoma cell-loaded DC cultured in reoTCM were more effective at priming adaptive anti-tumour immunity. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the PKR- and NF-κB-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory molecules that accompanies reovirus-mediated killing can recruit and activate innate and adaptive effector cells, thus potentially altering the tumour microenvironment to support bystander immune-mediated therapy as well as direct viral oncolysis.

  18. Repeated exposure of human fibroblasts to ionizing radiation reveals an adaptive response that is not mediated by interleukin-6 or TGF-β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieriks, Birger; De Vos, Winnok; Baatout, Sarah; Van Oostveldt, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Exposing cells to a low dose can protect them against a subsequent higher exposure. This phenomenon is known as adaptive response and is frequently observed in a variety of cells. Even though similarities are suspected with other non-targeted effects, such as bystander effects, the exact mechanism behind adaptive response is not fully clarified. In this study human primary fibroblasts were tested for their response to ionizing radiation (IR) after administrating a low priming dose (0.1-0.5 Gy). Both the abundance of γH2AX as a marker for double-stranded breaks and the levels of cytokines, secreted in the medium, were monitored in time. Upon challenge, IR-primed cells showed modified γH2AX spot size distributions and altered repair kinetics, consistent with an adaptive response. In addition, 24 h after priming with IR, four cytokines were significantly upregulated in the medium - GM-CSF (1.33x); IL6 (4.24x); IL8 (1.33x); TGF-β (1.46x). In order to mimick the protective effect of IR priming, we primed the cells with either IL6 or TGF-β. This did not elicit an altered γH2AX response as observed in IR-primed cells, indicating that the adaptive response in these primary fibroblasts is regulated in an IL-6 and TGF-β independent manner.

  19. Distinct domains within the NITROGEN LIMITATION ADAPTATION protein mediate its subcellular localization and function in the nitrate-dependent phosphate homeostasis pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NITROGEN LIMITATION ADAPTATION (NLA) protein is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays an essential role in the regulation of nitrogen and phosphate homeostasis. NLA is localized to two distinct subcellular sites, the plasma membrane and nucleus, and contains four distinct domains: i) a RING...

  20. Repeated exposure of human fibroblasts to ionizing radiation reveals an adaptive response that is not mediated by interleukin-6 or TGF-{beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieriks, Birger, E-mail: birger.dieriks@ugent.be [Bio-imaging and Cytometry Unit, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); De Vos, Winnok [Bio-imaging and Cytometry Unit, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Baatout, Sarah [Bio-imaging and Cytometry Unit, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Radiobiology Unit, Laboratory Molecular and Cellular Biology, Radiobiology Unit, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Van Oostveldt, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.VanOostveldt@UGent.be [Bio-imaging and Cytometry Unit, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2011-10-01

    Exposing cells to a low dose can protect them against a subsequent higher exposure. This phenomenon is known as adaptive response and is frequently observed in a variety of cells. Even though similarities are suspected with other non-targeted effects, such as bystander effects, the exact mechanism behind adaptive response is not fully clarified. In this study human primary fibroblasts were tested for their response to ionizing radiation (IR) after administrating a low priming dose (0.1-0.5 Gy). Both the abundance of {gamma}H2AX as a marker for double-stranded breaks and the levels of cytokines, secreted in the medium, were monitored in time. Upon challenge, IR-primed cells showed modified {gamma}H2AX spot size distributions and altered repair kinetics, consistent with an adaptive response. In addition, 24 h after priming with IR, four cytokines were significantly upregulated in the medium - GM-CSF (1.33x); IL6 (4.24x); IL8 (1.33x); TGF-{beta} (1.46x). In order to mimick the protective effect of IR priming, we primed the cells with either IL6 or TGF-{beta}. This did not elicit an altered {gamma}H2AX response as observed in IR-primed cells, indicating that the adaptive response in these primary fibroblasts is regulated in an IL-6 and TGF-{beta} independent manner.

  1. Transcription factor Nrf2 mediates an adaptive response to sulforaphane that protects fibroblasts in vitro against the cytotoxic effects of electrophiles, peroxides and redox-cycling agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Larry G.; Kelleher, Michael O.; Eggleston, Ian M.; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hayes, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Sulforaphane can stimulate cellular adaptation to redox stressors through transcription factor Nrf2. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as a model, we show herein that the normal homeostatic level of glutathione in Nrf2(-/-) MEFs was only 20% of that in their wild-type counterparts. Furthermore, the rate of glutathione synthesis following its acute depletion upon treatment with 3 micromol/l sulforaphane was very substantially lower in Nrf2(-/-) MEFs than in wild-type cells, and the rebo...

  2. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  3. Technology-Use Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2004-01-01

    Implementation of new computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems in organizations is a complex socio-technical endeavour, involving the mutual adaptation of technology and organization over time. Drawing on the analytic concept of sensemaking, this paper provides a theoretical perspective...... that deepens our understanding of how organizations appropriate new electronic communication media. The paper analyzes how a group of mediators in a large, multinational company adapted a new web-based CMC technology (a virtual workspace) to the local organizational context (and vice versa) by modifying...... features of the technology, providing ongoing support for users, and promoting appropriate conventions of use. We found that these mediators exerted considerable influence on how the technology was established and used in the organization. The mediators were not neutral facilitators of a well...

  4. Liberamente tratto da... Storie, codici, tragitti, mediazioni tra letteratura e cinema Loosely adapted from… Stories, codes, travels, mediations between literature and cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Meneghelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Il saggio, a partire da una ricognizione della più recente letteratura critica sull’argomento, vuole proporre una riflessione critica sull’adattamento, sui confini che delimitano tale pratica e, in particolare, sulle questioni specifiche messe in gioco dall’adattamento cinematografico dei testi letterari, all’interno del più vasto campo dei rapporti tra letteratura e cinema. Tali questioni investono in primo luogo l’adattamento dei testi del canone, i ‘grandi’ testi della tradizione occidentale: è soprattutto in questo contesto che viene chiamata in causa la nozione di fedeltà. ‘Fedeltà’ è un termine apparentemente neutrale, che in realtà nasconde sempre un’implicita gerarchia e un atteggiamento difensivo nei confronti di una supposta superiorità assiologica della letteratura come forma ‘alta’, dotata di una dignità, di un’indipendenza creativa che mancherebbero al cinema in quanto arte popolare e di massa.

    Contro questa assiologia implicita già denunciata con grande anticipo da André Bazin, il saggio vuole mostrare la complessità e la ricchezza dei percorsi tra letteratura e cinema. Prendendo come esempio un film scarsamente conosciuto, quello che Mauro Bolognini realizza nel 1962 a partire dal romanzo Senilità, la riflessione si conclude esplorando alcune delle molteplici implicazioni rintracciabili nella nozione, proposta da Linda Hutcheon, di «identità instabile di un racconto».

    Starting from a survey of the most recent studies on the topic, the essay proposes a critical reflection on adaptation and the (possible borders of this cultural practice. It particularly focuses on the issues raised by cinematic adaptation of literary texts, a phenomenon which needs to be contextualized in the larger field of relationships between literature and cinema. Such issues, however, do not emerge in the same way for any text: they are especially urgent when we tackle the cinematic adaptation of

  5. Incorporating nonlinearity into mediation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafl, George J; Knafl, Kathleen A; Grey, Margaret; Dixon, Jane; Deatrick, Janet A; Gallo, Agatha M

    2017-03-21

    Mediation is an important issue considered in the behavioral, medical, and social sciences. It addresses situations where the effect of a predictor variable X on an outcome variable Y is explained to some extent by an intervening, mediator variable M. Methods for addressing mediation have been available for some time. While these methods continue to undergo refinement, the relationships underlying mediation are commonly treated as linear in the outcome Y, the predictor X, and the mediator M. These relationships, however, can be nonlinear. Methods are needed for assessing when mediation relationships can be treated as linear and for estimating them when they are nonlinear. Existing adaptive regression methods based on fractional polynomials are extended here to address nonlinearity in mediation relationships, but assuming those relationships are monotonic as would be consistent with theories about directionality of such relationships. Example monotonic mediation analyses are provided assessing linear and monotonic mediation of the effect of family functioning (X) on a child's adaptation (Y) to a chronic condition by the difficulty (M) for the family in managing the child's condition. Example moderated monotonic mediation and simulation analyses are also presented. Adaptive methods provide an effective way to incorporate possibly nonlinear monotonicity into mediation relationships.

  6. Incorporating nonlinearity into mediation analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Knafl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mediation is an important issue considered in the behavioral, medical, and social sciences. It addresses situations where the effect of a predictor variable X on an outcome variable Y is explained to some extent by an intervening, mediator variable M. Methods for addressing mediation have been available for some time. While these methods continue to undergo refinement, the relationships underlying mediation are commonly treated as linear in the outcome Y, the predictor X, and the mediator M. These relationships, however, can be nonlinear. Methods are needed for assessing when mediation relationships can be treated as linear and for estimating them when they are nonlinear. Methods Existing adaptive regression methods based on fractional polynomials are extended here to address nonlinearity in mediation relationships, but assuming those relationships are monotonic as would be consistent with theories about directionality of such relationships. Results Example monotonic mediation analyses are provided assessing linear and monotonic mediation of the effect of family functioning (X on a child’s adaptation (Y to a chronic condition by the difficulty (M for the family in managing the child's condition. Example moderated monotonic mediation and simulation analyses are also presented. Conclusions Adaptive methods provide an effective way to incorporate possibly nonlinear monotonicity into mediation relationships.

  7. Exercise training-induced adaptations in mediators of sustained endothelium-dependent coronary artery relaxation in a porcine model of ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, Cristine L; Robles, Juan Carlos; Sarin, Vandana; Mattox, Mildred L; Parker, Janet L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise training enhances sustained relaxation to persistent endothelium-dependent vasodilator exposure via increased nitric oxide contribution in small coronary arteries of control and ischemic hearts. Yucatan swine were designated to a control group or a group in which an ameroid constrictor was placed around the proximal LCX. Subsequently, pigs from both groups were assigned to exercise (five days/week; 16 weeks) or SED regimens. Coronary arteries (~100-350 μm) were isolated from control pigs and from both nonoccluded and collateral-dependent regions of chronically-occluded hearts. In arteries from control pigs, training significantly enhanced relaxation responses to increasing concentrations of bradykinin (10(-10) -10(-7) M) and sustained relaxation to a single bradykinin concentration (30 nM), which were abolished by NOS inhibition. Training also significantly prolonged bradykinin-mediated relaxation in collateral-dependent arteries of occluded pigs, which was associated with more persistent increases in endothelial cellular Ca(2+) levels, and reversed with NOS inhibition. Protein levels for eNOS and p-eNOS-(Ser1179), but not caveolin-1, Hsp90, or Akt, were significantly increased with occlusion, independent of training state. Exercise training enhances sustained relaxation to endothelium-dependent agonist stimulation in small arteries of control and ischemic hearts by enhanced nitric oxide contribution and endothelial Ca(2+) responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The role of the N-terminal segment of CCR5 in HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion and the mechanism of virus adaptation to CCR5 lacking this segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabat David

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env induces membrane fusion as a result of sequential binding to CD4 and chemokine receptors (CCR5 or CXCR4. The critical determinants of CCR5 coreceptor function are the N-terminal domain (Nt and the second extracellular loop. However, mutations in gp120 adapt HIV-1 to grow on cells expressing the N-terminally truncated CCR5(Δ18 (Platt et al., J. Virol. 2005, 79: 4357–68. Results We have functionally characterized the adapted Env (designated Env(NYP using a quantitative cell-cell fusion assay. The rate of fusion with target cells expressing wild-type CCR5 and the resistance to fusion inhibitors was virtually identical for wild-type Env and Env(NYP, implying that the coreceptor affinity had not increased as a result of adaptation. In contrast, Env(NYP-induced fusion with cells expressing CCR5(Δ18 occurred at a slower rate and was extremely sensitive to the CCR5 binding inhibitor, Sch-C. Resistance to Sch-C drastically increased after pre-incubation of Env(NYP- and CCR5(Δ18-expressing cells at a temperature that was not permissive to fusion. This indicates that ternary Env(NYP-CD4-CCR5(Δ18 complexes accumulate at sub-threshold temperature and that low-affinity interactions with the truncated coreceptor are sufficient for triggering conformational changes in the gp41 of Env(NYP but not in wild-type Env. We also demonstrated that the ability of CCR5(Δ18 to support fusion and infection mediated by wild-type Env can be partially reconstituted in the presence of a synthetic sulfated peptide corresponding to the CCR5 Nt. Pre-incubation of wild-type Env- and CCR5(Δ18-expressing cells with the sulfated peptide at sub-threshold temperature markedly increased the efficiency of fusion. Conclusion We propose that, upon binding the Nt region of CCR5, wild-type Env acquires the ability to productively engage the extracellular loop(s of CCR5 – an event that triggers gp41 refolding and membrane merger

  9. Anti-oxidative stress regulator NF-E2-related factor 2 mediates the adaptive induction of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes by lipid peroxidation metabolite 4-hydroxynonenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2 regulates a battery of antioxidative and phase II drug metabolizing/detoxifying genes through binding to the antioxidant response elements (ARE. NRF2-ARE signaling plays a central role in protecting cells from a wide spectrum of reactive toxic species including reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS. 4-hydroxylnonenal (4-HNE is a major end product from lipid peroxidation of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA induced by oxidative stress, and it is highly reactive to nucleophilic sites in DNA and proteins, causing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. In this study, we examined the role of NRF2 in regulating the 4-HNE induced gene expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Results When HeLa cells were treated with 4-HNE, NRF2 rapidly transloated into the nucleus, as determined by the distribution of NRF2 tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and increased NRF2 protein in the nuclear fraction. Transcriptional activity of ARE-luciferase was significantly induced by 0.01-10 μM of 4-HNE in a dose-dependent manner, and the induction could be blocked by pretreatment with glutathione (GSH. 4-HNE induced transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST A4, aldoketone reductase (AKR 1C1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and the induction was attenuated by knocking down NRF2 using small interfering RNA. Conclusions NRF2 is critical in mediating 4-HNE induced expression of antioxidant and detoxifying genes. This may account for one of the major cellular defense mechanisms against reactive metabolites of lipids peroxidation induced by oxidative stress and protect cells from cytotoxicity.

  10. L-Arginine supplementation inhibits the growth of breast cancer by enhancing innate and adaptive immune responses mediated by suppression of MDSCs in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Feng, Yonghui; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhu, Xiaotong; Jin, Feng

    2016-06-01

    L-Arg is involved in many biological activities, including the activation of T cells. In breast cancer patients, L-Arg is depleted by nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and arginase 1 (ARG-1) produced by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Our aim was to test whether L-Arg supplementation could enhance antitumor immune response and improve survivorship in a rodent model of mammary tumor. Tumor volumes in control and L-Arg treated 4 T1 tumor bearing (TB) BALB/c mice were measured and survival rates were recorded. The percentages of MDSCs, dendritic cells (DCs), regulatory T cells (Tregs), macrophages, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells were examined by flow cytometry. Additionally, levels of IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured by the Griess reaction. IFN-γ, T-bet, Granzyme B, ARG-1 and iNOS mRNA levels were examined by real-time RT-PCR. L-Arg treatment inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival time of 4 T1 TB mice. The frequency of MDSCs was significantly suppressed in L-Arg treated TB mice. In contrast, the numbers and function of macrophages, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells were significantly enhanced. The IFN-γ, TNF-α, NO levels in splenocytes supernatant, as well as iNOS, IFN-γ, Granzyme B mRNA levels in splenocytes and tumor blocks were significantly increased. The ARG-1 mRNA level in tumor blocks, the frequency of Tregs, and IL-10 level were not affected. L-Arg supplementation significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival time of 4 T1 TB mice, which was associated with the reduction of MDSCs, and enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses.

  11. Lung CD4 Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells Mediate Adaptive Immunity Induced by Previous Infection of Mice withBordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Mieszko M; Misiak, Alicja; McManus, Róisín M; Allen, Aideen C; Lynch, Marina A; Mills, Kingston H G

    2017-07-01

    Th1 and Th17 cells have an established role in protective immunity to Bordetella pertussis , but this evidence is based largely on peripheral T cells. There is emerging evidence that local tissue-resident memory T (T RM ) cells that accumulate in tissue following mucosal infection may be crucial for long-term immunity. In this study, we examined the role of respiratory CD4 T RM cells in immunity to B. pertussis Natural immunity to B. pertussis induced by infection is considered long lasting and effective at preventing reinfection. Consistent with this, we found that convalescent mice rapidly cleared the bacteria after reinfection. Furthermore, CD4 T cells with a T RM cell phenotype (CD44 + CD62L - CD69 + or CD44 + CD62L - CD69 + CD103 + ) accumulated in the lungs of mice during infection with B. pertussis and significantly expanded through local proliferation following reinfection. These CD4 T RM cells were B. pertussis specific and secreted IL-17 or IL-17 and IFN-γ. Treatment of mice with FTY720, which prevented migration of T and B cells from lymph nodes to the circulation, significantly exacerbated B. pertussis infection. This was associated with significantly reduced infiltration of central memory T cells and B cells into the lungs. However, the local expansion of T RM cells and the associated rapid clearance of the secondary infection were not affected by treatment with FTY720 before rechallenge. Moreover, adoptive transfer of lung CD4 T RM cells conferred protection in naive mice. Our findings reveal that Ag-specific CD4 T RM cells play a critical role in adaptive immunity against reinfection and memory induced by natural infection with B. pertussis . Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkolÿ Thege Barna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.

  13. Emergence of the epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 coincides with horizontal transfer of the arginine catabolic mobile element and speG-mediated adaptations for survival on skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planet, Paul J; LaRussa, Samuel J; Dana, Ali; Smith, Hannah; Xu, Amy; Ryan, Chanelle; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Boundy, Sam; Goldberg, Julia; Narechania, Apurva; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Ratner, Adam J; Geoghegan, Joan A; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Prince, Alice

    2013-12-17

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is the largest genomic region distinguishing epidemic USA300 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from other S. aureus strains. However, the functional relevance of ACME to infection and disease has remained unclear. Using phylogenetic analysis, we have shown that the modular segments of ACME were assembled into a single genetic locus in Staphylococcus epidermidis and then horizontally transferred to the common ancestor of USA300 strains in an extremely recent event. Acquisition of one ACME gene, speG, allowed USA300 strains to withstand levels of polyamines (e.g., spermidine) produced in skin that are toxic to other closely related S. aureus strains. speG-mediated polyamine tolerance also enhanced biofilm formation, adherence to fibrinogen/fibronectin, and resistance to antibiotic and keratinocyte-mediated killing. We suggest that these properties gave USA300 a major selective advantage during skin infection and colonization, contributing to the extraordinary evolutionary success of this clone. Over the past 15 years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major public health problem. It is likely that adaptations in specific MRSA lineages (e.g., USA300) drove the spread of MRSA across the United States and allowed it to replace other, less-virulent S. aureus strains. We suggest that one major factor in the evolutionary success of MRSA may have been the acquisition of a gene (speG) that allows S. aureus to evade the toxicity of polyamines (e.g., spermidine and spermine) that are produced in human skin. Polyamine tolerance likely gave MRSA multiple fitness advantages, including the formation of more-robust biofilms, increased adherence to host tissues, and resistance to antibiotics and killing by human skin cells.

  14. International student adaptation to academic writing in higher education

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Ly Thi

    2013-01-01

    Academic writing is a key practice in higher education and central to international students' academic success in the country of education. International Student Adaptation to Academic Writing in Higher Education addresses the prominent forms of adaptation emerging from international students' journey to mediate between disciplinary practices, cultural norms and personal desires in meaning making. It introduces new concepts that present different patterns of international student adaptation including surface adaptation, committed adaptation, reverse adaptation and hybrid adaptation. Drawing on

  15. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  16. When can refuges mediate the genetic effects of fire regimes? A simulation study of the effects of topography and weather on neutral and adaptive genetic diversity in fire-prone landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sam C; Davies, Ian D; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how landscape heterogeneity mediates the effects of fire on biodiversity is increasingly important under global changes in fire regimes. We used a simulation experiment to investigate how fire regimes interact with topography and weather to shape neutral and selection-driven genetic diversity under alternative dispersal scenarios, and to explore the conditions under which microrefuges can maintain genetic diversity of populations exposed to recurrent fire. Spatial heterogeneity in simulated fire frequency occurred in topographically complex landscapes, with fire refuges and fire-prone "hotspots" apparent. Interannual weather variability reduced the effect of topography on fire patterns, with refuges less apparent under high weather variability. Neutral genetic diversity was correlated with long-term fire frequency under spatially heterogeneous fire regimes, being higher in fire refuges than fire-prone areas, except under high dispersal or low fire severity (low mortality). This generated different spatial genetic structures in fire-prone and fire-refuge components of the landscape, despite similar dispersal. In contrast, genetic diversity was only associated with time since the most recent fire in flat landscapes without predictable refuges and hotspots. Genetic effects of selection driven by fire-related conditions depended on selection pressure, migration distance and spatial heterogeneity in fire regimes. Allele frequencies at a locus conferring higher fitness under successional environmental conditions followed a pattern of "temporal adaptation" to contemporary conditions under strong selection pressure and high migration. However, selected allele frequencies were correlated with spatial variation in long-term mean fire frequency (relating to environmental predictability) under weak dispersal, low selection pressure and strong spatial heterogeneity in fire regimes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Application of GIS techniques to analysis of spatial distribution patterns of loom-weights, spindle-whorls and tokens at Pistiros, ancient Thrace, within a domestic/urban context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Grzybalska

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A long-term systematic international excavation project has attested the existence of a wide range of past human activities in the emporion Pistiros. An assemblage of artefacts indicating the conduct of different economic activities on the site includes an interesting collection of loom-weights, spindle-whorls and tokens. The purpose of this paper is to look at archaeological material from social, cultural and economic perspectives to understood fully the everyday life of the inhabitants of this trading centre from the Classical to early Hellenistic period (second half of the fifth to second centuries B.C.. To achieve this goal spatial mapping techniques (GIS were applied to analyse distribution patterns of objects associated with the textile industry within a domestic context.

  18. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed...

  19. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  20. Adaptation Stories

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By Reg'

    formed a real foundation for endogenous, and, therefore, sustainable, strategies for adaptation to climate change. The stories reinforce what we already knew: that successful adaptation must come from the people who are living on the front lines, facing the many problems caused by climate change and climate variation.

  1. Mediatized Humanitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the implications of mediatization for the legitimation strategies of humanitarian organizations. Based on a (full population) corpus of ~400 pages of brochure material from 1970 to 2007, the micro-textual processes involved in humanitarian organizations' efforts to legiti......The article investigates the implications of mediatization for the legitimation strategies of humanitarian organizations. Based on a (full population) corpus of ~400 pages of brochure material from 1970 to 2007, the micro-textual processes involved in humanitarian organizations' efforts...... legitimation by accountancy, legitimation by institutionalization, and legitimation by compensation. The analysis relates these changes to a problem of trust associated with mediatization through processes of mediation....

  2. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  3. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    intense relational mechanisms provide an effective means for contingency adaptation and therefore reduce the probability of premature termination. However, in situations where relationships are already governed by longer duration contracts, we argue that investments in relational mechanism create...

  4. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible...... and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  5. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  6. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....

  7. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  8. Complex Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    This article has its starting point in a large number of empirical findings regarding computer-mediated work. These empirical findings have challenged our understanding of the role of mediation in such work; on the one hand as an aspect of communication and cooperation at work and on the other hand...... as an aspect of human engagement with instruments of work. On the basis of previous work in activity-theoretical and semiotic human—computer interaction, we propose a model to encompass both of these aspects. In a dialogue with our empirical findings we move on to propose a number of types of mediation...... that have helped to enrich our understanding of mediated work and the design of computer mediation for such work....

  9. Parent Mediation Empowers Sibling Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hildy S.; Lazinski, Marysia J.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: For the current study, formal mediation procedures were adapted for families and parents were trained and asked to mediate their children's disputes; control group parents intervened as they normally would. Conflict negotiations with parents and their children (ages 3½-11 years) occurring 3 and 7 weeks following training, and…

  10. Complex Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    This article has its starting point in a large number of empirical findings regarding computer-mediated work. These empirical findings have challenged our understanding of the role of mediation in such work; on the one hand as an aspect of communication and cooperation at work and on the other hand...... as an aspect of human engagement with instruments of work. On the basis of previous work in activity-theoretical and semiotic human—computer interaction, we propose a model to encompass both of these aspects. In a dialogue with our empirical findings we move on to propose a number of types of mediation...

  11. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation......This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  12. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  13. Adaptive Storyworlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of interactive digital storytelling systems is to support the users’ experience of being able to freely roam open sandbox-like storyworlds, while at the same time maintaining control over the distribution and order of events in the mediated narrative. However, although sever...

  14. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning.

  15. Adaptation is...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    vital sector is under threat. While it is far from the only development challenge facing local farmers, extreme variations in the climate of West Africa in the past several decades have dealt the region a bad hand. Drought and flood now follow each other in succession. Adaptation is... “The floods spoiled our harvests and we.

  16. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  17. Adaptation Insights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    be given greater access to relevant information to help them adapt their farming practices and socio- economic strategies to climate change? To address this challenge, the project “InfoClim,” led by Senegal's. Ecological Monitoring Centre. (CSE) with support from the. CCAA program, aims at improving the access of farmers ...

  18. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  19. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  20. Adaptive sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  1. Adaptive positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  2. Adaptable positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  3. ADAPTATION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn PETERS, M.Sc.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty subjects with lower limb disabilities participated in a simulator study. The purpose of the study was to investigate how an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC system together with two different hand controls for accelerator and brake influenced workload, comfort and driving behaviour and to further develop a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for drivers with disabilities. The installed ACC system could maintain a constant speed selected and set by the driver and it also adapted speed in order to keep a safe distance to a leading vehicle. Furthermore, it included a stop-and-go function. Two common types of hand controls for accelerator and brake were used. The hand controls were different both with respect to function, single or dual levers, and position, on the steering column or between the front seats. The subjects were all experienced drivers of adapted cars equipped with hand controls. All subjects drove 100km at two occasions, with and without the ACC system available but with the same hand control. Subjective workload was found to be significantly lower and performance better for the ACC condition. The difference in speed variation between manual and ACC supported driving increased with the distance driven which seems to support the previous finding. The subjects thought they could control both speed and distance to leading vehicles better while the ACC was available. ACC driving did not influence reaction time, speed level, lateral position or variation in lateral position. Headway during car following situations was shorter for the ACC condition compared to manual driving. The ACC was well received, trusted and wanted. It was concluded that the ACC system substantially decreased workload, increased comfort and did not influence safety negatively. The only difference found between the two types of hand controls was that drivers using the dual lever system had less variation in lateral position. The applied evaluation method proved

  4. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts....... In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  5. Mediating Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "Mediating Business" is a study of the expansion of business journalism. Building on evidence from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, "Mediating Business" is a comparative and multidisciplinary study of one of the major transformations of the mass media and the realm of business - nationally...... and globally. The book explores the history of key innovations and innovators in the business press. It analyzes changes in the discourse of business journalism associated with the growth in business news and the development of new ways of framing business issues and events. Finally, it examines...... the organizational implications of the increased media visibility of business and, in particular, the development of corporate governance and media relations....

  6. Immune mediated liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of "immune coagulation", which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  7. Inducible competitors and adaptive diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beren W. ROBINSON, David W. PFENNIG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the causes of diversification is central to evolutionary biology. The ecological theory of adaptive diversification holds that the evolution of phenotypic differences between populations and species––and the formation of new species––stems from divergent natural selection, often arising from competitive interactions. Although increasing evidence suggests that phenotypic plasticity can facilitate this process, it is not generally appreciated that competitively mediated selection often also provides ideal conditions for phenotypic plasticity to evolve in the first place. Here, we discuss how competition plays at least two key roles in adaptive diversification depending on its pattern. First, heterogenous competition initially generates heterogeneity in resource use that favors adaptive plasticity in the form of “inducible competitors”. Second, once such competitively induced plasticity evolves, its capacity to rapidly generate phenotypic variation and expose phenotypes to alternate selective regimes allows populations to respond readily to selection favoring diversification, as may occur when competition generates steady diversifying selection that permanently drives the evolutionary divergence of populations that use different resources. Thus, competition plays two important roles in adaptive diversification––one well-known and the other only now emerging––mediated through its effect on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity [Current Zoology 59 (4: 537–552, 2013].

  8. Adaptive management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    a management framework, as well as of identified challenges and pathologies, are needed. Further discussion and systematic assessment of the approach is required, together with greater attention to its definition and description, enabling the assessment of new approaches to managing uncertainty, and AM itself.......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...

  9. Cynophobic fear adaptively extends peri-personal space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine eTaffou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Peri-personal space (PPS is defined as the space immediately surrounding our bodies, which is critical in the adaptation of our social behavior. As a space of interaction with the external world, PPS is involved in the control of motor action as well as in the protection of the body. The boundaries of this PPS are known to be flexible but so far, little is known about how PPS boundaries are influenced by unreasonable fear. We hypothesized that unreasonable fear extends the neural representation of the multisensory space immediately surrounding the body in the presence of a feared object, with the aim of expanding the space of protection around the body. To test this hypothesis, we explored the impact of unreasonable fear on the size of PPS in two groups of non-clinical participants: dog-fearful and non-fearful participants. The sensitivity to cynophobia was assessed with a questionnaire. We measured participants’ PPS extent in the presence of threatening (dog growling and non-threatening (sheep bleating auditory stimuli. The sound stimuli were processed through binaural rendering so that the virtual sound sources were looming towards participants from their rear hemi-field. We found that, when in the presence of the auditory dog stimulus, the PPS of dog-fearful participants is larger than that of non-fearful participants. Our results demonstrate that PPS size is adaptively modulated by cynophobia and suggest that anxiety tailors PPS boundaries when exposed to fear-relevant features. Anxiety, with the exception of social phobia, has rarely been studied as a disorder of social interaction. These findings could help develop new treatment strategies for anxious disorders, by involving the link between space and interpersonal interaction in the approach of the disorder.

  10. Mediatization and Government Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo; Valentini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Social actors see exposure in the news media as attractive for publicity purposes and are under pressure to adapt their press work to a “media logic” to be attractive sources for journalists and editors. This article investigates the European Parliament’s press officers’ professional practices...... in the light of mediatization and government communication theories. Without one pan-European public sphere, the European Parliament, like the other European Union (EU) institutions, competes with national actors for the news media’s attention in the EU’s twenty-eight national public spheres, where EU affairs......” in their communication efforts, and that they face a daily professional challenge as they attempt to promote the European Parliament and its activities to the news media in a way that will not compromise their credibility as government sources. The study provides new insights into communicative aspects of EU governance...

  11. What To Do When Disintermediation Looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, Cris

    This paper provides an overview of the differing levels of disintermediation (defined by Harvard Business Review as simply "compressing the supply chain") experienced by business information professionals with mature end-user communities, and their impact on the role of today's information center. Technology has made disintermediation…

  12. Looming jagas aastapreemiaid : [sõnum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Tiit Aleksejev, jutustus "Tartu rahu" (nr. 7); Hasso Krull, luuletused (nr. 10); Madis Kõiv, essee "Juhan Jaik. Vihmatark ja Luudermikk" (nr. 1-2); Andres Maimik, retsensioon "Bourdieu Eesti meediareaalsuses" (nr. 12); Tarmo Teder, jutustus "Sibi Innu jõululobi" (nr. 9); Amar Annus, Tayyib Salihi "Zaini pulmade" tõlge araabia keelest Loomingu Raamatukogus (nr. 8).

  13. Conveying Looming with a Localized Tactile Cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Station, Alexandria, Virginia 22314. Orders will be expedited if placed through the Librarian or other person designated to request documents from DTIC...104. San Diego, CA: Academic . Grosse, K. 2009. Audio-visual perception in interactive visual environments. Institut fur Computergraphik und

  14. The Looming Crisis in Federal Records Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, James

    2004-01-01

    Federal records management faces many challenges today. Too few records, both in the traditional formats and the newer electronic ones, are being appraised or transferred to the National Archives when required. Although the National Archives and Records Administration has several major initiatives underway to remedy the problem, additional actions…

  15. Bõ Yin Ŕ ja tema looming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Lühidalt Bõ Yin Ŕ elust ja loomingust, tema raamatutest : Raamat elavast jumalast. Kuressaare, 2003 ; Raamat õnnest. Kuressaare, 2004 ; Armastuseraamat. Kuressaare, 2003 ; Elu mõte. Kuressaare, 2004

  16. Gerhard Richteri looming Kumus / Inga Leomar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leomar, Inga

    2008-01-01

    Saksa maalikunstniku Gerhard Richteri (s. 1932) tööde näitusest "Ülevaade" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis, koostaja Saksa Välissuhete Instituut. Mainitud ka Tõnis Saadoja näitus "Mainstream" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis, kus eksponeeritakse segatehnikas portreesid, mis on inspireeritud G. Richteri sarjast "48 portreed"

  17. Olev Soansi elu ja looming / Harvet Toots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toots, Harvet, 1966-2002

    2003-01-01

    Lisaks uurimuse valmimise eelloost. Järgneb 11. okt. 2003, lk. 18, 14. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 16. okt. 2003, lk. 9, 18. okt. 2003, lk. 18, 21. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 23. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 25. okt. 2003, lk. 18, 28. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 30. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 1. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 4. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 6. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 8. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 11. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 13. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 15. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 18. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 20. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 22. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 25. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 27. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 29. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 4. dets. 2003, lk. 10, 6. dets. 2003, lk. 18, 9. dets. 2003, lk. 10, 11. dets. 2003, lk. 10, 13. dets. 2003, lk. 18, 16. dets. 2003, lk. 10

  18. Positive ID. Medical device standard looming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJohn, Paula

    2009-11-01

    After much work and research, the Food and Drug Administration is preparing to publish a proposed rule for unique device identifier (UDI) standards for medical devices. The UDI would be used to identify a vast array of medical products and would streamline the hospital supply chain while improving patient safety. For instance, having a UDI in place would assist product recall efforts. But getting hospital supply chain leaders, manufacturers, group purchasing organizations and others to embrace UDI standards won't be easy. Here's a look at what's ahead.

  19. Hygiene: The Looming Achilles Heel in Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Michael; Beilenhoff, Ulrike

    2016-02-01

    Since the late 1970s there have been sporadic reports of nosocomial infections linked to endoscopic procedures. Infections by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) have an increasing impact on healthcare systems worldwide. Since 2010 outbreaks involving MDRO have been reported as a result of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) from the USA, France, Germany and the Netherlands. This article evaluates the recent outbreaks and developments and demonstrates a structural approach to how to prevent future infections. Current national and international guidelines were used as a basis for discussions. In some cases insufficient cleaning or drying supported the outbreak. In the majority of cases, outbreaks occurred despite the apparently appropriate reprocessing protocols being in use. Microlesions were identified on a number of endoscopes, which supported the growth of bacteria and represented a vehicle for the transmission of infectious material. National official bodies responded with warnings. Manufacturers informed their customers accordingly. Separate, purpose-designed reprocessing rooms and a sufficient number of competent staff provide the structural quality for a safe reprocessing. The process quality includes a thorough cleaning of all endoscope channels and crucial instrument components, followed by an automated and validated reprocessing procedure. Strict adherence to manufacturers' recommendations is essential. The outcome quality should be evaluated by regular audits, validation of reprocessing procedures and microbiological surveillance. If outbreaks occur, a close co-operation with official bodies and manufacturers is essential. Health care professionals and manufacturers should be aware of their responsibility to ensure patient safety. A structural approach is key in prevention of endoscopy-associated infections.

  20. Battle looms over hydroelectric dam relicensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental groups, buoyed by support from influential lawmakers, are vowing to change the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) hydroelectric relicensing procedures. For too long, the groups say, the hydroelectric industry has benefitted from a cozy relationship with the FERC, which has emphasized economic over environmental considerations. The success or failure of the environmentalists agenda will likely prove critical to the hydroelectric industry. With 237 hydroelectric licenses up for renewal this year - the most ever considered by the FERC in one year - and four vacant seats at the Commission, FERC hydro policy appears poised for upheaval. The groups have proposed a multipoint program to address perceived shortcomings in the FERC's hydroelectric relicensing procedures. The program includes recommendations to: Shorten dam licenses (which currently stretch 30 to 50 years) and require the FERC to periodically reevaluate the terms of hydropower licenses; Increase Congressional oversight of the FERC to assure adherence to environmental laws, including the National Environmental Policy Act, which mandates the preparation of environmental impact statements where appropriate; Mandate facilities for upstream and downstream fish passage; Establish a mitigation fund, collectable from dam owners, for river conservation and restoration programs; Promote all alternatives to relicensing projects, including denial of project licenses; and Reassign the FERC's hydropower jurisdiction to another federal agency, such as the Environmental Protection Agency or the Department of the Interior

  1. Raadioteatri looming juubelieelsel aastal / Madis Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Madis, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Raadioteatris 2007. aastal välja tulnud kuuest uuest kuuldemängust: Roland Schimmelpfennigi "Araabia öö", Aleksander Alleni "Elu sees", Aare Toikka viieosaline järjelugu "Kroonu", Mart Kivastiku "Nokia", Eva Östergreni "Tüdrukud", Üllar ja Rünno Saaremäe viieosaline lastelugu "Käpipuu vennaskond"

  2. Adaptive Feedback Improving Learningful Conversations at Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Matteo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Miranda, Sergio; Orciuoli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes the definition of an Adaptive Conversation-based Learning System (ACLS) able to foster computer-mediated tutorial dialogues at the workplace in order to increase the probability to generate meaningful learning during conversations. ACLS provides a virtual assistant selecting the best partner to involve in the conversation and…

  3. A novel mechanism of cone photoreceptor adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus H C Howlett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An animal's ability to survive depends on its sensory systems being able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions, by maximizing the information extracted and reducing the noise transmitted. The visual system does this by adapting to luminance and contrast. While luminance adaptation can begin at the retinal photoreceptors, contrast adaptation has been shown to start at later stages in the retina. Photoreceptors adapt to changes in luminance over multiple time scales ranging from tens of milliseconds to minutes, with the adaptive changes arising from processes within the phototransduction cascade. Here we show a new form of adaptation in cones that is independent of the phototransduction process. Rather, it is mediated by voltage-gated ion channels in the cone membrane and acts by changing the frequency response of cones such that their responses speed up as the membrane potential modulation depth increases and slow down as the membrane potential modulation depth decreases. This mechanism is effectively activated by high-contrast stimuli dominated by low frequencies such as natural stimuli. However, the more generally used Gaussian white noise stimuli were not effective since they did not modulate the cone membrane potential to the same extent. This new adaptive process had a time constant of less than a second. A critical component of the underlying mechanism is the hyperpolarization-activated current, Ih, as pharmacologically blocking it prevented the long- and mid- wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors (L- and M-cones from adapting. Consistent with this, short- wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors (S-cones did not show the adaptive response, and we found they also lacked a prominent Ih. The adaptive filtering mechanism identified here improves the information flow by removing higher-frequency noise during lower signal-to-noise ratio conditions, as occurs when contrast levels are low. Although this new adaptive mechanism can

  4. Supporting Adaptive and Adaptable Hypermedia Presentation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); L. Rutledge (Lloyd); L. Hardman (Lynda); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractHaving the content of a presentation adapt to the needs, resources and prior activities of a user can be an important benefit of electronic documents. While part of this adaptation is related to the encodings of individual data streams, much of the adaptation can/should be guided by the

  5. Integration of the immune system: a complex adaptive supersystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisman, Mark V.

    2001-10-01

    Immunity to pathogenic organisms is a complex process involving interacting factors within the immune system including circulating cells, tissues and soluble chemical mediators. Both the efficiency and adaptive responses of the immune system in a dynamic, often hostile, environment are essential for maintaining our health and homeostasis. This paper will present a brief review of one of nature's most elegant, complex adaptive systems.

  6. Neuropeptide S in the basolateral amygdala mediates an adaptive behavioral stress response in a rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder by increasing the expression of BDNF and the neuropeptide YY1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagit; Vainer, Ella; Zeev, Kaplan; Zohar, Joseph; Mathé, Aleksander A

    2018-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a regulatory peptide that has anxiolytic and arousal-promoting effects in rodents. We used an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to assess long-term behavioral effects of a single dose of NPS, microinjected into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) 1h following exposure to predator-scent stress (PSS). To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which NPS attenuates behavioral stress responses, expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY-Y1 receptor (NPY-Y1R), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated in the hippocampus. The behavioral and molecular effects of NPS receptor antagonist (NPS-RA), NPY-Y1R antagonist (NPY-Y1RA), or both administered centrally were evaluated in the same manner. Circulating corticosterone levels were measured at different time points following PSS-exposure. Immediate post-exposure treatment with NPS had a marked protective effect; BLA microinfusion of NPS completely abolished the extreme behavioral response to PSS, restored the decreased expression of BDNF and, unexpectedly, PY-Y1R, but didn't affect the decreased expression of NPY. BLA microinfusion of both NPY-Y1RA and NPS-RA together had an additive effect, which completely prevented the anxiolytic effects of NPS in rats exposed to PSS and disrupted the expression of NPY-Y1R in the hippocampus following NPS infusion. It may therefore be hypothesized that NPS acts, directly or indirectly, on both the NPY-Y1R and NPS receptors and that the cross-talk between NPS and NPY-Y1R may be necessary for the anxiolytic effects of NPS post-exposure. The NPS system might thus contribute to a potential endogenous mechanism underlying the shift towards adaptive behavioral response and thereby might be relevant as a pharmacological target for attenuating stress-related sequelae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. The Pathogenesis of Resection-Associated Intestinal AdaptationSummary

    OpenAIRE

    Brad W. Warner

    2016-01-01

    After massive small-bowel resection, the remnant bowel compensates by a process termed adaptation. Adaptation is characterized by villus elongation and crypt deepening, which increases the capacity for absorption and digestion per unit length. The mechanisms/mediators of this important response are multiple. The purpose of this review is to highlight the major basic contributions in elucidating a more comprehensive understanding of this process. Keywords: Adaptation, Epithelium, Angiogenesis,...

  8. The role of mediation in resolving contract disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Michael C

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Mediation has emerged as a preferred ADR method among commercial organizations involved in contract disputes. However, its use by the Navy has been rare. Mediation has shown to provide benefits to its commercial users such as: improved business relations, time and cost savings, flexibility and adaptability and superior control over outcomes. This thesis provides information on mediation and examines the differences and similarities bet...

  9. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  10. THE ROLE AND THE TECHNIQUES USED BY THE MEDIATOR IN THE MEDIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEPTIMIU STOICA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to emphasize the complexity of the mediator’s activity during the mediation process, as an extra – judicial alternative dispute resolution methodology. Different mediation schools have launched different mediation models in terms of theoretical and practical approach of the matter. So one can note on brief the facilitative, the evaluative, the transformative and the narrative mediation, for example. It is not our goal to praise one of the above mentioned paradigms or to suggest a hierarchy among them. We think that each of these models is valuable and has a potential utility. The most important achievement is to solve the conflicts and to obtain the parties’ agreements, based on mediation generated solutions. It seems in this respect that different mediation models fit differently in solving specific cases. To reach the solutions of their conflict, the parties have to follow the mediator through a difficult and complicated route. It can be made easier by the mediator himself if he adapts his role and techniques according to the specifics of the parties and of the case. We assume that he can be more efficient if he will use a proper role from an appropriate model for a definite and concrete conflict or type of conflict. Even he may try to play a multiple role, changing its characteristics dynamically as the mediation process flows. The present work identifies some of the key roles that can be played by the mediator during the mediation process. Only based on these we can select, explain and analyze the specific or common techniques used by a mediator. Our point is that for his new case the efficient mediator must be flexible, knowledgeable and able to decide, select and perform a dedicated role or roles, same time or successively, and accordingly and dynamically use the adequate mediation techniques, which will be also summarized.

  11. Perceived Discrimination, Acculturation Attitudes and Psychological Adaptation Among Finnish-Ingrian Remigrants to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Limpens, Evita Jurriena Talina

    2013-01-01

    This study was set out to investigate whether acculturation attitudes play a mediating role in the acculturation-adaptation link. The main focus was on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological adaptation and the potential mediating role of acculturation attitudes in this relationship. Expectations were based on previous research on ethnic and national identification and the role of these concepts in the acculturation-adaptation link. Acculturation attitudes were con...

  12. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  13. Spike Frequency Adaptation in Neurons of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Go Eun; Cheong, Eunji

    2017-08-01

    Neuronal firing patterns and frequencies determine the nature of encoded information of the neurons. Here we discuss the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Calcium-activated potassium (K Ca ) channels such as BK Ca and SK Ca channels have long been known to be important mediators of spike adaptation via generation of a large afterhyperpolarization when neurons are hyper-activated. However, it has been shown that a strong hyperpolarization via these K Ca channels would cease action potential generation rather than reducing the frequency of spike generation. In some types of neurons, the strong hyperpolarization is followed by oscillatory activity in these neurons. Recently, spike-frequency adaptation in thalamocortical (TC) and CA1 hippocampal neurons is shown to be mediated by the Ca 2+ -activated Cl- channel (CACC), anoctamin-2 (ANO2). Knockdown of ANO2 in these neurons results in significantly reduced spike-frequency adaptation accompanied by increased number of spikes without shifting the firing mode, which suggests that ANO2 mediates a genuine form of spike adaptation, finely tuning the frequency of spikes in these neurons. Based on the finding of a broad expression of this new class of CACC in the brain, it can be proposed that the ANO2-mediated spike-frequency adaptation may be a general mechanism to control information transmission in the CNS neurons.

  14. Adaptive Modular Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user...... test set, the results are important as a proof of existence of differences and of the need for adaptation. The fact that there are individual differences makes the results significant for the development of games and interaction. It indicates that it is necessary to adapt the game and interaction......, if we desire to make the most appropriate game and interaction for the individual. Hence, we investigate adaptation as an important issue for playware. With simple playware games, we show that the adaptation will speed the game up and down to find the appropriate level that matches the reaction speed...

  15. Adapting to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Christopher W. Swanston; David L. Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Federal agencies have led the development of adaptation principles and tools in forest ecosystems over the past decade. Successful adaptation efforts generally require organizations to: (1) develop science-management partnerships, (2) provide education on climate change science, (3) provide a toolkit of methods and processes for vulnerability assessment and adaptation...

  16. Adaptation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmin, J.; Tierney, K.; Chu, E.; Hunter, L.M.; Roberts, J.T.; Shi, L.; Dunlap, R.E.; Brulle, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change adaptation involves major global and societal challenges such as finding adequate and equitable adaptation funding and integrating adaptation and development programs. Current funding is insufficient. Debates between the Global North and South center on how best to allocate the

  17. HIV-1 adaptation to NK cell-mediated immune pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elemans, Marjet; Boelen, Lies; Rasmussen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The observation, by Alter et al., of the enrichment of NK cell “escape” variants in individuals carrying certain Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) genes is compelling evidence that natural killer (NK) cells exert selection pressure on HIV-1. Alter et al hypothesise that variant pepti...

  18. Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Fejerskov

    Full Text Available In this report, we detail Substrate Mediated Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (SMEPT as a novel approach in drug delivery which relies on enzyme-functionalized cell culture substrates to achieve a localized conversion of benign prodrug(s into active therapeutics with subsequent delivery to adhering cells or adjacent tissues. For proof-of-concept SMEPT, we use surface adhered micro-structured physical hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol, β-glucuronidase enzyme and glucuronide prodrugs. We demonstrate enzymatic activity mediated by the assembled hydrogel samples and illustrate arms of control over rate of release of model fluorescent cargo. SMEPT was not impaired by adhering cells and afforded facile time - and dose - dependent uptake of the in situ generated fluorescent cargo by hepatic cells, HepG2. With the use of a glucuronide derivative of an anticancer drug, SN-38, SMEPT afforded a decrease in cell viability to a level similar to that achieved using parent drug. Finally, dose response was achieved using SMEPT and administration of judiciously chosen concentration of SN-38 glucuronide prodrug thus revealing external control over drug delivery using drug eluting surface. We believe that this highly adaptable concept will find use in diverse biomedical applications, specifically surface mediated drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  19. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  20. Regulation Of Nf=kb And Mnsod In Low Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Protection Of Mouse And Human Skin Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Li

    2012-11-07

    A sampling of publications resulting from this grant is provided. One is on the subject of NF-κB-Mediated HER2 Overexpression in Radiation-Adaptive Resistance. Another is on NF-κB-mediated adaptive resistance to ionizing radiation.

  1. Nordic Mediation Reseach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A presentation of 12 studies on mediation from researchers from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.......A presentation of 12 studies on mediation from researchers from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden....

  2. mediation: R Package for Causal Mediation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Tingley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the R package mediation for conducting causal mediation analysis in applied empirical research. In many scientific disciplines, the goal of researchers is not only estimating causal effects of a treatment but also understanding the process in which the treatment causally affects the outcome. Causal mediation analysis is frequently used to assess potential causal mechanisms. The mediation package implements a comprehensive suite of statistical tools for conducting such an analysis. The package is organized into two distinct approaches. Using the model-based approach, researchers can estimate causal mediation effects and conduct sensitivity analysis under the standard research design. Furthermore, the design-based approach provides several analysis tools that are applicable under different experimental designs. This approach requires weaker assumptions than the model-based approach. We also implement a statistical method for dealing with multiple (causally dependent mediators, which are often encountered in practice. Finally, the package also offers a methodology for assessing causal mediation in the presence of treatment noncompliance, a common problem in randomized trials.

  3. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared with conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian…

  4. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  5. General gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, Patrick; Seiberg, Nathan; Shih, David

    2009-01-01

    We give a general definition of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking which encompasses all the known gauge mediation models. In particular, it includes both models with messengers as well as direct mediation models. A formalism for computing the soft terms in the generic model is presented. Such a formalism is necessary in strongly-coupled direct mediation models where perturbation theory cannot be used. It allows us to identify features of the entire class of gauge mediation models and to distinguish them from specific signatures of various subclasses. (author)

  6. Adaptation as organism design

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The problem of adaptation is to explain the apparent design of organisms. Darwin solved this problem with the theory of natural selection. However, population geneticists, whose responsibility it is to formalize evolutionary theory, have long neglected the link between natural selection and organismal design. Here, I review the major historical developments in theory of organismal adaptation, clarifying what adaptation is and what it is not, and I point out future avenues for research.

  7. The purpose of adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Andy

    2017-01-01

    A central feature of Darwin’s theory of natural selection is that it explains the purpose of biological adaptation. Here, I: emphasise the scientific importance of understanding what adaptations are for, in terms of facilitating the derivation of empirically-testable predictions; discuss the population genetical basis for Darwin’s theory of the purpose of adaptation, with reference to the “fundamental theorem of natural selection”; and show that a deeper understanding of the purpose of adapta...

  8. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous...

  9. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  10. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...

  11. Adaptive optics in microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Martin J

    2007-12-15

    The imaging properties of optical microscopes are often compromised by aberrations that reduce image resolution and contrast. Adaptive optics technology has been employed in various systems to correct these aberrations and restore performance. This has required various departures from the traditional adaptive optics schemes that are used in astronomy. This review discusses the sources of aberrations, their effects and their correction with adaptive optics, particularly in confocal and two-photon microscopes. Different methods of wavefront sensing, indirect aberration measurement and aberration correction devices are discussed. Applications of adaptive optics in the related areas of optical data storage, optical tweezers and micro/nanofabrication are also reviewed.

  12. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  13. Sensemaking in Technology-Use Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2006-01-01

    of advanced CSCW technologies is basically a problem of sensemaking. We analyze how a group of “technology-use mediators” (Orlikowski et al. Org. Sci. (1995) 6(4), 423) in a large, multinational company adapted a groupware technology (a “virtual workspace”) to the local organizational context (and vice versa......) by modifying features of the technology, providing ongoing support for users, and promoting appropriate conventions of use. Our findings corroborate earlier research on technology-use mediation, which suggests that such mediators can exert considerable influence on how a particular technology...... will be established and used in an organization. However, we also find that the process of technology-use mediation is much more complex and indeterminate than prior research suggests. The reason being, we argue, that new, advanced CSCW technologies, such as “virtual workspaces” and other groupware applications...

  14. Gratitude and Drug Misuse: Role of Coping as Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi-Ching; Tong, Eddie M W

    2017-12-06

    Positive emotions, such as gratitude has been found to be beneficial to both physical and mental well-being but so far, drug misuse research has yet to identify important emotive predictors related to drug use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between gratitude and drug use among a group of drug misusers. It was hypothesized that greater dispositional gratitude was associated with lesser drug use through greater use of adaptive coping methods and lesser use of maladaptive coping methods. This study utilized a cross-sectional design to examine the relationship between gratitude, coping, and drug use among a sample of drug misusers (N = 105) at a drug rehabilitation center. Participants completed the gratitude questionnaire (GQ-6), the joy subscale of the Dispositional Positive Emotion Scale (DPES), the Brief COPE, and a questionnaire on their drug use. Data were collected in 2015. Mediation analysis supported the hypothesis and found that adaptive coping mediated the relationship between gratitude and drug use. However, mediation was not found for maladaptive coping. Additional analysis found that adaptive coping as a mediator was not found for joy. Results suggested that gratitude has utility in reducing drug use through the use of more adaptive coping strategies and this relationship was not simply due to positive affect. Interventions targeting drug use behavior could consider introducing gratitude to increase adaptive coping abilities to reduce drug use.

  15. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  16. Management for adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Innes; Linda A. Joyce; Seppo Kellomaki; Bastiaan Louman; Aynslie Ogden; Ian Thompson; Matthew Ayres; Chin Ong; Heru Santoso; Brent Sohngen; Anita Wreford

    2009-01-01

    This chapter develops a framework to explore examples of adaptation options that could be used to ensure that the ecosystem services provided by forests are maintained under future climates. The services are divided into broad areas within which managers can identify specific management goals for individual forests or landscapes. Adaptation options exist for the major...

  17. Detachable caster adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, R. J.

    1969-01-01

    Detachable caster adapter moves heavy welding tables when fork lift trucks are not practical. A support saddle on the adapter, connected to the caster platform by means of a hinge, fits the leg of the welding table, but can be modified to fit other leg configurations.

  18. Human pathogen avoidance adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen

  19. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...

  20. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...

  1. Introduction: Adapting Idols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Bruin; dr. Koos Zwaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction book Adapting Idols Since the first series of Pop Idol aired in the UK just over a decade ago, Idols television shows have been broadcast in more than forty countries all over the world. In all those countries the global Idols format has been adapted to local cultures and production

  2. Adaptive noise cancellation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, N.

    1999-01-01

    In this report we describe the concept of adaptive noise canceling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise of interference. The method uses 'primary' input containing the corrupted signal and a 'reference' input containing noise correlated in some unknown way with the primary noise, the reference input is adaptively filtered and subtracted from the primary input to obtain the signal estimate. Adaptive filtering before subtraction allows the treatment of inputs that are deterministic or stochastic, stationary or time variable. When the reference input is free of signal and certain other conditions are met then noise in the primary input can be essentially eliminated without signal distortion. It is further shown that the adaptive filter also acts as notch filter. Simulated results illustrate the usefulness of the adaptive noise canceling technique. (author)

  3. Turbine system and adapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  4. Appraising Adaptive Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai N. Lee

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management is appraised as a policy implementation approach by examining its conceptual, technical, equity, and practical strengths and limitations. Three conclusions are drawn: (1 Adaptive management has been more influential, so far, as an idea than as a practical means of gaining insight into the behavior of ecosystems utilized and inhabited by humans. (2 Adaptive management should be used only after disputing parties have agreed to an agenda of questions to be answered using the adaptive approach; this is not how the approach has been used. (3 Efficient, effective social learning, of the kind facilitated by adaptive management, is likely to be of strategic importance in governing ecosystems as humanity searches for a sustainable economy.

  5. Adaptive Processes in Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth

    2018-01-01

    induced by hearing impairment and the compensation provided by hearing devices. These devices themselves are now able to adapt to the listener’s individual environment, attentional state, and behavior. These topics related to auditory adaptation, in the broad sense of the term, were central to the 6th......Our auditory environment is constantly changing and evolving over time, requiring us to rapidly adapt to a complex dynamic sensory input. This adaptive ability of our auditory system can be observed at different levels, from individual cell responses to complex neural mechanisms and behavior...... International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2017. The symposium addressed adaptive processes in hearing from different angles, together with a wide variety of other auditory and audiological topics. The papers in this special issue result from some...

  6. Adaptive signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 ..mu..sec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed.

  7. Adaptive signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 μsec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed

  8. Transition and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses how Danish farm families adapted to harsh and changing conditions in the period after the great western agricultural crisis in the early 1980s. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and adaptation, I analyse the creation and consolidation of different class fractions...... their agricultural production annually from 1980–2008. The result is a five-farmer typology that, together with logit regression models including background covariates, reveals how the farm families' adaptation strategies relate to educational level, financial situation, family composition and whether the farmer can...... amongst farm families due to different adaptation strategies. The data contain information about the population of self-employed farmers and their families who were between 30–35 years old in 1980 (n = 9,123). Using sequence analysis, I examine farm families' adaptation strategies for maintaining...

  9. 75 FR 57859 - Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Home Adaptation AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of... specially adapted housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain... regulations pertaining to eligibility for specially adapted housing (SAH) grants and special home adaptation...

  10. Flexible Mediation Analysis With Multiple Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Johan; Loeys, Tom; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2017-07-15

    The advent of counterfactual-based mediation analysis has triggered enormous progress on how, and under what assumptions, one may disentangle path-specific effects upon combining arbitrary (possibly nonlinear) models for mediator and outcome. However, current developments have largely focused on single mediators because required identification assumptions prohibit simple extensions to settings with multiple mediators that may depend on one another. In this article, we propose a procedure for obtaining fine-grained decompositions that may still be recovered from observed data in such complex settings. We first show that existing analytical approaches target specific instances of a more general set of decompositions and may therefore fail to provide a comprehensive assessment of the processes that underpin cause-effect relationships between exposure and outcome. We then outline conditions for obtaining the remaining set of decompositions. Because the number of targeted decompositions increases rapidly with the number of mediators, we introduce natural effects models along with estimation methods that allow for flexible and parsimonious modeling. Our procedure can easily be implemented using off-the-shelf software and is illustrated using a reanalysis of the World Health Organization's Large Analysis and Review of European Housing and Health Status (WHO-LARES) study on the effect of mold exposure on mental health (2002-2003). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N.; Anita, N.; Babu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect imm...

  12. Applied mediation analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Theis; Hansen, Kim Wadt; Sørensen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, mediation analysis has emerged as a powerful tool to disentangle causal pathways from an exposure/treatment to clinically relevant outcomes. Mediation analysis has been applied in scientific fields as diverse as labour market relations and randomized clinical trials of heart...... disease treatments. In parallel to these applications, the underlying mathematical theory and computer tools have been refined. This combined review and tutorial will introduce the reader to modern mediation analysis including: the mathematical framework; required assumptions; and software implementation...

  13. Implementing general gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, Linda M.; Dine, Michael; Festuccia, Guido; Mason, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Recently there has been much progress in building models of gauge mediation, often with predictions different than those of minimal gauge mediation. Meade, Seiberg, and Shih have characterized the most general spectrum which can arise in gauge-mediated models. We discuss some of the challenges of building models of general gauge mediation, especially the problem of messenger parity and issues connected with R symmetry breaking and CP violation. We build a variety of viable, weakly coupled models which exhibit some or all of the possible low energy parameters.

  14. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venturi, Michela

    , Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian Mediator. In our study, we have taken the S. pombe Mediator into consideration and characterized genetically and biochemically two subunits already know in S. cerevisiae, Med9 and Med11, but still not identified in the S. pombe Mediator. Genetic analysis has shown that med9...... complex, but our results did not exclude it completely either. Our attempts to demonstrate the presence of these two subunits in the Mediator complex remain inconclusive primarily due to the lack of proper expression of the tagged versions of the proteins. However, we have paved a way to further...

  15. Intelligent query processing for semantic mediation of information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Benharzallah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose an intelligent and an efficient query processing approach for semantic mediation of information systems. We propose also a generic multi agent architecture that supports our approach. Our approach focuses on the exploitation of intelligent agents for query reformulation and the use of a new technology for the semantic representation. The algorithm is self-adapted to the changes of the environment, offers a wide aptitude and solves the various data conflicts in a dynamic way; it also reformulates the query using the schema mediation method for the discovered systems and the context mediation for the other systems.

  16. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding...... in such problems can be much reduced by making use of symmetry-adapted basis functions. The conventional method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets is through the application of group theory, but this can be difficult. This book describes an easier method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets...

  18. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  19. Adapt or Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the role non-adaptivity plays in maintaining dynamic data structures. Roughly speaking, a data structure is non-adaptive if the memory locations it reads and/or writes when processing a query or update depend only on the query or update and not on the contents of previously...... read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost...

  20. Fuzzy controller adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myravyova, E. A.; Sharipov, M. I.; Radakina, D. S.

    2017-10-01

    During writing this work, the fuzzy controller with a double base of rules was studied, which was applied for the synthesis of the automated control system. A method for fuzzy controller adaptation has been developed. The adaptation allows the fuzzy controller to automatically compensate for parametric interferences that occur at the control object. Specifically, the fuzzy controller controlled the outlet steam temperature in the boiler unit BKZ-75-39 GMA. The software code was written in the programming support environment Unity Pro XL designed for fuzzy controller adaptation.

  1. Transformer: an adaptation framework supporting contextual adaptation behavior composition

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Ning; De Florio, Vincenzo; Holvoet, Tom

    2013-01-01

    As software systems today increasingly operate in changing and complex environments, they are expected to dynamically adapt to the changing environments sometimes with multiple co-existing adaptation goals. This paper proposes an adaptation framework to facilitate adaptation with multiple concerns by using reusable and composable adaptation modules. Rather than using one-size-fits-all approach, in this framework, system global adaptation behavior is generated by contextually fusin...

  2. Adapting to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Strzepek, Kenneth; Tarp, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Mozambique, like many African countries, is already highly susceptible to climate variability and extreme weather events. Climate change threatens to heighten this vulnerability. In order to evaluate potential impacts and adaptation options for Mozambique, we develop an integrated modeling...

  3. Exploring adaptive program behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions. B...

  4. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  5. Adaptive optics in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroshnikov, Nikita G.; Larichev, Andrey V.

    2006-09-01

    We present the experimental implementation of ophthalmic diagnostic systems with adaptive optics compensation of human eye aberration. The systems feature high speed operation and utilize deformable bimorph mirrors for wavefront correction. The results of aberration measurements and correction are discussed.

  6. Adaptation and Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    on influence. These two dimensions - adaptation and influence - result in four ideal types: business-dominated social compromise, imposed social compromise, business dominance, and political confrontation. Examples from German welfare state history illustrate these four types. The paper suggests...

  7. Exploring Adaptive Program Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions. B...

  8. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing variety of applications of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability....... The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...... different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock- up concept...

  9. Adaptive Trajectory Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adaptive Trajectory Design (ATD) is an original concept for quick and efficient end-to-end trajectory designs using proven piece-wise dynamical methods. With ongoing...

  10. Adaptive multiresolution methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Kai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available These lecture notes present adaptive multiresolution schemes for evolutionary PDEs in Cartesian geometries. The discretization schemes are based either on finite volume or finite difference schemes. The concept of multiresolution analyses, including Harten’s approach for point and cell averages, is described in some detail. Then the sparse point representation method is discussed. Different strategies for adaptive time-stepping, like local scale dependent time stepping and time step control, are presented. Numerous numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions validate the adaptive schemes and illustrate the accuracy and the gain in computational efficiency in terms of CPU time and memory requirements. Another aspect, modeling of turbulent flows using multiresolution decompositions, the so-called Coherent Vortex Simulation approach is also described and examples are given for computations of three-dimensional weakly compressible mixing layers. Most of the material concerning applications to PDEs is assembled and adapted from previous publications [27, 31, 32, 34, 67, 69].

  11. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  12. Laccase/Mediator Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgers, Roelant; Vincken, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A.

    2018-01-01

    Laccase-mediator systems (LMS) have been widely studied for their capacity to oxidize the nonphenolic subunits of lignin (70-90% of the polymer). The phenolic subunits (10-30% of the polymer), which can also be oxidized without mediators, have received considerably less attention. Consequently, it

  13. Climate Change Adaptation Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Climate Change Adaptation Approaches Presented at the E2S2 Symposium May 11th, 2011 New Orleans, LA...COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Climate Change Adaptation Approaches 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...10/09).  One of the four priorities is to maintain readiness in the face of climate change .  Addressing Climate Change Risk and Vulnerability: a

  14. From equivalence to adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Borowczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate in which cases the translators use the adaptation when they are confronted with a term related to sociocultural aspects. We will discuss the notions of equivalence and adaptation and their limits in the translation. Some samples from Arte TV news and from the American film Shrek translated into Polish, German and French will be provided as a support for this article.

  15. Local adaptation within a hybrid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroukhmanoff, F; Hermansen, J S; Bailey, R I; Sæther, S A; Sætre, G-P

    2013-01-01

    Ecological divergence among populations may be strongly influenced by their genetic background. For instance, genetic admixture through introgressive hybridization or hybrid speciation is likely to affect the genetic variation and evolvability of phenotypic traits. We studied geographic variation in two beak dimensions and three other phenotypic traits of the Italian sparrow (Passer italiae), a young hybrid species formed through interbreeding between house sparrows (P. domesticus) and Spanish sparrows (P. hispaniolensis). We found that beak morphology was strongly influenced by precipitation regimes and that it appeared to be the target of divergent selection within Italian sparrows. Interestingly, however, the degree of parental genetic contribution in the hybrid species had no effect on phenotypic beak variation. Moreover, beak height divergence may mediate genetic differentiation between populations, consistent with isolation-by-adaptation within this hybrid species. The study illustrates how hybrid species may be relatively unconstrained by their admixed genetic background, allowing them to adapt rapidly to environmental variation. PMID:23695379

  16. Metabolic adaptation to intermittent fasting is independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolin Li

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings indicate that PPARA activation prior to acute fasting cannot ameliorate fasting-induced hepatic steatosis, whereas EODF induced metabolic adaptations to protect against fasting-induced steatosis without altering PPARA signaling. Therefore, PPARA activation does not mediate the metabolic adaptation to fasting, at least in preventing acute fasting-induced steatosis.

  17. Flicker Adaptation of Low-Level Cortical Visual Neurons Contributes to Temporal Dilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Laura; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Several seconds of adaptation to a flickered stimulus causes a subsequent brief static stimulus to appear longer in duration. Nonsensory factors, such as increased arousal and attention, have been thought to mediate this flicker-based temporal-dilation aftereffect. In this study, we provide evidence that adaptation of low-level cortical visual…

  18. Dark adaptation in relation to choroidal thickness in healthy young subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Altuntas, Cigdem; Li, Xiao Qiang

    2016-01-01

    ). There was no association between the time-to-rod-intercept or the dark adaptation rate and axial length, refraction, gender or age. Conclusion: Choroidal thickness, refraction and ocular axial length had no detectable effect on rod-mediated dark adaptation in healthy young subjects. Our results do not support...

  19. Music, radio and mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Morten; Krogh, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Mediatization has become a key concept for understanding the relations between media and other cultural and social fields. Contributing to the discussions related to the concept of mediatization, this article discusses how practices of radio and music(al life) influence each other. We follow Deacon......’s and Stanyer’s advice to supplement the concept of mediatization with ‘a series of additional concepts at lower levels of abstraction’ and suggest, in this respect, the notion of heterogeneous milieus of music–radio. Hereby, we turn away from the all-encompassing perspectives related to the concept...... of mediatization where media as such seem to be ascribed agency. Instead, we consider historical accounts of music–radio in order to address the complex nonlinearity of concrete processes of mediatization as they take place in the multiple meetings between a decentred notion of radio and musical life....

  20. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  1. Learning to Adapt. Organisational Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.; Hertin, J.; Gann, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of human adaptation to climate change should be based on realistic models of adaptive behaviour at the level of organisations and individuals. The paper sets out a framework for analysing adaptation to the direct and indirect impacts of climate change in business organisations with new evidence presented from empirical research into adaptation in nine case-study companies. It argues that adaptation to climate change has many similarities with processes of organisational learning. The paper suggests that business organisations face a number of obstacles in learning how to adapt to climate change impacts, especially in relation to the weakness and ambiguity of signals about climate change and the uncertainty about benefits flowing from adaptation measures. Organisations rarely adapt 'autonomously', since their adaptive behaviour is influenced by policy and market conditions, and draws on resources external to the organisation. The paper identifies four adaptation strategies that pattern organisational adaptive behaviour

  2. Adaptation, plant evolution, and the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Niklas, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of adaptation in determining patterns of evolution has become an important focus of debate in evolutionary biology. As it pertains to paleobotany, the issue is whether or not adaptive evolution mediated by natural selection is sufficient to explain the stratigraphic distributions of taxa and character states observed in the plant fossil record. One means of addressing this question is the functional evaluation of stratigraphic series of plant organs set in the context of paleoenvironmental change and temporal patterns of floral composition within environments. For certain organ systems, quantitative estimates of biophysical performance can be made on the basis of structures preserved in the fossil record. Performance estimates for plants separated in time or space can be compared directly. Implicit in different hypotheses of the forces that shape the evolutionary record (e.g. adaptation, mass extinction, rapid environmental change, chance) are predictions about stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental trends in the efficacy of functional performance. Existing data suggest that following the evolution of a significant structural innovation, adaptation for improved functional performance can be a major determinant of evolutionary changes in plants; however, there are structural and development limits to functional improvement, and once these are reached, the structure in question may no longer figure strongly in selection until and unless a new innovation evolves. The Silurian-Devonian paleobotanical record is consistent with the hypothesis that the succession of lowland floodplain dominants preserved in the fossil record of this interval was determined principally by the repeated evolution of new taxa that rose to ecological importance because of competitive advantages conferred by improved biophysical performance. This does not seem to be equally true for Carboniferous-Jurassic dominants of swamp and lowland floodplain environments. In these cases

  3. The Process Mediation Framework for Semantic Web Services

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaculín, Roman; Neruda, Roman

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2009), s. 27-58 ISSN 1746-1375 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08095; GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : process mediation * OWL-S * semantic web services * adapter synthesis Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  4. Co-adaptation and the emergence of structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savit, Robert; Riolo, Maria; Riolo, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Co-adaptation (or co-evolution), the parallel feedback process by which agents continuously adapt to the changes induced by the adaptive actions of other agents, is a ubiquitous feature of complex adaptive systems, from eco-systems to economies. We wish to understand which general features of complex systems necessarily follow from the (meta)-dynamics of co-adaptation, and which features depend on the details of particular systems. To begin this project, we present a model of co-adaptation ("The Stigmergy Game") which is designed to be as a priori featureless as possible, in order to help isolate and understand the naked consequences of co-adaptation. In the model, heterogeneous, co-adapting agents, observe, interact with and change the state of an environment. Agents do not, ab initio, directly interact with each other. Agents adapt by choosing among a set of random "strategies," particular to each agent. Each strategy is a complete specification of an agent's actions and payoffs. A priori, all environmental states are equally likely and all strategies have payoffs that sum to zero, so without co-adaptation agents would on average have zero "wealth". Nevertheless, the dynamics of co-adaptation generates a structured environment in which only a subset of environmental states appear with high probability (niches) and in which agents accrue positive wealth. Furthermore, although there are no direct agent-agent interactions, there are induced non-trivial inter-agent interactions mediated by the environment. As a function of the population size and the number of possible environmental states, the system can be in one of three dynamical regions. Implications for a basic understanding of complex adaptive systems are discussed.

  5. Co-adaptation and the emergence of structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Savit

    Full Text Available Co-adaptation (or co-evolution, the parallel feedback process by which agents continuously adapt to the changes induced by the adaptive actions of other agents, is a ubiquitous feature of complex adaptive systems, from eco-systems to economies. We wish to understand which general features of complex systems necessarily follow from the (meta-dynamics of co-adaptation, and which features depend on the details of particular systems. To begin this project, we present a model of co-adaptation ("The Stigmergy Game" which is designed to be as a priori featureless as possible, in order to help isolate and understand the naked consequences of co-adaptation. In the model, heterogeneous, co-adapting agents, observe, interact with and change the state of an environment. Agents do not, ab initio, directly interact with each other. Agents adapt by choosing among a set of random "strategies," particular to each agent. Each strategy is a complete specification of an agent's actions and payoffs. A priori, all environmental states are equally likely and all strategies have payoffs that sum to zero, so without co-adaptation agents would on average have zero "wealth". Nevertheless, the dynamics of co-adaptation generates a structured environment in which only a subset of environmental states appear with high probability (niches and in which agents accrue positive wealth. Furthermore, although there are no direct agent-agent interactions, there are induced non-trivial inter-agent interactions mediated by the environment. As a function of the population size and the number of possible environmental states, the system can be in one of three dynamical regions. Implications for a basic understanding of complex adaptive systems are discussed.

  6. Genetic architecture of a feeding adaptation: garter snake (Thamnophis) resistance to tetrodotoxin bearing prey

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Chris R.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Pfrender, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Detailing the genetic basis of adaptive variation in natural populations is a first step towards understanding the process of adaptive evolution, yet few ecologically relevant traits have been characterized at the genetic level in wild populations. Traits that mediate coevolutionary interactions between species are ideal for studying adaptation because of the intensity of selection and the well-characterized ecological context. We have previously described the ecological context, evolutionary...

  7. Conservation program of fuelwood in Cambodia : the looming of a network of skills with encouraging results; Programme economie de bois de feu au Cambodge : emergence d'un reseau de competences avec des resultats encourageants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozis, J.-F.; Rondet, M.; Vitou, S.

    2000-06-01

    Some studies indicate that the deforestation process initiated in Kompong Chnang Province, in Cambodia has led to the loss of 59 per cent of the thick forest between 1985 and 1993, mainly to fuelwood. The first two years of this study were aimed at laboratory and field testing of different basic models aimed at reducing the consumption of fuelwood while adapting to the acquisition possibilities of users. The first axis concerned domestic cooking. The introduction of baked clay stockpots based on an Indonesian model for the rural communities and a coal-burning Thai model for the urban communities. Field experiments indicated a reduction of 25 to 30 per cent of fuelwood. The production of sugar palm also utilized large quantities of fuelwood, approximately 6 per cent of all fuelwood utilized in the province. The substitution of single stockpot by double stockpot with chimney led to a gain in time, better boiling and a better taste since the smoke was not returning in the stockpot. The successes encountered encouraged decision-makers for the program to establish a network of skills, from the training of professionals, technicians, popular science writers, stockpot manufacturers,etc.. This network was established on March 14, 2000 and comprised 40 government and non-government agencies. The next phase planned involves the development of a national policy on fuelwood, the formation of technicians, the advising of decision-makers, as well as the development of a research and development program.

  8. Agent Based Framework Architecture for Supporting Content Adaptation for Mobile Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Omar Al-Sakran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid spread of smart mobile technology that supports internet access is transforming the way governments provide services to their citizens. Mobile devices have different capabilities based on the manufacturers and models. This paper proposes a new framework for adapting the content of M-government services using mobile agent technology. The framework is based on a mediation architecture that uses multiple mobile agents and XML as semi-structure mediation language. The flexibility of the mediation and XML provide an adaptive environment to stream data based on the capabilities of the device sending the query to the system.

  9. General resonance mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarrie, Moritz

    2012-07-01

    We extend the framework of general gauge mediation to cases where the mediating fields have a nontrivial spectral function, as might arise from strong dynamics. We demonstrate through examples that this setup describes a broad class of possible models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. A main emphasis is to give general formulas for cross sections for σ(visible → hidden) in these resonance models. We will also give formulas for soft masses, A-terms and demonstrate the framework with a holographic setup.

  10. Axionic Mirage Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shuntaro; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    In this talk, we propose a model of mirage mediation, in which Peccei-Quinn symmetry is incorporated. In this axionic mirage mediation, it is shown that the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale is dynamically determined around 10 10 GeV to 10 12 GeV due to the supersymmetry breaking effects. The problems in the original mirage mediation such as the μ-problem and the moduli problem can be solved simultaneouly. Furthermore, in our model the axino, which is the superpartner of the axion, is the lightest sparticle.

  11. Polyarene mediators for mediated redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delnick, Frank M.; Ingersoll, David; Liang, Chengdu

    2018-01-02

    The fundamental charge storage mechanisms in a number of currently studied high energy redox couples are based on intercalation, conversion, or displacement reactions. With exception to certain metal-air chemistries, most often the active redox materials are stored physically in the electrochemical cell stack thereby lowering the practical gravimetric and volumetric energy density as a tradeoff to achieve reasonable power density. In a general embodiment, a mediated redox flow battery includes a series of secondary organic molecules that form highly reduced anionic radicals as reaction mediator pairs for the reduction and oxidation of primary high capacity redox species ex situ from the electrochemical cell stack. Arenes are reduced to stable anionic radicals that in turn reduce a primary anode to the charged state. The primary anode is then discharged using a second lower potential (more positive) arene. Compatible separators and solvents are also disclosed herein.

  12. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  13. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang

    2014-03-10

    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  14. Training adaptive teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C; Cooke, Nancy J; Amazeen, Polemnia G

    2010-04-01

    We report an experiment in which three training approaches are compared with the goal of training adaptive teams. Cross-training is an established method in which team members are trained with the goal of building shared knowledge. Perturbation training is a new method in which team interactions are constrained to provide new coordination experiences during task acquisition. These two approaches, and a more traditional procedural approach, are compared. Assigned to three training conditions were 26 teams. Teams flew nine simulated uninhabited air vehicle missions; three were critical tests of the team's ability to adapt to novel situations. Team performance, response time to novel events, and shared knowledge were measured. Perturbation-trained teams significantly outperformed teams in the other conditions in two out of three critical test missions. Cross-training resulted in significant increases in shared teamwork knowledge and highest mean performance in one critical test. Procedural training led to the least adaptive teams. Perturbation training allows teams to match coordination variability during training to demands for coordination variability during posttraining performance. Although cross-training has adaptive benefits, it is suggested that process-oriented approaches, such as perturbation training, can lead to more adaptive teams. Perturbation training is amenable to simulation-based training, where perturbations provide interaction experiences that teams can transfer to novel, real-world situations.

  15. The Adaptability of Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, data from a longitudinal case study in an organization attempting to adapt its internal work processes to changes in its external context are presented, analyzed and discussed. Specifically, functionally structured work teams in one department of a Danish production facility were...... on the proper alignment between the structuring of the work processes and characteristics of the external context (Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967) – it provides a unique opportunity to explore the adaptation process in practice. The paper contributes to the development of contingency theory by lending support...... to the premise that “fit” between an organization’s external context and its internal structure may enhance performance, but also to the suggestion that the adaptation process may be asymmetric (Moon et al., 2004). Further, the paper contributes to practice by highlighting both the opportunities and risks...

  16. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a model where ownership improves efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only by adapting...... the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...... of the home choose ownership. This article analyses the consumer's optimization. The model provides an explanation for the observation that homeowners typically live in larger dwelling units than tenants. It also provides and explanation for a high price on housing services tending to reduce homeownership...

  17. Adaptive dynamical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikov, O. V.; Nekorkin, V. I.

    2017-10-01

    Dynamical networks are systems of active elements (nodes) interacting with each other through links. Examples are power grids, neural structures, coupled chemical oscillators, and communications networks, all of which are characterized by a networked structure and intrinsic dynamics of their interacting components. If the coupling structure of a dynamical network can change over time due to nodal dynamics, then such a system is called an adaptive dynamical network. The term ‘adaptive’ implies that the coupling topology can be rewired; the term ‘dynamical’ implies the presence of internal node and link dynamics. The main results of research on adaptive dynamical networks are reviewed. Key notions and definitions of the theory of complex networks are given, and major collective effects that emerge in adaptive dynamical networks are described.

  18. Engineering Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Information and services on the web are accessible for everyone. Users of the web differ in their background, culture, political and social environment, interests and so on. Ambient intelligence was envisioned as a concept for systems which are able to adapt to user actions and needs....... With the growing amount of information and services, the web applications become natural candidates to adopt the concepts of ambient intelligence. Such applications can deal with divers user intentions and actions based on the user profile and can suggest the combination of information content and services which...... suit the user profile the most. This paper summarizes the domain engineering framework for such adaptive web applications. The framework provides guidelines to develop adaptive web applications as members of a family. It suggests how to utilize the design artifacts as knowledge which can be used...

  19. Making mediation work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Zeba

    2016-10-26

    Mediation can be an effective way of solving conflict between staff members. It signifies a willingness for people to work together to discuss their differences in a constructive way, before going down the official grievance route.

  20. Understanding Mediation Support

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz, David; Pring, Jamie; von Burg, Corinne; Zeller, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed increasing institutionalization of mediation support through the establishment of mediation support structures (MSS) within foreign ministries and secretariats of multilateral organizations. This study sheds light on this trend and aims to better understand the emergence, design and development of different MSS. This study analyzes six MSS, namely those established in the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Eu...

  1. Neurally Mediated Syncope

    OpenAIRE

    Zaqqa, Munir; Massumi, Ali

    2000-01-01

    Neurally mediated syncope is a disorder of the autonomic regulation of postural tone, which results in hypotension, bradycardia, and loss of consciousness. A wide variety of stimuli can trigger this reflex, the most common stimulus being orthostatic stress. Typically, a patient with neurally mediated syncope experiences nausea, lightheadedness, a feeling of warmth, and pallor before abruptly losing consciousness. If the cause of syncope is unclear, a stepwise approach is necessary to arrive a...

  2. Hegel's conceptions of mediation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Given its centrality to the intellectual thought processes through which the great structures of logic, nature, and spirit are unfolded it is clear that mediation is vital to the very possibility of Hegel's encyclopaedic philosophy. Yet Hegel gives little specific explanation of the concept of mediation. Surprisingly, it has been the subject of even less attention by scholars of Hegel. Nevertheless it is casually used in discussions of Hegel and post-Hegelian philosophy as though its meaning ...

  3. Adapt or Become Extinct!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goumas, Georgios; McKee, Sally A.; Själander, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    The High-Performance Computing ecosystem consists of a large variety of execution platforms that demonstrate a wide diversity in hardware characteristics such as CPU architecture, memory organization, interconnection network, accelerators, etc. This environment also presents a number of hard boun...... static analysis (either during ahead-of-time or just-in-time) compilation. We extend the notion of information-driven adaptation and outline the architecture of an infrastructure designed to enable information ow and adaptation throughout the life-cycle of an application....

  4. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...

  5. Engineering Adaptive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    . The different requirements might be satisfied by different variants of features maintained and provided by Web applications. An adaptive Web application can be seen as a family of Web applications where application instances are those generated for particular user based on his characteristics relevant...... for a domain.In this book, we propose a new domain engineering framework which extends a development process of Web applications with techniques required when designing such adaptive customizable Web applications. The framework is provided with design abstractions which deal separately with information served...

  6. Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate regression...... by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...

  7. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  8. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... execution within boundaries). Moreover, during the execution of the workload, SpotADAPT suggests a redeployment if the current spot instance gets terminated by Amazon or a better deployment becomes possible due to fluctuations of the spot prices. The approach is evaluated using the actual execution times...

  9. Learning and Domain Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Yishay

    Domain adaptation is a fundamental learning problem where one wishes to use labeled data from one or several source domains to learn a hypothesis performing well on a different, yet related, domain for which no labeled data is available. This generalization across domains is a very significant challenge for many machine learning applications and arises in a variety of natural settings, including NLP tasks (document classification, sentiment analysis, etc.), speech recognition (speakers and noise or environment adaptation) and face recognition (different lighting conditions, different population composition).

  10. The Adaptability of Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, data from a longitudinal case study in an organization attempting to adapt its internal work processes to changes in its external context are presented, analyzed and discussed. Specifically, functionally structured work teams in one department of a Danish production facility were...... on the proper alignment between the structuring of the work processes and characteristics of the external context (Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967) – it provides a unique opportunity to explore the adaptation process in practice. The paper contributes to the development of contingency theory by lending support...

  11. The Multitalented MEDIATOR25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kazan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The multi-subunit Mediator complex, which links DNA-bound transcription factors to RNA Pol II during transcription, is an essential regulator of gene expression in all eukaryotes. Individual subunits of the Mediator complex integrate numerous endogenous and exogenous signals. In this paper, diverse regulatory functions performed by MEDIATOR25 (MED25, one of the subunits of the plant Mediator complex are reviewed. MED25 was first identified as a regulator of flowering time and named PHYTOCHROME AND FLOWERING TIME1 (PFT1. Since then, MED25 has been implicated in a range of other plant functions that vary from hormone signaling (JA, ABA, ethylene, and IAA to biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and plant development. MED25 physically interacts with transcriptional activators (e.g., AP2/ERFs, MYCs, and ARFs, repressors (e.g., JAZs and Aux/IAAs, and other Mediator subunits (MED13 and MED16. In addition, various genetic and epigenetic interactions involving MED25 have been reported. These features make MED25 one of the most multifunctional Mediator subunits and provide new insights into the transcriptional control of gene expression in plants.

  12. Mediatized Extreme Right Activism and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the German neo-fascist network The Immortals (Die Unsterblichen) who in 2011 performed a flash-mob disseminated on YouTube for the so- called ‘Become Immortal’ campaign. The street protest was designed for and adapted to the specific characteristics of online...... activism. It is a good example of how new contentious action repertoires in which online and street activism intertwine have also spread to extreme right groups. Despite its neo-fascist and extreme right content the ‘Become Immortal’ campaign serves as an illustrative case for the study of mediated...

  13. Cognitive and adaptive correlates of an ADOS-derived joint attention composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ashley Johnson; Lu, Zhenqiu Laura; McLean, Rebecca L; Sheinkopf, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention skills have been shown to predict language outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Less is known about the relationship between joint attention (JA) abilities in children with ASD and cognitive and adaptive abilities. In the current study, a subset of items from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), designed to quantify JA abilities, were used to investigate social attention among an unusually large cross-sectional sample of children with ASD (n = 1061). An examination of the association between JA and a range of functional correlates (cognitive and adaptive) revealed JA was significantly related to verbal (VIQ) and non-verbal (NVIQ) cognitive ability as well as all domains of adaptive functioning (socialization, communication, and daily living skills). Additional analyses examined the degree to which the relation between adaptive abilities (socialization, communication, and daily living skills) and JA was maintained after taking into account the potentially mediating role of verbal and nonverbal cognitive ability. Results revealed that VIQ fully mediated the relation between JA and adaptive functioning, whereas the relation between these adaptive variables and JA was only partially mediated by NVIQ. Moderation analyses were also conducted to examine how verbal and non-verbal cognitive ability and gender impacted the relation between JA and adaptive functioning. In line with research showing a relation between language and JA, this indicates that while JA is significantly related to functional outcomes, this appears to be mediated specifically through a verbal cognitive pathway.

  14. Focusing on the Interfaces, Estuaries and Redox Transition Zones, for Understanding the Microbial Processes and Biogeochemical Cycling of Carbon under the Looming Influence of Global Warming and Anthropogenic Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, H.; Jiao, N.

    2013-12-01

    the phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish communities in major world estuaries and coastal oceans. However, due to the rapid evolution rate and high adaptive nature of environmental microorganisms, global warming and anthropogenic perturbations may change the structure and function of the aquatic microbial communities. The estuarine redox transition zones may harbor diverse and novel microbial function groups and communities. How the different microbial processes may influence the ecological functionality and efficiency of estuarine ecosystems needs to be thoroughly investigated to be fully understood.

  15. Redox-Mediated and Ionizing-Radiation-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in Prostate Cancer Development and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lu; Holley, Aaron K.; Zhao, Yanming; St. Clair, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Radiation therapy is widely used for treatment of prostate cancer. Radiation can directly damage biologically important molecules; however, most effects of radiation-mediated cell killing are derived from the generated free radicals that alter cellular redox status. Multiple proinflammatory mediators can also influence redox status in irradiated cells and the surrounding microenvironment, thereby affecting prostate cancer progression and radiotherapy efficiency. Recent Advances: Ionizing radiation (IR)–generated oxidative stress can regulate and be regulated by the production of proinflammatory mediators. Depending on the type and stage of the prostate cancer cells, these proinflammatory mediators may lead to different biological consequences ranging from cell death to development of radioresistance. Critical Issues: Tumors are heterogeneous and dynamic communication occurs between stromal and prostate cancer cells, and complicated redox-regulated mechanisms exist in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory strategies should be carefully evaluated for each patient at different stages of the disease to maximize therapeutic benefits while minimizing unintended side effects. Future Directions: Compared with normal cells, tumor cells are usually under higher oxidative stress and secrete more proinflammatory mediators. Thus, redox status is often less adaptive in tumor cells than in their normal counterparts. This difference can be exploited in a search for new cancer therapeutics and treatment regimes that selectively activate cell death pathways in tumor cells with minimal unintended consequences in terms of chemo- and radio-resistance in tumor cells and toxicity in normal tissues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1481–1500. PMID:24093432

  16. Hybrid Adaptive Flight Control with Model Inversion Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates a hybrid adaptive flight control method as a design possibility for a flight control system that can enable an effective adaptation strategy to deal with off-nominal flight conditions. The hybrid adaptive control blends both direct and indirect adaptive control in a model inversion flight control architecture. The blending of both direct and indirect adaptive control provides a much more flexible and effective adaptive flight control architecture than that with either direct or indirect adaptive control alone. The indirect adaptive control is used to update the model inversion controller by an on-line parameter estimation of uncertain plant dynamics based on two methods. The first parameter estimation method is an indirect adaptive law based on the Lyapunov theory, and the second method is a recursive least-squares indirect adaptive law. The model inversion controller is therefore made to adapt to changes in the plant dynamics due to uncertainty. As a result, the modeling error is reduced that directly leads to a decrease in the tracking error. In conjunction with the indirect adaptive control that updates the model inversion controller, a direct adaptive control is implemented as an augmented command to further reduce any residual tracking error that is not entirely eliminated by the indirect adaptive control.

  17. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Yadav

    Full Text Available The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5'UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments.

  18. Adaptation and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Kenneth E. Skog; Duncan C. McKinley; Richard A. Birdsey; Christopher W. Swanston; Sarah J. Hines; Christopher W. Woodall; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; David L. Peterson; James M. Vose

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems respond to natural climatic variability and human-caused climate change in ways that are adverse as well as beneficial to the biophysical environment and to society. Adaptation refers to responses or adjustments made—whether passive, reactive, or anticipatory—to climatic variability and change (Carter et al. 1994). Many adjustments occur whether...

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    change exacerbates shocks and stresses. The capacity of communities to adapt can be improved if they have access to economic and physical resources, as well as to technology, information, infra- structure, and institutions. Public policies can help provide these resources. But what happens if the policies themselves have ...

  20. Towards Adaptive Evolutionary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Sebastian HOlt; Rask, Nina; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    living in the future could occur, if built spaces could evolve and adapt alongside inhabitants. As such, present study explores the interdisciplinary possibilities in utilizing computational power to co-create with users and generate designs based on human input. We argue that this could lead...

  1. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies...

  2. Creating Adaptive Policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Signs of the imperative for adaptive policy-making are coming from all sectors of our economy including healthcare, transportation, business, information technology, energy, international development, agriculture and natural resources management, to name but a few. We highlight these examples in the following sections ...

  3. The governance of adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Dave; Adger, William Neil; Berkhout, Frans; Massey, Eric; Mazmanian, Daniel; Munaretto, Stefania; Plummer, Ryan; Termeer, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The governance of climate adaptation involves the collective efforts of multiple societal actors to address problems, or to reap the benefits, associated with impacts of climate change. Governing involves the creation of institutions, rules and organizations, and the selection of normative

  4. ADAM: ADaptive Autonomous Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, Daan C.; Nijenhuis, Lucas F.J.; Bakkers, André; Vervoort, Wiek

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a part of the development of an adaptive autonomous machine that is able to move in an unknown world extract knowledge out of the perceived data, has the possibility to reason, and finally has the capability to exchange experiences and knowledge with other agents. The agent is

  5. Adaptive sequential controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Xing, Jian (Seattle, WA); Butler, Nicholas G. (Newberg, OR); Rodriguez, Alonso (Pasadena, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  6. Adaptive sequential controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Xing, Jian; Butler, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez, Alonso

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  7. Adaptive functioning following pediatric traumatic brain injury: Relationship to executive function and processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Emily L; Hoskinson, Kristen R; Keim, Madelaine C; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Bigler, Erin D; Rubin, Kenneth H; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect children's ability to perform everyday tasks (i.e., adaptive functioning). Guided by the American Association for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) model, we explored the association between TBI and adaptive functioning at increasing levels of specificity (global, AAIDD domains, and subscales). We also examined the contributions of executive function and processing speed as mediators of TBI's effects on adaptive functioning. Children (ages 8-13) with severe TBI (STBI; n = 19), mild-moderate TBI (MTBI; n = 50), or orthopedic injury (OI; n = 60) completed measures of executive function (TEA-Ch) and processing speed (WISC-IV) an average of 2.7 years postinjury (SD = 1.2; range: 1-5.3). Parents rated children's adaptive functioning (ABAS-II, BASC-2, CASP). STBI had lower global adaptive functioning (η2 = .04-.08) than the MTBI and OI groups, which typically did not differ. Deficits in the STBI group were particularly evident in the social domain, with specific deficits in social participation, leisure, and social adjustment (η2 = .06-.09). Jointly, executive function and processing speed were mediators of STBI's effects on global adaptive functioning and in conceptual and social domains. In the STBI group, executive function mediated social functioning, and processing speed mediated social participation. Children with STBI experience deficits in adaptive functioning, particularly in social adjustment, with less pronounced deficits in conceptual and practical skills. Executive function and processing speed may mediate the effects of STBI on adaptive functioning. Targeting adaptive functioning and associated cognitive deficits for intervention may enhance quality of life for pediatric TBI survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Time to adapt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, M.

    2008-01-01

    As every month goes by it becomes increasingly clear that we will need to adapt to climate change. Of course, early action needs to be taken to mitigate it by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, but this must be complemented by investment in adaptation in the places most affected. The sooner we put resources into adaptation the less damage will be sustained. The latest assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) came to the new conclusion that the effects of climate change are occurring now. The Earth has already warmed by 0.5 degrees C due to increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, and we can observe the effects of this on every continent - most troublingly the current drying and warming in Africa's Sahelian region, and the effects of sea-level rise on coastal flood plains and small islands. Inevitably, some adaptation is also occurring now but little of this is planned and almost no additional resources have yet been deployed toward it. Some further warming is inevitable. Even if we were to cut emissions both immediately and so enormously that greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere are stabilised at current levels - an impossible task - a temperature increase of a further 0.6 degrees C would still be inevitable due to thermal lag of the oceans and atmosphere. So 1.1 degrees C of climate change is the very least that we should plan for. The impacts from such an increase will probably include: reduced water availability - with consequent falls in agricultural productivity - in the dry tropics; increased coastal flooding; and increased morbidity and mortality from heat waves and droughts. Adaptation is the only way of avoiding or reducing these

  9. Analysis of multiparty mediation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuković, Siniša

    2013-01-01

    Crucial challenges for multiparty mediation processes include the achievement of adequate cooperation among the mediators and consequent coordination of their activities in the mediation process. Existing literature goes only as far as to make it clear that successful mediation requires necessary

  10. Mediation: The Wise Advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towseef Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAdversarial litigation is not the only means of resolving disputes and settling of claims. There are various options. Alternative means of dispute resolution can save money and time, and can help to anchor and resolve the dispute while exploring valuable good offices, amicable approaches and facilitation. Mediation, as used in law, is a process of managing negotiation by a neutral third party in the form of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR, as a convenient way of resolving disputes between two or more parties with speediation processes. On the sidelines typically, a neutral third party, the mediator assists the parties to negotiate a settlement. The term “mediation” broadly refers to any instance in which a neutral third party helps others to reach an amicable and mutually acceptable agreement. More specifically, mediation has a structure, timetable and dynamic approaches that “ordinary” negotiations usually lack. The process helps the parties to flourish the healthy ideas which are different and distinct from the legal rights in a Court of law. It is well known in International Law also and disputants can submit their disputes to mediation in a variety of matters such as commercial, legal, diplomatic, workplace, community and family matters, which assumes a great significance and it is bricolaged within the framework of this article.Keywords: Adversarial, Litigation, Mediation, Negotiation and Amicable.

  11. ADAPTIVE CHEMOREFLECTORY MECHANISMS RESPONDING TO EXTREME FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Krivoschekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of adaptive chemoreflectory mechanisms responding of extreme factors opens prospects for understanding of a role of a phenotype in this process, and also for search of new methods of the forecast and diagnostics. We analysed individual-typological variability of hypoxic tolerance and muscular working capacity at healthy people with various kinds of habitual sports activity. It is established, that formatting of new neuro-visceral interactions which occurs under the influence of individual training process, is reflected in reactivity of cardiovascular and respiratory systems in response to hypoxia. Adaptive strategy produces changes in systemic response to hypoxia which correlates with aerobic work capacity and EEG activity of a brain at sportsmen of different specializations. Individually-typological characteristics of sportsmen (typology of nervous system also mediate EEG response to hypoxia, but they can be modified by the influence of phenotypic adaptive mechanisms (aerobic, anaerobic or mixed type of individual training process. The obtained results testify, that sports loadings forms specific adjustment of mechanisms of chemoreflectory regulation of cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

  12. A neural systems analysis of adaptive navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumori, S J; Cooper, B G; Leutgeb, S; Pratt, W E

    2000-01-01

    In the field of the neurobiology of learning, significant emphasis has been placed on understanding neural plasticity within a single structure (or synapse type) as it relates to a particular type of learning mediated by a particular brain area. To appreciate fully the breadth of the plasticity responsible for complex learning phenomena, it is imperative that we also examine the neural mechanisms of the behavioral instantiation of learned information, how motivational systems interact, and how past memories affect the learning process. To address this issue, we describe a model of complex learning (rodent adaptive navigation) that could be used to study dynamically interactive neural systems. Adaptive navigation depends on the efficient integration of external and internal sensory information with motivational systems to arrive at the most effective cognitive and/or behavioral strategies. We present evidence consistent with the view that during navigation: 1) the limbic thalamus and limbic cortex is primarily responsible for the integration of current and expected sensory information, 2) the hippocampal-septal-hypothalamic system provides a mechanism whereby motivational perspectives bias sensory processing, and 3) the amygdala-prefrontal-striatal circuit allows animals to evaluate the expected reinforcement consequences of context-dependent behavioral responses. Although much remains to be determined regarding the nature of the interactions among neural systems, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanisms that underlie flexible and adaptive behavioral responses.

  13. Spatial compression impairs prism-adaptation in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J Scriven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviours, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control processes in prism-adaptation may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced strategic control might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because a the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or b pathologically increased error detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether strategic control and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard prism adaptation. Each participant completed three prism-adaptation procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During prism-adaptation, visual-feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced strategic control and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms.

  14. The predictive roles of neural oscillations in speech motor adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ranit; Nasir, Sazzad M

    2016-06-01

    The human speech system exhibits a remarkable flexibility by adapting to alterations in speaking environments. While it is believed that speech motor adaptation under altered sensory feedback involves rapid reorganization of speech motor networks, the mechanisms by which different brain regions communicate and coordinate their activity to mediate adaptation remain unknown, and explanations of outcome differences in adaption remain largely elusive. In this study, under the paradigm of altered auditory feedback with continuous EEG recordings, the differential roles of oscillatory neural processes in motor speech adaptability were investigated. The predictive capacities of different EEG frequency bands were assessed, and it was found that theta-, beta-, and gamma-band activities during speech planning and production contained significant and reliable information about motor speech adaptability. It was further observed that these bands do not work independently but interact with each other suggesting an underlying brain network operating across hierarchically organized frequency bands to support motor speech adaptation. These results provide novel insights into both learning and disorders of speech using time frequency analysis of neural oscillations. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Adaptive-Positive vs. Maladaptive-Negative Structures and Processes in Learning: Towards the Comprehensive Model of Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rogaten, Jekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this Ph.D. research was to develop an empirical foundation suitable for designing educational interventions and programmes aiming to improve students’ learning. In order to achieve this, a series of studies was conducted that supported the development and test of a comprehensive, chained mediation model of academic performance. The proposed chained mediation model comprised of adaptive-positive and maladaptive-negative submodels. The adaptive-positive submodel hypothesised firstly...

  16. Adaptation: Needs, Financing and Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Richard J.T.; Kartha, Sivan; Persson, Aasa; Watkiss, Paul; Ackerman, Frank; Downing, Thomas E.; Kjellen, Bo; Schipper, Lisa (Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm (SE))

    2008-07-01

    Regardless of the efforts put into mitigation, some impacts of climate change are already unavoidable. Adaptation to climate change has therefore become a key component of domestic climate policy, along with mitigation. Adaptation has also become key to the success of global climate policy. Without an agreement on supporting adaptation in developing countries, there will be no agreement on mitigation. Strong mitigation efforts make it more likely that adaptation will be effective and affordable. The world cannot rely on adaptation alone: it would eventually lead to a level of climate change to which adaptation is no longer feasible. Government action is needed to create an enabling environment for adaptation. This includes removing existing financial, legal, institutional and knowledge barriers to adaptation, and strengthening the capacity of people and organisations to adapt. The success of adaptation relies on the success of development, and vice versa. Poverty reduction, good governance, education, environmental protection, health and gender equality all contribute to adaptive capacity. Substantially more money is needed to support adaptation in developing countries. Current levels of funding will soon have to be scaled up by two orders of magnitude (from US$ hundreds of million to US$ tens of billion per year). An agreement on adaptation in Copenhagen in 2009 will need to include concrete steps towards a strengthened knowledge base for adaptation, substantially more funding for developing countries, and enhanced adaptation planning and implementation at the national level. Recommendations: Developed countries should accept a transparent, principle-based allocation of responsibility for adaptation funding, resulting in adequate, new and additional money to support adaptation programmes in developing countries. Levies on carbon market transactions and auctioning emission permits are two existing mechanisms of generating new and additional funds consistent with

  17. The immunoreceptor adapter protein DAP12 suppresses B lymphocyte?driven adaptive immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano-Yokomizo, Takako; Tahara-Hanaoka, Satoko; Nakahashi-Oda, Chigusa; Nabekura, Tsukasa; Tchao, Nadia K.; Kadosaki, Momoko; Totsuka, Naoya; Kurita, Naoki; Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Tamaoka, Akira; Takai, Toshiyuki; Yasui, Teruhito; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Honda, Shin-ichiro; Shibuya, Kazuko

    2011-01-01

    DAP12, an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif?bearing adapter protein, is involved in innate immunity mediated by natural killer cells and myeloid cells. We show that DAP12-deficient mouse B cells and B cells from a patient with Nasu-Hakola disease, a recessive genetic disorder resulting from loss of DAP12, showed enhanced proliferation after stimulation with anti-IgM or CpG. Myeloid-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor (MAIR) II (Cd300d) is a DAP12-associated immune receptor. L...

  18. Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille

    , respectively. The paper thus takes on aesthetics and the social in a manner closely related to a core argument of STS - namely that the scientific fact, and the social processes of constructing, distributing, and using that fact, are co-constructed (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1993). The paper thus contributes......, it is an important ambition of this paper to go into a methodological discussion of how "that which effectively happens" can be approached. To this end, the paper will combine Hennion's term of the "mediator" with John Laws methodological term of "method assemblages". Method assemblages is a suggested as a way...... of handling multiple, fluid realities with multiple, fluid methods. Empirically, the paper works with mediation in fashion - that is efforts the active shaping of relations between producer and consumer through communication, marketing and PR. Fashion mediation is by no means simple, but organise complex...

  19. Immunologically mediated oral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N; Anita, N; Babu, R

    2015-04-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient.

  20. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient.

  1. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  2. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  3. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  4. RODOS database adapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Gang

    1995-11-01

    Integrated data management is an essential aspect of many automatical information systems such as RODOS, a real-time on-line decision support system for nuclear emergency management. In particular, the application software must provide access management to different commercial database systems. This report presents the tools necessary for adapting embedded SQL-applications to both HP-ALLBASE/SQL and CA-Ingres/SQL databases. The design of the database adapter and the concept of RODOS embedded SQL syntax are discussed by considering some of the most important features of SQL-functions and the identification of significant differences between SQL-implementations. Finally fully part of the software developed and the administrator's and installation guides are described. (orig.) [de

  5. Science with Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandner, Wolfgang; ESO Workshop

    2005-01-01

    The field of Adaptive Optics (AO) for astronomy has matured in recent years, and diffraction-limited image resolution in the near-infrared is now routinely achieved by ground-based 8 to 10m class telescopes. This book presents the proceedings of the ESO Workshop on Science with Adaptive Optics held in the fall of 2003. The book provides an overview on AO instrumentation, data acquisition and reduction strategies, and covers observations of the sun, solar system objects, circumstellar disks, substellar companions, HII regions, starburst environments, late-type stars, the galactic center, active galaxies, and quasars. The contributions present a vivid picture of the multitude of science topics being addressed by AO in observational astronomy.

  6. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  7. Designing Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Learning system to study a discipline. In business to business interaction, different requirements and parameters of exchanged business requests might be served by different services from third parties. Such applications require certain intelligence and a slightly different approach to design. Adpative web......The unique characteristic of web applications is that they are supposed to be used by much bigger and diverse set of users and stakeholders. An example application area is e-Learning or business to business interaction. In eLearning environment, various users with different background use the e......-based applications aim to leave some of their features at the design stage in the form of variables which are dependent on several criteria. The resolution of the variables is called adaptation and can be seen from two perspectives: adaptation by humans to the changed requirements of stakeholders and dynamic system...

  8. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...... neighborhoods. The tutorial also present applications of the adaptive large neighborhood search, mostly related to vehicle routing problems for which the heuristic has been extremely successful. We discuss how the heuristic can be parallelized and thereby take advantage of modern desktop computers...

  9. Adaptations in Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff

    2017-01-01

    In the long history of board games, certain games have been passed on in generations and have evolved and been shaped to fit different cultural and religious contexts and functions (Parlett 1999). More recently we have seen popular board games being repackaged to fit pop-cultural themes retrieved...... from television or cinema (Woods 2012). Furthermore, since the early days of digital games, tabletop games have served as a source of inspiration for many video-game designers, and more recently we have seen the occurrence of tabletop game adaptations of popular video-games such as StarCraft (Blizzard...... Studies. New Challenges, New Directions. Edited by Jørgen Bruhn, Anne Gjelsvik and Eirik Frisvold Hanssen. London: Bloomsbury. Hutcheon, L. 2006. A Theory of Adaptation. New York: Routledge Parlett, D. 1999. The Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wittgenstein, L. 1958...

  10. Mediated intimacy in families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff

    2006-01-01

    Mediating intimacy between children and their parents is still limited investigated and at the same time, we find that, emerging technologies are about to change and affect the way we interact with each other. In this paper, we report from an empirical study where we investigated the social...... with other types of intimate relations such as strong-tie intimacy (couples cohabiting). However, we also identified several issues of intimacy unique to the special relation between children and their parents. These unique acts of intimacy propose challenges when designing technologies for mediated intimacy...

  11. Adaptive Context Tree Weighting

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Alexander; Hutter, Marcus; Shao, Wen; Sunehag, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We describe an adaptive context tree weighting (ACTW) algorithm, as an extension to the standard context tree weighting (CTW) algorithm. Unlike the standard CTW algorithm, which weights all observations equally regardless of the depth, ACTW gives increasing weight to more recent observations, aiming to improve performance in cases where the input sequence is from a non-stationary distribution. Data compression results show ACTW variants improving over CTW on merged files from standard compres...

  12. Adaptive positioner; Posicionador adaptativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs.

  13. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  14. Adaptive Metric Dimensionality Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, Lee-Ad; Kontorovich, Aryeh; Krauthgamer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We study adaptive data-dependent dimensionality reduction in the context of supervised learning in general metric spaces. Our main statistical contribution is a generalization bound for Lipschitz functions in metric spaces that are doubling, or nearly doubling. On the algorithmic front, we describe an analogue of PCA for metric spaces: namely an efficient procedure that approximates the data's intrinsic dimension, which is often much lower than the ambient dimension. Our approach thus leverag...

  15. Invited article: Adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Parr Rud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last several decades, organizations have dealt with economic shifts using change management. Based on the new science, there are two major flaws with this approach. First, the word change implies an event with an ending. Second, it implies that change can be managed. In a world of economic volatility, this approach is no longer viable. The continuous climate of uncertainty and volatility demands another view, one that supports adaptability and resilience.

  16. Effect of Metformin on Potassium-adapted and Non- adapted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the effects of potassium adaptation on some biochemical parameters in diabetic rats treated with metformin. Methods: Diabetes was induced via intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin in potassium- adapted and non-adapted rats and, then metformin (350 mg/kg) was administered orally.

  17. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Scale adaptive compressive tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengpeng; Cui, Shaohui; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method (Zhang et al. in Proceedings of European conference on computer vision, pp 864-877, 2012) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the scale changing objects due to its constant tracking box. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a scale adaptive CT approach, which adaptively adjusts the scale of tracking box with the size variation of the objects. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the scale of tracking box is adaptively adjusted according to the size of the objects. Secondly, in the CT method, all the compressive features are supposed independent and equal contribution to the classifier. Actually, different compressive features have different confidence coefficients. In our proposed method, the confidence coefficients of features are computed and used to achieve different contribution to the classifier. Finally, in the CT method, the learning parameter λ is constant, which will result in large tracking drift on the occasion of object occlusion or large scale appearance variation. In our proposed method, a variable learning parameter λ is adopted, which can be adjusted according to the object appearance variation rate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  19. An Adaptive Robot Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal is to im...... to the behavior of the interacting person. This paper presents a simple ball game between a single player and a mobile robot platform. The algorithm has been validated using simulation and real world experiments.......The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...

  20. Adaptive building skin structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Grosso, A E; Basso, P

    2010-01-01

    The concept of adaptive and morphing structures has gained considerable attention in the recent years in many fields of engineering. In civil engineering very few practical applications are reported to date however. Non-conventional structural concepts like deployable, inflatable and morphing structures may indeed provide innovative solutions to some of the problems that the construction industry is being called to face. To give some examples, searches for low-energy consumption or even energy-harvesting green buildings are amongst such problems. This paper first presents a review of the above problems and technologies, which shows how the solution to these problems requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of architectural and engineering disciplines. The discussion continues with the presentation of a possible application of two adaptive and dynamically morphing structures which are proposed for the realization of an acoustic envelope. The core of the two applications is the use of a novel optimization process which leads the search for optimal solutions by means of an evolutionary technique while the compatibility of the resulting configurations of the adaptive envelope is ensured by the virtual force density method

  1. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, T.

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive response to radiation stress was found as a suppressed induction of chromosomal damage including micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells pre-exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiations. The mechanism underlying this novel chromosomal response, called 'radio-adaptive response (RAR)' has been studied progressively. The following results were obtained in recent experiments. 1. Low doses of β-rays from tritiated water (HTO) as well as tritium-thymidine can cause RAR. 2. Thermal neutrons, a high LET radiation, can not act as tritium β-rays or γ-rays. 3. The RAR expression is suppressed not only by the treatment with an inhibitor of protein synthesis but also by RNA synthesis inhibition. 4. Several proteins are newly synthesized concurrently with the RAR expression after the adapting doses, viewed by two-dimensional electrophoresis of cellular proteins. These results suggests that the RAR might be a cellular stress response to a signal produced preferentially by very low doses of low LET radiation under restricted conditions, accompany the inducible specific gene expression. (author)

  2. The Adaptation Finance Gap Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report series focuses on Finance, Technology and Knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It compliments the Emissions Gap Report series, and explores the implications of failing to close the emissions gap. The report builds on a 2014 assessment by the United Nations...... Environment Programme (UNEP), which laid out the concept of ‘adaptation gaps’ and outlined three such gaps: technology, finance and knowledge. The 2016 Adaptation Gap Report assesses the difference between the financial costs of adapting to climate change in developing countries and the amount of money...... and highlights challenges associated with measuring progress towards fulfilling the adaptation finance gap, while informing national and international efforts to advance adaptation. It analyses the ‘adaptation finance gap’ against the background of the provisions laid out in the Paris Agreement, and benefits...

  3. Mechanisms of motor adaptation in reactive balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrence D J Welch

    Full Text Available Balance control must be rapidly modified to provide stability in the face of environmental challenges. Although changes in reactive balance over repeated perturbations have been observed previously, only anticipatory postural adjustments preceding voluntary movements have been studied in the framework of motor adaptation and learning theory. Here, we hypothesized that adaptation occurs in task-level balance control during responses to perturbations due to central changes in the control of both anticipatory and reactive components of balance. Our adaptation paradigm consisted of a Training set of forward support-surface perturbations, a Reversal set of novel countermanding perturbations that reversed direction, and a Washout set identical to the Training set. Adaptation was characterized by a change in a motor variable from the beginning to the end of each set, the presence of aftereffects at the beginning of the Washout set when the novel perturbations were removed, and a return of the variable at the end of the Washout to a level comparable to the end of the Training set. Task-level balance performance was characterized by peak center of mass (CoM excursion and velocity, which showed adaptive changes with repetitive trials. Only small changes in anticipatory postural control, characterized by body lean and background muscle activity were observed. Adaptation was found in the evoked long-latency muscular response, and also in the sensorimotor transformation mediating that response. Finally, in each set, temporal patterns of muscle activity converged towards an optimum predicted by a trade-off between maximizing motor performance and minimizing muscle activity. Our results suggest that adaptation in balance, as well as other motor tasks, is mediated by altering central sensitivity to perturbations and may be driven by energetic considerations.

  4. Indirect and direct associations between personality and psychological distress mediated by dispositional coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M; Kapsou, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the association between coping and personality, by testing the hypothesis that dispositional coping mediates the relationship between personality and psychological distress. Canonical correlations evaluated the degree of the association among personality and coping dimensions in a community sample (N = 489) from Cyprus. Results partially support the hypothesized mediation model with Agreeableness predicting distress through the full mediation of avoidant coping, expression of negative feelings and active-positive coping. Partial mediation was found for Neuroticism and Openness. Canonical correlations deciphered how coping relates to the Big Five dimensions. Neuroticism was mostly associated with maladaptive coping, whereas Conscientiousness and Extraversion with adaptive coping.

  5. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...... adaptation needed. Issues that must be addressed in case a strategic approach is not developed, as the building sector is continuously investing in measures to adapt to climate change as impacts emerge are described....

  6. Cultural mediation in museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherghina Boda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available If we perceive the museum not only as a place of storing and conserving the patrimony, but also of transmitting it, then we can also see it as a mediator through which cultures can become collective patrimony. Tightly connected to patrimonial appropriation, mediation appears from this perspective as a process and not an end, as it manifests itself in animation, communication and making knowledge popular in relation to a precise patrimony. That is why we can see cultural mediation as a transmission, as a transformation, as an action or social project which aims at creating social bonds, the museum thus being not only a place of meeting for the public with the objects exposed, but also as a place of meeting between different cultures. Thus, cultural mediation presents itself as the most efficient means for access to culture of all categories of the public, situated as the crossroads of culture, continuous education and entertainment and is inscribed in the field of informal education.

  7. Bradykinin-mediated angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obtułowicz, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Angioedema and urticaria often constitute a challenge in daily clinical practice. They may either co- -occur or present as independent conditions. They are characterized by a complex pathomechanism, and their symptoms may be triggered by diverse factors. These differences are crucial for developing a successful treatment regimen. Both conditions may have an allergic origin (immunoglobulin [Ig] E and non-IgE-related), usually induced by histamine, or a nonallergic one, such as bradykinin-mediated angioedema in patients with C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency or angioedema induced by certain drugs (eg, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors). Currently, we distinguish 5 types of nonallergic angioedema: hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-INH deficiency, acquired angioedema (AAE), and angioedema induced by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, all of which are mediated by bradykinin, as well as pseudoallergic angioedema and idiopathic angioedema. Bradykinin-mediated angioedema (eg, laryngeal angioedema) may be life-threatening because of resistance to corticosteroids and antihistamine drugs. C1-INH concentrates are the drugs of choice in the treatment of HAE and AAE. In recent years, some new drugs have been introduced in the treatment of bradykinin-mediated angioedema, such as bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, icatibant, and kallikrein inhibitor, ecallantide, which allow to improve treatment outcomes.

  8. The Bensberg Mediation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca - Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The basis of the conflict through the mediation represents the objectives and procedures ofmediation, mediation of a conflict. The conflict will not be disclosed to others, but the parties will be creditedthe authority to resolve the conflict, the conflict among themselves with the help of a mediator. The disputeshould be resolved by the parties with help of a third party. The parties in conflict (it may be several personsare jointly responsible for the solution. They seek together a way that leads to long-term settlement of theconflict. The assumption of responsibility in this process strengthens the confidence and the importance oftheir decision. Important is that losers usually have no peace, because they are out for revenge. Winners don’tneed peace. If both parties lose, remains disappointing, with the understanding of which the conflict isresolved, will understand each other better developed. Reconciliation is therefore a longer-term goal.Conflicts also help to clarify roles. The paper presents Bensberg Model of Mediation, because this isdeveloped as a win win solution and his possible implementation in Romanian schools.

  9. Den sundhedsfremmende mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    mediering samt mellem forskellige mediator-roller og tilhørsforhold. Det er også vigtigt at være bevidst om de centrale kvaliteter, risici og dilemmaer, som mediering indebærer i forhold til involvering af borgerne. Denne artikel rummer et bud på en sådan nuanceret begrebsliggørelse og refleksion, relateret...

  10. Expanding mediation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2012-01-01

    In his article In Between Us, Yoni van den Eede expands existing theories of mediation into the realm of the social and the political, focusing on the notions of opacity and transparency. His approach is rich and promising, but two pitfalls should be avoided. First, his concept of ‘in-between’ runs

  11. Efficient adaptive fuzzy control scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents an adaptive nonlinear (state-) feedback control structure, where the nonlinearities are implemented as smooth fuzzy mappings defined as rule sets. The fine tuning and adaption of the controller is realized by an indirect adaptive scheme, which modifies the parameters of the fuzzy

  12. Adaptation : A Partially Automated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact

  13. How Harmful are Adaptation Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de K.C.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e.

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of metabolic adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoek, M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we study how organisms adapt their metabolism to a changing environment. Metabolic adaptation occurs at different timescales. Organisms adapt their metabolism via metabolic regulation, which happens in the order of minutes to hours and via evolution, which takes many generations. Here

  15. CSR and the Mediated Emergence of Strategic Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guthey, Eric; Morsing, Mette

    2014-01-01

    We develop a framework for understanding how lack of clarity in business press coverage of corporate social responsibility functions as a mediated and emergent form of strategic ambiguity. Many stakeholders expect CSR to exhibit clarity, consistency, and discursive closure. But stakeholders also...... demands. We propose that this very public lack of discursive closure provides strategic advantages to CSR stakeholders by rendering the concept of CSR adaptable, resilient, and meaningful to diverse interests. From this perspective, strategic ambiguity emerges from a relational and mediated process...

  16. On Adaptive vs. Non-adaptive Security of Multiparty Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canetti, Ran; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Dziembowski, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    highlights of our results are: – - According to the definition of Dodis-Micali-Rogaway (which is set in the information-theoretic model), adaptive and non-adaptive security are equivalent. This holds for both honest-but-curious and Byzantine adversaries, and for any number of parties. – - According......Security analysis of multiparty cryptographic protocols distinguishes between two types of adversarialsettings: In the non-adaptive setting, the set of corrupted parties is chosen in advance, before the interaction begins. In the adaptive setting, the adversary chooses who to corrupt during...... the course of the computation. We study the relations between adaptive security (i.e., security in the adaptive setting) and non-adaptive security, according to two definitions and in several models of computation. While affirming some prevailing beliefs, we also obtain some unexpected results. Some...

  17. Axionic mirage mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shuntaro; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Although mirage mediation is one of the most plausible mediation mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking, it suffers from two crucial problems. One is the μ/Bμ problem, and the second is the cosmological one. The former stems from the fact that the B parameter tends to be comparable with the gravitino mass, which is 2 orders of magnitude larger than the other soft masses. The latter problem is caused by the decay of the modulus whose branching ratio into the gravitino pair is sizable. In this paper, we propose a model of mirage mediation, in which Peccei-Quinn symmetry is incorporated. In this axionic mirage mediation, it is shown that the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale is dynamically determined around 10 10 GeV to 10 12 GeV due to the supersymmetry breaking effects, and the μ problem can be solved naturally. Furthermore, in our model, the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is the axino, that is, the superpartner of the axion. The overabundance of the LSPs due to decays of the modulus/gravitino, which is the most serious cosmological difficulty in the mirage mediation, can be avoided if the axino is sufficiently light. The next-LSPs (NLSPs) produced by the gravitino decay eventually decay into the axino LSPs, yielding the dominant component of the axinos remaining today. It is shown that the axino with a mass of O(100) MeV is naturally realized, which can constitute the dark matter of the Universe, with a free-streaming length of the order of 0.1 Mpc. The saxion, the real scalar component of the axion supermultiplet, can also be cosmologically harmless due to the dilution of the modulus decay. The lifetime of the NLSP is relatively long, but much shorter than 1 sec, when the big-bang nucleosynthesis commences. The decay of the NLSP would provide intriguing collider signatures

  18. Dynamic Nature of Noncoding RNA Regulation of Adaptive Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Citarella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immune response plays a fundamental role in protecting the organism from infections; however, dysregulation often occurs and can be detrimental for the organism, leading to a variety of immune-mediated diseases. Recently our understanding of the molecular and cellular networks regulating the immune response, and, in particular, adaptive immunity, has improved dramatically. For many years, much of the focus has been on the study of protein regulators; nevertheless, recent evidence points to a fundamental role for specific classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs in regulating development, activation and homeostasis of the immune system. Although microRNAs (miRNAs are the most comprehensive and well-studied, a number of reports suggest the exciting possibility that long ncRNAs (lncRNAs could mediate host response and immune function. Finally, evidence is also accumulating that suggests a role for miRNAs and other small ncRNAs in autocrine, paracrine and exocrine signaling events, thus highlighting an elaborate network of regulatory interactions mediated by different classes of ncRNAs during immune response. This review will explore the multifaceted roles of ncRNAs in the adaptive immune response. In particular, we will focus on the well-established role of miRNAs and on the emerging role of lncRNAs and circulating ncRNAs, which all make indispensable contributions to the understanding of the multilayered modulation of the adaptive immune response.

  19. Green infrastructure as a climate change adaptation policy intervention: muddying the waters or clearing a path to a more secure future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussams, L W; Sheate, W R; Eales, R P

    2015-01-01

    As dangerous climate change looms, decision-makers are increasingly realising that societies will need to adapt to this threat as well as mitigate against it. Green infrastructure (GI) is increasingly seen as an ideal climate change adaptation policy response. However, with this research the authors identify a number of crucial knowledge gaps within GI and, consequently, call for caution and for a concerted effort to understand the concept and what it can really deliver. GI has risen to prominence in a range of policy areas in large part due to its perceived ability to produce multiple benefits simultaneously, termed 'multifunctionality'. This characteristic strengthens the political appeal of the policy in question at a time when environmental issues have slipped down political agendas. Multifunctionality, however, brings its own set of new challenges that should be evaluated fully before the policy is implemented. This research takes important first steps to developing a critical understanding of what is achievable within GI's capacity. It focuses on one of GI's single objectives, namely climate change adaptation, to focus the analysis of how current obstacles in applying GI's multifunctionality could lead to the ineffective delivery of its objective. By drawing on expert opinion from government officials and representatives from the private, non-government organisation (NGO) and academic sectors, this research questions GI's ability to be effectively 'multifunctional' with an inconsistent definition at its core, deficiencies in its understanding and conflicts within its governance. In light of these observations, the authors then reflect on the judiciousness of applying GI to achieve the other objectives it has also been charged with delivering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptive nonlinear flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor

    1998-08-01

    Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator

  1. Adaptability Responding Effectively to Change

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Calarco, Allan

    2011-01-01

    In today's business world, the complexity and pace of change can be daunting. Adaptability has become recognized as a necessary skill for leaders to develop to be effective in this environment. Even so, leaders rarely know what they can do to become more adaptable and foster adaptability in others. This guidebook contributes to a greater understanding of adaptability and the cognitive, emotional, and dispositional flexibility it requires. Leaders will learn how to develop their adaptability and to become more effective for themselves, the people they lead, and their organizations.

  2. Adaptive filtering prediction and control

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Graham C

    2009-01-01

    Preface1. Introduction to Adaptive TechniquesPart 1. Deterministic Systems2. Models for Deterministic Dynamical Systems3. Parameter Estimation for Deterministic Systems4. Deterministic Adaptive Prediction5. Control of Linear Deterministic Systems6. Adaptive Control of Linear Deterministic SystemsPart 2. Stochastic Systems7. Optimal Filtering and Prediction8. Parameter Estimation for Stochastic Dynamic Systems9. Adaptive Filtering and Prediction10. Control of Stochastic Systems11. Adaptive Control of Stochastic SystemsAppendicesA. A Brief Review of Some Results from Systems TheoryB. A Summary o

  3. Adaptive intrusion data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data compression, storage, and formatting system. It also incorporates capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be utilized for the collection of environmental, bi-level, analog and video data. The output of the system is digital tapes formatted for direct data reduction on a CDC 6400 computer, and video tapes containing timed tagged information that can be correlated with the digital data

  4. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  5. Low power adaptive synchronizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, Greg

    2018-02-20

    A circuit adapts to the occurrence of metastable states. The circuit inhibits passing of the metastable state to circuits that follow, by clock gating the output stage. In order to determine whether or not to gate the clock of the output stage, two detect circuits may be used. One circuit detects metastability and another circuit detects metastability resolved to a wrong logic level. The results from one or both detector circuits are used to gate the next clock cycle if needed, waiting for the metastable situation to be resolved.

  6. Adopting an Adaptive Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2009-01-01

    This thesis grounds itself upon two implicitly time-based assumptions: 1. Change is inevitable 2. Design is an iterative process Herbert Simon posits design as an engine of change. He states that design activity is the devising of ‘courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into pref...... particular time-based attributes can be exhibited – most notably, adaptation. The implementation of this framework necessitates a re-examination of the process and concerns of architectural design. The sub-text of the thesis is to remember that the activity of design is itself designed....

  7. Agente adaptable y aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Angel Lara Rivero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se contrasta el concepto de agente programado con el de agente complejo adaptable, se presenta una nueva visión ligada al aprendizaje y la estructura del agente. La imagen del agente se analiza considerando los modelos internos, la práctica, el concepto de rutina y la influencia en su comportamiento, y la importancia del aprendizaje ex ante y ex post. Por último se muestra que la resolución de problemas está sujeta a restricciones del agente y se describen las formas de explorar el espacio de soluciones mediante tres tipos de exploración: exhaustiva, aleatoria y selectiva.

  8. Skeletal adaptations to bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Perica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipedalism is the main characteristic of humans. During evolutin bipedalism emerged probably as an adaptation to a changing environment. Major changes in skeletal system included femur, pelvis, skull and spine. The significance of bipedal locomotion: Bipedalism freed the forelimbs for carrying objects, creation and usage of tools. In the upright position animals have a broader view of the environment and the early detection of predators is crucial for survival. Bipedal locomotion makes larger distances easier to pass, which is very important in the migration of hominids.

  9. Practical adaptive quantum tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granade, Christopher; Ferrie, Christopher; Flammia, Steven T.

    2017-11-01

    We introduce a fast and accurate heuristic for adaptive tomography that addresses many of the limitations of prior methods. Previous approaches were either too computationally intensive or tailored to handle special cases such as single qubits or pure states. By contrast, our approach combines the efficiency of online optimization with generally applicable and well-motivated data-processing techniques. We numerically demonstrate these advantages in several scenarios including mixed states, higher-dimensional systems, and restricted measurements. http://cgranade.com complete data and source code for this work are available online [1], and can be previewed at https://goo.gl/koiWxR.

  10. Renal adaptation during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Alkesh; Martin, Sandra L; Jain, Swati; Keys, Daniel; Edelstein, Charles L

    2013-12-01

    Hibernators periodically undergo profound physiological changes including dramatic reductions in metabolic, heart, and respiratory rates and core body temperature. This review discusses the effect of hypoperfusion and hypothermia observed during hibernation on glomerular filtration and renal plasma flow, as well as specific adaptations in renal architecture, vasculature, the renin-angiotensin system, and upregulation of possible protective mechanisms during the extreme conditions endured by hibernating mammals. Understanding the mechanisms of protection against organ injury during hibernation may provide insights into potential therapies for organ injury during cold storage and reimplantation during transplantation.

  11. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  12. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  13. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaptive Playware in Physical Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Thorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    We describe how playware and games may adapt to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that in physical games there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user’s capabilities, so...... are a proof of existence of differences and of the need for adaptation, and therefore we investigate adaptation as an important issue for playware. With simple playware games, we show that the adaptation will speed the physical game up and down to find the appropriate level that matches the reaction speed...... of the individual player. The appropriate level will change with game/interaction complexity, and adaptation finds the appropriate level for the individual player, even in multi-player games....

  15. "I know, therefore I adapt?" Complexities of individual adaptation to climate-induced forest dieback in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Oakes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual actions to avoid, benefit from, or cope with climate change impacts partly shape adaptation; much research on adaptation has focused at the systems level, overlooking drivers of individual responses. Theoretical frameworks and empirical studies of environmental behavior identify a complex web of cognitive, affective, and evaluative factors that motivate stewardship. We explore the relationship between knowledge of, and adaptation to, widespread, climate-induced tree mortality to understand the cognitive (i.e., knowledge and learning, affective (i.e., attitudes and place attachment, and evaluative (i.e., use values factors that influence how individuals respond to climate-change impacts. From 43 semistructured interviews with forest managers and users in a temperate forest, we identified distinct responses to local, climate-induced environmental changes that we then categorized as either behavioral or psychological adaptations. Interviewees developed a depth of knowledge about the dieback through a combination of direct, place-based experiences and indirect, mediated learning through social interactions. Knowing that the dieback was associated with climate change led to different adaptive responses among the interviewees, although knowledge alone did not explain this variation. Forest users reported psychological adaptations to process negative attitudes; these adaptations were spurred by knowledge of the causes, losses of intangible values, and impacts to a species to which they held attachment. Behavioral adaptations exclusive to a high level of knowledge included actions such as using the forests to educate others or changing transportation behaviors to reduce personal energy consumption. Managers integrated awareness of the dieback and its dynamics across spatial scales into current management objectives. Our findings suggest that adaptive management may occur from the bottom up, as individual managers implement new practices in

  16. Adaptation, allometry, and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, A B; Schork, N J

    1994-08-01

    Essential hypertension is a "disease of civilization" but has a clear genetic component. From an evolutionary perspective, persistence in the human genome of elements capable of raising blood pressure presupposes their adaptive significance. Recently, two hypotheses that explicitly appeal to selectionist arguments, the "slavery" and "thrifty gene" theories, have been forwarded. We find neither completely successful, and we advance an alternative explanation of the adaptive importance of genes responsible for hypertension. We propose that blood pressure rises during childhood and adolescence to subserve homeostatic needs of the organism. Specifically, we contend that blood pressure is a flexible element in the repertoire of renal homeostatic mechanisms serving to match renal function to growth. The effect of modern diet and lifestyle on human growth stimulates earlier and more vigorous development, straining biologically necessary relationships between renal and general somatic growth and requiring compensation via homeostatic mechanisms preserved during evolution. Prime among such mechanisms is blood pressure, which rises as a compensation to maintain renal function in the face of greater growth. Since virtually all members of acculturated societies share in the modern lifestyle, the demands imposed by accelerated growth and development result in a populational shift to higher blood pressures, with a consequent increase in the prevalence of hypertension. We propose that hypertension is the product of maladaptation of highly genetically conserved mechanisms subserving important biological homeostatic needs. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying hypertension will require approaches that examine the developmental processes linking growth to blood pressure.

  17. Adaptability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    The potential social, economic and environmental impacts of climate change are reviewed, with emphasis on agricultural implications. Impact analyses must be done on the scale of watersheds or river basins. For agriculture, climate change effects on water resources are likely to be more important than temperature changes, and climatic variability is also equally important. Another set of critical climatic variables are the frequencies, magnitudes and timing of extreme events such as floods, droughts, etc. A carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere will increase water use efficiency and confer increased tolerance to drought, salinity and air pollution. Better understanding and accounting is required for the effects of increased carbon dioxide on all plant life, including crops. Adaptability of agriculture to change must be taken into account in predicting impacts of climate change, with technological innovation and infrastructure giving agriculture a dynamic nature. Limitations and adaptations must be considered when formulating public policy, to ensure that marginal costs do not exceed marginal benefits. Monoculture plantation forests may be the most efficient sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide, yet widespread reliance on them may harm biological diversity. Actions the U.S. is currently taking under a no-regrets policy are summarized

  18. Current Directions in Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Mediating variables continue to play an important role in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an antecedent variable on to a dependent variable, thereby providing more detailed understanding of relations among variables. Methods to assess mediation have been an active area of research for the last two decades. This paper describes the current state of methods to investigate mediating variables. PMID:20157637

  19. Exploring guideline adaptation strategy for Turkey: Is "ADAPTE" feasible or does it need adaptation as well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan Baser, Duygu; Kahveci, Rabia; Baydar Artantas, Aylin; Yasar, İlknur; Aksoy, Hilal; Koc, Esra Meltem; Kasim, İsmail; Kunnamo, Ilkka; Özkara, Adem

    2018-02-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines are mostly developed by 3 methods; namely, de novo, adoption, and adaptation. Nonpublished studies and authors experience shows that most guidelines in Turkey are either by adoption or by adaptation. There is no available local tool for adaptation, so the process is not standardized and most of the time not explicitly defined. The objective of this study is to search for international guideline adaptation tools and test their feasibility in Turkish context, to serve a final goal of developing a unique local strategic tool for guideline adaptation. The methodological design of this study includes selection of an international tool for Clinical Practice Guideline adaptation, piloting this tool with selected Turkish guidelines, identifying the feasibility of this tool and exploring the needs for adaptation of the tool, drawing recommendations for adaptation of the strategies, and validation of the process by local experts. The study from planning phase to finalizing the guidance, including pilot studies and panel but excluding translation of ADAPTE, lasted 18 months. Nine researchers were involved in the adaptation process and 15 more experts were involved in the validation panel. Following the suggestions of the research team on modifications and validation through the expert panel; 2 steps of the ADAPTE toolkit were rejected, 2 steps were accepted by modification, 7 steps were accepted by additional recommendations. In addition, 2 tools were suggested to be added to the toolkit. This is the first study on adaptation of guidelines in Turkey. Pilot adaptation of 2 guidelines with ADAPTE revealed that ADAPTE is a useful and feasible tool in Turkish setting, but might require certain changes in recommendations and revision of tools. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [Mediation in schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, Angela

    2006-01-01

    In this article the guiding questions concern the objectives and effectiveness of introducing mediation into an existing school culture of dominance, competition and selection. In addition the necessity will be shown of combining conflict resolution with organisational development and the introduction of a consensual ethics and behaviour code to attain sustainable results in creating a constructive and healthy school environment. Given scarce resources and little time the decisive role of artistic methods will be looked at in providing young people with flexible methods of expressing and negotiating their interests in a changing environment of values and power structures. Some aspects of the development of nonviolent communication, conflict resolution and mediation methods in schools in Germany will be focused on with special emphasis on the type of intervention used and its long term sustainable effects.

  1. Church mediation - een vak apart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annelies Klinefelter; dr Hans A.J. Jonker

    2009-01-01

    Welke rol kan mediation in de kerk spelen in de diverse geledingen en specifieke activiteiten? In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op kerkelijke conflicten, gelaagdheid in church mediation, en specifieke dilemma's van church mediation. Daarnaast komen enkele benaderingen aan bod zoals: helende

  2. Neurally-mediated sincope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, I; Cytron, J; Jhanjee, R; Nguyen, J; Benditt, D G

    2009-08-01

    Syncope is a syndrome characterized by a relatively sudden, temporary and self-terminating loss of consciousness; the causes may vary, but they have in common a temporary inadequacy of cerebral nutrient flow, usually due to a fall in systemic arterial pressure. However, while syncope is a common problem, it is only one explanation for episodic transient loss of consciousness (TLOC). Consequently, diagnostic evaluation should start with a broad consideration of real or seemingly real TLOC. Among those patients in whom TLOC is deemed to be due to ''true syncope'', the focus may then reasonably turn to assessing the various possible causes; in this regard, the neurally-mediated syncope syndromes are among the most frequently encountered. There are three common variations: vasovagal syncope (often termed the ''common'' faint), carotid sinus syndrome, and the so-called ''situational faints''. Defining whether the cause is due to a neurally-mediated reflex relies heavily on careful history taking and selected testing (e.g., tilt-test, carotid massage). These steps are important. Despite the fact that neurally-mediated faints are usually relatively benign from a mortality perspective, they are nevertheless only infrequently an isolated event; neurally-mediated syncope tends to recur, and physical injury resulting from falls or accidents, diminished quality-of-life, and possible restriction from employment or avocation are real concerns. Consequently, defining the specific form and developing an effective treatment strategy are crucial. In every case the goal should be to determine the cause of syncope with sufficient confidence to provide patients and family members with a reliable assessment of prognosis, recurrence risk, and treatment options.

  3. Teachers as mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of lower secondary English teaching in South West England, this study identifies in broad terms the competing goals between which English teachers mediate and the explicit and hidden tensions that result. To understand the interactions of competing goals, teachers’ goal...... and cultural influences on practice. Yet the teachers observed moved smoothly between goal-oriented behaviours in a continuous and comfortable style, easily and without reflecting any tensions between them. Thus, this article elaborates an account of situated English teaching....

  4. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e

  5. Lopsided Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    De Simone, Andrea; Giudice, Gian Francesco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    It has been recently pointed out that the unavoidable tuning among supersymmetric parameters required to raise the Higgs boson mass beyond its experimental limit opens up new avenues for dealing with the so called $\\mu$-$B_\\mu$ problem of gauge mediation. In fact, it allows for accommodating, with no further parameter tuning, large values of $B_\\mu$ and of the other Higgs-sector soft masses, as predicted in models where both $\\mu$ and $B_\\mu$ are generated at one-loop order. This class of models, called Lopsided Gauge Mediation, offers an interesting alternative to conventional gauge mediation and is characterized by a strikingly different phenomenology, with light higgsinos, very large Higgs pseudoscalar mass, and moderately light sleptons. We discuss general parametric relations involving the fine-tuning of the model and various observables such as the chargino mass and the value of $\\tan\\beta$. We build an explicit model and we study the constraints coming from LEP and Tevatron. We show that in spite of ne...

  6. The looming epidemic of diabetes-associated tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harries, A D; Lin, Y; Satyanarayana, S

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing at a dramatic rate, and countries in Asia, particularly India and China, will bear the brunt of this epidemic. Persons with diabetes have a significantly increased risk of active tuberculosis (TB), which is two to three times higher than in persons...

  7. Technology safeguards needed as security rule audits loom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Deborah; Hoey, Laura G; McCrystal, Timothy M; Tolley, David C

    2012-05-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services will conduct security rule audits that will involve on-site visits and include: Compliance-focused interviews with key organizational leaders. Scrutiny of physical operations controls, especially regarding storage, maintenance, and use of protected health information. Assessment of organizational policies and procedures to ensure compliance with privacy and security rules. Identification of regulatory compliance areas of concern.

  8. Competitiveness of Estonian Economy : some Dilemmas Looming Ahead / Alari Purju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purju, Alari

    1999-01-01

    Eesti majandus on jõudnud avatud majanduse perioodist järgmisesse arenguetappi. Seoses sellega tõstatuvad probleemid praeguse makroökonoomilise strateegia seostamisest strukturaalsete reformidega. Eesti ühinemine Euroopa Liiduga

  9. The enchanted loom. [Book on evolution of intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrow, R.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of intelligence began with the movement of Crossopterygian fish onto land. The eventual appearance of large dinosaurs eliminated all but the smallest of mammalian creatures, with the survivors forced to move only nocturnally, when enhanced olfactory and aural faculties were favored and involved a larger grey matter/body mass ratio than possessed by the dinosaurs. Additionally, the mammals made comparisons between the inputs of various senses, implying the presence of significant memory capacity and an ability to abstract survival information. More complex behavior occurred with the advent of tree dwellers (forward-looking eyes), hands, color vision, and the ability to grip and manipulate objects. An extra pound of brain evolved in the human skull in less than a million years. The neural processes that can lead to an action by a creature with a brain are mimicked by the basic AND and OR gates in computers, which are rapidly approaching the circuit density of the human brain. It is suggested that humans will eventually produce computers of higher intelligence than people possess, and computer spacecraft, alive in an electronic sense, will travel outward to explore the universe.

  10. CPR in the nursing home: fool's errand or looming dilemma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, D

    2011-09-01

    The indications for CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) have expanded greatly since the technique was introduced and theoretically it can be attempted on all prior to death. Policy initiatives (such as the British Medical Association\\/Royal College of Nursing guidelines) have attempted to provide a clinical rationale for the withholding of inappropriate CPR. Traditionally a care home was felt to be an inappropriate environment to attempt CPR but increased use of advance directives may bring the issue to the fore in this setting.

  11. Hypertension, diabetes and overweight: looming legacies of the Biafran famine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hult

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is facing rapidly increasing prevalences of cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Previous and ongoing undernutrition among pregnant women may contribute to this development as suggested by epidemiological studies from high income countries linking undernutrition in fetal life with increased burden of non-communicable diseases in later life. We undertook to study the risks for hypertension, glucose intolerance and overweight forty years after fetal exposure to famine afflicted Biafra during the Nigerian civil war (1967-1970. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cohort study performed in June 27-July 31, 2009 in Enugu, Nigeria. Adults (n = 1,339 born before (1965-67, during (1968-January 1970, or after (1971-73 the years of famine were included. Blood pressure (BP, random plasma glucose (p-glucose and anthropometrics, as well as prevalence of hypertension (BP>140/90 mmHg, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; p-glucose 7.8-11.0 mmol/l, diabetes (DM; p-glucose ≥11.1 mmol/l, or overweight (BMI>25 kg/m(2 were compared between the three groups. Fetal-infant exposure to famine was associated with elevated systolic (+7 mmHg; p<0.001 and diastolic (+5 mmHg; p<0.001 BP, increased p-glucose (+0.3 mmol/L; p<0.05 and waist circumference (+3 cm, p<0.001, increased risk of systolic hypertension (adjusted OR 2.87; 95% CI 1.90-4.34, IGT (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.02-2.69 and overweight (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.03-1.93 as compared to people born after the famine. Limitations of this study include the lack of birth weight data and the inability to separate effects of fetal and infant famine. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal and infant undernutrition is associated with significantly increased risk of hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance in 40-year-old Nigerians. Prevention of undernutrition during pregnancy and in infancy should therefore be given high priority in health, education, and economic agendas.

  12. Canine Rabies: A Looming Threat to Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigfrido Burgos-Cáceres

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part of our daily lives but also of our immediate surroundings, and this is reflected in the rise in pet dog ownership in developed and developing countries. This is important given that more frequent exposures and interactions at the animal-human interface increases the likelihood of contracting zoonotic diseases of companion animals. Despite existing vaccines and post-exposure prophylactic treatment, rabies remains a neglected disease that is poorly controlled throughout much of the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, where most human rabies deaths occur. It is believed that with sustained international commitments, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal.

  13. Trends in scientific publishing: Dark clouds loom large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinny, Pulikottil Wilson; Vishnu, Venugopalan Y; Lal, Vivek

    2016-04-15

    The world wide web has brought about a paradigm shift in the way medical research is published and accessed. The ease with which a new journal can be started/hosted by publishing start-ups is unprecedented. The tremendous capabilities of the world wide web and the open access revolution when combined with a highly profitable business have attracted unscrupulous fraudulent operators to the publishing industry. The intent of these fraudulent publishers is solely driven by profit with utter disregard to scientific content, peer reviews and ethics. This phenomenon has been referred to as "predatory publishing". The "international" tag of such journals often betrays their true origins. The gold open access model of publishing, where the author pays the publisher, when coupled with a non-existent peer review threatens to blur the distinction between science and pseudoscience. The average researcher needs to be made more aware of this clear and present danger to the scientific community. Prevention is better than cure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

  15. Difference in [corrected] adaptive dispersal ability can promote species coexistence in fluctuating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Miki, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Theories and empirical evidence suggest that random dispersal of organisms promotes species coexistence in spatially structured environments. However, directed dispersal, where movement is adjusted with fitness-related cues, is less explored in studies of dispersal-mediated coexistence. Here, we present a metacommunity model of two consumers exhibiting directed dispersal and competing for a single resource. Our results indicated that directed dispersal promotes coexistence through two distinct mechanisms, depending on the adaptiveness of dispersal. Maladaptive directed dispersal may promote coexistence similar to random dispersal. More importantly, directed dispersal is adaptive when dispersers track patches of increased resources in fluctuating environments. Coexistence is promoted under increased adaptive dispersal ability of the inferior competitor relative to the superior competitor. This newly described dispersal-mediated coexistence mechanism is likely favored by natural selection under the trade-off between competitive and adaptive dispersal abilities.

  16. PTH signaling mediates perilacunar remodeling during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardinier, Joseph D; Al-Omaishi, Salam; Morris, Michael D; Kohn, David H

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading and release of endogenous parathyroid hormone (PTH) during exercise facilitate the adaptation of bone. However, it remains unclear how exercise and PTH influence the composition of bone and how exercise and PTH-mediated compositional changes influence the mechanical properties of bone. Thus, the primary purpose of this study was to establish compositional changes within osteocytes' perilacunar region of cortical bone following exercise, and evaluate the influence of endogenous PTH signaling on this perilacunar adaptation. Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to evaluate tissue composition surrounding individual lacuna within the tibia of 19week old male mice exposed to treadmill running for 3weeks. As a result of exercise, tissue within the perilacunar region (within 0-5μm of the lacuna wall) had a lower mineral-to-matrix ratio (MMR) compared to sedentary controls. In addition, exercise also increased the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio (CPR) across both perilacunar and non-perilacunar regions (5-10μm and 10-15μm from the lacuna walls). Tibial post-yield work had a significant negative correlation with perilacunar MMR. Inhibition of PTH activity with PTH(7-34) demonstrated that perilacunar remodeling during exercise was dependent on the cellular response to endogenous PTH. The osteocytes' response to endogenous PTH during exercise was characterized by a significant reduction in SOST expression and significant increase in FGF-23 expression. The potential reduction in phosphate levels due to FGF-23 expression may explain the increase in carbonate substitution. Overall, this is the first study to demonstrate that adaptation in tissue composition is localized around individual osteocytes, may contribute to the changes in whole bone mechanics during exercise, and that PTH signaling during exercise contributes to these adaptations. Copyright © 2016 International Society of

  17. Mechanisms mediating parallel action monitoring in fronto-striatal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Christian; Ness, Vanessa; Lukas, Carsten; Hoffmann, Rainer; Stüwe, Sven; Falkenstein, Michael; Saft, Carsten

    2012-08-01

    Flexible response adaptation and the control of conflicting information play a pivotal role in daily life. Yet, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms mediating parallel control of these processes. We examined these mechanisms using a multi-methodological approach that integrated data from event-related potentials (ERPs) with structural MRI data and source localisation using sLORETA. Moreover, we calculated evoked wavelet oscillations. We applied this multi-methodological approach in healthy subjects and patients in a prodromal phase of a major basal ganglia disorder (i.e., Huntington's disease), to directly focus on fronto-striatal networks. Behavioural data indicated, especially the parallel execution of conflict monitoring and flexible response adaptation was modulated across the examined cohorts. When both processes do not co-incide a high integrity of fronto-striatal loops seems to be dispensable. The neurophysiological data suggests that conflict monitoring (reflected by the N2 ERP) and working memory processes (reflected by the P3 ERP) differentially contribute to this pattern of results. Flexible response adaptation under the constraint of high conflict processing affected the N2 and P3 ERP, as well as their delta frequency band oscillations. Yet, modulatory effects were strongest for the N2 ERP and evoked wavelet oscillations in this time range. The N2 ERPs were localized in the anterior cingulate cortex (BA32, BA24). Modulations of the P3 ERP were localized in parietal areas (BA7). In addition, MRI-determined caudate head volume predicted modulations in conflict monitoring, but not working memory processes. The results show how parallel conflict monitoring and flexible adaptation of action is mediated via fronto-striatal networks. While both, response monitoring and working memory processes seem to play a role, especially response selection processes and ACC-basal ganglia networks seem to be the driving force in mediating parallel conflict

  18. Adaptive Immunity to Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George S.; Klein, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Only a handful of the more than 100,000 fungal species on our planet cause disease in humans, yet the number of life-threatening fungal infections in patients has recently skyrocketed as a result of advances in medical care that often suppress immunity intensely. This emerging crisis has created pressing needs to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi, with the ultimate goal of therapeutic applications. Herein, we describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses deployed against pathogenic fungi. The review focuses on adaptive immune responses to the major medically important fungi and emphasizes how dendritic cells and subsets in various anatomic compartments respond to fungi, recognize their molecular patterns, and signal responses that nurture and shape the differentiation of T cell subsets and B cells. Also emphasized is how the latter deploy effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these nasty invaders while also constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. PMID:22224780

  19. Innate and adaptive immunosenescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shradha; Busse, Paula J

    2010-03-01

    To review the effect of increasing age on the immune system and some of its clinical implications. MEDLINE and PubMed searches were performed cross-referencing the keywords immunosenescence, aging, and immunity. Articles were reviewed for additional citations. Articles were reviewed and selected based on relevance to subject matter. The study of immunosenescence is complex and not completely understood. Aging affects both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. With increased age, there may be a decrease in phagocytosis, alteration of cellular migration, changes in cell populations and numbers, and a decreased ability to produce specific antibodies. Clinically, these changes potentially increase morbidity and mortality in elderly individuals through an increased rate of infections, malignancy, and autoimmunity. The process of aging is accompanied by diverse changes in immunity. Several therapeutic approaches are under investigation, including cytokine therapy, hormonal replacement, antioxidant supplementation, and caloric restriction, to attenuate or potentially reverse immunosenescence.

  20. Capabilities for Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    This dissertation explores capabilities that enable firms to strategically adapt to environmental changes and preserve competitiveness over time – often referred to as dynamic capabilities. While dynamic capabilities being a popular research domain, too little is known about what these capabilities...... are in terms of their constituent elements, where these capabilities come from, and how their effectiveness can be fostered. Thus, the dissertation’s aim is to address these gaps by advancing our understanding of the multilevel aspects and micro-foundations of dynamic capabilities. In doing so, it focuses...... on capabilities for sensing and seizing new business opportunities and reconfiguring corporate resources. More specifically, the dissertation examines the role of key organization members, such as knowledge workers and top managers, in defining and building these capabilities. Moreover, it investigates how...

  1. Mobile, Flexible, and Adaptable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jytte; Thao, Thi Vu

    2011-01-01

    Industrialisation and urban growth are constitutive aspects of Vietnam's new economy and are important driving forces behind increasing rural-to-urban migration. Growth in informal sector employment is a significant aspect of this development, which has provided for both male and female migrants......, although they generally are engaged in different occupations. Based on a case study among porters at Hanoi's Long Bien Market, this paper examines rural-to-urban migrants' gendered migration practices. Two interrelated aspects of gendered migration practices are in focus: the role of migration networks...... of the female porters demonstrate a particular way of adapting to the migration process. Also, it is emphasised how women's flexible practices are facilitated by women's own village-based networks. It is suggested that ‘in-betweenness’, which stands for the simultaneous and overlapping presence of urban...

  2. Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudecz, Adriána

    -operation and research into the common problems of the Northern Periphery. This report is an output of the ROADEX “Implementing Accessibility” project (2009-2012). It gives a summary of the results of research into adaptation measures to combat climate change effects on low volume roads in the Northern Periphery....... The research was carried out between January 2000 and March 2012. One of the biggest challenges that mankind has to face is the prospect of climate change resulting from emissions of greenhouse gases. These gases trap energy in the atmosphere and cause global surface temperatures to rise. This warming in turn...... causes changes in other climatic variables such as rainfall, humidity and wind speed that impact on the functioning of infrastructure such road networks. This paper discusses the climate changes predicted by the world’s meteorological organisations and considers how these may impact on the public...

  3. Genomics and fish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Antunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of varied fish species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

  4. Adaptive Playware in Physical Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Thorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    We describe how playware and games may adapt to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that in physical games there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user’s capabilities, so...... that the activity automatically will match the capability of the individual user. With small test groups, we investigate how different age groups and gender groups physically interact with some playware games, and find indications of differences between the groups. Despite the small test set, the results...... are a proof of existence of differences and of the need for adaptation, and therefore we investigate adaptation as an important issue for playware. With simple playware games, we show that the adaptation will speed the physical game up and down to find the appropriate level that matches the reaction speed...

  5. Adaptation and Natural Selection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sober, E; Wilson, D S

    2011-02-01

    In Adaptation and Natural Selection, George C. Williams linked the distinction between group and individual adaptation with the distinction between group and individual selection. Williams' Principle, as we will call it, says that adaptation at a level requires selection at that level. This is a necessary but not a sufficient condition; for example, group adaptation requires group selection, but the fact that group selection influences a trait's evolution does not suffice for the resulting trait frequency to be a group adaptation. What more is required? In this paper, we describe an answer to this question that has been developed in multilevel selection theory. We also discuss an alternative framework for defining units of adaptation that violates Williams' Principle. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. What carries a mediation process? Configural analysis of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; Mun, Eun Young; Mair, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    Mediation is a process that links a predictor and a criterion via a mediator variable. Mediation can be full or partial. This well-established definition operates at the level of variables even if they are categorical. In this article, two new approaches to the analysis of mediation are proposed. Both of these approaches focus on the analysis of categorical variables. The first involves mediation analysis at the level of configurations instead of variables. Thus, mediation can be incorporated into the arsenal of methods of analysis for person-oriented research. Second, it is proposed that Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA) can be used for both exploration and confirmation of mediation relationships among categorical variables. The implications of using CFA are first that mediation hypotheses can be tested at the level of individual configurations instead of variables. Second, this approach leaves the door open for different types of mediation processes to exist within the same set. Using a data example, it is illustrated that aggregate-level analysis can overlook mediation processes that operate at the level of individual configurations.

  7. Legal foundations of adaptive licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, K; Baird, L G; Chia, A; Hocking, S; Hutt, P B; Lee, D; Norwalk, L; Salvatore, V

    2013-09-01

    In April 2012, MIT's Center for Biomedical Innovation and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cosponsored a workshop on legal foundations of adaptive pharmaceuticals licensing. Past and present attorneys from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the EMA, and Health Sciences Agency Singapore (HSA) found that existing statutes provided authority for adaptive licensing (AL). By contrast, an attorney from Health Canada identified gaps in authority. Reimbursement during initial phases of adaptive approaches to licensing was deemed consistent with existing statutes in all jurisdictions.

  8. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems

  9. Adaptive unmanned aerial vechile control

    OpenAIRE

    Bernotaitis, Vilimantas

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyzes unmanned aerial vehicles and its adaptivity - their structures, operational principles and components. Also analyzing algorithms of adaptive neural networks and their usage in unmanned aerial vehicles. The main objective of this thesis is to analyze structures, control systems of unmanned aerial vehicles and their abilities to adapt to changing environment. This thesis contains analysis of already used solutions and their drawbacks. As research made in this thesis shown t...

  10. Adapting Playware to Rehabilitation Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Balslev; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2011-01-01

    We describe how playware and games may become adaptive to the interaction of the individual user and how therapists use this adaptation property to apply modular interactive tiles in rehabilitation practices that demand highly individualized training. Therapists may use the interactive modular...... patients modulating exercises and difficulty levels. We also find that in physical games there are individual differences in patient interaction capabilities and styles, and that modularity allows the therapist to adapt exercises to the individual patient’s capabilities....

  11. Adaptive filtering and change detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi

  12. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  13. Email Adaptation for Conflict Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were...... the leanness of email in managing conflict, we found that underthe described conflict situation the very leanness of emailwas appreciated and thus, exploited by those concerned tomanage the conflict situation. Specifically, we identified 4 keyconflict‐triggered adaptation strategies, namely......, interactionavoidance, disempowering, blame‐protection, and image‐shelteringthat drove the ways in which email was adapted to maintainorganisational partnerships under conflict....

  14. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...

  15. The role of emotion perception in adaptive functioning of people with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudepohl, Margaret B; Robins, Diana L; King, Tricia Z; Henrich, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning has historically been used to predict adaptive outcomes of people with autism spectrum disorders; however, research shows that it is not a complete predictor. The current study explored whether emotion perception was a predictor of adaptive outcomes, and more specifically, hypothesized that emotion perception (Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy-2 error scores) would mediate adaptive functioning of people with autism spectrum disorder (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition). People with autism spectrum disorders demonstrated significantly lower adaptive functioning and emotion perception skills compared to typically developing individuals. Emotion perception acted as a significant mediator for socialization, but not communication or daily living skills, highlighting that in people with autism spectrum disorders, lower socialization abilities is the result, in part, of emotion perception deficits. It was unexpected that emotion perception was not a mediator for communication skills. This may be related to sample restrictions, or the narrow focus on emotion perception. Future research should involve a larger, more inclusive autism spectrum disorder sample, broaden approaches to exploring relationships between social perception and adaptive outcomes, and relate findings to brain mechanisms underlying emotion perception. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Parental distress, parenting practices, and child adaptive outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklewright, Jackie L; King, Tricia Z; O'Toole, Kathleen; Henrich, Chris; Floyd, Frank J

    2012-03-01

    Moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with significant familial distress and child adaptive sequelae. Our aim was to examine the relationship between parental psychological distress, parenting practices (authoritarian, permissive, authoritative), and child adaptive functioning 12-36 months following TBI or orthopedic injury (OI). Injury type was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning, demonstrating a significantly stronger relationship in the TBI relative to OI group. Authoritarian parenting practices were hypothesized to mediate relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning across groups. Groups (TBI n = 21, OI n = 23) did not differ significantly on age at injury, time since injury, sex, race, or SES. Parents completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, Parenting Practices Questionnaire, and Vineland-II. Moderation and mediation hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression and a bootstrapping approach, respectively. Results supported moderation and revealed that higher parental psychological distress was associated with lower child adaptive functioning in the TBI group only. Mediation results indicated that higher parental distress was associated with authoritarian parenting practices and lower adaptive functioning across groups. Results suggest that parenting practices are an important area of focus for studies attempting to elucidate the relationship between parent and child functioning following TBI.

  17. Computerized adaptive testing item selection in computerized adaptive learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item selection methods traditionally developed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are explored for their usefulness in item-based computerized adaptive learning (CAL) systems. While in CAT Fisher information-based selection is optimal, for recovering learning populations in CAL systems item

  18. Translation as cultural mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Petcu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the role that translation plays as cultural mediator, as it already widely accepted that translation involves not just two languages, but two cultures, two worlds that are brought into close contact with each other. Obviously, between the two cultures, the two worlds that translation compares and contrasts there are both similarities and dissimilarities. What is of interest to us is the way in which dissimilarities should be approached in the process of translation, whether they should be domesticated or foreignized as Venuti put it, whether the reader should be brought closer to the text or the text closer to the reader.

  19. Holographic Gauge Mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benini, Francesco; /Princeton U.; Dymarsky, Anatoly; /Stanford U., ITP; Franco, Sebastian; /Santa Barbara, KITP; Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Verlinde, Herman; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2009-06-19

    We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain 'messenger mesons,' which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.

  20. Urban Songlines as Mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corlin, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an investigation of the method The Urban Songlines Book and how it works as a mediator for mapping the experienced space. The method contains a combination of aerial maps, photographs, and interviews as a way to understand the respondent´s use, relations...... and experiences of their neighborhood and the city. Through a presentation of the origin of the method, a description of the conducted study, and an analysis of the process in relation to theories about participatory design, social design, ANT and architectural sociology, the paper reveals how this method...

  1. 45 CFR 16.18 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 16.18 Section 16.18 Public Welfare... BOARD § 16.18 Mediation. (a) In cases pending before the Board. If the Board decides that mediation... mediation techniques and will provide or assist in selecting a mediator. The mediator may take any steps...

  2. Hypothesis test of mediation effect in causal mediation model with high-dimensional continuous mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Pan, Wen-Chi

    2016-06-01

    Causal mediation modeling has become a popular approach for studying the effect of an exposure on an outcome through a mediator. However, current methods are not applicable to the setting with a large number of mediators. We propose a testing procedure for mediation effects of high-dimensional continuous mediators. We characterize the marginal mediation effect, the multivariate component-wise mediation effects, and the L2 norm of the component-wise effects, and develop a Monte-Carlo procedure for evaluating their statistical significance. To accommodate the setting with a large number of mediators and a small sample size, we further propose a transformation model using the spectral decomposition. Under the transformation model, mediation effects can be estimated using a series of regression models with a univariate transformed mediator, and examined by our proposed testing procedure. Extensive simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of our methods for continuous and dichotomous outcomes. We apply the methods to analyze genomic data investigating the effect of microRNA miR-223 on a dichotomous survival status of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We identify nine gene ontology sets with expression values that significantly mediate the effect of miR-223 on GBM survival. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  3. Suppression of the HSF1-mediated proteotoxic stress response by the metabolic stress sensor AMPK

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Siyuan; Tang, Zijian; Cao, Junyue; Zhou, Wei; Li, Huawen; Sampson, Stephen; Dai, Chengkai

    2014-01-01

    Numerous extrinsic and intrinsic insults trigger the HSF1-mediated proteotoxic stress response (PSR), an ancient transcriptional program that is essential to proteostasis and survival under such conditions. In contrast to its well-recognized mobilization by proteotoxic stress, little is known about how this powerful adaptive mechanism reacts to other stresses. Surprisingly, we discovered that metabolic stress suppresses the PSR. This suppression is largely mediated through the central metabol...

  4. Epigenetic Mediation of Endocrine and Immune Response in an Animal Model of Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing complex diseases is influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0550 TITLE: Epigenetic Mediation of Endocrine and Immune Response in an Animal Model of Gulf War Illness...Sept 2015-29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Epigenetic Mediation of Endocrine and Immune Response in an Animal Model of Gulf War

  5. Temporal specificity of the initial adaptive response in motor adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsaan M Joiner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to a novel physical environment eventually leads to a mature adaptive response whereby feedforward changes in motor output mirror both the amplitude and temporal structure of the environmental perturbations. However, adaptive responses at the earliest stages of learning have been found to be not only smaller, but systematically less specific in their temporal structure compared to later stages of learning. This observation has spawned a lively debate as to whether the temporal structure of the initial adaptive response is, in fact, stereotyped and non-specific. To settle this debate, we directly measured the adaptive responses to velocity-dependent and position-dependent force-field perturbations (vFFs and pFFs at the earliest possible stage of motor learning in humans-after just a single-movement exposure. In line with previous work, we found these earliest stage adaptive responses to be more similar than the perturbations that induced them. However, the single-trial adaptive responses for vFF and pFF perturbations were clearly distinct, and the disparity between them reflected the difference between the temporal structure of the perturbations that drove them. Critically, we observed these differences between single-trial adaptive responses when vFF and pFF perturbations were randomly intermingled from one trial to the next within the same block, indicating perturbation response specificity at the single trial level. These findings demonstrate that the initial adaptive responses to physical perturbations are not stereotyped. Instead, the neural plasticity in sensorimotor areas is sensitive to the temporal structure of a movement perturbation even at the earliest stage in learning. This insight has direct implications for the development of computational models of early-stage motor adaptation and the evolution of this adaptive response with continued training.

  6. Time in Redox Adaptation Processes: From Evolution to Hormesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille M. J. P. E. Sthijns

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Life on Earth has to adapt to the ever changing environment. For example, due to introduction of oxygen in the atmosphere, an antioxidant network evolved to cope with the exposure to oxygen. The adaptive mechanisms of the antioxidant network, specifically the glutathione (GSH system, are reviewed with a special focus on the time. The quickest adaptive response to oxidative stress is direct enzyme modification, increasing the GSH levels or activating the GSH-dependent protective enzymes. After several hours, a hormetic response is seen at the transcriptional level by up-regulating Nrf2-mediated expression of enzymes involved in GSH synthesis. In the long run, adaptations occur at the epigenetic and genomic level; for example, the ability to synthesize GSH by phototrophic bacteria. Apparently, in an adaptive hormetic response not only the dose or the compound, but also time, should be considered. This is essential for targeted interventions aimed to prevent diseases by successfully coping with changes in the environment e.g., oxidative stress.

  7. Transsaccadic transfer of distortion adaptation in a natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtegiorgis, Selam W; Rifai, Katharina; Wahl, Siegfried

    2018-01-01

    Spatially varying distortions in optical elements-for instance prisms and progressive power lenses-modulate the visual world disparately in different visual areas. Saccadic eye movements in such a complexly distorted environment thereby continuously alter the retinal location of the distortions. Yet the visual system achieves perceptual constancy by compensating for distortions irrespective of their retinal relocations at different fixations. Here, we assessed whether the visual system retains its plasticity to distortions across saccades to attain stability. Specifically, we tapped into reference frames of geometric skew-adaptation aftereffects to evaluate the transfer of retinotopic and spatiotopic distortion information across saccades. Adaptation to skew distortion of natural-image content was tested at retinotopic and spatiotopic locations after a saccade was executed between adaptation and test phases. The skew-adaptation information was partially transferred to a new fixation after a saccade. Significant adaptation aftereffects were obtained at both retinotopic and spatiotopic locations. Conceivably, spatiotopic information was used to counterbalance the saccadic retinal shifts of the distortions. Therefore, distortion processing in a natural visual world does not start anew at each fixation; rather, retinotopic and spatiotopic skew information acquired at previous fixations are preserved to mediate stable perception during eye movements.

  8. Adaptive resistance to cationic compounds in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiada, Anna; Markogiannakis, Antonis; Plachouras, Diamantis; Daikos, George L

    2011-03-01

    Adaptive resistance is an autoregulated phenomenon characterised by induction of resistance in the presence of drug and reversal to the sensitive phenotype in its absence. This type of resistance is well documented for polycationic antibiotics, including aminoglycosides and polymyxins, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other aerobic Gram-negative bacilli. It is not caused by selection of resistant mutants but rather by phenotypic alterations in order to survive the lethal drug effect. Adaptive resistance to aminoglycosides is mainly mediated by the MexXY-OprM efflux pump that is rapidly upregulated in bacteria surviving the first exposure to aminoglycosides and is downregulated when bacteria are no longer in contact with the drug. A two-component regulatory system designated ParR-ParS plays a major role in adaptive resistance induced by cationic peptides. In the presence of cationic peptides, ParR-ParS activates the lipopolysaccharide modification operon (arnBCADTEF) leading to increased resistance in polymyxins and aminoglycosides. The bactericidal kinetics related to adaptive resistance have important clinical implications and provide a rationale for administering cationic antibiotics in larger initial and longer interval bolus dosing. A better understanding of this phenomenon and the molecular mechanisms responsible will be essential not only for optimum use of cationic antibiotics but also for developing new agents with ability to counteract the detrimental effects of adaptive resistance and thus enhance the therapeutic efficacy of polycationic compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Statistical Physics of Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Perunov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whether by virtue of being prepared in a slowly relaxing, high-free energy initial condition, or because they are constantly dissipating energy absorbed from a strong external drive, many systems subject to thermal fluctuations are not expected to behave in the way they would at thermal equilibrium. Rather, the probability of finding such a system in a given microscopic arrangement may deviate strongly from the Boltzmann distribution, raising the question of whether thermodynamics still has anything to tell us about which arrangements are the most likely to be observed. In this work, we build on past results governing nonequilibrium thermodynamics and define a generalized Helmholtz free energy that exactly delineates the various factors that quantitatively contribute to the relative probabilities of different outcomes in far-from-equilibrium stochastic dynamics. By applying this expression to the analysis of two examples—namely, a particle hopping in an oscillating energy landscape and a population composed of two types of exponentially growing self-replicators—we illustrate a simple relationship between outcome-likelihood and dissipative history. In closing, we discuss the possible relevance of such a thermodynamic principle for our understanding of self-organization in complex systems, paying particular attention to a possible analogy to the way evolutionary adaptations emerge in living things.

  11. Success and adaptation

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Yesterday morning, the last colliding proton beams of 2013 were extracted from the LHC, heralding the start of the machine’s first long shutdown (LS1) and crowning its first three glorious years of running. I hardly need to tell the CERN community what a fabulous performance all the people running the machine, the experiments, the computing and all supporting infrastructures put in. Those people are you, and you all know very well what a great job everyone did.   Nevertheless, I would like to express my thanks to all the people who made this first LHC run such a success. Re-measuring the whole Standard Model in such a short period, and then completing it with the discovery of what looks increasingly like the Higgs boson, is no mean feat. What I’d like to focus on today is another aspect of our field: its remarkable ability to adapt. When I started out in research, experiments involved a handful of people and lasted a few years at most. The timescale for the development of ...

  12. Stimuli-Adaptable Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    but the presented work has a new approach to the field by basing itself on the idea of developing a network into which a photo-active polymer is mixed and which function as an adhesive. Upon irradiation with UV-light for a short time a non-adhering inter-penetrating network material would be formed. Two simple......The work presented in this Thesis deals with the development of a stimuli-adaptable polymer material based on the UV-induced dimerisation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. It is in the nature of an adhesive to adhere very well to its substrate and therefore problems can arise upon removal...... of the adhesive. This is also known from skin adhesives where it is very undesirable to cause damage to the skin. The overall idea of this project was to resolve this problem by developing a material which could switch between an adhesive and a non-adhesive state. Switchable adhesion is known in the literature...

  13. Adaptive optics photoacoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minshan; Zhang, Xiangyang; Puliafito, Carmen A; Zhang, Hao F; Jiao, Shuliang

    2010-10-11

    We have developed an adaptive optics photoacoustic microscope (AO-PAM) for high-resolution imaging of biological tissues, especially the retina. To demonstrate the feasibility of AO-PAM we first designed the AO system to correct the wavefront errors of the illuminating light of PAM. The aberrations of the optical system delivering the illuminating light to the sample in PAM was corrected with a close-loop AO system consisting of a 141-element MEMS-based deformable mirror (DM) and a Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensor operating at 15 Hz. The photoacoustic signal induced by the illuminating laser beam was detected by a custom-built needle ultrasonic transducer. When the wavefront errors were corrected by the AO system, the lateral resolution of PAM was measured to be better than 2.5 µm using a low NA objective lens. We tested the system on imaging ex vivo ocular samples, e.g., the ciliary body and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of a pig eye. The AO-PAM images showed significant quality improvement. For the first time we were able to resolve single RPE cells with PAM.

  14. Error signals driving locomotor adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    anaesthesia (n = 5) instead of repetitive nerve stimulation. Foot anaesthesia reduced ankle adaptation to external force perturbations during walking. Our results suggest that cutaneous input plays a role in force perception, and may contribute to the 'error' signal involved in driving walking adaptation when...

  15. Career adaptability and career entrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Ambiel, Rodolfo A.M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto

    2015-01-01

    Career adaptability constitutes a resource that can help employees to effectively manage career changes and challenges. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the two higher-order constructs of career adaptability and career entrenchment (i.e., the perceived inability

  16. Disciplinary Literacy: "Adapt" Not Adopt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that every teacher is not a teacher of literacy, but instead posits that teachers in content areas must adapt literacy strategies to the content being taught and to the context in which that teaching occurs. Examples of adaptations of a literacy strategy for use in English/language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies…

  17. Adaptation Research in Rehabilitation Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Randall M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews current research concerning psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability and presents recommendations for future development of theories in this area. First, those who craft or adapt theories must use nondisabling, respectful, and empowering language. Rehabilitation professionals must avoid terms that connote…

  18. Adaptive Management of Environmental Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J. Angus; Watts, Robyn J.; Allan, Catherine; Conallin, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Adaptive management enables managers to work with complexity and uncertainty, and to respond to changing biophysical and social conditions. Amid considerable uncertainty over the benefits of environmental flows, governments are embracing adaptive management as a means to inform decision making. This Special Issue of Environmental Management presents examples of adaptive management of environmental flows and addresses claims that there are few examples of its successful implementation. It arose from a session at the 11th International Symposium on Ecohydraulics held in Australia, and is consequently dominated by papers from Australia. We classified the papers according to the involvement of researchers, managers and the local community in adaptive management. Five papers report on approaches developed by researchers, and one paper on a community-led program; these case studies currently have little impact on decision making. Six papers provide examples involving water managers and researchers, and two papers provide examples involving water managers and the local community. There are no papers where researchers, managers and local communities all contribute equally to adaptive management. Successful adaptive management of environmental flows occurs more often than is perceived. The final paper explores why successes are rarely reported, suggesting a lack of emphasis on reflection on management practices. One major challenge is to increase the documentation of successful adaptive management, so that benefits of learning extend beyond the project where it takes place. Finally, moving towards greater involvement of all stakeholders is critical if we are to realize the benefits of adaptive management for improving outcomes from environmental flows.

  19. Adapting agriculture to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howden, S.M.; Soussana, J.F.; Tubiello, F.N.; Chhetri, N.; Dunlop, M.; Meinke, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of

  20. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  1. [The adaptation to contact lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, D; Koos, M J

    1992-01-01

    The indications of contact lens adaptation in optical purpose are widely large, starting, with refractive errors [correction of vices], unilateral and bilateral aphakia, myopia, anisometropia and astigmatism, together with the use of contact lens in esthetic purpose. We have been presented the adaptation techniques, the supervise, and maintenance of contact lens.

  2. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  3. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermore...

  4. Adaptive Municipal e-forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, P.M.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Boerma, A.K.; Weibelzahl, S.; Cristea, A.

    2006-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer eforms online that can be used to request a municipal product or service. To create adaptive e-forms that satisfy the need of end-users, involvement of

  5. Cultural Adaptation in Outdoor Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Sheila M.; Neill, James

    2005-01-01

    Outdoor programs often intentionally provide a different culture and the challenge of working out how to adapt. Failure to adapt, however, can cause symptoms of culture shock, including homesickness, negative personal behavior, and interpersonal conflict. This article links cross-cultural and outdoor programming literature and provides case…

  6. Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

  7. Adaptivity in Professional Printing Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verriet, J.H.; Basten, T; Hamberg, R.; Reckers, F.J.; Somers, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is a constant pressure on developers of embedded systems to simultaneously increase system functionality and to decrease development costs. Aviable way to obtain a better system performance with the same physical hardware is adaptivity: a system should be able to adapt itself to dynamically

  8. The adaptation to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gameren, Valentine; Weikmans, Romain; Zaccai, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The authors address the issue of adaptation to climate change. They first address the physical aspects related to this issue: scenarios of temperature evolution, main possible impacts. Then, they address the social impacts related to climate risks, and the adaptation strategies which aim at reducing the exposure and vulnerability of human societies, or at increasing their resilience. Some examples of losses of human lives and of economic damages due to recent catastrophes related to climate change are evoked. The authors address the international framework, the emergence of an international regime on climate, the quite recent emergence of adaptation within international negotiations in 2001, the emergence of the idea of a support to developing countries. National and local policies are presented in the next chapter (in the European Union, the Netherlands which are faced with the issue of sea level rise, programs in developing countries) and their limitations are also outlined. The next chapter addresses the adaptation actions performed by private actors (enterprises, households, associations, civil society, and so on) with example of vulnerability, and adaptation opportunities and possibilities in some specific sectors. The last chapter presents a typology of actions of adaptation, indicators of adaptation to climate change, and examples of mistaken adaptation

  9. A robust adaptive robot controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Harry; Berghuis, Harry; Ortega, Romeo; Nijmeijer, Henk

    1993-01-01

    A globally convergent adaptive control scheme for robot motion control with the following features is proposed. First, the adaptation law possesses enhanced robustness with respect to noisy velocity measurements. Second, the controller does not require the inclusion of high gain loops that may

  10. An Adaptive Course Generation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Frederick W. B.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Dharmendran, Parthiban

    2010-01-01

    Existing adaptive e-learning methods are supported by student (user) profiling for capturing student characteristics, and course structuring for organizing learning materials according to topics and levels of difficulties. Adaptive courses are then generated by extracting materials from the course structure to match the criteria specified in the…

  11. Adaptation of thermal power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.

    2017-01-01

    When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate

  12. Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... consistent with this view is the UNDP-UNEP concept which describes mainstreaming in climate change adaptation as the iterative process of integrating climate change adaptation into development policy-making, planning, budgeting, implementation and monitoring processes at national, sector and ...

  13. Tracking adaptation and measuring development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Nick; Anderson, Simon; Ayers, Jessica; Burton, Ian; Tellam, Ian

    2011-11-15

    This is the first paper in the new IIED Climate Change Working Paper series. As adaptation to climate change becomes the focus of increasing attention and the target of significant spending, there is a growing need for frameworks and tools that enable organisations to track and assess the outcomes of adaptation interventions. This paper presents a coherent framework for climate change adaptation programming, including potential indicators, or indicator categories/types, for tracking and evaluating the success of adaptation support and adaptation interventions. The paper begins with a discussion of some of the key issues related to the evaluation of adaptation, and outlines some of the main difficulties and constraints with respect to the development of adaptation indicators. Next, an evaluation framework is proposed and indicator categories or 'domains' are identified. Lastly, key conclusions are provided and a theory of change is outlined that shows how development and use of the framework could lead to more effective adaptation investments for climate resilient development.

  14. Adaptation and Evaluation of the WillTry Tool Among Children in Guam

    OpenAIRE

    Aflague, Tanisha F.; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Fruit and vegetable consumption may reduce risk for chronic disease and obesity. Children’s fruit and vegetable intake is mediated by a preference or willingness to try them. This study’s primary objective was to adapt the previously validated WillTry tool and to evaluate the adapted version among children in Guam. Methods Adaptations to the WillTry tool included both novel fruits and vegetables unique to Guam and common ones. Children aged 3 to 11 years who attended 2 community-...

  15. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that enable...... adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach is based...... on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant stakeholders...

  16. Error adaptation in mental arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Charlotte; Imbo, Ineke; De Brauwer, Jolien; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Until now, error and conflict adaptation have been studied extensively using simple laboratory tasks. A common finding is that responses slow down after errors. According to the conflict monitoring theory, performance should also improve after an error. However, this is usually not observed. In this study, we investigated whether the characteristics of the experimental paradigms normally used could explain this absence. More precisely, these paradigms have in common that behavioural adaptation has little room to be expressed. We therefore studied error and conflict adaptation effects in a task that encounters the richness of everyday life's behavioural adaptation--namely, mental arithmetic, where multiple solution strategies are available. In accordance with our hypothesis, we observed that post-error accuracy increases after errors in mental arithmetic. No support for conflict adaptation in mental arithmetic was found. Implications for current theories of conflict and error monitoring are discussed.

  17. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2014-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that enable...... adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach is based...... on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant stakeholders...

  18. What Drives Business Model Adaptation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saebi, Tina; Lien, Lasse B.; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2017-01-01

    Business models change as managers not only innovate business models, but also engage in more mundane adaptation in response to external changes, such as changes in the level or composition of demand. However, little is known about what causes such business model adaptation. We employ threat......-rigidity as well as prospect theory to examine business model adaptation in response to external threats and opportunities. Additionally, drawing on the behavioural theory of the firm, we argue that the past strategic orientation of a firm creates path dependencies that influence the propensity of the firm...... to adapt its business model. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 1196 Norwegian companies, and find that firms are more likely to adapt their business model under conditions of perceived threats than opportunities, and that strategic orientation geared towards market development is more conducive...

  19. Adaptation prevents the extinction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under toxic beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Baselga-Cervera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current biodiversity crisis represents a historic challenge for natural communities: the environmental rate of change exceeds the population’s adaptation capability. Integrating both ecological and evolutionary responses is necessary to make reliable predictions regarding the loss of biodiversity. The race against extinction from an eco-evolutionary perspective is gaining importance in ecological risk assessment. Here, we performed a classical study of population dynamics—a fluctuation analysis—and evaluated the results from an adaption perspective. Fluctuation analysis, widely used with microorganisms, is an effective empirical procedure to study adaptation under strong selective pressure because it incorporates the factors that influence demographic, genetic and environmental changes. The adaptation of phytoplankton to beryllium (Be is of interest because human activities are increasing the concentration of Be in freshwater reserves; therefore, predicting the effects of human-induced pollutants is necessary for proper risk assessment. The fluctuation analysis was performed with phytoplankton, specifically, the freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, under acute Be exposure. High doses of Be led to massive microalgae death; however, by conducting a fluctuation analysis experiment, we found that C. reinhardtii was able to adapt to 33 mg/l of Be due to pre-existing genetic variability. The rescuing adapting genotype presented a mutation rate of 9.61 × 10−6 and a frequency of 10.42 resistant cells per million wild-type cells. The genetic adaptation pathway that was experimentally obtained agreed with the theoretical models of evolutionary rescue (ER. Furthermore, the rescuing genotype presented phenotypic and physiologic differences from the wild-type genotype, was 25% smaller than the Be-resistant genotype and presented a lower fitness and quantum yield performance. The abrupt distinctions between the wild-type and the Be

  20. Comments on General Gauge Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Intriligator, Kenneth; Sudano, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    There has been interest in generalizing models of gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. As shown by Meade, Seiberg, and Shih (MSS), the soft masses of general gauge mediation can be expressed in terms of the current two-point functions of the susy-breaking sector. We here give a simple extension of their result which provides, for general gauge mediation, the full effective potential for squark pseudo-D-flat directions. The effective potential reduces to the sfermion soft masses near the...

  1. The Impact of Neglect on Initial Adaptation to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Jody Todd; Lynch, Michael; Oshri, Assaf; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child neglect during the first four years of life on adaptation to school during kindergarten and first grade in the context of neighborhood poverty. Processes related to the development of school competencies were examined, including the mediational role of cognitive functioning and ego-resiliency in shaping children’s school outcomes. 170 low-income urban children were followed prospectively for two years (ages four to six). Results indicated that neglected children had significantly lower scores on kindergarten classroom behavior and first grade academic performance than nonneglected children. Children’s cognitive performance at age four, controlling for maternal IQ, mediated the relation between severity of neglect and children’s behavior in kindergarten as well as their academic performance in first grade. Moreover, severity of neglect was related to children’s ego-resiliency at age four. However, additional ecological adversity in the form of neighborhood poverty moderated the link between ego-resiliency and classroom behavior such that at lower levels of poverty, ego-resiliency mediated the relation between severity of neglect and school adaptation. Conversely, when neighborhood poverty was extreme, the effects of ego-resiliency were attenuated and ego-resiliency ceased to predict behavioral performance in kindergarten. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:23843472

  2. Adaptation of brain functional and structural networks in aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Lee

    Full Text Available The human brain, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC, is functionally and anatomically reorganized in order to adapt to neuronal challenges in aging. This study employed structural MRI, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI, and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI, and examined the functional and structural reorganization of the PFC in aging using a Chinese sample of 173 subjects aged from 21 years and above. We found age-related increases in the structural connectivity between the PFC and posterior brain regions. Such findings were partially mediated by age-related increases in the structural connectivity of the occipital lobe within the posterior brain. Based on our findings, it is thought that the PFC reorganization in aging could be partly due to the adaptation to age-related changes in the structural reorganization of the posterior brain. This thus supports the idea derived from task-based fMRI that the PFC reorganization in aging may be adapted to the need of compensation for resolving less distinctive stimulus information from the posterior brain regions. In addition, we found that the structural connectivity of the PFC with the temporal lobe was fully mediated by the temporal cortical thickness, suggesting that the brain morphology plays an important role in the functional and structural reorganization with aging.

  3. Adaptation of brain functional and structural networks in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Tuan, Ta Anh; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Qiu, Anqi

    2015-01-01

    The human brain, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC), is functionally and anatomically reorganized in order to adapt to neuronal challenges in aging. This study employed structural MRI, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), and examined the functional and structural reorganization of the PFC in aging using a Chinese sample of 173 subjects aged from 21 years and above. We found age-related increases in the structural connectivity between the PFC and posterior brain regions. Such findings were partially mediated by age-related increases in the structural connectivity of the occipital lobe within the posterior brain. Based on our findings, it is thought that the PFC reorganization in aging could be partly due to the adaptation to age-related changes in the structural reorganization of the posterior brain. This thus supports the idea derived from task-based fMRI that the PFC reorganization in aging may be adapted to the need of compensation for resolving less distinctive stimulus information from the posterior brain regions. In addition, we found that the structural connectivity of the PFC with the temporal lobe was fully mediated by the temporal cortical thickness, suggesting that the brain morphology plays an important role in the functional and structural reorganization with aging.

  4. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...... crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust....

  5. Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Betina; Jarlstad Olesen, Morten T; Zelikin, Alexander N

    2017-01-01

    Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy (SMEPT) is a biomedical platform developed to perform a localized synthesis of drugs mediated by implantable biomaterials. This approach combines the benefits and at the same time offers to overcome the drawbacks for traditional pill-based drug administra......Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy (SMEPT) is a biomedical platform developed to perform a localized synthesis of drugs mediated by implantable biomaterials. This approach combines the benefits and at the same time offers to overcome the drawbacks for traditional pill-based drug...

  6. Inflammatory mediators and intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, M S; MacKendrick, W

    1994-06-01

    Although the causes of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are not well understood, there is compelling evidence to suggest that the inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This article examines the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and other mediators on the development of NEC, and attempts to explain the association of the putative NEC risk factors with altered mediator production and subsequent intestinal injury. The authors hypothesize that PAF is a key mediator in the final common pathway leading to NEC.

  7. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started...... the development of a national adaptation strategy. Secondly, the scientific and technical support needed for the development and implementation of such a strategy. Thirdly, the role of the strategy in information, communication and awareness-raising of the adaptation issue. Fourthly, new or existing forms...

  8. Modeling posttraumatic growth among cancer patients: The roles of social support, appraisals, and adaptive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weidan; Qi, Xiaona; Cai, Deborah A; Han, Xuanye

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to build a model to explain the relationships between social support, uncontrollability appraisal, adaptive coping, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among cancer patients in China. The participants who were cancer patients in a cancer hospital in China filled out a survey. The final sample size was 201. Structural equation modeling was used to build a model explaining PTG. Structural equation modeling results indicated that higher levels of social support predicted higher levels of adaptive coping, higher levels of uncontrollability appraisal predicted lower levels of adaptive coping, and higher levels of adaptive coping predicted higher levels of PTG. Moreover, adaptive coping was a mediator between social support and growth, as well as a mediator between uncontrollability and growth. The direct effects of social support and uncontrollability on PTG were insignificant. The model demonstrated the relationships between social support, uncontrollability appraisal, adaptive coping, and PTG. It could be concluded that uncontrollability appraisal was a required but not sufficient condition for PTG. Neither social support nor uncontrollability appraisal had direct influence on PTG. However, social support and uncontrollability might indirectly influence PTG, through adaptive coping. It implies that both internal factors (eg, cognitive appraisal and coping) and external factors (eg, social support) are required in order for growth to happen. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Monocytic MDSCs regulate macrophage-mediated xenogenic cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Akira; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Nakahata, Kengo; Lo, Pei-Chi; Yamanaka, Kazuaki; Kawamura, Takuji; Matsuura, Rei; Sakai, Rieko; Asada, Mayumi; Okuyama, Hiroomi; Miyagawa, Shuji

    2015-10-01

    Xenotransplantation is considered to be one of the most attractive strategies for overcoming the worldwide shortage of organs. However, many obstructions need to be overcome before it will achieve clinical use in patients. One such obstacle is the development of an effective immunosuppressive strategy. We previously reported that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population of progenitor and immature myeloid cells, suppress xenogenic CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. Because of their heterogeneous nature, MDSC can function via several suppressive mechanisms that disrupt both innate and adaptive immunity. Since macrophages play a pivotal role in the rejection of a xenograft, in this study, we evaluated the suppressive effects of MDSC against macrophage-mediated xenogenic rejection. To evaluate the effect of monocyte-derived MDSCs on xenogenic immune reactions, a CFSE(carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester)assay was employed to assess cytotoxicity. While, in the absence of activation, primed MDSCs had no detectable effect on macrophage-induced cytotoxicity against SEC cells, LPS-activated MDSCs were found to significantly suppress xenogenic cytotoxicity. A CFSE cytotoxicity assay revealed that MDSCs significantly suppressed macrophage-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, an indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor, 1-methyl tryptophan (1-MT), abolished the MDSC-induced suppression of macrophage-mediated xeno-rejection, indicating that MDSCs may suppress macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in an IDO-dependent manner. These findings indicate that MDSCs have great potential for immunosuppressing macrophage-mediated xeno-rejection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. When Memories are Mediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    that are mediated through stories: told and retold as oral stories through generations, as myths or sagas, or remediated as contemporary documentary film accounts or more fictional film accounts. In these processes of retelling acts of violence, transformations of meanings across time, cultural, social...... and political contexts and media platforms take place and become contexts for audience reception. This paper explores two examples of narratives that construct memories of acts of mass violence: “Gzim Rewind” (Sweden, 2011, director Knutte Wester) about 1990’s Kosovo, and “The Act of Killing” (Denmark, 2012......, director Joshua Oppenheimer) about 1960’s Indonesia. The two films, in very different ways, focus on persons who tell about their involvement in acts of mass violence. Both films use live action footage in combination with fictional elements and settings, and both films also convey personal relationships...

  11. Mediating Potency and Fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    2018-01-01

    ’ [Shaviro, S., 2010. Post-cinematic affect. Winchester: Zero Books]. These intensity effects mediate between the age of terror's ecology of fear [Massumi, Brian, 2002. Parables for the virtual: movement, affect, sensation. Durham: Duke University Press] and our bodies. Rather than producing fear, action....... Adey, M. Whitehead, and A.J. Williams, eds. From above: war, violence and verticality. London: Hurst & Company]. Through a sensory assault of intense bass soundtracks, kinetic camera movements, and intense CGI effects action movies work to produce what Steven Shaviro has termed ‘intensity effects....... Robin James significantly posits a drone atmosphere where our perceptual limit reconfigures through ‘droning’ – the creation of an affective timbre [James, R., 2013. Drones, sound, and super-panoptic surveillance. Cyborgology]. As James argues, ‘[d]roning rivets you to material conditions, affects...

  12. Mediated Cultural Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    (A revised, full paper will be published in the journal Mediekultur, spring 2014) This paper explores two examples of narratives representing memories of acts of mass violence: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011, director Knutte Wester) about 1990’s Kosovo, and The Act of Killing (Denmark, 2012, director...... perspectives of semiosis (meaning-making) in relation to the films as redefining genres and what sorts of meanings different audiences create about the films. Acts of mass violence, including murder on civilians, genocide, and wars, can be seen as seeds for memories of the involved persons and following...... generations. Acts of mass violence also construct a sort of looking glass of culturally dominant memories that are mediated through stories: retold as oral stories through generations, as myths or sagas, or remediated in contemporary documentary or fiction films. In these processes of retelling acts...

  13. Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille

    relations between individuals and social contexts, aesthetics and production, distribution and consumption, as well as relations between fluidity and stability. By addressing the field of fashion, the paper proposes to shed light on an empirical setting which has so far been studied either as a purely......This paper discusses relations between aesthetics of fashion and the sociality of fashion. It takes as its premise that aesthetics and sociality are co-constructed, and cannot be regarded as separate - although this has been the norm in the academic traditions of aesthetics and sociology...... to STS literature by expanding one of its central debates to a new empirical setting; fashion specifically, and the aesthetic-cultural field on a more general level. In trying to make a theoretical connection between aesthetics and sociality of fashion, the paper suggests the term of "mediator" (Hennion...

  14. Endosome-mediated autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondylis, Vangelis; van Nispen tot Pannerden, Hezder E.; van Dijk, Suzanne; ten Broeke, Toine; Wubbolts, Richard; Geerts, Willie J.; Seinen, Cor; Mutis, Tuna; Heijnen, Harry F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of TLR signaling has been shown to induce autophagy in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Using high-resolution microscopy approaches, we show that in LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), autophagosomes emerge from MHC class II compartments (MIICs) and harbor both the molecular machinery for antigen processing and the autophagosome markers LC3 and ATG16L1. This ENdosome-Mediated Autophagy (ENMA) appears to be the major type of autophagy in DCs, as similar structures were observed upon established autophagy-inducing conditions (nutrient deprivation, rapamycin) and under basal conditions in the presence of bafilomycin A1. Autophagosome formation was not significantly affected in DCs expressing ATG4BC74A mutant and atg4b−/− bone marrow DCs, but the degradation of the autophagy substrate SQSTM1/p62 was largely impaired. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the previously described DC aggresome-like LPS-induced structures (DALIS) contain vesicular membranes, and in addition to SQSTM1 and ubiquitin, they are positive for LC3. LC3 localization on DALIS is independent of its lipidation. MIIC-driven autophagosomes preferentially engulf the LPS-induced SQSTM1-positive DALIS, which become later degraded in autolysosomes. DALIS-associated membranes also contain ATG16L1, ATG9 and the Q-SNARE VTI1B, suggesting that they may represent (at least in part) a membrane reservoir for autophagosome expansion. We propose that ENMA constitutes an unconventional, APC-specific type of autophagy, which mediates the processing and presentation of cytosolic antigens by MHC class II machinery, and/or the selective clearance of toxic by-products of elevated ROS/RNS production in activated DCs, thereby promoting their survival. PMID:23481895

  15. Regulation of C-Type Lectin Receptor-Mediated Antifungal Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Of all the pathogen recognition receptor families, C-type lectin receptor (CLR-induced intracellular signal cascades are indispensable for the initiation and regulation of antifungal immunity. Ongoing experiments over the last decade have elicited diverse CLR functions and novel regulatory mechanisms of CLR-mediated-signaling pathways. In this review, we highlight novel insights in antifungal innate and adaptive-protective immunity mediated by CLRs and discuss the potential therapeutic strategies against fungal infection based on targeting the mediators in the host immune system.

  16. Adaptation to climate change in agriculture in Bangladesh: The role of formal institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Torikul; Nursey-Bray, Melissa

    2017-09-15

    Bangladesh is very vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, and adaptation is emerging as a key policy response. Place based programs that build adaptive capacity are needed. This paper explores the effectiveness of formal institutions in climate change adaptation for agriculture from the perspectives of farmers and institutional communities of practice within two drought-prone areas in Bangladesh. Our findings show that formal institutions via their communities of practice play an important role in building place based capacity for mitigation and adaptation strategies in agriculture. Over-emphasis on technology, lack of acknowledgement of cultural factors and a failure of institutional communities of practice to mediate and create linkages with informal institutional communities of practice remain barriers. We argue that in order for formal institutions to play an ongoing and crucial role in building adaptive agriculture in Bangladesh, they must incorporate cultural mechanisms and build partnerships with more community based informal institutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Divergent selection on locally adapted major histocompatibility complex immune genes experimentally proven in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizaguirre, Christophe; Lenz, Tobias L; Kalbe, Martin; Milinski, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Although crucial for the understanding of adaptive evolution, genetically resolved examples of local adaptation are rare. To maximize survival and reproduction in their local environment, hosts should resist their local parasites and pathogens. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) with its key function in parasite resistance represents an ideal candidate to investigate parasite-mediated local adaptation. Using replicated field mesocosms, stocked with second-generation lab-bred three-spined stickleback hybrids of a lake and a river population, we show local adaptation of MHC genotypes to population-specific parasites, independently of the genetic background. Increased allele divergence of lake MHC genotypes allows lake fish to fight the broad range of lake parasites, whereas more specific river genotypes confer selective advantages against the less diverse river parasites. Hybrids with local MHC genotype gained more body weight and thus higher fitness than those with foreign MHC in either habitat, suggesting the evolutionary significance of locally adapted MHC genotypes. PMID:22583762

  18. Biogenesis pathways of RNA guides in archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Richter, Hagen; Oost, van der John; White, Malcolm F.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas is an RNA-mediated adaptive immune system that defends bacteria and archaea against mobile genetic elements. Short mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are key elements in the interference step of the immune pathway. A CRISPR array composed of a series of repeats interspaced by spacer sequences

  19. Immunologic mechanisms in the adaptation of swine farm workers to their work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Cormier, Yvon; Veillette, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Swine building exposure causes inflammatory reactions that appear to be attenuated with prolonged periods of contact. The mechanisms behind this adaptation to a dusty and endotoxin-rich environment are poorly understood. Our aim was to compare levels of selected inflammatory mediators in swine fa...

  20. Physiological adaptation of endothelial function to pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, V.A.L. van; Gansewinkel, T.A.G. van; Haas, S.; Kuijk, S.M.J. van; Drongelen, J. van; Ghossein-Doha, C.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish reference values for flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and brachial artery diameter (BAD) in pregnancy and to provide insight into the physiological and pathological course of endothelial adaptation throughout human singleton pregnancy. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed