Sample records for adaptation mediates looming

  1. Haptic Distal Spatial Perception Mediated by Strings: Haptic "Looming"

    Cabe, Patrick A.


    Five experiments tested a haptic analog of optical looming, demonstrating string-mediated haptic distal spatial perception. Horizontally collinear hooks supported a weighted string held taut by a blindfolded participant's finger midway between the hooks. At the finger, the angle between string segments increased as the finger approached…

  2. Speed-invariant encoding of looming object distance requires power law spike rate adaptation.

    Clarke, Stephen E; Naud, Richard; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard


    Neural representations of a moving object's distance and approach speed are essential for determining appropriate orienting responses, such as those observed in the localization behaviors of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. We demonstrate that a power law form of spike rate adaptation transforms an electroreceptor afferent's response to "looming" object motion, effectively parsing information about distance and approach speed into distinct measures of the firing rate. Neurons with dynamics characterized by fixed time scales are shown to confound estimates of object distance and speed. Conversely, power law adaptation modifies an electroreceptor afferent's response according to the time scales present in the stimulus, generating a rate code for looming object distance that is invariant to speed and acceleration. Consequently, estimates of both object distance and approach speed can be uniquely determined from an electroreceptor afferent's firing rate, a multiplexed neural code operating over the extended time scales associated with behaviorally relevant stimuli.

  3. Adaptation of Induced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to the Problems Faced by the Power Loom Workers

    S. Narayanamoorthy


    Full Text Available The Indian textile industry has a significant presence in the economy as well as in the international textile economy. In this research Paper we study the socio economic problems faced by power loom workers in Avinashi in Tamilnadu, India, using Induced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (IFCMs. We have interviewed 50 households in the study area using a linguistic questionnaire. As the problems faced by them at large, involved so much of feelings and uncertainties. We felt it to fit to use fuzzy theory in general and induced fuzzy cognitive maps in particular. For IFCMs is the best suited tool when the data is an unsupervised one.

  4. Looming Danger



    Is all well with the roaring Chinese economy now that severe acute respiratory syndrome has almost vanished? For beginners,SARS is still a looming danger, as Chinese leaders and medical professionals relentlessly try tobring across to a wider, more relaxed post-SARS public. Meanwhile, economistsand analysts struggle to make sense of various news, facts and figures from the frontlines of trade and industry. Early on, while acknowledging that SARS had some negative impact on the development of some industries and regions,President and Party General Secretary Hu Jintao acted as true leader. He saidthat the people and country would triumph over “these temporary difficulties”and would finally win the war against this nasty disease.

  5. Cardboard Loom Weaving.

    Farris, Cynthia Cox


    Presents an activity in which students in grades three to six can create looms and learn about weaving. Discusses the process for weaving. Includes ideas for furthering the students' knowledge of weaving, a list of vocabulary and materials, and directions for creating the loom. (CMK)

  6. The Carry Loom.

    Mihalow, Paula


    Presents instructions for building a simple, inexpensive, one-piece loom that is easy for students and teachers to work with, transport, and store. A short list of books for weaving instruction is appended. (Author/SJL)

  7. 试论GA747型剑杆织机的品种适应性与局限性%Diccussion of the Adaptability and Limitation on GA747 Rapier Loom



    According to the applicated analyses on GA747 rapier loom that adopted by our country in large numbers, this paper considered that, GA747 rapier loom brought about the large weft package, the weaving with multicolor and more complicated weave, it was much suitable for the fabric with medium compactness. But because of too much weft broken and unstable take-off mechanism, the GA747 rapier loom had the bad adaptability on the fabric with high compactness and larger tension, it was only suited to a part of different grade of weaving innovation.%对当前国内采用较多的GA747型剑杆织机结合实践进行分析,认为其实现了纬纱大卷装、多色和较复杂组织的织造,对中紧度织物相当适应,但其断纬停台较多,开车经缩、稀密路、跳纱等疵点多,卷取机构不稳定,对高紧度、大张力品种适应性差,只适合织布技术改造中不同档次的一个组成部分。

  8. Design and Construction of a Mechanized Loom

    A.S. Akinwonmi


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the design and construction of a Mechanized Loom to improve the existing Hand Loom used by the local weavers and to weave a 300 mm width Aso-Oke instead of the existing 100 mm width. There are difficulties in weaving of Aso-Oke using the Foot Loom and Hand Loom since this conventional method is time consuming and labour intensive. In the Mechanized Loom, the mode of operation of the Hand and Foot Loom was studied and then mechanized with the application of Cam mechanism and spring to throw the Shuttle from one shuttle arm through the harness to the other shuttle arm. In the design, the warp is separated to form the shed through which the shuttle passes from one shuttle arm to the other shuttle arm with the aid of the harness and its linkage. The construction was done using mild steel and hard wood for the cams. The advantages and importance of this Mechanized Loom include high efficiency, increased production, easier operation, cheap and available material, portability, durability, reliable accuracy and reasonable speed.

  9. Weft sensor for air-jet looms

    Castellini, C.; Francini, F.; Longobardi, G.


    An optoelectronic weft stop motion for air-jet weaving looms is described. The device comprises very thin optical and optoelectronic components. It is disposed between the blades of the U-shaped channel of the loom reed in order to detect the presence of the weft yarn during its insertion into the warp shed in the weaving process. Details of the design and fabrication of the device are presented and electronic signal processing is discussed.

  10. The effects of social evaluation and looming threat on self-attentional biases and social anxiety.

    Haikal, Muhammad; Hong, Ryan Y


    This paper examines how two proposed cognitive vulnerabilities of social anxiety, the fear of negative evaluation, and looming cognitive style may combine with socially demanding situations in predicting social anxiety symptoms and performance deficits. Fifty-two individuals previously identified as possessing these two cognitive vulnerabilities were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 (high versus low social evaluation)x2 (high versus low temporal looming) experimental design. Significant interaction effects were found for: (a) residual change in anxiety symptoms from baseline level, and (b) performance on a speech task. Specifically, cognitively at-risk individuals exhibited the most increase in anxiety and the most performance deficits in the condition where social evaluation and temporal looming were high. In addition, a mediational effect of illusion of transparency (a form of self-attentional bias) between situational demands and residual change in anxiety was found. Implications arising from these results are discussed.

  11. On-loom, real-time, noncontact detection of fabric defects by ultrasonic imaging.

    Chien, H. T.


    A noncontact, on-loom ultrasonic inspection technique was developed for real-time 100% defect inspection of fabrics. A prototype was built and tested successfully on loom. The system is compact, rugged, low cost, requires minimal maintenance, is not sensitive to fabric color and vibration, and can easily be adapted to current loom configurations. Moreover, it can detect defects in both the pick and warp directions. The system is capable of determining the size, location, and orientation of each defect. To further improve the system, air-coupled transducers with higher efficiency and sensitivity need to be developed. Advanced detection algorithms also need to be developed for better classification and categorization of defects in real-time.

  12. System on Programable Chip for Performance Estimation of Loom Machine

    Singh, Gurpreet; S, Surekha K; Pujari, S


    System on programmable chip for the performance estimation of loom machine, which calculates the efficiency and meter count for weaved cloth automatically. Also it calculates the efficiency of loom machine. Previously the same was done using manual process which was not efficient. This article is intended for loom machines which are not modern.

  13. System on Programable Chip for Performance Estimation of Loom Machine

    Gurpreet Singh


    Full Text Available System on programmable chip for the performance estimation of loom machine, which calculates the efficiency and meter count for weaved cloth automatically. Also it calculates the efficiency of loom machine. Previously the same was done using manual process which was not efficient. This article is intended for loom machines which are not modern.

  14. Analyze the Properties of Woven Fabric Manufactured by Hand Loom and Power Loom

    L. Shafinaz


    Full Text Available The handloom weaving industry is one of the ancient cottage industries in Bangladesh. Next to agriculture, it is the second largest sources of rural employment and income. The present study is an effort to investigate the present scenario of handloom weaving industries in Bangladesh. Also the analysis the properties and present trends of local woven fabric manufactured by Hand loom and Power loom. The study is based on secondary data.

  15. The Looming Maladaptive Style in Social Anxiety

    Brown, Michael A.; Stopa, Luisa


    This exploratory study examined the relationship between the looming maladaptive style (i.e., an enduring and traitlike cognitive pattern to appraise threat as rapidly rising in risk, progressively worsening, or actively speeding up and accelerating) and three different aspects of trait social anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation, social…

  16. Nrf2 mediates redox adaptations to exercise

    Aaron J. Done


    Full Text Available The primary aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the effects of acute exercise and regular exercise on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 activity and downstream targets of Nrf2 signaling. Nrf2 (encoded in humans by the NFE2L2 gene is the master regulator of antioxidant defenses, a transcription factor that regulates expression of more than 200 cytoprotective genes. Increasing evidence indicates that Nrf2 signaling plays a key role in how oxidative stress mediates the beneficial effects of exercise. Episodic increases in oxidative stress induced through bouts of acute exercise stimulate Nrf2 activation and when applied repeatedly, as with regular exercise, leads to upregulation of endogenous antioxidant defenses and overall greater ability to counteract the damaging effects of oxidative stress. The evidence of Nrf2 activation in response to exercise across variety of tissues may be an important mechanism of how exercise exerts its well-known systemic effects that are not limited to skeletal muscle and myocardium. Additionally there are emerging data that results from animal studies translate to humans.

  17. PGC-1α-mediated adaptations in skeletal muscle

    Olesen, Jesper; Kiilerich, Kristian; Pilegaard, Henriette


    Lifestyle-related diseases are rapidly increasing at least in part due to less physical activity. The health beneficial effects of regular physical activity include metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, which are thought to be elicited by cumulative effects of transient gene responses to each...... to be an underlying mechanism for adaptations in skeletal muscle, when exercise is repeated. The current review presents some of the key findings in PGC-1alpha-mediated regulation of metabolically related, anti-oxidant and inflammatory proteins in skeletal muscle in the basal state and in response to exercise...... multiple pathways and functions underline the potential importance of PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle adaptations in humans. The absence of exercise-induced PGC-1alpha-mediated gene regulation during a physical inactive lifestyle is suggested to lead to reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle...

  18. Implementation of inherence calculus in the PowerLoom environment

    Wachulski, Marcin F.; Mulawka, Jan J.; Nieznański, Edward

    The article describes an attempt to implement abstract and concrete inherence calculi in the PowerLoom technology. Issues in the field of artificial intelligence, ontology and philosophy have been addressed. The inherence calculus is a type of a formal logic system. The PowerLoom technology consists of a knowledge representation language and an inference engine. Six inherence calculi have been implemented and an appropriate testing environment has been developed. The inherence calculus has been also extended by categorical properties and a theoretical discussion of ontological Boolean algebra has been conducted. Carried out experiments showed properties of the inherence calculi and also verified capabilities of PowerLoom to construct such logic systems. It occurred that expert system operational mode of PowerLoom outperforms its abilities to work as a mathematical theorem prover.


    Bedri BAHTİYAR


    Full Text Available To make efficiency analysis and to increase efficiency of a weaving hall, it is necessary to obtain and then analyze technical and weaving data received from looms. In small and mid-size weaving halls, generally technical data of the looms are kept by responsible technical personnel. Data processing without a defined automation makes efficiency analysis of weaving hall more complex, or may decrease liability of the analysis. In this paper, a data acquisition system that uses controller area network (CAN for the efficiency analysis of looms where developed and implemented in a mid-size weaving hall is presented. In system, technical and weaving data taken from the ports of the looms are sent to central computer via CAN, and then are processed in central computer.

  20. Looming vulnerability to threat: a cognitive paradigm for anxiety.

    Riskind, J H


    The concept that perceived threat or danger is a cognitive antecedent of anxiety is central in clinical psychology, personality psychology, and social psychology. The aim in the current article is to review this concept and present a new conception called the looming vulnerability model. Looming vulnerability is conceptualized as an important cognitive component of threat or danger that elicits anxiety, sensitizes the individual to signs of movement and threat, biases cognitive processing, and makes the anxiety more persistent and less likely to habituate. In addition, it is postulated as a principal theme that discriminates anxiety and focal fears from depression. The looming vulnerability model integrates a disparate collection of findings and integrates the conceptualization of anxiety and fear with ethological and developmental observations. The social-cognitive and evolutionary basis of the sense of looming vulnerability are discussed, as well as its roots in cognitive schemata (fear scripts), its state elicitation by several potential classes of antecedent conditions, and possible treatment implications.

  1. Autonomous obstacle avoidance using visual fixation and looming

    Joarder, Kunal; Raviv, Daniel


    This paper describes a vision-based method for avoiding obstacles using the concepts of visual looming and fixating motion. Visual looming refers to the expansion of images of objects in the retina. Usually, this is due to the decreasing distance between the observer and the object. An increasing looming value signifies an increasing threat of collision with the object. The visual task of avoiding collision can be further simplified by purposive control of visual fixation at the objects in front of the moving camera. Using these two basic concepts real time obstacle avoidance in a tight perception-action loop is implemented. Three-dimensional space in front of the camera is divided into zones with various degrees of looming-based threat of collision. For each obstacle seen by a fixating camera, looming and its time derivative are calculated directly from the 2-D image. Depending on the threat posed by an obstacle, a course change is dictated. This looming based approach is simple, independent of the size of the 3-D object and its range and involves simple quantitative measurements. Results pertinent to a camera on a robot arm navigating between obstacles are presented.

  2. Crossmodal enhancement of visual orientation discrimination by looming sounds requires functional activation of primary visual areas: a case study.

    Cecere, Roberto; Romei, Vincenzo; Bertini, Caterina; Làdavas, Elisabetta


    Approaching or looming sounds are salient, potentially threatening stimuli with particular impact on visual processing. The early crossmodal effects by looming sounds (Romei, Murray, Cappe, & Thut, 2009) and their selective impact on visual orientation discrimination (Leo, Romei, Freeman, Ladavas, & Driver, 2011) suggest that these multisensory interactions may take place already within low-level visual cortices. To investigate this hypothesis, we tested a patient (SDV) with bilateral occipital lesion and spared residual portions of V1/V2. Accordingly, SDV׳s visual perimetry revealed blindness of the central visual field with some residual peripheral vision. In two experiments we tested for the influence of looming vs. receding and stationary sounds on SDV׳s line orientation discrimination (orientation discrimination experiment) and visual detection abilities (detection experiment) in the preserved or blind portions of the visual field, corresponding to spared and lesioned areas of V1, respectively. In the visual orientation discrimination experiment we found that SDV visual orientation sensitivity significantly improved for visual targets paired with looming sounds but only for lines presented in the partially preserved visual field. In the visual detection experiment, where SDV was required to simply detect the same stimuli presented in the orientation discrimination experiment, a generalised sound-induced visual improvement both in the intact and in blind portion of the visual field was observed. These results provide direct evidence that early visual areas are critically involved in crossmodal modulation of visual orientation sensitivity by looming sounds. Thus, a lesion in V1 prevents the enhancement of visual orientation sensitivity. In contrast, the same lesion does not prevent the visual detection enhancement by a sound, probably due to alternative visual pathways (e.g. retino-colliculo-extrastriate) which are usually spared in these patients and able to

  3. Impact prediction by looming visual stimuli enhances tactile detection.

    Cléry, Justine; Guipponi, Olivier; Odouard, Soline; Wardak, Claire; Ben Hamed, Suliann


    From an ecological point of view, approaching objects are potentially more harmful than receding objects. A predator, a dominant conspecific, or a mere branch coming up at high speed can all be dangerous if one does not detect them and produce the appropriate escape behavior fast enough. And indeed, looming stimuli trigger stereotyped defensive responses in both monkeys and human infants. However, while the heteromodal somatosensory consequences of visual looming stimuli can be fully predicted by their spatiotemporal dynamics, few studies if any have explored whether visual stimuli looming toward the face predictively enhance heteromodal tactile sensitivity around the expected time of impact and at its expected location on the body. In the present study, we report that, in addition to triggering a defensive motor repertoire, looming stimuli toward the face provide the nervous system with predictive cues that enhance tactile sensitivity on the face. Specifically, we describe an enhancement of tactile processes at the expected time and location of impact of the stimulus on the face. We additionally show that a looming stimulus that brushes past the face also enhances tactile sensitivity on the nearby cheek, suggesting that the space close to the face is incorporated into the subjects' body schema. We propose that this cross-modal predictive facilitation involves multisensory convergence areas subserving the representation of a peripersonal space and a safety boundary of self.

  4. Endogenous Nuclear RNAi Mediates Behavioral Adaptation to Odor

    Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda;


    Most eukaryotic cells express small regulatory RNAs. The purpose of one class, the somatic endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), remains unclear. Here, we show that the endo-siRNA pathway promotes odor adaptation in C. elegans AWC olfactory neurons. In adaptation, the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3, which...

  5. Warp Weighted Looms: Then and Now Anglo-Saxon and Viking Archaeological Evidence and Modern Practitioners


    This thesis examines the warp weighted loom during the Anglo-Saxon and Viking eras in England through archaeological, linguistic, and art evidence, supported by similar information about the loom from Northern Continental Europe. Some evidence from other parts of the world where this specific type of loom was used is also included for clarity. In order to further understanding of the possible functioning and abilities of the loom, modern individuals with experience weaving with this early med...

  6. Evenness Control of Rapier Loom Tension by Using Neural Network


    The neural network model (NNM) is used to control the evenness of rapier loom tension and to model the uncertain parameters of drafting process. This model can estimate recursively the tension and incorporate predictive control strategies. After controlling the effect testing, it can be seen that the behavior is excellent following different set point and variations, such as the diameter of the beam of weaver, air stream, density of warp and weft, type of textile, etc. An optimum steady state scheme has been fixed in keeping evenness of tension of loom. This method improves obviously the efficiency and quality of production.

  7. Robust and Adaptive MicroRNA-Mediated Incoherent Feedforward Motifs

    XU Feng-Dan; LIU Zeng-Rong; ZHANG Zhi-Yong; SHEN Jian-Wei


    We integrate transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation into microRNA-mediated incoherent feedforward motifs and analyse their dynamical behaviour and functions. The analysis show that the behaviour of the system is almost uninfluenced by the varying input in certain ranges and by introducing of delay and noise. The results indicate that microRNA-mediated incoherent feedforward motifs greatly enhance the robustness of gene regulation.

  8. Naine : masin või loom? / Maris Palgi

    Palgi, Maris


    Eero Taltsi, Margus Kiisi, Maia Mölleri, Kaie Luige, Eva Orava ja Maris Palgi projektist "Maine-loom, naine-masin", mida tutvustati 2006. a. Moostes üritusel "Postsovkhoz 6", 2007. a. jaanuaris-veebruaris Tartu Kunstimajas ja Tartu Tampere Majas. Näitused avati E. Taltsi ja M. Kiisi loeng-performance'itega

  9. Penelope's Loom: A Metaphor of Women's Development at Midlife.

    Clark, Susan H.; Schwiebert, Valerie L.


    Literature concerning women's development at midlife is reviewed. Attention is given to the tendency to focus on women's reproductive roles and to frame psychosocial development in relationship to reproductive status. Such deterministic approaches are entwined with heterosexist bias. The loom of Penelope is proposed as a metaphor of women's…

  10. Study of Water Jet Impulse in Water-Jet Looms

    LI Ke-rang; MA Wei-wei; CHEN Ming


    The water jet impulse is brought forward to study the traction force of the water jet to the flying weft in water-jet looms. The distribution of the water jet impulse in the shed is tested by a sensor, and the influence of water jet parameters on the water jet impulse is analyzed.

  11. Multipotent glia-like stem cells mediate stress adaptation.

    Rubin de Celis, Maria F; Garcia-Martin, Ruben; Wittig, Dierk; Valencia, Gabriela D; Enikolopov, Grigori; Funk, Richard H; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Bornstein, Stefan R; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Andreas; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika


    The neural crest-derived adrenal medulla is closely related to the sympathetic nervous system; however, unlike neural tissue, it is characterized by high plasticity which suggests the involvement of stem cells. Here, we show that a defined pool of glia-like nestin-expressing progenitor cells in the adult adrenal medulla contributes to this plasticity. These glia-like cells have features of adrenomedullary sustentacular cells, are multipotent, and are able to differentiate into chromaffin cells and neurons. The adrenal is central to the body's response to stress making its proper adaptation critical to maintaining homeostasis. Our results from stress experiments in vivo show the activation and differentiation of these progenitors into new chromaffin cells. In summary, we demonstrate the involvement of a new glia-like multipotent stem cell population in adrenal tissue adaptation. Our data also suggest the contribution of stem and progenitor cells in the adaptation of neuroendocrine tissue function in general.

  12. Mechanistic basis of adaptive maternal effects: egg jelly water balance mediates embryonic adaptation to acidity in Rana arvalis.

    Shu, Longfei; Suter, Marc J-F; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja


    Environmental stress, such as acidification, can challenge persistence of natural populations and act as a powerful evolutionary force at ecological time scales. The ecological and evolutionary responses of natural populations to environmental stress at early life-stages are often mediated via maternal effects. During early life-stages, maternal effects commonly arise from egg coats (the extracellular structures surrounding the embryo), but the role of egg coats has rarely been studied in the context of adaptation to environmental stress. Previous studies on the moor frog Rana arvalis found that the egg coat mediated adaptive divergence along an acidification gradient in embryonic acid stress tolerance. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these adaptive maternal effects remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of water balance and charge state (zeta potential) of egg jelly coats in embryonic adaptation to acid stress in three populations of R. arvalis. We found that acidic pH causes severe water loss in the egg jelly coat, but that jelly coats from an acid-adapted population retained more water than jelly coats from populations not adapted to acidity. Moreover, embryonic acid tolerance (survival at pH 4.0) correlated with both water loss and charge state of the jelly, indicating that negatively charged glycans influence jelly water balance and contribute to embryonic adaptation to acidity. These results indicate that egg coats can harbor extensive intra-specific variation, probably facilitated in part via strong selection on water balance and glycosylation status of egg jelly coats. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms of environmental stress tolerance and adaptive maternal effects.

  13. Degenerate target sites mediate rapid primed CRISPR adaptation

    Fineran, P.C.; Gerritzen, M.J.H.; Suarez Diez, M.; Künne, T.A.; Boekhorst, J.; Hijum, van S.A.F.T.; Staals, R.H.J.; Brouns, S.J.J.


    Prokaryotes encode adaptive immune systems, called CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR associated), to provide resistance against mobile invaders, such as viruses and plasmids. Host immunity is based on incorporation of invader DNA sequences in a memory locus

  14. Degenerate target sites mediate rapid primed CRISPR adaptation

    Fineran, P.C.; Gerritzen, M.J.; Suarez-Diez, M.; Kunne, T.; Boekhorst, J.; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Staals, R.H.G.; Brouns, S.J.


    Prokaryotes encode adaptive immune systems, called CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated), to provide resistance against mobile invaders, such as viruses and plasmids. Host immunity is based on incorporation of invader DNA sequences in a memory locus

  15. Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Contrast adaptation.

    Hillis, James M; Brainard, David H


    Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner's hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to sensitivity and examined a family of parametric models of adaptation. Our results show that both appearance and discrimination are consistent with the same mechanism of adaptation.

  16. Naturalistic stimulus structure determines the integration of audiovisual looming signals in binocular rivalry.

    Verena Conrad

    Full Text Available Rapid integration of biologically relevant information is crucial for the survival of an organism. Most prominently, humans should be biased to attend and respond to looming stimuli that signal approaching danger (e.g. predator and hence require rapid action. This psychophysics study used binocular rivalry to investigate the perceptual advantage of looming (relative to receding visual signals (i.e. looming bias and how this bias can be influenced by concurrent auditory looming/receding stimuli and the statistical structure of the auditory and visual signals. Subjects were dichoptically presented with looming/receding visual stimuli that were paired with looming or receding sounds. The visual signals conformed to two different statistical structures: (1 a 'simple' random-dot kinematogram showing a starfield and (2 a "naturalistic" visual Shepard stimulus. Likewise, the looming/receding sound was (1 a simple amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM-FM tone or (2 a complex Shepard tone. Our results show that the perceptual looming bias (i.e. the increase in dominance times for looming versus receding percepts is amplified by looming sounds, yet reduced and even converted into a receding bias by receding sounds. Moreover, the influence of looming/receding sounds on the visual looming bias depends on the statistical structure of both the visual and auditory signals. It is enhanced when audiovisual signals are Shepard stimuli. In conclusion, visual perception prioritizes processing of biologically significant looming stimuli especially when paired with looming auditory signals. Critically, these audiovisual interactions are amplified for statistically complex signals that are more naturalistic and known to engage neural processing at multiple levels of the cortical hierarchy.

  17. Effect of adaptive abilities on utilities, direct or mediated by mental health?

    Vliet Vlieland Thea PM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cost-utility analyses gain in health can be measured using health state utilities. Health state utilities can be elicited from members of the public or from patients. Utilities given by patients tend to be higher than utilities given by members of the public. This difference is often suggested to be explained by adaptation, but this has not yet been investigated in patients. Here, we investigate if, besides health related quality of life (HRQL, persons' ability to adapt can explain health state utilities. Both the direct effect of persons' adaptive abilities on health state utilities and the indirect effect, where HRQL mediates the effect of ability to adapt, are examined. Methods In total 125 patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis were interviewed. Participants gave valuations of their own health on a visual analogue scale (VAS and time trade-off (TTO. To estimate persons' ability to adapt, patients filled in questionnaires measuring Self-esteem, Mastery, and Optimism. Finally they completed the SF-36 measuring HRQL. Regression analyses were used to investigate the direct and mediated effect of ability to adapt on health state utilities. Results Persons' ability to adapt did not add considerably to the explanation of health state utilities above HRQL. In the TTO no additional variance was explained by adaptive abilities (Δ R2 = .00, β = .02, in the VAS a minor proportion of the variance was explained by adaptive abilities (Δ R2 = .05, β = .33. The effect of adaptation on health state utilities seems to be mediated by the mental health domain of quality of life. Conclusions Patients with stronger adaptive abilities, based on their optimism, mastery and self-esteem, may more easily enhance their mental health after being diagnosed with a chronic illness, which leads to higher health state utilities.

  18. Adaptations to climate-mediated selective pressures in humans.

    Angela M Hancock


    Full Text Available Humans inhabit a remarkably diverse range of environments, and adaptation through natural selection has likely played a central role in the capacity to survive and thrive in extreme climates. Unlike numerous studies that used only population genetic data to search for evidence of selection, here we scan the human genome for selection signals by identifying the SNPs with the strongest correlations between allele frequencies and climate across 61 worldwide populations. We find a striking enrichment of genic and nonsynonymous SNPs relative to non-genic SNPs among those that are strongly correlated with these climate variables. Among the most extreme signals, several overlap with those from GWAS, including SNPs associated with pigmentation and autoimmune diseases. Further, we find an enrichment of strong signals in gene sets related to UV radiation, infection and immunity, and cancer. Our results imply that adaptations to climate shaped the spatial distribution of variation in humans.

  19. ERRα mediates metabolic adaptations driving lapatinib resistance in breast cancer.

    Deblois, Geneviève; Smith, Harvey W; Tam, Ingrid S; Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Caron, Maxime; Savage, Paul; Labbé, David P; Bégin, Louis R; Tremblay, Michel L; Park, Morag; Bourque, Guillaume; St-Pierre, Julie; Muller, William J; Giguère, Vincent


    Despite the initial benefits of treating HER2-amplified breast cancer patients with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib, resistance inevitably develops. Here we report that lapatinib induces the degradation of the nuclear receptor ERRα, a master regulator of cellular metabolism, and that the expression of ERRα is restored in lapatinib-resistant breast cancer cells through reactivation of mTOR signalling. Re-expression of ERRα in resistant cells triggers metabolic adaptations favouring mitochondrial energy metabolism through increased glutamine metabolism, as well as ROS detoxification required for cell survival under therapeutic stress conditions. An ERRα inverse agonist counteracts these metabolic adaptations and overcomes lapatinib resistance in a HER2-induced mammary tumour mouse model. This work reveals a molecular mechanism by which ERRα-induced metabolic reprogramming promotes survival of lapatinib-resistant cancer cells and demonstrates the potential of ERRα inhibition as an effective adjuvant therapy in poor outcome HER2-positive breast cancer.

  20. Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Contrast adaptation

    Hillis, James M.; Brainard, David H.


    Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner’s hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to sensitivity and examined a family of parametric models of adaptation. Our results show that both appearance and discrimination are ...


    PINTILIE Anca-Aurelia


    Full Text Available The art of tapestry has its basics back in time, probably in the decorations of tent, the house of the nomad. Tapestry in its beginnings is the first wall of the nomad’s home and the decorative wall and canopy in the ancient Greek houses as architect Gottfried Semper stated in the nineteen century. The architectural approach is not unusual even in the next centuries. Tapestry becomes popular as a form of monumental art during the Middle Ages when it is used as decorative architectural element, coating the walls of medieval castles. During the next centuries dominated by decadent styles of baroque, rococo, the tapestry will lose its monumental spirit and architectural quality but at the middle of the XXth century a new approach will sustain the revival of the tapestry as monumental art. Later, in the XXIst century, renowned multimedia artists will approach this medium and will use computer assisted looms in ambitious tapestry projects. This technique will allow them to realize complex and exquisite tapestries, sustaining in this way the revival of the tapestry in the contemporary art world. The paper presents the importance of the architectural side of tapestry and the great achievement that computer assisted loom represents for this form of art. The research activity is willing to inform Romanian textile designers about the possibilities to create tapestries on computer assisted looms. The research was made during the initial stage of a doctoral thesis consisting in a documentary study on monumental aspects of contemporary tapestry.

  2. HAL1 mediate salt adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana


    The yeast HAL1 gene was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with vacuum infiltration under the control of CaMV 35S promoter.Thirty-three individual kanamycin resistant plants were obtained from 75,000 seeds.Southern blotting analysis indicated that HAL1 gene had been integrated into all of the transgenic plants' genomes.The copy number of HAL1 gene in transgenic plants was mostly 1 to 3 by Southern analysis.Phenotypes of transgenic plants have no differences with wild type plants.Several samples of transformants were self-pollinated,and progenies from transformed and non-transformed plants(controls)were evaluated for salt tolerance and gene expression.Measurement of concentrations of intracellular K+ and Na+ showed that transgenic lines were able to retain less Na+ than that of the control under salt stress.Results from different tests indicated the expression of HAL1 gene promotes a higher level of salt tolerance in vivo in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  3. Degenerate target sites mediate rapid primed CRISPR adaptation.

    Fineran, Peter C; Gerritzen, Matthias J H; Suárez-Diez, María; Künne, Tim; Boekhorst, Jos; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Staals, Raymond H J; Brouns, Stan J J


    Prokaryotes encode adaptive immune systems, called CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated), to provide resistance against mobile invaders, such as viruses and plasmids. Host immunity is based on incorporation of invader DNA sequences in a memory locus (CRISPR), the formation of guide RNAs from this locus, and the degradation of cognate invader DNA (protospacer). Invaders can escape type I-E CRISPR-Cas immunity in Escherichia coli K12 by making point mutations in the seed region of the protospacer or its adjacent motif (PAM), but hosts quickly restore immunity by integrating new spacers in a positive-feedback process termed "priming." Here, by using a randomized protospacer and PAM library and high-throughput plasmid loss assays, we provide a systematic analysis of the constraints of both direct interference and subsequent priming in E. coli. We have defined a high-resolution genetic map of direct interference by Cascade and Cas3, which includes five positions of the protospacer at 6-nt intervals that readily tolerate mutations. Importantly, we show that priming is an extremely robust process capable of using degenerate target regions, with up to 13 mutations throughout the PAM and protospacer region. Priming is influenced by the number of mismatches, their position, and is nucleotide dependent. Our findings imply that even outdated spacers containing many mismatches can induce a rapid primed CRISPR response against diversified or related invaders, giving microbes an advantage in the coevolutionary arms race with their invaders.

  4. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.


    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  5. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.


    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  6. Two identified looming detectors in the locust: ubiquitous lateral connections among their inputs contribute to selective responses to looming objects

    Rind, F. Claire; Wernitznig, Stefan; Pölt, Peter; Zankel, Armin; Gütl, Daniel; Sztarker, Julieta; Leitinger, Gerd


    In locusts, two lobula giant movement detector neurons (LGMDs) act as looming object detectors. Their reproducible responses to looming and their ethological significance makes them models for single neuron computation. But there is no comprehensive picture of the neurons that connect directly to each LGMD. We used high-through-put serial block-face scanning-electron-microscopy to reconstruct the network of input-synapses onto the LGMDs over spatial scales ranging from single synapses and small circuits, up to dendritic branches and total excitatory input. Reconstructions reveal that many trans-medullary-afferents (TmAs) connect the eye with each LGMD, one TmA per facet per LGMD. But when a TmA synapses with an LGMD it also connects laterally with another TmA. These inter-TmA synapses are always reciprocal. Total excitatory input to the LGMD 1 and 2 comes from 131,000 and 186,000 synapses reaching densities of 3.1 and 2.6 synapses per μm2 respectively. We explored the computational consequences of reciprocal synapses between each TmA and 6 others from neighbouring columns. Since any lateral interactions between LGMD inputs have always been inhibitory we may assume these reciprocal lateral connections are most likely inhibitory. Such reciprocal inhibitory synapses increased the LGMD’s selectivity for looming over passing objects, particularly at the beginning of object approach. PMID:27774991

  7. An adaptive semantic based mediation system for data interoperability among Health Information Systems.

    Khan, Wajahat Ali; Khattak, Asad Masood; Hussain, Maqbool; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Afzal, Muhammad; Nugent, Christopher; Lee, Sungyoung


    Heterogeneity in the management of the complex medical data, obstructs the attainment of data level interoperability among Health Information Systems (HIS). This diversity is dependent on the compliance of HISs with different healthcare standards. Its solution demands a mediation system for the accurate interpretation of data in different heterogeneous formats for achieving data interoperability. We propose an adaptive AdapteR Interoperability ENgine mediation system called ARIEN, that arbitrates between HISs compliant to different healthcare standards for accurate and seamless information exchange to achieve data interoperability. ARIEN stores the semantic mapping information between different standards in the Mediation Bridge Ontology (MBO) using ontology matching techniques. These mappings are provided by our System for Parallel Heterogeneity (SPHeRe) matching system and Personalized-Detailed Clinical Model (P-DCM) approach to guarantee accuracy of mappings. The realization of the effectiveness of the mappings stored in the MBO is evaluation of the accuracy in transformation process among different standard formats. We evaluated our proposed system with the transformation process of medical records between Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and Virtual Medical Record (vMR) standards. The transformation process achieved over 90 % of accuracy level in conversion process between CDA and vMR standards using pattern oriented approach from the MBO. The proposed mediation system improves the overall communication process between HISs. It provides an accurate and seamless medical information exchange to ensure data interoperability and timely healthcare services to patients.

  8. Neutrophil-Mediated Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity: The Role of Myeloperoxidase

    Dragana Odobasic


    Full Text Available Neutrophils are no longer seen as leukocytes with a sole function of being the essential first responders in the removal of pathogens at sites of infection. Being armed with numerous pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, these phagocytes can also contribute to the development of various autoimmune diseases and can positively or negatively regulate the generation of adaptive immune responses. In this review, we will discuss how myeloperoxidase, the most abundant neutrophil granule protein, plays a key role in the various functions of neutrophils in innate and adaptive immunity.

  9. Dynamics of Water Jet in Water Jet Looms

    李克让; 陈明


    On the base of the study on dynamics of water jet in water jet looms, the parameters of water jet mechanism which affect the speed of water jet are analyzed and optimized. So the stability of the water jet can be improved to raise the speed of water jet as well as weft insertion rate and to enlarge the width of woven fabrics a lot. At the same time it also points out that to increase water jet speed and to prolong its affective jet time depend mainly on the accretion of spring rate (constant)of stiffness and the diminution of plunger's cross sectional area respectively.

  10. A look into the cockpit of the developing locust: looming detectors and predator avoidance.

    Sztarker, Julieta; Rind, F Claire


    For many animals, the visual detection of looming stimuli is crucial at any stage of their lives. For example, human babies of only 6 days old display evasive responses to looming stimuli (Bower et al. [1971]: Percept Psychophys 9: 193-196). This means the neuronal pathways involved in looming detection should mature early in life. Locusts have been used extensively to examine the neural circuits and mechanisms involved in sensing looming stimuli and triggering visually evoked evasive actions, making them ideal subjects in which to investigate the development of looming sensitivity. Two lobula giant movement detectors (LGMD) neurons have been identified in the lobula region of the locust visual system: the LGMD1 neuron responds selectively to looming stimuli and provides information that contributes to evasive responses such as jumping and emergency glides. The LGMD2 responds to looming stimuli and shares many response properties with the LGMD1. Both neurons have only been described in the adult. In this study, we describe a practical method combining classical staining techniques and 3D neuronal reconstructions that can be used, even in small insects, to reveal detailed anatomy of individual neurons. We have used it to analyze the anatomy of the fan-shaped dendritic tree of the LGMD1 and the LGMD2 neurons in all stages of the post-embryonic development of Locusta migratoria. We also analyze changes seen during the ontogeny of escape behaviors triggered by looming stimuli, specially the hiding response.

  11. Testing and Analysis of the Speed of Water Jet in Water Jet Looms

    李克让; 麻伟巍; 陈明


    In the water jet looms, the distribution of the speed of water jet at the axis of the shed and its regularity are obtained by the Laser Doppler Tester. Based on the above, the water jet system is analyzed and the main effective approaches to increase the filling insertion rate and to widen the reed space of the loom are pointed out.

  12. Cortical microcircuit dynamics mediating Binocular Rivalry: The role of adaptation in inhibition

    Panagiota eTheodoni


    Full Text Available Perceptual bistability arises when two conflicting interpretations of an ambiguous stimulus or images in binocular rivalry (BR compete for perceptual dominance. From a computational point of view competition models based on cross-inhibition and adaptation have shown that noise is a crucial force for rivalry and operates in balance with adaptation in order to explain the observed alternations in perception. In particular, noise-driven transitions and adaptation-driven oscillations define two dynamical regimes and the system operates near its boundary. In order to gain insights into the microcircuit dynamics mediating spontaneous perceptual alternations we used a reduced recurrent attractor-based biophysically realistic spiking network well known for working memory, attention and decision-making, where a spike-frequency adaptation mechanism is implemented to account for perceptual bistability. We, thus, derived a consistently reduced four-variable population rate model using mean-field techniques and tested it on BR data collected from human subjects. Our model accounts for experimental data parameters such as time dominance, coefficient of variation and gamma distribution. In addition, we show that our model also operates on the boundary between noise and adaptation and agrees with Levelt’s second revised and fourth propositions. These results show for the first time that a consistent reduction of a biophysically realistic spiking network of integrate and fire neurons with spike frequency adaptation could account for BR. Moreover, we demonstrate that BR can be explained only through the dynamics of the competing neuronal pools, without taking into account the adaptation of inhibitory interneurons..However, adaptation of interneurons affects the optimal parametric space of the system, by decreasing the overall adaptation necessary for the bifurcation to occur.

  13. A Study of the Gas Flow through Air Jet Loom

    Heuy-Dong Kim; Chae-Min Lim; Ho-Joon Lee; Doo-Hwan Chun


    Air jet loom, as one of the shuttleless looms, transports a yarn into warps using viscosity and kinetic energy of an air jet. Performance of this picking system depends on the ability of instantaneous inhalation/exhaust, configuration of nozzle, operation characteristics of a check valve, etc. In the recent past, many studies have been reported on the air jet discharged from a nozzle exit, but studies for understanding the flow field characteristics associated with shear layer and shock wave/boundary layer interaction in the nozzle were not conducted enough. In this paper, a computational study was performed to explain the flow field in the air jet nozzle with an acceleration tube and validated with previous experimental data available. The results obtained from the computational study show that, in the supersonic flow regime, the flow field depends significantly on the length of acceleration tube. As nozzle pressure ratio increases, drag force acting on the string also increases. For a longer acceleration tube, the total pressure loss is large, owing to the frictional loss.

  14. Study on the Back Rest System of Looms

    陈革; 毛立民; 周亚勤; 袁立新


    Periodic variations of warp tension during a weaving cycle result in corresponding change of back rest position, and the oscillation of back rest affects the fluctuation of warp yarn in return. A mechanical model of back rest system of looms is presented on basis of auto control theory, and the factors affecting the dynamic performance of the back rest are analyzed. In the model, warp yarn is regarded as a viscoelastic medium, and the adjustable parameters and the adjusting range of the back rest system are increased, so the ioom's applicability for the fabric's variety is enlanced.Finally, the methods of designing and adjusting the back rest are discussed, and a trend of back rest system development is given.

  15. Synchronization of cells with activator-inhibitor pathways through adaptive environment-mediated coupling

    Ghomsi, P. Guemkam; Moukam Kakmeni, F. M.; Tchawoua, C.; Kofane, T. C.


    In this paper, we report the synchronized dynamics of cells with activator-inhibitor pathways via an adaptive environment-mediated coupling scheme with feedbacks and control mechanisms. The adaptive character of the extracellular medium is modeled via its damping parameter as a physiological response aiming at annihilating the cellular differentiation existing between the chaotic biochemical pathways of the cells, in order to preserve homeostasis. We perform an investigation on the existence and stability of the synchronization manifold of the coupled system under the proposed coupling pattern. Both mathematical and computational tools suggest the accessibility of conducive prerequisites (conditions) for the emergence of a robust synchronous regime. The relevance of a phase-synchronized dynamics is appraised and several numerical indicators advocate for the prevalence of this fascinating phenomenon among the interacting cells in the phase space.

  16. TIR Domain-Containing Adapter-Inducing Beta Interferon (TRIF) Mediates Immunological Memory against Bacterial Pathogens.

    Kanagavelu, Saravana; Flores, Claudia; Termini, J M; Romero, Laura; Riveron, Reldy; Ruiz, Jose; Arditi, Moshe; Schesser, Kurt; Fukata, Masayuki


    Induction of adaptive immunity leads to the establishment of immunological memory; however, how innate immunity regulates memory T cell function remains obscure. Here we show a previously undefined mechanism in which innate and adaptive immunity are linked by TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing beta interferon (TRIF) during establishment and reactivation of memory T cells against Gram-negative enteropathogens. Absence of TRIF in macrophages (Mϕs) but not dendritic cells led to a predominant generation of CD4(+) central memory T cells that express IL-17 during enteric bacterial infection in mice. TRIF-dependent type I interferon (IFN) signaling in T cells was essential to Th1 lineage differentiation and reactivation of memory T cells. TRIF activated memory T cells to facilitate local neutrophil influx and enhance bacterial elimination. These results highlight the importance of TRIF as a mediator of the innate and adaptive immune interactions in achieving the protective properties of memory immunity against Gram-negative bacteria and suggest TRIF as a potential therapeutic target.

  17. GH3-mediated auxin homeostasis links growth regulation with stress adaptation response in Arabidopsis.

    Park, Jung-Eun; Park, Ju-Young; Kim, Youn-Sung; Staswick, Paul E; Jeon, Jin; Yun, Ju; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Jungmook; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Park, Chung-Mo


    Plants constantly monitor environmental fluctuations to optimize their growth and metabolism. One example is adaptive growth occurring in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we demonstrate that GH3-mediated auxin homeostasis is an essential constituent of the complex network of auxin actions that regulates stress adaptation responses in Arabidopsis. Endogenous auxin pool is regulated, at least in part, through negative feedback by a group of auxin-inducible GH3 genes encoding auxin-conjugating enzymes. An Arabidopsis mutant, wes1-D, in which a GH3 gene WES1 is activated by nearby insertion of the (35)S enhancer, exhibited auxin-deficient traits, including reduced growth and altered leaf shape. Interestingly, WES1 is also induced by various stress conditions as well as by salicylic acid and abscisic acid. Accordingly, wes1-D was resistant to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and stress-responsive genes, such as pathogenesis-related genes and CBF genes, were upregulated in this mutant. In contrast, a T-DNA insertional mutant showed reduced stress resistance. We therefore propose that GH3-mediated growth suppression directs reallocation of metabolic resources to resistance establishment and represents the fitness costs of induced resistance.

  18. Adaptation in sound localization: from GABA(B) receptor-mediated synaptic modulation to perception.

    Stange, Annette; Myoga, Michael H; Lingner, Andrea; Ford, Marc C; Alexandrova, Olga; Felmy, Felix; Pecka, Michael; Siveke, Ida; Grothe, Benedikt


    Across all sensory modalities, the effect of context-dependent neural adaptation can be observed at every level, from receptors to perception. Nonetheless, it has long been assumed that the processing of interaural time differences, which is the primary cue for sound localization, is nonadaptive, as its outputs are mapped directly onto a hard-wired representation of space. Here we present evidence derived from in vitro and in vivo experiments in gerbils indicating that the coincidence-detector neurons in the medial superior olive modulate their sensitivity to interaural time differences through a rapid, GABA(B) receptor-mediated feedback mechanism. We show that this mechanism provides a gain control in the form of output normalization, which influences the neuronal population code of auditory space. Furthermore, psychophysical tests showed that the paradigm used to evoke neuronal GABA(B) receptor-mediated adaptation causes the perceptual shift in sound localization in humans that was expected on the basis of our physiological results in gerbils.

  19. Looming sensitive cortical regions without V1 input: evidence from a patient with bilateral cortical blindness

    Alexis eHervais-Adelman; Lore Billie Legrand; Minye eZhan; Marco eTamietto; Beatrice eDe Gelder; Pegna, Alan J.


    Fast and automatic behavioral responses are required to avoid collision with an approaching stimulus. Accordingly, looming stimuli have been found to be highly salient and efficient attractors of attention due to the implication of potential collision and potential threat. Here, we address the question of whether looming motion is processed in the absence of any functional primary visual cortex and consequently without awareness. For this, we investigated a patient (TN) suffering from complet...

  20. The role of CNS TLR2 activation in mediating innate versus adaptive neuroinflammation.

    Luz, Avital; Fainstein, Nina; Einstein, Ofira; Ben-Hur, Tamir


    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is expressed on immune cells in the periphery and the CNS and mediates both innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent studies have implicated TLR2 in systemic pathogenesis of adaptive immunity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In addition, TLR2 is expressed on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and its activation inhibits their differentiation and myelination. We investigated the roles of CNS TLR2 activation in mediating neuro-inflammatory responses in intact versus EAE animals. We examined the effects of intra-cerebro-ventricular (ICV) injection of Zymosan, a TLR2 agonist, on naive versus EAE animals. The neuro-inflammatory response was characterized by immune-fluorescent staining for IBA-1+ microglia/macrophages and CD3+ T cells, and by semi-quantitative real time PCR for TLR2 and immune cytokines. The nature of the immune cells isolated from EAE brain tissue was assessed by their proliferative response to the PLP peptide autoantigen. Survival and clinical scores were monitored; demyelination and axonal loss were quantified by Gold-Black and Bielschowsky stains. Our findings showed that Zymosan injection in naïve mice induced a massive neuro-inflammatory response without any clinical manifestations. In EAE mice, ICV Zymosan induced a severe acute toxic response with 80% mortality. Surviving animals returned to pre-injection clinical score, and their course of disease was not altered as compared to control EAE group. Demyelination and axonal loss were not affected by ICV Zymosan injection. Quantification of immune response in the brain by real time PCR, immunofluorescent stains and proliferative response to PLP peptide suggested that TLR2 activation induces innate but not adaptive immune response. We conclude that EAE mice are hypersensitive to CNS TLR2 activation with a severe toxic response. This might represent the susceptibility of multiple sclerosis patients to even trivial infections. As CNS TLR2 activation

  1. Dynamic Analysis of Composite Structural System for Looms Industry

    Jigar K. Sevalia


    Full Text Available All the structures subjected to any kind of loads or displacement tends to behave dynamically. Thus the structures are always under continuous loading. The industrial buildings have to support the machineries in motion which are under high degree of vibrations. And so the design of base and the foundations of such structures under vibrations are very important and need to be stable. Problems of dynamics of bases and foundations are to be studied carefully, so as to understand the response characteristics of the power loom industry structure. This is very important from the economic point of view as well as to secure the stability and safety of the structure; dynamic analysis was carried out for Ground + One storey industry load bearing structure using STAAD.Pro software. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the dynamic analysis of the structure under vibrations caused by reciprocating type machines. This paper makes attempt to study the effects of various structural parameters like Beam Size, Column Size and Storey Height and Wall Thickness variation on Frequency and Displacement of the industrial building which in future will serve as guidelines to the structural engineers and the industry people.

  2. Transfer RNAs Mediate the Rapid Adaptation of Escherichia coli to Oxidative Stress.

    Jiayong Zhong


    Full Text Available Translational systems can respond promptly to sudden environmental changes to provide rapid adaptations to environmental stress. Unlike the well-studied translational responses to oxidative stress in eukaryotic systems, little is known regarding how prokaryotes respond rapidly to oxidative stress in terms of translation. In this study, we measured protein synthesis from the entire Escherichia coli proteome and found that protein synthesis was severely slowed down under oxidative stress. With unchanged translation initiation, this slowdown was caused by decreased translation elongation speed. We further confirmed by tRNA sequencing and qRT-PCR that this deceleration was caused by a global, enzymatic downregulation of almost all tRNA species shortly after exposure to oxidative agents. Elevation in tRNA levels accelerated translation and protected E. coli against oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Our results showed that the global regulation of tRNAs mediates the rapid adjustment of the E. coli translation system for prompt adaptation to oxidative stress.

  3. Strain Mediated Adaptation Is Key for Myosin Mechanochemistry: Discovering General Rules for Motor Activity.

    Jana, Biman; Onuchic, José N


    A structure-based model of myosin motor is built in the same spirit of our early work for kinesin-1 and Ncd towards physical understanding of its mechanochemical cycle. We find a structural adaptation of the motor head domain in post-powerstroke state that signals faster ADP release from it compared to the same from the motor head in the pre-powerstroke state. For dimeric myosin, an additional forward strain on the trailing head, originating from the postponed powerstroke state of the leading head in the waiting state of myosin, further increases the rate of ADP release. This coordination between the two heads is the essence of the processivity of the cycle. Our model provides a structural description of the powerstroke step of the cycle as an allosteric transition of the converter domain in response to the Pi release. Additionally, the variation in structural elements peripheral to catalytic motor domain is the deciding factor behind diverse directionalities of myosin motors (myosin V & VI). Finally, we observe that there are general rules for functional molecular motors across the different families. Allosteric structural adaptation of the catalytic motor head in different nucleotide states is crucial for mechanochemistry. Strain-mediated coordination between motor heads is essential for processivity and the variation of peripheral structural elements is essential for their diverse functionalities.

  4. Opt2 mediates the exposure of phospholipids during cellular adaptation to altered lipid asymmetry.

    Yamauchi, Saori; Obara, Keisuke; Uchibori, Kenya; Kamimura, Akiko; Azumi, Kaoru; Kihara, Akio


    Plasma membrane lipid asymmetry is important for various membrane-associated functions and is regulated by membrane proteins termed flippases and floppases. The Rim101 pathway senses altered lipid asymmetry in the yeast plasma membrane. The mutant lem3Δ cells, in which lipid asymmetry is disturbed owing to the inactivation of the plasma membrane flippases, showed a severe growth defect when the Rim101 pathway was impaired. To identify factors involved in the Rim101-pathway-dependent adaptation to altered lipid asymmetry, we performed DNA microarray analysis and found that Opt2 induced by the Rim101 pathway plays an important role in the adaptation to altered lipid asymmetry. Biochemical investigation of Opt2 revealed its localization to the plasma membrane and the Golgi, and provided several lines of evidence for the Opt2-mediated exposure of phospholipids. In addition, Opt2 was found to be required for the maintenance of vacuolar morphology and polarized cell growth. These results suggest that Opt2 is a novel factor involved in cell homeostasis by regulating lipid asymmetry.

  5. Building Adaptive Capacity with the Delphi Method and Mediated Modeling for Water Quality and Climate Change Adaptation in Lake Champlain Basin

    Coleman, S.; Hurley, S.; Koliba, C.; Zia, A.; Exler, S.


    Eutrophication and nutrient pollution of surface waters occur within complex governance, social, hydrologic and biophysical basin contexts. The pervasive and perennial nutrient pollution in Lake Champlain Basin, despite decades of efforts, exemplifies problems found across the world's surface waters. Stakeholders with diverse values, interests, and forms of explicit and tacit knowledge determine water quality impacts through land use, agricultural and water resource decisions. Uncertainty, ambiguity and dynamic feedback further complicate the ability to promote the continual provision of water quality and ecosystem services. Adaptive management of water resources and land use requires mechanisms to allow for learning and integration of new information over time. The transdisciplinary Research on Adaptation to Climate Change (RACC) team is working to build regional adaptive capacity in Lake Champlain Basin while studying and integrating governance, land use, hydrological, and biophysical systems to evaluate implications for adaptive management. The RACC team has engaged stakeholders through mediated modeling workshops, online forums, surveys, focus groups and interviews. In March 2014,, an interactive online forum to source and identify adaptive interventions from a group of stakeholders across sectors was launched. The forum, based on the Delphi Method, brings forward the collective wisdom of stakeholders and experts to identify potential interventions and governance designs in response to scientific uncertainty and ambiguity surrounding the effectiveness of any strategy, climate change impacts, and the social and natural systems governing water quality and eutrophication. A Mediated Modeling Workshop followed the forum in May 2014, where participants refined and identified plausible interventions under different governance, policy and resource scenarios. Results from the online forum and workshop can identify emerging consensus across scales and sectors

  6. Looming sensitive cortical regions without V1 input: evidence from a patient with bilateral cortical blindness

    Alexis eHervais-Adelman


    Full Text Available Fast and automatic behavioral responses are required to avoid collision with an approaching stimulus. Accordingly, looming stimuli have been found to be highly salient and efficient attractors of attention due to the implication of potential collision and potential threat. Here, we address the question of whether looming motion is processed in the absence of any functional primary visual cortex and consequently without awareness. For this, we investigated a patient (TN suffering from complete, bilateral damage to his primary visual cortex. Using an fMRI paradigm, we measured TN’s brain activation during the presentation of looming, receding, rotating and static point lights, of which he was unaware. When contrasted with other conditions, looming was found to produce bilateral activation of the middle temporal areas, as well as the superior temporal sulcus and inferior parietal lobe. The latter are generally thought to be involved in multisensory processing of motion in extrapersonal space, as well as attentional capture and saliency. No activity was found close to the lesioned V1 area.This demonstrates that looming motion is processed in the absence of awareness through direct subcortical projections to areas involved in multisensory processing of motion and saliency that bypass V1.

  7. Looming sensitive cortical regions without V1 input: evidence from a patient with bilateral cortical blindness.

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Legrand, Lore B; Zhan, Minye; Tamietto, Marco; de Gelder, Beatrice; Pegna, Alan J


    Fast and automatic behavioral responses are required to avoid collision with an approaching stimulus. Accordingly, looming stimuli have been found to be highly salient and efficient attractors of attention due to the implication of potential collision and potential threat. Here, we address the question of whether looming motion is processed in the absence of any functional primary visual cortex and consequently without awareness. For this, we investigated a patient (TN) suffering from complete, bilateral damage to his primary visual cortex. Using an fMRI paradigm, we measured TN's brain activation during the presentation of looming, receding, rotating, and static point lights, of which he was unaware. When contrasted with other conditions, looming was found to produce bilateral activation of the middle temporal areas, as well as the superior temporal sulcus and inferior parietal lobe (IPL). The latter are generally thought to be involved in multisensory processing of motion in extrapersonal space, as well as attentional capture and saliency. No activity was found close to the lesioned V1 area. This demonstrates that looming motion is processed in the absence of awareness through direct subcortical projections to areas involved in multisensory processing of motion and saliency that bypass V1.

  8. An LRR/malectin receptor-like kinase mediates resistance to non-adapted and adapted powdery mildew fungi in barley and wheat

    Jeyaraman Rajaraman


    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for required for nonhost resistance 8 encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates nonhost resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating nonhost resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  9. An LRR/Malectin Receptor-Like Kinase Mediates Resistance to Non-adapted and Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungi in Barley and Wheat.

    Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Stefanato, Francesca L; Gordon, Anna; Ereful, Nelzo; Caldararu, Octav F; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Kumlehn, Jochen; Boyd, Lesley A; Schweizer, Patrick


    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for Required for non-host resistance 8) encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates non-host resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating non-host resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  10. Adaptive genetic variation mediates bottom-up and top-down control in an aquatic ecosystem

    Rudman, Seth M.; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; Stier, Adrian; Sato, Takuya; Heavyside, Julian; El-Sabaawi, Rana W.; Crutsinger, Gregory M.


    Research in eco-evolutionary dynamics and community genetics has demonstrated that variation within a species can have strong impacts on associated communities and ecosystem processes. Yet, these studies have centred around individual focal species and at single trophic levels, ignoring the role of phenotypic variation in multiple taxa within an ecosystem. Given the ubiquitous nature of local adaptation, and thus intraspecific variation, we sought to understand how combinations of intraspecific variation in multiple species within an ecosystem impacts its ecology. Using two species that co-occur and demonstrate adaptation to their natal environments, black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we investigated the effects of intraspecific phenotypic variation on both top-down and bottom-up forces using a large-scale aquatic mesocosm experiment. Black cottonwood genotypes exhibit genetic variation in their productivity and consequently their leaf litter subsidies to the aquatic system, which mediates the strength of top-down effects from stickleback on prey abundances. Abundances of four common invertebrate prey species and available phosphorous, the most critically limiting nutrient in freshwater systems, are dictated by the interaction between genetic variation in cottonwood productivity and stickleback morphology. These interactive effects fit with ecological theory on the relationship between productivity and top-down control and are comparable in strength to the effects of predator addition. Our results illustrate that intraspecific variation, which can evolve rapidly, is an under-appreciated driver of community structure and ecosystem function, demonstrating that a multi-trophic perspective is essential to understanding the role of evolution in structuring ecological patterns. PMID:26203004

  11. Behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation: a physiological strategy when mice behaviorally thermoregulate.

    Gordon, Christopher J; Aydin, Cenk; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Johnstone, Andrew F M


    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of ~22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller internal organs and longer tails compared to mice raised at 22°C. Since mice prefer Tas equal to their TNZ when housed in a thermocline, we hypothesized that mice reared for long periods (e.g., months) in a thermocline would undergo significant changes in organ development and tail length as a result of their thermoregulatory behavior. Groups of three female BALB/c mice at an age of 37 days were housed together in a thermocline consisting of a 90cm long aluminum runway with a floor temperature ranging from 23 to 39°C. Two side-by-side thermoclines allowed for a total of 6 mice to be tested simultaneously. Control mice were tested in isothermal runways maintained at a Ta of 22°C. All groups were given cotton pads for bedding/nest building. Mass of heart, lung, liver, kidney, brain, and tail length were assessed after 73 days of treatment. Mice in the thermocline and control (isothermal) runways were compared to cage control mice housed 3/cage with bedding under standard vivarium conditions. Mice in the thermocline generally remained in the warm end throughout the daytime with little evidence of nest building, suggesting a state of thermal comfort. Mice in the isothermal runway built elaborate nests and huddled together in the daytime. Mice housed in the thermocline had significantly smaller livers and kidneys and an increase in tail length compared to mice in the isothermal runway as well as when compared to the cage controls. These patterns of organ growth and tail length of mice in the thermocline are akin to warm adaptation. Thus, thermoregulatory behavior altered organ development, a process we term behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation. Moreover, the data suggest that the standard

  12. A-FABP mediates adaptive thermogenesis by promoting intracellular activation of thyroid hormones in brown adipocytes

    Shu, Lingling; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Wu, Xiaoping; Pan, Yong; Lee, Ida P. C.; Cheong, Lai Yee; Bornstein, Stefan R; Rong, Xianglu; Guo, Jiao; Xu, Aimin


    The adipokine adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has been implicated in obesity-related cardio-metabolic complications. Here we show that A-FABP increases thermogenesis by promoting the conversion of T4 to T3 in brown adipocytes. We find that A-FABP levels are increased in both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues and the bloodstream in response to thermogenic stimuli. A-FABP knockout mice have reduced thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure after cold stress or after feeding a high-fat diet, which can be reversed by infusion of recombinant A-FABP. Mechanistically, A-FABP induces the expression of type-II iodothyronine deiodinase in BAT via inhibition of the nuclear receptor liver X receptor α, thereby leading to the conversion of thyroid hormone from its inactive form T4 to active T3. The thermogenic responses to T4 are abrogated in A-FABP KO mice, but enhanced by A-FABP. Thus, A-FABP acts as a physiological stimulator of BAT-mediated adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:28128199

  13. Heterogeneity-mediated cellular adaptation and its trade-off: searching for the general principles of diseases.

    Heng, Henry H


    Big-data-omics have promised the success of precision medicine. However, most common diseases belong to adaptive systems where the precision is all but difficult to achieve. In this commentary, I propose a heterogeneity-mediated cellular adaptive model to search for the general model of diseases, which also illustrates why in most non-infectious non-Mendelian diseases the involvement of cellular evolution is less predictable when gene profiles are used. This synthesis is based on the following new observations/concepts: 1) the gene only codes "parts inheritance" while the genome codes "system inheritance" or the entire blueprint; 2) the nature of somatic genetic coding is fuzzy rather than precise, and genetic alterations are not just the results of genetic error but are in fact generated from internal adaptive mechanisms in response to environmental dynamics; 3) stress-response is less specific within cellular evolutionary context when compared to known biochemical specificities; and 4) most medical interventions have their unavoidable uncertainties and often can function as negative harmful stresses as trade-offs. The acknowledgment of diseases as adaptive systems calls for the action to integrate genome- (not simply individual gene-) mediated cellular evolution into molecular medicine.

  14. Transgenerational epimutations induced by multi-generation drought imposition mediate rice plant’s adaptation to drought condition

    Zheng, Xiaoguo; Chen, Liang; Xia, Hui; Wei, Haibin; Lou, Qiaojun; Li, Mingshou; Li, Tiemei; Luo, Lijun


    Epigenetic mechanisms are crucial mediators of appropriate plant reactions to adverse environments, but their involvement in long-term adaptation is less clear. Here, we established two rice epimutation accumulation lines by applying drought conditions to 11 successive generations of two rice varieties. We took advantage of recent technical advances to examine the role of DNA methylation variations on rice adaptation to drought stress. We found that multi-generational drought improved the drought adaptability of offspring in upland fields. At single-base resolution, we discovered non-random appearance of drought-induced epimutations. Moreover, we found that a high proportion of drought-induced epimutations maintained their altered DNA methylation status in advanced generations. In addition, genes related to transgenerational epimutations directly participated in stress-responsive pathways. Analysis based on a cluster of drought-responsive genes revealed that their DNA methylation patterns were affected by multi-generational drought. These results suggested that epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in rice adaptations to upland growth conditions. Epigenetic variations have morphological, physiological and ecological consequences and are heritable across generations, suggesting that epigenetics can be considered an important regulatory mechanism in plant long-term adaptation and evolution under adverse environments. PMID:28051176

  15. Intestinal resident yeast Candida glabrata requires Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation to adapt in mouse intestine.

    Ueno, Keigo; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Uno, Jun; Sasamoto, Kaname; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kinjo, Yuki; Chibana, Hiroji


    The intestinal resident Candida glabrata opportunistically infects humans. However few genetic factors for adaptation in the intestine are identified in this fungus. Here we describe the C. glabrata CYB2 gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase as an adaptation factor for survival in the intestine. CYB2 was identified as a virulence factor by a silkworm infection study. To determine the function of CYB2, we analysed in vitro phenotypes of the mutant Δcyb2. The Δcyb2 mutant grew well in glucose medium under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was not supersensitive to nitric oxide which has fungicidal-effect in phagocytes, and had normal levels of general virulence factors protease, lipase and adherence activities. A previous report suggested that Cyb2p is responsible for lactate assimilation. Additionally, it was speculated that lactate assimilation was required for Candida virulence because Candida must synthesize glucose via gluconeogenesis under glucose-limited conditions such as in the host. Indeed, the Δcyb2 mutant could not grow on lactate medium in which lactate is the sole carbon source in the absence of glucose, indicating that Cyb2p plays a role in lactate assimilation. We hypothesized that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is necessary for proliferation in the intestinal tract, as the intestine is rich in lactate produced by bacteria flora, but not glucose. The Δcyb2 mutant showed 100-fold decreased adaptation and few cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can adapt in mouse ceca. Interestingly, C. glabrata could assimilate lactate under hypoxic conditions, dependent on CYB2, but not yeast S. cerevisiae. Because accessible oxygen is limited in the intestine, the ability for lactate assimilation in hypoxic conditions may provide an advantage for a pathogenic yeast. From those results, we conclude that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is an intestinal adaptation factor of C. glabrata.

  16. Intestinal resident yeast Candida glabrata requires Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation to adapt in mouse intestine.

    Keigo Ueno

    Full Text Available The intestinal resident Candida glabrata opportunistically infects humans. However few genetic factors for adaptation in the intestine are identified in this fungus. Here we describe the C. glabrata CYB2 gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase as an adaptation factor for survival in the intestine. CYB2 was identified as a virulence factor by a silkworm infection study. To determine the function of CYB2, we analysed in vitro phenotypes of the mutant Δcyb2. The Δcyb2 mutant grew well in glucose medium under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was not supersensitive to nitric oxide which has fungicidal-effect in phagocytes, and had normal levels of general virulence factors protease, lipase and adherence activities. A previous report suggested that Cyb2p is responsible for lactate assimilation. Additionally, it was speculated that lactate assimilation was required for Candida virulence because Candida must synthesize glucose via gluconeogenesis under glucose-limited conditions such as in the host. Indeed, the Δcyb2 mutant could not grow on lactate medium in which lactate is the sole carbon source in the absence of glucose, indicating that Cyb2p plays a role in lactate assimilation. We hypothesized that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is necessary for proliferation in the intestinal tract, as the intestine is rich in lactate produced by bacteria flora, but not glucose. The Δcyb2 mutant showed 100-fold decreased adaptation and few cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can adapt in mouse ceca. Interestingly, C. glabrata could assimilate lactate under hypoxic conditions, dependent on CYB2, but not yeast S. cerevisiae. Because accessible oxygen is limited in the intestine, the ability for lactate assimilation in hypoxic conditions may provide an advantage for a pathogenic yeast. From those results, we conclude that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is an intestinal adaptation factor of C. glabrata.

  17. High-Frequency Intermuscular Coherence between Arm Muscles during Robot-Mediated Motor Adaptation

    Pizzamiglio, Sara; De Lillo, Martina; Naeem, Usman; Abdalla, Hassan; Turner, Duncan L.


    Adaptation of arm reaching in a novel force field involves co-contraction of upper limb muscles, but it is not known how the co-ordination of multiple muscle activation is orchestrated. We have used intermuscular coherence (IMC) to test whether a coherent intermuscular coupling between muscle pairs is responsible for novel patterns of activation during adaptation of reaching in a force field. Subjects (N = 16) performed reaching trials during a null force field, then during a velocity-dependent force field and then again during a null force field. Reaching trajectory error increased during early adaptation to the force-field and subsequently decreased during later adaptation. Co-contraction in the majority of all possible muscle pairs also increased during early adaptation and decreased during later adaptation. In contrast, IMC increased during later adaptation and only in a subset of muscle pairs. IMC consistently occurred in frequencies between ~40–100 Hz and during the period of arm movement, suggesting that a coherent intermuscular coupling between those muscles contributing to adaptation enable a reduction in wasteful co-contraction and energetic cost during reaching. PMID:28119620

  18. Practice of Producing Broad Width Fabric on Single Loom Beam Air Jet Loom%单织轴喷气织机生产宽幅织物的实践

    王美红; 孙鉴丽


    Key technology measures of producing broad width fabric on single loom beam air jet loom were discussed. Problems existed in producing broad width fabric on two-beam air jet loom were analyzed, It is considered that supporting broad width warping machine and sizing machine should be selected in producing broad width fabric on single loom beam air jet loom. Processing parameter in each process should be selected rationally such as tension. Side yarn should be controlled well in weaving, temperature & humidity should be selected properly,finally loom efficiency can be reach above 92% , production demands can be reached.%探讨使用单织轴喷气织机生产宽幅织物的关键技术措施.通过分析双织轴喷气织机生产宽幅织物时存在的问题,认为:采用单织轴喷气织机生产宽幅织物时,应选用配套的宽幅整经机与宽幅浆纱机,各道工序合理配置张力等工艺参数;织造时加强边纱的控制,选择适宜的温湿度条件,最终使得织机效率达到92%,满足了生产要求.

  19. Stomatal density and metabolic determinants mediate salt stress adaptation and water use efficiency in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Barbieri, Giancarlo; Vallone, Simona; Orsini, Francesco; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Maggio, Albino


    Increasing salinity tolerance and water-use efficiency in crop plants are two major challenges that agriculture must face in the next decades. Many physiological mechanisms and molecular components mediating crop response to environmental stresses have been identified. However, the functional inter-links between stress adaptation responses have not been completely understood. Using two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with contrasting ability to respond to salt stress, here we demonstrate that reduced stomatal density, high ascorbate level and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity coordinately contribute to improve basil adaptation and water use efficiency (WUE) in saline environment. The constitutively reduced stomatal density was associated with a "delayed" accumulation of stress molecules (and growth inhibiting signals) such as abscisic acid (ABA) and proline, in the more tolerant Genovese. Leaf volatile profiling also revealed cultivar-specific patterns, which may suggest a role for the volatile phenylpropanoid eugenol and monoterpenes in conferring stress tolerance via antioxidant and signalling functions.

  20. Adaptive and innate immune reactions regulating mast cell activation: from receptor-mediated signaling to responses

    Tkaczyk, Christine; Jensen, Bettina M; Iwaki, Shoko


    differentially activate multiple signaling pathways within the mast cells required for the generation and/or release of inflammatory mediators. Thus, the composition of the suite of mediators released and the physiologic ramifications of these responses are dependent on the stimuli and the microenvironment...... activation. The exact interconnections between the signaling pathways initiated by the surface receptors described in this article remain to be completely worked out; thus, this remains a topic for future investigation....

  1. Invisible Mediations: The Role of Adaptation and Dubbing Professionals in Shaping US TV for Italian Audiences

    Luca Barra


    abstractWith the increasing global circulation of media products, professionals devoted to the process of audiovisual translation and ‘national mediation’ for foreign ready-made programmes have gained a central role in contemporary TV. Presenting the results of an ethnographical study, this essay explores the ‘invisible art’ of TV adaptation and dubbing, explaining its procedures, traditions and challenges. Adaptation has to consider both the technical necessities of the audio-visual and cros...

  2. A mathematical model for storied buildings subjected to automatic loom stresses. [vibration of weaving mill

    Stan, A.; Munteanu, M.


    Expressions are derived for the displacements of a many storied building subjected to the action of classical weaving looms located at different levels of the building. The building is regarded as a vertical fixed beam with a uniformly distributed mass as well as concentrated masses at each level. The calculation relations are obtained on the assumption of harmonic variation of the forces acting at each level as well as the assumption of narrow band stationary random excitatory forces.

  3. IGF-2 is necessary for retinoblastoma-mediated enhanced adaptation after small-bowel resection.

    Choi, Pamela M; Sun, Raphael C; Sommovilla, Josh; Diaz-Miron, Jose; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R; Warner, Brad W


    Previously, we have demonstrated that genetically disrupting retinoblastoma protein (Rb) expression in enterocytes results in taller villi, mimicking resection-induced adaption responses. Rb deficiency also results in elevated insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) expression in villus enterocytes. We propose that postoperative disruption of Rb results in enhanced adaptation which is driven by IGF-2. Inducible, intestine-specific Rb-null mice (iRbIKO) and wild-type (WT) littermates underwent a 50% proximal small-bowel resection (SBR) at 7-9 weeks of age. They were then given tamoxifen on postoperative days (PODs) 4-6 and harvested on POD 28. The experiment was then repeated on double knockouts of both IGF-2 and Rb (IGF-2 null/iRbIKO). iRbIKO mice demonstrated enhanced resection-induced adaptive villus growth after SBR and increased IGF-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) in ileal villus enterocytes compared to their WT littermates. In the IGF-2 null/iRbIKO double-knockout mice, there was no additional villus growth beyond what was expected of normal resection-induced adaptation. Adult mice in which Rb is inducibly deleted from the intestinal epithelium following SBR have augmented adaptive growth. IGF-2 expression is necessary for enhanced adaptation associated with acute intestinal Rb deficiency.

  4. Influence of Weaving Loom Setting Parameters on Changes of Woven Fabric Structure and Mechanical Properties



    Full Text Available During the manufacturing of fabric of different raw material there was noticed, that after removing the fabric from weaving loom and after stabilization of fabric structure, the changes of parameters of fabric structure are not regular. During this investigation it was analysed, how weaving loom technological parameters (heald cross moment and initial tension of warp should be chosen and how to predict the changes of fabric structure parameters and its mechanical properties. The dependencies of changes of half-wool fabric structure parameters (weft setting, fabric thickness and projections of fabric cross-section and mechanical properties (breaking force, elongation at break, static friction force and static friction coefficient on weaving loom setting parameters (heald cross moment and initial warp tension were analysed. The orthogonal Box plan of two factors was used, the 3-D dependencies were drawn, and empirical equations of these dependencies were established.

  5. Sequences spanning the leader-repeat junction mediate CRISPR adaptation to phage in Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Wei, Yunzhou; Chesne, Megan T; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P


    CRISPR-Cas systems are RNA-based immune systems that protect prokaryotes from invaders such as phages and plasmids. In adaptation, the initial phase of the immune response, short foreign DNA fragments are captured and integrated into host CRISPR loci to provide heritable defense against encountered foreign nucleic acids. Each CRISPR contains a ∼100-500 bp leader element that typically includes a transcription promoter, followed by an array of captured ∼35 bp sequences (spacers) sandwiched between copies of an identical ∼35 bp direct repeat sequence. New spacers are added immediately downstream of the leader. Here, we have analyzed adaptation to phage infection in Streptococcus thermophilus at the CRISPR1 locus to identify cis-acting elements essential for the process. We show that the leader and a single repeat of the CRISPR locus are sufficient for adaptation in this system. Moreover, we identified a leader sequence element capable of stimulating adaptation at a dormant repeat. We found that sequences within 10 bp of the site of integration, in both the leader and repeat of the CRISPR, are required for the process. Our results indicate that information at the CRISPR leader-repeat junction is critical for adaptation in this Type II-A system and likely other CRISPR-Cas systems.

  6. Seascape genomics provides evidence for thermal adaptation and current-mediated population structure in American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    Benestan, Laura; Quinn, Brady K; Maaroufi, Halim; Laporte, Martin; Clark, Fraser K; Greenwood, Spencer J; Rochette, Rémy; Bernatchez, Louis


    Investigating how environmental features shape the genetic structure of populations is crucial for understanding how they are potentially adapted to their habitats, as well as for sound management. In this study, we assessed the relative importance of spatial distribution, ocean currents and sea surface temperature (SST) on patterns of putatively neutral and adaptive genetic variation among American lobster from 19 locations using population differentiation (PD) approaches combined with environmental association (EA) analyses. First, PD approaches (using bayescan, arlequin and outflank) found 28 outlier SNPs putatively under divergent selection and 9770 neutral SNPs in common. Redundancy analysis revealed that spatial distribution, ocean current-mediated larval connectivity and SST explained 31.7% of the neutral genetic differentiation, with ocean currents driving the majority of this relationship (21.0%). After removing the influence of spatial distribution, no SST were significant for putatively neutral genetic variation whereas minimum annual SST still had a significant impact and explained 8.1% of the putatively adaptive genetic variation. Second, EA analyses (using Pearson correlation tests, bayescenv and lfmm) jointly identified seven SNPs as candidates for thermal adaptation. Covariation at these SNPs was assessed with a spatial multivariate analysis that highlighted a significant temperature association, after accounting for the influence of spatial distribution. Among the 505 candidate SNPs detected by at least one of the three approaches, we discovered three polymorphisms located in genes previously shown to play a role in thermal adaptation. Our results have implications for the management of the American lobster and provide a foundation on which to predict how this species will cope with climate change.

  7. ERK activation is required for CCK-mediated pancreatic adaptive growth in mice.

    Holtz, Bryan J; Lodewyk, Kevin B; Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S; Ernst, Stephen A; Williams, John A


    High levels of cholecystokinin (CCK) can stimulate pancreatic adaptive growth in which mature acinar cells divide, leading to enhanced pancreatic mass with parallel increases in protein, DNA, RNA, and digestive enzyme content. Prolonged release of CCK can be induced by feeding trypsin inhibitor (TI) to disrupt normal feedback control. This leads to exocrine growth in a CCK-dependent manner. The extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway regulates many proliferative processes in various tissues and disease models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ERK signaling in pancreatic adaptive growth using the MEK inhibitors PD-0325901 and trametinib (GSK-1120212). It was determined that PD-0325901 given two times daily by gavage or mixed into powdered chow was an effective and specific inhibitor of ERK signaling in vivo. TI-containing chow led to a robust increase in pancreatic mass, protein, DNA, and RNA content. This pancreatic adaptive growth was blocked in mice fed chow containing the MEK inhibitors. PD-0325901 blocked TI-induced ERK-regulated early response genes, cell-cycle proteins, and mitogenesis by acinar cells. It was determined that ERK signaling is necessary for the initiation of pancreatic adaptive growth but not necessary to maintain it. PD-0325901 blocked adaptive growth when given before cell-cycle initiation but not after mitogenesis had been established. Furthermore, GSK-1120212, a chemically distinct inhibitor of the ERK pathway that is now approved for clinical use, inhibited growth similar to PD-0325901. These data demonstrate that the ERK pathway is required for CCK-stimulated pancreatic adaptive growth.

  8. The adaptive effect of personal control when facing breast cancer : Cognitive and behavioural mediators

    Henselmans, Inge; Fleer, Joke; de Vries, J; Baas, Peter C; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V


    This prospective study examines the cognitive and behavioural mediators of the relation between personal control and the initial response to a breast cancer diagnosis as well as subsequent psychological adjustment. A total of 143 patients participated immediately after diagnosis (T1), after surgery

  9. Plasticity and genetic adaptation mediate amphibian and reptile responses to climate change.

    Urban, Mark C; Richardson, Jonathan L; Freidenfelds, Nicole A


    Phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation are predicted to mitigate some of the negative biotic consequences of climate change. Here, we evaluate evidence for plastic and evolutionary responses to climate variation in amphibians and reptiles via a literature review and meta-analysis. We included studies that either document phenotypic changes through time or space. Plasticity had a clear and ubiquitous role in promoting phenotypic changes in response to climate variation. For adaptive evolution, we found no direct evidence for evolution of amphibians or reptiles in response to climate change over time. However, we found many studies that documented adaptive responses to climate along spatial gradients. Plasticity provided a mixture of adaptive and maladaptive responses to climate change, highlighting that plasticity frequently, but not always, could ameliorate climate change. Based on our review, we advocate for more experiments that survey genetic changes through time in response to climate change. Overall, plastic and genetic variation in amphibians and reptiles could buffer some of the formidable threats from climate change, but large uncertainties remain owing to limited data.

  10. Behaviorally Mediated, Warm Adaptation: A Physiological Strategy When Mice Are Allowed to Behaviorally Thermoregulate

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of -22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller int...

  11. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi


    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  12. Calcium-stores mediate adaptation in axon terminals of Olfactory Receptor Neurons in Drosophila

    Murmu Meena S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vertebrates and invertebrates, sensory neurons adapt to variable ambient conditions, such as the duration or repetition of a stimulus, a physiological mechanism considered as a simple form of non-associative learning and neuronal plasticity. Although various signaling pathways, as cAMP, cGMP, and the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (InsP3R play a role in adaptation, their precise mechanisms of action at the cellular level remain incompletely understood. Recently, in Drosophila, we reported that odor-induced Ca2+-response in axon terminals of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs is related to odor duration. In particular, a relatively long odor stimulus (such as 5 s triggers the induction of a second component involving intracellular Ca2+-stores. Results We used a recently developed in-vivo bioluminescence imaging approach to quantify the odor-induced Ca2+-activity in the axon terminals of ORNs. Using either a genetic approach to target specific RNAs, or a pharmacological approach, we show that the second component, relying on the intracellular Ca2+-stores, is responsible for the adaptation to repetitive stimuli. In the antennal lobes (a region analogous to the vertebrate olfactory bulb ORNs make synaptic contacts with second-order neurons, the projection neurons (PNs. These synapses are modulated by GABA, through either GABAergic local interneurons (LNs and/or some GABAergic PNs. Application of GABAergic receptor antagonists, both GABAA or GABAB, abolishes the adaptation, while RNAi targeting the GABABR (a metabotropic receptor within the ORNs, blocks the Ca2+-store dependent component, and consequently disrupts the adaptation. These results indicate that GABA exerts a feedback control. Finally, at the behavioral level, using an olfactory test, genetically impairing the GABABR or its signaling pathway specifically in the ORNs disrupts olfactory adapted behavior. Conclusion Taken together, our results indicate that a

  13. Inter-plant communication through mycorrhizal networks mediates complex adaptive behaviour in plant communities.

    Gorzelak, Monika A; Asay, Amanda K; Pickles, Brian J; Simard, Suzanne W


    Adaptive behaviour of plants, including rapid changes in physiology, gene regulation and defence response, can be altered when linked to neighbouring plants by a mycorrhizal network (MN). Mechanisms underlying the behavioural changes include mycorrhizal fungal colonization by the MN or interplant communication via transfer of nutrients, defence signals or allelochemicals. We focus this review on our new findings in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems, and also review recent advances in arbuscular mycorrhizal systems. We have found that the behavioural changes in ectomycorrhizal plants depend on environmental cues, the identity of the plant neighbour and the characteristics of the MN. The hierarchical integration of this phenomenon with other biological networks at broader scales in forest ecosystems, and the consequences we have observed when it is interrupted, indicate that underground 'tree talk' is a foundational process in the complex adaptive nature of forest ecosystems.

  14. Invisible Mediations: The Role of Adaptation and Dubbing Professionals in Shaping US TV for Italian Audiences

    Luca Barra


    Full Text Available With the increasing global circulation of media products, professionals devoted to the process of audiovisual translation and ‘national mediation’ for foreign ready-made programmes have gained a central role in contemporary TV. Presenting the results of an ethnographical study, this essay explores the ‘invisible art’ of TV adaptation and dubbing, explaining its procedures, traditions and challenges. Adaptation has to consider both the technical necessities of the audio-visual and cross-cultural aspects of translation, while dubbing involves extremely intricate production routines, professionals with different skills, written and unwritten rules, a range of different workplaces, economic investments and traditions. The result is a new text, modified following contrasting linguistic, cultural and professional goals.

  15. Characterization of the Adaptive Response to Trichloroethylene-Mediated Stresses in Ralstonia pickettii PKO1

    Park, Joonhong; Kukor, Jerome J.; Abriola, Linda M.


    In Ralstonia pickettii PKO1, a denitrifying toluene oxidizer that carries a toluene-3-monooxygenase (T3MO) pathway, the biodegradation of toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE) by the organism is induced by TCE at high concentrations. In this study, the effect of TCE preexposure was studied in the context of bacterial protective response to TCE-mediated toxicity in this organism. The results of TCE degradation experiments showed that cells induced by TCE at 110 mg/liter were more tolerant to TCE...

  16. The Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers metabolic adaptation to ingested material.

    Stefan Taubert


    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II (Pol(II dependent gene expression requires accessory factors termed transcriptional coregulators. One coregulator that universally contributes to Pol(II-dependent transcription is the Mediator, a multisubunit complex that is targeted by many transcriptional regulatory factors. For example, the Caenorhabditis elegans Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers the regulatory actions of the sterol response element binding protein SBP-1 and the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49 on fatty acid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that MDT-15 displays a broader spectrum of activities, and that it integrates metabolic responses to materials ingested by C. elegans. Depletion of MDT-15 protein or mutation of the mdt-15 gene abrogated induction of specific detoxification genes in response to certain xenobiotics or heavy metals, rendering these animals hypersensitive to toxin exposure. Intriguingly, MDT-15 appeared to selectively affect stress responses related to ingestion, as MDT-15 functional defects did not abrogate other stress responses, e.g., thermotolerance. Together with our previous finding that MDT-15:NHR-49 regulatory complexes coordinate a sector of the fasting response, we propose a model whereby MDT-15 integrates several transcriptional regulatory pathways to monitor both the availability and quality of ingested materials, including nutrients and xenobiotic compounds.

  17. Do sensory neurons mediate adaptive cytoprotection of gastric mucosa against bile acid injury?

    Mercer, D W; Ritchie, W P; Dempsey, D T


    Pretreatment with the mild irritant 1 mmol acidified taurocholate protects the gastric mucosa from the injury induced by the subsequent application of 5 mmol acidified taurocholate, a phenomenon referred to as "adaptive cytoprotection." How this occurs remains an enigma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of sensory neurons and mucus secretion in this phenomenon. Prior to injury with 5 mmol acidified taurocholate (pH 1.2), the stomachs of six groups of rats were subjected to the following protocol. Two groups were topically pretreated with either saline or the mild irritant 1 mmol acidified taurocholate. Two other groups received the topical anesthetic 1% lidocaine prior to pretreatment with either saline or 1 mmol acidified taurocholate. The last two groups got the mucolytic agent 10% N-acetylcysteine (NAC) after pretreatment with either saline or 1 mmol acidified taurocholate. Injury was assessed by measuring net transmucosal ion fluxes, luminal appearance of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and gross and histologic injury. Pretreatment with the mild irritant 1 mmol acidified taurocholate significantly decreased bile acid-induced luminal ion fluxes and DNA accumulation, suggesting mucosal protection (corroborated by gross and histologic injury analysis). This effect was negated by lidocaine but not by NAC. Thus, it appears that sensory neurons, and not increased mucus secretion, play a critical role in adaptive cytoprotection.

  18. Flavonoids: a metabolic network mediating plants adaptation to their real estate.

    Mouradov, Aidyn; Spangenberg, German


    From an evolutionary perspective, the emergence of the sophisticated chemical scaffolds of flavonoid molecules represents a key step in the colonization of Earth's terrestrial environment by vascular plants nearly 500 million years ago. The subsequent evolution of flavonoids through recruitment and modification of ancestors involved in primary metabolism has allowed vascular plants to cope with pathogen invasion and damaging UV light. The functional properties of flavonoids as a unique combination of different classes of compounds vary significantly depending on the demands of their local real estate. Apart from geographical location, the composition of flavonoids is largely dependent on the plant species, their developmental stage, tissue type, subcellular localization, and key ecological influences of both biotic and abiotic origin. Molecular and metabolic cross-talk between flavonoid and other pathways as a result of the re-direction of intermediate molecules have been well investigated. This metabolic plasticity is a key factor in plant adaptive strength and is of paramount importance for early land plants adaptation to their local ecosystems. In human and animal health the biological and pharmacological activities of flavonoids have been investigated in great depth and have shown a wide range of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer properties. In this paper we review the application of advanced gene technologies for targeted reprogramming of the flavonoid pathway in plants to understand its molecular functions and explore opportunities for major improvements in forage plants enhancing animal health and production.

  19. Energy consumption of the griffes during weaving process of jacquard loom

    Zhang Yan


    Full Text Available In this paper, energy consumption of the griffes during their serving life is reported. Griffes of the Jacquard loom with reciprocating motion and high speed are the main suffering components during the weaving process. Under the condition of high reciprocating velocity, the mechanical damage is an unavoidable issue that will lead to a fatal collapse on the mechanical parts and even operators. Therefore, finite element analysis is adopted and conducted in present research to intuitively demonstrate the energy consumption on the griffes. This will be benefit for the design and local reinforcement of the Jacquard.

  20. MicroRNA-Mediated Regulation of Dp53 in the Drosophila Fat Body Contributes to Metabolic Adaptation to Nutrient Deprivation

    Lara Barrio


    Full Text Available Multiple conserved mechanisms sense nutritional conditions and coordinate metabolic changes in the whole organism. We unravel a role for the Drosophila homolog of p53 (Dp53 in the fat body (FB; a functional analog of vertebrate adipose and hepatic tissues in starvation adaptation. Under nutrient deprivation, FB-specific depletion of Dp53 accelerates consumption of major energy stores and reduces survival rates of adult flies. We show that Dp53 is regulated by the microRNA (miRNA machinery and miR-305 in a nutrition-dependent manner. In well-fed animals, TOR signaling contributes to miR-305-mediated inhibition of Dp53. Nutrient deprivation reduces the levels of miRNA machinery components and leads to Dp53 derepression. Our results uncover an organism-wide role for Dp53 in nutrient sensing and metabolic adaptation and open up avenues toward understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying p53 activation under nutrient deprivation.

  1. [Advances in molecular mechanisms of adaptive immunity mediated by type I-E CRISPR/Cas system--A review].

    Sun, Dongchang; Qiu, Juanping


    To better adapt to the environment, prokaryocyte can take up exogenous genes (from bacteriophages, plasmids or genomes of other species) through horizontal gene transfer. Accompanied by the acquisition of exogenous genes, prokaryocyte is challenged by the invasion of 'selfish genes'. Therefore, to protect against the risk of gene transfer, prokaryocyte needs to establish mechanisms for selectively taking up or degrading exogenous DNA. In recent years, researchers discovered an adaptive immunity, which is mediated by the small RNA guided DNA degradation, prevents the invasion of exogenous genes in prokaryocyte. During the immune process, partial DNA fragments are firstly the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) located within the genome DNA, and then the mature CRISPR RNA transcript and the CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) form a complex CRISPR/Cas for degrading exogenous DNA. In this review, we will first briefly describe the CRISPR/Cas systems and then mainly focus on the recent advances of the function mechanism and the regulation mechanism of the type I-E CRISPR/Cas system in Escherichia coli.

  2. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the cold-adapted fungi Pseudogymnoascus destructans and P. pannorum.

    Zhang, Tao; Ren, Ping; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chaturvedi, Sudha


    The mechanisms of cold adaptation by fungi remain unknown. This topic is of high interest due to the emergence of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a skin infection of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Recent studies indicated that apart from Pd, there is an abundance of other Pseudogymnoascus species in the hibernacula soil. We developed an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system for Pd and a related fungus Pseudogymnoascus pannorum (Pp) to advance experimental studies. URE1 gene encoding the enzyme urease was used as an easy to screen marker to facilitate molecular genetic analyses. A Uracil-Specific Excision Reagent (USER) Friendly pRF-HU2 vector containing Pd or Pp ure1::hygromycin (HYG) disruption cassette was introduced into A. tumefaciens AGL-1 cells by electroporation and the resulting strains were co-cultivated with conidia of Pd or Pp for various durations and temperatures to optimize the ATMT system. Overall, 680 Pd (0.006%) and 1800 Pp (0.018%) transformants were obtained from plating of 10(7) conidia; their recoveries were strongly correlated with the length of the incubation period (96h for Pd; 72h for Pp) and with temperature (15-18°C for Pd; 25°C for Pp). The homologous recombination in transformants was 3.1% for Pd and 16.7% for Pp. The availability of a standardized ATMT system would allow future molecular genetic analyses of Pd and related cold-adapted fungi.

  3. A Statistical Quality Control System in a Medium-Scale Weaving Mill: II. Control of Loom Stoppages



    Full Text Available Establishing a control system in a medium-scale weaving mill by using statistical process control techniques was worked on and considered that the control system also would be a model for weaving mills. To determine production parameters and control them according to a definite sampling plan, the loom stoppages were investigated with their reasons and the defects on the fabric were detected during running of looms in process inspection. Therefore three different kinds of cord and a poplin fabric were observed. Analysis of loom-stoppages gives information about problems which are present in yarns, weaving preparation, weaving processes, and particularly indicates yarn quality, weaving machine adjustments and weaving preparation processes. In conclusion of woven fabric quality evaluations it was determined that the rate of defects originated from yarn is rather higher than that of defects originated from weaving preparation/weaving process.

  4. AgRP Neural Circuits Mediate Adaptive Behaviors in the Starved State

    Padilla, Stephanie L.; Qiu, Jian; Soden, Marta E.; Sanz, Elisenda; Nestor, Casey C; Barker, Forrest D.; Quintana, Albert; Zweifel, Larry S.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.; Palmiter, Richard D.


    In the face of starvation animals will engage in high-risk behaviors that would normally be considered maladaptive. Starving rodents for example will forage in areas that are more susceptible to predators and will also modulate aggressive behavior within a territory of limited or depleted nutrients. The neural basis of these adaptive behaviors likely involves circuits that link innate feeding, aggression, and fear. Hypothalamic AgRP neurons are critically important for driving feeding and project axons to brain regions implicated in aggression and fear. Using circuit-mapping techniques, we define a disynaptic network originating from a subset of AgRP neurons that project to the medial nucleus of the amygdala and then to the principle bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which plays a role in suppressing territorial aggression and reducing contextual fear. We propose that AgRP neurons serve as a master switch capable of coordinating behavioral decisions relative to internal state and environmental cues. PMID:27019015

  5. A mechanism of hypoxia-mediated escape from adaptive immunity in cancer cells.

    Barsoum, Ivraym B; Smallwood, Chelsea A; Siemens, D Robert; Graham, Charles H


    Immune escape is a fundamental trait of cancer in which mechanistic knowledge is incomplete. Here, we describe a novel mechanism by which hypoxia contributes to tumoral immune escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Exposure of human or murine cancer cells to hypoxia for 24 hours led to upregulation of the immune inhibitory molecule programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1; also known as B7-H1), in a manner dependent on the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). In vivo studies also demonstrated cellular colocalization of HIF-1α and PD-L1 in tumors. Hypoxia-induced expression of PD-L1 in cancer cells increased their resistance to CTL-mediated lysis. Using glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), an agonist of nitric oxide (NO) signaling known to block HIF-1α accumulation in hypoxic cells, we prevented hypoxia-induced PD-L1 expression and diminished resistance to CTL-mediated lysis. Moreover, transdermal administration of GTN attenuated tumor growth in mice. We found that higher expression of PD-L1 induced in tumor cells by exposure to hypoxia led to increased apoptosis of cocultured CTLs and Jurkat leukemia T cells. This increase in apoptosis was prevented by blocking the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1, the PD-L1 receptor on T cells, or by addition of GTN. Our findings point to a role for hypoxia/HIF-1 in driving immune escape from CTL, and they suggest a novel cancer immunotherapy to block PD-L1 expression in hypoxic-tumor cells by administering NO mimetics.

  6. HVR1-mediated antibody evasion of highly infectious in vivo adapted HCV in humanised mice

    Prentoe, Jannick; Verhoye, Lieven; Moctezuma, Rodrigo Velazquez;


    Objective HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, but the role of neutralising antibodies (nAbs) in its natural history remains poorly defined. We analysed the in vivo role of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) for HCV virion properties, including nAb susceptibility. Design Analysis...... of HCV from human liver chimeric mice infected with cell-culture-derived prototype genotype 2a recombinant J6/JFH1 or HVR1-deleted variant J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 identified adaptive mutations, which were analysed by reverse genetics in Huh7.5 and CD81-deficient S29 cells. The increased in vivo genomic stability......06 IgG in vitro. Conclusions The A876P-substitution bridges in vitro and in vivo studies using J6/JFH1-based recombinants. We provide the first in vivo evidence that HVR1 protects cross-genotype conserved HCV neutralisation epitopes, which advocates the possibility of using HVR1-deleted viruses...

  7. A component of retinal light adaptation mediated by the thyroid hormone cascade.

    Diana E Bedolla

    Full Text Available Analysis with DNA-microrrays and real time PCR show that several genes involved in the thyroid hormone cascade, such as deiodinase 2 and 3 (Dio2 and Dio3 are differentially regulated by the circadian clock and by changes of the ambient light. The expression level of Dio2 in adult rats (2-3 months of age kept continuously in darkness is modulated by the circadian clock and is up-regulated by 2 fold at midday. When the diurnal ambient light was on, the expression level of Dio2 increased by 4-8 fold and a consequent increase of the related protein was detected around the nuclei of retinal photoreceptors and of neurons in inner and outer nuclear layers. The expression level of Dio3 had a different temporal pattern and was down-regulated by diurnal light. Our results suggest that DIO2 and DIO3 have a role not only in the developing retina but also in the adult retina and are powerfully regulated by light. As the thyroid hormone is a ligand-inducible transcription factor controlling the expression of several target genes, the transcriptional activation of Dio2 could be a novel genomic component of light adaptation.

  8. Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Uniform backgrounds.

    Hillis, James M; Brainard, David H


    Color vision is useful for detecting surface boundaries and identifying objects. Are the signals used to perform these two functions processed by common mechanisms, or has the visual system optimized its processing separately for each task? We measured the effect of mean chromaticity and luminance on color discriminability and on color appearance under well-matched stimulus conditions. In the discrimination experiments, a pedestal spot was presented in one interval and a pedestal + test in a second. Observers indicated which interval contained the test. In the appearance experiments, observers matched the appearance of test spots across a change in background. We analyzed the data using a variant of Fechner's proposal, that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to visual sensitivity. We found that saturating visual response functions together with a model of adaptation that included multiplicative gain control and a subtractive term accounted for data from both tasks. This result suggests that effects of the contexts we studied on color appearance and discriminability are controlled by the same underlying mechanism.

  9. Sensing and adaptation to low pH mediated by inducible amino acid decarboxylases in Salmonella.

    Julie P M Viala

    Full Text Available During the course of infection, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must successively survive the harsh acid stress of the stomach and multiply into a mild acidic compartment within macrophages. Inducible amino acid decarboxylases are known to promote adaptation to acidic environments. Three low pH inducible amino acid decarboxylases were annotated in the genome of S. Typhimurium, AdiA, CadA and SpeF, which are specific for arginine, lysine and ornithine, respectively. In this study, we characterized and compared the contributions of those enzymes in response to acidic challenges. Individual mutants as well as a strain deleted for the three genes were tested for their ability (i to survive an extreme acid shock, (ii to grow at mild acidic pH and (iii to infect the mouse animal model. We showed that the lysine decarboxylase CadA had the broadest range of activity since it both had the capacity to promote survival at pH 2.3 and growth at pH 4.5. The arginine decarboxylase AdiA was the most performant in protecting S. Typhimurium from a shock at pH 2.3 and the ornithine decarboxylase SpeF conferred the best growth advantage under anaerobiosis conditions at pH 4.5. We developed a GFP-based gene reporter to monitor the pH of the environment as perceived by S. Typhimurium. Results showed that activities of the lysine and ornithine decarboxylases at mild acidic pH did modify the local surrounding of S. Typhimurium both in culture medium and in macrophages. Finally, we tested the contribution of decarboxylases to virulence and found that these enzymes were dispensable for S. Typhimurium virulence during systemic infection. In the light of this result, we examined the genomes of Salmonella spp. normally responsible of systemic infection and observed that the genes encoding these enzymes were not well conserved, supporting the idea that these enzymes may be not required during systemic infection.

  10. Utrophin A is essential in mediating the functional adaptations of mdx mouse muscle following chronic AMPK activation.

    Al-Rewashdy, Hasanen; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Lin, Wei; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Jasmin, Bernard J


    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the absence of dystrophin along muscle fibers. An attractive therapeutic avenue for DMD consists in the upregulation of utrophin A, a protein with high sequence identity and functional redundancy with dystrophin. Recent work has shown that pharmacological interventions that induce a muscle fiber shift toward a slower, more oxidative phenotype with increased expression of utrophin A confer morphological and functional improvements in mdx mice. Whether such improvements result from the increased expression of utrophin A per se or are linked to other beneficial adaptations associated with the slow, oxidative phenotype remain to be established. To address this central issue, we capitalized on the use of double knockout (dKO) mice, which are mdx mice also deficient in utrophin. We first compared expression of signaling molecules and markers of the slow, oxidative phenotype in muscles of mdx versus dKO mice and found that both strains exhibit similar phenotypes. Chronic activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase with 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside (AICAR) resulted in expression of a slower, more oxidative phenotype in both mdx and dKO mice. In mdx mice, this fiber type shift was accompanied by clear functional improvements that included reductions in central nucleation, IgM sarcoplasmic penetration and sarcolemmal damage resulting from eccentric contractions, as well as in increased grip strength. These important morphological and functional adaptations were not seen in AICAR-treated dKO mice. Our findings show the central role of utrophin A in mediating the functional benefits associated with expression of a slower, more oxidative phenotype in dystrophic animals.

  11. Prioritization of factors impacting on performance of power looms using AHP

    Dulange, S. R.; Pundir, A. K.; Ganapathy, L.


    The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical success factors influencing the performance of power loom textiles, to evaluate their impact on the organizational performance and to find out the effect of these factors on the organizational performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Solapur (Maharashtra) industrial sector using AHP. In the methodology adopted, factors are identified through the literature survey and finalization of these factors is done by taking the opinion of experts in the Indian context. By cognitive map, the relation between these factors (direct and indirect effect) is determined and cause and effect diagram is prepared. Then these factors are arranged hierarchically and tree diagram is prepared. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the experts; data is collected. Using expert choice software data is filled to quantify by pair-wise comparison of these factors and are prioritized. The weights demonstrate several key findings: local and global priority reveals that there is a substantial effect of the human resource, product style, and volume on the organizational performance. The skills and technology upgradation impact on organizational performance. Maintenance plays an important role in improving the organizational performances of the SMEs. Overall, the results showed the central role of the operational factors are important. The research is subject to the normal limitations of AHP. The study is using perceptual data provided by Experts which may not provide clear measures of impact factors. However, this can be overcome using more experts to collect data in future studies. Interestingly, the findings here may be generalisable outside Solapur like Ichalkarnji, Malegaon, and Bhiwadi (Maharashtra). Solapur power loom SMEs should consider AHP as an innovative tool for quantification of factors impacting on performance and improving operational and organizational performance in today's dynamic

  12. Metabolic profiling reveals ethylene mediated metabolic changes and a coordinated adaptive mechanism of 'Jonagold' apple to low oxygen stress.

    Bekele, Elias A; Beshir, Wasiye F; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H


    Apples are predominantly stored in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage to delay ripening and prolong their storage life. Profiling the dynamics of metabolic changes during ripening and CA storage is vital for understanding the governing molecular mechanism. In this study, the dynamics of the primary metabolism of 'Jonagold' apples during ripening in regular air (RA) storage and initiation of CA storage was profiled. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was exploited to block ethylene receptors and to get insight into ethylene mediated metabolic changes during ripening of the fruit and in response to hypoxic stress. Metabolic changes were quantified in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the Yang cycle and synthesis of the main amino acids branching from these metabolic pathways. Partial least square discriminant analysis of the metabolic profiles of 1-MCP treated and control apples revealed a metabolic divergence in ethylene, organic acid, sugar and amino acid metabolism. During RA storage at 18°C, most amino acids were higher in 1-MCP treated apples, whereas 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was higher in the control apples. The initial response of the fruit to CA initiation was accompanied by an increase of alanine, succinate and glutamate, but a decline in aspartate. Furthermore, alanine and succinate accumulated to higher levels in control apples than 1-MCP treated apples. The observed metabolic changes in these interlinked metabolites may indicate a coordinated adaptive strategy to maximize energy production.

  13. Anthrax lethal toxin-mediated killing of human and murine dendritic cells impairs the adaptive immune response.

    Abdelkrim Alileche


    Full Text Available Many pathogens have acquired strategies to combat the immune response. Bacillus anthracis interferes with host defenses by releasing anthrax lethal toxin (LT, which inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, rendering dendritic cells (DCs and T lymphocytes nonresponsive to immune stimulation. However, these cell types are considered resistant to killing by LT. Here we show that LT kills primary human DCs in vitro, and murine DCs in vitro and in vivo. Kinetics of LT-mediated killing of murine DCs, as well as cell death pathways induced, were dependent upon genetic background: LT triggered rapid necrosis in BALB/c-derived DCs, and slow apoptosis in C57BL/6-derived DCs. This is consistent with rapid and slow killing of LT-injected BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, respectively. We present evidence that anthrax LT impairs adaptive immunity by specifically targeting DCs. This may represent an immune-evasion strategy of the bacterium, and contribute to anthrax disease progression. We also established that genetic background determines whether apoptosis or necrosis is induced by LT. Finally, killing of C57BL/6-derived DCs by LT mirrors that of human DCs, suggesting that C57BL/6 DCs represent a better model system for human anthrax than the prototypical BALB/c macrophages.

  14. Understanding animal fears: a comparison of the cognitive vulnerability and harm-looming models

    Armfield Jason M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model holds that both clinical and sub-clinical manifestations of animal fears are a result of how an animal is perceived, and can be used to explain both individual differences in fear acquisition and the uneven distribution of fears in the population. This study looked at the association between fear of a number of animals and perceptions of the animals as uncontrollable, unpredictable, dangerous and disgusting. Also assessed were the perceived loomingness, prior familiarity, and negative evaluation of the animals as well as possible conditioning experiences. Methods 162 first-year University students rated their fear and perceptions of four high-fear and four low-fear animals. Results Perceptions of the animals as dangerous, disgusting and uncontrollable were significantly associated with fear of both high- and low-fear animals while perceptions of unpredictability were significantly associated with fear of high-fear animals. Conditioning experiences were unrelated to fear of any animals. In multiple regression analyses, loomingness did not account for a significant amount of the variance in fear beyond that accounted for by the cognitive vulnerability variables. However, the vulnerability variables accounted for between 20% and 51% of the variance in all animals fears beyond that accounted for by perceptions of the animals as looming. Perceptions of dangerousness, uncontrollability and unpredictability were highly predictive of the uneven distribution of animal fears. Conclusion This study provides support for the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of specific fears and phobias and brings into question the utility of the harm-looming model in explaining animal fear.

  15. The design of looming draft for multi-eye heddle weaving%多眼综丝织造的上机图设计

    柳宝琴; 李毓陵; 陈旭炜; 杜卫平


    Based on the design of looming draft for ordinary single-eye heddle weaving , the design of looming draft with the application of multi-eye heddle weaving technology for complex multilayer fabric was investigated . The looming drafts for heddle weaving with different number of eyes were also compared .%在传统单眼综丝织造上机设计的基础上,阐述多眼综丝织造复杂多层织物组织的上机图设计方法,并对比分析不同综眼数综丝织造的上机图。

  16. 莱赛尔织物织机工艺优化%Optimization of Loom Processing for Lyocell Fabric

    陈克炎; 赵纪卫


    探讨莱赛尔织物的织机工艺优化方法。以某细特莱赛尔织物为例,分析了织机工艺参数的优化,包括上机张力、后梁高度、停经架位置、开口形式、引纬时间、主辅喷气压等;对包括边撑疵、断疵、横档、布幅缩率差异大等几种典型织疵提出来解决方法。采取一系列工艺优化和技术措施后,最终产品台时经停2.45根,台时纬停2.84根,织机效率达80.8%。认为:有针对性地优化织机工艺和采取措施,最终可以保证产品的顺利生产,织机效率显著提高。%The optimization method for loom processing of lyocell fabric was discussed.One fine lyocell fab-ric was taken as an example.The optimization of loom processing parameters were analyzed,which includes loom tension,height of back beam,shed form,weft-insertion time,main and assistant air-jet pressure and so on.The so-lutions for several kinds of weaving defects like temple defect,broken defect,cross bar,larger differences for fabric shrinkage rate and so on were put forward.After adopting a series of processing optimization and technology measures,the warp stop of product was 2.45 counts per machine hour,weft stop was 2.84 counts per machine hour and the loom efficiency was 80.8%.It is considered that production could be guaranteed successfully and the loom efficiency can be obviously improved aimed at the optimization of loom processing and adopting measures.

  17. The Propulsive Force of the Water-jet to the Flying Weft in Water-jet Looms


    In order to study the propulsive force on the water-jet to the flying weft in water-jet looms, a dynamic model has been established. Based on the analysis and example testing, an experiential formula of the propulsive force of the water-jet to the flying weft is obtained for the first time. The formula will profit the further research of the water-jet weft insertion and the production of textile.

  18. Small but crucial: the novel small heat shock protein Hsp21 mediates stress adaptation and virulence in Candida albicans.

    François L Mayer

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (sHsps have multiple cellular functions. However, the biological function of sHsps in pathogenic microorganisms is largely unknown. In the present study we identified and characterized the novel sHsp Hsp21 of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Using a reverse genetics approach we demonstrate the importance of Hsp21 for resistance of C. albicans to specific stresses, including thermal and oxidative stress. Furthermore, a hsp21Δ/Δ mutant was defective in invasive growth and formed significantly shorter filaments compared to the wild type under various filament-inducing conditions. Although adhesion to and invasion into human-derived endothelial and oral epithelial cells was unaltered, the hsp21Δ/Δ mutant exhibited a strongly reduced capacity to damage both cell lines. Furthermore, Hsp21 was required for resisting killing by human neutrophils. Measurements of intracellular levels of stress protective molecules demonstrated that Hsp21 is involved in both glycerol and glycogen regulation and plays a major role in trehalose homeostasis in response to elevated temperatures. Mutants defective in trehalose and, to a lesser extent, glycerol synthesis phenocopied HSP21 deletion in terms of increased susceptibility to environmental stress, strongly impaired capacity to damage epithelial cells and increased sensitivity to the killing activities of human primary neutrophils. Via systematic analysis of the three main C. albicans stress-responsive kinases (Mkc1, Cek1, Hog1 under a range of stressors, we demonstrate Hsp21-dependent phosphorylation of Cek1 in response to elevated temperatures. Finally, the hsp21Δ/Δ mutant displayed strongly attenuated virulence in two in vivo infection models. Taken together, Hsp21 mediates adaptation to specific stresses via fine-tuning homeostasis of compatible solutes and activation of the Cek1 pathway, and is crucial for multiple stages of C. albicans pathogenicity. Hsp21 therefore

  19. Dimerization mediates thermo-adaptation, substrate affinity and transglycosylation in a highly thermostable maltogenic amylase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans.

    Deepika Mehta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maltogenic amylases belong to a subclass of cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing enzymes and hydrolyze cyclodextrins more efficiently than starch unlike typical α-amylases. Several bacterial malto-genic amylases with temperature optima of 40-60°C have been previously characterized. The thermo-adaption, substrate preferences and transglycosylation aspects of extremely thermostable bacterial maltogenic amylases have not yet been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The recombinant monomeric and dimeric forms of maltogenic α-amylase (Gt-Mamy of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans are of 72.5 and 145 kDa, which are active optimally at 80°C. Extreme thermostability of this enzyme has been explained by analyzing far-UV CD spectra. Dimerization increases T1/2 of Gt-Mamy from 8.2 h to 12.63 h at 90°C and mediates its enthalpy-driven conformational thermostabilization. Furthermore, dime-rization regulates preferential substrate binding of the enzyme. The substrate preference switching of Gt-Mamy upon dimerization has been confirmed from the substrate-binding affinities of the enzyme for various high and low molecular weight substrates. There is an alteration in Km and substrate hydrolysis efficiency (Vmax/Km of the enzyme (for cyclodex-trins/starch upon dimerization. N-terminal truncation indicated the role of N-terminal 128 amino acids in the thermostabilization and modulation of substrate-binding affinity. This has been confirmed by molecular docking of β-cyclodextrin to Gt-Mamy that indicated the requirement of homodimer formation by the interaction of a few N-terminal residues of chain A with the catalytic residues of (α/β8 barrel of chain B and vice-versa for stable cyclodextrin binding. Site directed mutagenesis provided evidence for the role of N-terminal D109 at the dimeric interface in substrate affinity modulation and thermostabilization. The dimeric Gt-Mamy transglycosylates hydrolytic products of G4/G

  20. Intestinal Resident Yeast Candida glabrata Requires Cyb2p-Mediated Lactate Assimilation to Adapt in Mouse Intestine

    Keigo Ueno; Yasuhiko Matsumoto; Jun Uno; Kaname Sasamoto; Kazuhisa Sekimizu; Yuki Kinjo; Hiroji Chibana


    The intestinal resident Candida glabrata opportunistically infects humans. However few genetic factors for adaptation in the intestine are identified in this fungus. Here we describe the C. glabrata CYB2 gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase as an adaptation factor for survival in the intestine. CYB2 was identified as a virulence factor by a silkworm infection study. To determine the function of CYB2, we analysed in vitro phenotypes of the mutant Δcyb2. The Δcyb2 mutant grew well in glucose med...

  1. Conserved natural IgM antibodies mediate innate and adaptive immunity against the opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis murina.

    Rapaka, Rekha R; Ricks, David M; Alcorn, John F; Chen, Kong; Khader, Shabaana A; Zheng, Mingquan; Plevy, Scott; Bengtén, Eva; Kolls, Jay K


    Host defense against opportunistic fungi requires coordination between innate and adaptive immunity for resolution of infection. Antibodies generated in mice vaccinated with the fungus Pneumocystis prevent growth of Pneumocystis organisms within the lungs, but the mechanisms whereby antibodies enhance antifungal host defense are poorly defined. Nearly all species of fungi contain the conserved carbohydrates β-glucan and chitin within their cell walls, which may be targets of innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we show that natural IgM antibodies targeting these fungal cell wall carbohydrates are conserved across many species, including fish and mammals. Natural antibodies bind fungal organisms and enhance host defense against Pneumocystis in early stages of infection. IgM antibodies influence recognition of fungal antigen by dendritic cells, increasing their migration to draining pulmonary lymph nodes. IgM antibodies are required for adaptive T helper type 2 (Th2) and Th17 cell differentiation and guide B cell isotype class-switch recombination during host defense against Pneumocystis. These experiments suggest a novel role for the IgM isotype in shaping the earliest steps in recognition and clearance of this fungus. We outline a mechanism whereby serum IgM, containing ancient specificities against conserved fungal antigens, bridges innate and adaptive immunity against fungal organisms.

  2. Etk/Bmx mediates expression of stress-induced adaptive genes VEGF, PAI-1, and iNOS via multiple signaling cascades in different cell systems.

    Chau, Cindy H; Clavijo, Carlos A; Deng, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Qunzhou; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Qiu, Yun; Le, Anh D; Ann, David K


    We recently showed that Etk/Bmx, a member of the Tec family of nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases, promotes tight junction formation during chronic hypoxic exposure and augments normoxic VEGF expression via a feedforward mechanism. Here we further characterized Etk's role in potentiating hypoxia-induced gene expression in salivary epithelial Pa-4 cells. Using transient transfection in conditionally activated Etk (DeltaEtk:ER) cells, we demonstrated that Etk enhances hypoxia-response element-dependent reporter activation in normoxia and hypoxia. This Etk-driven reporter activation is ameliorated by treatment with wortmannin or LFM-A13. Using lentivirus-mediated gene delivery and small interfering RNA, we provided direct evidence that hypoxia leads to transient Etk and Akt activation and hypoxia-mediated Akt activation is Etk dependent. Northern blot analyses confirmed that Etk activation led to induction of steady-state mRNA levels of endogenous VEGF and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a hallmark of hypoxia-mediated gene regulation. We also demonstrated that Etk utilizes a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway to promote reporter activation driven by NF-kappaB, another oxygen-sensitive transcription factor, and to augment cytokine-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in endothelial cells. To establish the clinical relevance of Etk-induced, hypoxia-mediated gene regulation, we examined Etk expression in keloid, which has elevated VEGF and PAI-1. We found that Etk is overexpressed in keloid (but not normal skin) tissues. The differential steady-state Etk protein levels were further confirmed in primary fibroblast cultures derived from these tissues, suggesting an Etk role in tissue fibrosis. Our results provide further understanding of Etk function within multiple signaling cascades to govern adaptive cytoprotection against extracellular stress in different cell systems, salivary epithelial cells, brain endothelial cells, and dermal

  3. 喷气织机纬向停台浅析陈声富%Analysis of Weft Stoppages of Air-j et Looms



    The reasons of weft stoppage and the influencing factors of weaving efficiency for air-j et loom were analyzed according to the fault stoppage recording for air-j et loom in production practice.Some improvement measures were proposed.%从实际生产中喷气织机的故障停台记录入手,分析了纬向停台形成原因和影响喷气织机织造效率的主要因素,提出了相应的改进措施。

  4. Adaptive immune-mediated host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii is governed by the NF-κB regulator Bcl-3 in dendritic cells.

    Tassi, Ilaria; Claudio, Estefania; Wang, Hongshan; Tang, Wanhu; Ha, Hye-Lin; Saret, Sun; Sher, Alan; Jankovic, Dragana; Siebenlist, Ulrich


    The atypical IκB family member Bcl-3 associates with p50/NF-κB1 or p52/NF-κB2 homodimers in nuclei, thereby either positively or negatively modulating transcription in a context-dependent manner. Previously we reported that Bcl-3 was critical for host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii. Bcl-3-deficient mice succumbed within 3-5 weeks after infection, correlating with an apparently impaired Th1-type adaptive immune response. However in which cell type(s) Bcl-3 functioned to assure resistance remained unknown. We now show that Bcl-3 expression in dendritic cells is required to generate a protective Th1-type immune response and confer resistance to T. gondii. Surprisingly, mice lacking Bcl-3 in dendritic cells were as susceptible as mice globally deficient for Bcl-3. Furthermore, early innate defenses were not compromised by the absence of Bcl-3, as initial production of IL-12 by dendritic cells and IFN-γ by NK cells were preserved. However, subsequent production of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells was compromised when dendritic cells lacked Bcl-3, and these mice succumbed at a time when T-cell-mediated IFN-γ production was essential for host resistance. These findings demonstrate that Bcl-3 is required in dendritic cells to prime protective T-cell-mediated immunity to T. gondii.

  5. Nasty viruses, costly plasmids, population dynamics, and the conditions for establishing and maintaining CRISPR-mediated adaptive immunity in bacteria.

    Bruce R Levin


    Full Text Available Clustered, Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR abound in the genomes of almost all archaebacteria and nearly half the eubacteria sequenced. Through a genetic interference mechanism, bacteria with CRISPR regions carrying copies of the DNA of previously encountered phage and plasmids abort the replication of phage and plasmids with these sequences. Thus it would seem that protection against infecting phage and plasmids is the selection pressure responsible for establishing and maintaining CRISPR in bacterial populations. But is it? To address this question and provide a framework and hypotheses for the experimental study of the ecology and evolution of CRISPR, I use mathematical models of the population dynamics of CRISPR-encoding bacteria with lytic phage and conjugative plasmids. The results of the numerical (computer simulation analysis of the properties of these models with parameters in the ranges estimated for Escherichia coli and its phage and conjugative plasmids indicate: (1 In the presence of lytic phage there are broad conditions where bacteria with CRISPR-mediated immunity will have an advantage in competition with non-CRISPR bacteria with otherwise higher Malthusian fitness. (2 These conditions for the existence of CRISPR are narrower when there is envelope resistance to the phage. (3 While there are situations where CRISPR-mediated immunity can provide bacteria an advantage in competition with higher Malthusian fitness bacteria bearing deleterious conjugative plasmids, the conditions for this to obtain are relatively narrow and the intensity of selection favoring CRISPR weak. The parameters of these models can be independently estimated, the assumption behind their construction validated, and the hypotheses generated from the analysis of their properties tested in experimental populations of bacteria with lytic phage and conjugative plasmids. I suggest protocols for estimating these parameters and outline the

  6. Study on Weaving Selvage Mark Plate on Dobby Loom%多臂织机织制边字牌的研究

    张萍; 王克清


    Method of weaving selvage mark plate on dobby loom was discussed. The weaving method was determined through design selvage mark plate material, specification, square design paper and sample weaving test. HGA932 series rapier loom was adopted to weave selvage mark plate. It is pointed out selvage mark plate can be clearer and exquisite , the visual effect can be perfect when adding two little loom beam to wind warp and the loom should have more than 24 heddles.%探讨使用多臂织机织制边字牌的方法.通过设计边字牌原料、规格、意匠图以及进行小样试织,确定了多臂织机织制边字牌的方法;并采用HGA732系列剑杆织机成功织制了边字牌.指出:使用多臂织机织制边字牌时要增加两个小织轴来卷取边经纱,且织机要有24片以上的综片,可使织制出来的边字牌更加清晰、细腻,其视觉效果更加完美.

  7. Optimization Experience of Rapier Loom Processing Parameter%剑杆织机上机工艺参数的优选体会

    蔡普宁; 林娜


    分析总结SM系列剑杆织机上机工艺参数的设置要点.结合多年来的实践经验,对SM系列剑杆织机的开口时间、梭口高度、经位置线、进出剑时间、上机张力、剪切时间等工艺参数的设置原则进行了总结,认为:高密或厚重织物宜用早开口,细薄织物宜用迟开口;经纱上机张力大宜用早开口,经纱强力低宜用迟开口;梭口高度推荐28 mm~32 mm;织制厚重织物时,托纱板与综框的相对位置一般为10 cm~12 cm;棉毛平纹织物采用高后梁或中后梁,丝织或装饰织物、斜纹织物采用中后梁或低后梁.接纬剑进剑时间比送纬剑早5°左右.%Configuration key points of SM series rapier loom parameter were analyzed and summarized. According to years practical experiences, the setting principles of shed time, shed height, warp shed line, weft insertion and out time, loom tension and cut time were summarized. It is considered that earlier shed time is suitable for high density or heavy fabric,later shed timeis suitable for thin fabric. Earlier shed time is suitable for larger loom tension,later shed time is suitable for lower warp strength. Shed height recommended is 28 mm to 32 mm. when weaving heavy fabric ,relative position between take-off plate and heald generally is 10 cm to 12 cm. Higher loom beam or middle loom beam is suitable for cotton wool mixtures plain fabric, middle loom beam or lower loom beam is suitable for silk fabric or decorative fabric or twill fabric. Weft rapier head receive time is earlier about 5°than weft rapier head send time.

  8. Simultaneous Independent Multi-Weft Detector Applied to Water-Jet Looms%喷水织机用多纬同时分别检测装置

    张振奇; 程玮燕


    喷水织机多纬同时引入时的织造,只有在纬丝全部同时检测时才能保证产品的质量,提高生产效率;但目前大部分织机上没有此检测装置。文章在对喷水织机原有纬丝检测装置的结构进行全面分析之后,结合其他无梭织机的纬丝检测装置的结构特点,设计了一种利用纺丝机上的感丝器进行检测的装置,经试用,安全可靠,造价低廉,不失为一种有意义的探索,可供其他无梭织机借鉴。%During multi-weft weaving by water-jet loom, only all wefts aresimultaneously detected, can the product quality and high productivity be ensured. However, such detecting devices are unavailable for most of current looms. Through thorough analyses on the structure of the existing weft detectors for water-jet loom and in combination with the structural features of weft detectors for other shuttleless looms, a detecting device is designed on the basis of the yarn detector of spinning machine. It proves to be safe, reliable and low in cost through trial application, offering reference for other shuttleless looms.

  9. Adaptation of the neutral bacterial comet assay to assess antimicrobial-mediated DNA double-strand breaks in Escherichia coli



    This study aimed to determine the mechanism of action of a natural antibacterial clay mineral mixture, designated CB, by investigating the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Escherichia coli. To quantify DNA damage upon exposure to soluble antimicrobial compounds, we modified a bacterial neutral comet assay, which primarily associates the general length of an electrophoresed chromosome, or comet, with the degree of DSB-associated DNA damage. To appropriately account for antimicrobial-mediated strand fragmentation, suitable control reactions consisting of exposures to water, ethanol, kanamycin, and bleomycin were developed and optimized for the assay. Bacterial exposure to the CB clay resulted in significantly longer comet lengths, compared to water and kanamycin exposures, suggesting that the induction of DNA DSBs contributes to the killing activity of this antibacterial clay mineral mixture. The comet assay protocol described herein provides a general technique for evaluating soluble antimicrobial-derived DNA damage and for comparing DNA fragmentation between experimental and control assays. PMID:22940101

  10. Adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP is a central hub for phosphotyrosine-mediated interactions in T cells.

    Marc Sylvester

    Full Text Available TCR stimulation leads to an increase in cellular adhesion among other outcomes. The adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP is known to be rapidly phosphorylated after T cell stimulation and relays the TCR signal to adhesion molecules of the integrin family. While three tyrosine phosphorylation sites have been characterized biochemically, the binding capabilities and associated functions of several other potential phosphotyrosine motifs remain unclear. Here, we utilize in vitro phosphorylation and mass spectrometry to map novel phosphotyrosine sites in the C-terminal part of human ADAP (486-783. Individual tyrosines were then mutated to phenylalanine and their relevance for cellular adhesion and migration was tested experimentally. Functionally important tyrosine residues include two sites within the folded hSH3 domains of ADAP and two at the C-terminus. Furthermore, using a peptide pulldown approach in combination with stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC we identified SLP-76, PLCgamma, PIK3R1, Nck, CRK, Gads, and RasGAP as phospho-dependent binding partners of a central YDDV motif of ADAP. The phosphorylation-dependent interaction between ADAP and Nck was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid analysis, immunoprecipitation and binary pulldown experiments, indicating that ADAP directly links integrins to modulators of the cytoskeleton independent of SLP-76.

  11. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R


    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours.

  12. Adaptation of a visualized loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique for field detection of Plasmodium vivax infection

    Wang Wei-Ming


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP is a high performance method for detecting DNA and holds promise for use in the molecular detection of infectious pathogens, including Plasmodium spp. However, in most malaria-endemic areas, which are often resource-limited, current LAMP methods are not feasible for diagnosis due to difficulties in accurately interpreting results with problems of sensitive visualization of amplified products, and the risk of contamination resulting from the high quantity of amplified DNA produced. In this study, we establish a novel visualized LAMP method in a closed-tube system, and validate it for the diagnosis of malaria under simulated field conditions. Methods A visualized LAMP method was established by the addition of a microcrystalline wax-dye capsule containing the highly sensitive DNA fluorescence dye SYBR Green I to a normal LAMP reaction prior to the initiation of the reaction. A total of 89 blood samples were collected on filter paper and processed using a simple boiling method for DNA extraction, and then tested by the visualized LAMP method for Plasmodium vivax infection. Results The wax capsule remained intact during isothermal amplification, and released the DNA dye to the reaction mixture only when the temperature was raised to the melting point following amplification. Soon after cooling down, the solidified wax sealed the reaction mix at the bottom of the tube, thus minimizing the risk of aerosol contamination. Compared to microscopy, the sensitivity and specificity of LAMP were 98.3% (95% confidence interval (CI: 91.1-99.7% and 100% (95% CI: 88.3-100%, and were in close agreement with a nested polymerase chain reaction method. Conclusions This novel, cheap and quick visualized LAMP method is feasible for malaria diagnosis in resource-limited field settings.

  13. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  14. Geochemical diversity in S processes mediated by culture-adapted and environmental-enrichments of Acidithiobacillus spp.

    Bernier, Luc; Warren, Lesley A.


    Coupled S speciation and acid generation resulting from S processing associated with five different microbial treatments, all primarily Acidithiobacillus spp. (i.e. autotrophic S-oxidizers) were evaluated in batch laboratory experiments. Microbial treatments included two culture-adapted strains, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, their consortia and two environmental enrichments from a mine tailings lake that were determined to be >95% Acidithiobacillus spp., by whole-cell fluorescent hybridization. Using batch experiments simulating acidic mine waters with no carbon amendments, acid generation, and S speciation associated with the oxidation of three S substrates (thiosulfate, tetrathionate, and elemental S) were evaluated. Aseptic controls showed no observable pH decrease over the experimental time course (1 month) for all three S compounds examined. In contrast, pH decreased in all microbial treatments from starting pH values of 4 to 2 or less for all three S substrates. Results show a non-linear relationship between the pH dynamics of the batch cultures and their corresponding sulfate concentrations, and indicate how known microbial S processing pathways have opposite impacts, ultimately on pH dynamics. Associated geochemical modeling indicated negligible abiogenic processes contributing to the observed results, indicating strong microbial control of acid generation extending over pH ranges from 4 to less than 2. However, the observed acid generation rates and associated S speciation were both microbial treatment and substrate-specific. Results reveal a number of novel insights regarding microbial catalysis of S oxidation: (1) metabolic diversity in S processing, as evidenced by the observed geochemical signatures in S chemical speciation and rates of acid generation amongst phylogenetically similar organisms (to the genus level); (2) consortial impacts differ from those of individual strain members; (3) environmental enrichments

  15. TRPV4 mediates afferent pathways in the urinary bladder. A spinal c-fos study showing TRPV1 related adaptations in the TRPV4 knockout mouse.

    Janssen, Dick A W; Hoenderop, Joost G; Heesakkers, John P F A; Schalken, Jack A


    The role of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) channels in urinary bladder afferent neural pathways was investigated using spinal c-fos measurements in mice. Anesthetized wild type and TRPV4 knockout (-/-) mice underwent noxious bladder distention and treatment with either intravesical instillation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or the TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX), vehicle or an intraperitoneal injected TRPV4 antagonist (HC067047). Mice underwent paraformaldehyde perfusion for rapid fixation and L6-S1 spinal cord sections were removed followed by immunohistochemical staining for c-fos. A number of c-fos expressing neurons in the dorsal horns of L6-S1 spinal cord transections were quantified. Groups were compared using univariate ANOVA. Even with the absence of bladder inflammation on H&E, the TRPV4 -/- mice still have a significant twofold higher c-fos expression (n = 39, SD 2) after noxious bladder distention compared to wild type mice (n = 20, SD 3). A twofold increase in c-fos expression was observed after LPS treatment in wild types (n = 42, SD 5), but no increase was seen in TRPV4 -/- mice (n = 42, SD 2). After desensitization of primary afferent C-nerve fibers with RTX, c-fos expression in TRPV4-/- mice decreased significantly (threefold) (n = 12, SD 4). Results imply that TRPV4 channels are important for bladder afferent signaling. TRPV4 -/- mice bladders generate more noxious sensory output, which is predominantly mediated through TRPV1 expressing high threshold nerve fibers. This study reveals TRPV1 related adaptive changes in afferent pathways of the TRPV4 -/- mouse. We propose that this effect is caused by a congenital impairment of low threshold nerves that mediate normal bladder filling sensations.

  16. Thiol dependent NF-κB suppression and inhibition of T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses by a naturally occurring steroidal lactone Withaferin A.

    Gambhir, Lokesh; Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Thoh, M; Patil, Anand; Degani, M; Gota, Vikram; Sandur, Santosh K


    Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone isolated from ayurvedic medicinal plant Withania somnifera, was shown to inhibit tumor growth by inducing oxidative stress and suppressing NF-κB pathway. However, its effect on T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses and the underlying mechanism has not been investigated. Since both T-cell responses and NF-κB pathway are known to be redox sensitive, the present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of WA on adaptive immune responses in vitro and in vivo. WA inhibited mitogen induced T-cell and B-cell proliferation in vitro without inducing any cell death. It inhibited upregulation of T-cell (CD25, CD69, CD71 and CD54) and B-cell (CD80, CD86 and MHC-II) activation markers and secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. WA induced oxidative stress by increasing the basal ROS levels and the immunosuppressive effects of WA were abrogated only by thiol anti-oxidants. The redox modulatory effects of WA in T-cells were attributed to its ability to directly interact with free thiols. WA inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation in lymphocytes and prevented the direct binding of nuclear NF-κB to its consensus sequence. MALDI-TOF analysis using a synthetic NF-κB-p50 peptide containing Cys-62 residue suggested that WA can modify the cysteine residue of NF-κB. The pharmacokinetic studies for WA were also carried out and in vivo efficacy of WA was studied using mouse model of Graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, WA is a potent inhibitor of T-cell responses and acts via a novel thiol dependent mechanism and inhibition of NF-κB pathway.

  17. Adaptive immunity against gut microbiota enhances apoE-mediated immune regulation and reduces atherosclerosis and western-diet-related inflammation.

    Saita, Diego; Ferrarese, Roberto; Foglieni, Chiara; Esposito, Antonio; Canu, Tamara; Perani, Laura; Ceresola, Elisa Rita; Visconti, Laura; Burioni, Roberto; Clementi, Massimo; Canducci, Filippo


    Common features of immune-metabolic and inflammatory diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases are an altered gut microbiota composition and a systemic pro-inflammatory state. We demonstrate that active immunization against the outer membrane protein of bacteria present in the gut enhances local and systemic immune control via apoE-mediated immune-modulation. Reduction of western-diet-associated inflammation was obtained for more than eighteen weeks after immunization. Immunized mice had reduced serum cytokine levels, reduced insulin and fasting glucose concentrations; and gene expression in both liver and visceral adipose tissue confirmed a reduced inflammatory steady-state after immunization. Moreover, both gut and atherosclerotic plaques of immunized mice showed reduced inflammatory cells and an increased M2 macrophage fraction. These results suggest that adaptive responses directed against microbes present in our microbiota have systemic beneficial consequences and demonstrate the key role of apoE in this mechanism that could be exploited to treat immune-metabolic diseases.

  18. 论织物规格与喷水织机效率的关系%Relation between Fabric Specifications and Efficiency of Water-Jet Loom

    陈超; 顾建华; 李春萍


    A success in the development of products should involve therequired fabric styles and weavability. Therefore, it is very important to know the relation between fabric specifications and loom efficiency. This paper quantitatively or qualitatively examines some essential factors for fabric specifications such as covering factor, fabric weave, warp and weft combination, loom efficiency and their relation, serving as a reference for prediction of loom efficiency in product design.%成功的产品开发既要使织物风格符合要求,又要有良好的织造性能,因此织物规格与织机效率的关系十分重要。文章定量或定性地讨论了织物规格的几个要素即织物紧度、织物组织与经纬组合与织机效率的关系,可供产品设计时预测织机效率作参考。

  19. 多系统经纱织物小样织机的研制%Development of Multisystem Warp Fabric Sample Loom



    Structure,work principle and use effect of multisystem warp fabric sample loom were introduced.Moving guide needle device was set on multisystem warp fabric sample loom,guide needle bend down,guide needle traverse distance could be controlled,tension compensatory parts was set.Through weaving leno fabric and lapped fabric,it is proved that multisystem warp fabric could be woven on the one sample loom and the product could be changed simply.%介绍多系统经纱织物小样织机的结构、工作原理及使用效果.多系统经纱织物小样织机在钢筘上设置移动导针装置,导针向下弯折,导针横动距离可以控制,并设有张力补偿部件,通过试织纱罗织物和浮纹织物,证明多系统经纱织物小样织机可以在一台织机上实现多个系统经纱织物的试织,且变换品种简单方便.

  20. AAL service development loom--from the idea to a marketable business model.

    Kriegel, Johannes; Auinger, Klemens


    The Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) market is still in an early stage of development. Previous approaches of comprehensive AAL services are mostly supply-side driven and focused on hardware and software. Usually this type of AAL solutions does not lead to a sustainable success on the market. Research and development increasingly focuses on demand and customer requirements in addition to the social and legal framework. The question is: How can a systematic performance measurement strategy along a service development process support the market-ready design of a concrete business model for AAL service? Within the EU funded research project DALIA (Assistant for Daily Life Activities at Home) an iterative service development process uses an adapted Osterwalder business model canvas. The application of a performance measurement index (PMI) to support the process has been developed and tested. Development of an iterative service development model using a supporting PMI. The PMI framework is developed throughout the engineering of a virtual assistant (AVATAR) as a modular interface to connect informal carers with necessary and useful services. Future research should seek to ensure that the PMI enables meaningful transparency regarding targeting (e.g. innovative AAL service), design (e.g. functional hybrid AAL service) and implementation (e.g. marketable AAL support services). To this end, a further reference to further testing practices is required. The aim must be to develop a weighted PMI in the context of further research, which supports both the service engineering and the subsequent service management process.

  1. Adaptation of Soybean mosaic virus avirulent chimeras containing P3 sequences from virulent strains to Rsv1-genotype soybeans is mediated by mutations in HC-Pro.

    Hajimorad, M R; Eggenberger, A L; Hill, J H


    In Rsv1-genotype soybean, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV)-N (an avirulent isolate of strain G2) elicits extreme resistance (ER) whereas strain SMV-G7 provokes a lethal systemic hypersensitive response (LSHR). SMV-G7d, an experimentally evolved variant of SMV-G7, induces systemic mosaic. Thus, for Rsv1-genotype soybean, SMV-N is avirulent whereas SMV-G7 and SMV-G7d are both virulent. Exploiting these differential interactions, we recently mapped the elicitor functions of SMV provoking Rsv1-mediated ER and LSHR to the N-terminal 271 amino acids of P3 from SMV-N and SMV-G7, respectively. The phenotype of both SMV-G7 and SMV-G7d were rendered avirulent on Rsv1-genotype soybean when the part of the genome encoding the N-terminus or the entire P3 cistron was replaced with that from SMV-N; however, reciprocal exchanges did not confer virulence to SMV-N-derived P3 chimeras. Here, we describe virulent SMV-N-derived P3 chimeras containing the full-length or the N-terminal P3 from SMV-G7 or SMV-G7d, with or without additional mutations in P3, that were selected on Rsv1-genotype soybean by sequential transfers on rsv1 and Rsv1-genotype soybean. Sequence analyses of the P3 and helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) cistrons of progeny recovered from Rsv1-genotype soybean consistently revealed the presence of mutations in HC-Pro. Interestingly, the precise mutations in HC-Pro required for the adaptation varied among the chimeras. No mutation was detected in the HC-Pro of progeny passaged continuously in rsv1-genotype soybean, suggesting that selection is a consequence of pressure imposed by Rsv1. Mutations in HC-Pro alone failed to confer virulence to SMV-N; however, reconstruction of mutations in HC-Pro of the SMV-N-derived P3 chimeras resulted in virulence. Taken together, the data suggest that HC-Pro complementation of P3 is essential for SMV virulence on Rsv1-genotype soybean.

  2. 依恋与大学生人际适应——个人自主的中介作用%Attachment and Interpersonal Adaptation in College Students: the Mediating Role of Autonomy

    李彩娜; 刘佳; 黄凤


    The interpersonal problem as a common phenomenon that college students may encounter is very important for their mental health. Research of attachment has indicated that attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety influence individual's interpersonal adaptation in different ways ( Rholes, Simpson, Tran, Martin, & Friedman, 2007 ; Edelstein & Gillath, 2008 ). Thus, it is important to find out the mechanism of the influences of attachment on individual's interpersonal adaptation. The self-determination theory demonstrates that autonomy need is a basic need for individual's development. A growing body of research has documented the contribuching role of the satisfaction of autonomy need in interpersonal adaptation ( Soenens, et al. , 2007). Notably, keeping a secure relationship with important others is good for the development of autonomy (Niemiec, et al. ,2006; Feeney, 2007 ). Overall, it is reasonable to assume that individual's autonomy can have a mediating effect on the relationship between attachment and interpersonal adaptation. To investigate the possible initial mechanism of the influences of attachment on individual's interpersonal adaptation, a total of 638 college students (349 men and 289 women) from four different universities in Xi'an, Shanxi Province were assessed by questionnaires. The present study used the Relationship Scale Questionnaire (Wang, Zhang, Li, & Liu, 2007) to assess the attachment character of the participants, the Self Regulation Questionnaire ( Liu, 2006) to assess the participants' autonomy, and the Chinese College Student Adjustment Scale ( Fang, Wo, & Lin, 2005) to measure the states of the participants' interpersonal adaptation. The data was analyzed by SPSS 15. 0 and LISREL 8. 7. According to the structural equation models, the results were as follows : ( 1 ) the predictive effects of attachment and autonomy on interpersonal adaptation were significant and effective ; they were able to explain 57. 1% of the variation of

  3. 喷气织机引纬工艺参数的设定%Configuration of Weft Insertion Processing Parameters on Air Jet Loom

    瞿建新; 马顺彬


    Configuration methods of weft insertion processing on air jet loom were discussed. Take GA708-280 Air Jet Loom as an example, configuration methods of weft insertion processing and general principle were analyzed, including open and close time of main nozzle and additional nozzle solenoid valve, air jet pressure of main nozzle and additional nozzle, release time of accumulator retaining pin. It is considered that jet wefting time parameter of air jet loom should be set according to fabric weave and variety. Air jet pressure should be set according to method of high pressure for example 4. 0xl05 Pa to low pressure gradually.%探讨喷气织机引纬工艺参数的设定方法.以GA708-280型喷气织机为例,分析了主喷嘴、辅助喷嘴电磁阀的开闭时间、主喷嘴和辅助喷嘴的喷气压力、储纬器挡纱针的释放时间等引纬参数的设定方法及一般原则.认为:喷气织机引纬喷射时间参数要根据不同的织物组织结构及品种来设定;喷气压力应采用先由高压(如4×105 Pa)开始,再逐渐降低的方法来设定.

  4. 毛巾织机起毛控制凸轮设计%Design of the Loop- pile Controlling Cam of a Terry Towel Loom

    周腊权; 陈明


    应用压力角作为凸轮设计时考虑的主要要素,并运用计算机作为辅助手段,设计出毛巾织机起毛控制凸轮的主要参数及绘出凸轮廓线。%The pressure angle was taken to be the primary factor when designing the cam in this paper. And with thehelp of computers, the main elements of the loop - pile controlling cam of terry towel loom and its profile will be obtained.

  5. The Mediating Effect of Personal Resources on Ecological Migrants Social Adaptation and Mental Health%个人资源在生态移民社会适应与心理健康间的中介效应

    靳海风; 曾祥岚


    Objective To study the intermediary variables of ecological migrants'social adaptation and mental health,and the media-ting effect of personal resources such as coping style,mental flexibility,perceived social support on ecological migration social adaptation and mental health.Methods This study used questionnaire to investigate 309 ecological migrants'social adaptation and mental health, the influence of social adaptation on the mental health,and the mediating role of personal resources were analyzed.Results The results of the study showed that:When we studied the intermediary role of single variable in ecological migrants social adaptation and mental health,coping style and mental flexibility were significant mediators,the mediating effect were respectively 13.61%( P 0.05);While we studied the mediating effect of coping style,mental flexibility and perceived social support in the ecological immigrants society adaptation and mental health at the same time,intermediating effect was not significant.Conclusion Coping style and mental flexibility are both the intermediary varia-bles between ecological migrants'social adaptation and mental health.%目的:研究生态移民社会适应与心理健康水平间的中介变量,考察应对方式、心理弹性、领悟社会支持等个人资源在生态移民的社会适应与心理健康之间的中介作用。方法本研究采用问卷法对309名生态移民的社会适应和心理健康状况进行调查,研究社会适应对心理健康水平的影响,并且考察个人资源的中介作用。结果心理健康与社会适应、应对方式、心理弹性存在正相关(r=0.323,0.238,0.174;P<0.01)。领悟社会支持和社会适应、应对方式、心理弹性正相关(r=0.289,0.217,0.430;P<0.01)。考察单一变量在生态移民的社会适应与心理健康之间的中介作用时,应对方式、心理弹性的中介作用显著,中介效应分别为13

  6. Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by reovirus treated melanoma cells is PKR/NF-κB mediated and supports innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune priming

    Coffey Matt


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As well as inducing direct oncolysis, reovirus treatment of melanoma is associated with activation of innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses. Results Here we characterise the effects of conditioned media from reovirus-infected, dying human melanoma cells (reoTCM, in the absence of live virus, to address the immune bystander potential of reovirus therapy. In addition to RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1α and MIP-1β, reovirus-infected melanoma cells secreted eotaxin, IP-10 and the type 1 interferon IFN-β. To address the mechanisms responsible for the inflammatory composition of reoTCM, we show that IL-8 and IFN-β secretion by reovirus-infected melanoma cells was associated with activation of NF-κB and decreased by pre-treatment with small molecule inhibitors of NF-κB and PKR; specific siRNA-mediated knockdown further confirmed a role for PKR. This pro-inflammatory milieu induced a chemotactic response in isolated natural killer (NK cells, dendritic cells (DC and anti-melanoma cytotoxic T cells (CTL. Following culture in reoTCM, NK cells upregulated CD69 expression and acquired greater lytic potential against tumour targets. Furthermore, melanoma cell-loaded DC cultured in reoTCM were more effective at priming adaptive anti-tumour immunity. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the PKR- and NF-κB-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory molecules that accompanies reovirus-mediated killing can recruit and activate innate and adaptive effector cells, thus potentially altering the tumour microenvironment to support bystander immune-mediated therapy as well as direct viral oncolysis.

  7. Coordination of insulin and Notch pathway activities by microRNA miR-305 mediates adaptive homeostasis in the intestinal stem cells of the Drosophila gut.

    Foronda, David; Weng, Ruifen; Verma, Pushpa; Chen, Ya-Wen; Cohen, Stephen M


    Homeostasis of the intestine is maintained by dynamic regulation of a pool of intestinal stem cells. The balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation is regulated by the Notch and insulin signaling pathways. Dependence on the insulin pathway places the stem cell pool under nutritional control, allowing gut homeostasis to adapt to environmental conditions. Here we present evidence that miR-305 is required for adaptive homeostasis of the gut. miR-305 regulates the Notch and insulin pathways in the intestinal stem cells. Notably, miR-305 expression in the stem cells is itself under nutritional control via the insulin pathway. This link places regulation of Notch pathway activity under nutritional control. These findings provide a mechanism through which the insulin pathway controls the balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation that is required for adaptive homeostasis in the gut in response to changing environmental conditions.

  8. Labor Shortage Looming Ahead?


    The large quantity of cheap labor resources has long been regarded as one of the important factors that make it possible for China’s economy to maintain rapid growth. However, Cai Fang, Director of the Institute of Population and Labor Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, warned at a lecture in early May that China’s surplus rural labor force is not as large as thought and that China will soon experience the transition from labor surplus to labor shortage. He predicted that the turning point would occur probably in 2009. In response, Hou Dongmin, Director of the Institute of Population, Resources and Environment of Renmin University of China, and Deng Yuwen, researcher at the China Society of Economic Reform, analyze the expected impacts of transition on China’s future growth mode (in sequence).

  9. Laptop Price War Looms



    Last spring, computer hypermarkets in the business district of southeast China's Xiamen stocked at least thirty different brands of laptops, most of which were designed and pro-duced locally in this high-techcity. By April of this year thenumber of brands had decreased significantly,replaced by an increased number of models from market leaders such as Lenovo, Delland IBM.

  10. Noorte looming : [luuletused


    Sisu: Kuked ja kanad / Laura Trull ; "Ma igatsen õnne..." / Kattre Adramees ; Usk / Riinu Ansperi ; Talveüllatus / Aile Eldemeel ; Vastutus / Riinu Ansperi ; Pisike peni / Indrek Kuka ; Tere, talv! / Villi Brandt ; Minu kool / Kaisa Tamm ; Selle teeraja mälestuseks / Anni Vanin

  11. Downturn Risks Loom Large


    @@ Is the world heading for a better year after hitting rock bottom in 2009? Not necessarily.Zhu Min,the outgoing Vice Governor of People's Bank of China,said the world economy's future looks bleak at a financial forum held in Beijing on April11.Zhu is expected to resume his position as a special advisor at the International Monetary Fund(IMF)in May 2010.

  12. America's looming creativity crisis.

    Florida, Richard


    The strength of the American economy does not rest on its manufacturing prowess, its natural resources, or the size of its market. It turns on one factor--the country's openness to new ideas, which has allowed it to attract the brightest minds from around the world and harness their creative energies. But the United States is on the verge of losing that competitive edge. As the nation tightens its borders to students and scientists and subjects federal research funding to ideological and religious litmus tests, many other countries are stepping in to lure that creative capital away. Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, and others are spending more on research and development and shoring up their universities in an effort to attract the world's best--including Americans. If even a few of these nations draw away just a small percentage of the creative workers from the U.S., the effect on its economy will be enormous. In this article, the author introduces a quantitative measure of the migration of creative capital called the Global Creative-Class Index. It shows that, far from leading the world, the United States doesn't even rank in the top ten in the percentage of its workforce engaged in creative occupations. What's more, the baby boomers will soon retire. And data showing large drops in foreign student applications to U.S. universities and in the number of visas issued to knowledge workers, along with concomitant increases in immigration in other countries, suggest that the erosion of talent from the United States will only intensify. To defend the U.S. economy, the business community must take the lead in ensuring that global talent can move efficiently across borders, that education and research are funded at radically higher levels, and that we tap into the creative potential of more and more workers. Because wherever creativity goes, economic growth is sure to follow.

  13. Pagulasfotograafide looming Kumus


    Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 8. 10.-19. 11 2010 avatud näitus "Väliseesti foto" tutvustab pärast Teist maailmasõda Euroopas ja Ameerikas paguluses tegutsenud eesti fotograafide - Karl Hintzer, Eric Soovere, Priit Vesilind, Alar Kivilo jt. - loomingut ning kultuuriloolist materjali väliseesti fotoarhiividest

  14. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister


    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  15. 相对剥夺感与社会适应方式:介效应和调节效应%Relative Deprivation and Social Adaption: The Role of Mediator and Moderator



    Deriving from R. Merton's Anomie Theory, innovation and rebellion as two kinds of the social adaption are viewed as the strongest predictors of collective behavior, mass crime and mass disturbance. However, few empirical studies have been done to explore the relation between them and psychological variables. The aim ofthis study is to investigate the associations between relative deprivation and innovation and rebellion. Furthermore, through examining the mediating role and moderating role of attribution style in the associations between relative deprivation and innovation and rebellion. The present study also examine the moderating role of rebellion in the associations between relative deprivation and innovation.To test these hypotheses, the Relative Deprivation Questionnaire, Social Adaption Questionnaire, Attribution Questionnaire were administered to 6175 valid subjects.The results indicate: (1) The positive predicting effect of relative deprivation on innovation was significant. (2) The positive predicting effect of relative deprivation on rebellion was significant. (3) Attribution style served to partially mediate the association between relative deprivation and innovation, and also partially mediate the association between relative deprivation and rebellion. (4) As a moderator, attribution style strengthened the positive relation between relative deprivation and rebellion. (5) As a moderator, rebellion weakened the positive relation between relative deprivation and innovation in the lower social stratum.In sum, it could be concluded that relative deprivation played a positive predicting effect on social adaption. Attribution style partially mediated the relationship between relative deprivation and social adaption. Rebellion weakened the immediate impact of relative deprivation on innovation in the vulnerable group.These findings highlight the important role of relative deprivation and attribution style to the anomie social adaption, which may provide the

  16. Response and adaptability of mangrove habitats from the Indian subcontinent to changing climate

    Jagtap, T.G.; Nagle, V.L.

    stream_size 37402 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Ambio_36_328.pdf.txt stream_source_info Ambio_36_328.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Response and adaptability...) are prominent in the Indian subcontinent. The deltaic regions show alluvial deposits of 3.4 m thick and composed of fine clay and silt and clay looms. Lakshdweep group of island in the Arabian sea are emerging type distinguished by coral reefs and lagoons...

  17. 玻璃纤维剑杆织机引纬工艺调试与故障浅析%Weft Insertion Adjustment and Trouble Analysis for Glass Fiber Rapier Looms

    李书龄; 秦向荣; 邓会平


    为了研究多品种玻纤平面织物专用剑杆织机引纬工艺及引纬故障排除,以山西经纬公司制造的GA1724型和浙江万利公司制造的WL450型剑杆织机为例,总结了剑杆织机实际维修中的维修技巧和维修方法。着重从引纬部分的储纬器、纬剪、送纬剑、接纬剑和剑杆等各引纬部件的运动原理及其相互间有机的运动配合,分析并总结出玻纤平面织物剑杆织机实用引纬工艺。通过此引纬工艺的实际应用,大大降低了引纬故障停台率,提高了产品质量,提高了织机的维修效率。%To investigate the weft insertion process and trouble shooting of rapier looms for weaving glass fiber fabrics,GA 1724 and WL450 rapier looms were used as examples to analyze and sum up the practical weft insertion technology and maintenance skills for glass fiber rapier looms. The actual use of this technology has resulted in significant reduction of troubles and loom stoppage,improvement of product quality and enhancement of loom maintenance efficiency.

  18. Survey and prospect of non-PVA sizing by the air-jet loom%喷气织机织造无PVA上浆概况与前景



    The sizing is one of the key factors to keep the air-jet loom working with high efficiency. This paper expounds the historic necessity of PVA sizing option by the air jet loom from consideration of the requirement of the air-jet loom on sizing, the structure characteristics of PVA, and the excellent serosa properties. In order to achieve the environmental protection requirements of sizing, the effective way is to adopt the modified starch and acrylic acid size instead of PVA. This paper also stresses that the sizing of the air-jet loom will present a new and multiplex setup of the sizing of the air-jet loom in the future, such as developing the environmental protection sizing with high performance, recycling and reusing PVA, biodegradation of PVA, PVA modification, innovating and improving the weaving technologies, reforming the management mode, and so on.%浆纱是保证喷气织机高效工作的关键因素之一.论文从喷气织机对浆纱的要求、PVA的结构特点、浆膜性能,概述了喷气织机织造选用PVA上浆的历史必然性.从存在的诸多问题尤其是环境污染问题出发,为了达到环保上浆的要求,采用变性淀粉、丙烯酸浆料来取代PVA上浆已成为有效途径;指出了未来喷气织机上浆将呈现多元格局:诸如开发高性能的环保浆料、回收利用PVA、PVA的生物降解、PVA的改性、革新技术、改革管理模式等.

  19. 用多臂小样织机开发毛巾织物%Development of Terry Towel by Dobby Sample Weaving Loom

    刘蓉; 杨建忠


    It transformed the dobby sample loom of Y2005 to meet the experiment need for developing new towel fabric, then by changing the organization, warp and weft density ratio, yarn count, textile raw material and pile loop height, it developed 2 kinds of terry towel, and tested and evaluated the fabric feeling by semantic evaluation method.%通过对Y2005型多臂小样织机的改造以满足开发新型毛巾面料的实验需要,变化组织、经纬密比、纱线支数、织物原料及毛圈高度等参数试织了两种毛巾织物,并用语意评定法测评了织物手感风格。

  20. Specificity of Cognitive Vulnerability in Fear and Sad Affect: Anxiety Sensitivity, Looming Cognitive Style and Hopelessness in Emotion Reactivity and Recovery

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David A.


    Cognitive models of the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressive disorders identify looming cognitive style (LCS) and anxiety sensitivity (AS) as vulnerability factors specifically related to anxiety disorders, whereas hopelessness (HS) is considered more applicable to depression. Given...... their dimensional perspective most cognitive models of psychopathology may also be extended to explain normal emotional responses. To investigate the effect of cognitive vulnerability on the reactivity and regulation of negative emotion, 183 undergraduates were assigned to watch a sad or fearful movie clip. Then......, all participants retrieved positive memories in an expressive writing task. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that LCS was uniquely associated with greater fear reactivity. AS and HS were significant predictors of greater fear and sadness after a down-regulation task, respectively...

  1. Preparation Technology before Pneumatic Weaving of Air-jet Loom%喷气织造的织前准备技术



    The weaving efficiency of air-jet loom is closely related to the preparation technology before pneumatic weaving and the basic yarn quality. For improving weaving efficiency and textile quality, it is very necessary to selecte good basic yarn quality and use advenced processing technology equipment to improve the quality of semi-finished products in winding, warping and slashing.%喷气织机的织造效率与织前准备技术和原纱品质的关系十分密切。选择好的原纱质量,采用先进的工艺技术设备以提高络筒、整经和浆纱等工序的半制品质量,对提高喷气织机的织造效率及织物质量很有必要。

  2. 自制剑杆小样织机工艺调试的体会%Experience of Adjusting Processing in Homemade Hand Sample Rapier Loom



    The methods of adjusting processing in homemade hand sample rapier loom were discussed. The working principle and processing parameter adjusting thought of hand sample rapier loom were analyzed. Through test weaving autumn-winter denim and spring-summer chemical fiber wool-like fabric, it is considered that in test weaving autumnwinter denim, the weft bar must be controlled, the back-bearer height must be raised, the warp and weft tension must be increased, all delays must be decreased. In test weaving spring-summer chemical fiber wool-like fabric, the broken warp and broken weft must be decreased, the broken weft detection start time must be optimized. The bulk sample effect can be reached.%探讨自制剑杆小样织机的工艺调试方法.分析了剑杆小样织机的工作原理和工艺参数调节思路.通过上机试织秋冬牛仔织物和春夏化纤仿毛织物,认为:秋冬牛仔布上机时应重点控制布面纬档,抬高后梁高度,加大经纬纱张力,减少所有延时;春夏化纤仿毛织物上机时应注意克服断经、断纬,优选断纬检测开始时间,才可以确保达到大样效果.

  3. Technology-Use Mediation

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.


    This study analyzes how a group of ‘mediators’ in a large, multinational company adapted a computer-mediated communication technology (a ‘virtual workspace’) to the organizational context (and vice versa) by modifying features of the technology, providing ongoing support for users, and promoting...... of technology-use mediation is more complex and indeterminate than earlier literature suggests. In particular, we want to draw attention to the fact that advanced computer-mediated communication technologies are equivocal and that technology-use mediation consequently requires ongoing sensemaking (Weick 1995)....... appropriate conventions of use. Our findings corroborate earlier research on technology-use mediation, which suggests that such mediators can exert considerable influence on how a particular technology will be established and used in an organization. However, this study also indicates that the process...

  4. Proton Gradient Regulation5-Like1-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow Is Crucial for Acclimation to Anoxia and Complementary to Nonphotochemical Quenching in Stress Adaptation

    Kukuczka, Bernadeta; Magneschi, Leonardo; Petroutsos, Dimitris


    a mechanism compensatory for diminished CEF. On the other hand, proteins required for NPQ, such as light-harvesting complex stress-related protein1 (LHCSR1), violaxanthin de-epoxidase, and PSII subunit S, remained stable. To further investigate the interrelation between CEF and NPQ, we generated a pgrl1 npq4...... double mutant in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii lacking both PGRL1 and LHCSR3 expression. Phenotypic comparative analyses of this double mutant, together with the single knockout strains and with the P. patens pgrl1, demonstrated that PGRL1 is crucial for acclimation to high light and anoxia...... between CEF and NPQ in oxygenic photosynthesis. Given the complementarity of the energy-dependent component of NPQ (qE) and PGRL1-mediated CEF, we suggest that PGRL1 is a capacitor linked to the evolution of the PSII subunit S-dependent qE in terrestrial plants....

  5. Liberamente tratto da... Storie, codici, tragitti, mediazioni tra letteratura e cinema Loosely adapted from… Stories, codes, travels, mediations between literature and cinema

    Donata Meneghelli


    Full Text Available

    Il saggio, a partire da una ricognizione della più recente letteratura critica sull’argomento, vuole proporre una riflessione critica sull’adattamento, sui confini che delimitano tale pratica e, in particolare, sulle questioni specifiche messe in gioco dall’adattamento cinematografico dei testi letterari, all’interno del più vasto campo dei rapporti tra letteratura e cinema. Tali questioni investono in primo luogo l’adattamento dei testi del canone, i ‘grandi’ testi della tradizione occidentale: è soprattutto in questo contesto che viene chiamata in causa la nozione di fedeltà. ‘Fedeltà’ è un termine apparentemente neutrale, che in realtà nasconde sempre un’implicita gerarchia e un atteggiamento difensivo nei confronti di una supposta superiorità assiologica della letteratura come forma ‘alta’, dotata di una dignità, di un’indipendenza creativa che mancherebbero al cinema in quanto arte popolare e di massa.

    Contro questa assiologia implicita già denunciata con grande anticipo da André Bazin, il saggio vuole mostrare la complessità e la ricchezza dei percorsi tra letteratura e cinema. Prendendo come esempio un film scarsamente conosciuto, quello che Mauro Bolognini realizza nel 1962 a partire dal romanzo Senilità, la riflessione si conclude esplorando alcune delle molteplici implicazioni rintracciabili nella nozione, proposta da Linda Hutcheon, di «identità instabile di un racconto».

    Starting from a survey of the most recent studies on the topic, the essay proposes a critical reflection on adaptation and the (possible borders of this cultural practice. It particularly focuses on the issues raised by cinematic adaptation of literary texts, a phenomenon which needs to be contextualized in the larger field of relationships between literature and cinema. Such issues, however, do not emerge in the same way for any text: they are especially urgent when we tackle the cinematic adaptation of

  6. Technology-Use Mediation

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.


    Implementation of new computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems in organizations is a complex socio-technical endeavour, involving the mutual adaptation of technology and organization over time. Drawing on the analytic concept of sensemaking, this paper provides a theoretical perspective...... that deepens our understanding of how organizations appropriate new electronic communication media. The paper analyzes how a group of mediators in a large, multinational company adapted a new web-based CMC technology (a virtual workspace) to the local organizational context (and vice versa) by modifying...... features of the technology, providing ongoing support for users, and promoting appropriate conventions of use. We found that these mediators exerted considerable influence on how the technology was established and used in the organization. The mediators were not neutral facilitators of a well...

  7. Micro-RNA-155-mediated control of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is required for restoring adaptively tolerant CD4+ T-cell function in rodents.

    Zhang, Jinyu; Vandevenne, Patricia; Hamdi, Haifa; Van Puyvelde, Merry; Zucchi, Alessandro; Bettonville, Marie; Weatherly, Kathleen; Braun, Michel Y


    T cells chronically stimulated by a persistent antigen often become dysfunctional and lose effector functions and proliferative capacity. To identify the importance of micro-RNA-155 (miR-155) in this phenomenon, we analyzed mouse miR-155-deficient CD4(+) T cells in a model where the chronic exposure to a systemic antigen led to T-cell functional unresponsiveness. We found that miR-155 was required for restoring function of T cells after programmed death receptor 1 blockade. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) was identified as a specific target of miR-155 and inhibition of HO-1 activity restored the expansion and tissue migration capacity of miR-155(-/-) CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, miR-155-mediated control of HO-1 expression in CD4(+) T cells was shown to sustain in vivo antigen-specific expansion and IL-2 production. Thus, our data identify HO-1 regulation as a mechanism by which miR-155 promotes T-cell-driven inflammation.

  8. Exercise training-induced adaptations in mediators of sustained endothelium-dependent coronary artery relaxation in a porcine model of ischemic heart disease

    Heaps, Cristine L.; Robles, Juan Carlos; Sarin, Vandana; Mattox, Mildred L.; Parker, Janet L.


    Objective Test the hypothesis that exercise training enhances sustained relaxation to persistent endothelium-dependent vasodilator exposure via increased nitric oxide contribution in small coronary arteries of control and ischemic hearts. Methods Yucatan swine were designated to a control group or a group in which an ameroid constrictor was placed around the proximal LCX. Subsequently, pigs from both groups were assigned to exercise (5 days/week; 16 weeks) or sedentary regimens. Coronary arteries (~100–350 μm) were isolated from control pigs and from both nonoccluded and collateral-dependent regions of chronically-occluded hearts. Results In arteries from control pigs, training significantly enhanced relaxation responses to increasing concentrations of bradykinin (10−10 to 10−7 M) and sustained relaxation to a single bradykinin concentration (30 nM), which were abolished by NOS inhibition. Training also significantly prolonged bradykinin-mediated relaxation in collateral-dependent arteries of occluded pigs, which was associated with more persistent increases in endothelial cellular Ca2+ levels, and reversed with NOS inhibition. Protein levels for eNOS and p-eNOS-(Ser1179), but not caveolin-1, Hsp90, or Akt, were significantly increased with occlusion, independent of training state. Conclusions Exercise training enhances sustained relaxation to endothelium-dependent agonist stimulation in small arteries of control and ischemic hearts by enhanced nitric oxide contribution and endothelial Ca2+ responses. PMID:24447072

  9. Verification at the protein level of the PIF4-mediated external coincidence model for the temperature-adaptive photoperiodic control of plant growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Yamashino, Takafumi; Nomoto, Yuji; Lorrain, Séverine; Miyachi, Miki; Ito, Shogo; Nakamichi, Norihito; Fankhauser, Christian; Mizuno, Takeshi


    Plant circadian clock controls a wide variety of physiological and developmental events, which include the short-days (SDs)-specific promotion of the elongation of hypocotyls during de-etiolation and also the elongation of petioles during vegetative growth. In A. thaliana, the PIF4 gene encoding a phytochrome-interacting basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor plays crucial roles in this photoperiodic control of plant growth. According to the proposed external coincidence model, the PIF4 gene is transcribed precociously at the end of night specifically in SDs, under which conditions the protein product is stably accumulated, while PIF4 is expressed exclusively during the daytime in long days (LDs), under which conditions the protein product is degraded by the light-activated phyB and also the residual proteins are inactivated by the DELLA family of proteins. A number of previous reports provided solid evidence to support this coincidence model mainly at the transcriptional level of the PIF 4 and PIF4-traget genes. Nevertheless, the diurnal oscillation profiles of PIF4 proteins, which were postulated to be dependent on photoperiod and ambient temperature, have not yet been demonstrated. Here we present such crucial evidence on PIF4 protein level to further support the external coincidence model underlying the temperature-adaptive photoperiodic control of plant growth in A. thaliana.

  10. Crk-like adapter protein regulates CCL19/CCR7-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via ERK signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

    Cheng, Shaomei; Guo, Jingyan; Yang, Qing; Yang, Xiangshan


    Recent studies have suggested that Crk-like adapter protein (CrkL) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by CCL19/CCR7 play an important role in ovarian epithelial carcinogenesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of CrkL on the CCL19/CCR7 signaling pathways in epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) are not well characterized. Here, CCR7 and CrkL proteins were tested in 30 EOC tissues and cell lines. In vitro, the roles of CrkL in CCL19-stimulated SKOV-3 cell invasion and migration were investigated. In this work, CCR7 and CrkL over-expressed in EOC tissues and cell lines and correlated with FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, CCR7 and CrkL serve as an independent prognostic factor. In SKOV-3 cells, CrkL knockdown markedly suppressed the CCL19-stimulated expression of p-ERK and EMT biomarkers (N-cadherin, Snail and MMP9), compared with control. In contrast, p-AKT expression level did not change. On the other hand, functional analysis revealed CrkL knockdown could significantly decrease SKOV-3 cell invasion number of transwell invasion assay, and wound closure area of wound healing assay, compared to control. In conclusion, CrkL regulates CCL19/CCR7-induced EMT via ERK signaling pathway in EOC patients, which further suggested CrkL could be suggested as an efficient target in ovarian cancer treatment.

  11. The role of the N-terminal segment of CCR5 in HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion and the mechanism of virus adaptation to CCR5 lacking this segment

    Kabat David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env induces membrane fusion as a result of sequential binding to CD4 and chemokine receptors (CCR5 or CXCR4. The critical determinants of CCR5 coreceptor function are the N-terminal domain (Nt and the second extracellular loop. However, mutations in gp120 adapt HIV-1 to grow on cells expressing the N-terminally truncated CCR5(Δ18 (Platt et al., J. Virol. 2005, 79: 4357–68. Results We have functionally characterized the adapted Env (designated Env(NYP using a quantitative cell-cell fusion assay. The rate of fusion with target cells expressing wild-type CCR5 and the resistance to fusion inhibitors was virtually identical for wild-type Env and Env(NYP, implying that the coreceptor affinity had not increased as a result of adaptation. In contrast, Env(NYP-induced fusion with cells expressing CCR5(Δ18 occurred at a slower rate and was extremely sensitive to the CCR5 binding inhibitor, Sch-C. Resistance to Sch-C drastically increased after pre-incubation of Env(NYP- and CCR5(Δ18-expressing cells at a temperature that was not permissive to fusion. This indicates that ternary Env(NYP-CD4-CCR5(Δ18 complexes accumulate at sub-threshold temperature and that low-affinity interactions with the truncated coreceptor are sufficient for triggering conformational changes in the gp41 of Env(NYP but not in wild-type Env. We also demonstrated that the ability of CCR5(Δ18 to support fusion and infection mediated by wild-type Env can be partially reconstituted in the presence of a synthetic sulfated peptide corresponding to the CCR5 Nt. Pre-incubation of wild-type Env- and CCR5(Δ18-expressing cells with the sulfated peptide at sub-threshold temperature markedly increased the efficiency of fusion. Conclusion We propose that, upon binding the Nt region of CCR5, wild-type Env acquires the ability to productively engage the extracellular loop(s of CCR5 – an event that triggers gp41 refolding and membrane merger

  12. Mitochondrial UCP4 mediates an adaptive shift in energy metabolism and increases the resistance of neurons to metabolic and oxidative stress.

    Liu, Dong; Chan, Sic L; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Slevin, John R; Wersto, Robert P; Zhan, Ming; Mustafa, Khadija; de Cabo, Rafael; Mattson, Mark P


    The high-metabolic demand of neurons and their reliance on glucose as an energy source places them at risk for dysfunction and death under conditions of metabolic and oxidative stress. Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial inner membrane proteins implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) and cellular energy metabolism. The authors cloned UCP4 cDNA from mouse and rat brain, and demonstrate that UCP4 mRNA is expressed abundantly in brain and at particularly high levels in populations of neurons believed to have high-energy requirements. Neural cells with increased levels of UCP4 exhibit decreased Deltapsim, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased mitochondrial calcium accumulation. UCP4 expressing cells also exhibited changes of oxygen-consumption rate, GDP sensitivity, and response of Deltapsim to oligomycin that were consistent with mitochondrial uncoupling. UCP4 modulates neuronal energy metabolism by increasing glucose uptake and shifting the mode of ATP production from mitochondrial respiration to glycolysis, thereby maintaining cellular ATP levels. The UCP4-mediated shift in energy metabolism reduces ROS production and increases the resistance of neurons to oxidative and mitochondrial stress. Knockdown of UCP4 expression by RNA interference in primary hippocampal neurons results in mitochondrial calcium overload and cell death. UCP4-mRNA expression is increased in neurons exposed to cold temperatures and in brain cells of rats maintained on caloric restriction, suggesting a role for UCP4 in the previously reported antiageing and neuroprotective effects of caloric restriction. By shifting energy metabolism to reduce ROS production and cellular reliance on mitochondrial respiration, UCP4 can protect neurons against oxidative stress and calcium overload.




    The structure and function of air-jet looms warp loosening device was introduced , and analyzed the function of co-ordination between Warp loosening device and the back rest for Air Jet loom. It can be stable equilibrium in the process of weaving warp tension to reduce the tension fluctuation for wealing.%介绍了喷气织机松经装置的结构及作用,分析了后梁和松经装置的配合使用,可在织造过程中稳定均衡经纱张力,减少张力的波动,以利于织造的进行。

  14. 片梭织机配置电子大提花设备的生产实践%The Production Practice of Projectile Loom with Electronic Jacquaid

    房美祥; 陈震健


    It briefly analysed the production practice and processing technique when weaving the high count and high density jacquard fabric by projectile loom with electric jacquard.It also introduced the mechanical innovation of projectile loom to be equipped with electric jacquand and concerned measures for increasing the weaving efficiency.At last,it pointed out the defects of electric jacquard device.%简要分析了片梭织机配置电子大提花设备织造细号高密大提花织物时的工艺要求和生产实践,具体分析了片梭织机配置电子大提花设备的机构改造和提高织造效率的相关措施。同时也指出了电子大提花设备的不足之处。

  15. Discussion on the Improvement of Weaving Efficiency of Glass Fiber Rapier Looms%玻璃纤维剑杆织机织造效率提高探讨

    李书龄; 季鹏; 邓会平; 王雪程


    With the gearing of China's glass fiber weaving technology to the international practice,the market calls for rapier looms allowing for high weft insertion rate,less labor demand and reliable product quality. The authors of this paper analyzed the current technologies and motion characteristics of glass fiber rapier looms at home and abroad. Based on the rules of rapier movement and the nature of glass fiber, and taking GA1724 rapier loom as an example,the authors employed the technique of eliminating the rapier path guide hook to enhance the weaving efficiency,explored the improvement of components such as rapier head,rapier tape and tape pulley as well as the weft insertion process,and stressed that rapier looms should meet the specific requirements of glass fiber so as to improve their weaving efficiency and technical level.%随着玻璃纤维织造业同国际接轨,市场呼唤入纬率高、用工少、质量稳定可靠的剑杆织机。笔者分析了目前国内外玻璃纤维剑杆织机技术状态与运动特性。根据剑杆运动规律和玻璃纤维性质,以GA1724型剑杆织机为例,实施了取消引纬剑道导钩以提高织造效率的技术;同时探讨了剑头、剑带、剑带轮等部件以及引纬工艺的改进;同时提出要注重剑杆织机满足玻璃纤维特性要求,最终综合提高剑杆织机织造效率及技术水平。

  16. The Processing Practice for Weaving Sateen Weave Towel on Common Jacquard Loom%在国产提花织机上织造缎档毛巾的工艺实践

    张会青; 黄岗


    It dealed with the processing practice for weaving sateen towel fabric on common jacquard loom and the problems occurred during the manufacture processes.%就利用国产普通提花织机织造缎档毛巾织物进行了论述,对各工序应注意的问题进行了探讨。

  17. 喷气织造中几种织疵的解决措施%Solutions of Several Weaving Defects in Air Jet Loom

    刘丽娜; 刘晓梅; 张玉惕


    为顺利解决ZAX-230型喷气织机生产经二重组织织物时易出现松经、棉球、纬缩等织疵问题,织物设计时合理选择纱线线密度,整经使用宝塔形纱,控制好整经张力及车速;浆纱保持纱线通道光滑,采用双面上蜡,加大里经退绕张力和湿区张力;穿综时将表经穿在前四页综框、里经穿在后四页综框;穿筘时将里经夹在表经中间;织造时做好清洁工作,偏大掌握上机张力,改进设计布边组织.最终,以上织疵问题得到了解决,织物质量得到了提高,满足了生产要求.%To solve weave defects of loose warp, cotton ball, weft shrinkage in producing warp backed cloth in ZAX-230 air jet loom successfully,yarn linear density was selected rationally in fabric design,cone yarn was used in warping, warp tension and speed were controlled well. In sizing,yarn passage should be kept smoothly,double waxing was adopted, unwinding tension and tension in wet zone should be increased. In heddle draft,face warp was inserted in front four heald frames, inside warp was inserted in back four heald frames. In reed-in, inside warp was put in the middle of face warp. In weaving,cleaning should be done well,loom tension was controlled larger,selvage weave should be modified. Finally,the above fabric defects can be resolved,fabric quality is increased and production demand can be reached.

  18. Biological Significance of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: VIVID Photocycle Governs the Dynamic VIVID-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-adaptation and Response to Changes in Light Intensity.

    Arko Dasgupta


    in photocycle kinetics among photoreceptors may be viewed as reflecting adaptive responses to specific and salient tasks required by organisms to respond to different photic environments.

  19. Improving the Weaving Efifciency of Air-jet Looms by Using Lean Production Process%精益生产工艺提高喷气织机的织造效率

    董旭烨; 李竹君


    Driven by the concept of lean production, a survey was conducted and by which we found out that in practical production, the weaving efficiency of fabric in same specifications varies according to different process configurations on air-jet loom. Based on analyzing the ratio of fabric variety and quantity, the paper made an approach to further improving the weaving efficiency of air-jet looms through increasing the number of heddle frame, changing the way of heddle drafting and reducing energy consumption of the loom.%在精益生产的理念驱动下,通过调查分析发现在实际生产中相同规格的织物品种,在不同工艺配置的喷气织机上织造的效率表现出了差异化。文章通过对织物品种与数量的配比分析,对增加综框数量、改变穿综方式、织机电能损耗等方面进行了研究,为进一步提高喷气织机的织造效率,提供了一定的参考依据。

  20. International student adaptation to academic writing in higher education

    Tran, Ly Thi


    Academic writing is a key practice in higher education and central to international students' academic success in the country of education. International Student Adaptation to Academic Writing in Higher Education addresses the prominent forms of adaptation emerging from international students' journey to mediate between disciplinary practices, cultural norms and personal desires in meaning making. It introduces new concepts that present different patterns of international student adaptation including surface adaptation, committed adaptation, reverse adaptation and hybrid adaptation. Drawing on

  1. 提高喷气织机产品质量的措施%Measures to Improve the Quality of the Fabrics Weaved on Air-jet Loom



    介绍了如何进一步发展喷气织机固有的质量优势,对原纱质量,上浆质量,生产过程的质量信息管理学,以及对提高喷织质量的生产经验作了全面分析阐述,为提高喷气织机生产效能提供参考。%The thesis introduces how to make further use of the inherent qualitative advantages of an air-jet loom by analysing the quality of raw yarn,starching quality and the informational administration of quality in production,and by comprehensive introduction to the experince in improving the quality of the fabrics weaved on the air-jet loom,the thesis is for reference with the aim to improve the productive efficacy of air-jet loom.

  2. G1736型剑杆织机生产实践%Production Practice on Model G1736 Rapier Loom

    方子亮; 周森


    The article discussed how to optimize the process performance of Model G1736 rapier loom. Based on weaving yarn-dyed fabric, it analyzed the measures for adjusting and optimizing certain process parameters such as shedding motion and shedding time, height of the back rest and the position of warp-stop frame. It also put forward the effective ways for improving weaving efficiency and reducing fabric faults.%探讨G1736型剑杆织机的工艺性能优化。以织色织布为例,分析了该织机开口动程和开口时间、后梁高度和停经架位置等工艺参数的调整和优化措施。阐述了提高织机效率、降低织疵的有效方法。通过优化织机上机工艺参数和采取相关技术措施,发挥设备应有的性能。织造平均机效率达到91.6%。

  3. 新型圆轨道法的经纱上机设计%Warp looming design of the new circular orbit weaving method

    宫庆双; 胡吉永; 马颜雪; 张瑞云; 李毓陵; 胡寿丰; 张建


    Circular orbit weaving method is a new shaping-method to weave three-dimensional (3D) woven tubular fabrics. The characteristics of three basic 3D woven fabric weaves in forming 3D tubular fabrics were analyzed, and taking a multi-layer stitching weave as an example, different warp looming ways and their respective characteristics when using the circular orbit weaving method were described, to enrich and improve the application of the new weaving method.%圆轨道法是三维筒状织物的新型成型方法。分析三维机织物的三种基本组织在构成三维筒状机织物时的特点,并以一种多层接结组织为例,详细介绍采用圆轨道法进行织造时不同的经纱上机方式,分析其各自的特点,以丰富和完善新型织造方法的应用。

  4. Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

    Konkolÿ Thege Barna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.

  5. Intercultural Mediation

    Dragos Marian Radulescu; Denisa Mitrut


    The Intercultural Mediator facilitates exchanges between people of different socio-cultural backgrounds and acts as a bridge between immigrants and national and local associations, health organizations, services and offices in order to foster integration of every single individual. As the use mediation increases, mediators are more likely to be involved in cross-cultural mediation, but only the best mediators have the opportunity to mediate cross border business disputes or international poli...

  6. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper


    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  7. Not different, Just Better: The Adaptive Evolution of an Enzyme


    biochemical, biophysical and evolutionary experiments to rigorously examine the molecular and biochemical basis of adaptation, mediated by changes in...and evolutionary experiments to rigorously examine the molecular and biochemical basis of adaptation, mediated by changes in pyruvate kinase found in...examine the molecular and biochemical basis of adaptation, mediated by changes in pyruvate kinase found in Richard Lenski’s E. coli long-term

  8. ADAPT Dataset

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  9. 基于P51XA-S3微机的剑杆织机控制系统%Utilize P51XA-S3 to Design Control System of Microcomputer Rapier Loom



    采用飞利浦的16位微机P51XA-S3和大容量在系统存储芯片PSD934设计一种高档的剑杆织机控制器,同时采用实时时钟芯片RS5C372A、看门狗电路IMP706、通信芯片MAX232、75176以及先藕隔离器等器件,保证系统的稳定性与先进性,系统采用C语言编程,采用光电编码器对织机主轴转过的角度进行监控,所设计的系统可支持织机的最高转速可达600r/min.%Using 16-bit microprocessor P51 XA-S3 of Philips and high-capacity in-system memory chips PSD934 to design one kind of high-end controller of rapier loom, the paper adopted devices like real time clock chip RS5C372A, watch-dog circuit IMP706, communication chip MAX232, 75176 and optical coupling isolator, etc. To ensure stability and advancement of system. The system adopts C programming language and photoelectric encoder, etc. To monitor the turning angle of the main shaft of loom. The system designed can support the highest rotational speed of 600 r/min of the loom.

  10. 基于多sink节点树路由的织机监测系统研究%Loom Monitoring System Based on Multi-sink Node Tree Protocol

    堵俊; 吴晓; 羌予践


    为了实时监测织机的运行状态,提高纺织行业生产的自动化程度,文中采用无线传感器网络技术,基于多汇聚节点的树型路由协议,利用ATmega8L和nRF905,设计了一套可对织造车间内每台织机的织造、经停、纬停、手停等13个反映织机实时工况信号的检测和警报的织机监测系统.该系统具有低成本、高可靠性和双向数据传输的特点,不仅可实现生产车间数据的实时采集,而且提高了企业管理的自动化.通过实际安装调试,已证明该系统具有较好的性价比和广阔的工程应用前景.%The wireless sensor network (WSN) was applied in the loom monitoring system to monitor the status of every loom real-time in the workshop. The node' s hardware structure of wireless network was designed based on ATmega8L and nRF905. The algorithm based on multi-sink node tree-construction protocol was proposed and the software was designed to detect, monitor and a-larm thirteen operation modes,such as weaving,warp stopping and filling stopping. The system has been applied to loom workshop management with low cost,easy installation and demonstration to other traditional industries.

  11. Multi-dimensional Datasets Establishment and Application in Loom Monitor System%织机监测系统中多维数据集的建立及应用

    穆岩; 陈波


    介绍织机计算机监测系统中多维数据集的建立及应用效果.针对现有织机计算机监测系统数据资源浪费和检索效率低两个方面的问题,利用SQL Server Business Intelligence Development Studio工具建立了织机监测系统的多维数据集,分析了两种多维数据浏览方式.结果表明:使用Microsoft Office Excel 2007进行多维数据集的浏览与共享,用户培训时间短、浏览方式简便,报表开发周期短、灵活性及生成速度高.认为:采用多维数据集的织机计算机监测系统能为企业实际生产提供帮助与支持.%Multi-dimensional datasets establishment and application effect in loom computer monitor system was introduced. According to the problems of data resources waste and lower retrieval efficiency in current loom computer monitor system,SQL Server Business Intelligence Development Studio was used to establish multi-dimensional datasets of loom monitor system. Browse style of the two multi-dimensional datasets were analyzed. The result shows that user training time is shorter, browse style is more convenient, report development cycle is shorter, flexibility and generation time is higher when using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 to browse and share multi-dimensional datasets. It is considered that practical help and support can be provided to enterprises by adopting the system.

  12. 大学生适应性与生活满意度的关系:生命意义的中介作用%On Relationship Between Adaptation and Life Satisfaction of College Students:Meaning in Life as a Mediator

    胡天强; 龚玲; 张茂杨; 王鑫强


    为探讨大学生适应性、生命意义和生活满意度三者之间的关系,采用问卷法对268名大学生进行调查研究。结果发现:①适应性、生命意义和生活满意度三者之间呈显著正相关;②适应性除直接影响生活满意度外,还通过生命意义间接影响生活满意度,生命意义在适应性与生活满意度之间起部分中介作用。%To explore the relationship between adaptation and life satisfaction,and also the mediating effects of meaning in life,268 college students have been selected to fill in questionnaires.The results indi-cate that ① there are significantly positive relations among adaptation,meaning in life and life satisfaction;② besides directly influencing life satisfaction,adaptation also contributed to life satisfaction through meaning in life.These findings suggest that meaning in life is a mediator between adaptation and life satis-faction.

  13. 古代经锦织物与多综多蹑织机装造的关系%The relationship between the ancient warp brocade and the multi-heddle and multitreadle loom



    以战国、两汉时期的三块具有二重平纹型经锦、三重平纹型经锦和五重平纹型经锦经锦提花织物为例,就其组织结构、纹样规律与多综多蹑织机装造原理、上机工艺之间的关系作分析探讨.以组织结构最为复杂的“舞人动物纹锦”为研究对象,通过对其规格的分析对比,探讨其在多综多蹑织机上织造的可行性.研究结果表明:战国、两汉时期的经锦提花织物的生产,是由多综多蹑织机来完成的,采用多综多蹑织织机,织造古代经锦提花织物是完全可能的.%Taking three brocades in Warring States and Han Period as examples, i.e., a two-fold plain weave brocade, a trebling plain weave brocade and a quintuple plain weave brocade, this paper analyzes and compares the relationship among their organizational structure, pattern arrangement, design principle of multi-heddle and multi-treadle loom and process technology. Targeting "dancing person and animal patterned brocade" with the most complex organizational structure, this thesis analyzes and compares its specification as well as discusses its feasibility when it is weaved by multi-heddle and multi-treadle loom. Research results show that the production of brocade jacquard in Warring States and Han Period is completed by multi-heddle and multi-treadle loom. Therefore, it is possible to use multi-heddle and multi-treadle loom to weave ancient brocade jacquard.

  14. Design of weft-insertion system of three-dimensional loom based on servo-cylinder%基于伺服电动缸的立体织机引纬系统的设计

    陈革; 张景慧; 周其洪


    In order to insert the weft into the multi-shed while 3-D weaving, according to the special requirements on rapier loom's weft-insertion system for weaving three-dimensional fabric, a new rapier weft-insertion system is presented. The paper introduced the design of three-dimensional loom's weft-insertion system, including the driving system' s hardware configure and its software' s controlling principle. The weft insertion system is computer-controlled and servo-cylinder driven so as to control the rapier's movement on the three-dimensional loom. This method greatly simplifies the weft-insertion system, achieves weft-insertion with variable travel, and improves the flexibility and reliability. The weft-insertion system designed has been applied to a three-dimensional loom prototype successfully.%为实现立体织物中多层经纱形成的多个梭口引纬,分析了剑杆引纬的运动规律以及剑杆织机引纬机构的特点.根据织造三维机织物对立体织机引纬机构的特殊要求,设计了一种新型的剑杆引纬系统.介绍了立体织机引纬系统的总体设计,驱动系统的硬件配置以及控制软件的基本原理.该引纬系统采用计算机控制、伺服电动缸驱动的方法来控制立体织机的剑杆运动,不但简化了引纬机构,还可实现变动程引纬,提高了立体织机引纬的灵活性和可靠性.所设计的引纬系统已应用于立体织机的样机开发.

  15. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    Exceptional Parent, 1987


    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  16. Ambiguous Adaptation

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible a...

  17. Hedonic "adaptation"


    People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to d...

  18. Strategic Adaptation

    Andersen, Torben Juul


    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  19. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz


    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  20. The butterfly and the loom.

    Douglas, Rodney J; Martin, Kevan A C


    The relationship between structure and function in the brain has an interesting counterpart in the scientific relationship of Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Charles Sherrington. In their search for the principles of organization of the nervous system, both men met at the synapse. For Sherrington, who coined the word 'synapse', the neuron was the functional unit that integrated excitatory and inhibitory input. For Cajal, the synapse was the explanation for how neurons could be individual elements, yet connected to form circuits. Both men were primarily concerned with local circuits in spinal cord and brain, but imaginatively extrapolated their discoveries on simple circuits to higher cognitive functions. Both men wrote poetically about their discoveries and so provided neuroscience with a rich vocabulary, vivid and memorable images, and concepts that remain part of the currency of 21st century neuroscience.

  1. Metadata based mediator generation

    Critchlow, T


    Mediators are a critical component of any data warehouse, particularly one utilizing partially materialized views; they transform data from its source format to the warehouse representation while resolving semantic and syntactic conflicts. The close relationship between mediators and databases, requires a mediator to be updated whenever an associated schema is modified. This maintenance may be a significant undertaking if a warehouse integrates several dynamic data sources. However, failure to quickly perform these updates significantly reduces the reliability of the warehouse because queries do not have access to the m current data. This may result in incorrect or misleading responses, and reduce user confidence in the warehouse. This paper describes a metadata framework, and associated software designed to automate a significant portion of the mediator generation task and thereby reduce the effort involved in adapting the schema changes. By allowing the DBA to concentrate on identifying the modifications at a high level, instead of reprogramming the mediator, turnaround time is reduced and warehouse reliability is improved.

  2. Mediatized Humanitarianism

    Vestergaard, Anne


    The article investigates the implications of mediatization for the legitimation strategies of humanitarian organizations. Based on a (full population) corpus of ~400 pages of brochure material from 1970 to 2007, the micro-textual processes involved in humanitarian organizations' efforts to legiti......The article investigates the implications of mediatization for the legitimation strategies of humanitarian organizations. Based on a (full population) corpus of ~400 pages of brochure material from 1970 to 2007, the micro-textual processes involved in humanitarian organizations' efforts...... legitimation by accountancy, legitimation by institutionalization, and legitimation by compensation. The analysis relates these changes to a problem of trust associated with mediatization through processes of mediation....

  3. Adaptive test

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Rose, Mette


    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  4. 新教师社会经济地位与发展期待的关系研究--以入职适应为中介%The Research on the Relation between Socioeconomic Status and Developmental Expectation:Take Occupational Adaptation as Mediating Variable

    陆勤超; 殷玉新


    本研究以A省H市和Z省H市12所学校的300名新教师为研究对象,参照美国心理协会编制的《社会经济地位量表》,编制了符合教师群体的社会经济地位量表,同时编制了新教师入职适应和发展期待量表,采用问卷调查法探究了新教师的入职适应在社会经济地位与发展期待之间的中介效应。研究结果表明:(1)新教师社会经济地位和入职适应对发展期待的影响存在显著性差异;(2)新教师的入职适应在社会经济地位与发展期待的关系中起部分中介作用;(3)新教师发展期待目标的实现也有助于入职适应。%This research adopts the method of questionnaire survey to take 300 new teachers in H City,A Province and in H City,Z Province as research objects,and to explore the mediating effects of new teachers’ occupational adaptation between socioeconomic status and developmental expectation in the way which develops Socioeconomic Status Scale for teachers with the reference to the scale developed by American Psychological Association,and develops the scale of occupational adaptation and developmental expectation for new teachers.Correlation analysis showed that new teachers’ socioeconomic status and occupational adaptation positively correlated with the developmental expectation.The mediating analysis showed that the mediating effects of beginning teachers’ occupational adaptation between socioeconomic status and developmental expectation are partially.The achievement of new teachers’ developmental expectation in turn can help to promote occupational adaptation.

  5. Adaptive Storyworlds

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik


    One of the challenges of interactive digital storytelling systems is to support the users’ experience of being able to freely roam open sandbox-like storyworlds, while at the same time maintaining control over the distribution and order of events in the mediated narrative. However, although sever...

  6. Control circuit for air-jet loom solenoid valve based on ARM7%基于ARM7的喷气织机电磁阀控制电路

    郭张军; 吴震宇; 刘凤臣


    In order to complete the real-time control of air-jet loom high frequency solenoid valve, and to promote the fault detection ability of solenoid valve when they work, a control system of high speed driving and current detecting feedback of solenoid valve with ARM7 was designed. ARM7 process chip LPC2478 was used as microcontroller, then an output line expansion circuit was designed with complex programmable logic device( CPLD) on the basis of microprocessor date/address bus. A high speed driving circuit was designed by the high, low voltage composite technology with the characteristic of air-jet loom solenoid valve. Current detecting part was added for judging the working performance of solenoid valve. The test results show that the system has stable operation, high efficiency. The production quality and efficiency of air-jet loom are improved by the research of current detecting feedback data.%为完成喷气织机高频电磁阀的实时控制,提升对电磁阀工作时的故障检测能力,设计了基于ARM7的电磁阀高速驱动和电流检测反馈控制系统.以ARM7处理器的芯片LPC2478为微控制器,并在数据、地址总线基础上,通过采用复杂可编程逻辑器件(CPLD)扩展了输出口线;针对喷气织机电磁阀高频特性,设计了高、低压复合的驱动控制电路;为判断电磁阀工作性能的优劣,增加了电流检测环节.试验结果表明,该系统运行稳定、高效,通过对电流检测反馈数据的分析,提高了喷气织机生产的质量和效率.

  7. Complex Mediation

    Bødker, Susanne; Andersen, Peter Bøgh


    This article has its starting point in a large number of empirical findings regarding computer-mediated work. These empirical findings have challenged our understanding of the role of mediation in such work; on the one hand as an aspect of communication and cooperation at work and on the other hand...... as an aspect of human engagement with instruments of work. On the basis of previous work in activity-theoretical and semiotic human—computer interaction, we propose a model to encompass both of these aspects. In a dialogue with our empirical findings we move on to propose a number of types of mediation...... that have helped to enrich our understanding of mediated work and the design of computer mediation for such work....

  8. Parent Mediation Empowers Sibling Conflict Resolution

    Ross, Hildy S.; Lazinski, Marysia J.


    Research Findings: For the current study, formal mediation procedures were adapted for families and parents were trained and asked to mediate their children's disputes; control group parents intervened as they normally would. Conflict negotiations with parents and their children (ages 3½-11 years) occurring 3 and 7 weeks following training, and…




    Developed four-parallel-yarn grid elastic plaid by double beam weaving transformation in JAT-190TNT-T610 model Toyota four-jet looms. Product has clear cell type and fabric fullness. Its style and quality is compliance with the requirements of the market, which has become a highlight in market selling varieties.%通过双经轴织造改造,在JAT-190TNT-T610型日本丰田喷气织机上开发的四纱并列起格的弹力格子布,格型清晰,布面丰满,风格和质量完全符合市场要求。

  10. The design of three-dimensional spacer fabrics and the development of related loom%三维间隔机织物的设计及织机开发

    韩斌斌; 王益轩


    The rectangular spacer woven fabric of carbon fiber was studied and its structure, weaving process and principle were also introduced.Meanwhile, the research and development of related loom were discussed mainly to provide the references for the development of three-dimensional spacer fabric composite and the weaving of preform in future.%以碳纤维矩形截面间隔机织物为研究对象,介绍其织物结构、织造过程及原理,并进行织机的开发,为三维间隔机织物复合材料的开发、预成型件织造及织机的开发提供参考依据。

  11. The Influencing Factors and Solutions of Weaving Efficiency of Air-jet loom%喷气织造效率的影响因素及其解决措施



    针对喷气织造生产对经纱的要求,详述了上浆纱品质要求,准备工序日常管理,运转不良管理及浆纱重要管理的项目和内容;提出了提高喷气织机效率和减少织疵的措施。%In view of the requirements of air-jet weaving for warp,it expounded on the quality requirements of air-jet weaving sizing,the day-to-day management of preparatory process,dysfunctional management and the projects and content of important management for slashing,then it put forward the technical measures for increasing the air-jet loom efficiency and reducing the weaving defects.

  12. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Paul Rozin


    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  13. Adaptation Laboratory

    Huq, Saleemul


    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  14. 剑杆织机经纱张力控制中滤波器设计与分析%Design and analysis of filter of rapier loom's warp tension control

    宋亚男; 徐荣华; 王钦若


    在分析剑杆织机经纱张力控制中噪声源及噪声特性的基础上,提出滤波器的设计思路和原则.针对低通滤波器带来的相位滞后,同时增大广义对象的时间常数问题,定义难控度概念.对比分析引入不同时间常数的低通滤波器对控制器设计的影响,提出剑杆织机经纱张力控制器设计方法.通过MatLab的simulink仿真,验证滤波器分析和设计的有效性,可为实际系统滤波器及控制器分析和设计提供依据.%Design concept and principles of the filter are brought out based on the analysis of noise source and characteristics during controlling rapier loom's tension. In view of the fact that low pass filter brings lag phase and increases time constant of generalized object,the difficult control degree is defined. The influence of the low pass filter with introduction of different time constants on the design of the controller is analyzed, and the designing method of the warp yarn tension controller is set forth. Matlab's simulink is used to conduct simulation to verify the effectiveness of the analysis and design of the filter. This study can be used as a basis for designing the actual rapier loom's tension controller and filter.

  15. Inducible competitors and adaptive diversification



    Identifying the causes of diversification is central to evolutionary biology.The ecological theory of adaptive diversification holds that the evolution of phenotypic differences between populations and species-and the formation of new species-stems from divergent natural selection,often arising from competitive interactions.Although increasing evidence suggests that phenotypic plasticity can facilitate this process,it is not generally appreciated that competitively mediated selection often also provides ideal conditions for phenotypic plasticity to evolve in the first place.Here,we discuss how competition plays at least two key roles in adaptive diversification depending on its pattern.First,heterogenous competition initially generates heterogeneity in resource use that favors adaptive plasticity in the form of"inducible competitors".Second,once such competitively induced plasticity evolves,its capacity to rapidly generate phenotypic variation and expose phenotypes to alternate selective regimes allows populations to respond readily to selection favoring diversification,as may occur when competition generates steady diversifying selection that permanently drives the evolutionary divergence of populations that use different resources.Thus,competition plays two important roles in adaptive diversification--one well-known and the other only now emerging-mediated through its effect on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity.

  16. Inducible competitors and adaptive diversification

    Beren W. ROBINSON, David W. PFENNIG


    Full Text Available Identifying the causes of diversification is central to evolutionary biology. The ecological theory of adaptive diversification holds that the evolution of phenotypic differences between populations and species––and the formation of new species––stems from divergent natural selection, often arising from competitive interactions. Although increasing evidence suggests that phenotypic plasticity can facilitate this process, it is not generally appreciated that competitively mediated selection often also provides ideal conditions for phenotypic plasticity to evolve in the first place. Here, we discuss how competition plays at least two key roles in adaptive diversification depending on its pattern. First, heterogenous competition initially generates heterogeneity in resource use that favors adaptive plasticity in the form of “inducible competitors”. Second, once such competitively induced plasticity evolves, its capacity to rapidly generate phenotypic variation and expose phenotypes to alternate selective regimes allows populations to respond readily to selection favoring diversification, as may occur when competition generates steady diversifying selection that permanently drives the evolutionary divergence of populations that use different resources. Thus, competition plays two important roles in adaptive diversification––one well-known and the other only now emerging––mediated through its effect on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity [Current Zoology 59 (4: 537–552, 2013].

  17. Axion Mediation

    Baryakhtar, Masha; March-Russell, John


    We explore the possibility that supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the Standard Model sector through the interactions of a generalized axion multiplet that gains a F-term expectation value. Using an effective field theory framework we enumerate the most general possible set of axion couplings and compute the Standard Model sector soft-supersymmetry-breaking terms. Unusual, non-minimal spectra, such as those of both natural and split supersymmetry are easily implemented. We discuss example models and low-energy spectra, as well as implications of the particularly minimal case of mediation via the QCD axion multiplet. We argue that if the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong-CP problem is realized in string theory then such axion-mediation is generic, while in a field theory model it is a natural possibility in both DFSZ- and KSVZ-like regimes. Axion mediation can parametrically dominate gravity-mediation and is also cosmologically beneficial as the constraints arising from axino and gravitino overproduction ...

  18. Mediatized Parenthood

    Sonne Damkjær, Maja


    to parenthood? The dissertation explores this question on the basis of a synchronous study within an overall mediatization perspective. The first part of the dissertation focuses on a conceptualization of the relationship between digital media and parenting as well as an exploration of theoretical perspectives...... and methods that make it possible to study the interactions between the two. Concretely, the dissertation builds on a number of key studies within audience research, which have contributed knowledge about the media’s role in the family and the home. This is done by including three approaches to mediatization......) a family-oriented, b) a peer-oriented, c) an oppositional, and d) non-use. Secondary contribution: Based on qualitative audience research and mediatization theory, the dissertation contributes a conceptualization of the relationship between media and parenthood. This is carried out in a study design...

  19. Mediating Business

    "Mediating Business" is a study of the expansion of business journalism. Building on evidence from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, "Mediating Business" is a comparative and multidisciplinary study of one of the major transformations of the mass media and the realm of business - nationally...... and globally. The book explores the history of key innovations and innovators in the business press. It analyzes changes in the discourse of business journalism associated with the growth in business news and the development of new ways of framing business issues and events. Finally, it examines...... the organizational implications of the increased media visibility of business and, in particular, the development of corporate governance and media relations....

  20. Mediatized play

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts....... In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  1. Adaptive management

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter


    in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...... the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...

  2. 浅谈在喷气织机织造过程中出现勒纱轴的原因及预防措施%Discussion on Causes and Preventive Measures of Drawing Beams in Air-jet Loom Weaving Process

    张建军; 冯照峰; 胡利强; 刘进秀; 叶怀君


    The cause of drawing Beams in air-jet loom weaving process was analysed.Some pre-ventive measures were proposed to solved the problem thoroughly.%文章分析了喷气织机在织造过程中出现勒纱轴的原因,提出了相应的预防措施,彻底解决了出现勒纱轴的情况。

  3. Analysis and Design of Rapier Loom' s Feedforward and Feedback Tension Control System%剑杆织机前馈-反馈张力控制系统的分析与设计

    宋亚男; 徐荣华; 王钦若


    Based on the analysis of noise source and noise characteristics in rapier loom's tension-control system, the design method of the control structure and controller is proposed. On the base of the concept of the degree of control difficulty, a suitable analog low-pass filter is chosen for filtering the high-frequency signal and random noise. While in the periodical low-frequency noise processing, the frequency spectrum analysis is used to determine the period of the noise and the coherent mean method is used to obtain the signal. Then, the periodical vibration noise behind the analog low-pass filter can be estimated. Based on the estimation of the noise, a digital filter and feedback compensation are designed and employed to improve the control system's performance. On the other hand, this method is also used to estimate the periodical vibration noise in front of the analog low-pass filter, and the digital filter and the feedforward compensation are designed to improve the control system' s performance. The effectiveness of the analysis and design methods is verified through matlab programming and simulink simulation. The analysis, methods and results proposed in this work provide some data for actual rapier loom's tension control filter and controller design.%在分析剑杆织机张力控制中噪声源及噪声特性的基础上,提出控制结构和控制器的设计方法,选择合适的模拟低通滤波器,对检测通道的高频振动信号和随机噪声进行滤波.针对周期性低频振动噪声,一方面,采用频谱分析定周期+相干平均法定信号的方法估计模拟低通滤波器后的周期性振动噪声,并在反馈通道进行补偿,提高控制性能;另一方面,采用频谱分析定周期+相干平均法定信号的方法估计模拟低通滤波器前的周期性振动噪声,进行前馈补偿,提高控制性能.运用Matlab及仿真,验证分析和设计有效性,并为实际系统滤波器及控制器分析和设计提供依据.

  4. 织机长轴表面超声波光整技术的开发应用%The Development and the Application of the Ultrasonic Finish of the Surface of the Long Loom Beam



    In order to improve the surface roughness of the parts such as long loom beam,analysis is done to the feature of the warp roller of the rapier loom of big size,in conjunction with the production practice,comparative analysis is done to the excircle grinder and the surface finishing machine with Hauk ultrasonic energy as to the investment cost,machining process and production process.The investment plan is optimized and the green manufacturing realized,and the surface ultrasonic finish technology developed and applicated.Conclusion is made that the substituting the ultrasonic technology for the grinding machining can improve the roughness of the warp roller by 3 degrees,and save the cost by 50%.The new technology not only solves the problem of machining the long beam,but also is applicable for the other parts manufacturing like beams.%为了提高织机长轴类零件的表面粗糙度,分析了宽幅剑杆织机后梁的特点,结合生产实际,对比分析了外圆磨床与豪克能超声波表面加工设备的投资成本、加工工艺及实施工艺,优化了投资方案,实现了绿色制造,开发应用了织机长轴表面超声波光整技术。指出:用超声波光整技术代替磨削加工,可提高织机后梁表面粗糙度3级以上,且节约加工成本约50%;新技术不仅解决了宽幅织机长轴类零件的加工难题,而且可推广至很多轴类零件的加工,提升加工工艺。

  5. Mediating effect of locus of control between career adaptability and vocational selection anxiety in ;practice nurses%心理控制源在实习护生生涯适应力与择业焦虑间的中介作用

    杨洪智; 于洪宇


    目的探讨实习护生生涯适应力、心理控制源与择业焦虑的关系。方法采用生涯适应力问卷、心理控制源量表、择业焦虑问卷对辽宁省内5所三级甲等医院的408名实习护生进行问卷调查,并运用SPSS 22.0软件和AMOS 22.0软件进行统计分析。结果生涯适应力与择业焦虑呈显著负相关(r=-0.44,P<0.01);生涯适应力与机遇和有势力他人因子呈显著负相关(r=-0.21、-0.21,P<0.01);择业焦虑与机遇和有势力他人因子呈正相关(r=0.45、0.44,P<0.01)。生涯适应力既能直接预测择业焦虑,也可以通过机遇和有势力他人间接预测择业焦虑。结论实习护生的生涯适应力、心理控制源对其择业焦虑有重要影响;心理控制源的机遇和有势力他人因子在生涯适应力与择业焦虑之间起部分中介作用。%Objective To explore the relationship among vocational selection anxiety, career adaptability and locus of control in practice nurses. Methods Totally 408 practice nurses from five Tertiary A Hospitals in Liaoning Province were assessed with the Career Adaptability Scale, Locus of Control Scale and Vocational Selection Anxiety Questionnaire. All data were analyzed using the software SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0. Results Career adaptability was negatively correlated with vocational selection anxiety (r=-0.44, P<0.01), chance and powerful others (r=-0.21,-0.21,P<0.01). Chance and powerful others were positively correlated with vocation selection anxiety (r=0.45, 0.44,P < 0.01). The career adaptability could negatively predict the vocational selection anxiety directly and indirectly via the mediating role of chance and powerful others. Conclusions Career adaptability and locus of control could influence the vocational selection anxiety. Chance and powerful others played a role of part-mediating variable in the relationship of career adaptability and vocational selection anxiety.

  6. Cynophobic fear adaptively extends peri-personal space

    Marine eTaffou


    Full Text Available Peri-personal space (PPS is defined as the space immediately surrounding our bodies, which is critical in the adaptation of our social behavior. As a space of interaction with the external world, PPS is involved in the control of motor action as well as in the protection of the body. The boundaries of this PPS are known to be flexible but so far, little is known about how PPS boundaries are influenced by unreasonable fear. We hypothesized that unreasonable fear extends the neural representation of the multisensory space immediately surrounding the body in the presence of a feared object, with the aim of expanding the space of protection around the body. To test this hypothesis, we explored the impact of unreasonable fear on the size of PPS in two groups of non-clinical participants: dog-fearful and non-fearful participants. The sensitivity to cynophobia was assessed with a questionnaire. We measured participants’ PPS extent in the presence of threatening (dog growling and non-threatening (sheep bleating auditory stimuli. The sound stimuli were processed through binaural rendering so that the virtual sound sources were looming towards participants from their rear hemi-field. We found that, when in the presence of the auditory dog stimulus, the PPS of dog-fearful participants is larger than that of non-fearful participants. Our results demonstrate that PPS size is adaptively modulated by cynophobia and suggest that anxiety tailors PPS boundaries when exposed to fear-relevant features. Anxiety, with the exception of social phobia, has rarely been studied as a disorder of social interaction. These findings could help develop new treatment strategies for anxious disorders, by involving the link between space and interpersonal interaction in the approach of the disorder.

  7. 大学生孤独感在人际适应性和手机互联网依赖关系中的中介效应%Mediating effect of loneliness on relationship between interpersonal adaptation and mobile phone addiction in college students

    张岩; 周炎根; 裴涛


    Objective:To explore the mediating effect of loneliness on the relationship between interpersonal adaptation and mobile phone addiction in college students.Methods:Totally 368 college students (176 males and 192 females )were surveyed with the College Student Adaptability (CSAI),University of Califomiaat Los Angels (UCLA)and Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI).Then AMOS18.0 was used to establish structural equation modeling (SEM)among interpersonal adaptation,loneliness and mobile phone addiction,and test the mediating effect of loneliness on the relationship between interpersonal adaptation and mobile phone addiction in college students.Results:The MPAI scores were significantly higher in the low interpersonal adaptation group (the score of CSAI less than 21 )than in the high interpersonal adaptation group (the score of CSAI higher than 32)(P<0.001).The scores of interpersonal adaptation were negatively correlated with scores of loneliness and mobilephone addiction (r =-0.71,-0.25,P﹤0.01).The scores of loneliness were positively correlated with scores ofmobile phone addiction (r =0.32,P ﹤ 0.01).College students'interpersonal adaptation did not have significantnegative predictability for mobile phone addiction (β=﹣0.08,P =0.32),but it had significant negative predictabilityfor loneliness (β=﹣0.71,P <0.001).Loneliness had significant positive predictability for mobile phone addiction(β=0.29,P <0.001).Conclusion:The results show loneliness completely plays a mediating effect betweeninterpersonal adaptation and mobile phone addiction.%目的:探索大学生孤独感在人际适应性和手机互联网依赖关系中的中介效应。方法:选取368名大学生(男176人,女192人),运用大学生适应性量表(CSAI)、孤独量表(UCLA)和大学生手机成瘾指数量表(MPAI)进行调查,使用 AMOS 18.0软件在人际适应性、孤独感和手机互联网依赖之间建立结构方程模型,检验孤独感在大学生人

  8. Adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors

    CUI Xianqiang; YANG Yuanxi


    The key problems in applying the adaptively robust filtering to navigation are to establish an equivalent weight matrix for the measurements and a suitable adaptive factor for balancing the contributions of the measurements and the predicted state information to the state parameter estimates. In this paper, an adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was proposed, based on the principles of the adaptively robust filtering and bi-factor robust estimation for correlated observations. According to the constant velocity model of Kalman filtering, the state parameter vector was divided into two groups, namely position and velocity. The estimator of the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was derived, and the calculation expressions of the classified adaptive factors were presented. Test results show that the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors is not only robust in controlling the measurement outliers and the kinematic state disturbing but also reasonable in balancing the contributions of the predicted position and velocity, respectively, and its filtering accuracy is superior to the adaptively robust filter with single adaptive factor based on the discrepancy of the predicted position or the predicted velocity.

  9. Supporting Adaptive and Adaptable Hypermedia Presentation Semantics

    Bulterman, D.C.A.; Rutledge, L.; Hardman, L.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van


    Having the content of a presentation adapt to the needs, resources and prior activities of a user can be an important benefit of electronic documents. While part of this adaptation is related to the encodings of individual data streams, much of the adaptation can/should be guided by the semantics in

  10. Practice of Producing New Type Fiberglass Leno Fabric with GA747 Loom%GA747织机生产新型玻璃纤维纱罗网布的实践

    曹爱军; 王洁静


    新型玻璃纤维纱罗网布的地经和纬纱采用玻璃纤维无捻直接纱,绞经采用涤纶丝生产,取代传统网布使用的有捻纱线,并去除传统纺织中的整经工序,在GA747织机上安装绞综综框且采用合理的织造工艺,有效降低原料成本,提高产品品质。%A new type fiberglass leno fabric was woven with fiberglass direct roving as normal warp and weft and polyester fiber as crossing warp to replace twisted yarn used in traditional mesh fabrics and eliminate the warping step used in the traditional weaving process. GA747 loom was equipped with leno heald frame and operated with a reasonable weaving process technology,resulting in significant reduction of material cost and improvement of product quality.

  11. Mediating Role of Social Support in the Adolescent Parent -child Communication and Social Adaptation%亲子沟通对青少年社会适应的影响:社会支持的中介作用

    徐杰; 张越; 詹文琦; 王晶; 代娅梅; 张林


    Objective:To examine the mediating roles of social support between parent -child communication with depression and social avoidance in adolescents .Methods :269 adolescents from two middle and high schools in Zhe-jiang participated in the study S.tudents were sampled to fill out the adolescent parent -child communication psycho-logical questionnaire ,Social Support Rating Scale ,Self -rating depression scale ,Social Avoidance and Distress Scale . Results:①Parent -child communication in girls was significantly better than that in boys (t=3 1.41 ,P<0 0.1) .Chil-dren communicated with mother better than father .Parent-child communication in grade 1 and 2 was significantly better than grade 3 and 5(F=5 9.33 ,P<0 0.01) .②Parent -child communication ,social support ,depression and so-cial avoidance were related with each other in the significant level .③ The effect of parent -child communication on depression was partly mediated by social support .While the effect of parent -child communication on social avoid-ance was totally mediated by social support .Conclusion:To reduce the degree of depression ,promoting adolescents get more social support by improving parent -child communication is great choice .%目的:探讨社会支持在青少年亲子沟通对抑郁和社交回避的中介作用。方法:以浙江省两所中学269名青少年为研究对象,通过青少年亲子沟通问卷、社会支持评定量表、自评抑郁量表和社交回避与苦恼量表考察青少年亲子沟通、社会支持与抑郁程度、社交回避的关系。结果:①女生的亲子沟通显著好于男生( t=3.141,P<00.1),母子沟通好于父子沟通,初一、初二的亲子沟通好于初三和高二( F=59.33,P<00.01);②亲子沟通、社会支持、抑郁和社交回避的相关均达到显著水平;③社会支持在亲子沟通对抑郁中有部分中介效应,社会支持在亲子沟通对社交回避

  12. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation effects on saccade adaptation

    E. Avila (Eric); J.N. van der Geest (Jos); S. Kengne Kamga (Sandra); M.C. Verhage (M. Claire); O. Donchin (Opher); M.A. Frens (Maarten)


    textabstractSaccade adaptation is a cerebellar-mediated type of motor learning in which the oculomotor system is exposed to repetitive errors. Different types of saccade adaptations are thought to involve distinct underlying cerebellar mechanisms. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induc

  13. Personalized Adaptive Learning

    Kravcik, Milos; Specht, Marcus; Naeve, Ambjorn


    Kravcik, M., Specht, M., & Naeve, A. (2008). Personalized Adaptive Learning. Presentation of PROLEARN WP1 Personalized Adaptive Learning at the final review meeting. February, 27, 2008, Hannover, Germany.

  14. Mental Adaption and Mental Health of the Generation after 95s College Freshmen:The Mediating Role of Self-acceptance%95后大学新生心理适应与心理健康的关系:自我接纳的中介作用

    张晖; 何凯; 罗军; 李鎏; 綦林; 武海霞; 梁耀明


    Objective:To explore the influence of acceptance by mental adaption and self-acceptance on health of the generation after 95 s college freshmen,and the pathway of the influence,to offer the new basis for entrance educa-tion,mental health education among freshmen.Methods:Using convinient sampling method,879 freshmen of grade 2014 from one college were administered after 2 months in school with FARS,SCL-90,Self-Acceptance Question-naire.Results:①Freshmen mental adaptation scores and interpersonal factor score had significant gender differences (t=-2.43,P<0.05;t=-2.66,P<0.01),girls scored significantly higher than boys.Independent living dimension, liberal arts students was more troubled than science students (t=3.50,P<0.001);Learning method,the only child was more distressed than non-child (t=3.10,P<0.01);and in resources,relationships and mental adaptation scores of non-child problems were significantly higher than the one-child (t=-3.73,P<0.001;t=-2.67,P<0.01;t=-2.03,P<0.05).②Mental adaptation score was positively correlated with mental health score and negatively correlated with self-acceptance scores,self-acceptance were significantly negative correlation with mental health scores (|r|=0.16 ~ 0.51,P<0.05).Regression analysis showed that self-acceptance and depression could pre-dict mental adaptation level.③By structural equation model checking,self-acceptance played fully mediation be-tween mental adaptation and mental health.Mental adaptation impacted on mental health through self-acceptance. Conclusion:Self-acceptance of the generation after 95 s college freshmen plays fully mediation between mental adap-tation and mental health,mental adaptation suppress mental health by promoting self-acceptance.%目的:研究心理适应与自我接纳对95后大学新生心理健康的影响及其路径,以期为新生适应性教育、心理健康教育提供新的思路.方法:采用方便抽样法,选取广东某综合性大学2014级879名大

  15. Meta-data based mediator generation

    Critchlaw, T


    Mediators are a critical component of any data warehouse; they transform data from source formats to the warehouse representation while resolving semantic and syntactic conflicts. The close relationship between mediators and databases requires a mediator to be updated whenever an associated schema is modified. Failure to quickly perform these updates significantly reduces the reliability of the warehouse because queries do not have access to the most current data. This may result in incorrect or misleading responses, and reduce user confidence in the warehouse. Unfortunately, this maintenance may be a significant undertaking if a warehouse integrates several dynamic data sources. This paper describes a meta-data framework, and associated software, designed to automate a significant portion of the mediator generation task and thereby reduce the effort involved in adapting to schema changes. By allowing the DBA to concentrate on identifying the modifications at a high level, instead of reprogramming the mediator, turnaround time is reduced and warehouse reliability is improved.

  16. Conservation and adaptation to climate change.

    Brooke, Cassandra


    The need to adapt to climate change has become increasingly apparent, and many believe the practice of biodiversity conservation will need to alter to face this challenge. Conservation organizations are eager to determine how they should adapt their practices to climate change. This involves asking the fundamental question of what adaptation to climate change means. Most studies on climate change and conservation, if they consider adaptation at all, assume it is equivalent to the ability of species to adapt naturally to climate change as stated in Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Adaptation, however, can refer to an array of activities that range from natural adaptation, at one end of the spectrum, to sustainability science in coupled human and natural systems at the other. Most conservation organizations deal with complex systems in which adaptation to climate change involves making decisions on priorities for biodiversity conservation in the face of dynamic risks and involving the public in these decisions. Discursive methods such as analytic deliberation are useful for integrating scientific knowledge with public perceptions and values, particularly when large uncertainties and risks are involved. The use of scenarios in conservation planning is a useful way to build shared understanding at the science-policy interface. Similarly, boundary organizations-organizations or institutions that bridge different scales or mediate the relationship between science and policy-could prove useful for managing the transdisciplinary nature of adaptation to climate change, providing communication and brokerage services and helping to build adaptive capacity. The fact that some nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are active across the areas of science, policy, and practice makes them well placed to fulfill this role in integrated assessments of biodiversity conservation and adaptation to climate change.

  17. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.


    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  18. Study to restore the setup which had been equipped on multi-heddle and multi-treadle loom in Ancient China%古代多综多蹑提花织机结构及装造形式探讨



    古代中国东周至魏晋提花丝织品多以经锦为主,经锦的各项织物参数无不反映使用多综多蹑织机生产的技术特点,古代文献中有多综多蹑织机的文字记载,但没有装造形式的图文说明.装造工艺的复原是多综多蹑织机复原的主要内容,一个合理的装造必须使装造工艺省时有效,因为装造是提花机构,所以它还必须满足可以有效进行织造生产,从这两点出发可以探讨建立一个合理的装造形式.%"Jin" silk was popular during the period from East Zhou to Wei and Jin dynasty. The technicalinformation from "Jin" silk suggested it is suitable if multi-heddles and multi-treadles loom will be used toweave "Jin" silk. There are descriptions about this kind of loom in Chinese ancient documents but no images,therefore we hardly know true setup of loom at that time. However, according to two principles we can restorethe setup, one is the setup work will not take huge time, another is the setup can be used to weave "Jin" silkeffectually.

  19. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.


    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  20. Principles of adaptive optics

    Tyson, Robert


    History and BackgroundIntroductionHistoryPhysical OpticsTerms in Adaptive OpticsSources of AberrationsAtmospheric TurbulenceThermal BloomingNonatmospheric SourcesAdaptive Optics CompensationPhase ConjugationLimitations of Phase ConjugationArtificial Guide StarsLasers for Guide StarsCombining the LimitationsLinear AnalysisPartial Phase ConjugationAdaptive Optics SystemsAdaptive Optics Imaging SystemsBeam Propagation Syst

  1. Adaptation to climate change

    Carmin, J.; Tierney, K.; Chu, E.; Hunter, L.M.; Roberts, J.T.; Shi, L.; Dunlap, R.E.; Brulle, R.J.


    Climate change adaptation involves major global and societal challenges such as finding adequate and equitable adaptation funding and integrating adaptation and development programs. Current funding is insufficient. Debates between the Global North and South center on how best to allocate the financ

  2. Resilience through adaptation

    van Voorn, George A. K.; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap


    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover’s distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system. PMID:28196372

  3. [Individual adaptation strategies].

    Aldasheva, A A


    The article looks at the relation between adaptation strategy and individual style of activity based on the doctrine of human adaptation of V.I. Medvedev that enables opening up characteristics of professional activity in diverse environments. It illustrates a role and the relation between physiological and psychological mechanisms, which can vary, depending on individual adaptation strategies of a person. Theoretical and practical studies based on activity paradigm allow us to look at the basic principles of human interaction with the environment from a new perspective. Based on the law on the conceptual model of adaptation proposed by V.I. Medvedev, the article illustrates that humans are active figures in adaptation situations, modeling their own adaption strategies, using different individual styles manifested in the programs of adaptive behaviour.

  4. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T


    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity.

  5. Revisiting Mediation in the Social and Behavioral Sciences

    Aurelio José Figueredo


    Full Text Available The process of mediation is of critical importance to the social and behavioral sciences and to evolutionary social psychology in particular. As with the concept of evolutionary adaptation, however, one can argue that causal mediation is in need of explicit theoretical justification and empirical support. Mainstream evolutionary social psychology proposes, for example, that organisms are “adaptation executers”, and not “fitness maximizers”. The execution of adaptations is triggered by fitness-relevant ecological contingencies at both ultimate and proximate levels of analysis. This logic is essentially equivalent to what methodologists refer to as the process of mediation; the adaptations to be executed (or not, depending upon the prevailing environmental circumstances causally mediate the effects of the ecological contingencies upon the fitness outcomes. Thus, the process of mediation can be generally conceptualized as a causal chain of events leading to a given outcome or set of outcomes. If a predictor variable operates through an intervening variable to affect a criterion variable, then mediation is said to exist. Nevertheless, it does not appear that some psychologists (particularly evolutionary-social psychologists are sufficiently well-versed in the fundamental logic and quantitative methodology of establishing causal mediation to support such claims. In the current paper, we set out to review the ways researchers support their use of mediation statements and also propose critical considerations on this front. We start with more conventional methods for testing mediation, discuss variants of the conventional approach, discuss the limitations of such methods as we see them, and end with our preferred mediation approach. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v4i1.17761

  6. Translation as Adaptation for Language Pedagogy

    Laviosa Sara


    Full Text Available This paper explores, within an ecological perspective on language learning (cf. van Lier 2004, the valuable role that translation as adaptation can play in mediating and making sense of cross-cultural experiences in the multilingual language classroom. The aim is to develop a multilingual pedagogy that includes translation as adaptation as an integral part of the language curriculum in order to foster translingual and transcultural competence, this being the goal of foreign language education in the 21st century (cf. MLA 2007:2. The first part of the paper introduces the theoretical framework that conceptualises translation as being closely related to adaptation. It then analyses salient scenes from Gianni Amelio’s bilingual drama La stella che non c'è/The Missing Star/L'Étoile Imaginaire (2006 filmed in Italy and China and screened in competition as part of the 2006 Venice Film Festival. Moving on from research to pedagogic practice, the final part of the paper outlines a teaching unit that is based on the film and is aimed at undergraduate L1 Chinese learners of Italian and L1 Italian learners of Chinese. The objective of the pedagogic unit is to raise awareness of the transformative power enshrined in linguistic and cultural exchanges mediated by audio-visual translation as an eminent example of adaptation.

  7. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.


    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  8. Regulation Of Nf=kb And Mnsod In Low Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Protection Of Mouse And Human Skin Cells

    Jian Li


    A sampling of publications resulting from this grant is provided. One is on the subject of NF-κB-Mediated HER2 Overexpression in Radiation-Adaptive Resistance. Another is on NF-κB-mediated adaptive resistance to ionizing radiation.

  9. Soluble Mediators Regulating Immunity in Early Life

    Matthew Aaron Pettengill


    Full Text Available Soluble factors in blood plasma have a substantial impact on both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The complement system, antibodies, and antimicrobial proteins and peptides (APPs, can directly interact with potential pathogens, protecting against systemic infection. The extracellular environment also has a critical influence on immune cell maturation, activation, and effector functions, and many of the factors in plasma, including hormones, vitamins, and purines, have been shown to influence these processes for leukocytes of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this review we give particular consideration to soluble mediators in plasma for which age-dependent differences in abundance may influence the ontogeny of immune function.

  10. Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy.

    Betina Fejerskov

    Full Text Available In this report, we detail Substrate Mediated Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (SMEPT as a novel approach in drug delivery which relies on enzyme-functionalized cell culture substrates to achieve a localized conversion of benign prodrug(s into active therapeutics with subsequent delivery to adhering cells or adjacent tissues. For proof-of-concept SMEPT, we use surface adhered micro-structured physical hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol, β-glucuronidase enzyme and glucuronide prodrugs. We demonstrate enzymatic activity mediated by the assembled hydrogel samples and illustrate arms of control over rate of release of model fluorescent cargo. SMEPT was not impaired by adhering cells and afforded facile time - and dose - dependent uptake of the in situ generated fluorescent cargo by hepatic cells, HepG2. With the use of a glucuronide derivative of an anticancer drug, SN-38, SMEPT afforded a decrease in cell viability to a level similar to that achieved using parent drug. Finally, dose response was achieved using SMEPT and administration of judiciously chosen concentration of SN-38 glucuronide prodrug thus revealing external control over drug delivery using drug eluting surface. We believe that this highly adaptable concept will find use in diverse biomedical applications, specifically surface mediated drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  11. 心理弹性与压力适应的关系:积极情绪中介效应的实验研究%The Relationship between Resilience and Adaptation to Stress: An Experiment on the Mediation of Positive Affect

    崔丽霞; 殷乐; 雷雳


    Fredrickson的积极情绪的扩展~建构理论(broaden—and—build theory)认为积极情绪具有激活行动、扩展认知、建设资源和缓解压力的功能。但是积极情绪是否是心理弹性到压力适应的中介变量有待于进一步研究。该研究让37名女大学生先完成中国情感量表和Connor—Davidson心理弹性量表,然后进行压力情境实验,通过生理多导仪记录实验前后压力下的生理反应,以压力下的生理恢复时间作为压力适应的指标。最后通过中介检验程序分析积极情绪在心理弹性到压力适应的中介效应。结果表明:(1)压力下个体的心理弹性水平与生理恢复指标显著相关(r=-0.75,P〈0.001);(2)当心理弹性和积极情绪同时进入回归方程时,积极情绪对压力适应的预测显著,心理弹性对生理恢复指标的预测下降,但是依然显著(r=-0.62,P〈0.001)。结论:积极情绪在心理弹性与压力适应间起部分中介作用。%According to Fredrickson' s broaden-and-build theory positive affect is the most important mechanism for resilient people to bounce back from stress. By stress experiment we studied the mediating role of positive affect between resilience and adaptation. The study used 37 female students to test their affect and resilience, and exam at a stress condition using duration of cardiovascular reactivity as an index of adaptation. The result was : ( 1 ) under stress resilience was significantly correlated with duration of cardiovascular reactivity ( r = - 0.75, p 〈 0. 001 ) ; (2) When positive affect was added in the regression equation the effect of resilience on duration of cardiovascular reactivity was declining but still significant ( r = - 0.62 ,p 〈 0. 001 ). The conclusion was that positive affect played a partly meditational role between resilience and adaptation under stress.

  12. Technology transfer for adaptation

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia


    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  13. Adaptive Pairing Reversible Watermarking.

    Dragoi, Ioan-Catalin; Coltuc, Dinu


    This letter revisits the pairwise reversible watermarking scheme of Ou et al., 2013. An adaptive pixel pairing that considers only pixels with similar prediction errors is introduced. This adaptive approach provides an increased number of pixel pairs where both pixels are embedded and decreases the number of shifted pixels. The adaptive pairwise reversible watermarking outperforms the state-of-the-art low embedding bit-rate schemes proposed so far.

  14. Massive Job Cuts Looming in Textile Industry


    Massive job losses are in the offing in the textile sector, says the theApparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC).The high prices of cotton have pushed up the cost of the fabric andthe end product. We are now in a situation where we are forced to rejectrepeat orders as we can’t justify the high prices to our foreign buyers.

  15. Gerhard Richteri looming Kumus / Inga Leomar

    Leomar, Inga


    Saksa maalikunstniku Gerhard Richteri (s. 1932) tööde näitusest "Ülevaade" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis, koostaja Saksa Välissuhete Instituut. Mainitud ka Tõnis Saadoja näitus "Mainstream" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis, kus eksponeeritakse segatehnikas portreesid, mis on inspireeritud G. Richteri sarjast "48 portreed"

  16. A new looming of Zika virus

    Nirav R. Soni


    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti. ZIKV will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time. Sign and symptoms of ZIKAVD (Zika virus disease were conjunctivitis (red eyes, back pain, birth defect-abnormal brain development known as microcephaly and it is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from blood samples.

  17. Bõ Yin Ŕ ja tema looming


    Lühidalt Bõ Yin Ŕ elust ja loomingust, tema raamatutest : Raamat elavast jumalast. Kuressaare, 2003 ; Raamat õnnest. Kuressaare, 2004 ; Armastuseraamat. Kuressaare, 2003 ; Elu mõte. Kuressaare, 2004

  18. Conveying Looming with a Localized Tactile Cue


    clusters for use in building a library of tactile icons versus building a set of metaphorical stimuli or exploiting tactile “melodies”). duty or reserve status, and government employees. No otherwise-eligible legally -adult subjects were excluded from participation solely because of...methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 71: 655-658. Heise, D. R. 1965. Semantic differential profiles for 1,000 most frequent English words

  19. Olev Soansi elu ja looming / Harvet Toots

    Toots, Harvet, 1966-2002


    Lisaks uurimuse valmimise eelloost. Järgneb 11. okt. 2003, lk. 18, 14. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 16. okt. 2003, lk. 9, 18. okt. 2003, lk. 18, 21. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 23. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 25. okt. 2003, lk. 18, 28. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 30. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 1. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 4. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 6. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 8. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 11. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 13. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 15. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 18. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 20. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 22. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 25. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 27. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 29. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 4. dets. 2003, lk. 10, 6. dets. 2003, lk. 18, 9. dets. 2003, lk. 10, 11. dets. 2003, lk. 10, 13. dets. 2003, lk. 18, 16. dets. 2003, lk. 10

  20. CRISIS FOCUS Downturn Risks Loom Large


    Is the world heading for a better year after hitting rock bottom in 2009? Not necessarily. in, the outgoing Vice Governor of People’s Bank of China, said the world economy’s future looks bleak at a financial forum held in Beijing on April 11. Zhu is expected to resume his position as a special advisor at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in May 2010. Edited excerpts follow:

  1. Raadioteatri looming juubelieelsel aastal / Madis Kolk

    Kolk, Madis, 1974-


    Raadioteatris 2007. aastal välja tulnud kuuest uuest kuuldemängust: Roland Schimmelpfennigi "Araabia öö", Aleksander Alleni "Elu sees", Aare Toikka viieosaline järjelugu "Kroonu", Mart Kivastiku "Nokia", Eva Östergreni "Tüdrukud", Üllar ja Rünno Saaremäe viieosaline lastelugu "Käpipuu vennaskond"

  2. What To Do When Disintermediation Looms.

    Kinghorn, Cris

    This paper provides an overview of the differing levels of disintermediation (defined by Harvard Business Review as simply "compressing the supply chain") experienced by business information professionals with mature end-user communities, and their impact on the role of today's information center. Technology has made disintermediation…

  3. Job cuts loom at National Physical Laboratory

    Extance, Andy


    The UK's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) - the country's standards lab - is consulting on making up to 50 compulsory redundancies as it prepares to shift its research priorities towards quantum technologies and big data.

  4. Looming jagas aastapreemiaid : [sõnum


    Tiit Aleksejev, jutustus "Tartu rahu" (nr. 7); Hasso Krull, luuletused (nr. 10); Madis Kõiv, essee "Juhan Jaik. Vihmatark ja Luudermikk" (nr. 1-2); Andres Maimik, retsensioon "Bourdieu Eesti meediareaalsuses" (nr. 12); Tarmo Teder, jutustus "Sibi Innu jõululobi" (nr. 9); Amar Annus, Tayyib Salihi "Zaini pulmade" tõlge araabia keelest Loomingu Raamatukogus (nr. 8).

  5. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika


    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  6. Adapt or Become Extinct!

    Goumas, Georgios; McKee, Sally A.; Själander, Magnus


    during the execution of an application can be utilized to adapt the execution context and may lead to performance gains beyond those provided by static information and compile-time adaptation. We consider specialization based on dynamic information like user input, architectural characteristics...... static analysis (either during ahead-of-time or just-in-time) compilation. We extend the notion of information-driven adaptation and outline the architecture of an infrastructure designed to enable information ow and adaptation throughout the life-cycle of an application....

  7. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...

  8. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi...

  9. mediation: R Package for Causal Mediation Analysis

    Dustin Tingley


    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the R package mediation for conducting causal mediation analysis in applied empirical research. In many scientific disciplines, the goal of researchers is not only estimating causal effects of a treatment but also understanding the process in which the treatment causally affects the outcome. Causal mediation analysis is frequently used to assess potential causal mechanisms. The mediation package implements a comprehensive suite of statistical tools for conducting such an analysis. The package is organized into two distinct approaches. Using the model-based approach, researchers can estimate causal mediation effects and conduct sensitivity analysis under the standard research design. Furthermore, the design-based approach provides several analysis tools that are applicable under different experimental designs. This approach requires weaker assumptions than the model-based approach. We also implement a statistical method for dealing with multiple (causally dependent mediators, which are often encountered in practice. Finally, the package also offers a methodology for assessing causal mediation in the presence of treatment noncompliance, a common problem in randomized trials.

  10. [Postvagotomy adaptation syndrome].

    Shapovalov, V A


    It was established in experiment, that the changes of the natural resistance of organism indexes and of the peritoneal cavity cytology has compensatory-adaptational character while the denervation-adaptational syndrome occurrence and progress, which may be assessed as eustress. Vagotomy and operative trauma cause qualitatively different reactions of an organism.

  11. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)


    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  12. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.


    In this article, we propose Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared with conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian…

  13. Mediation as Signal

    Holler, M.J.; Lindner, I.


    This paper analyzes mediation as a signal. Starting from a stylized case, a game theoretical model of one-sided incomplete information, taken from Cho and Kreps (1987), is applied to discuss strategic effects of mediation. It turns out that to reject mediation can be interpreted as a ”negative signa

  14. User-Centered Evaluation of Adaptive and Adaptable Systems

    Velsen, van Lex; Geest, van der Thea M.; Klaassen, Rob F.


    Adaptive and adaptable systems provide tailored output to various users in various contexts. While adaptive systems base their output on implicit inferences, adaptable systems use explicitly provided information. Since the presentation or output of these systems is adapted, standard user-centered ev

  15. Financing climate change adaptation.

    Bouwer, Laurens M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H


    This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future climate change policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries should be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources. We present an overview of financial resources and propose the employment of a two-track approach: one track that attempts to secure climate change adaptation funding under the UNFCCC; and a second track that improves mainstreaming of climate risk management in development efforts. Developed countries would need to demonstrate much greater commitment to the funding of adaptation measures if the UNFCCC were to cover a substantial part of the costs. The mainstreaming of climate change adaptation could follow a risk management path, particularly in relation to disaster risk reduction. 'Climate-proofing' of development projects that currently do not consider climate and weather risks could improve their sustainability.

  16. Appraising Adaptive Management

    Kai N. Lee


    Full Text Available Adaptive management is appraised as a policy implementation approach by examining its conceptual, technical, equity, and practical strengths and limitations. Three conclusions are drawn: (1 Adaptive management has been more influential, so far, as an idea than as a practical means of gaining insight into the behavior of ecosystems utilized and inhabited by humans. (2 Adaptive management should be used only after disputing parties have agreed to an agenda of questions to be answered using the adaptive approach; this is not how the approach has been used. (3 Efficient, effective social learning, of the kind facilitated by adaptive management, is likely to be of strategic importance in governing ecosystems as humanity searches for a sustainable economy.

  17. Adaptive noise cancellation

    Akram, N


    In this report we describe the concept of adaptive noise canceling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise of interference. The method uses 'primary' input containing the corrupted signal and a 'reference' input containing noise correlated in some unknown way with the primary noise, the reference input is adaptively filtered and subtracted from the primary input to obtain the signal estimate. Adaptive filtering before subtraction allows the treatment of inputs that are deterministic or stochastic, stationary or time variable. When the reference input is free of signal and certain other conditions are met then noise in the primary input can be essentially eliminated without signal distortion. It is further shown that the adaptive filter also acts as notch filter. Simulated results illustrate the usefulness of the adaptive noise canceling technique.

  18. Sensemaking in Technology-Use Mediation

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.


    of advanced CSCW technologies is basically a problem of sensemaking. We analyze how a group of “technology-use mediators” (Orlikowski et al. Org. Sci. (1995) 6(4), 423) in a large, multinational company adapted a groupware technology (a “virtual workspace”) to the local organizational context (and vice versa......) by modifying features of the technology, providing ongoing support for users, and promoting appropriate conventions of use. Our findings corroborate earlier research on technology-use mediation, which suggests that such mediators can exert considerable influence on how a particular technology...... will be established and used in an organization. However, we also find that the process of technology-use mediation is much more complex and indeterminate than prior research suggests. The reason being, we argue, that new, advanced CSCW technologies, such as “virtual workspaces” and other groupware applications...

  19. Influence of linear density of yarn on weft flight speed and weft status of Dornier air-jet loom%纱线线密度对Dornier喷气织机纬纱飞行速度和状态的影响

    朱文静; 田伟; 张慧芳; 祝成炎


    为探讨Dornier喷气织机上纬纱线密度与纬纱飞行状态之间的关系,为优化引纬工艺提供技术参考,以Dornier AWV8/S型喷气织机为实验平台,通过高速摄像系统对纬纱在筘槽中实际引纬飞行状态进行拍摄记录,使用Image Pro-Plus 6.20专业图像分析软件对拍摄的纬纱运动过程图像进行分析,得出不同线密度纬纱飞行过程的平均速度、加速度和垂直波动距离.结果表明,在实验条件下,相同引纬条件的同种材质纱线的飞行速度和加速度随着纱线线密度值的减小而提高,即纱线越细,纱线的飞行状态越稳定.采用10 tex棉纱织造时,纬纱飞行速度高且波动幅度小,因此,该喷气织机在此种情况下的纬纱运动状态较好.%In order to discuss the relationship between linear density of yarn and weft insertion flight state on Dornier air-jet loom and provide technological base to optimize the process of weft insertion, this paper used a Dornier AWV8/S air-jet loom as the experimental platform and the actual state of weft flight across the shed was taken using a high-speed camera system. Then the professional image analysis software - Image Pro-Plus 6. 20 was used to analyze the images of the weft insertion flight state and average speed, acceleration and vertical fluctuation distance of wefts with different linear densities were obtained. The results show that the speed and acceleration of the yarns with the same material increase with the decreasing of yarn linear density under the same weft insertion condition. And less the linear density of yarn,more stable the flight state of the yarn. Besides, when 10 tex cotton yarns were used for weaving, the weft possessed high flight speed and small fluctuations. So this air-jet loom has good weft motion state in such situation.

  20. Adaptive network countermeasures.

    McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.


    This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.

  1. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Saleh, M


    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy.

  2. Adaptive Vertex Fitting

    Frühwirth, R; Vanlaer, Pascal


    Vertex fitting frequently has to deal with both mis-associated tracks and mis-measured track errors. A robust, adaptive method is presented that is able to cope with contaminated data. The method is formulated as an iterative re-weighted Kalman filter. Annealing is introduced to avoid local minima in the optimization. For the initialization of the adaptive filter a robust algorithm is presented that turns out to perform well in a wide range of applications. The tuning of the annealing schedule and of the cut-off parameter is described, using simulated data from the CMS experiment. Finally, the adaptive property of the method is illustrated in two examples.

  3. Hot adaptation: what conflict can contribute to collaborative natural resource management

    David Laws


    Full Text Available We analyze the impact of conflict on the adaptive comanagement of social-ecological systems. We survey the risks and the resources that conflict creates and review experiences with public policy mediation as a set of practical hypotheses about how to work collaboratively under conditions of conflict. We analyze the significance of these features in the context of an approach to adaptive comanagement that we call “hot adaptation.” Hot adaptation is organized to draw on the energy and engagement that conflict provides to enhance the capacity for deliberation and learning around the wicked problems that constitute the working terrain of adaptive comanagement.

  4. Exploring Adaptive Program Behavior

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions. B...

  5. Adaptive digital filters

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan


    Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  6. The genomics of adaptation.

    Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław


    The amount and nature of genetic variation available to natural selection affect the rate, course and outcome of evolution. Consequently, the study of the genetic basis of adaptive evolutionary change has occupied biologists for decades, but progress has been hampered by the lack of resolution and the absence of a genome-level perspective. Technological advances in recent years should now allow us to answer many long-standing questions about the nature of adaptation. The data gathered so far are beginning to challenge some widespread views of the way in which natural selection operates at the genomic level. Papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B illustrate various aspects of the broad field of adaptation genomics. This introductory article sets up a context and, on the basis of a few selected examples, discusses how genomic data can advance our understanding of the process of adaptation.

  7. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    Gordon, D F


    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  8. The Adaptive Organization

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Hallin, Carina Antonia


    Contemporary organizations operate under turbulent business conditions and must adapt their strategies to ongoing changes. This article argues that sustainable organizational performance is achieved when top management directs and coordinates interactive processes anchored in emerging organizatio......Contemporary organizations operate under turbulent business conditions and must adapt their strategies to ongoing changes. This article argues that sustainable organizational performance is achieved when top management directs and coordinates interactive processes anchored in emerging...... experiential insights from the fast response processes can be aggregated systematically from frontline employees and fed into the slow process of reasoning. When the fast and slow processes interact they form a dynamic system that adapts organizational activities to the changing conditions which identifies...... the adaptive organization....

  9. Frustratingly Easy Domain Adaptation

    Daumé, Hal


    We describe an approach to domain adaptation that is appropriate exactly in the case when one has enough ``target'' data to do slightly better than just using only ``source'' data. Our approach is incredibly simple, easy to implement as a preprocessing step (10 lines of Perl!) and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on a range of datasets. Moreover, it is trivially extended to a multi-domain adaptation problem, where one has data from a variety of different domains.

  10. From equivalence to adaptation

    Paulina Borowczyk


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate in which cases the translators use the adaptation when they are confronted with a term related to sociocultural aspects. We will discuss the notions of equivalence and adaptation and their limits in the translation. Some samples from Arte TV news and from the American film Shrek translated into Polish, German and French will be provided as a support for this article.

  11. Adaptable DC offset correction

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)


    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  12. Network and adaptive sampling

    Chaudhuri, Arijit


    Combining the two statistical techniques of network sampling and adaptive sampling, this book illustrates the advantages of using them in tandem to effectively capture sparsely located elements in unknown pockets. It shows how network sampling is a reliable guide in capturing inaccessible entities through linked auxiliaries. The text also explores how adaptive sampling is strengthened in information content through subsidiary sampling with devices to mitigate unmanageable expanding sample sizes. Empirical data illustrates the applicability of both methods.

  13. The role of adapter proteins in T cell activation.

    Koretzky, G A; Boerth, N J


    Engagement of antigen receptors on lymphocytes leads to a myriad of complex signal transduction cascades. Recently, work from several laboratories has led to the identification and characterization of novel adapter molecules, proteins with no intrinsic enzymatic activity but which integrate signal transduction pathways by mediating protein-protein interactions. Interestingly, it appears that many of these adapter proteins play as critical a role as the effector enzymes themselves in both lymphocyte development and activation. This review describes some of the biochemical and molecular features of several of these newly identified hematopoietic cell-specific adapter molecules highlighting their importance in regulating (both positively and negatively) signal transduction mediated by the T cell antigen receptor.

  14. Muscle mitochondrial stress adaptation operates independently of endogenous FGF21 action

    Mario Ost


    Conclusions: Here we demonstrate that although FGF21 drives WAT remodeling, the adaptive pseudo-starvation response under elevated muscle mitochondrial stress conditions operates independently of both WAT browning and FGF21 action. Thus, our findings challenge FGF21 as key metabolic mediator of the mitochondrial stress adaptation and powerful therapeutic target during muscle mitochondrial disease.

  15. Adaptive context exploitation

    Steinberg, Alan N.; Bowman, Christopher L.


    This paper presents concepts and an implementation scheme to improve information exploitation processes and products by adaptive discovery and processing of contextual information. Context is used in data fusion - and in inferencing in general - to provide expectations and to constrain processing. It also is used to infer or refine desired information ("problem variables") on the basis of other available information ("context variables"). Contextual exploitation becomes critical in several classes of inferencing problems in which traditional information sources do not provide sufficient resolution between entity states or when such states are poorly or incompletely modeled. An adaptive evidence-accrual inference method - adapted from developments in target recognition and scene understanding - is presented; whereby context variables are selected on the basis of (a) their utility in refining explicit problem variables, (b) the probability of evaluating these variables to within a given accuracy, given candidate system actions (data collection, mining or processing), and (c) the cost of such actions. The Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) Data Fusion Model, with its extension to dual Resource Management functions, has been adapted to accommodate adaptive information exploitation, to include adaptive context exploitation. The interplay of Data Fusion and Resource Management (DF&RM) functionality in exploiting contextual information is illustrated in terms of the dual-node DF&RM architecture. An important advance is in the integration of data mining methods for data search/discovery and for abductive model refinement.

  16. Adaptation through proportion

    Xiong, Liyang; Shi, Wenjia; Tang, Chao


    Adaptation is a ubiquitous feature in biological sensory and signaling networks. It has been suggested that adaptive systems may follow certain simple design principles across diverse organisms, cells and pathways. One class of networks that can achieve adaptation utilizes an incoherent feedforward control, in which two parallel signaling branches exert opposite but proportional effects on the output at steady state. In this paper, we generalize this adaptation mechanism by establishing a steady-state proportionality relationship among a subset of nodes in a network. Adaptation can be achieved by using any two nodes in the sub-network to respectively regulate the output node positively and negatively. We focus on enzyme networks and first identify basic regulation motifs consisting of two and three nodes that can be used to build small networks with proportional relationships. Larger proportional networks can then be constructed modularly similar to LEGOs. Our method provides a general framework to construct and analyze a class of proportional and/or adaptation networks with arbitrary size, flexibility and versatile functional features.

  17. Intelligent query processing for semantic mediation of information systems

    Saber Benharzallah


    Full Text Available We propose an intelligent and an efficient query processing approach for semantic mediation of information systems. We propose also a generic multi agent architecture that supports our approach. Our approach focuses on the exploitation of intelligent agents for query reformulation and the use of a new technology for the semantic representation. The algorithm is self-adapted to the changes of the environment, offers a wide aptitude and solves the various data conflicts in a dynamic way; it also reformulates the query using the schema mediation method for the discovered systems and the context mediation for the other systems.

  18. From headwater tributaries to international river: observing and adapting to climate variability and change in the Nile basin

    Conway, D. [University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Development Studies


    Egypt is almost totally dependent upon water that originates from the upstream headwaters of the Nile in the humid Ethiopian and East African highlands. Analysis of rainfall and river flow records during the 20th century demonstrates high levels of interannual and interdecadal variability. This is experienced locally and regionally in the headwater regions of the Nile and internationally through its effects on downstream Nile flows in Sudan and Egypt. Examples of climate variability are presented from areas in the basin where it exerts a strong influence on society; the Ethiopian highlands (links with food security), Lake Victoria (management of non-stationary lake levels) and Egypt (exposure to interdecadal variability of Nile flows). These examples reveal adaptations across various scales by individuals and institutions acting alongside other social and economic considerations. Water resources management in the downstream riparian Egypt has involved institutional level reactive adaptations to prolonged periods of low and high Nile flows. Observed responses include the establishment of more robust contingency planning and early warning systems alongside strategic assessment of water use and planning in response to low flows during the 1980s. In the 1990s high flows have enabled Egypt to pursue opportunistic policies to expand irrigation. These policies are embedded in wider socio-political and economic considerations but increase Egypt's exposure and sensitivity to climate driven fluctuations in Nile flows. Analysis of climate change projections for the region shows there is no clear indication of how Nile flows will be affected because of uncertainty about future rainfall patterns in the basin. In many instances the most appropriate entry point for adaptation to climate change will be coping with climate variability and will play out against the certainty of looming national water scarcity in Egypt due to rapid population growth and its possible exacerbation

  19. Adaptation and risk management

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL


    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  20. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang


    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  1. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Thomas R. Rimmele


    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  2. Nuclear receptors : mediators and modifiers of inflammation-induced cholestasis

    Mulder, Jaap; Karpen, Saul J.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kuipers, Folkert


    Inflammation-induced cholestasis (IIC) is a frequently occurring phenomenon. A central role in its pathogenesis is played by nuclear receptors (NRs). These ligand-activated transcription factors not only regulate basal expression of hepatobiliary transport systems, but also mediate adaptive response

  3. Dynamic public service mediation

    Hofman, W.; Staalduinen, M. van


    This paper presents an approach to dynamic public service mediation. It is based on a conceptual model and the use of search and ranking algorithms. The conceptual model is based on Abstract State Machine theory. Requirements for dynamic service mediation were derived from a real-world case. The con

  4. Teaching Mediated Public Relations.

    Kent, Michael L.


    Discusses approaches to teaching a mediated public relations course, emphasizing the World Wide Web. Outlines five course objectives, assignments and activities, evaluation, texts, and lecture topics. Argues that students mastering these course objectives will understand ethical issues relating to media use, using mediated technology in public…

  5. Ruimte voor mediation

    Combrink-Kuiters, L.; Niemeijer, E.; Voert, M. ter


    Dit onderzoek is samen met ADR en mediation Rechterlijke macht gepubliceerd. Het doel was enerzijds na te gaan of, en onder welke condities, mediation in de Nederlandse context een effectief en efficiënt alternatief is voor de gerechtelijke geschillenbeslechting. Anderzijds inzicht te verwerven in d

  6. Adaptive Alternating Minimization Algorithms

    Niesen, Urs; Wornell, Gregory


    The classical alternating minimization (or projection) algorithm has been successful in the context of solving optimization problems over two variables or equivalently of finding a point in the intersection of two sets. The iterative nature and simplicity of the algorithm has led to its application to many areas such as signal processing, information theory, control, and finance. A general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the algorithm is quite well-known when the underlying problem parameters are fixed. In many practical situations, however, the underlying problem parameters are changing over time, and the use of an adaptive algorithm is more appropriate. In this paper, we study such an adaptive version of the alternating minimization algorithm. As a main result of this paper, we provide a general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the adaptive algorithm. Perhaps surprisingly, these conditions seem to be the minimal ones one would expect in ...

  7. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten


    This article develops a model where ownership improves the efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only...... by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...... adaptation of the home choose ownership. This article analyses the consumer's optimization. The model provides an explanation for the observation that homeowners typically live in larger dwelling units than tenants. It also provides an explanation for a high price of housing services tending to reduce...

  8. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten


    This article develops a model where ownership improves efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only by adapting...... the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...... of the home choose ownership. This article analyses the consumer's optimization. The model provides an explanation for the observation that homeowners typically live in larger dwelling units than tenants. It also provides and explanation for a high price on housing services tending to reduce homeownership...

  9. Adaptable Embedded Systems

    Lisbôa, Carlos; Carro, Luigi


    As embedded systems become more complex, designers face a number of challenges at different levels: they need to boost performance, while keeping energy consumption as low as possible, they need to reuse existent software code, and at the same time they need to take advantage of the extra logic available in the chip, represented by multiple processors working together.  This book describes several strategies to achieve such different and interrelated goals, by the use of adaptability. Coverage includes reconfigurable systems, dynamic optimization techniques such as binary translation and trace reuse, new memory architectures including homogeneous and heterogeneous multiprocessor systems, communication issues and NOCs, fault tolerance against fabrication defects and soft errors, and finally, how one can combine several of these techniques together to achieve higher levels of performance and adaptability.  The discussion also includes how to employ specialized software to improve this new adaptive system, and...

  10. Experimental adaptive process tomography

    Pogorelov, I. A.; Struchalin, G. I.; Straupe, S. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Kravtsov, K. S.; Kulik, S. P.


    Adaptive measurements were recently shown to significantly improve the performance of quantum state tomography. Utilizing information about the system for the online choice of optimal measurements allows one to reach the ultimate bounds of precision for state reconstruction. In this article we generalize an adaptive Bayesian approach to the case of process tomography and experimentally show its superiority in the task of learning unknown quantum operations. Our experiments with photonic polarization qubits cover all types of single-qubit channels. We also discuss instrumental errors and the criteria for evaluation of the ultimate achievable precision in an experiment. It turns out that adaptive tomography provides a lower noise floor in the presence of strong technical noise.

  11. Engineering Adaptive Web Applications

    Dolog, Peter


    suit the user profile the most. This paper summarizes the domain engineering framework for such adaptive web applications. The framework provides guidelines to develop adaptive web applications as members of a family. It suggests how to utilize the design artifacts as knowledge which can be used......Information and services on the web are accessible for everyone. Users of the web differ in their background, culture, political and social environment, interests and so on. Ambient intelligence was envisioned as a concept for systems which are able to adapt to user actions and needs....... With the growing amount of information and services, the web applications become natural candidates to adopt the concepts of ambient intelligence. Such applications can deal with divers user intentions and actions based on the user profile and can suggest the combination of information content and services which...

  12. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation for temperature tolerance in freshwater zooplankton.

    Yampolsky, Lev Y; Schaer, Tobias M M; Ebert, Dieter


    Many organisms have geographical distributions extending from the tropics to near polar regions or can experience up to 30°C temperature variation within the lifespan of an individual. Two forms of evolutionary adaptation to such wide ranges in ambient temperatures are frequently discussed: local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. The freshwater planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna, whose range extends from South Africa to near arctic sites, shows strong phenotypic and genotypic variation in response to temperature. In this study, we use D. magna clones from 22 populations (one clone per population) ranging from latitude 0° (Kenya) to 66° North (White Sea) to explore the contributions of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation to high temperature tolerance. Temperature tolerance was studied as knockout time (time until immobilization, T(imm)) at 37°C in clones acclimatized to either 20°C or 28°C. Acclimatization to 28°C strongly increased T(imm), testifying to adaptive phenotypic plasticity. At the same time, Timm significantly correlated with average high temperature at the clones' sites of origin, suggesting local adaptation. As earlier studies have found that haemoglobin expression contributes to temperature tolerance, we also quantified haemoglobin concentration in experimental animals and found that both acclimatization temperature (AccT) and temperature at the site of origin are positively correlated with haemoglobin concentration. Furthermore, Daphnia from warmer climates upregulate haemoglobin much more strongly in response to AccT, suggesting local adaptation for plasticity in haemoglobin expression. Our results show that both local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity contribute to temperature tolerance, and elucidate a possible role of haemoglobin in mediating these effects that differs along a cold-warm gradient.

  13. Music, Radio, and Mediatization

    Krogh, Mads; Michelsen, Morten


    Mediatization has become a key concept for understanding the relations between media and other cultural and social fields. Contributing to the discussions related to the concept of mediatization, this article discusses how practices of radio and music(al life) influence each other. We follow Deacon......’s and Stanyer’s advice to supplement the concept of mediatization with ‘a series of additional concepts at lower levels of abstraction’ and suggest, in this respect, the notion of heterogeneous milieus of music– radio. Hereby, we turn away from the all-encompassing perspectives related to the concept...... of mediatization where media as such seem to be ascribed agency. Instead, we consider historical accounts of music–radio in order to address the complex non- linearity of concrete processes of mediatization as they take place in the multiple meetings between a decentred notion of radio and musical life....

  14. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mediator

    Venturi, Michela

    In the past several years great attention has been dedicated to the characterization of the Mediator complex in a different range of model organisms. Mediator is a conserved co-activator complex involved in transcriptional regulation and it conveys signals from regulatory transcription factors......+ is a nonessential gene, while deletion of med11+ resulted in unviable cells. These results are in line with those obtained in S. cerevisiae. Isolation of S. pombe Mediator by the tandem affinity purification method and Co-IP experiments lead to the conclusion that Med9 and Med11 might not belong to the Mediator...... complex, but our results did not exclude it completely either. Our attempts to demonstrate the presence of these two subunits in the Mediator complex remain inconclusive primarily due to the lack of proper expression of the tagged versions of the proteins. However, we have paved a way to further...

  15. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson


    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications.

  16. Adaptive radar resource management

    Moo, Peter


    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  17. Adaptive Learning Management System

    Violeta Moisa


    Full Text Available This article is an introduction to a new model for an adaptive Learning Management System. It presents the current e-learning standards and describes the elements that can be used to create the system: the sequencing control modes, sequencing rules, navigation controls, learning records and learning record stores. The model is based on artificial intelligent algorithms that analyze the data captured for each user and creates an adaptive navigation path through the learning content of the system, allowing each user to experience the content in different ways

  18. Postnatal Cardiovascular Adaptation

    Ferda Ozlu


    Full Text Available Fetus depends on placental circulation in utero. A successful transition from intrauterin to extrauterine life depends on succesful physiological changes during labor. During delivery, fetus transfers from a liquid environment where oxygen comes via umbilical vein to air environement where oxygenation is supported via air breathing. Endocrinological changes are important for fetus to adapt to extrauterine life. In addition to these, cord clemping plays a crucial role in postnatal adaptation. Establishment of neonatal postnatal life and succesful overcome, the fetal cardiovascular transition period are important to stay on. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 181-190

  19. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    . The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...... different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock- up concept...


    John H. Holland


    Complex adaptive systems (cas) - systems that involve many components that adapt or learn as they interact - are at the heart of important contemporary problems. The study of cas poses unique challenges: Some of our most powerful mathematical tools, particularly methods involving fixed points, attractors, and the like, are of limited help in understanding the development of cas. This paper suggests ways to modify research methods and tools, with an emphasis on the role of computer-based models, to increase our understanding of cas.

  1. Adaptation dynamics in densely clustered chemoreceptors.

    William Pontius

    Full Text Available In many sensory systems, transmembrane receptors are spatially organized in large clusters. Such arrangement may facilitate signal amplification and the integration of multiple stimuli. However, this organization likely also affects the kinetics of signaling since the cytoplasmic enzymes that modulate the activity of the receptors must localize to the cluster prior to receptor modification. Here we examine how these spatial considerations shape signaling dynamics at rest and in response to stimuli. As a model system, we use the chemotaxis pathway of Escherichia coli, a canonical system for the study of how organisms sense, respond, and adapt to environmental stimuli. In bacterial chemotaxis, adaptation is mediated by two enzymes that localize to the clustered receptors and modulate their activity through methylation-demethylation. Using a novel stochastic simulation, we show that distributive receptor methylation is necessary for successful adaptation to stimulus and also leads to large fluctuations in receptor activity in the steady state. These fluctuations arise from noise in the number of localized enzymes combined with saturated modification kinetics between the localized enzymes and the receptor substrate. An analytical model explains how saturated enzyme kinetics and large fluctuations can coexist with an adapted state robust to variation in the expression levels of the pathway constituents, a key requirement to ensure the functionality of individual cells within a population. This contrasts with the well-mixed covalent modification system studied by Goldbeter and Koshland in which mean activity becomes ultrasensitive to protein abundances when the enzymes operate at saturation. Large fluctuations in receptor activity have been quantified experimentally and may benefit the cell by enhancing its ability to explore empty environments and track shallow nutrient gradients. Here we clarify the mechanistic relationship of these large

  2. Functional Roles of Syk in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Young-Su Yi


    Full Text Available Inflammation is a series of complex biological responses to protect the host from pathogen invasion. Chronic inflammation is considered a major cause of diseases, such as various types of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases and cancers. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk was initially found to be highly expressed in hematopoietic cells and has been known to play crucial roles in adaptive immune responses. However, recent studies have reported that Syk is also involved in other biological functions, especially in innate immune responses. Although Syk has been extensively studied in adaptive immune responses, numerous studies have recently presented evidence that Syk has critical functions in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and is closely related to innate immune response. This review describes the characteristics of Syk-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes the recent findings supporting the crucial roles of Syk in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and diseases, and discusses Syk-targeted drug development for the therapy of inflammatory diseases.

  3. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan


    regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...

  4. Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan


    by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...

  5. Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    Basinger, Scott A.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Cohen, David; Green, Joseph J.; Lou, John; Ohara, Catherine; Redding, David; Shi, Fang


    Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval software uses the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm, an image-based sensing method that can turn any focal plane science instrument into a wavefront sensor, avoiding the need to use external metrology equipment. Knowledge of the wavefront enables intelligent control of active optical systems.

  6. Cooperative adaptive cruise control

    Naus, G.J.L.; Molengraft, R. van de; Ploeg, J.


    Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) enables automatic following of a preceding vehicle, based on measurements of the inter-vehicle distance xr,i and the relative velocity ˙ xr,i. Commonly, a radar is used for these measurements, see Figure 1. Decreasing the inter-vehicle distance to a small value of only

  7. Adapting Bulls to Florida

    The adaptation of bulls used for natural breeding purposes to the Gulf Coast region of the United States including all of Florida is an important topic. Nearly 40% of the U.S. cow/calf population resides in the Gulf Coast and Southeast. Thus, as A.I. is relatively rare, the number of bulls used for ...

  8. The Adaptability of Teams

    Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry


    to the premise that “fit” between an organization’s external context and its internal structure may enhance performance, but also to the suggestion that the adaptation process may be asymmetric (Moon et al., 2004). Further, the paper contributes to practice by highlighting both the opportunities and risks...

  9. Compiler Assisted Runtime Adaptation

    Sima, V.M.


    In this dissertation, we address the problem of runtime adaptation of the application to its execution environment. A typical example is changing theprocessing element on which a computation is executed, considering the available processing elements in the system. This is done based on the informati

  10. The governance of adaptation

    Huitema, Dave; Adger, William Neil; Berkhout, Frans; Massey, Eric; Mazmanian, Daniel; Munaretto, Stefania; Plummer, Ryan; Termeer, Katrien


    The governance of climate adaptation involves the collective efforts of multiple societal actors to address problems, or to reap the benefits, associated with impacts of climate change. Governing involves the creation of institutions, rules and organizations, and the selection of normative princi

  11. Engineering Adaptive Applications

    Dolog, Peter

    for a domain.In this book, we propose a new domain engineering framework which extends a development process of Web applications with techniques required when designing such adaptive customizable Web applications. The framework is provided with design abstractions which deal separately with information served...

  12. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    Kuiper, Pieter; Dijk, van Betsy; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruël, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan


    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  13. [Mediation in health].

    Decastello, Alice


    The author presents mediation as an alternative dispute resolution method. Mediation is a process where the parties are ready to settle their dispute out of court, by way of negotiation and with the involvement of an independent third person as mediator. In the mediation process the mediator shall not decide the dispute, nor examine the default or give legal advice or express his/her opinion - the mediator's duty is to help the parties bring their positions closer and come to a settlement agreement within a short time (120 days). The author gives a summary of the applications of the Hungarian Act on Mediation in Public Health and draws conclusions from the practical experience since entry into force of the legislation and illustrates the advantages of mediation over the court procedure (which may drag on for years). The primary advantages of mediation are that both the mediators and the parties are bound by the obligation of secrecy, the procedure is cheaper than the court proceedings, and the parties can "save their faces" because in mediation the winner-winner formula asserts itself - against lawsuits where the winner-loser positions are confronted. The author also analyses the specific data and information available so far. As for the future, the legislation needs to be amended at several points. It is particularly expedient to regulate the legal relationship between the insurance companies and the health service providers because the liability insurance may not cover the damages the courts adjudicate. And so some of the service providers may go bankrupt as the difference in excess of the upper limit of coverage - it might as well be up to HUF 5 million per case - shall be paid from own budget, to the charge of the upkeep costs. It is also required to review and amend the regulations on expert activities, just as it is inevitable to make data supply compulsory - otherwise it will be impossible to monitor the number of mediation procedures in health. At present

  14. General resonance mediation

    McGarrie, Moritz


    We extend the framework of general gauge mediation to cases where the mediating fields have a nontrivial spectral function, as might arise from strong dynamics. We demonstrate through examples that this setup describes a broad class of possible models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. A main emphasis is to give general formulas for cross sections for {sigma}(visible {yields} hidden) in these resonance models. We will also give formulas for soft masses, A-terms and demonstrate the framework with a holographic setup.

  15. Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient.

    Kates, Robert W; Travis, William R; Wilbanks, Thomas J


    All human-environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations.

  16. Spatial compression impairs prism-adaptation in healthy individuals

    Rachel J Scriven


    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviours, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control processes in prism-adaptation may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced strategic control might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because a the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or b pathologically increased error detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether strategic control and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard prism adaptation. Each participant completed three prism-adaptation procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During prism-adaptation, visual-feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced strategic control and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms.

  17. Adaptation: Needs, Financing and Institutions

    Klein, Richard J.T.; Kartha, Sivan; Persson, Aasa; Watkiss, Paul; Ackerman, Frank; Downing, Thomas E.; Kjellen, Bo; Schipper, Lisa (Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm (SE))


    Regardless of the efforts put into mitigation, some impacts of climate change are already unavoidable. Adaptation to climate change has therefore become a key component of domestic climate policy, along with mitigation. Adaptation has also become key to the success of global climate policy. Without an agreement on supporting adaptation in developing countries, there will be no agreement on mitigation. Strong mitigation efforts make it more likely that adaptation will be effective and affordable. The world cannot rely on adaptation alone: it would eventually lead to a level of climate change to which adaptation is no longer feasible. Government action is needed to create an enabling environment for adaptation. This includes removing existing financial, legal, institutional and knowledge barriers to adaptation, and strengthening the capacity of people and organisations to adapt. The success of adaptation relies on the success of development, and vice versa. Poverty reduction, good governance, education, environmental protection, health and gender equality all contribute to adaptive capacity. Substantially more money is needed to support adaptation in developing countries. Current levels of funding will soon have to be scaled up by two orders of magnitude (from US$ hundreds of million to US$ tens of billion per year). An agreement on adaptation in Copenhagen in 2009 will need to include concrete steps towards a strengthened knowledge base for adaptation, substantially more funding for developing countries, and enhanced adaptation planning and implementation at the national level. Recommendations: Developed countries should accept a transparent, principle-based allocation of responsibility for adaptation funding, resulting in adequate, new and additional money to support adaptation programmes in developing countries. Levies on carbon market transactions and auctioning emission permits are two existing mechanisms of generating new and additional funds consistent with

  18. Natural generalized mirage mediation

    Baer, Howard; Serce, Hasan; Tata, Xerxes


    In the supersymmetric scenario known as mirage mediation (MM), the soft SUSY breaking terms receive comparable anomaly-mediation and moduli-mediation contributions leading to the phenomenon of mirage unification. The simplest MM SUSY breaking models which are consistent with the measured Higgs mass and sparticle mass constraints are strongly disfavoured by fine-tuning considerations. However, while MM makes robust predictions for gaugino masses, the scalar sector is quite sensitive to specific mechanisms for moduli stabilization and potential uplifting. We suggest here a broader setup of generalized mirage mediation (GMM), where heretofore discrete parameters are allowed as continuous to better parametrize these other schemes. We find that natural SUSY spectra consistent with both the measured value of m(h). as well as LHC lower bounds on superpartner masses are then possible. We explicitly show that models generated from natural GMM may be beyond the reach of even high-luminosity LHC searches. In such a case...

  19. DREDed Anomaly Mediation

    Boyda, E; Pierce, A T; Boyda, Ed; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierce, Aaron


    We offer a guide to dimensional reduction (DRED) in theories with anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. Evanescent operators proportional to epsilon arise in the bare Lagrangian when it is reduced from d=4 to d= (4-2 epsilon) dimensions. In the course of a detailed diagrammatic calculation, we show that inclusion of these operators is crucial. The evanescent operators conspire to drive the supersymmetry-breaking parameters along anomaly-mediation trajectories across heavy particle thresholds, guaranteeing the ultraviolet insensitivity.

  20. An Adaptive Robot Game

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars


    The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...... to the behavior of the interacting person. This paper presents a simple ball game between a single player and a mobile robot platform. The algorithm has been validated using simulation and real world experiments....

  1. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Utada, Andrew


    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  2. Adaptive manifold learning.

    Zhang, Zhenyue; Wang, Jing; Zha, Hongyuan


    Manifold learning algorithms seek to find a low-dimensional parameterization of high-dimensional data. They heavily rely on the notion of what can be considered as local, how accurately the manifold can be approximated locally, and, last but not least, how the local structures can be patched together to produce the global parameterization. In this paper, we develop algorithms that address two key issues in manifold learning: 1) the adaptive selection of the local neighborhood sizes when imposing a connectivity structure on the given set of high-dimensional data points and 2) the adaptive bias reduction in the local low-dimensional embedding by accounting for the variations in the curvature of the manifold as well as its interplay with the sampling density of the data set. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods for improving the performance of manifold learning algorithms using both synthetic and real-world data sets.

  3. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J


    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  4. Adaptive method of lines

    Saucez, Ph


    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  5. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  6. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...... neighborhoods. The tutorial also present applications of the adaptive large neighborhood search, mostly related to vehicle routing problems for which the heuristic has been extremely successful. We discuss how the heuristic can be parallelized and thereby take advantage of modern desktop computers...

  7. Adapt or Die

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green


    read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost...... several different notions of non-adaptivity and identify key properties that must be dealt with if we are to prove polynomial lower bounds without restrictions on the data structures. Finally, our results also unveil an interesting connection between data structures and depth-2 circuits. This allows us...... to translate conjectured hard data structure problems into good candidates for high circuit lower bounds; in particular, in the area of linear circuits for linear operators. Building on lower bound proofs for data structures in slightly more restrictive models, we also present a number of properties of linear...

  8. Adapted Active Appearance Models

    Renaud Séguier


    Full Text Available Active Appearance Models (AAMs are able to align efficiently known faces under duress, when face pose and illumination are controlled. We propose Adapted Active Appearance Models to align unknown faces in unknown poses and illuminations. Our proposal is based on the one hand on a specific transformation of the active model texture in an oriented map, which changes the AAM normalization process; on the other hand on the research made in a set of different precomputed models related to the most adapted AAM for an unknown face. Tests on public and private databases show the interest of our approach. It becomes possible to align unknown faces in real-time situations, in which light and pose are not controlled.

  9. Adaptive semantics visualization

    Nazemi, Kawa


    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  10. Designing Adaptive Web Applications

    Dolog, Peter


    Learning system to study a discipline. In business to business interaction, different requirements and parameters of exchanged business requests might be served by different services from third parties. Such applications require certain intelligence and a slightly different approach to design. Adpative web...... adaptation to the changed parameters of environments, user or context. Adaptation can be seen as an orthogonal concern or viewpoint in a design process. In this paper I will discuss design abstractions which are employed in current design methods for web applications. I will exemplify the use......The unique characteristic of web applications is that they are supposed to be used by much bigger and diverse set of users and stakeholders. An example application area is e-Learning or business to business interaction. In eLearning environment, various users with different background use the e...

  11. Improved Adaptive Fingerprint Binarization

    Bartunek, Josef Ström; Nilsson, Mikael; Nordberg, Jörgen; Claesson, Ingvar


    In this paper improvements to a previous work are presented. Removing the redundant artifacts in the fingerprint mask is introduced enhancing the final result. The proposed method is entirely adaptive process adjusting to each fingerprint without any further supervision of the user. Hence, the algorithm is insensitive to the characteristics of the fingerprint sensor and the various physical appearances of the fingerprints. Further, a detailed description of fingerprint mask generation not ful...

  12. Adaptable positioner; Posicionador adaptativo

    Labrador Pavon, I.


    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref.

  13. Adaptive positioner; Posicionador adaptativo

    Labrador Pavon, I.


    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing

    Coxe, Robin L. (Inventor); Galica, Gary E. (Inventor)


    Described are methods and apparatus, including computer program products, for reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing technology. An environmental signal representative of an external environmental condition is received. A processing configuration is automatically selected, based on the environmental signal, from a plurality of processing configurations. A reconfigurable processing element is reconfigured to operate according to the selected processing configuration. In some examples, the environmental condition is detected and the environmental signal is generated based on the detected condition.

  15. Robust Adaptive Control.


    13.2 3.6. 14.0. 1.8. 11111.52 *.6 L 3 n1 i erated ~~~m nc. AFOSR-TR- 798 s AD-A 161 349 ROBUST ADAPTIVE CONTROL * FINAL REPORT PREPARED BY: R~ OBERT L... Centre Block Computes the Norm of the [1I] Solo, V., "Time Series Recursions and Stochastc Regressors. The Rematning Elemerts Imple- Approximation

  16. Stylistic Adaptation in Translation



    <正>A translation criteria universally accepted is faithfulness, which can be examined from different dimensions of content, form and style.Among these three dimensions,faithfulness in content and form is easier to be noted,while the faithfulness in style is harder to judge.This paper will mainly focus on the study of stylistic features for the purpose of language providing methods to achieve stylistic adaptation in translation.

  17. Adaptive Biomedical Innovation.

    Honig, P K; Hirsch, G


    Adaptive Biomedical Innovation (ABI) is a multistakeholder approach to product and process innovation aimed at accelerating the delivery of clinical value to patients and society. ABI offers the opportunity to transcend the fragmentation and linearity of decision-making in our current model and create a common collaborative framework that optimizes the benefit and access of new medicines for patients as well as creating a more sustainable innovation ecosystem.

  18. Adaptation to High Altitude


    Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude native...

  19. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna


    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians.

  20. Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed

    Parliament, Hugh A.


    The design and implementation of a system for the acquisition, processing, and analysis of signal data is described. The initial application for the system is the development and analysis of algorithms for excision of interfering tones from direct sequence spread spectrum communication systems. The system is called the Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed (ASPT) and is an integrated hardware and software system built around the TMS320C30 chip. The hardware consists of a radio frequency data source, digital receiver, and an adaptive signal processor implemented on a Sun workstation. The software components of the ASPT consists of a number of packages including the Sun driver package; UNIX programs that support software development on the TMS320C30 boards; UNIX programs that provide the control, user interaction, and display capabilities for the data acquisition, processing, and analysis components of the ASPT; and programs that perform the ASPT functions including data acquisition, despreading, and adaptive filtering. The performance of the ASPT system is evaluated by comparing actual data rates against their desired values. A number of system limitations are identified and recommendations are made for improvements.

  1. Adaptation to High Altitude

    H. S. Nayar


    Full Text Available Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude natives is well documented. RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit increase whereas arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation percentage decreases at high altitude. Diuretics (Furosemide have no role in adaptation to high altitude and adequate body hydration must be maintained.The ultimate adaptive mechanisms occur at tissue level which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissue and its utilization. The work capacity decreases at high altitude and a relationship between load carried and speed of marching has been determined at various altitudes. Although altitude has an adverse effect on process of cold acclimatization, yet it is possible to induce cold acclimatization by exposing subjects to a temperature of 0° to -5°C for a period of three hours daily for three weeks. The caloric requirements increase at high altitudes and are 4,286 K Cal and 4,380 K Cal at 13000 feet (3950 m and 17000 feet (5170 m, respectively.

  2. Adaptive Structural Mode Control Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes the development of an adaptive structural mode control system. The adaptive control system will begin from a "baseline" dynamic model of the...

  3. Mechanisms of motor adaptation in reactive balance control.

    Torrence D J Welch

    Full Text Available Balance control must be rapidly modified to provide stability in the face of environmental challenges. Although changes in reactive balance over repeated perturbations have been observed previously, only anticipatory postural adjustments preceding voluntary movements have been studied in the framework of motor adaptation and learning theory. Here, we hypothesized that adaptation occurs in task-level balance control during responses to perturbations due to central changes in the control of both anticipatory and reactive components of balance. Our adaptation paradigm consisted of a Training set of forward support-surface perturbations, a Reversal set of novel countermanding perturbations that reversed direction, and a Washout set identical to the Training set. Adaptation was characterized by a change in a motor variable from the beginning to the end of each set, the presence of aftereffects at the beginning of the Washout set when the novel perturbations were removed, and a return of the variable at the end of the Washout to a level comparable to the end of the Training set. Task-level balance performance was characterized by peak center of mass (CoM excursion and velocity, which showed adaptive changes with repetitive trials. Only small changes in anticipatory postural control, characterized by body lean and background muscle activity were observed. Adaptation was found in the evoked long-latency muscular response, and also in the sensorimotor transformation mediating that response. Finally, in each set, temporal patterns of muscle activity converged towards an optimum predicted by a trade-off between maximizing motor performance and minimizing muscle activity. Our results suggest that adaptation in balance, as well as other motor tasks, is mediated by altering central sensitivity to perturbations and may be driven by energetic considerations.

  4. Adaptation: A Partially Automated Approach

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.


    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact design is developed around import procedures of M-company. An overview of the artefact is discussed in detail to fully describes the adaptation mechanism with automatic adjustment for compliance re...

  5. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    Olivier, S


    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  6. Evolutionary dynamics of metabolic adaptation

    van Hoek, M.J.A.


    In this thesis we study how organisms adapt their metabolism to a changing environment. Metabolic adaptation occurs at different timescales. Organisms adapt their metabolism via metabolic regulation, which happens in the order of minutes to hours and via evolution, which takes many generations. Here

  7. Adaptation in Tourist Publicity Translation



    This paper attempts to provide a preliminary study of adaptation adopted in the translation of tourist publicity and ex-plore the main reasons behind the adaptive techniques on the basis of functionalist theories of translation. It is found that cultural blanks, different linguistic conventions and also the intended functions of tourist publicity may all contribute to adaptation in translation.

  8. Adaptation : A Partially Automated Approach

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.


    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact

  9. Efficient adaptive fuzzy control scheme

    Papp, Z.; Driessen, B.J.F.


    The paper presents an adaptive nonlinear (state-) feedback control structure, where the nonlinearities are implemented as smooth fuzzy mappings defined as rule sets. The fine tuning and adaption of the controller is realized by an indirect adaptive scheme, which modifies the parameters of the fuzzy

  10. Adaptability Responding Effectively to Change

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Calarco, Allan


    In today's business world, the complexity and pace of change can be daunting. Adaptability has become recognized as a necessary skill for leaders to develop to be effective in this environment. Even so, leaders rarely know what they can do to become more adaptable and foster adaptability in others. This guidebook contributes to a greater understanding of adaptability and the cognitive, emotional, and dispositional flexibility it requires. Leaders will learn how to develop their adaptability and to become more effective for themselves, the people they lead, and their organizations.

  11. Adaptive filtering prediction and control

    Goodwin, Graham C


    Preface1. Introduction to Adaptive TechniquesPart 1. Deterministic Systems2. Models for Deterministic Dynamical Systems3. Parameter Estimation for Deterministic Systems4. Deterministic Adaptive Prediction5. Control of Linear Deterministic Systems6. Adaptive Control of Linear Deterministic SystemsPart 2. Stochastic Systems7. Optimal Filtering and Prediction8. Parameter Estimation for Stochastic Dynamic Systems9. Adaptive Filtering and Prediction10. Control of Stochastic Systems11. Adaptive Control of Stochastic SystemsAppendicesA. A Brief Review of Some Results from Systems TheoryB. A Summary o

  12. Holographic Adaptive Optics

    Andersen, G.

    For the last two decades adaptive optics has been used as a technique for correcting imaging applications and directed energy/laser targeting and laser communications systems affected by atmospheric turbulence. Typically these systems are bulky and limited to system with the potential to operate at speeds of MHz. The system utilizes a hologram to perform an all-optical wavefront analysis that removes the need for any computer. Finally, the sensing is made on a modal basis so it is largely insensitive to scintillation and obscuration. We have constructed a prototype device and will present experimental results from our research. The holographic adaptive optics system begins with the creation of a multiplexed hologram. This hologram is created by recording the maximum and minimum response functions of every actuator in the deformable mirror against a unique focused reference beam. When a wavefront of some arbitrary phase is incident on the processed hologram, a number of focal spots are created -- one pair for each actuator in the DM. The absolute phase error at each particular actuator location is simply related to the ratio of the intensity of each pair of spots. In this way we can use an array of photodetectors to give a direct readout of phase error without the need for any calculations. The advantages of holographic adaptive optics are many. To begin with, the measurement of phase error is made all optically, so the wavefront sensor directly controls the actuators in the DM without any computers. Using fast, photon counting photodetectors allows for closed loop correction limited only by the speed of the deformable mirror which in the case of MEMS devices can be 100 kHz or more. All this can be achieved in an extremely compact and lightweight package making it perfectly suited to applications such as UAV surveillance imagery and free space optical communications systems. Lastly, since the correction is made on a modal basis instead of zonal, it is virtually

  13. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.


    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  14. Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages

    Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille

    of handling multiple, fluid realities with multiple, fluid methods. Empirically, the paper works with mediation in fashion - that is efforts the active shaping of relations between producer and consumer through communication, marketing and PR. Fashion mediation is by no means simple, but organise complex...... Modern. New York, Harvester-Wheatsheaf. Law, J. (2004). After Method - mess in social science research. London and New York, Routledge......., it is an important ambition of this paper to go into a methodological discussion of how "that which effectively happens" can be approached. To this end, the paper will combine Hennion's term of the "mediator" with John Laws methodological term of "method assemblages". Method assemblages is a suggested as a way...

  15. The Strategic Mediator

    Rossignoli, Cecilia; Carugati, Andrea; Mola, Lapo


    The last 10 years have witnessed the emergence of electronic marketplaces as players that leverage new technologies to facilitate B2B internet-mediated collaborative business. Nowadays these players are augmenting their services from simple intermediation to include new inter-organizational relat......The last 10 years have witnessed the emergence of electronic marketplaces as players that leverage new technologies to facilitate B2B internet-mediated collaborative business. Nowadays these players are augmenting their services from simple intermediation to include new inter......-marketplace assumes the paradoxical role of strategic mediator: an agent who upholds and heightens the fences of the transactions instead of leveling them. The results have implication in shaping how we see the role of technology as strategic or commoditized....

  16. "I know, therefore I adapt?" Complexities of individual adaptation to climate-induced forest dieback in Alaska

    Lauren E. Oakes


    Full Text Available Individual actions to avoid, benefit from, or cope with climate change impacts partly shape adaptation; much research on adaptation has focused at the systems level, overlooking drivers of individual responses. Theoretical frameworks and empirical studies of environmental behavior identify a complex web of cognitive, affective, and evaluative factors that motivate stewardship. We explore the relationship between knowledge of, and adaptation to, widespread, climate-induced tree mortality to understand the cognitive (i.e., knowledge and learning, affective (i.e., attitudes and place attachment, and evaluative (i.e., use values factors that influence how individuals respond to climate-change impacts. From 43 semistructured interviews with forest managers and users in a temperate forest, we identified distinct responses to local, climate-induced environmental changes that we then categorized as either behavioral or psychological adaptations. Interviewees developed a depth of knowledge about the dieback through a combination of direct, place-based experiences and indirect, mediated learning through social interactions. Knowing that the dieback was associated with climate change led to different adaptive responses among the interviewees, although knowledge alone did not explain this variation. Forest users reported psychological adaptations to process negative attitudes; these adaptations were spurred by knowledge of the causes, losses of intangible values, and impacts to a species to which they held attachment. Behavioral adaptations exclusive to a high level of knowledge included actions such as using the forests to educate others or changing transportation behaviors to reduce personal energy consumption. Managers integrated awareness of the dieback and its dynamics across spatial scales into current management objectives. Our findings suggest that adaptive management may occur from the bottom up, as individual managers implement new practices in

  17. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang


    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic.

  18. The Adaptation Finance Gap Report

    UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report series focuses on Finance, Technology and Knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It compliments the Emissions Gap Report series, and explores the implications of failing to close the emissions gap. The report builds on a 2014 assessment by the United Nations...... Environment Programme (UNEP), which laid out the concept of ‘adaptation gaps’ and outlined three such gaps: technology, finance and knowledge. The 2016 Adaptation Gap Report assesses the difference between the financial costs of adapting to climate change in developing countries and the amount of money...... actually available to meet these costs – a difference known as the “adaptation finance gap”. Like the 2014 report, the 2016 report focuses on developing countries, where adaptation capacity is often the lowest and needs the highest, and concentrates on the period up to 2050. The report identifies trends...

  19. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.


    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  20. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    Sommerlund, Julie


    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  1. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    of matched filters (one for each veloc- ity component of interest) and filtering the blood process over slow-time and averaging over depth to find the PSD. The methods are tested using various experiments and simulations. First, controlled flow-rig experiments with steady laminar flow are carried out....... Simulations in Field II for pul- sating flow resembling the femoral artery are also analyzed. The simulations are followed by in vivo measurement on the common carotid artery. In all simulations and experiments it was concluded that the adaptive methods display superior per- formance for short observation...

  2. Adaptive CT scanning system

    Sampayan, Stephen E.


    Apparatus, systems, and methods that provide an X-ray interrogation system having a plurality of stationary X-ray point sources arranged to substantially encircle an area or space to be interrogated. A plurality of stationary detectors are arranged to substantially encircle the area or space to be interrogated, A controller is adapted to control the stationary X-ray point sources to emit X-rays one at a time, and to control the stationary detectors to detect the X-rays emitted by the stationary X-ray point sources.

  3. Vein graft adaptation and fistula maturation in the arterial environment.

    Lu, Daniel Y; Chen, Elizabeth Y; Wong, Daniel J; Yamamoto, Kota; Protack, Clinton D; Williams, Willis T; Assi, Roland; Hall, Michael R; Sadaghianloo, Nirvana; Dardik, Alan


    Veins are exposed to the arterial environment during two common surgical procedures, creation of vein grafts and arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). In both cases, veins adapt to the arterial environment that is characterized by different hemodynamic conditions and increased oxygen tension compared with the venous environment. Successful venous adaptation to the arterial environment is critical for long-term success of the vein graft or AVF and, in both cases, is generally characterized by venous dilation and wall thickening. However, AVF are exposed to a high flow, high shear stress, low-pressure arterial environment and adapt mainly via outward dilation with less intimal thickening. Vein grafts are exposed to a moderate flow, moderate shear stress, high-pressure arterial environment and adapt mainly via increased wall thickening with less outward dilation. We review the data that describe these differences, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate these processes. Despite extensive research, there are few differences in the molecular pathways that regulate cell proliferation and migration or matrix synthesis, secretion, or degradation currently identified between vein graft adaptation and AVF maturation that account for the different types of venous adaptation to arterial environments.

  4. Vein graft adaptation and fistula maturation in the arterial environment

    Lu, Daniel Y; Chen, Elizabeth Y; Wong, Daniel J; Yamamoto, Kota; Protack, Clinton D; Williams, Willis T; Assi, Roland; Hall, Michael R; Sadaghianloo, Nirvana; Dardik, Alan


    Veins are exposed to the arterial environment during two common surgical procedures, creation of vein grafts and arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). In both cases veins adapt to the arterial environment that is characterized by different hemodynamic conditions and increased oxygen tension compared to the venous environment. Successful venous adaptation to the arterial environment is critical for long term success of the vein graft or AVF, and in both cases is generally characterized by venous dilation and wall thickening. However, AVF are exposed to a high flow, high shear stress, low pressure arterial environment, and adapt mainly via outward dilation with less intimal thickening. Vein grafts are exposed to a moderate flow, moderate shear stress, high pressure arterial environment, and adapt mainly via increased wall thickening with less outward dilation. We review the data that describe these differences, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate these processes. Despite extensive research, there are few differences in the molecular pathways that regulate cell proliferation and migration or matrix synthesis, secretion, or degradation currently identified between vein graft adaptation and AVF maturation that account for the different types of venous adaptation to arterial environments. PMID:24582063

  5. Science of adaptation to climate change and science for adaptation

    Rob eSwart


    Full Text Available Adaptation to climate change has gained a prominent place next to mitigation on global, national and local policy agendas. However, while an abundance of adaptation strategies, plans and programmes have been developed, progress in turning these into action has been slow. The development of a sound knowledge basis to support adaptation globally is suggested to accelerate progress, but has lagged behind. The emphasis in both current and newly proposed programmes is very much on practice-oriented research with strong stakeholder participation. This paper supports such practice-oriented research, but argues that this is insufficient to support adaptation policy and practice in a productive manner. We argue that there is not only a need for science for adaptation, but also a science of adaptation. The paper argues that participatory, practice-oriented research is indeed essential, but has to be complemented by and connected to more fundamental inquiry and concept development, which takes into account knowledge that has been developed in disciplinary sciences and on issues other than climate change adaptation. At the same time, the level and method of participation in science for adaptation should be determined on the basis of the specific project context and goals. More emphasis on science of adaptation can lead to improved understanding of the conditions for successful science for adaptation.

  6. Models as Mediators

    Sommerlund, Julie

    from laboratory studies, (Latour 1979; Lynch 1985; Sommerlund 2004 (2007); Sommerlund 2006) and is complemented by the attention paid to the "mediator" by Hennion (1989; 1997; 2005). The empirical focus will be on a central - but overlooked - actor of branding and advertising; the model. The model has...... solely been theorized within cultural studies (Craik 1994) as feminine spectacle, but has been neglected as mediator and actor. This paper will argue that models are co-producers of brands, and vice versa. Empirically, the paper will present interviews with models, model-scouts, agents, and advertisers...

  7. Mediated intimacy in families

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff


    Mediating intimacy between children and their parents is still limited investigated and at the same time, we find that, emerging technologies are about to change and affect the way we interact with each other. In this paper, we report from an empirical study where we investigated the social...... with other types of intimate relations such as strong-tie intimacy (couples cohabiting). However, we also identified several issues of intimacy unique to the special relation between children and their parents. These unique acts of intimacy propose challenges when designing technologies for mediated intimacy...

  8. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Hanning Chen


    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how the run-length unit parameter of BFO controls the exploration of the whole search space and the exploitation of the promising areas. Then it presents a variation on the original BFO, called the adaptive bacterial foraging optimization (ABFO, employing the adaptive foraging strategies to improve the performance of the original BFO. This improvement is achieved by enabling the bacterial foraging algorithm to adjust the run-length unit parameter dynamically during algorithm execution in order to balance the exploration/exploitation tradeoff. The experiments compare the performance of two versions of ABFO with the original BFO, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO and a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA on four widely-used benchmark functions. The proposed ABFO shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  9. Adaptive Robust Variable Selection

    Fan, Jianqing; Barut, Emre


    Heavy-tailed high-dimensional data are commonly encountered in various scientific fields and pose great challenges to modern statistical analysis. A natural procedure to address this problem is to use penalized least absolute deviation (LAD) method with weighted $L_1$-penalty, called weighted robust Lasso (WR-Lasso), in which weights are introduced to ameliorate the bias problem induced by the $L_1$-penalty. In the ultra-high dimensional setting, where the dimensionality can grow exponentially with the sample size, we investigate the model selection oracle property and establish the asymptotic normality of the WR-Lasso. We show that only mild conditions on the model error distribution are needed. Our theoretical results also reveal that adaptive choice of the weight vector is essential for the WR-Lasso to enjoy these nice asymptotic properties. To make the WR-Lasso practically feasible, we propose a two-step procedure, called adaptive robust Lasso (AR-Lasso), in which the weight vector in the second step is c...

  10. A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.

    James N Ingram


    Full Text Available Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar

  11. Green infrastructure as a climate change adaptation policy intervention: muddying the waters or clearing a path to a more secure future?

    Sussams, L W; Sheate, W R; Eales, R P


    As dangerous climate change looms, decision-makers are increasingly realising that societies will need to adapt to this threat as well as mitigate against it. Green infrastructure (GI) is increasingly seen as an ideal climate change adaptation policy response. However, with this research the authors identify a number of crucial knowledge gaps within GI and, consequently, call for caution and for a concerted effort to understand the concept and what it can really deliver. GI has risen to prominence in a range of policy areas in large part due to its perceived ability to produce multiple benefits simultaneously, termed 'multifunctionality'. This characteristic strengthens the political appeal of the policy in question at a time when environmental issues have slipped down political agendas. Multifunctionality, however, brings its own set of new challenges that should be evaluated fully before the policy is implemented. This research takes important first steps to developing a critical understanding of what is achievable within GI's capacity. It focuses on one of GI's single objectives, namely climate change adaptation, to focus the analysis of how current obstacles in applying GI's multifunctionality could lead to the ineffective delivery of its objective. By drawing on expert opinion from government officials and representatives from the private, non-government organisation (NGO) and academic sectors, this research questions GI's ability to be effectively 'multifunctional' with an inconsistent definition at its core, deficiencies in its understanding and conflicts within its governance. In light of these observations, the authors then reflect on the judiciousness of applying GI to achieve the other objectives it has also been charged with delivering.

  12. Individual Predictors of Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Rachael D Seidler


    Full Text Available There are large individual variations in strategies and rates of sensorimotor adaptation to spaceflight. This is seen in both the magnitude of performance disruptions when crewmembers are first exposed to microgravity, and in the rate of re-adaptation when they return to Earth’s gravitational environment. Understanding the sources of this variation can lead to a better understanding of the processes underlying adaptation, as well as provide insight into potential routes for facilitating performance of slow adapters. Here we review the literature on brain, behavioral, and genetic predictors of motor learning, recovery of motor function following neural insult, and sensorimotor adaptation. For example, recent studies have identified specific genetic polymorphisms that are associated with faster adaptation on manual joystick tasks and faster recovery of function following a stroke. Moreover, the extent of recruitment of specific brain regions during learning and adaptation has been shown to be predictive of the magnitude of subsequent learning. We close with suggestions for forward work aimed at identifying predictors of spaceflight adaptation success. Identification of slow adapters prior to spaceflight exposure would allow for more targeted preflight training and / or provision of booster training and adaptation adjuncts during spaceflight.

  13. An adaptive algorithm for pass adaptation in plate rolling


    A new algorithm for pass adaptation in plate rolling is developed to improve thickness accuracy of plate products. The feature of the algorithm is that it uses the measured data rather than the schedule calculated data in adaptation, which leads to notable improvementin prediction accuracy of the rolling parameters and thickness accuracy of products can be improved accordingly. Results show that this adaptive algorithm is effective in practice.

  14. An adaptive algorithm for pass adaptation in plate rolling

    ZhichunMu; WeimingLi; 等


    A new algorithm for pass adaptation in plate rolling is developed to improve thickness accuracy of plate products.The feature of the algorithm is that it uses the measured data rather than the schedule calculated data in adaptation,which leads to notable improvement in prediction accuracy of the rolling parmeters and thickness accuracy of products can be improved accordingly.Results show that this adaptive algorithm is effective in practice.

  15. Teachers as mediators

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike


    Within the context of lower secondary English teaching in South West England, this study identifies in broad terms the competing goals between which English teachers mediate and the explicit and hidden tensions that result. To understand the interactions of competing goals, teachers’ goal...

  16. Mediatization and Government Communication

    Laursen, Bo; Valentini, Chiara


    in the light of mediatization and government communication theories. Without one pan-European public sphere, the European Parliament, like the other European Union (EU) institutions, competes with national actors for the news media’s attention in the EU’s twenty-eight national public spheres, where EU affairs...

  17. Expanding mediation theory

    Verbeek, P.P.C.C.


    In his article In Between Us, Yoni van den Eede expands existing theories of mediation into the realm of the social and the political, focusing on the notions of opacity and transparency. His approach is rich and promising, but two pitfalls should be avoided. First, his concept of ‘in-between’ runs

  18. Mediation and Automatization.

    Hutchins, Edwin

    This paper discusses the relationship between the mediation of task performance by some structure that is not inherent in the task domain itself and the phenomenon of automatization, in which skilled performance becomes effortless or phenomenologically "automatic" after extensive practice. The use of a common simple explicit mediating…

  19. Thermally favourable gauge mediation

    Dalianis, Ioannis, E-mail: [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, Warsaw (Poland); Lalak, Zygmunt, E-mail: [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, Warsaw (Poland)


    We discuss the thermal evolution of the spurion and messenger fields of ordinary gauge mediation models taking into account the Standard Model degrees of freedom. It is shown that for thermalized messengers the metastable susy breaking vacuum becomes thermally selected provided that the susy breaking sector is sufficiently weakly coupled to messengers or to any other observable field.

  20. Natural generalized mirage mediation

    Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Serce, Hasan; Tata, Xerxes


    In the supersymmetric scenario known as mirage mediation (MM), the soft supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking terms receive comparable anomaly-mediation and moduli-mediation contributions leading to the phenomenon of mirage unification. The simplest MM SUSY breaking models which are consistent with the measured Higgs mass and sparticle mass constraints are strongly disfavored by fine-tuning considerations. However, while MM makes robust predictions for gaugino masses, the scalar sector is quite sensitive to specific mechanisms for moduli stabilization and potential uplifting. We suggest here a broader setup of generalized mirage mediation (GMM), where heretofore discrete parameters are allowed as continuous to better parametrize these other schemes. We find that natural SUSY spectra consistent with both the measured value of mh as well as LHC lower bounds on superpartner masses are then possible. We explicitly show that models generated from natural GMM may be beyond the reach of even high-luminosity LHC searches. In such a case, the proposed International Linear e+e- Collider will be required for natural SUSY discovery via higgsino pair production reactions. We also outline prospects for detection of higgsino-like WIMPs from natural GMM.

  1. The VLT Adaptive Optics Facility Project: Adaptive Optics Modules

    Arsenault, Robin; Hubin, Norbert; Stroebele, Stefan; Fedrigo, Enrico; Oberti, Sylvain; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Bacon, Roland; McDermid, Richard; Bonaccini-Calia, Domenico; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Riccardi, Armando; Donaldson, Rob; Lelouarn, Miska; Hackenberg, Wolfgang; Conzelman, Ralf; Delabre, Bernard; Stuik, Remko; Paufique, Jerome; Kasper, Markus; Vernet, Elise; Downing, Mark; Esposito, Simone; Duchateau, Michel; Franx, Marijn; Myers, Richard; Goodsell, Steven


    The Adaptive Optics Facility is a project to convert UT4 into a specialised Adaptive Telescope with the help of a Deformable Secondary Mirror (see previous article). The two instruments that have been identified for the two Nasmyth foci are: Hawk-I with its AO module GRAAL allowing a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics correction (GLAO) and MUSE with GALACSI for GLAO correction and Laser Tomography Adaptive Optics correction. This article describes the AO modules GRAAL and GALACSI and their Real-Time Computers based on SPARTA.

  2. Interfaces adaptatives Adaptation dynamique \\`a l'utilisateur courant

    Simonin, Jérôme


    We present a survey of recent research studies of the implementation of adaptive user models in human-computer interaction. A classification of research directions on adaptive user interfaces is first proposed; it takes account of the user characteristics that are modelled, the distribution of initiative and control of the system evolution between user and system, and the role of dynamic adaptation. Then, a few representative research studies are briefly presented to illustrate this classification. In the conclusion, some major issues regarding the utility and usability of adaptive user interfaces and the design of an appropriate methodology for assessing the ergonomic quality of this new form of interaction are mentioned.

  3. Adaptive Playware in Physical Games

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Thorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi


    that the activity automatically will match the capability of the individual user. With small test groups, we investigate how different age groups and gender groups physically interact with some playware games, and find indications of differences between the groups. Despite the small test set, the results......We describe how playware and games may adapt to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that in physical games there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user’s capabilities, so...... are a proof of existence of differences and of the need for adaptation, and therefore we investigate adaptation as an important issue for playware. With simple playware games, we show that the adaptation will speed the physical game up and down to find the appropriate level that matches the reaction speed...

  4. Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation

    Darcy Shaw; Kartik Gohil; Marc D Basson


    Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis.The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation,short-gut syndrome,obesity,and bariatric surgery.Broadly,these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation.These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal,immune,dietary,nervous,and mechanical stimuli.It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation.This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation,delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention,and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan.Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

  5. Adapting to climate change

    Arndt, Channing; Strzepek, Kenneth; Tarp, Finn


    framework that translates atmospheric changes from general circulation model projections into biophysical outcomes via detailed hydrologic, crop, hydropower and infrastructure models. These sector models simulate a historical baseline and four extreme climate change scenarios. Sector results are then passed...... down to a dynamic computable general equilibrium model, which is used to estimate economy-wide impacts on national welfare, as well as the total cost of damages caused by climate change. Potential damages without changes in policy are significant; our discounted estimates range from US2.3 to US2.3toUS7.......4 billion during 2003–2050. Our analysis identifies improved road design and agricultural sector investments as key ‘no-regret’ adaptation measures, alongside intensified efforts to develop a more flexible and resilient society. Our findings also support the need for cooperative river basin management...

  6. Adaptive immunity to fungi.

    Verma, Akash; Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George; Klein, Bruce


    Life-threatening fungal infections have risen sharply in recent years, owing to the advances and intensity of medical care that may blunt immunity in patients. This emerging crisis has created the growing need to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi with the ultimate goal of therapeutic intervention. We describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses that are deployed against pathogenic fungi. We focus on adaptive immunity to the major medically important fungi and emphasize three elements that coordinate the response: (1) dendritic cells and subsets that are mobilized against fungi in various anatomical compartments; (2) fungal molecular patterns and their corresponding receptors that signal responses and shape the differentiation of T-cell subsets and B cells; and, ultimately (3) the effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these invaders while constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. These insights create a foundation for the development of new, immune-based strategies for prevention or enhanced clearance of systemic fungal diseases.

  7. Stimuli-Adaptable Materials

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    The work presented in this Thesis deals with the development of a stimuli-adaptable polymer material based on the UV-induced dimerisation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. It is in the nature of an adhesive to adhere very well to its substrate and therefore problems can arise upon removal...... but the presented work has a new approach to the field by basing itself on the idea of developing a network into which a photo-active polymer is mixed and which function as an adhesive. Upon irradiation with UV-light for a short time a non-adhering inter-penetrating network material would be formed. Two simple...... models for the extent of reaction for the system are presented and show that the timescale for the reaction is minutes to hours. This was further investigated with IR-spectroscopy and UV-absorbance spectroscopy. UV-spectroscopy confirmed that a change in the material occurs upon irradiation with UV...

  8. Halophilic adaptation of enzymes.

    Madern, D; Ebel, C; Zaccai, G


    It is now clear that the understanding of halophilic adaptation at a molecular level requires a strategy of complementary experiments, combining molecular biology, biochemistry, and cellular approaches with physical chemistry and thermodynamics. In this review, after a discussion of the definition and composition of halophilic enzymes, the effects of salt on their activity, solubility, and stability are reviewed. We then describe how thermodynamic observations, such as parameters pertaining to solvent-protein interactions or enzyme-unfolding kinetics, depend strongly on solvent composition and reveal the important role played by water and ion binding to halophilic proteins. The three high-resolution crystal structures now available for halophilic proteins are analyzed in terms of haloadaptation, and finally cellular response to salt stress is discussed briefly.

  9. ESO adaptive optics facility

    Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Hubin, N.; Paufique, J.; Stroebele, S.; Soenke, C.; Donaldson, R.; Fedrigo, E.; Oberti, S.; Tordo, S.; Downing, M.; Kiekebusch, M.; Conzelmann, R.; Duchateau, M.; Jost, A.; Hackenberg, W.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Delabre, B.; Stuik, R.; Biasi, R.; Gallieni, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Lelouarn, M.; Glindeman, A.


    ESO has initiated in June 2004 a concept of Adaptive Optics Facility. One unit 8m telescope of the VLT is upgraded with a 1.1 m convex Deformable Secondary Mirror and an optimized instrument park. The AO modules GALACSI and GRAAL will provide GLAO and LTAO corrections forHawk-I and MUSE. A natural guide star mode is provided for commissioning and maintenance at the telescope. The facility is completed by a Laser Guide Star Facility launching 4 LGS from the telescope centerpiece used for the GLAO and LTAO wavefront sensing. A sophisticated test bench called ASSIST is being designed to allow an extensive testing and characterization phase of the DSM and its AO modules in Europe. Most sub-projects have entered the final design phase and the DSM has entered Manufacturing phase. First light is planned in the course of 2012 and the commissioning phases should be completed by 2013.

  10. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    Lin, Lin


    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  11. Capabilities for Strategic Adaptation

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    organizational conditions, such as organizational design, support the emergence and performance of such capabilities. In detail, the dissertation consists of three self-contained research papers. The first paper is a systematic, multilevel review of the innovation literature; it reinterprets evidence from prior...... firms’ ability to absorb and leverage new knowledge. The third paper is an empirical study which conceptualizes top managers’ resource cognition as a managerial capability underlying firms’ resource adaptation; it empirically examines the performance implications of this capability and organizational...... empirical studies through the dynamic capabilities lens and develops propositions for future research. The second paper is an empirical study on the origins of firm-level absorptive capacity; it explores how organization-level antecedents, through their impact on individual-level antecedents, influence...


    Miguel Ángel Torralba


    Full Text Available This study examines the motivation for practice of sport of people with disabilities that form part to a federated sport.The sample was composed of 134 athletes of both genders and different disabilities.The “Participation Motivation Inventory Questionnaire” by Gill, Gross and Huddleston was used. The instrument was adapted to Paralympic sport and describes the main reasons that encourage the sports activity practice. The results haven´t found significant difference between men´s and women´s or between blind - visually impaired physical and motor disabilities. About the motivation of the practice of sport, worth highlighting the importance given to factors of fitness and health, like sport practice, improve the level, to compete, feel good and have fun, well above being popular, influenced by coaches or satisfy to parents.

  13. Climate Change Adaptation

    Hudecz, Adriána

    -operation and research into the common problems of the Northern Periphery. This report is an output of the ROADEX “Implementing Accessibility” project (2009-2012). It gives a summary of the results of research into adaptation measures to combat climate change effects on low volume roads in the Northern Periphery....... The research was carried out between January 2000 and March 2012. One of the biggest challenges that mankind has to face is the prospect of climate change resulting from emissions of greenhouse gases. These gases trap energy in the atmosphere and cause global surface temperatures to rise. This warming in turn...... causes changes in other climatic variables such as rainfall, humidity and wind speed that impact on the functioning of infrastructure such road networks. This paper discusses the climate changes predicted by the world’s meteorological organisations and considers how these may impact on the public...

  14. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel


    Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e

  15. Adaptive compressive sensing camera

    Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming K.; Cha, Jae; Iwamura, Tomo; Landa, Joseph; Nguyen, Charles; Szu, Harold


    We have embedded Adaptive Compressive Sensing (ACS) algorithm on Charge-Coupled-Device (CCD) camera based on the simplest concept that each pixel is a charge bucket, and the charges comes from Einstein photoelectric conversion effect. Applying the manufactory design principle, we only allow altering each working component at a minimum one step. We then simulated what would be such a camera can do for real world persistent surveillance taking into account of diurnal, all weather, and seasonal variations. The data storage has saved immensely, and the order of magnitude of saving is inversely proportional to target angular speed. We did design two new components of CCD camera. Due to the matured CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology, the on-chip Sample and Hold (SAH) circuitry can be designed for a dual Photon Detector (PD) analog circuitry for changedetection that predicts skipping or going forward at a sufficient sampling frame rate. For an admitted frame, there is a purely random sparse matrix [Φ] which is implemented at each bucket pixel level the charge transport bias voltage toward its neighborhood buckets or not, and if not, it goes to the ground drainage. Since the snapshot image is not a video, we could not apply the usual MPEG video compression and Hoffman entropy codec as well as powerful WaveNet Wrapper on sensor level. We shall compare (i) Pre-Processing FFT and a threshold of significant Fourier mode components and inverse FFT to check PSNR; (ii) Post-Processing image recovery will be selectively done by CDT&D adaptive version of linear programming at L1 minimization and L2 similarity. For (ii) we need to determine in new frames selection by SAH circuitry (i) the degree of information (d.o.i) K(t) dictates the purely random linear sparse combination of measurement data a la [Φ]M,N M(t) = K(t) Log N(t).

  16. Mechanotransduction as an Adaptation to Gravity

    Najrana, Tanbir; Sanchez-Esteban, Juan


    Gravity has played a critical role in the development of terrestrial life. A key event in evolution has been the development of mechanisms to sense and transduce gravitational force into biological signals. The objective of this manuscript is to review how living organisms on Earth use mechanotransduction as an adaptation to gravity. Certain cells have evolved specialized structures, such as otoliths in hair cells of the inner ear and statoliths in plants, to respond directly to the force of gravity. By conducting studies in the reduced gravity of spaceflight (microgravity) or simulating microgravity in the laboratory, we have gained insights into how gravity might have changed life on Earth. We review how microgravity affects prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at the cellular and molecular levels. Genomic studies in yeast have identified changes in genes involved in budding, cell polarity, and cell separation regulated by Ras, PI3K, and TOR signaling pathways. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis of late pregnant rats have revealed that microgravity affects genes that regulate circadian clocks, activate mechanotransduction pathways, and induce changes in immune response, metabolism, and cells proliferation. Importantly, these studies identified genes that modify chromatin structure and methylation, suggesting that long-term adaptation to gravity may be mediated by epigenetic modifications. Given that gravity represents a modification in mechanical stresses encounter by the cells, the tensegrity model of cytoskeletal architecture provides an excellent paradigm to explain how changes in the balance of forces, which are transmitted across transmembrane receptors and cytoskeleton, can influence intracellular signaling pathways and gene expression. PMID:28083527

  17. Adapting Playware to Rehabilitation Practices

    Nielsen, Camilla Balslev; Lund, Henrik Hautop


    We describe how playware and games may become adaptive to the interaction of the individual user and how therapists use this adaptation property to apply modular interactive tiles in rehabilitation practices that demand highly individualized training. Therapists may use the interactive modular...... patients modulating exercises and difficulty levels. We also find that in physical games there are individual differences in patient interaction capabilities and styles, and that modularity allows the therapist to adapt exercises to the individual patient’s capabilities....

  18. Adapting Playware to Rehabilitation Practices

    Nielsen, Camilla Balslev; Lund, Henrik Hautop


    We describe how playware and games may become adaptive to the interaction of the individual user and how therapists use this adaptation property to apply modular interactive tiles in rehabilitation practices that demand highly individualized training. Therapists may use the interactive modular...... patients modulating exercises and difficulty levels. We also find that in physical games there are individual differences in patient interaction capabilities and styles, and that modularity allows the therapist to adapt exercises to the individual patient’s capabilities....

  19. Information diffusion on adaptive network

    Hu Ke; Tang Yi


    Based on the adaptive network,the feedback mechanism and interplay between the network topology and the diffusive process of information are studied.The results reveal that the adaptation of network topology can drive systems into the scale-free one with the assortative or disassortative degree correlations,and the hierarchical clustering.Meanwhile,the processes of the information diffusion are extremely speeded up by the adaptive changes of network topology.

  20. Adaptive designs for sequential experiments

    林正炎; 张立新


    Various adaptive designs have been proposed and applied to clinical trials, bioassay, psychophysics, etc.Adaptive designs are also useful in high cost engineering trials.More and more people have been paying attention to these design methods. This paper introduces several broad families of designs, such as the play-the-winner rule, randomized play-the-winner rule and its generalization to the multi-arm case, doubly biased coin adaptive design, Markov chain model.

  1. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    Murphy, Martin J


    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  2. Lighter side of adaptive optics

    Tyson, Robert K


    Adaptive optics has been under development for well over 40 years. It is an indisputable necessity for all major ground-based astronomical telescopes and is the foundation for laser and wavefront sensor design. Lighter Side of Adaptive Optics is a nontechnical explanation of optics, the atmosphere, and the technology for ""untwinkling"" the stars. While interweaving a fictional romantic relationship as an analogy to adaptive optics, and inserting satire, humor, and philosophical rants, Tyson makes a difficult scientific topic understandable. The ""why"" and ""how"" of adaptive optics has never

  3. Adaptive filtering and change detection

    Gustafsson, Fredrik


    Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi

  4. On Adaptive vs. Non-adaptive Security of Multiparty Protocols

    Canetti, Ran; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Dziembowski, Stefan


    Security analysis of multiparty cryptographic protocols distinguishes between two types of adversarialsettings: In the non-adaptive setting, the set of corrupted parties is chosen in advance, before the interaction begins. In the adaptive setting, the adversary chooses who to corrupt during...

  5. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.;


    in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper concludes that even...

  6. Adaptation is Unnecessary in L1-"Adaptive" Control


    We show in the paper that the, so--called, "new architecture of L_1-Adaptive Control" is, indeed, different from classical model reference adaptive control. Alas, it is not new, since it exactly coincides with a full--state feedback, linear time--invariant proportional plus integral controller (with a decaying additive disturbance).

  7. Radio-Adaptive Responses of Mouse Myocardiocytes

    Seawright, John W.; Westby, Christian M.


    One of the most significant occupational hazards to an astronaut is the frequent exposure to radiation. Commonly associated with increased risk for cancer related morbidity and mortality, radiation is also known to increase the risk for cardiovascular related disorders including: pericarditis, hypertension, and heart failure. It is believed that these radiation-induced disorders are a result of abnormal tissue remodeling. It is unknown whether radiation exposure promotes remodeling through fibrotic changes alone or in combination with programmed cell death. Furthermore, it is not known whether it is possible to mitigate the hazardous effects of radiation exposure. As such, we assessed the expression and mechanisms of radiation-induced tissue remodeling and potential radio-adaptive responses of p53-mediated apoptosis and fibrosis pathways along with markers for oxidative stress and inflammation in mice myocardium. 7 week old, male, C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 6Gy (H) or 5cGy followed 24hr later with 6Gy (LH) Cs-137 gamma radiation. Mice were sacrificed and their hearts extirpated 4, 24, or 72hr after final irradiation. Real Time - Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to evaluate target genes. Pro-apoptotic genes Bad and Bax, pro-cell survival genes Bcl2 and Bcl2l2, fibrosis gene Vegfa, and oxidative stress genes Sod2 and GPx4 showed a reduced fold regulation change (Bad,-6.18; Bax,-6.94; Bcl2,-5.09; Bcl2l2,-4.03; Vegfa, -11.84; Sod2,-5.97; GPx4*,-28.72; * = Bonferroni adjusted p-value . 0.003) 4hr after H, but not after 4hr LH when compared to control. Other p53-mediated apoptosis genes Casp3, Casp9, Trp53, and Myc exhibited down-regulation but did not achieve a notable level of significance 4hr after H. 24hr after H, genetic down-regulation was no longer present compared to 24hr control. These data suggest a general reduction in genetic expression 4hrs after a high dose of gamma radiation. However, pre-exposure to 5cGy gamma radiation appears to facilitate a radio-adaptive

  8. Influence of divergent and convergent thinking on visuomotor adaptation in young and older adults.

    Simon, Anja; Bock, Otmar


    Visuomotor adaptation declines in older age. This has been attributed to cognitive impairments. One relevant cognitive function could be creativity, since creativity is implicated as mediator of early learning. The present study therefore evaluates whether two aspects of creativity, divergent and convergent thinking, are differentially involved in the age-dependent decline of visuomotor adaptation. In 25 young and 24 older volunteers, divergent thinking was assessed by the alternative-uses-task (AUT), convergent thinking by the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test-2000 (IST), and sensorimotor-adaptation by a pointing task with 60° rotated visual feedback. Young participants outperformed older participants in all three tasks. AUT scores were positively associated with young but not older participants' adaptive performance, whereas IST scores were negatively associated with older but not young participants' adaptive performance. This pattern of findings could be attributed to a consistent relationship between AUT, IST and adaptation; taking this into account, adaptation deficits of older participants were no longer significant. We conclude that divergent thinking supports workaround-strategies during adaptation, but doesn't influence visuomotor recalibration. Furthermore, the decay of divergent thinking in older adults may explain most of age-related decline of adaptive strategies. When the age-related decay of divergent thinking coincides with well-preserved convergent thinking, adaptation suffers most.

  9. Nanofluids mediating surface forces.

    Pilkington, Georgia A; Briscoe, Wuge H


    Fluids containing nanostructures, known as nanofluids, are increasingly found in a wide array of applications due to their unique physical properties as compared with their base fluids and larger colloidal suspensions. With several tuneable parameters such as the size, shape and surface chemistry of nanostructures, as well as numerous base fluids available, nanofluids also offer a new paradigm for mediating surface forces. Other properties such as local surface plasmon resonance and size dependent magnetism of nanostructures also present novel mechanisms for imparting tuneable surface interactions. However, our fundamental understanding, experimentally and theoretically, of how these parameters might affect surface forces remains incomplete. Here we review recent results on equilibrium and dynamic surface forces between macroscopic surfaces in nanofluids, highlighting the overriding trends in the correlation between the physical parameters that characterise nanofluids and the surface forces they mediate. We also discuss the challenges that confront existing surface force knowledge as a result of this new paradigm.

  10. The mediatization of journalism

    Aske Kammer


    Full Text Available Proposing an explanation of current macro-sociological changes and institutional transformations in journalism, this article argues that journalism is currently undergoing a process of mediatization. Drawing upon the international research literature as well as statements from interviews with news workers working on Danish news websites, the article examines four current trends in journalism that are closely connected to the rise of news on the web, namely the use of the affordances of news websites, radical commercialization, increased audience participation in news production, and the increased multi-skilling and simultaneous de-skilling of journalists. Taken together, these trends reflect a process through which journalism increasingly subsumes itself to the logic of the media, suggesting mediatization as an adequate explanatory framework. One implication of such a process is that journalism seems to be transforming from an occupational profession into an organizational one.

  11. [Healthcare mediation model for nerologists].

    Ando, Tetsuo


    Mediation offers a process by which two parties work towards an agreement with the aid of a neutral third party. Physicians and nurses can apply healthcare mediation model to ordinary medical practice for preventing conflict. Communication using mediation skills improves patient-physician relationship, and prevents medical malpractice and conflict.

  12. Surface Mediated Photocatalysis.


    Bipolar Photoelectrodes," M.A. Fox, Nouv. J. Chim. 1987, II, 129. 4. "Effect of Cosolvent Additives on Relative Rates of Photooxidation on...Semiconductor Surfaces," D.D. Sackett, M.A. Fox, J. Phys. Org. Chem, 19_8, in press. 5. "Selectivity in the Semiconductor-Mediated Photooxidation of Polyols ...surfaced properties of the heteropolytungstates were varied. The conceptual mechanistic picture involved in the heteropolyoxo induced photooxidations

  13. Winter wren populations show adaptation to local climate.

    Morrison, Catriona A; Robinson, Robert A; Pearce-Higgins, James W


    Most studies of evolutionary responses to climate change have focused on phenological responses to warming, and provide only weak evidence for evolutionary adaptation. This could be because phenological changes are more weakly linked to fitness than more direct mechanisms of climate change impacts, such as selective mortality during extreme weather events which have immediate fitness consequences for the individuals involved. Studies examining these other mechanisms may be more likely to show evidence for evolutionary adaptation. To test this, we quantify regional population responses of a small resident passerine (winter wren Troglodytes troglodytes) to a measure of winter severity (number of frost days). Annual population growth rate was consistently negatively correlated with this measure, but the point at which different populations achieved stability (λ = 1) varied across regions and was closely correlated with the historic average number of frost days, providing strong evidence for local adaptation. Despite this, regional variation in abundance remained negatively related to the regional mean number of winter frost days, potentially as a result of a time-lag in the rate of evolutionary response to climate change. As expected from Bergmann's rule, individual wrens were heavier in colder regions, suggesting that local adaptation may be mediated through body size. However, there was no evidence for selective mortality of small individuals in cold years, with annual variation in mean body size uncorrelated with the number of winter frost days, so the extent to which local adaptation occurs through changes in body size, or another mechanism remains uncertain.

  14. The specific role of gravitational accelerations for arterial adaptations.

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Herrera, Frankyn; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn


    It is mostly agreed that arterial adaptations occur, among others, in response to changes in mechanical stimuli. Models like bed rest, spinal cord injury, or limb suspension have been applied to study vascular adaptations to unloading in humans. However, these models cannot distinguish the role of muscle contractions and the role of gravitational accelerations for arterial adaptation. The HEPHAISTOS orthosis allows normal ambulation, while it significantly reduces force generation in the lower leg muscles. Eleven subjects wore HEPHAISTOS unilaterally for 56 days and were followed up for another 4 wk. Arterial diameters, intima media thickness (IMT), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and resting blood flow (BF(rest)) were measured using high-frequency ultrasonography. Arterial adaptations were investigated in the superficial femoral artery (SFA), the brachial artery (BA), and the carotid artery (CA). Mean SFA resting diameter was decreased from 6.57 mm (SD = 0.74 mm) at baseline to 5.77 mm (SD = 0.87 mm) at the end of the intervention (P muscular contractions for arterial diameter adaptations. Moreover, we propose that FMD and wall-to-lumen ratio are unaffected by ambulating with the HEPHAISTOS orthosis, which is suggestive of habitual acceleration profiles in the lower leg constituting an important stimulus for the maintenance of FMD and wall-to-lumen ratio.

  15. Time in Redox Adaptation Processes: From Evolution to Hormesis

    Mireille M. J. P. E. Sthijns


    Full Text Available Life on Earth has to adapt to the ever changing environment. For example, due to introduction of oxygen in the atmosphere, an antioxidant network evolved to cope with the exposure to oxygen. The adaptive mechanisms of the antioxidant network, specifically the glutathione (GSH system, are reviewed with a special focus on the time. The quickest adaptive response to oxidative stress is direct enzyme modification, increasing the GSH levels or activating the GSH-dependent protective enzymes. After several hours, a hormetic response is seen at the transcriptional level by up-regulating Nrf2-mediated expression of enzymes involved in GSH synthesis. In the long run, adaptations occur at the epigenetic and genomic level; for example, the ability to synthesize GSH by phototrophic bacteria. Apparently, in an adaptive hormetic response not only the dose or the compound, but also time, should be considered. This is essential for targeted interventions aimed to prevent diseases by successfully coping with changes in the environment e.g., oxidative stress.

  16. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings


    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  17. A robust adaptive robot controller

    Berghuis, Harry; Ortega, Romeo; Nijmeijer, Henk


    A globally convergent adaptive control scheme for robot motion control with the following features is proposed. First, the adaptation law possesses enhanced robustness with respect to noisy velocity measurements. Second, the controller does not require the inclusion of high gain loops that may excit

  18. Field guide to adaptive optics

    Tyson, Robert


    This SPIE Field Guide provides a summary of the methods for determining the requirements of an adaptive optics system, the performance of the system, and the requirements for the components of the system. This second edition has a greatly expanded presentation of adaptive optics control system design and operation. Discussions of control models are accompanied by various recommendations for implementing the algorithms in hardware.

  19. Method selection in adaptation research

    Werners, Saskia Elisabeth; Loon-Steensma, van Jantsje Mintsje; Oost, Albert Peter


    Many methods are available to support adaptation planning. Yet there is little guidance on their selection. A recently developed diagnostic framework offers a structured set of criteria to choose research methods for specific adaptation questions. It has been derived from science-driven cases mos

  20. Adapting agriculture to climate change

    Howden, S.M.; Soussana, J.F.; Tubiello, F.N.; Chhetri, N.; Dunlop, M.; Meinke, H.B.


    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of exi

  1. AdapterRemoval v2

    Schubert, Mikkel; Lindgreen, Stinus; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre


    BACKGROUND: As high-throughput sequencing platforms produce longer and longer reads, sequences generated from short inserts, such as those obtained from fossil and degraded material, are increasingly expected to contain adapter sequences. Efficient adapter trimming algorithms are also needed to p...

  2. Career adaptability and career entrenchment

    Zacher, Hannes; Ambiel, Rodolfo A.M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto


    Career adaptability constitutes a resource that can help employees to effectively manage career changes and challenges. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the two higher-order constructs of career adaptability and career entrenchment (i.e., the perceived inability and

  3. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes

    Suzuki, Haruo; Morton, Brian R.


    Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes. PMID:27196606

  4. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes.

    Haruo Suzuki

    Full Text Available Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes.

  5. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy


    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  6. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...

  7. Tracking adaptation and measuring development

    Brooks, Nick; Anderson, Simon; Ayers, Jessica; Burton, Ian; Tellam, Ian


    This is the first paper in the new IIED Climate Change Working Paper series. As adaptation to climate change becomes the focus of increasing attention and the target of significant spending, there is a growing need for frameworks and tools that enable organisations to track and assess the outcomes of adaptation interventions. This paper presents a coherent framework for climate change adaptation programming, including potential indicators, or indicator categories/types, for tracking and evaluating the success of adaptation support and adaptation interventions. The paper begins with a discussion of some of the key issues related to the evaluation of adaptation, and outlines some of the main difficulties and constraints with respect to the development of adaptation indicators. Next, an evaluation framework is proposed and indicator categories or 'domains' are identified. Lastly, key conclusions are provided and a theory of change is outlined that shows how development and use of the framework could lead to more effective adaptation investments for climate resilient development.

  8. Multi-Directional Motion Adaptation

    David Patrick McGovern


    Full Text Available The direction aftereffect (DAE is a phenomenon whereby prolonged exposure to a moving stimulus biases the perceived direction of subsequent stimuli. It is believed to arise through a selective suppression of directionally tuned neurons in the visual cortex, causing shifts in the population response away from the adapted direction. Whereas most studies consider only unidirectional adaptation, here we examine how concurrent adaptation to multiple directions affects the DAE. Observers were required to judge whether a random dot kinematogram (RDK moved clockwise or counter-clockwise relative to upwards. In different conditions, observers adapted to a stimulus comprised of directions drawn from a distribution or to bidirectional motion. Increasing the variance of normally distributed directions reduced the magnitude of the peak DAE and broadened its tuning profile. Asymmetric sampling of Gaussian and uniform distributions resulted in shifts of DAE tuning profiles consistent with changes in the perceived global direction of the adapting stimulus. Discrimination thresholds were elevated by an amount that related to the magnitude of the bias. For bidirectional adaptors, adding dots in directions away from the adapting motion led to a pronounced reduction in the DAE. This reduction was observed when dots were added in opposite or orthogonal directions to the adaptor suggesting that it may arise via inhibition from a broadly tuned normalisation pool. Preliminary simulations with a population coding model, where the gain of a direction-selective neuron is inversely proportional to its response to the adapting stimulus, suggest that it provides a parsimonious account of these adaptation effects.

  9. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez


    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  10. fMRI adaptation revisited.

    Larsson, Jonas; Solomon, Samuel G; Kohn, Adam


    Adaptation has been widely used in functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies to infer neuronal response properties in human cortex. fMRI adaptation has been criticized because of the complex relationship between fMRI adaptation effects and the multiple neuronal effects that could underlie them. Many of the longstanding concerns about fMRI adaptation have received empirical support from neurophysiological studies over the last decade. We review these studies here, and also consider neuroimaging studies that have investigated how fMRI adaptation effects are influenced by high-level perceptual processes. The results of these studies further emphasize the need to interpret fMRI adaptation results with caution, but they also provide helpful guidance for more accurate interpretation and better experimental design. In addition, we argue that rather than being used as a proxy for measurements of neuronal stimulus selectivity, fMRI adaptation may be most useful for studying population-level adaptation effects across cortical processing hierarchies.

  11. Adaptation of thermal power plants

    Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.


    When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate

  12. PGC-1α mediates a rapid, exercise-induced downregulation of glycogenolysis in rat skeletal muscle

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Koh, Jin Ho; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Jung, Su Ryun; Holloszy, John O; Han, Dong-Ho


    Endurance exercise training can increase the ability to perform prolonged strenuous exercise. The major adaptation responsible for this increase in endurance is an increase in muscle mitochondria. This adaptation occurs too slowly to provide a survival advantage when there is a sudden change in environment that necessitates prolonged exercise. In the present study, we discovered another, more rapid adaptation, a downregulation of expression of the glycogenolytic and glycolytic enzymes in muscle that mediates a slowing of muscle glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation. This adaptation, which appears to be mediated by PGC-1α, occurs in response to a single exercise bout and is further enhanced by two additional daily exercise bouts. It is biologically significant, because glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation are two of the major causes of muscle fatigue and exhaustion. PMID:25416622

  13. Statistical Physics of Adaptation

    Perunov, Nikolay; Marsland, Robert A.; England, Jeremy L.


    Whether by virtue of being prepared in a slowly relaxing, high-free energy initial condition, or because they are constantly dissipating energy absorbed from a strong external drive, many systems subject to thermal fluctuations are not expected to behave in the way they would at thermal equilibrium. Rather, the probability of finding such a system in a given microscopic arrangement may deviate strongly from the Boltzmann distribution, raising the question of whether thermodynamics still has anything to tell us about which arrangements are the most likely to be observed. In this work, we build on past results governing nonequilibrium thermodynamics and define a generalized Helmholtz free energy that exactly delineates the various factors that quantitatively contribute to the relative probabilities of different outcomes in far-from-equilibrium stochastic dynamics. By applying this expression to the analysis of two examples—namely, a particle hopping in an oscillating energy landscape and a population composed of two types of exponentially growing self-replicators—we illustrate a simple relationship between outcome-likelihood and dissipative history. In closing, we discuss the possible relevance of such a thermodynamic principle for our understanding of self-organization in complex systems, paying particular attention to a possible analogy to the way evolutionary adaptations emerge in living things.

  14. Success and adaptation


    Yesterday morning, the last colliding proton beams of 2013 were extracted from the LHC, heralding the start of the machine’s first long shutdown (LS1) and crowning its first three glorious years of running. I hardly need to tell the CERN community what a fabulous performance all the people running the machine, the experiments, the computing and all supporting infrastructures put in. Those people are you, and you all know very well what a great job everyone did.   Nevertheless, I would like to express my thanks to all the people who made this first LHC run such a success. Re-measuring the whole Standard Model in such a short period, and then completing it with the discovery of what looks increasingly like the Higgs boson, is no mean feat. What I’d like to focus on today is another aspect of our field: its remarkable ability to adapt. When I started out in research, experiments involved a handful of people and lasted a few years at most. The timescale for the development of ...

  15. Adaptive Semisupervised Inference

    Azizyan, Martin; Wasserman, Larry


    Semisupervised methods inevitably invoke some assumption that links the marginal distribution of the features to the regression function of the label. Most commonly, the cluster or manifold assumptions are used which imply that the regression function is smooth over high-density clusters or manifolds supporting the data. A generalization of these assumptions is that the regression function is smooth with respect to some density sensitive distance. This motivates the use of a density based metric for semisupervised learning. We analyze this setting and make the following contributions - (a) we propose a semi-supervised learner that uses a density-sensitive kernel and show that it provides better performance than any supervised learner if the density support set has a small condition number and (b) we show that it is possible to adapt to the degree of semi-supervisedness using data-dependent choice of a parameter that controls sensitivity of the distance metric to the density. This ensures that the semisupervis...

  16. Adaptive Immunity to Fungi

    Verma, Akash; Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George; Klein, Bruce


    Life-threatening fungal infections have risen sharply in recent years, owing to the advances and intensity of medical care that may blunt immunity in patients. This emerging crisis has created the growing need to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi with the ultimate goal of therapeutic intervention. We describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses that are deployed against pathogenic fungi. We focus on adaptive immunity to the major medically important fungi and emphasize three elements that coordinate the response: (1) dendritic cells and subsets that are mobilized against fungi in various anatomical compartments; (2) fungal molecular patterns and their corresponding receptors that signal responses and shape the differentiation of T-cell subsets and B cells; and, ultimately (3) the effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these invaders while constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. These insights create a foundation for the development of new, immune-based strategies for prevention or enhanced clearance of systemic fungal diseases. PMID:25377140

  17. Adapt or die?

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H


    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management.

  18. What Drives Business Model Adaptation?

    Saebi, Tina; Lien, Lasse B.; Foss, Nicolai Juul


    Business models change as managers not only innovate business models, but also engage in more mundane adaptation in response to external changes, such as changes in the level or composition of demand. However, little is known about what causes such business model adaptation. We employ threat......-rigidity as well as prospect theory to examine business model adaptation in response to external threats and opportunities. Additionally, drawing on the behavioural theory of the firm, we argue that the past strategic orientation of a firm creates path dependencies that influence the propensity of the firm...... to adapt its business model. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 1196 Norwegian companies, and find that firms are more likely to adapt their business model under conditions of perceived threats than opportunities, and that strategic orientation geared towards market development is more conducive...

  19. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn


    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that enable...... adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach is based...... on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant stakeholders...

  20. Adaptation prevents the extinction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under toxic beryllium

    Beatriz Baselga-Cervera


    Full Text Available The current biodiversity crisis represents a historic challenge for natural communities: the environmental rate of change exceeds the population’s adaptation capability. Integrating both ecological and evolutionary responses is necessary to make reliable predictions regarding the loss of biodiversity. The race against extinction from an eco-evolutionary perspective is gaining importance in ecological risk assessment. Here, we performed a classical study of population dynamics—a fluctuation analysis—and evaluated the results from an adaption perspective. Fluctuation analysis, widely used with microorganisms, is an effective empirical procedure to study adaptation under strong selective pressure because it incorporates the factors that influence demographic, genetic and environmental changes. The adaptation of phytoplankton to beryllium (Be is of interest because human activities are increasing the concentration of Be in freshwater reserves; therefore, predicting the effects of human-induced pollutants is necessary for proper risk assessment. The fluctuation analysis was performed with phytoplankton, specifically, the freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, under acute Be exposure. High doses of Be led to massive microalgae death; however, by conducting a fluctuation analysis experiment, we found that C. reinhardtii was able to adapt to 33 mg/l of Be due to pre-existing genetic variability. The rescuing adapting genotype presented a mutation rate of 9.61 × 10−6 and a frequency of 10.42 resistant cells per million wild-type cells. The genetic adaptation pathway that was experimentally obtained agreed with the theoretical models of evolutionary rescue (ER. Furthermore, the rescuing genotype presented phenotypic and physiologic differences from the wild-type genotype, was 25% smaller than the Be-resistant genotype and presented a lower fitness and quantum yield performance. The abrupt distinctions between the wild-type and the Be

  1. Tree Adapt: Web Content Adaptation for Mobile Devices

    Rajibul Anam


    Full Text Available Mobile web browsing usually becomes time-consuming since currently it requires horizontal and vertical scrolling in addition to this, users interested in only a section of a web page are often burdened with cumbersome whole web pages that not only do not properly fit their mobile screens but also require a lot of delivery time. This problem can be addressed and resolved with the help of a mobile web content adaptation system. Existing web content adaptation systems focus on resizing contents to fit a mobile device and removing unnecessary contents from the adapted web page. This paper’s aim is to address the gap by proposing the TreeAdapt which provides a condensed view of an adapted web page. This condensed view consists of only block headers which users can then expand for complete content. In order to achieve this, the proposed algorithm will first categorize an HTML object as menu, block title or the main content. A depth-first traversal algorithm is then used to select the sequence of blocks to be displayed on a mobile device. Usability studies were performed to evaluate the usability of the adapted contents against other deployed systems. Results from the usability studies indicate that the adapted contents produced by the proposed techniques enabled users to locate targeted information within a web page in a shorter span of time.

  2. Narcissism and Anger: Self-Esteem and Contingencies of Self-Worth as Mediating Self-Structures

    Grisel M. Garcia


    Full Text Available Theory and research suggest that an internalization of psychological “structure” related to self-esteem may mediate relationships of Maladaptive Narcissism with higher and Adaptive Narcissism with lower Anger. In the present study (N = 623, Self-Esteem and Contingency of Self-Worth Scales served as presumed indices of the presence or absence of structure. Maladaptive Narcissism predicted greater Anger and a relative absence of structure whereas Adaptive Narcissism displayed an opposite pattern of results. Constructs assessing structure partially mediated the Maladaptive Narcissism relationship with greater Anger. Mediation analyses also revealed that structure not only fully mediated the inverse Adaptive Narcissism linkage with Anger, but also suppressed an association with greater Anger that would otherwise have been evident. These data supported the idea that psychological structure related to self-esteem is noteworthy in explaining the implications of narcissism for personality and interpersonal functioning.

  3. Mediatization of Lithuanian politics on social networking sites and its compatibility with social media logic

    Povilaitytė, Živilė


    Given the novelty of political campaigning on social networking sites in Lithuania and the critique, it has received from social media experts, the object of the master thesis encompasses mediatization of Lithuanian politics on Facebook, when social media logic becomes adapted in political campaigning and integrated into the political agenda. Accordingly, the MA thesis developed its aim to define in what ways mediatization of Lithuanian politics manifests on Facebook and if public-relatio...

  4. What carries a mediation process? Configural analysis of mediation.

    von Eye, Alexander; Mun, Eun Young; Mair, Patrick


    Mediation is a process that links a predictor and a criterion via a mediator variable. Mediation can be full or partial. This well-established definition operates at the level of variables even if they are categorical. In this article, two new approaches to the analysis of mediation are proposed. Both of these approaches focus on the analysis of categorical variables. The first involves mediation analysis at the level of configurations instead of variables. Thus, mediation can be incorporated into the arsenal of methods of analysis for person-oriented research. Second, it is proposed that Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA) can be used for both exploration and confirmation of mediation relationships among categorical variables. The implications of using CFA are first that mediation hypotheses can be tested at the level of individual configurations instead of variables. Second, this approach leaves the door open for different types of mediation processes to exist within the same set. Using a data example, it is illustrated that aggregate-level analysis can overlook mediation processes that operate at the level of individual configurations.

  5. The anglicisms in computer-mediated communication

    Jan Lazar


    Full Text Available Although French is a Romance language descendant from the Latin, there is of course some influence of other languages on it. English is perhaps the most important source of loan-words for the present French language. Our article is focused on new forms of written communication, mainly computer-mediated communication (CMC. The main aim of this article is to analyze the loan-words, especially the anglicisms that are used by chatters in various French chats. After examining the motivations of loan, the article studies the frequency of anglicisms in three chats and observes their grammatical adaptation in the context of CMC. A huge richness of anglicisms is illustrated by concrete examples taken from our corpus.

  6. The impact of neglect on initial adaptation to school.

    Manly, Jody Todd; Lynch, Michael; Oshri, Assaf; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne N


    This study examined the impact of child neglect during the first 4 years of life on adaptation to school during kindergarten and first grade in the context of neighborhood poverty (NP). Processes related to the development of school competencies were examined, including the mediational role of cognitive functioning and ego-resiliency (ER) in shaping children's school outcomes. A total of 170 low-income urban children were followed prospectively for 2 years (ages 4-6). Results indicated that neglected children had significantly lower scores on kindergarten classroom behavior and first-grade academic performance than nonneglected children. Children's cognitive performance at age 4, controlling for maternal intelligence quotient, mediated the relation between severity of neglect and children's behavior in kindergarten as well as their academic performance in first grade. Moreover, severity of neglect was related to children's ER at age 4. However, additional ecological adversity in the form of NP moderated the link between ER and classroom behavior, such that at lower levels of poverty, ER mediated the relation between severity of neglect and school adaptation. Conversely, when NP was extreme, the effects of ER were attenuated and ER ceased to predict behavioral performance in kindergarten. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  7. Adaptation of brain functional and structural networks in aging.

    Lee, Annie; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Tuan, Ta Anh; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Qiu, Anqi


    The human brain, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC), is functionally and anatomically reorganized in order to adapt to neuronal challenges in aging. This study employed structural MRI, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), and examined the functional and structural reorganization of the PFC in aging using a Chinese sample of 173 subjects aged from 21 years and above. We found age-related increases in the structural connectivity between the PFC and posterior brain regions. Such findings were partially mediated by age-related increases in the structural connectivity of the occipital lobe within the posterior brain. Based on our findings, it is thought that the PFC reorganization in aging could be partly due to the adaptation to age-related changes in the structural reorganization of the posterior brain. This thus supports the idea derived from task-based fMRI that the PFC reorganization in aging may be adapted to the need of compensation for resolving less distinctive stimulus information from the posterior brain regions. In addition, we found that the structural connectivity of the PFC with the temporal lobe was fully mediated by the temporal cortical thickness, suggesting that the brain morphology plays an important role in the functional and structural reorganization with aging.

  8. Adaptation of brain functional and structural networks in aging.

    Annie Lee

    Full Text Available The human brain, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC, is functionally and anatomically reorganized in order to adapt to neuronal challenges in aging. This study employed structural MRI, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI, and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI, and examined the functional and structural reorganization of the PFC in aging using a Chinese sample of 173 subjects aged from 21 years and above. We found age-related increases in the structural connectivity between the PFC and posterior brain regions. Such findings were partially mediated by age-related increases in the structural connectivity of the occipital lobe within the posterior brain. Based on our findings, it is thought that the PFC reorganization in aging could be partly due to the adaptation to age-related changes in the structural reorganization of the posterior brain. This thus supports the idea derived from task-based fMRI that the PFC reorganization in aging may be adapted to the need of compensation for resolving less distinctive stimulus information from the posterior brain regions. In addition, we found that the structural connectivity of the PFC with the temporal lobe was fully mediated by the temporal cortical thickness, suggesting that the brain morphology plays an important role in the functional and structural reorganization with aging.

  9. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A


    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  10. Urban Songlines as Mediator

    Corlin, Anne


    The aim of this paper is to present an investigation of the method The Urban Songlines Book and how it works as a mediator for mapping the experienced space. The method contains a combination of aerial maps, photographs, and interviews as a way to understand the respondent´s use, relations...... and experiences of their neighborhood and the city. Through a presentation of the origin of the method, a description of the conducted study, and an analysis of the process in relation to theories about participatory design, social design, ANT and architectural sociology, the paper reveals how this method...

  11. Sociocultural mediators of remembering

    Wagoner, Brady; Gillespie, Alex


    , questioning and deferring contribute to the transformation and conventionalization of the material. These diverse sociocultural mediators are integrated into a partially coherent recollection by participants self-reflecting, or as Bartlett termed it, turning around upon their schemas. We demonstrate...... that this self-reflection is both a social and a psychological process, occurring because participants are responding to their own utterances in the same way that they respond to the utterances of other people. These empirical findings are used to make a case for using discursive data to look not only...

  12. Mediatization and Government Communication

    Laursen, Bo; Valentini, Chiara


    in the light of mediatization and government communication theories. Without one pan-European public sphere, the European Parliament, like the other European Union (EU) institutions, competes with national actors for the news media’s attention in the EU’s twenty-eight national public spheres, where EU affairs......, and particularly into the thinking that guides the efforts of these European Parliament officials to increase European citizens’ awareness of, and support for, the European Parliament that is meant to voice the citizens’ concerns in political processes at the EU level....

  13. Computer Mediated Communication

    Fano, Robert M.


    The use of computers in organizations is discussed in terms of its present and potential role in facilitating and mediating communication between people. This approach clarifies the impact that computers may have on the operation of organizations and on the individuals comprising them. Communication, which is essential to collaborative activities, must be properly controlled to protect individual and group privacy, which is equally essential. Our understanding of the human and organizational aspects of controlling communication and access to information presently lags behind our technical ability to implement the controls that may be needed.

  14. Holographic Gauge Mediation

    Benini, Francesco; /Princeton U.; Dymarsky, Anatoly; /Stanford U., ITP; Franco, Sebastian; /Santa Barbara, KITP; Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Verlinde, Herman; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study


    We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain 'messenger mesons,' which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.

  15. Surface-Mediated Photocatalysis


    Photocatalysis 6. AUTHOR(S) DIMarye Anne Fox E -LECTE ’ / 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AD ES). 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER University of...Form 298 (Rev 2-89) Prescr d bv ANJ std Z39.1s 291-102 j Final Report on Surface-Mediated Photocatalysis "a,. . ARO Proposal No. 28298-CH u - Work from...Produced by Anodic Oxidation and by Photoelectrochemical Activation of TiO2 ," Marye Anne Fox and Karl L. Worthen, Chem. Mater. 1991, 3, 253. "Surface

  16. Adaptation Forestry in Minnesota's Northwoods

    Cornett, M.; White, M.; Etterson, J.; Kavajecz, L.; Mead, J.; Handler, S.; Swanston, C.; Hall, K.


    Forest restoration and management goals are shifting in northern Minnesota in light of new information on climate trends. Adaptation forestry encompasses a combination of practices designed to favor native populations and species likely to persist under warmer, drier conditions. The overarching project goal is to increase the adaptive capacity of northern forests such that they continue to sustain a variety of services, including carbon sequestration, fiber production, watershed protection, and wildlife habitat. We are currently testing the feasibility and efficacy of adaptation forestry in the northern Great Lakes region in three common forest types: Boreal-Mixed, Pine, and Hardwoods. 12 sites (2,000 acres total) recently subjected to a range of structural treatments (gap creation, shelterwood, and clear-cut with reserves) were coupled with "adaptation plantings" of species that are likely to thrive under changed climate conditions (e.g., red oak, bur oak, white pine). Seedlings, ~110,000 total, originated from two source locations, one that reflects current adaptation to the climate of northern Minnesota and another from a more southern source in central Minnesota. To date, we have assessed results from two growing seasons by tracking survival, growth and phenological characteristics of planted seedlings. This project is a first step in determining whether adaptation management can be used as a tool to help northern forests transition to an uncertain future. Cooperation with state, federal, and academic partners may ultimately influence the adaptive capacity across millions of acres in the Great Lakes region.

  17. The ESO Adaptive Optics Facility

    Ströbele, S.; Arsenault, R.; Bacon, R.; Biasi, R.; Bonaccini-Calia, D.; Downing, M.; Conzelmann, R. D.; Delabre, B.; Donaldson, R.; Duchateau, M.; Esposito, S.; Fedrigo, E.; Gallieni, D.; Hackenberg, W. K. P.; Hubin, N.; Kasper, M.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Le Louarn, M.; McDermid, R.; Oberti, S.; Paufique, J.; Riccardi, A.; Stuik, R.; Vernet, E.


    The Adaptive Optics Facility is a project to convert one VLT-UT into a specialized Adaptive Telescope. The present secondary mirror (M2) will be replaced by a new M2-Unit hosting a 1170 actuators deformable mirror. The 3 focal stations will be equipped with instruments adapted to the new capability of this UT. Two instruments are in development for the 2 Nasmyth foci: Hawk-I with its AO module GRAAL allowing a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics correction and MUSE with GALACSI for GLAO correction and Laser Tomography Adaptive Optics correction. A future instrument still needs to be defined for the Cassegrain focus. Several guide stars are required for the type of adaptive corrections needed and a four Laser Guide Star facility (4LGSF) is being developed in the scope of the AO Facility. Convex mirrors like the VLT M2 represent a major challenge for testing and a substantial effort is dedicated to this. ASSIST, is a test bench that will allow testing of the Deformable Secondary Mirror and both instruments with simulated turbulence. This article describes the Adaptive Optics facility systems composing associated with it.

  18. 45 CFR 16.18 - Mediation.


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 16.18 Section 16.18 Public Welfare... BOARD § 16.18 Mediation. (a) In cases pending before the Board. If the Board decides that mediation... mediation techniques and will provide or assist in selecting a mediator. The mediator may take any...

  19. Biogenesis pathways of RNA guides in archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity

    Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Richter, Hagen; Oost, van der John; White, Malcolm F.


    CRISPR-Cas is an RNA-mediated adaptive immune system that defends bacteria and archaea against mobile genetic elements. Short mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are key elements in the interference step of the immune pathway. A CRISPR array composed of a series of repeats interspaced by spacer sequences

  20. The innate and adaptive immune response to avian influenza virus infections and vaccines

    Protective immunity against viruses is mediated by the early innate immune responses and later on by the adaptive immune responses. The early innate immunity is designed to contain and limit virus replication in the host, primarily through cytokine and interferon production. Most all cells are cap...

  1. Immunologic mechanisms in the adaptation of swine farm workers to their work environment

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Cormier, Yvon; Veillette, Marc;


    Swine building exposure causes inflammatory reactions that appear to be attenuated with prolonged periods of contact. The mechanisms behind this adaptation to a dusty and endotoxin-rich environment are poorly understood. Our aim was to compare levels of selected inflammatory mediators in swine fa...

  2. Hemoglobins: models of physiological adaptation, with special reference to O2 availability and temperature

    Weber, Roy E.

    and mammals - and recreated woolly mammoth Hb) the treatise reviews intraspecific and interspecific adaptations (that are mediated by changes in the levels of red cell effectors and in Hb structure, respectively) in response to changes in O2 availability and temperature, demonstrating reciprocity...

  3. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and Cortical Adaptation in Habituation of Odor-Guided Behavior

    Yadon, Carly A.; Wilson, Donald A.


    Decreases in behavioral investigation of novel stimuli over time may be mediated by a variety of factors including changes in attention, internal state, and motivation. Sensory cortical adaptation, a decrease in sensory cortical responsiveness over prolonged stimulation, may also play a role. In olfaction, metabotropic glutamate receptors on…

  4. Resituation or Resistance? Higher Education Teachers' Adaptations to Technological Change

    Westberry, Nicola; McNaughton, Susan; Billot, Jennie; Gaeta, Helen


    This paper presents the findings from a project that explored teachers' adaptations to technological change in four large classes in higher education. In these classes, lecturers changed from single- to multi-lecture settings mediated by videoconferencing, requiring them to transfer their beliefs and practices into a new pedagogical space.…

  5. Perceived Control and Adaptation in Elder Caregivers: Development of an Explanatory Model.

    Wallhagen, Margaret I.


    Tested model representing hypothesis that perceived control mediates objective and subjective aspects of caregiving and caregiver adaptation. Findings from 60 elderly family caregivers revealed that perceived control had direct relationship with life satisfaction and depression and indirect relationship with subjective symptoms of stress. Wishful…

  6. Adaptive designs for sequential experiments

    林正炎; 张立新


    Various adaptive designe have been proposed and applied to clinical trials,bioassay,psycho-physics,etc.Adaptive designs are also useful in high cost engineering trials.More and More people have been paying attention to these desing methods.This paper introduces several broad families of designs,such as the play-the-winner rele,randomized play-the-winner rule and its generalization to the multi-arm case,doubly bi-ased coin adaptive design,Markov chain model.

  7. Coastal adaptation with ecological engineering

    Cheong, So-Min; Silliman, Brian; Wong, Poh Poh; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Kim, Choong-Ki; Guannel, Greg


    The use of combined approaches to coastal adaptation in lieu of a single strategy, such as sea-wall construction, allows for better preparation for a highly uncertain and dynamic coastal environment. Although general principles such as mainstreaming and no- or low-regret options exist to guide coastal adaptation and provide the framework in which combined approaches operate, few have examined the interactions, synergistic effects and benefits of combined approaches to adaptation. This Perspective provides three examples of ecological engineering -- marshes, mangroves and oyster reefs -- and illustrates how the combination of ecology and engineering works.

  8. Resource-adaptive cognitive processes

    Crocker, Matthew W


    This book investigates the adaptation of cognitive processes to limited resources. The central topics of this book are heuristics considered as results of the adaptation to resource limitations, through natural evolution in the case of humans, or through artificial construction in the case of computational systems; the construction and analysis of resource control in cognitive processes; and an analysis of resource-adaptivity within the paradigm of concurrent computation. The editors integrated the results of a collaborative 5-year research project that involved over 50 scientists. After a mot

  9. Mediation Revisited: The Interactive Organization of Mediation in Learning Environments

    Pekarek Doehler, Simona


    This article is concerned with the social organization of mediation in learning environments. It seeks to further articulate the sociocultural notion of mediation in sociointeractional terms, combining insights from the sociocultural approach to cognition and the microinteractionist, especially ethnomethodological approach to social activities. A microanalysis of mediation in communicative 2nd-language classroom activities where the task at hand is the management of interaction itself is pres...

  10. The vulnerability of threatened species: adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity.

    Berry, Pam; Ogawa-Onishi, Yuko; McVey, Andrew


    Global targets to halt the loss of biodiversity have not been met, and there is now an additional Aichi target for preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status. Climate change increasingly needs to be factored in to these, and thus there is a need to identify the extent to which it could increase species vulnerability. This paper uses the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity framework to assess the vulnerability of a selection of WWF global priority large mammals and marine species to climate change. However, it divides adaptive capacity into adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity, in order to identify whether adaptation is more constrained by the biology of the species or by its environmental setting. Lack of evidence makes it difficult to apply the framework consistently across the species, but it was found that, particularly for the terrestrial mammals, adaptation opportunities seems to be the greater constraint. This framework and analysis could be used by conservationists and those wishing to enhance the resilience of species to climate change.

  11. The Vulnerability of Threatened Species: Adaptive Capability and Adaptation Opportunity

    Andrew McVey


    Full Text Available Global targets to halt the loss of biodiversity have not been met, and there is now an additional Aichi target for preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status. Climate change increasingly needs to be factored in to these, and thus there is a need to identify the extent to which it could increase species vulnerability. This paper uses the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity framework to assess the vulnerability of a selection of WWF global priority large mammals and marine species to climate change. However, it divides adaptive capacity into adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity, in order to identify whether adaptation is more constrained by the biology of the species or by its environmental setting. Lack of evidence makes it difficult to apply the framework consistently across the species, but it was found that, particularly for the terrestrial mammals, adaptation opportunities seems to be the greater constraint. This framework and analysis could be used by conservationists and those wishing to enhance the resilience of species to climate change.

  12. Magnetically mediated thermoacoustic imaging

    Feng, Xiaohua; Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin


    In this paper, alternating magnetic field is explored for inducing thermoacoustic effect on dielectric objects. Termed as magnetically mediated thermo-acoustic (MMTA) effect that provides a contrast in conductivity, this approach employs magnetic resonance for delivering energy to a desired location by applying a large transient current at radio frequency below 50MHz to a compact magnetically resonant coil. The alternating magnetic field induces large electric field inside conductive objects, which then undergoes joule heating and emanates acoustic signal thermo-elastically. The magnetic mediation approach with low radio frequency can potentially provide deeper penetration than microwave radiation due to the non-magnetic nature of human body and therefore extend thermoacoustic imaging to deep laid organs. Both incoherent time domain method that applies a pulsed radio frequency current and coherent frequency domain approach that employs a linear chirp signal to modulate the envelop of the current are discussed. Owing to the coherent processing nature, the latter approach is capable of achieving much better signal to noise ratio and therefore potential for portable imaging system. Phantom experiments are carried out to demonstrate the signal generation together with some preliminary imaging results. Ex-vivo tissue studies are also investigated.

  13. An Adaptation from a Functional Perspective

    丰志明; 吕凯


    According to functional theory of translation, adaptation is an acceptable translation form which focuses on communicative purpose of the target text. The paper briefly explains functional theory and adaptation, and in detail analyzes an adaptation from a functional perspective.

  14. Adapting playware to multiple players

    Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Mastorakis, Nikos


    With the creation of playware as intelligent hardware and software that creates play, it is possible to adapt the play tool to the individual user, and even to multiple users playing at the same time with the play tool. In this paper, we show how it is possible to implement adaptivity in modular...... to such differences, and argues that adaptivity is needed to make games fit to the individual users in both single-player games and multi-player games. As a case study, we implemented such adaptivity on modular interactive tiles for the single-user game ColorTimer, and for the multiple-user games PingPong, in which...

  15. Hypermedia Environments and Adaptive Instruction.

    Federico, Pat-Anthony


    Reviews relevant professional literature concerning hypermedia environments and adaptive instruction for online learning for distance education and continuing education. Highlights include aptitude-treatment interaction; cognitive processes; navigational paths; log files; and intelligent tutors. Contains 125 references. (LRW)

  16. Adaptive Equalization Algorithms: An Overview

    Garima Malik


    Full Text Available The recent digital transmission systems impose the application of channel equalizers with short training time and high tracking rate. Equalization techniques compensate for the time dispersion introduced by communication channels and combat the resulting inter-symbol interference (ISI effect. Given a channel of unknown impulse response, the purpose of an adaptive equalizer is to operate on the channel output such that the cascade connection of the channel and the equalizer provides an approximation to an ideal transmission medium. Typically, adaptive equalizers used in digital communications require an initial training period, during which a known data sequence is transmitted. A replica of this sequence is made available at the receiver in proper synchronism with the transmitter, thereby making it possible for adjustments to be made to the equalizer coefficients in accordance with the adaptive filtering algorithm employed in the equalizer design. In this paper, an overview of the current state of the art in adaptive equalization techniques has been presented.

  17. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai


    We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo......, we propose an improved neural classification architecture eliminating an inherent redundancy in the widely used SoftMax classification network. Numerical results demonstrate the viability of the method...

  18. Externalizing Research Through Adaptive Frameworks

    Vedel, Jane Bjørn; Irwin, Alan; Høngaard Andersen, Peter


    Adaptive approaches to collaborations between industry and academic research institutions can enable both parties to achieve their goals more effectively. Here, we discuss our experience with such approaches and suggest recommendations for addressing the associated management challenges.......Adaptive approaches to collaborations between industry and academic research institutions can enable both parties to achieve their goals more effectively. Here, we discuss our experience with such approaches and suggest recommendations for addressing the associated management challenges....

  19. Architectural Adaptability in Parallel Programming


    I AD-A247 516 Architectural Adaptability in Parallel Programming Lawrence Alan Crowl Technical Report 381 May 1991 92-06322 UNIVERSITY OF ROC R...COMPUTER SCIENCE Best Avai~lable Copy Architectural Adaptability in Parallel Programming by Lawrence Alan Crowl Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the development of their programs. In applying abstraction to parallel programming , we can use abstractions to represent potential parallelism

  20. A robust adaptive robot controller


    A globally convergent adaptive control scheme for robot motion control with the following features is proposed. First, the adaptation law possesses enhanced robustness with respect to noisy velocity measurements. Second, the controller does not require the inclusion of high gain loops that may excite the unmodeled dynamics and amplify the noise level. Third, we derive for the unknown parameter design a relationship between compensator gains and closed-loop convergence rates that is independen...