WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptation compatible solutes

  1. Compatibility considerations in parenteral nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, P W; Vanderveen, T W

    1984-05-01

    Information on compatibility of nutrients and drugs with parenteral nutrient (PN) solutions is reviewed and evaluated. Precipitation of calcium phosphate when calcium and phosphate salts are added can be affected by pH, amino acid concentration, amino acid product, temperature, sequence of additives, specific salt used, and time since admixture; precipitate formation can occur gradually over 24 hours. Insulin is chemically stable in PN solutions, but adsorption to the infusion system can cause decreased availability. Poor delivery of vitamin A via PN solutions has been reported. The sodium bisulfite content of amino acid injections may cause degradation of thiamine, but studies simulating clinical use are needed. Folic acid stability in PN solutions has been demonstrated, and phytonadione appears to be stable. Drug administration via PN solutions may be advantageous when fluid intake is restricted or peripheral vein access is limited and in home PN therapy. Summarized are results of studies involving heparin, cimetidine hydrochloride, aminophylline, amphotericin B, iron dextran, hydrochloric acid, corticosteroids, narcotics, metoclopramide, digoxin, and fluorouracil. Many antibiotics are probably stable, especially when administered by co-infusion rather than by direct mixture in the PN solution container. When lipids are mixed in the same container with amino acid-dextrose solutions, compatibility and stability of electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements must be reassessed. Practical research is needed, and availability of additives should be studied in specific patient populations and for specific PN formulations. Valid conclusions are dependent on careful study design.

  2. Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

  3. Compatible solutes in lactic acid bacteria subjected to water stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the research project described in this thesis was to investigate the protective effect of compatible solutes on tactic acid bacteria subjected to drying. Dried preparations of lactic acid bacteria are applied as starter cultures in feed and food industries. Dried starter

  4. Solutions to helmet-mounted display visual correction compatibility issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; van de Pol, Corina

    2002-08-01

    To meet the goal of 24-hour, all-weather operation, U.S. Army aviation uses a number of imaging sensor systems on its aircraft. Imagery provided by these systems is presented on helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Fielded systems include the Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used on the AH-64 Apache. Proposed future HMD systems such as the Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System (HIDSS) and the Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) scanning laser system are possible choices for the Army's RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. Ever present in current and future HMD systems is the incompatibility problem between the design-limited physical eye relief of the HMD and the need to provide for the integration of laser and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, as well as the need to address the changing optical and vision requirements of the aging aviator. This paper defines the compatibility issue, reviews past efforts to solve this problem (e.g., contact lenses, NBC masks, optical inserts, etc.), and identifies emerging techniques (e.g., refractive surgery, adaptive optics, etc.) that require investigation.

  5. Frontiers of solution-oriented adaptation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisaro, A.; Swart, R.J.; Hinkel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is heterogeneous and relevant for a range of sectors and levels of decision-making. As adaptation moves up the policy agenda, solution-oriented adaptation research requires addressing questions that are salient to stakeholders and decision-makers at various scales and involves applying a

  6. How climate compatible are livelihood adaptation strategies and development programs in rural Indonesia?

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, R.M.; Butler, J.R.A.; Suadnya, W.; Puspadi, K.; Suharto, I.; Skewes, T.D.

    2016-01-01

    Achieving climate compatible development (CCD) is a necessity in developing countries, but there are few examples of requisite planning processes, or manifestations of CCD. This paper presents a multi-stakeholder, participatory planning process designed to screen and prioritise rural livelihood adaptation strategies against nine CCD criteria. The process also integrated three principles of adaptation pathways: interventions should be (1) ‘no regrets’ and maintain reversibility to avoid mal-ad...

  7. Synthesis and release of the bacterial compatible solute 5-hydroxyectoine in Hansenula polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilert, Eva; Kranz, Andreas; Hollenberg, Cornelis P; Piontek, Michael; Suckow, Manfred

    2013-08-20

    Ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine belong to the family of compatible solutes which are known to mainly contribute to the adaptation of the cell to osmotic stress by mediation of a constant turgor. In addition the cell's essential functions are maintained under stress conditions like high salinity, heat or aridity stress. Hansenula polymorpha was engineered to catalyze the transformation of monomeric substrates to 5-hydroxyectoine. For this purpose four genes encoding the enzymes of the 5-hydroxyectoine biosynthesis pathway of Halomonas elongata, EctA, EctB, EctC, and EctD, were inserted into the genome of H. polymorpha. Subsequently the syntheses of ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine were analyzed and optimized. We showed that H. polymorpha is a suitable system for recombinant 5-hydroxyectoine synthesis in gram per liter scale (2.8 g L⁻¹ culture supernatant, 365 μmol/g dcw) in which almost 100% conversion of ectoine to 5-hydroxyectoine without necessity of high salinity were achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. FLAT: A CLARIN-compatible repository solution based on Fedora Commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilsbeek, Paul; Windhouwer, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a CLARIN-compatible repository solution that fulfils both the long-term preservation requirements as well as the current day discoverability and usability needs of an online data repository of language resources. The widely used Fedora Commons open source

  9. Solution adaptive mesh using moving mesh method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilak, A.S.; Tong, A.Y.; Liao, G.

    2004-01-01

    This work deals with mesh adaptation strategy to enhance the accuracy of numerical solution of partial differential equations. This was achieved economically by employing the Moving Grid Finite Difference Method. The method was reformulated as first order div-curl system. This system was then solved using the Least Square Finite Element method (LSFEM). The reformulation of the method has two desirable effects. Firstly, it eliminates the expensive gradient computation in the original method and secondly it allows the method to be employed for mesh adaptation with dynamic boundaries. A 2-D general finite element code implementing the mesh adaptation method based on LSFEM, capable of analyzing self-adjoint problems in elasticity and heat transfer with variety of boundary conditions, sources or sinks was developed and thoroughly validated. The code was used to analyze and adapt mesh for problems in heat transfer and elasticity. The method was found to perform satisfactorily in all test cases. (author)

  10. Role of Mn2+ and Compatible Solutes in the Radiation Resistance of Thermophilic Bacteria and Archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Kimberly M.; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-resistant bacteria have garnered a great deal of attention from scientists seeking to expose the mechanisms underlying their incredible survival abilities. Recent analyses showed that the resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum is dependent upon Mn-antioxidant complexes responsible for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by radiation. Here we examined the role of the compatible solutes trehalose, mannosylglycerate, and di-m...

  11. Compatible solutes: the key to Listeria's success as a versatile gastrointestinal pathogen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sleator, Roy D

    2010-12-10

    Abstract Recently we reported a role for compatible solute uptake in mediating bile tolerance and increased gastrointestinal persistence in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes 1 . Herein, we review the evolution in our understanding of how these low molecular weight molecules contribute to growth and survival of the pathogen both inside and outside the body, and how this stress survival mechanism may ultimately be used to target and kill the pathogen.

  12. Diversity, biological roles and biosynthetic pathways for sugar-glycerate containing compatible solutes in bacteria and archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empadinhas, Nuno; da Costa, Milton S

    2011-08-01

    A decade ago the compatible solutes mannosylglycerate (MG) and glucosylglycerate (GG) were considered to be rare in nature. Apart from two species of thermophilic bacteria, Thermus thermophilus and Rhodothermus marinus, and a restricted group of hyperthermophilic archaea, the Thermococcales, MG had only been identified in a few red algae. Glucosylglycerate was considered to be even rarer and had only been detected as an insignificant solute in two halophilic microorganisms, a cyanobacterium, as a component of a polysaccharide and of a glycolipid in two actinobacteria. Unlike the hyper/thermophilic MG-accumulating microorganisms, branching close to the root of the Tree of Life, those harbouring GG shared a mesophilic lifestyle. Exceptionally, the thermophilic bacterium Persephonella marina was reported to accumulate GG. However, and especially owing to the identification of the key-genes for MG and GG synthesis and to the escalating numbers of genomes available, a plethora of new organisms with the resources to synthesize these solutes has been recognized. The accumulation of GG as an 'emergency' compatible solute under combined salt stress and nitrogen-deficient conditions now seems to be a disseminated survival strategy from enterobacteria to marine cyanobacteria. In contrast, the thermophilic and extremely radiation-resistant bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus is the only actinobacterium known to accumulate MG, and under all growth conditions tested. This review addresses the environmental factors underlying the accumulation of MG, GG and derivatives in bacteria and archaea and their roles during stress adaptation or as precursors for more elaborated macromolecules. The diversity of pathways for MG and GG synthesis as well as those for some of their derivatives is also discussed. The importance of glycerate-derived organic solutes in the microbial world is only now being recognized. Their stress-dependent accumulation and the molecular aspects of their

  13. How climate compatible are livelihood adaptation strategies and development programs in rural Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Wise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving climate compatible development (CCD is a necessity in developing countries, but there are few examples of requisite planning processes, or manifestations of CCD. This paper presents a multi-stakeholder, participatory planning process designed to screen and prioritise rural livelihood adaptation strategies against nine CCD criteria. The process also integrated three principles of adaptation pathways: interventions should be (1 ‘no regrets’ and maintain reversibility to avoid mal-adaptation; (2 address both proximate and underlying systemic drivers of community vulnerability; and (3 linked across spatial scales and jurisdictional levels to promote coordination. Using examples of two rural sub-districts in Indonesia, we demonstrate the process and resulting CCD strategies. Priority strategies varied between the sub-districts but all reflected standard development interventions: water management, intensification or diversification of agriculture and aquaculture, education, health, food security and skills-building for communities. Strategies delivered co-benefits for human development and ecosystem services and hence adaptive capacity, but greenhouse mitigation co-benefits were less significant. Actions to deliver the strategies’ objectives were screened for reversibility, and a minority were potentially mal-adaptive (i.e. path dependent, disproportionately burdening the most vulnerable, reducing incentives to adapt, or increasing greenhouse gas emissions yet highly feasible. These related to infrastructure, which paradoxically is necessary to deliver ‘soft’ adaptation benefits (i.e. road access to health services. Only a small minority of transformative strategies addressed the systemic (i.e. institutional and political drivers of vulnerability. Strategies were well-matched by development programs, suggesting that current interventions mirror CCD. However, development programs tackled fewer systemic drivers, were poorly

  14. Electromagnetic compatibility of WLAN adapters with life-supporting medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagnini, G; Mattei, E; Censi, F; Triventi, M; Lo Sterzo, R; Marchetta, E; Bartolini, P

    2011-05-01

    This paper investigates the electromagnetic compatibility of 45 critical care medical devices (infusion pumps, defibrillators, monitors, lung ventilators, anesthesia machines and external pacemakers) with various types of wireless local area network (WLAN, IEEE 802.11 b/g, 2.45 GHz, 100 mW) adapters. Interference is evaluated by performing ad-hoc tests according to the ANSI C63.18 recommended practice. The behavior of the devices during the tests was monitored using patient simulators/device testers specific for each device class. Electromagnetic interference cases were observed in three of 45 devices at a maximum distance of 5 cm. In two cases the interference caused malfunctions that may have clinical consequences for the patient. The authors' findings show that the use of these wireless local area network adapters can be considered reasonably safe, although interference may occur if they are operated at very close distance (<10 cm) to the medical devices.

  15. Calcium Chloride and Calcium Gluconate in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Solutions without Cysteine: Compatibility Studies Using Laser Light Obscuration Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Huston

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There are no compatibility studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions without cysteine containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate using light obscuration as recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP. The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for solutions containing calcium chloride and calcium gluconate without cysteine. Solutions of TrophAmine and Premasol (2.5% amino acids, containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate were compounded without cysteine. Solutions were analyzed for particle counts using light obscuration. Maximum concentrations tested were 15 mmol/L of calcium and 12.5 mmol/L of phosphate. If the average particle count of three replicates exceeded USP guidelines, the solution was determined to be incompatible. This study found that 12.5 and 10 mmol/L of calcium and phosphate, respectively, are compatible in neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions compounded with 2.5% amino acids of either TrophAmine or Premasol. There did not appear to be significant differences in compatibility for solutions containing TrophAmine or Premasol when solutions were compounded with either CaCl2 or CaGlu-Pl. This study presents data in order to evaluate options for adding calcium and phosphate to neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions during shortages of calcium and cysteine.

  16. Biosynthesis of compatible solutes in rhizobial strains isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules in Tunisian fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Joaquín J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associated with appropriate crop and soil management, inoculation of legumes with microbial biofertilizers can improve food legume yield and soil fertility and reduce pollution by inorganic fertilizers. Rhizospheric bacteria are subjected to osmotic stress imposed by drought and/or NaCl, two abiotic constraints frequently found in semi-arid lands. Osmostress response in bacteria involves the accumulation of small organic compounds called compatible solutes. Whereas most studies on rhizobial osmoadaptation have focussed on the model species Sinorhizobium meliloti, little is known on the osmoadaptive mechanisms used by native rhizobia, which are good sources of inoculants. In this work, we investigated the synthesis and accumulations of compatible solutes by four rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisia, as well as by the reference strain Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Results The most NaCl-tolerant strain was A. tumefaciens 10c2, followed (in decreasing order by R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3, R. etli 12a3 and R. gallicum bv. phaseoli 8a3. 13C- and 1H-NMR analyses showed that all Rhizobium strains synthesized trehalose whereas A. tumefaciens 10c2 synthesized mannosucrose. Glutamate synthesis was also observed in R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3 and A. tumefaciens 10c2. When added as a carbon source, mannitol was also accumulated by all strains. Accumulation of trehalose in R. tropici CIAT 899 and of mannosucrose in A. tumefaciens 10c2 was osmoregulated, suggesting their involvement in osmotolerance. The phylogenetic analysis of the otsA gene, encoding the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, suggested the existence of lateral transfer events. In vivo 13C labeling experiments together with genomic analysis led us to propose the uptake and conversion pathways of different carbon sources into trehalose. Collaterally, the β-1,2-cyclic glucan from R

  17. The Effects of Foliar Feeding of Compatible Organic Solutes on Agronomic Traits of Safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmohammadi Mohsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Safflower is originated from Iran and is tolerant against water deficit stress. However, in semi-arid Mediterranean climate terminal drought and heat stress adversely affect the safflower production. In order to investigate the influence of foliar application of proline (Pr (10 and 20 mM and glycinebetaine (GB (2 and 4 mM under well and deficit irrigation (37.23° N,46.16° E. Foliar spray of compatible organic solutes started from middle vegetative growth and continued till seed filling stage. Comparison of well irrigated and stress conditions revealed that severity of water deficit stress (SI was 0.25. Evaluation of growth-related morphological characteristics such as plant height, leaf area, canopy spread and percent ground cover showed that they considerably reduced by water deficit stress. However, foliar application of compatible solutes could somewhat increase growth related parameters. Results showed that water deficit stress noticeably reduced the chlorophyll content, while foliar spray could alleviate the water deficit stress effects when compared with intact plant (non-sprayed plants. The beneficial effect of GB was more prominent than Pr, especially under deficit irrigation condition. Principal component analysis (PCA indicated that the best performance under well irrigated condition was obtained by application of 4 mM GB while under deficit irrigation condition the best performance was recorded for plants treated with 2 and 4 mM GB and 20 mM Pr. Overall, results of current experiments showed that foliar spray with high concentration of GB may can significantly alleviate the adverse effects of water deficit stress.

  18. Biological denitrification of brine: the effect of compatible solutes on enzyme activities and fatty acid degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyplik, Paweł; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Czarny, Jakub; Drozdzyńska, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2012-09-01

    The effect of the addition of compatible solutes (ectoine and trehalose) on the denitrification process of saline wastewater was studied. In saline wastewater, it was observed that the initial concentration of nitrates was 500 mg N l⁻¹. A fatty substance isolated from oiled bleaching earth (waste of vegetable oil refining process) was used as a source of carbon.The consortium, which was responsible for the denitrification process originated from the wastewater of the vegetable oil industry. The consortium of microorganisms was identified by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and sequencing techniques. It was noted that ectoine affects significantly the activity of lipase and nitrate reductase, and resulted in faster denitrification compared to saline wastewater with the addition of trehalose or control saline wastewater (without compatible solutes). It was observed that relative enzyme activities of lipase and nitrate reductase increased by 32 and 35%, respectively, in the presence of 1 mM ectoine. This resulted in an increase in specific nitrate reduction rate in the presence of 1 mM ectoine to 5.7 mg N g⁻¹ VSS h⁻¹, which was higher than in the absence of ectoine (3.2 mg N g⁻¹ VSS h⁻¹). The addition of trehalose did not have an effect on nitrate removals. Moreover, it was found that trehalose was used up completely by bacteria as a source of carbon in the denitrification process. The fatty acids were biodegraded by 74% in the presence of 1 mM ectoine.

  19. ECLSS Sustaining Compatibility Testing on Urine Processor Assembly Nonmetallic Materials for Reformulation of Pretreated Urine Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    On International Space Station (ISS), the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) converts human urine and flush water into potable water. The urine is acid-pretreated primarily to control microbial growth. In recent years, the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) pretreatment was believed to be largely responsible for producing salt crystals capable of plugging filters in UPA components and significantly reducing the percentage of water recovery from urine. In 2012, ISS management decided to change the acid pretreatment for urine from sulfuric to phosphoric with the goal of eliminating or minimizing formation of salt crystals. In 2013-2014, as part of the qualification of the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) formulation, samples of 12 nonmetallic materials used in UPA components were immersed for up to one year in pretreated urine and brine solutions made with the new H3PO4 formulation. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to measure modulus (stiffness) of the immersed samples compared to virgin control samples. Such compatibility data obtained by DMA for the H3PO4-based solutions were compared to DMA data obtained for the H2SO4-based solutions in 2002-2003.

  20. Adsorption of phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions by a water-compatible hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aimin; Zhang, Quanxing; Zhang, Gencheng; Chen, Jinlong; Fei, Zhenghao; Liu, Fuqiang

    2002-06-01

    A water-compatible hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent (NJ-8) for adsorbing and removing phenolic compounds from their aqueous solutions was prepared. This product can be used directly without a wetting process. Its adsorption property toward four phenolic compounds, phenol, p-cresol, p-chlorophenol, and p-nitrophenol was tested using the commercial Amberlite XAD-4 as a reference. The capacities of equilibrium adsorption for all four phenolic compounds on the NJ-8 from their aqueous solutions are around two times as high as that of Amberlite XAD4 within the temperature range 283-323 K, which may contribute to their micropore structure and the partial polarity on the network. Freundlich isotherm equations, as well as relative adsorption capacities and isosteric adsorption enthalpies for the four phenolic compounds, indicate that the adsorption of phenolic compounds on the NJ-8 resin is a physical adsorption process. Mini-column adsorption studies for phenol on Amberlite XAD4 and NJ-8 resins show that the breakthrough adsorption capacities are 0.54 and 0.99 mmol/ml, and the total capacities are 0.62 and 1.37 mmol/ml, while no extra acetone was needed to remove the adsorbed phenol from NJ-8 as from Amberlite XAD4.

  1. Development and verification of unstructured adaptive mesh technique with edge compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    In the design study of the large-sized sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR), one key issue is suppression of gas entrainment (GE) phenomena at a gas-liquid interface. Therefore, the authors have been developed a high-precision CFD algorithm to evaluate the GE phenomena accurately. The CFD algorithm has been developed on unstructured meshes to establish an accurate modeling of JSFR system. For two-phase interfacial flow simulations, a high-precision volume-of-fluid algorithm is employed. It was confirmed that the developed CFD algorithm could reproduce the GE phenomena in a simple GE experiment. Recently, the authors have been developed an important technique for the simulation of the GE phenomena in JSFR. That is an unstructured adaptive mesh technique which can apply fine cells dynamically to the region where the GE occurs in JSFR. In this paper, as a part of the development, a two-dimensional unstructured adaptive mesh technique is discussed. In the two-dimensional adaptive mesh technique, each cell is refined isotropically to reduce distortions of the mesh. In addition, connection cells are formed to eliminate the edge incompatibility between refined and non-refined cells. The two-dimensional unstructured adaptive mesh technique is verified by solving well-known lid-driven cavity flow problem. As a result, the two-dimensional unstructured adaptive mesh technique succeeds in providing a high-precision solution, even though poor-quality distorted initial mesh is employed. In addition, the simulation error on the two-dimensional unstructured adaptive mesh is much less than the error on the structured mesh with a larger number of cells. (author)

  2. Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzón, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    disadvantage, besides being more labour intensive than mineral mortars based on ZnCl, is that no specific recipes are yet developed for Lede stone and the result is thus dependent on the knowledge of the restorer. Both of the repair mortars have the problem that Lede stone changes its colour due to ageing while the mortar itself remains colour stable. This means that if the mortar colour was adapted for a resemblance at the moment of application, the colour difference between stone and mortar will increase in time. In this study, the compatibility of the different stone repair mortars with the Lede stone are tested. Further, a study was made whether the mortar recipes can be adapted for a better compatibility. In addition, the effect of glauconite addition in the mortar is studied to resolve the possibility of ageing of the mortar similar to the stone.

  3. Physical compatibility of various drugs with neonatal total parenteral nutrient solution during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Laura M; Wilder, Alyson G; Foushee, Jaime A

    2013-03-15

    The physical compatibility of various drugs with neonatal total parenteral nutrient (TPN) solution during simulated Y-site administration was evaluated. Study drugs were selected based on the lack of compatibility data with them and neonatal TPN solution and the frequency of use in a local neonatal unit. These drugs included amiodarone, caffeine citrate, clindamycin, enalaprilat, epinephrine, fluconazole, fosphenytoin sodium, hydrocortisone, metoclopramide, midazolam, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, and rifampin. Equal volumes of neonatal TPN solution or sterile water for injection were combined with study drugs or sterile water for injection at concentrations used clinically in neonates. Each test was performed in triplicate. The samples were examined via turbidimetric analysis and visually against light and dark backgrounds immediately after mixing and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours after mixing. Analysis of variance was used to determine statistically significant differences between the test and control solutions. Many of the drugs studied exhibited no visual or turbidimetric evidence of incompatibility when combined with neonatal TPN solution for up to three hours in a simulated Y-site injection. Pentobarbital, phenobarbital, and rifampin formed visible precipitation immediately after mixing with the neonatal TPN solution. Caffeine citrate, clindamycin, enalaprilat, epinephrine, fluconazole, fosphenytoin sodium, hydrocortisone, metoclopramide, and midazolam exhibited no visual or turbidimetric evidence of incompatibility when combined with a neonatal TPN solution for up to three hours in a simulated Y-site injection. Amiodarone, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, and rifampin were not compatible with the neonatal TPN solution and should not be coadministered via Y-site injection.

  4. Compatible development solutions in the context of historical settings in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mehdizadeh Saradj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates some prominent development solutions in the vicinity of historic buildings. These solutions differ from country to country, considering the special situation of each country, such as the number of historic monuments, the current construction quality, peoples’ interests and the benefits of historic buildings and sites. To be able to evaluate the similar states of development strategies in Iran, a questionnaire focused on citing examples of any type of intervention through PowerPoint presentation for every group of architectural professionals was framed. The results indicated that most respondents preferred to adopt the following development solutions, in Iranian context as follows: adaptive re-use of existing listed buildings, development in the immediate vicinity of monuments while considering proper separation and articulation between them, extending monuments to increase the required spaces and also exploitation of suitable infill development. Obviously, this hierarchical order could differ from one context to another. To find out if any specific method for architectural design was preferred, interviewees were asked to rank five proposed solutions for architectural design in historic context. Respondents were mostly pro harmonic design with monuments for new constructions in the core zone of monuments, while considering a proper gap between new and old.

  5. Role of Mn2+ and compatible solutes in the radiation resistance of thermophilic bacteria and archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Kimberly M; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-resistant bacteria have garnered a great deal of attention from scientists seeking to expose the mechanisms underlying their incredible survival abilities. Recent analyses showed that the resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum is dependent upon Mn-antioxidant complexes responsible for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by radiation. Here we examined the role of the compatible solutes trehalose, mannosylglycerate, and di-myo-inositol phosphate in the radiation resistance of aerobic and anaerobic thermophiles. We found that the IR resistance of the thermophilic bacteria Rubrobacter xylanophilus and Rubrobacter radiotolerans was highly correlated to the accumulation of high intracellular concentration of trehalose in association with Mn, supporting the model of Mn(2+)-dependent ROS scavenging in the aerobes. In contrast, the hyperthermophilic archaea Thermococcus gammatolerans and Pyrococcus furiosus did not contain significant amounts of intracellular Mn, and we found no significant antioxidant activity from mannosylglycerate and di-myo-inositol phosphate in vitro. We therefore propose that the low levels of IR-generated ROS under anaerobic conditions combined with highly constitutively expressed detoxification systems in these anaerobes are key to their radiation resistance and circumvent the need for the accumulation of Mn-antioxidant complexes in the cell.

  6. Role of Mn2+ and Compatible Solutes in the Radiation Resistance of Thermophilic Bacteria and Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Webb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-resistant bacteria have garnered a great deal of attention from scientists seeking to expose the mechanisms underlying their incredible survival abilities. Recent analyses showed that the resistance to ionizing radiation (IR in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum is dependent upon Mn-antioxidant complexes responsible for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by radiation. Here we examined the role of the compatible solutes trehalose, mannosylglycerate, and di-myo-inositol phosphate in the radiation resistance of aerobic and anaerobic thermophiles. We found that the IR resistance of the thermophilic bacteria Rubrobacter xylanophilus and Rubrobacter radiotolerans was highly correlated to the accumulation of high intracellular concentration of trehalose in association with Mn, supporting the model of Mn2+-dependent ROS scavenging in the aerobes. In contrast, the hyperthermophilic archaea Thermococcus gammatolerans and Pyrococcus furiosus did not contain significant amounts of intracellular Mn, and we found no significant antioxidant activity from mannosylglycerate and di-myo-inositol phosphate in vitro. We therefore propose that the low levels of IR-generated ROS under anaerobic conditions combined with highly constitutively expressed detoxification systems in these anaerobes are key to their radiation resistance and circumvent the need for the accumulation of Mn-antioxidant complexes in the cell.

  7. Test-compatible confidence intervals for adaptive two-stage single-arm designs with binary endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Kevin; Kieser, Meinhard

    2018-01-01

    Inference after two-stage single-arm designs with binary endpoint is challenging due to the nonunique ordering of the sampling space in multistage designs. We illustrate the problem of specifying test-compatible confidence intervals for designs with nonconstant second-stage sample size and present two approaches that guarantee confidence intervals consistent with the test decision. Firstly, we extend the well-known Clopper-Pearson approach of inverting a family of two-sided hypothesis tests from the group-sequential case to designs with fully adaptive sample size. Test compatibility is achieved by using a sample space ordering that is derived from a test-compatible estimator. The resulting confidence intervals tend to be conservative but assure the nominal coverage probability. In order to assess the possibility of further improving these confidence intervals, we pursue a direct optimization approach minimizing the mean width of the confidence intervals. While the latter approach produces more stable coverage probabilities, it is also slightly anti-conservative and yields only negligible improvements in mean width. We conclude that the Clopper-Pearson-type confidence intervals based on a test-compatible estimator are the best choice if the nominal coverage probability is not to be undershot and compatibility of test decision and confidence interval is to be preserved. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Physical Compatibility of Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium Bicarbonate in a Pharmacy-compounded Bicarbonate-buffered Hemofiltration Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A.; Jin, Haksong; Kolf, Mike; Rehak, Nadja N.; Danner, Robert L.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Grimes, George J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the physical compatibility of magnesium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution used at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (http://www.cc.nih.gov). METHODS Two hemofiltration fluid formulations with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L or 15 mEq/L were prepared in triplicate with an automated compounding device. The hemofiltration solution with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L contains the maximum concentration of additives that we use in clinical practice. The hemofiltration solution of 15 mEq/L of magnesium and 50 mEq/L of bicarbonate was used to study the physicochemical properties of this interaction. The solutions were stored without light protection at 22 to 25 °C for 48 hours. Physical compatibility was assessed by visual inspection and microscopy. The pH of the solutions was assayed at 3 to 4 hours and 52 to 53 hours after compounding. In addition, electrolyte and glucose concentrations in the solutions were assayed at two time points after preparation: 3 to 4 hours and 50 to 51 hours. RESULTS No particulate matter was observed by visual and microscopic inspection in the compounded hemofiltration solutions at 48 hours. Electrolyte and glucose concentrations and pH were similar at both time points after solution preparation. CONCLUSION Magnesium sulfate (1.5 mEq/L) and sodium bicarbonate (50 mEq/L) were physically compatible in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution at room temperature without light protection at 48 hours. PMID:20237384

  9. Flexible substrate compatible solution processed P-N heterojunction diodes with indium-gallium-zinc oxide and copper oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Ishan; Deepak, E-mail: saboo@iitk.ac.in

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Both n and p-type semiconductors are solution processed. • Temperature compatibility with flexible substrates such as polyimide. • Compatibility of p-type film (CuO) on n-type film (IZO). • Diode with rectification ratio of 10{sup 4} and operating voltage <1.5 V. • Construction of band alignment using XPS. - Abstract: Printed electronics on flexible substrates requires low temperature and solution processed active inks. With n-type indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) based electronics maturing for thin film transistor (TFT), we here demonstrate its heterojunction diode with p-copper oxide, prepared by sol-gel method and processed at temperatures compatible with polyimide substrates. The phase obtained for copper oxide is CuO. When coated on n-type oxide, it is prone to develop morphological features, which are minimized by annealing treatment. Diodes of p-CuO films with IGZO are of poor quality due to its high resistivity while, conducting indium-zinc oxide (IZO) films yielded good diode with rectification ratio of 10{sup 4} and operating voltage <1.5 V. A detailed measurement at the interface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical absorption ascertained the band alignment to be of staggered type. Consistently, the current in the diode is established to be due to electrons tunnelling from n-IZO to p-CuO.

  10. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2017-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  11. Temperature gradient compatibility tests of some refractory metals and alloys in bismuth and bismuth--lithium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Cavin, O.B.

    1976-11-01

    Quartz, T-111, and Mo thermal-convection loop tests were conducted at temperatures up to 700 0 C (100 0 C ΔT) to determine the compatibility of several refractory metals/alloys with bismuth and bismuth-lithium solutions for molten salt breeder reactor applications. Methods of evaluation included weight change measurements, metallographic examination, chemical and electron microprobe analysis, and mechanical properties tests. Molybdenum, T-111, and TA--10 percent W appear to be the most promising containment materials, while niobium and iron-based alloys are unacceptable

  12. The marine cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 synthesizes the compatible solute trehalose by a laterally acquired OtsAB fusion protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate

  13. Adapting to Biology: Maintaining Container-Closure System Compatibility with the Therapeutic Biologic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrazio, Dominick

    Many pharmaceutical companies are transitioning their research and development drug product pipeline from traditional small-molecule injectables to the dimension of evolving therapeutic biologics. Important concerns associated with this changeover are becoming forefront, as challenges develop of varying complexity uncommon with the synthesis and production of traditional drugs. Therefore, alternative measures must be established that aim to preserve the efficacy and functionality of a biologic that might not be implemented for small molecules. Conserving protein stability is relative to perpetuating a net equilibrium of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Key to sustaining this balance is the ability of container-closure systems to maintain their compatibility with the ever-changing dynamics of therapeutic biologics. Failure to recognize and adjust the material properties of packaging components to support compatibility with therapeutic biologics can compromise patient safety, drug productivity, and biological stability. This review will examine the differences between small-molecule drugs and therapeutic biologics, lay a basic foundation for understanding the stability of therapeutic biologics, and demonstrate potential sources of container-closure systems' incompatibilities with therapeutic biologics at a mechanistic level. Many pharmaceutical companies are transitioning their research and development drug product pipeline from traditional small-molecule injectables to recombinantly derived therapeutic biologics. Concerns associated with this transformation are becoming prominent, as therapeutic biologics are uncharacteristic to small-molecule drugs. Maintaining the stability of a therapeutic biologic is a combination of balancing intrinsic factors and external elements within the biologic's microenvironment. An important aspect of this balance is relegated to the overall compatibility of primary, parenteral container-closure systems with therapeutic biologics

  14. Application of an easily water-compatible hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent for efficient removal of catechol and resorcinol in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhan; Huang, Kelong; Yan, Cheng

    2009-08-15

    An easily water-compatible hypercrosslinked resin HJ-1 was developed for adsorbing catechol and resorcinol in aqueous solution in this study. Its adsorption performances for catechol and resorcinol were investigated in aqueous solution by using the commercial Amberlite XAD-4 as a reference. The adsorption dynamic curves were measured and the adsorption obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate equation of Boyer and Hsu. The adsorption isotherms were scaled and Freundlich isotherm model characterized the adsorption better. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters were calculated and the adsorption was an exothermic, favorable, and more ordered process. The fact that the adsorption capacity of catechol was larger than resorcinol and the adsorption enthalpy of catechol was more negative than resorcinol can be explained in terms of the solubility and the polarity of two adsorbates.

  15. Cas4 Facilitates PAM-Compatible Spacer Selection during CRISPR Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian N. Kieper

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: CRISPR-Cas systems adapt their immunological memory against their invaders by integrating short DNA fragments into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR loci. While Cas1 and Cas2 make up the core machinery of the CRISPR integration process, various class I and II CRISPR-Cas systems encode Cas4 proteins for which the role is unknown. Here, we introduced the CRISPR adaptation genes cas1, cas2, and cas4 from the type I-D CRISPR-Cas system of Synechocystis sp. 6803 into Escherichia coli and observed that cas4 is strictly required for the selection of targets with protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs conferring I-D CRISPR interference in the native host Synechocystis. We propose a model in which Cas4 assists the CRISPR adaptation complex Cas1-2 by providing DNA substrates tailored for the correct PAM. Introducing functional spacers that target DNA sequences with the correct PAM is key to successful CRISPR interference, providing a better chance of surviving infection by mobile genetic elements. : Kieper et al. demonstrate that the ubiquitous protein Cas4 assists Cas1 and Cas2 in the selection of new CRISPR spacers with a PAM licensing efficient CRISPR interference. Keywords: CRISPR adaptation, Cas4, spacer acquisition, type I-D CRISPR-Cas system

  16. Cas4 Facilitates PAM-Compatible Spacer Selection during CRISPR Adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieper, Sebastian N.; Almendros, Cristóbal; Behler, Juliane; McKenzie, Rebecca E.; Nobrega, Franklin L.; Haagsma, Anna C.; Vink, Jochem N.A.; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Brouns, Stan J.J.

    2018-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems adapt their immunological memory against their invaders by integrating short DNA fragments into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci. While Cas1 and Cas2 make up the core machinery of the CRISPR integration process, various class I and II

  17. Cas4 Facilitates PAM-Compatible Spacer Selection during CRISPR Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieper, Sebastian N; Almendros, Cristóbal; Behler, Juliane; McKenzie, Rebecca E; Nobrega, Franklin L; Haagsma, Anna C; Vink, Jochem N A; Hess, Wolfgang R; Brouns, Stan J J

    2018-03-27

    CRISPR-Cas systems adapt their immunological memory against their invaders by integrating short DNA fragments into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci. While Cas1 and Cas2 make up the core machinery of the CRISPR integration process, various class I and II CRISPR-Cas systems encode Cas4 proteins for which the role is unknown. Here, we introduced the CRISPR adaptation genes cas1, cas2, and cas4 from the type I-D CRISPR-Cas system of Synechocystis sp. 6803 into Escherichia coli and observed that cas4 is strictly required for the selection of targets with protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) conferring I-D CRISPR interference in the native host Synechocystis. We propose a model in which Cas4 assists the CRISPR adaptation complex Cas1-2 by providing DNA substrates tailored for the correct PAM. Introducing functional spacers that target DNA sequences with the correct PAM is key to successful CRISPR interference, providing a better chance of surviving infection by mobile genetic elements. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Solution adaptive meshes with a hyperbolic grid generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, G. H.

    An alternative numerical procedure to generate solution-adaptive grids for use in CFD simulations is developed analytically and demonstrated. The approach is based on the hyperbolic generation scheme of Steger and Chausee (1980), with terms added to achieve line clustering while fulfilling orthogonality and smoothness requirements. The formulation of the method is outlined, and adapted meshes for a shock-shock interaction at freestream Mach number 8.03 and Reynolds number 387,500 are presented graphically. The hyperbolic approach is shown to be significantly faster than comparable elliptic-grid methods and capable of producing an arbitrarily high degree of clustering on structured meshes.

  19. Adaptive Multi-path Telecommunications Solutions for ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transport Services (ITS applications require availability of the wireless seamless secure communications solutions with selectable services quality and wide-area coverage. There are available both public as well as private wireless data services, however, dominantly in case of public services no guaranteed data service quality is offered. Principal improvement of the service quality can be reached by dynamical selection of the best possible alternative from the available portfolio of relevant services. Efficient decision processes must be implemented in the appropriate flexible seamless routing/switching structures. Generally recommended solution has been described in series of documents generated by ISO/CEN known as CALM family of standards. In accordance to our understanding CALM architecture represents very complex attitude, however, it is demanding solution for less ambitious implementations. On the other hand CALM decision processes are limited to approach based on the Policy-based Management (PBM principles with limited functionality and adaptability. Authors present L3 alternative solution with adaptive classifications processes applied instead of PBM ones. Such approach can be efficiently implemented specifically if there is available deep understanding of applied technologies. Requirements on the representative system performance indicators and their tolerance range should be so carefully identified. Paper includes results of authors’ laboratory study of three most widely spread data services which can be understood as basis for the “CALM ideas” based system implementations.

  20. Adaptive solution of partial differential equations in multiwavelet bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, B.; Beylkin, G.; Gines, D.; Vozovoi, L.

    2002-01-01

    We construct multiresolution representations of derivative and exponential operators with linear boundary conditions in multiwavelet bases and use them to develop a simple, adaptive scheme for the solution of nonlinear, time-dependent partial differential equations. The emphasis on hierarchical representations of functions on intervals helps to address issues of both high-order approximation and efficient application of integral operators, and the lack of regularity of multiwavelets does not preclude their use in representing differential operators. Comparisons with finite difference, finite element, and spectral element methods are presented, as are numerical examples with the heat equation and Burgers' equation

  1. Calcium Chloride in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Solutions with and without Added Cysteine: Compatibility Studies Using Laser and Micro-Flow Imaging Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Robert K.; Christensen, J. Mark; Alshahrani, Sultan M.; Mohamed, Sumeia M.; Clark, Sara M.; Nason, Jeffrey A.; Wu, Ying Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of compatibility of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and phosphates have not included particle counts in the range specified by the United States Pharmacopeia. Micro-flow imaging techniques have been shown to be comparable to light obscuration when determining particle count and size in pharmaceutical solutions. Objective The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions containing CaCl2 using dynamic light scattering and micro-flow imaging techniques. Methods Solutions containing TrophAmine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA), CaCl2, and sodium phosphate (NaPhos) were compounded with and without cysteine. All solutions contained standard additives to neonatal PN solutions including dextrose, trace metals, and electrolytes. Control solutions contained no calcium or phosphate. Solutions were analyzed for particle size and particle count. Means of Z-average particle size and particle counts of controls were determined. Study solutions were compared to controls and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Chapter 788 guidelines. The maximum amount of Phos that was compatible in solutions that contained at least 10 mmol/L of Ca in 2.5% amino acids (AA) was determined. Compatibility of these solutions was verified by performing analyses of 5 repeats of these solutions. Microscopic analyses of the repeats were also performed. Results Amounts of CaCl2 and NaPhos that were compatible in solutions containing 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3% AA were determined. The maximum amount of NaPhos that could be added to TrophAmine solutions of > = 2.5% AA containing at least 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 was 7.5 mmol/L. Adding 50 mg/dL of cysteine increased the amount of NaPhos that could be added to solutions containing 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 to 10 mmol/L. Conclusion Calcium chloride can be added to neonatal PN solutions containing NaPhos in concentrations that can potentially provide an intravenous intake of adequate amounts of calcium and phosphorus

  2. [Examination of the cause of changing solution color by mixing aminophylline and dopamine, the compatibility of which was indicated by the supplier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Kawahara, Masami

    2014-01-01

    A case in which aminophylline solution was administered to a patient with congestive heart failure is reported and the problems caused by administration were solved by subsequent experiments. Dopamine solution was added from the side route using a mechanical pump, and mixed with aminophylline solution in the main route. Furosemide was administered after clamping and flushing the main route according to the supplier's information that indicated the compatibility of dopamine and aminophylline. However, the aminophylline solution turned black in color 3 h after furosemide administration. Several examinations were carried out to clarify the cause of the incompatibility in this case. The results showed that solutions with all possible combinations, including aminophylline and dopamine, turned black at 24 h after mixing, and the UV absorption at 430 nm increased from 0 to 0.28. UV absorption of the mixed solution increased in a dopamine dose-dependent manner in the range of 1.5-12 mg. When aminophylline was added to physiological saline or hypotonic electrolyte solution, the pH of each solution increased. These results suggested that degradation of dopamine to a melanin-like polymer under alkaline conditions caused the change in color of the solution. It is presumed that dopamine was inappropriately injected into aminophylline solution as the route was clamped tightly to shut out furosemide contamination. Aminophylline and dopamine are often co-administered to patients in critical condition. Thus, even if compatibility of aminophylline with dopamine is indicated by the supplier, they should be administered through separate routes.

  3. Uptake of Amino Acids and Their Metabolic Conversion into the Compatible Solute Proline Confers Osmoprotection to Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprasis, Adrienne; Bleisteiner, Monika; Kerres, Anne; Hoffmann, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The data presented here reveal a new facet of the physiological adjustment processes through which Bacillus subtilis can derive osmostress protection. We found that the import of proteogenic (Glu, Gln, Asp, Asn, and Arg) and of nonproteogenic (Orn and Cit) amino acids and their metabolic conversion into proline enhances growth under otherwise osmotically unfavorable conditions. Osmoprotection by amino acids depends on the functioning of the ProJ-ProA-ProH enzymes, but different entry points into this biosynthetic route are used by different amino acids to finally yield the compatible solute proline. Glu, Gln, Asp, and Asn are used to replenish the cellular pool of glutamate, the precursor for proline production, whereas Arg, Orn, and Cit are converted into γ-glutamic semialdehyde/Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, an intermediate in proline biosynthesis. The import of Glu, Gln, Asp, Asn, Arg, Orn, and Cit did not lead to a further increase in the size of the proline pool that is already present in osmotically stressed cells. Hence, our data suggest that osmoprotection of B. subtilis by this group of amino acids rests on the savings in biosynthetic building blocks and energy that would otherwise have to be devoted either to the synthesis of the proline precursor glutamate or of proline itself. Since glutamate is the direct biosynthetic precursor for proline, we studied its uptake and found that GltT, an Na+-coupled symporter, is the main uptake system for both glutamate and aspartate in B. subtilis. Collectively, our data show how effectively B. subtilis can exploit environmental resources to derive osmotic-stress protection through physiological means. PMID:25344233

  4. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: REVIVING TRADITIONAL DESIGN AND ADAPTING MODERN SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mostafa Eldemery

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Architecture is the art and science of designing which involves the manipulation of mass, space, volume, texture, light, shadow, materials, program and other elements in order to achieve an end which is aesthetic, functional and sustainable. Sustainability is a growing trend within the field of architecture, it is currently the most pressing, complex and challenging agenda facing architects. The industrialization and modernization of the world has led to increased initiatives regarding sustainability debate, where recently the word ‘sustainable’ entered into the consciousness of architects and became an essential concern in the discourse of architecture. What is more, we are nowadays witnessing the defense of former ways of life that affect not only the architecture, but also the habitat, work, and, in short, what can be called sustainability. Although sustainability at the human settlement scale has received great attention so far in most of the developing countries, it still remains the most glaring challenge in terms of its demand on resources and expertise. The aim today is to bring modern technologies and knowledge representing design solutions as guidelines like double skin façade, adapting traditional concepts, in tune with such practices to develop solutions that provide us with sustainable buildings that interact and are in harmony with natural climatic conditions. The paper will make an attempt at highlighting sustainability challenges we currently face including its implications for the built environment, in order to propose a sustainability evaluation framework, drawing out transferable lessons learned for future development.

  5. Endogenously synthesized (-)-proto-quercitol and glycine betaine are principal compatible solutes of Schizochytrium sp. strain S8 (ATCC 20889) and three new isolates of phylogenetically related thraustochytrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Anita N; Aasen, Inga M; Strøm, Arne R

    2007-09-01

    We report that endogenously synthesized (-)-proto-quercitol (1D-1,3,4/2,5-cyclohexanepentol) and glycine betaine were the principal compatible solutes of Schizochytrium sp. strain S8 (ATCC 20889) and three new osmotolerant isolates of thraustochytrids (strains T65, T66, and T67). The compatible solutes were identified and quantified by use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their identity was confirmed by mass spectroscopy and measurement of the specific optical rotation. The cellular content of compatible solutes increased with increasing NaCl concentration of a defined medium. (-)-proto-Quercitol was the dominating solute at all NaCl concentrations tested (0.25 to 1.0 M), e.g., cells of S8 and T66 stressed with 1.0 M NaCl accumulated about 500 micromol (-)-proto-quercitol and 100 micromol glycine betaine per g dry weight. To our knowledge, (-)-proto-quercitol has previously been found only in eucalyptus. The 18S rRNA gene sequences of the four (-)-proto-quercitol-producing strains showed 99% identity, and they displayed the same fatty acid profile. The only polyunsaturated fatty acids accumulated were docosahexaenoic acid (78%) and docosapentaenoic acid (22%). A less osmotolerant isolate (strain T29), which was closely phylogenetically related to Thraustochytrium aureum (ATCC 34304), did not contain (-)-proto-quercitol or glycine betaine. Thus, the level of osmotolerance and the osmolyte systems vary among thraustochytrids.

  6. Compatible Lie Bialgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ming-Zhong; Bai Cheng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    A compatible Lie algebra is a pair of Lie algebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie brackets is a Lie bracket. We construct a bialgebra theory of compatible Lie algebras as an analogue of a Lie bialgebra. They can also be regarded as a “compatible version” of Lie bialgebras, that is, a pair of Lie bialgebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie bialgebras is still a Lie bialgebra. Many properties of compatible Lie bialgebras as the “compatible version” of the corresponding properties of Lie bialgebras are presented. In particular, there is a coboundary compatible Lie bialgebra theory with a construction from the classical Yang–Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras as a combination of two classical Yang–Baxter equations in Lie algebras. Furthermore, a notion of compatible pre-Lie algebra is introduced with an interpretation of its close relation with the classical Yang–Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras which leads to a construction of the solutions of the latter. As a byproduct, the compatible Lie bialgebras fit into the framework to construct non-constant solutions of the classical Yang–Baxter equation given by Golubchik and Sokolov. (paper)

  7. An hp-adaptive strategy for the solution of the exact kernel curved wire Pocklington equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.P. Lahaye (Domenico); P.W. Hemker (Piet)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we introduce an adaptive method for the numerical solution of the Pocklington integro-differential equation with exact kernel for the current induced in a smoothly curved thin wire antenna. The hp-adaptive technique is based on the representation of the discrete solution,

  8. Unauthorised adaptation of computer programmes - is criminalisation a solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Muswaka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Haupt t/a Softcopy v Brewers Marketing Intelligence (Pty Ltd 2006 4 SA 458 (SCA Haupt sought to enforce a copyright claim in the Data Explorer computer programme against Brewers Marketing Intelligence (Pty Ltd. His claim was dismissed in the High Court and he appealed to the Supreme Court of Appeal. The Court held that copyright in the Data Explorer programme vested in Haupt. Haupt acquired copyright in the Data Explorer programme regardless of the fact that the programme was as a result of an unauthorised adaptation of the Project AMPS programme which belonged to Brewers Marketing Intelligence (Pty Ltd.This case note inter alia analyses the possibility of an author being sued for infringement even though he has acquired copyright in a work that he created by making unauthorised adaptations to another's copyright material. Furthermore, it examines whether or not the law adequately protects copyright owners in situations where infringement takes the form of unauthorised adaptations of computer programmes. It is argued that the protection afforded by the Copyright Act 98 of 1978 (Copyright Act in terms of section 27(1 to copyright owners of computer programmes is narrowly defined. It excludes from its ambit of criminal liability the act of making unauthorised adaptation of computer programmes. The issue that is considered is therefore whether or not the unauthorised adaptation of computer programmes should attract a criminal sanction. In addressing this issue and with the aim of making recommendations, the legal position in the United Kingdom (UK is analysed. From the analysis it is recommended that the Copyright Act be amended by the insertion of a new section, section 27(1(A, which will make the act of making an unauthorised adaptation of a computer programme an offence. This recommended section will close the gap that currently exists in our law with regard to unauthorised adaptations of computer programmes.

  9. ADAPTIVE OUTPUT CONTROL: SUBJECT MATTER, APPLICATION TASKS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Bobtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive output control for parametric and functionally uncertain plants is considered. Application examples illustrating the practical use of the discussed theory are given along with the mathematical formulation of the problem. A brief review of adaptive output control methods, by both linear and non-linear systems, is presented and an extensive bibliography, in which the reader will find a detailed description of the specific algorithms and their properties, is represented. A new approach to the output control problem - a method of consecutive compensator - is considered in detail.

  10. MRI-compatible Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy for vascular stents: Electrochemical corrosion behavior in simulated plasma solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Zhe; Zhao, Xu; Xu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Using revised simulated body fluid (r-SBF), the electrochemical corrosion behavior of an Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy for MRI compatible vascular stents was characterized in vitro. As indicated by XPS analysis, the surface passive oxide film of approximately 1.3nm thickness was identified as a mixture of Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and ZrO2 after immersion in the r-SBF. The Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy manifests a low corrosion rate and high polarization resistance similar to pure Nb and Ta, as shown by the potentiodynamic polarization curves and EIS. Unlike 316L stainless steel and the L605 Co-Cr alloy, no localized corrosion has been detected. Semiconducting property of passive film on the Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy was identified as the n-type, with growth mechanism of high-field controlled growth. The excellent corrosion resistance in simulated human blood enviroment renders the Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy promising as stent candidate material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Strategies for Cultural Adaptation towards Solutions in Childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    application of cultural principles in a bid to finding solution against challenges ... therefore we need to develop a better understanding of the nature of design and the .... architectural styles. Cultural Research for Childhood Care Facility Design. Research into different cultures could take several distinct paths, which could.

  12. The Role of an Impurity in Ceftriaxone Sodium Preparation for Injection in Determining Compatibility with Calcium-Containing Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, Mio; Yoshida, Miyako; Nakai, Yuka; Uchida, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Ceftriaxone sodium preparation for injection is known to form insoluble microparticles with calcium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of an impurity in the ceftriaxone sodium preparation on this incompatibility. Firstly, using HPLC, two impurities were identified in the ceftriaxone sodium solution. The major impurity (impurity 1) was identified as tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-thioxo-1,2,4-triazine-5,6-dione by LC/MS. Secondly, the role played by this impurity in the incompatibility with calcium was examined. Using seven different ceftriaxone preparations for injection, the effect of adding impurity 1 to mixed solutions of ceftriaxone sodium and calcium chloride on the appearance of insoluble microparticles, was examined using a light obscuration particle counter. Although incompatibility was not completely suppressed by the addition of impurity 1, the number of insoluble microparticles formed with calcium chloride solution was decreased in proportion to the concentration of impurity 1, and the concentration of calcium ion decreased as the concentration of added impurity 1 increased. These results show that impurity 1 plays a concentration-dependent role in incompatibility between ceftriaxone sodium preparation for injection and calcium-containing solutions.

  13. Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

    2006-10-01

    This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

  14. Stability and Compatibility of Antibiotics in Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions Applied to Automated Peritoneal Dialysis in The Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslandes, Guillaume; Grégoire, Matthieu; Bouquié, Régis; Le Marec, Aude; Allard, Sophie; Dailly, Eric; Pineau, Alain; Allain-Launay, Emma; Jolliet, Pascale; Roussey, Gwenaëlle; Navas, Dominique

    ♦ OBJECTIVES: Assess the stability of several antibiotics in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions under common conditions of use in pediatrics, particularly in automated PD. ♦ METHODS: Amoxicillin, cefazolin, cefepime, ceftazidime, imipenem, cotrimoxazole, tobramycin, vancomycin, and the association of ceftazidime + vancomycin and ceftazidime + tobramycin, were tested in 3 different PD solutions: bicarbonate/lactate solution with 2 glucose concentrations (Physioneal 1.36 and 3.86%; Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA) and an icodextrin-containing solution (Extraneal; Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA). Concentrations were those recommended in guidelines for the treatment of peritonitis in pediatrics. Physioneal bags were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours, whereas Extraneal bags were stored 12 hours at room temperature (22 ± 2°C) and then 12 hours at 37°C. Drug concentrations were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Each measure was taken in triplicate. Stability of antibiotics was defined as less than 10% degradation of the drug over time. ♦ RESULTS: Cefazolin, cotrimoxazole, tobramycin, and vancomycin were stable under studied conditions. Ceftazidime was stable 24 hours in icodextrin, 12 hours in Physioneal 1.36% and 6 hours in Physioneal 3.86%. The association of tobramycin or vancomycin did not influence the stability of ceftazidime. Cefepime and amoxicillin were stable 6 h, 4 h, and 8 h in Physioneal 1.36%, 3.86% and Extraneal, respectively. The stability of imipenem was very low: 2 h in Physioneal and 6 h in Extraneal. Moreover, an increasingly yellow coloration was observed with the use of imipenem, whereas no color change or precipitation occurred in other bags. ♦ CONCLUSION: Cefazolin, tobramycin, cotrimoxazole, and vancomycin are stable in PD solutions up to 24 hours and can be administered in the PD bag for the treatment of peritonitis, even in automated PD under studied conditions. However

  15. Effectiveness of solution focus brief counseling approach (SFBC in developing student career adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulawarman Mulawarman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Career adaptability is the preparedness role in work and adjustman to changes in working situation in the future. The purpose of this study was to examine Solution Focused Brief Counseling (SFBC approach in developing career adaptability of students.The method used in this study was a mix method . Subjects selected through a purposive sampling method that is focused on graduate students at the beginning of the semester with a major in Guidance and Counseling Faculty of Education, Semarang State University. Career adaptability in this study consists of four dimensions, concern, control, curiosity and confidence. Stages of Solution Focused Brief Counseling (SFBC implemented include establishing relationships, Identifying a solvable complaint, Establishing goals, Designing and Implementing Intervention, and termination, evaluation, and follow-up. The results of this study showed Solution Focused Brief Counseling (SFBC is effective in improving the adaptability of student career both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  16. An adaptive nonlinear solution scheme for reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, G.S. [Scientific Software - Intercomp, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Numerical reservoir simulation involves solving large, nonlinear systems of PDE with strongly discontinuous coefficients. Because of the large demands on computer memory and CPU, most users must perform simulations on very coarse grids. The average properties of the fluids and rocks must be estimated on these grids. These coarse grid {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} properties are costly to determine, and risky to use, since their optimal values depend on the fluid flow being simulated. Thus, they must be found by trial-and-error techniques, and the more coarse the grid, the poorer the results. This paper describes a numerical reservoir simulator which accepts fine scale properties and automatically generates multiple levels of coarse grid rock and fluid properties. The fine grid properties and the coarse grid simulation results are used to estimate discretization errors with multilevel error expansions. These expansions are local, and identify areas requiring local grid refinement. These refinements are added adoptively by the simulator, and the resulting composite grid equations are solved by a nonlinear Fast Adaptive Composite (FAC) Grid method, with a damped Newton algorithm being used on each local grid. The nonsymmetric linear system of equations resulting from Newton`s method are in turn solved by a preconditioned Conjugate Gradients-like algorithm. The scheme is demonstrated by performing fine and coarse grid simulations of several multiphase reservoirs from around the world.

  17. Hierarchical Adaptive Solution of Radiation Transport Problems on Unstructured Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Cassiano R. E de Oliveira

    2008-06-30

    Computational radiation transport has steadily gained acceptance in the last decade as a viable modeling tool due to the rapid advancements in computer software and hardware technologies. It can be applied for the analysis of a wide range of problems which arise in nuclear reactor physics, medical physics, atmospheric physics, astrophysics and other areas of engineering physics. However, radiation transport is an extremely chanllenging computational problem since the governing equation is seven-deimensional (3 in space, 2 in direction, 1 in energy, and 1 in time) with a high degree of coupleing betwen these variables. If not careful, this relatively large number of independent variables when discretized can potentially lead to sets of linear equations of intractable size. Though parallel computing has allowed the solution of very large problems, avaliable computational resources will always be finite due to the fact that every more sophisticated multiphysics models are being demanded by industry. There is thus the pressing requirement to optimize the discretizations so as to minimize the effort and maximize the accuracy.

  18. Comparison of the compatible solute pool of two slightly halophilic planctomycetes species, Gimesia maris and Rubinisphaera brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Catarina; Soares, Ana R; Lamosa, Pedro; Santos, Manuel A; da Costa, Milton S

    2016-11-01

    Gimesia maris and Rubinisphaera brasiliensis are slightly halophilic representatives of the deep-branching phylum Planctomycetes. For osmoadaptation both species accumulated α-glutamate, sucrose, ectoine and hydroxyectoine. A major role was found for ectoine, hydroxyectoine as well as sucrose under hyper-osmotic shock conditions. Nevertheless, the levels of sucrose were up-regulated by the increased salinity levels and also by low nitrogen availability. Additionally, G. maris accumulated glucosylglycerate (GG) as major solute specifically under low nitrogen levels, which prompted us to analyse the transcript abundance of two homologues genes known for the biosynthesis of GG, namely glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (GpgS) and glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase (GpgP). By qPCR using a suitable reference gene selected in this study, the transcript abundance of the biosynthetic genes was quantified in G. maris cells under hyper-osmotic shock or under low nitrogen conditions. The gpgS gene was induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions suggesting that GG synthesis is regulated primarily at the transcription level. Moreover, the expression of a gene coding for a putative sucrose-phosphorylase (Spase) located upstream the gpgS and gpgP genes was up-regulated, predicting a metabolic role of Spase probably related to GG synthesis.

  19. Solutions d'adaptation liées aux changements climatiques et à l'eau ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet vise à faire connaître les solutions d'adaptation concrètes aux changements climatiques découlant de recherches financées par le CRDI. ... Le projet sera mis en oeuvre dans le cadre d'un partenariat de recherche entre Local Governments for Sustainability Management (ICLEI) et l'Université de Waterloo.

  20. Solutions d'adaptation liées aux changements climatiques et à l'eau ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    excellence en matière de recherche pour le développement. L'ICLEI mettra à profit son expérience acquise pendant la création du compendium national des connaissances sur les solutions d'adaptation liées à l'eau pour Ressources naturelles ...

  1. Removal of p-nitrophenol by a water-compatible hypercrosslinked resin functionalized with formaldehyde carbonyl groups and XAD-4 in aqueous solution: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhan; Yan, Cheng; Huang, Kelong

    2009-04-01

    Chloromethylated styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers were post-crosslinked through Fredel-Crafts alkylation reaction and a water-compatible hypercrosslinked resin HJ-1 was developed successfully. It can be wetted directly by water and can be used without any wetting process. It was applied to remove p-nitrophenol in aqueous solution in comparison with the commercial Amberlite XAD-4 resin. Their adsorption behaviors for p-nitrophenol were conducted and it was found the adsorption dynamics obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and the intra-particle diffusion was the rate-limiting step. The adsorption isotherms can be correlated to Freundlich isotherm and the adsorption capacity onto HJ-1 resin was much larger than XAD-4. The maximum adsorption capacity of p-nitrophenol for HJ-1 resin was measured to be 179.4 mg/g with the equilibrium concentration at 178.9 mg/l and the maximum removal percentage was predicted to be 98.3%. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters were calculated and the adsorption was mainly driven by enthalpy change. The micropore structure, the size matching between the pore diameter of HJ-1 resin and the molecular size of p-nitrophenol, and polarity matching between the formaldehyde carbonyl groups of HJ-1 resin and p-nitrophenol bring the larger adsorption capacity and higher adsorption affinity.

  2. An Adaptive Physics-Based Method for the Solution of One-Dimensional Wave Motion Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Shafiei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive physics-based method is developed for solving wave motion problems in one dimension (i.e., wave propagation in strings, rods and beams. The solution of the problem includes two main parts. In the first part, after discretization of the domain, a physics-based method is developed considering the conservation of mass and the balance of momentum. In the second part, adaptive points are determined using the wavelet theory. This part is done employing the Deslauries-Dubuc (D-D wavelets. By solving the problem in the first step, the domain of the problem is discretized by the same cells taking into consideration the load and characteristics of the structure. After the first trial solution, the D-D interpolation shows the lack and redundancy of points in the domain. These points will be added or eliminated for the next solution. This process may be repeated for obtaining an adaptive mesh for each step. Also, the smoothing spline fit is used to eliminate the noisy portion of the solution. Finally, the results of the proposed method are compared with the results available in the literature. The comparison shows excellent agreement between the obtained results and those already reported.

  3. Adaptable and Reconfigurable LEAN Automation - a competitive solution in the western industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Hadar, Ronen

    words are simplification, effectiveness and user-friendliness at the shop floor. This concept is based on simple and adaptable hybrid solutions which the authors believe can be the right solution to also handle the increasing complexity .A new order management concept has been introduced, where skilled...... employees are able to pull and receive orders from a distributed IT system, communicate with suppliers and customers, and schedule operations. The research and implementation has been performed with global Danish companies like LINAK, STRECON and LEGO, but the idea is that the concept will be distributed...... around the world to obtain decentralized production units close to the local customers and suppliers....

  4. Centralized and Distributed Solutions for Fast Muting Adaptation in LTE-Advanced HetNets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced Intercell Interference Coordination (eICIC) is known to provide promising performance benefits for LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks. The use of eICIC facilitates more flexible inter-layer load balancing by means of small cell Range Extension (RE) and Almost Blank Subframes (ABS). Even...... though the eICIC configuration (RE and ABS) ideally should be instantaneously adapted to follow the fluctuations of the traffic and the channel conditions over time, previous studies have focused on slow intercell coordination. In this paper, we investigate fast dynamic eICIC solutions for centralized....... Two different fast muting adaptation algorithms are derived, and it is shown how those can be appplied to both the centralized and the distributed architecture. Performance results with bursty traffic show that the fast dynamic adaptation provides significant gains, both in 5%-ile and 50%-ile user...

  5. Potential application of metabolic engineering to tune the production of compatible solutes for enhancing tolerance of crop plants to salinity/drought (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, P.; Saradhi, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Essential need to develop genotypes of crop plants that can substantially withstand salinity and drought with little yield losses is being increasingly felt, as the cultivable agricultural lands is increasingly being exposed to these stresses. In-spite of gains in productivity, conventional plant breeding methods have their limitations either due to limited gene pool or due to species barrier for gene transfer. Modern molecular tools have paved ways for identification of genes imparting abiotic stress tolerance in unrelated species/organisms and to transfer the selected genes into desirable crop plant species by conquering the incompatibility barriers. In fact, now genetic engineering has been widely realized to be in important tool for developing abiotic stress tolerant crop plants. Abiotic stress tolerance is a complex phenomenon involving simultaneous expression of a number of genes coupled with an interaction of varying weather variables and crop phonology. However, in order to tackle the issue, successful attempts have been made in identifying genes enhancing abiotic stress tolerance. The genes for biosynthesis of various compatible solutes (viz., mtlD for mannitol: P5CS or P5CSF129A for proline; coda/cox or belA/beIB for glycinebetaine' lpsl for trehalose; PINOI for inositol) have been demonstrated to enhance abiotic stress tolerance of plants. We have isolated the codA gene (Accession number AY589052) for choline oxidase from an Indian strain of Arthrobacter sp. from IMTECH (Chandigarh) and the mtlD genes from local strains of E. coli (accession number A Y523630) and halobacterium sp. (Accession number A Y52363 1). We have enhanced the tolerance of Brassica juncea to salt, drought and low temperature stresses by introducing the codA gene from Arthrobacter globiformis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. Presenting our research team is busy developing genotypes of chickpea black gram, peanut and sorghum besides mustard with enhanced

  6. Space-time adaptive solution of inverse problems with the discrete adjoint method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexe, Mihai; Sandu, Adrian

    2014-08-01

    This paper develops a framework for the construction and analysis of discrete adjoint sensitivities in the context of time dependent, adaptive grid, adaptive step models. Discrete adjoints are attractive in practice since they can be generated with low effort using automatic differentiation. However, this approach brings several important challenges. The space-time adjoint of the forward numerical scheme may be inconsistent with the continuous adjoint equations. A reduction in accuracy of the discrete adjoint sensitivities may appear due to the inter-grid transfer operators. Moreover, the optimization algorithm may need to accommodate state and gradient vectors whose dimensions change between iterations. This work shows that several of these potential issues can be avoided through a multi-level optimization strategy using discontinuous Galerkin (DG) hp-adaptive discretizations paired with Runge-Kutta (RK) time integration. We extend the concept of dual (adjoint) consistency to space-time RK-DG discretizations, which are then shown to be well suited for the adaptive solution of time-dependent inverse problems. Furthermore, we prove that DG mesh transfer operators on general meshes are also dual consistent. This allows the simultaneous derivation of the discrete adjoint for both the numerical solver and the mesh transfer logic with an automatic code generation mechanism such as algorithmic differentiation (AD), potentially speeding up development of large-scale simulation codes. The theoretical analysis is supported by numerical results reported for a two-dimensional non-stationary inverse problem.

  7. Boundedness of the solutions for certain classes of fractional differential equations with application to adaptive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila-Camacho, Norelys; Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of three classes of fractional differential equations appearing in the field of fractional adaptive systems, for the case when the fractional order is in the interval α ∈(0,1] and the Caputo definition for fractional derivatives is used. The boundedness of the solutions is proved for all three cases, and the convergence to zero of the mean value of one of the variables is also proved. Applications of the obtained results to fractional adaptive schemes in the context of identification and control problems are presented at the end of the paper, including numerical simulations which support the analytical results. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solution verification, goal-oriented adaptive methods for stochastic advection–diffusion problems

    KAUST Repository

    Almeida, Regina C.

    2010-08-01

    A goal-oriented analysis of linear, stochastic advection-diffusion models is presented which provides both a method for solution verification as well as a basis for improving results through adaptation of both the mesh and the way random variables are approximated. A class of model problems with random coefficients and source terms is cast in a variational setting. Specific quantities of interest are specified which are also random variables. A stochastic adjoint problem associated with the quantities of interest is formulated and a posteriori error estimates are derived. These are used to guide an adaptive algorithm which adjusts the sparse probabilistic grid so as to control the approximation error. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the methodology for a specific model problem. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  9. The adaptive reuse of historic city centres. Bologna and Lisbon: solutions for urban regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Boeri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The European historic city centres are currently experiencing innovative approaches for rehabilitation of urban spaces afflicted by social and physical decay. The revitalization challenges are a consequence of the integration of contemporary technologies and solutions to achieve new requirements and of the impacts of socio-economic dynamics. Understanding and boosting the drivers connected to the cultural potential of the historic city centres can play an important role in adaptive re-use. This paper focuses on the synergy between cultural heritage and urban development, cultural heritage preservation and local economic growth, proposing adaptive reuse design practices applied in historic city centre, through the adoption of a multi-criteria methodology for heritage-led regeneration.

  10. Adaptive solution of some steady-state fluid-structure interaction problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etienne, S.; Pelletier, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a general integrated and coupled formulation for modeling the steady-state interaction of a viscous incompressible flow with an elastic structure undergoing large displacements (geometric non-linearities). This constitutes an initial step towards developing a sensitivity analysis formulation for this class of problems. The formulation uses velocity and pressures as unknowns in a flow domain and displacements in the structural components. An interface formulation is presented that leads to clear and simple finite element implementation of the equilibrium conditions at the fluid-solid interface. Issues of error estimation and mesh adaptation are discussed. The adaptive formulation is verified on a problem with a closed form solution. It is then applied to a sample case for which the structure undergoes large displacements induced by the flow. (author)

  11. Inactivation of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on tomatoes using sodium dodecyl sulphate, levulinic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin Ademola Ijabadeniyi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, sodium hypochlorite solution and levulinic acid in reducing the survival of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was evaluated. The results against heat adapted L. monocytognes revealed that sodium hypochlorite solution was the least effective, achieving log reduction of 2.75, 2.94 and 3.97 log colony forming unit (CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. SDS was able to achieve 8 log reduction for both heat adapted and chlorine adapted bacteria. When used against chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes sodium hypochlorite solution achieved log reduction of 2.76, 2.93 and 3.65 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.07, 2.78 and 4.97 log CFU/mL for 1, 3, 5 minutes, respectively. On chlorine adapted bacteria levulinic acid achieved log reduction of 2.77, 3.07 and 5.21 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using a mixture of 0.05% SDS and 0.5% levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.13, 3.32 and 4.79 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes while on chlorine adapted bacteria it achieved 3.20, 3.33 and 5.66 log CFU/mL, respectively. Increasing contact time also increased log reduction for both test pathogens. A storage period of up to 72 hours resulted in progressive log reduction for both test pathogens. Results also revealed that there was a significant difference (P≤0.05 among contact times, storage times and sanitizers. Findings from this study can be used to select suitable sanitizers and contact times for heat and chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes in the fresh produce industry.

  12. Inactivation of Heat Adapted and Chlorine AdaptedListeria MonocytogenesATCC 7644 on Tomatoes Using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate, Levulinic Acid and Sodium Hypochlorite Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin Ademola; Mnyandu, Elizabeth

    2017-04-13

    The effectiveness of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), sodium hypochlorite solution and levulinic acid in reducing the survival of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was evaluated. The results against heat adapted L. monocytognes revealed that sodium hypochlorite solution was the least effective, achieving log reduction of 2.75, 2.94 and 3.97 log colony forming unit (CFU)/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. SDS was able to achieve 8 log reduction for both heat adapted and chlorine adapted bacteria. When used against chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes sodium hypochlorite solution achieved log reduction of 2.76, 2.93 and 3.65 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.07, 2.78 and 4.97 log CFU/mL for 1, 3, 5 minutes, respectively. On chlorine adapted bacteria levulinic acid achieved log reduction of 2.77, 3.07 and 5.21 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using a mixture of 0.05% SDS and 0.5% levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.13, 3.32 and 4.79 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes while on chlorine adapted bacteria it achieved 3.20, 3.33 and 5.66 log CFU/mL, respectively. Increasing contact time also increased log reduction for both test pathogens. A storage period of up to 72 hours resulted in progressive log reduction for both test pathogens. Results also revealed that there was a significant difference (P≤0.05) among contact times, storage times and sanitizers. Findings from this study can be used to select suitable sanitizers and contact times for heat and chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes in the fresh produce industry.

  13. Two-dimensional fully adaptive solutions of solid--solid alloying reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smooke, M.D.; Koszykowski, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Solid--solid alloying reactions occur in a variety of pyrotechnical applications. They arise when a mixture of powders composed of appropriate oxidizing and reducing agents is heated. The large quantity of heat evolved produces a self-propagating reaction front that is often very narrow with sharp changes in both the temperature and the concentrations of the reacting species. Solution of problems of this type with an equispaced or mildly nonuniform grid can be extremely inefficient. In this paper we develop a two-dimensional fully adaptive method for solving problems of this class. The method adaptively adjusts the number of grid points needed to equidistribute a positive weight function over a given mesh interval in each direction at each time level. We monitor the solution from one time level to another to ensure that the local error per unti step associated with the time differencing method is below some specified tolerance. The method is applied to several examples involving exothermic, diffusion-controlled, self-propagating reactions in packed bed reactors

  14. Adaptive solution of the multigroup diffusion equation on irregular structured grids using a conforming finite element method formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragusa, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a method for performing spatially adaptive computations in the framework of multigroup diffusion on 2-D and 3-D Cartesian grids is investigated. The numerical error, intrinsic to any computer simulation of physical phenomena, is monitored through an a posteriori error estimator. In a posteriori analysis, the computed solution itself is used to assess the accuracy. By efficiently estimating the spatial error, the entire computational process is controlled through successively adapted grids. Our analysis is based on a finite element solution of the diffusion equation. Bilinear test functions are used. The derived a posteriori error estimator is therefore based on the Hessian of the numerical solution. (authors)

  15. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  16. Spectrally Compatible Iterative Water Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Jan; Bogaert, Etienne Vanden; Bostoen, Tom; Zanier, Francesca; Luise, Marco; Cendrillon, Raphael; Moonen, Marc

    2006-12-01

    Until now static spectrum management has ensured that DSL lines in the same cable are spectrally compatible under worst-case crosstalk conditions. Recently dynamic spectrum management (DSM) has been proposed aiming at an increased capacity utilization by adaptation of the transmit spectra of DSL lines to the actual crosstalk interference. In this paper, a new DSM method for downstream ADSL is derived from the well-known iterative water-filling (IWF) algorithm. The amount of boosting of this new DSM method is limited, such that it is spectrally compatible with ADSL. Hence it is referred to as spectrally compatible iterative water filling (SC-IWF). This paper focuses on the performance gains of SC-IWF. This method is an autonomous DSM method (DSM level 1) and it will be investigated together with two other DSM level-1 algorithms, under various noise conditions, namely, iterative water-filling algorithm, and flat power back-off (flat PBO).

  17. Spectrally Compatible Iterative Water Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cendrillon Raphael

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now static spectrum management has ensured that DSL lines in the same cable are spectrally compatible under worst-case crosstalk conditions. Recently dynamic spectrum management (DSM has been proposed aiming at an increased capacity utilization by adaptation of the transmit spectra of DSL lines to the actual crosstalk interference. In this paper, a new DSM method for downstream ADSL is derived from the well-known iterative water-filling (IWF algorithm. The amount of boosting of this new DSM method is limited, such that it is spectrally compatible with ADSL. Hence it is referred to as spectrally compatible iterative water filling (SC-IWF. This paper focuses on the performance gains of SC-IWF. This method is an autonomous DSM method (DSM level 1 and it will be investigated together with two other DSM level-1 algorithms, under various noise conditions, namely, iterative water-filling algorithm, and flat power back-off (flat PBO.

  18. Impact of Metal Nanoform Colloidal Solution on the Adaptive Potential of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Ludmila; Kovalenko, Mariia; Okanenko, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles are a known cause of oxidative stress and so induce antistress action. The latter property was the purpose of our study. The effect of two concentrations (120 and 240 mg/l) of nanoform biogenic metal (Ag, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn) colloidal solution on antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase; the level of the factor of the antioxidant state; and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) of soybean plant in terms of field experience were studied. It was found that the oxidative processes developed a metal nanoparticle pre-sowing seed treatment variant at a concentration of 120 mg/l, as evidenced by the increase in the content of TBARS in photosynthetic tissues by 12 %. Pre-sowing treatment in a double concentration (240 mg/l) resulted in a decrease in oxidative processes (19 %), and pre-sowing treatment combined with vegetative treatment also contributed to the reduction of TBARS (10 %). Increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was observed in a variant by increasing the content of TBARS; SOD activity was at the control level in two other variants. Catalase activity decreased in all variants. The factor of antioxidant activity was highest (0.3) in a variant with nanoparticle double treatment (pre-sowing and vegetative) at a concentration of 120 mg/l. Thus, the studied nanometal colloidal solution when used in small doses, in a certain time interval, can be considered as a low-level stress factor which according to hormesis principle promoted adaptive response reaction.

  19. Multiple-try differential evolution adaptive Metropolis for efficient solution of highly parameterized models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric, L.; Vrugt, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Spatially distributed hydrologic models potentially contain hundreds of parameters that need to be derived by calibration against a historical record of input-output data. The quality of this calibration strongly determines the predictive capability of the model and thus its usefulness for science-based decision making and forecasting. Unfortunately, high-dimensional optimization problems are typically difficult to solve. Here we present our recent developments to the Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm (Vrugt et al., 2009) to warrant efficient solution of high-dimensional parameter estimation problems. The algorithm samples from an archive of past states (Ter Braak and Vrugt, 2008), and uses multiple-try Metropolis sampling (Liu et al., 2000) to decrease the required burn-in time for each individual chain and increase efficiency of posterior sampling. This approach is hereafter referred to as MT-DREAM. We present results for 2 synthetic mathematical case studies, and 2 real-world examples involving from 10 to 240 parameters. Results for those cases show that our multiple-try sampler, MT-DREAM, can consistently find better solutions than other Bayesian MCMC methods. Moreover, MT-DREAM is admirably suited to be implemented and ran on a parallel machine and is therefore a powerful method for posterior inference.

  20. Detecting DoS Attack in Web Services by Using an Adaptive Multiagent Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas BELIZ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} One of the most frequent techniques of a DoS attack is to exhaust available resources (memory, CPU cycles, and bandwidth on the host server. A SOAP message can be affected by a DoS attack if the incoming message has been either created or modified maliciously. Resources available in the server (memory and CPU cycles of the provider can be drastically reduced or exhausted while a malicious SOAP message is being parsed. This article presents a solution based on an adaptive solution for dealing with DoS attacks in Web service environments. The solution proposes a multi-agent hierarchical architecture that implements a classification mechanism in two phases. Each phase incorporates a special type of CBR-BDI agent that functions as a classifier. In the first phase, a case-based reasoning (CBR engine utilizes a decision tree to carry out an initial filter, and in the second phase, a CBR engine incorporates a neural network to complete the classification mechanism. A prototype of the architecture was developed and the results obtained are presented in this study. 

  1. Detecting DoS Attack in Web Services by Using an Adaptive Multiagent Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Shun HONG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} One of the most frequent techniques of a DoS attack is to exhaust available resources (memory, CPU cycles, and bandwidth on the host server. A SOAP message can be affected by a DoS attack if the incoming message has been either created or modified maliciously. Resources available in the server (memory and CPU cycles of the provider can be drastically reduced or exhausted while a malicious SOAP message is being parsed. This article presents a solution based on an adaptive solution for dealing with DoS attacks in Web service environments. The solution proposes a multi-agent hierarchical architecture that implements a classification mechanism in two phases. Each phase incorporates a special type of CBR-BDI agent that functions as a classifier. In the first phase, a case-based reasoning (CBR engine utilizes a decision tree to carry out an initial filter, and in the second phase, a CBR engine incorporates a neural network to complete the classification mechanism. A prototype of the architecture was developed and the results obtained are presented in this study. 

  2. Method and software to solution of inverse and inverse design fluid flow and heat transfer problems is compatible with CFD-software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krukovsky, P.G. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The description of method and software FRIEND which provide a possibility of solution of inverse and inverse design problems on the basis of existing (base) CFD-software for solution of direct problems (in particular, heat-transfer and fluid-flow problems using software PHOENICS) are presented. FRIEND is an independent additional module that widens the operational capacities of the base software unified with this module. This unifying does not require any change or addition to the base software. Interfacing of FRIEND and the base software takes place through input and output files of the base software. A brief description of the computational technique applied for the inverse problem solution, same detailed information on the interfacing of FRIEND and CFD-software and solution results for testing inverse and inverse design problems, obtained using the tandem CFD-software PHOENICS and FRIEND, are presented. (author) 9 refs.

  3. Modelling Detailed-Chemistry Effects on Turbulent Diffusion Flames using a Parallel Solution-Adaptive Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pradeep Kumar

    Capturing the effects of detailed-chemistry on turbulent combustion processes is a central challenge faced by the numerical combustion community. However, the inherent complexity and non-linear nature of both turbulence and chemistry require that combustion models rely heavily on engineering approximations to remain computationally tractable. This thesis proposes a computationally efficient algorithm for modelling detailed-chemistry effects in turbulent diffusion flames and numerically predicting the associated flame properties. The cornerstone of this combustion modelling tool is the use of parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) scheme with the recently proposed Flame Prolongation of Intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) tabulated-chemistry approach for modelling complex chemistry. The effect of turbulence on the mean chemistry is incorporated using a Presumed Conditional Moment (PCM) approach based on a beta-probability density function (PDF). The two-equation k-w turbulence model is used for modelling the effects of the unresolved turbulence on the mean flow field. The finite-rate of methane-air combustion is represented here by using the GRI-Mech 3.0 scheme. This detailed mechanism is used to build the FPI tables. A state of the art numerical scheme based on a parallel block-based solution-adaptive algorithm has been developed to solve the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) and other governing partial-differential equations using a second-order accurate, fully-coupled finite-volume formulation on body-fitted, multi-block, quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh for two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow geometries, respectively. A standard fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-marching scheme is used for time-accurate temporal discretizations. Numerical predictions of three different diffusion flames configurations are considered in the present work: a laminar counter-flow flame; a laminar co-flow diffusion flame; and a Sydney bluff-body turbulent reacting flow

  4. When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew; Clark, Bryan W; Reid, Noah M; Hahn, Mark E; Nacci, Diane

    2017-09-01

    For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human-mediated environmental changes, including environmental pollution. Here we review how key features of populations, the characteristics of environmental pollution, and the genetic architecture underlying adaptive traits, may interact to shape the likelihood of evolutionary rescue from pollution. Large populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) persist in some of the most contaminated estuaries of the United States, and killifish studies have provided some of the first insights into the types of genomic changes that enable rapid evolutionary rescue from complexly degraded environments. We describe how selection by industrial pollutants and other stressors has acted on multiple populations of killifish and posit that extreme nucleotide diversity uniquely positions this species for successful evolutionary adaptation. Mechanistic studies have identified some of the genetic underpinnings of adaptation to a well-studied class of toxic pollutants; however, multiple genetic regions under selection in wild populations seem to reflect more complex responses to diverse native stressors and/or compensatory responses to primary adaptation. The discovery of these pollution-adapted killifish populations suggests that the evolutionary influence of anthropogenic stressors as selective agents occurs widely. Yet adaptation to chemical pollution in terrestrial and aquatic vertebrate wildlife may rarely be a successful "solution to pollution" because potentially adaptive phenotypes may be complex and incur fitness costs, and therefore be unlikely to evolve quickly enough, especially in species with small population sizes.

  5. Dispensing an enzyme-conjugated solution into an ELISA plate by adapting ink-jet printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonini, Luca; Accoto, Dino; Petroni, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2008-04-24

    The rapid and precise delivery of small volumes of bio-fluids (from picoliters to nanoliters) is a key feature of modern bioanalytical assays. Commercial ink-jet printers are low-cost systems which enable the dispensing of tiny droplets at a rate which may exceed 10(4) Hz per nozzle. Currently, the main ejection technologies are piezoelectric and bubble-jet. We adapted two commercial printers, respectively a piezoelectric and a bubble-jet one, for the deposition of immunoglobulins into an ELISA plate. The objective was to perform a comparative evaluation of the two classes of ink-jet technologies in terms of required hardware modifications and possible damage on the dispensed molecules. The hardware of the two printers was modified to dispense an enzyme conjugate solution, containing polyclonal rabbit anti-human IgG labelled with HRP in 7 wells of an ELISA plate. Moreover, the ELISA assay was used to assess the functional activity of the biomolecules after ejection. ELISA is a common and well-assessed technique to detect the presence of particular antigens or antibodies in a sample. We employed an ELISA diagnostic kit for the qualitative screening of anti-ENA antibodies to verify the ability of the dispensed immunoglobulins to bind the primary antibodies in the wells. Experimental tests showed that the dispensing of immunoglobulins using the piezoelectric printer does not cause any detectable difference on the outcome of the ELISA test if compared to manual dispensing using micropipettes. On the contrary, the thermal printhead was not able to reliably dispense the bio-fluid, which may mean that a surfactant is required to modify the wetting properties of the liquid.

  6. Socio-compatible energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Albrecht, G.; Kotte, U.; Peters, H.P.; Stegelmann, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    The socio-compatibility project comprises three central analytical elements: 1) The arborescent value analysis: Eminent social groups (such as the trade-unions or the ecological institutes) were questioned on their values and criteria applied to evaluate different energy systems. 2) The energy system and scenario impact analysis: Indicators deduced from the arborescent value analysis serve to approximately cover the value dimensions affected by above criteria. 3) Impact analysis weighing executed by a group of arbitrarily chosen citizens. All reflections considered, it is evident that none of the energy policies discussed may claim the title 'socio-compatible'. The individual, i.e. neither scientist nor politician, cannot decide upon the socio-compatibility of one or the other concept. An altogether socially compatible solution accepted and classified as such by different social groups may only crystallize and be set against different options by the political formation of opinion. The studys' primary concern lies in furnishing information, i.e. aids for politicians having to decide on energy policies. Above all the study aimed at finding out about reactions, social protest, opposition or approval to be coped with by those who, having the say in political matters, want to speak up for one of the energy policies under public discussion. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Monte Carlo model for a prototype CT-compatible, anatomically adaptive, shielded intracavitary brachytherapy applicator for the treatment of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Michael J.; Gifford, Kent A.; Horton, John L. Jr.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Gillin, Michael T.; Lawyer, Ann A.; Mourtada, Firas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Current, clinically applicable intracavitary brachytherapy applicators that utilize shielded ovoids contain a pair of tungsten-alloy shields which serve to reduce dose delivered to the rectum and bladder during source afterloading. After applicator insertion, these fixed shields are not necessarily positioned to provide optimal shielding of these critical structures due to variations in patient anatomies. The authors present a dosimetric evaluation of a novel prototype intracavitary brachytherapy ovoid [anatomically adaptive applicator (A 3 )], featuring a single shield whose position can be adjusted with two degrees of freedom: Rotation about and translation along the long axis of the ovoid. Methods: The dosimetry of the device for a HDR 192 Ir was characterized using radiochromic film measurements for various shield orientations. A MCNPX Monte Carlo model was developed of the prototype ovoid and integrated with a previously validated model of a v2 mHDR 192 Ir source (Nucletron Co.). The model was validated for three distinct shield orientations using film measurements. Results: For the most complex case, 91% of the absolute simulated and measured dose points agreed within 2% or 2 mm and 96% agreed within 10% or 2 mm. Conclusions: Validation of the Monte Carlo model facilitates future investigations into any dosimetric advantages the use of the A 3 may have over the current state of art with respect to optimization and customization of dose delivery as a function of patient anatomical geometries.

  8. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  9. Effects of salinity and drought on growth, ionic relations, compatible solutes and activation of antioxidant systems in oleander (Nerium oleander L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Naranjo, Miguel A; Agrawal, Veena; Boscaiu, Monica; Vicente, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Nerium oleander is an ornamental species of high aesthetic value, grown in arid and semi-arid regions because of its drought tolerance, which is also considered as relatively resistant to salt; yet the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying oleander's stress tolerance remain largely unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, one-year-old oleander seedlings were exposed to 15 and 30 days of treatment with increasing salt concentrations, up to 800 mM NaCl, and to complete withholding of irrigation; growth parameters and biochemical markers characteristic of conserved stress-response pathways were then determined in stressed and control plants. Strong water deficit and salt stress both caused inhibition of growth, degradation of photosynthetic pigments, a slight (but statistically significant) increase in the leaf levels of specific osmolytes, and induction of oxidative stress-as indicated by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), a reliable oxidative stress marker-accompanied by increases in the levels of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant flavonoids and in the specific activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). High salinity, in addition, induced accumulation of Na+ and Cl- in roots and leaves and the activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Apart from anatomical adaptations that protect oleander from leaf dehydration at moderate levels of stress, our results indicate that tolerance of this species to salinity and water deficit is based on the constitutive accumulation in leaves of high concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and, to a lesser extent, of glycine betaine, and in the activation of the aforementioned antioxidant systems. Moreover, regarding specifically salt stress, mechanisms efficiently blocking transport of toxic ions from the roots to the aerial parts of the plant appear to contribute to a large extent to tolerance in Nerium oleander.

  10. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, A.J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and

  11. Single-layer HDR video coding with SDR backward compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, S.; François, E.; Le Léannec, F.; Touzé, D.

    2016-09-01

    The migration from High Definition (HD) TV to Ultra High Definition (UHD) is already underway. In addition to an increase of picture spatial resolution, UHD will bring more color and higher contrast by introducing Wide Color Gamut (WCG) and High Dynamic Range (HDR) video. As both Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) and HDR devices will coexist in the ecosystem, the transition from Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) to HDR will require distribution solutions supporting some level of backward compatibility. This paper presents a new HDR content distribution scheme, named SL-HDR1, using a single layer codec design and providing SDR compatibility. The solution is based on a pre-encoding HDR-to-SDR conversion, generating a backward compatible SDR video, with side dynamic metadata. The resulting SDR video is then compressed, distributed and decoded using standard-compliant decoders (e.g. HEVC Main 10 compliant). The decoded SDR video can be directly rendered on SDR displays without adaptation. Dynamic metadata of limited size are generated by the pre-processing and used to reconstruct the HDR signal from the decoded SDR video, using a post-processing that is the functional inverse of the pre-processing. Both HDR quality and artistic intent are preserved. Pre- and post-processing are applied independently per picture, do not involve any inter-pixel dependency, and are codec agnostic. Compression performance, and SDR quality are shown to be solidly improved compared to the non-backward and backward-compatible approaches, respectively using the Perceptual Quantization (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) Opto-Electronic Transfer Functions (OETF).

  12. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . Dar es Salaam. Durban. Bloemfontein. Antananarivo. Cape Town. Ifrane ... program strategy. A number of CCAA-supported projects have relevance to other important adaptation-related themes such as disaster preparedness and climate.

  13. Operational Challenges and Solutions with Implementation of an Adaptive Seamless Phase 2/3 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kimberly; Colvin, Kelly; Braunecker, Brad; Brackman, Marcia; Ripley, Joyce; Hines, Paul; Skrivanek, Zachary; Gaydos, Brenda; Geiger, Mary Jane

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of operational issues were encountered with the planning and implementation of an adaptive, dose-finding, seamless phase 2/3 trial for a diabetes therapeutic. Compared with a conventional design, significant upfront planning was required, as well as earlier, more integrated cross-functional coordination. The existing infrastructure necessitated greater flexibility to meet the needs of the adaptive design. Rapid data acquisition, analysis, and reporting were essential to support the successful implementation of the adaptive algorithm. Drug supply for nine treatment arms had to be carefully managed across many sites worldwide. Details regarding these key operational challenges and others will be discussed along with resolutions taken to enable successful implementation of this adaptive, seamless trial. PMID:23294774

  14. Operational challenges and solutions with implementation of an adaptive seamless phase 2/3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kimberly; Colvin, Kelly; Braunecker, Brad; Brackman, Marcia; Ripley, Joyce; Hines, Paul; Skrivanek, Zachary; Gaydos, Brenda; Geiger, Mary Jane

    2012-11-01

    A wide variety of operational issues were encountered with the planning and implementation of an adaptive, dose-finding, seamless phase 2/3 trial for a diabetes therapeutic. Compared with a conventional design, significant upfront planning was required, as well as earlier, more integrated cross-functional coordination. The existing infrastructure necessitated greater flexibility to meet the needs of the adaptive design. Rapid data acquisition, analysis, and reporting were essential to support the successful implementation of the adaptive algorithm. Drug supply for nine treatment arms had to be carefully managed across many sites worldwide. Details regarding these key operational challenges and others will be discussed along with resolutions taken to enable successful implementation of this adaptive, seamless trial. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  16. Electromagnetic compatibility principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2001-01-01

    This totally revised and expanded reference/text provides comprehensive, single-source coverage of the design, problem solving, and specifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into electrical equipment/systems-including new information on basic theories, applications, evaluations, prediction techniques, and practical diagnostic options for preventing EMI through cost-effective solutions. Offers the most recent guidelines, safety limits, and standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields! Containing updated data on EMI diagnostic verification measurements, as well as over 900 drawings, photographs, tables, and equations-500 more than the previous edition

  17. The role of interactions in a world implementing adaptation and mitigation solutions to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Rachel

    2011-01-13

    The papers in this volume discuss projections of climate change impacts upon humans and ecosystems under a global mean temperature rise of 4°C above preindustrial levels. Like most studies, they are mainly single-sector or single-region-based assessments. Even the multi-sector or multi-region approaches generally consider impacts in sectors and regions independently, ignoring interactions. Extreme weather and adaptation processes are often poorly represented and losses of ecosystem services induced by climate change or human adaptation are generally omitted. This paper addresses this gap by reviewing some potential interactions in a 4°C world, and also makes a comparison with a 2°C world. In a 4°C world, major shifts in agricultural land use and increased drought are projected, and an increased human population might increasingly be concentrated in areas remaining wet enough for economic prosperity. Ecosystem services that enable prosperity would be declining, with carbon cycle feedbacks and fire causing forest losses. There is an urgent need for integrated assessments considering the synergy of impacts and limits to adaptation in multiple sectors and regions in a 4°C world. By contrast, a 2°C world is projected to experience about one-half of the climate change impacts, with concomitantly smaller challenges for adaptation. Ecosystem services, including the carbon sink provided by the Earth's forests, would be expected to be largely preserved, with much less potential for interaction processes to increase challenges to adaptation. However, demands for land and water for biofuel cropping could reduce the availability of these resources for agricultural and natural systems. Hence, a whole system approach to mitigation and adaptation, considering interactions, potential human and species migration, allocation of land and water resources and ecosystem services, will be important in either a 2°C or a 4°C world.

  18. An adaptive wavelet stochastic collocation method for irregular solutions of stochastic partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Clayton G [ORNL; Zhang, Guannan [ORNL; Gunzburger, Max D [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    Accurate predictive simulations of complex real world applications require numerical approximations to first, oppose the curse of dimensionality and second, converge quickly in the presence of steep gradients, sharp transitions, bifurcations or finite discontinuities in high-dimensional parameter spaces. In this paper we present a novel multi-dimensional multi-resolution adaptive (MdMrA) sparse grid stochastic collocation method, that utilizes hierarchical multiscale piecewise Riesz basis functions constructed from interpolating wavelets. The basis for our non-intrusive method forms a stable multiscale splitting and thus, optimal adaptation is achieved. Error estimates and numerical examples will used to compare the efficiency of the method with several other techniques.

  19. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nairobi, Kenya. 28 Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific and Endogenous Knowledge. Cap Verde, Gambia,. Guinea, Guinea Bissau,. Mauritania and Senegal. Environment and Development in the Third World. (ENDA-TM). Dakar, Senegal. 29 Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk ...

  20. Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Showcase Presentation on Mission Adaptive Digital Composite Aerostructure Technologies (MADCAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Sean; Cheung, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This project is to develop a novel aerostructure concept that takes advantage of emerging digital composite materials and manufacturing methods to build high stiffness-to-density ratio, ultra-light structures that can provide mission adaptive and aerodynamically efficient future N+3N+4 air vehicles.

  1. Adaptive backward difference formula - Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for the solution of conservation laws

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolejší, V.; Kůs, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 12 (2008), s. 1739-1766 ISSN 0029-5981 Keywords : backward difference formula * discontinuous Galerkin method * adaptive choice of the time step Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.229, year: 2008 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nme.2143/abstract

  2. AP-Cloud: Adaptive Particle-in-Cloud method for optimal solutions to Vlasov–Poisson equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xingyu; Samulyak, Roman; Jiao, Xiangmin; Yu, Kwangmin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new adaptive Particle-in-Cloud (AP-Cloud) method for obtaining optimal numerical solutions to the Vlasov–Poisson equation. Unlike the traditional particle-in-cell (PIC) method, which is commonly used for solving this problem, the AP-Cloud adaptively selects computational nodes or particles to deliver higher accuracy and efficiency when the particle distribution is highly non-uniform. Unlike other adaptive techniques for PIC, our method balances the errors in PDE discretization and Monte Carlo integration, and discretizes the differential operators using a generalized finite difference (GFD) method based on a weighted least square formulation. As a result, AP-Cloud is independent of the geometric shapes of computational domains and is free of artificial parameters. Efficient and robust implementation is achieved through an octree data structure with 2:1 balance. We analyze the accuracy and convergence order of AP-Cloud theoretically, and verify the method using an electrostatic problem of a particle beam with halo. Simulation results show that the AP-Cloud method is substantially more accurate and faster than the traditional PIC, and it is free of artificial forces that are typical for some adaptive PIC techniques.

  3. Creative ideation and adaptive reuse: a solution to sustainable urban heritage conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, H.; Mohseni, F.

    2018-03-01

    The rapid phenomenon of urbanization in the last century has resulted in abandonment of historic urban centers and still today attracting people to suburbs and newly developed districts. This urban expansion poses a serious threat to historic properties when people opt to move away leaving behind their heritage. The adaptive reuse of heritage is considered to be a dominant strategy for handling this issue bypassing demolition of heritage properties. However, the adaptive reuse cannot only consider the preservation of the heritage as the structural retrofit or functional revitalization but rather it needs to enunciate the image and the creative ideation that reflect upon the future of heritage. Consequently, this paper aims to examine the role of branding as an innovative source of ideation in the implication of adaptive reuse on heritage. In this regards, the case study of Zalando outlet store in Berlin is selected, which is an old building situated in the commercial district of the city in a wide range of styles and heritage buildings from the middle ages. This research uses semi-structured interviews to examine the significance of Brand making in a successful adaptive reuse process. The findings indicate that the importance of the outlet building lies not only in its physical fabric or commercial aspects, but the spirit of the place that lies in the magical essence of big labels as emblems. This underlying essence of place stimulated the adaptation of building in a way that it surpasses the physical and functional aspect of a building and makes it merge in new times and new sustainable development.

  4. Embedded pitch adapters: A high-yield interconnection solution for strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullán, M., E-mail: miguel.ullan@imb-cnm.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Allport, P.P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Hommels, L.B.A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.M.; Lohwasser, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-09-21

    A proposal to fabricate large area strip sensors with integrated, or embedded, pitch adapters is presented for the End-cap part of the Inner Tracker in the ATLAS experiment. To implement the embedded pitch adapters, a second metal layer is used in the sensor fabrication, for signal routing to the ASICs. Sensors with different embedded pitch adapters have been fabricated in order to optimize the design and technology. Inter-strip capacitance, noise, pick-up, cross-talk, signal efficiency, and fabrication yield have been taken into account in their design and fabrication. Inter-strip capacitance tests taking into account all channel neighbors reveal the important differences between the various designs considered. These tests have been correlated with noise figures obtained in full assembled modules, showing that the tests performed on the bare sensors are a valid tool to estimate the final noise in the full module. The full modules have been subjected to test beam experiments in order to evaluate the incidence of cross-talk, pick-up, and signal loss. The detailed analysis shows no indication of cross-talk or pick-up as no additional hits can be observed in any channel not being hit by the beam above 170 mV threshold, and the signal in those channels is always below 1% of the signal recorded in the channel being hit, above 100 mV threshold. First results on irradiated mini-sensors with embedded pitch adapters do not show any change in the interstrip capacitance measurements with only the first neighbors connected.

  5. Electromagnetic compatibility engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Henry W

    2009-01-01

    Praise for Noise Reduction Techniques IN electronic systems ""Henry Ott has literally 'written the book' on the subject of EMC. . . . He not only knows the subject, but has the rare ability to communicate that knowledge to others.""-EE Times Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering is a completely revised, expanded, and updated version of Henry Ott's popular book Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. It reflects the most recent developments in the field of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and noise reduction¿and their practical applications t

  6. Combined therapy of interferon plus ribavirin promotes multiple adaptive solutions in hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, José M; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Jiménez-Hernández, Nuria; Bracho, María A; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Carnicer, Fernando; Olmo, Juan Del; Ortega, Enrique; González-Candelas, Fernando; Moya, Andrés

    2009-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) presents several regions involved potentially in evading antiviral treatment and host immune system. Two regions, known as PKR-BD and V3 domains, have been proposed to be involved in resistance to interferon. Additionally, hypervariable regions in the envelope E2 glycoprotein are also good candidates to participate in evasion from the immune system. In this study, we have used a cohort of 22 non-responder patients to combined therapy (interferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin) for which samples obtained just before initiation of therapy and after 6 or/and 12 months of treatment were available. A range of 25-100 clones per patient, genome region and time sample were obtained. The predominant amino acid sequences for each time sample and patient were determined. Next, the sequences of the PKR-BD and V3 domains and the hypervariable regions from different time samples were compared for each patient. The highest levels of variability were detected at the three hypervariable regions of the E2 protein and, to a lower extent, at the V3 domain of the NS5A protein. However, no clear patterns of adaptation to the host immune system or to antiviral treatment were detected. In summary, although high levels of variability are correlated to viral adaptive response, antiviral treatment does not seem to promote convergent adaptive changes. Consequently, other regions must be involved in evasion strategies likely based on a combination of multiple mechanisms, in which pools of changes along the HCV genome could confer viruses the ability to overcome strong selective pressures. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Open cascades as simple solutions to providing ultrasensitivity and adaptation in cellular signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Li, Yongfeng; Pomerening, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    Cell signaling is achieved predominantly by reversible phosphorylation–dephosphorylation reaction cascades. Up until now, circuits conferring adaptation have all required the presence of a cascade with some type of closed topology: negative-feedback loop with a buffering node, or incoherent feed-forward loop with a proportioner node. In this paper—using Goldbeter and Koshland-type expressions—we propose a differential equation model to describe a generic, open signaling cascade that elicits an adaptation response. This is accomplished by coupling N phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycles unidirectionally, without any explicit feedback loops. Using this model, we show that as the length of the cascade grows, the steady states of the downstream cycles reach a limiting value. In other words, our model indicates that there are a minimum number of cycles required to achieve a maximum in sensitivity and amplitude in the response of a signaling cascade. We also describe for the first time that the phenomenon of ultrasensitivity can be further subdivided into three sub-regimes, separated by sharp stimulus threshold values: OFF, OFF-ON-OFF, and ON. In the OFF-ON-OFF regime, an interesting property emerges. In the presence of a basal amount of activity, the temporal evolution of early cycles yields damped peak responses. On the other hand, the downstream cycles switch rapidly to a higher activity state for an extended period of time, prior to settling to an OFF state (OFF-ON-OFF). This response arises from the changing dynamics between a feed-forward activation module and dephosphorylation reactions. In conclusion, our model gives the new perspective that open signaling cascades embedded in complex biochemical circuits may possess the ability to show a switch-like adaptation response, without the need for any explicit feedback circuitry

  8. Open cascades as simple solutions to providing ultrasensitivity and adaptation in cellular signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Li, Yongfeng; Pomerening, Joseph R.

    2011-08-01

    Cell signaling is achieved predominantly by reversible phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reaction cascades. Up until now, circuits conferring adaptation have all required the presence of a cascade with some type of closed topology: negative-feedback loop with a buffering node, or incoherent feed-forward loop with a proportioner node. In this paper—using Goldbeter and Koshland-type expressions—we propose a differential equation model to describe a generic, open signaling cascade that elicits an adaptation response. This is accomplished by coupling N phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycles unidirectionally, without any explicit feedback loops. Using this model, we show that as the length of the cascade grows, the steady states of the downstream cycles reach a limiting value. In other words, our model indicates that there are a minimum number of cycles required to achieve a maximum in sensitivity and amplitude in the response of a signaling cascade. We also describe for the first time that the phenomenon of ultrasensitivity can be further subdivided into three sub-regimes, separated by sharp stimulus threshold values: OFF, OFF-ON-OFF, and ON. In the OFF-ON-OFF regime, an interesting property emerges. In the presence of a basal amount of activity, the temporal evolution of early cycles yields damped peak responses. On the other hand, the downstream cycles switch rapidly to a higher activity state for an extended period of time, prior to settling to an OFF state (OFF-ON-OFF). This response arises from the changing dynamics between a feed-forward activation module and dephosphorylation reactions. In conclusion, our model gives the new perspective that open signaling cascades embedded in complex biochemical circuits may possess the ability to show a switch-like adaptation response, without the need for any explicit feedback circuitry.

  9. Batch Processing of CMOS Compatible Feedthroughs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F.E.; Heschel, M.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    . The feedthrough technology employs a simple solution to the well-known CMOS compatibility issue of KOH by protecting the CMOS side of the wafer using sputter deposited TiW/Au. The fabricated feedthroughs exhibit excellent electrical performance having a serial resistance of 40 mOmega and a parasitic capacitance...

  10. Introduction to electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Clayton R.

    A formal and extensive treatment of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is presented. Basic principles are reviewed in detail, including reasons for EMC in electronic design. Also discussed are: nonideal behavior of components, signal spectra, radiated emission and susceptibility, conducted emissions and susceptibility, crosstalk, shielding, electrostatic discharge, and system design for EMC.

  11. Slurry pump compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    The SRTC/Materials Technology Section (MTS) performed an evaluation of the compatibility of four slurry pump materials of construction in high level waste supernate environments. These tests were performed because of recent binding of the pump shafts after exposure to supernate in Tank 8F

  12. The Analysis of Closed-form Solution for Energy Detector Dynamic Threshold Adaptation in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bozovic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum sensing is the most important process in cognitive radio in order to ensure interference avoidance to primary users. For optimal performance of cognitive radio, it is substantial to monitor and promptly react to dynamic changes in its operating environment. In this paper, energy detector based spectrum sensing is considered. Under the assumption that detected signal can be modelled according to an autoregressive model, noise variance is estimated from that noisy signal, as well as primary user signal power. A closed-form solution for optimal decision threshold in dynamic electromagnetic environment is proposed and analyzed.

  13. Nature-based solutions to climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban areas: perspectives on indicators, knowledge gaps, barriers, and opportunities for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Kabisch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based solutions promoting green and blue urban areas have significant potential to decrease the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of cities in light of climatic change. They can thereby help to mitigate climate change-induced impacts and serve as proactive adaptation options for municipalities. We explore the various contexts in which nature-based solutions are relevant for climate mitigation and adaptation in urban areas, identify indicators for assessing the effectiveness of nature-based solutions and related knowledge gaps. In addition, we explore existing barriers and potential opportunities for increasing the scale and effectiveness of nature-based solution implementation. The results were derived from an inter- and transdisciplinary workshop with experts from research, municipalities, policy, and society. As an outcome of the workshop discussions and building on existing evidence, we highlight three main needs for future science and policy agendas when dealing with nature-based solutions: (i produce stronger evidence on nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation and mitigation and raise awareness by increasing implementation; (ii adapt for governance challenges in implementing nature-based solutions by using reflexive approaches, which implies bringing together new networks of society, nature-based solution ambassadors, and practitioners; (iii consider socio-environmental justice and social cohesion when implementing nature-based solutions by using integrated governance approaches that take into account an integrative and transdisciplinary participation of diverse actors. Taking these needs into account, nature-based solutions can serve as climate mitigation and adaptation tools that produce additional cobenefits for societal well-being, thereby serving as strong investment options for sustainable urban planning.

  14. Practical Study and Solutions Adapted For The Road Noise In The Algiers City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddir, R.; Boukhaloua, N.; Saadi, T.

    At the present hour where the city spreads on a big space, the road network devel- opment was a following logical of this movement. Generating a considerable impact thus on the environment. This last is a resulting open system of the interaction be- tween the man and the nature, it's affected all side by the different means of transport and by their increasing demand of mobility. The contemporary city development be- got problems bound to the environment and among it : The road noise. This last is a complex phenomenon, essentially by reason of its humans sensory effects, its impact on the environment is considerable, this one concerns the life quality directly, mainly in population zones to strong density. The resonant pollution reached its paroxysm; the road network of Algiers is not conceived to satisfy requirements in resonant pol- lution matter. For it arrangements soundproof should be adapted in order to face of it these new requirements in matter of the acoustic comfort. All these elements drove to the process aiming the attenuation of the hindrance caused by the road traffic and it by actions essentially aiming: vehicles, the structure of the road and the immediate envi- ronment of the system road - structure. From these results, we note that the situation in resonant nuisance matter in this zone with strong traffic is disturbing, and especially on the residents health.

  15. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  16. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  17. Adaptive macro finite elements for the numerical solution of monodomain equations in cardiac electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Elvio A; Ferrero, José M; Doblaré, Manuel; Rodríguez, José F

    2010-07-01

    Many problems in biology and engineering are governed by anisotropic reaction-diffusion equations with a very rapidly varying reaction term. This usually implies the use of very fine meshes and small time steps in order to accurately capture the propagating wave while avoiding the appearance of spurious oscillations in the wave front. This work develops a family of macro finite elements amenable for solving anisotropic reaction-diffusion equations with stiff reactive terms. The developed elements are incorporated on a semi-implicit algorithm based on operator splitting that includes adaptive time stepping for handling the stiff reactive term. A linear system is solved on each time step to update the transmembrane potential, whereas the remaining ordinary differential equations are solved uncoupled. The method allows solving the linear system on a coarser mesh thanks to the static condensation of the internal degrees of freedom (DOF) of the macroelements while maintaining the accuracy of the finer mesh. The method and algorithm have been implemented in parallel. The accuracy of the method has been tested on two- and three-dimensional examples demonstrating excellent behavior when compared to standard linear elements. The better performance and scalability of different macro finite elements against standard finite elements have been demonstrated in the simulation of a human heart and a heterogeneous two-dimensional problem with reentrant activity. Results have shown a reduction of up to four times in computational cost for the macro finite elements with respect to equivalent (same number of DOF) standard linear finite elements as well as good scalability properties.

  18. Adaptive and technology-independent architecture for fault-tolerant distributed AAL solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Obermaisser, Roman

    2018-04-01

    Today's architectures for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) must cope with a variety of challenges like flawless sensor integration and time synchronization (e.g. for sensor data fusion) while abstracting from the underlying technologies at the same time. Furthermore, an architecture for AAL must be capable to manage distributed application scenarios in order to support elderly people in all situations of their everyday life. This encompasses not just life at home but in particular the mobility of elderly people (e.g. when going for a walk or having sports) as well. Within this paper we will introduce a novel architecture for distributed AAL solutions whose design follows a modern Microservices approach by providing small core services instead of a monolithic application framework. The architecture comprises core services for sensor integration, and service discovery while supporting several communication models (periodic, sporadic, streaming). We extend the state-of-the-art by introducing a fault-tolerance model for our architecture on the basis of a fault-hypothesis describing the fault-containment regions (FCRs) with their respective failure modes and failure rates in order to support safety-critical AAL applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SOLUTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  20. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  1. Qubit compatible superconducting interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxen, B.; Mutus, J. Y.; Lucero, E.; Graff, R.; Megrant, A.; Chen, Yu; Quintana, C.; Burkett, B.; Kelly, J.; Jeffrey, E.; Yang, Yan; Yu, Anthony; Arya, K.; Barends, R.; Chen, Zijun; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A.; Gidney, C.; Giustina, M.; Huang, T.; Klimov, P.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Martinis, John M.

    2018-01-01

    We present a fabrication process for fully superconducting interconnects compatible with superconducting qubit technology. These interconnects allow for the three dimensional integration of quantum circuits without introducing lossy amorphous dielectrics. They are composed of indium bumps several microns tall separated from an aluminum base layer by titanium nitride which serves as a diffusion barrier. We measure the whole structure to be superconducting (transition temperature of 1.1 K), limited by the aluminum. These interconnects have an average critical current of 26.8 mA, and mechanical shear and thermal cycle testing indicate that these devices are mechanically robust. Our process provides a method that reliably yields superconducting interconnects suitable for use with superconducting qubits.

  2. Compatibility Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, James Allen

    2016-01-01

    In support of ground system development for the Space Launch System (SLS), engineers are tasked with building immense engineering models of extreme complexity. The various systems require rigorous analysis of pneumatics, hydraulic, cryogenic, and hypergolic systems. There are certain standards that each of these systems must meet, in the form of pressure vessel system (PVS) certification reports. These reports can be hundreds of pages long, and require many hours to compile. Traditionally, each component is analyzed individually, often utilizing hand calculations in the design process. The objective of this opportunity is to perform these analyses in an integrated fashion with the parametric CADCAE environment. This allows for systems to be analyzed on an assembly level in a semi-automated fashion, which greatly improves accuracy and efficiency. To accomplish this, component specific parameters were stored in the Windchill database to individual Creo Parametric models based on spec control drawings. These parameters were then accessed by using the Prime Analysis within Creo Parametric. MathCAD Prime spreadsheets were created that automatically extracted these parameters, performed calculations, and generated reports. The reports described component compatibility based on local conditions such as pressure, temperature, density, and flow rates. The reports also determined component pairing compatibility, such as properly sizing relief valves with regulators. The reports stored the input conditions that were used to determine compatibility to increase traceability of component selection. The desired workflow for using this tool would begin with a Creo Schematics diagram of a PVS system. This schematic would store local conditions and locations of components. The schematic would then populate an assembly within Creo Parametric, using Windchill database parts. These parts would have their attributes already assigned, and the MathCAD spreadsheets could begin running

  3. Adaptive building skin structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Grosso, A E; Basso, P

    2010-01-01

    The concept of adaptive and morphing structures has gained considerable attention in the recent years in many fields of engineering. In civil engineering very few practical applications are reported to date however. Non-conventional structural concepts like deployable, inflatable and morphing structures may indeed provide innovative solutions to some of the problems that the construction industry is being called to face. To give some examples, searches for low-energy consumption or even energy-harvesting green buildings are amongst such problems. This paper first presents a review of the above problems and technologies, which shows how the solution to these problems requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of architectural and engineering disciplines. The discussion continues with the presentation of a possible application of two adaptive and dynamically morphing structures which are proposed for the realization of an acoustic envelope. The core of the two applications is the use of a novel optimization process which leads the search for optimal solutions by means of an evolutionary technique while the compatibility of the resulting configurations of the adaptive envelope is ensured by the virtual force density method

  4. Nature-based solutions to climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban areas: Perspectives on indicators, knowledge gaps, barriers, and opportunities for action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kabisch (Nadja); N. Frantzeskaki (Niki); S. Pauleit (Stephan); Naumann, S. (Sandra); Davis, M. (McKenna); M. Artmann (Martina); D. Haase (Dagmar); Knapp, S. (Sonja); Korn, H. (Horst); Stadler, J. (Jutta); Zaunberger, K. (Karin); Bonn, A. (Aletta)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractNature-based solutions promoting green and blue urban areas have significant potential to decrease the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of cities in light of climatic change. They can thereby help to mitigate climate change-induced impacts and serve as proactive adaptation

  5. A compatible high-order meshless method for the Stokes equations with applications to suspension flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Nathaniel; Maxey, Martin; Hu, Xiaozhe

    2018-02-01

    A stable numerical solution of the steady Stokes problem requires compatibility between the choice of velocity and pressure approximation that has traditionally proven problematic for meshless methods. In this work, we present a discretization that couples a staggered scheme for pressure approximation with a divergence-free velocity reconstruction to obtain an adaptive, high-order, finite difference-like discretization that can be efficiently solved with conventional algebraic multigrid techniques. We use analytic benchmarks to demonstrate equal-order convergence for both velocity and pressure when solving problems with curvilinear geometries. In order to study problems in dense suspensions, we couple the solution for the flow to the equations of motion for freely suspended particles in an implicit monolithic scheme. The combination of high-order accuracy with fully-implicit schemes allows the accurate resolution of stiff lubrication forces directly from the solution of the Stokes problem without the need to introduce sub-grid lubrication models.

  6. A Comparative Survey of Adaptive Codec Solutions for VoIP over Multirate WLANs: A Capacity versus Quality Performance Trade-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfairopoulou A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In multi-rate WLANs, users can suffer transmission rate changes due to the link adaptation mechanism. This results in a variable capacity channel, which is very hostile for VoIP and can cause serious quality of service (QoS degradation in all active calls. Various codec adaptation mechanisms have been proposed as a solution to this, as well as to solve congestion problems on WLAN environments. Here, these solutions are presented, categorized according to the adaptation policy and scenario they implement, and evaluated at call-level in terms of the resulting blocking and dropping probabilities, as well as the perceived voice quality. To define a common performance metric, a new index named VGoS-factor is presented, which, by combining these capacity and quality indicators, can provide an overall view of the capacity versus quality trade-off of the proposed mechanisms and consequently help in choosing the adequate policy for each scenario.

  7. Fertilization compatibility of spawning corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes experimental results of fertilization assays to characterize genetic compatibility between individual parental genotypes. Targeted species...

  8. ITP Materials Compatibility Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, T.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Based on information provided by ITP, normal operation will consist of controlled exposure to benzene and TBP concentrations of 300 and 100 ppm, respectively, in an approximate 5M NaOH solution at temperatures as high as 50 degrees C. Other compounds present in the filtrate solution were much lower in concentration and were not tested. In addition, levels as high as 1000 ppm benzene or TBP may be reached. It is assumed that the TBP will be maintained at a constant concentration to control foaming behavior.

  9. EMC electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    After an introduction covering generic EMC focus is given on the methods of cancellation of man made noise. The dangers of non-ionizing radiation and electrical safety are part of the problem. Known applications in high energy physics are briefly shown. The lecture is completed by well-illustrated examples of successful solutions to noise problems at this laboratory.

  10. Compatible quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C

    2014-01-01

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call ‘compatible quantum theory (CQT)’, consists of a ‘microscopic’ part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a ‘macroscopic’ part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths (‘c-truths’), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The

  11. Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry (AMCIL) is a microgravity compatible liquid / liquid vapor, two-phase laundry system with water jet...

  12. When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human-mediated environmental changes. Yet large persistent populations of small bodied fish residing in some of the most contaminated estuaries of the US have provided some...

  13. An adaptive quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method for the infrared spectrum of water: incorporation of the quantum effect between solute and solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi C; Banno, Misa; Sakurai, Minoru

    2016-03-14

    Quantum effects in solute-solvent interactions, such as the many-body effect and the dipole-induced dipole, are known to be critical factors influencing the infrared spectra of species in the liquid phase. For accurate spectrum evaluation, the surrounding solvent molecules, in addition to the solute of interest, should be treated using a quantum mechanical method. However, conventional quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods cannot handle free QM solvent molecules during molecular dynamics (MD) simulation because of the diffusion problem. To deal with this problem, we have previously proposed an adaptive QM/MM "size-consistent multipartitioning (SCMP) method". In the present study, as the first application of the SCMP method, we demonstrate the reproduction of the infrared spectrum of liquid-phase water, and evaluate the quantum effect in comparison with conventional QM/MM simulations.

  14. Compatibility of Ohio trail users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger E. McCay; George H. Moeller

    1976-01-01

    Compatibility indexes show how Ohio trail users feel about meeting each other on the trail. All four of the major types of trail users-hikers, horseback riders, bicycle riders, and motorcycle riders-enjoy meeting their own kind. But they also feel antagonism toward the faster, more mechanized trail users; e.g., everyone likes hikers, but few like motorcycle riders....

  15. Design optimization for car compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastic, T.; Schoofs, A.J.G.; Mooi, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays traffic safety and occupant protection get a lot of attention due to the large number of fatalities and injuries in car accidents. The occupant protection in two-vehicle crashes can be improved by car-to-car compatibility, which means well balanced crashworthiness characteristics of both

  16. Compatibility optimization of passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastic, T.; Schoofs, A.J.G.; Mooi, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays traffic safety and occupant protection get a lot of attention due to the large number of fatalities and injuries in car accidents. The occupant protection in two-vehicle crashes can be improved by car-to-car compatibility, which means well balanced crashworthiness characteristics of both

  17. Fast and accurate solution for the SCUC problem in large-scale power systems using adapted binary programming and enhanced dual neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, M.; Moghaddam, M.P.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid method based on decomposition of SCUC into QP and BP problems is proposed. • An adapted binary programming and an enhanced dual neural network model are applied. • The proposed EDNN is exactly convergent to the global optimal solution of QP. • An AC power flow procedure is developed for including contingency/security issues. • It is suited for large-scale systems, providing both accurate and fast solutions. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel hybrid method for solving the security constrained unit commitment (SCUC) problem. The proposed formulation requires much less computation time in comparison with other methods while assuring the accuracy of the results. Furthermore, the framework provided here allows including an accurate description of warmth-dependent startup costs, valve point effects, multiple fuel costs, forbidden zones of operation, and AC load flow bounds. To solve the nonconvex problem, an adapted binary programming method and enhanced dual neural network model are utilized as optimization tools, and a procedure for AC power flow modeling is developed for including contingency/security issues, as new contributions to earlier studies. Unlike classical SCUC methods, the proposed method allows to simultaneously solve the unit commitment problem and comply with the network limits. In addition to conventional test systems, a real-world large-scale power system with 493 units has been used to fully validate the effectiveness of the novel hybrid method proposed

  18. Bicycle-friendly infrastructure planning in Beijing and Copenhagen - between adapting design solutions and learning local planning cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Cities around the world are constructing bicycle infrastructure to increase cycling. However, identifying efficient design solutions and determining how bicycle infrastructure planning knowledge can be integrated into comprehensive policy remains a challenge. The objective of this paper...... is to shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of current bicycle infrastructure planning in both an experienced city, Copenhagen, and in a less experienced city, Beijing. The paper examines how local design solutions are identified, how efficient they are and to what extent bicycle infrastructure planning....... It employs the Dutch CROW principles to assess the efficiency of the bicycle infrastructure planning. The analysis of the role of the local planning culture is framed by the ‘culturized planning model’. The study finds that bicycle-friendly infrastructure planning could be strengthened in Beijing...

  19. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals

  20. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fligl

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  1. Systematic evaluation of three different commercial software solutions for automatic segmentation for adaptive therapy in head-and-neck, prostate and pleural cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Macchia, Mariangela; Fellin, Francesco; Amichetti, Maurizio; Cianchetti, Marco; Gianolini, Stefano; Paola, Vitali; Lomax, Antony J; Widesott, Lamberto

    2012-01-01

    To validate, in the context of adaptive radiotherapy, three commercial software solutions for atlas-based segmentation. Fifteen patients, five for each group, with cancer of the Head&Neck, pleura, and prostate were enrolled in the study. In addition to the treatment planning CT (pCT) images, one replanning CT (rCT) image set was acquired for each patient during the RT course. Three experienced physicians outlined on the pCT and rCT all the volumes of interest (VOIs). We used three software solutions (VelocityAI 2.6.2 (V), MIM 5.1.1 (M) by MIMVista and ABAS 2.0 (A) by CMS-Elekta) to generate the automatic contouring on the repeated CT. All the VOIs obtained with automatic contouring (AC) were successively corrected manually. We recorded the time needed for: 1) ex novo ROIs definition on rCT; 2) generation of AC by the three software solutions; 3) manual correction of AC. To compare the quality of the volumes obtained automatically by the software and manually corrected with those drawn from scratch on rCT, we used the following indexes: overlap coefficient (DICE), sensitivity, inclusiveness index, difference in volume, and displacement differences on three axes (x, y, z) from the isocenter. The time saved by the three software solutions for all the sites, compared to the manual contouring from scratch, is statistically significant and similar for all the three software solutions. The time saved for each site are as follows: about an hour for Head&Neck, about 40 minutes for prostate, and about 20 minutes for mesothelioma. The best DICE similarity coefficient index was obtained with the manual correction for: A (contours for prostate), A and M (contours for H&N), and M (contours for mesothelioma). From a clinical point of view, the automated contouring workflow was shown to be significantly shorter than the manual contouring process, even though manual correction of the VOIs is always needed

  2. Materials compatibility information data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    A major concern in the design of weapons systems is the compatibility of the materials used with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long term storage with a high reliability for proper function at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is then based on both past experience and laboratory accelerated aging experiments to assure this long term reliability. To assist in the task of materials selection a computerized materials compatibility data bank is being established. This data bank will provide a source of annotated information and references to personnel and documents for both the designer and materials engineer to draw on for guidance in materials selection. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy will be discussed and procedures for information gathering outlined. Examples of data entries and search routines will be presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the proposed system

  3. Physics-compatible numerical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Koren; Abgrall, Remi; Pavel, Bochev; Jason, Frank; Blair, Perrot

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Physics-compatible numerical methods are methods that aim to preserve key mathematical and physical properties of continuum physics models in their finite-dimensional algebraic representations. They include methods which preserve properties such as energy, monotonicity, maximum principles, symmetries, and involutions of the continuum models. Examples are mimetic methods for spatial discretizations, variational and geometric integrators, conservative finite-volume and f...

  4. Pitfalls of elastomer compatibility testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Gilbert J.

    1982-10-08

    An extensive compatibility test program was conducted starting with 34 compounds and six 190 C fluids. Both immersion tests and simulation tests were conducted for time periods ranging from 46 hours to over six months. Deficiencies in both types of tests were determined. Immersion tests, while useful for reducing the number of candidate compounds, can easily lead to incorrect conclusions. it is essential that simulation tests be conducted before a final elastomer is selected for use in a critical design.

  5. Identification of Water Scarcity and Providing Solutions for Adapting to Climate Changes in the Heihe River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzheng Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In ecologically fragile areas with arid climate, such as the Heihe River Basin in northwestern China, sustainable social and economic development depends largely on the availability and sustainable uses of water resource. However, there is more and more serious water resource shortage and decrease of water productivity in Heihe River Basin under the influence of climate change and human activities. This paper attempts to identify the severe water scarcity under climate change and presents possible solutions for sustainable development in Heihe River Basin. Three problems that intervened land use changes, water resource, the relevant policies and institutions in Heihe River basin were identified, including (1 water scarcity along with serious contradiction between water supply and demand, (2 irrational water consumption structure along with low efficiency, and (3 deficient systems and institutions of water resource management along with unreasonable water allocation scheme. In this sense, we focused on reviewing the state of knowledge, institutions, and successful practices to cope with water scarcity at a regional extent. Possible solutions for dealing with water scarcity are explored and presented from three perspectives: (1 scientific researches needed by scientists, (2 management and institution formulation needed by governments, and (3 water resource optimal allocation by the manager at all administrative levels.

  6. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DC-- Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-01

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO 2 as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO 2 -based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined

  7. Multiparty Compatibility for Concurrent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roly Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objects and actors are communicating state machines, offering and consuming different services at different points in their lifecycle. Two complementary challenges arise when programming such systems. When objects interact, their state machines must be "compatible", so that services are requested only when they are available. Dually, when objects refine other objects, their state machines must be "compliant", so that services are honoured whenever they are promised. In this paper we show how the idea of multiparty compatibility from the session types literature can be applied to both of these problems. We present an untyped language in which concurrent objects are checked automatically for compatibility and compliance. For simple objects, checking can be exhaustive and has the feel of a type system. More complex objects can be partially validated via test cases, leading to a methodology closer to continuous testing. Our proof-of-concept implementation is limited in some important respects, but demonstrates the potential value of the approach and the relationship to existing software development practices.

  8. Hydrogen Materials Compatibility in Piezoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvine, Kyle; Pitman, Stan; Henager, Charles; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Brown, Craig; Tyagi, Madhu; Jenkins, Tim; Udovic, Terry

    2010-03-01

    Hydrogen materials compatibility is an important materials science issue for hydrogen storage and delivery in hydrogen vehicle technology and infrastructure and to a lesser degree the microelectronics industry where hydrogen passivation is required. Piezoelectrics are one such material. They are used in direct injection hydrogen internal combustion engines (H2ICE) as actuators but tend to foul rapidly in high pressure hydrogen. Ferroelectric random access memory (FERAM) also suffers similar degradation issues. We present high pressure hydrogen absorption and diffusion findings for PZT and BaTiO3 piezoelectric materials. Data is based on quasi-elastic neutron (QENS) scattering and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA).

  9. Multi-disciplinary System Engineering and the Compatibility Modeling Language (UCML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Brandstatter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Over time, technical systems such as automobiles or spacecraft have grown more complex due to the incorporation of increasingly more and different components. The integration of these components, which are frequently designed and constructed within separate departments and companies may lead to malfunctioning systems as their interplay cannot be tested within the earlier phases of development. This paper introduces compatibility management as one solution to the problems of late component integration. Compatibility management is carried out on a common crossdomain model of the system and therefore allows to test compatibility early on. We show how compatibility management can be embedded into the phased development of ECSS-M-30A and present the (Unified Compatibility Modeling Language ((UCML, which is used for the underlying cross-domain model. A case study demonstrates the application of (UCML in the development of a small satellite and explains different degrees of compatibility.

  10. Individual preference rankings compatible with prices, income distributions and total resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    2010-01-01

    The compatibility of a given ranking with a dataset consisting of prices, income distributions and total resources is shown to be equivalent to the existence of a solution to a set of linear equalities and inequalities. Their structure makes their solution easier to compute than the solutions...

  11. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted.

  12. Systematic evaluation of three different commercial software solutions for automatic segmentation for adaptive therapy in head-and-neck, prostate and pleural cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Macchia Mariangela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To validate, in the context of adaptive radiotherapy, three commercial software solutions for atlas-based segmentation. Methods and materials Fifteen patients, five for each group, with cancer of the Head&Neck, pleura, and prostate were enrolled in the study. In addition to the treatment planning CT (pCT images, one replanning CT (rCT image set was acquired for each patient during the RT course. Three experienced physicians outlined on the pCT and rCT all the volumes of interest (VOIs. We used three software solutions (VelocityAI 2.6.2 (V, MIM 5.1.1 (M by MIMVista and ABAS 2.0 (A by CMS-Elekta to generate the automatic contouring on the repeated CT. All the VOIs obtained with automatic contouring (AC were successively corrected manually. We recorded the time needed for: 1 ex novo ROIs definition on rCT; 2 generation of AC by the three software solutions; 3 manual correction of AC. To compare the quality of the volumes obtained automatically by the software and manually corrected with those drawn from scratch on rCT, we used the following indexes: overlap coefficient (DICE, sensitivity, inclusiveness index, difference in volume, and displacement differences on three axes (x, y, z from the isocenter. Results The time saved by the three software solutions for all the sites, compared to the manual contouring from scratch, is statistically significant and similar for all the three software solutions. The time saved for each site are as follows: about an hour for Head&Neck, about 40 minutes for prostate, and about 20 minutes for mesothelioma. The best DICE similarity coefficient index was obtained with the manual correction for: A (contours for prostate, A and M (contours for H&N, and M (contours for mesothelioma. Conclusions From a clinical point of view, the automated contouring workflow was shown to be significantly shorter than the manual contouring process, even though manual correction of the VOIs is always needed.

  13. Systematic evaluation of three different commercial software solutions for automatic segmentation for adaptive therapy in head-and-neck, prostate and pleural cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Macchia, Mariangela; Fellin, Francesco; Amichetti, Maurizio; Cianchetti, Marco; Gianolini, Stefano; Paola, Vitali; Lomax, Antony J; Widesott, Lamberto

    2012-09-18

    To validate, in the context of adaptive radiotherapy, three commercial software solutions for atlas-based segmentation. Fifteen patients, five for each group, with cancer of the Head&Neck, pleura, and prostate were enrolled in the study. In addition to the treatment planning CT (pCT) images, one replanning CT (rCT) image set was acquired for each patient during the RT course. Three experienced physicians outlined on the pCT and rCT all the volumes of interest (VOIs). We used three software solutions (VelocityAI 2.6.2 (V), MIM 5.1.1 (M) by MIMVista and ABAS 2.0 (A) by CMS-Elekta) to generate the automatic contouring on the repeated CT. All the VOIs obtained with automatic contouring (AC) were successively corrected manually. We recorded the time needed for: 1) ex novo ROIs definition on rCT; 2) generation of AC by the three software solutions; 3) manual correction of AC.To compare the quality of the volumes obtained automatically by the software and manually corrected with those drawn from scratch on rCT, we used the following indexes: overlap coefficient (DICE), sensitivity, inclusiveness index, difference in volume, and displacement differences on three axes (x, y, z) from the isocenter. The time saved by the three software solutions for all the sites, compared to the manual contouring from scratch, is statistically significant and similar for all the three software solutions. The time saved for each site are as follows: about an hour for Head&Neck, about 40 minutes for prostate, and about 20 minutes for mesothelioma. The best DICE similarity coefficient index was obtained with the manual correction for: A (contours for prostate), A and M (contours for H&N), and M (contours for mesothelioma). From a clinical point of view, the automated contouring workflow was shown to be significantly shorter than the manual contouring process, even though manual correction of the VOIs is always needed.

  14. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Alexander; Windbacher, Thomas; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2016-11-01

    For many decades CMOS devices have been successfully scaled down to achieve higher speed and increased performance of integrated circuits at lower cost. Today’s charge-based CMOS electronics encounters two major challenges: power dissipation and variability. Spintronics is a rapidly evolving research and development field, which offers a potential solution to these issues by introducing novel ‘more than Moore’ devices. Spin-based magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is already recognized as one of the most promising candidates for future universal memory. Magnetic tunnel junctions, the main elements of MRAM cells, can also be used to build logic-in-memory circuits with non-volatile storage elements on top of CMOS logic circuits, as well as versatile compact on-chip oscillators with low power consumption. We give an overview of CMOS-compatible spintronics applications. First, we present a brief introduction to the physical background considering such effects as magnetoresistance, spin-transfer torque (STT), spin Hall effect, and magnetoelectric effects. We continue with a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art spintronic devices for memory applications (STT-MRAM, domain wall-motion MRAM, and spin-orbit torque MRAM), oscillators (spin torque oscillators and spin Hall nano-oscillators), logic (logic-in-memory, all-spin logic, and buffered magnetic logic gate grid), sensors, and random number generators. Devices with different types of resistivity switching are analyzed and compared, with their advantages highlighted and challenges revealed. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices are demonstrated beginning with predictive simulations, proceeding to their experimental confirmation and realization, and finalized by the current status of application in modern integrated systems and circuits. We conclude the review with an outlook, where we share our vision on the future applications of the prospective devices in the area.

  15. UNIX-a solution to the compatibility problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulbranson, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The UNIX operating system (TM Bell Laboratories) has achieved a high degree of popularity in recent years. It is rapidly becoming a defacto standard as the operating system for 16 and 32 bit microcomputers. The adoption of this operating system by the physics community offers several substantial advantages; a portable software environment (editors, file system, etc.), freedom to choose among a variety of higher-level languages for software applications, and computer hardware vendor independence

  16. Investigating Climate Compatible Development Outcomes and their Implications for Distributive Justice: Evidence from Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Benjamin T.; Quinn, Claire H.; Stringer, Lindsay C.; Dougill, Andrew J.

    2017-09-01

    Governments and donors are investing in climate compatible development in order to reduce climate and development vulnerabilities. However, the rate at which climate compatible development is being operationalised has outpaced academic enquiry into the concept. Interventions aiming to achieve climate compatible development "wins" (for development, mitigation, adaptation) can also create negative side-effects. Moreover, benefits and negative side-effects may differ across time and space and have diverse consequences for individuals and groups. Assessments of the full range of outcomes created by climate compatible development projects and their implications for distributive justice are scarce. This article develops a framework using a systematic literature review that enables holistic climate compatible development outcome evaluation over seven parameters identified. Thereafter, we explore the outcomes of two donor-funded projects that pursue climate compatible development triple-wins in Malawi using this framework. Household surveys, semi-structured interviews and documentary material are analysed. Results reveal that uneven outcomes are experienced between stakeholder groups and change over time. Although climate compatible development triple-wins can be achieved through projects, they do not represent the full range of outcomes. Ecosystem—and community-based activities are becoming popularised as approaches for achieving climate compatible development goals. However, findings suggest that a strengthened evidence base is required to ensure that these approaches are able to meet climate compatible development goals and further distributive justice.

  17. Electromagnetic compatibility and interference metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M. T.; Kanda, M.

    1986-07-01

    The material included in the report is intended for a short course on electromagnetic compatibility/interference (EMC/EM) metrology. The entire course is presented in nine chapters with the introductory part given as Chapter 1. The particular measurement topics to be covered are: (1) open sites (Chapters 2 and 6), (2) transverse electromagnetic cells (Chapter 3), (3) techniques for measuring the electromagnetic shielding of materials (Chapter 4), (4) anechoic chambers (Chapter 5), and (5) reverberating chambers (Chapter 8). In addition, since small probe antennas play an important role in some of the EMC/EMI measurements discussed, a separate chapter on various probe systems developed at NBS is given in Chapter 7. Selected contemporary EMI topics such as the characterization and measurement of a complex EM environment, interferences in the form of out-of-band receptions to an antenna, and some conducted EMI problems are also briefly discussed (Chapter 9).

  18. A comparison of the structures of lean and rich axisymmetric laminar Bunsen flames: application of local rectangular refinement solution-adaptive gridding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Beth Anne V.; Fielding, Joseph; Mauro, Richard J.; Long, Marshall B.; Smooke, Mitchell D.

    1999-12-01

    Axisymmetric laminar methane-air Bunsen flames are computed for two equivalence ratios: lean (icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 0.776), in which the traditional Bunsen cone forms above the burner; and rich (icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 1.243), in which the premixed Bunsen cone is accompanied by a diffusion flame halo located further downstream. Because the extremely large gradients at premixed flame fronts greatly exceed those in diffusion flames, their resolution requires a more sophisticated adaptive numerical method than those ordinarily applied to diffusion flames. The local rectangular refinement (LRR) solution-adaptive gridding method produces robust unstructured rectangular grids, utilizes multiple-scale finite-difference discretizations, and incorporates Newton's method to solve elliptic partial differential equation systems simultaneously. The LRR method is applied to the vorticity-velocity formulation of the fully elliptic governing equations, in conjunction with detailed chemistry, multicomponent transport and an optically-thin radiation model. The computed lean flame is lifted above the burner, and this liftoff is verified experimentally. For both lean and rich flames, grid spacing greatly influences the Bunsen cone's position, which only stabilizes with adequate refinement. In the rich configuration, the oxygen-free region above the Bunsen cone inhibits the complete decay of CH4, thus indirectly initiating the diffusion flame halo where CO oxidizes to CO2. In general, the results computed by the LRR method agree quite well with those obtained on equivalently refined conventional grids, yet the former require less than half the computational resources.

  19. Probability-based compatibility curves for calcium and phosphates in parenteral nutrition formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyon, Thomas; Carter, Phillip W; Phillips, Gerald; Owen, Heather; Patel, Dipa; Kotha, Priyanka; Green, John-Bruce D

    2014-08-01

    The information content of the calcium phosphate compatibility curves for adult parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions may benefit from a more sophisticated statistical treatment. Binary logistic regression analyses were evaluated as part of an alternate method for generating formulation compatibility curves. A commercial PN solution was challenged with a systematic array of calcium and phosphate concentrations. These formulations were then characterized for particulates by visual inspection, light obscuration, and filtration followed by optical microscopy. Logistic regression analyses of the data were compared with traditional treatments for generating compatibility curves. Assay-dependent differences were observed in the compatibility curves and associated probability contours; the microscopic method of precipitate detection generated the most robust results. Calcium and phosphate compatibility data generated from small-volume glass containers reasonably predicted the observed compatibility of clinically relevant flexible containers. The published methods for creating calcium and phosphate compatibility curves via connecting the highest passing or lowest failing calcium concentrations should be augmented or replaced by probability contours of the entire experimental design to determine zones of formulation incompatibilities. We recommend researchers evaluate their data with logistic regression analysis to help build a more comprehensive probabilistic database of compatibility information. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  20. Design of electromagnetically compatible electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    EMC is a channel capacity problem, where with the help of adaptation the signal coding and signal processing and reduction of unintentional coupling, the chance of corruption of the transferred signal information is minimized. For the topology of an electronic circuit this implies that with the help

  1. Electromagnetic Compatibility Design of the Computer Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitai, Hong

    2018-02-01

    Computers and the Internet have gradually penetrated into every aspect of people’s daily work. But with the improvement of electronic equipment as well as electrical system, the electromagnetic environment becomes much more complex. Electromagnetic interference has become an important factor to hinder the normal operation of electronic equipment. In order to analyse the computer circuit compatible with the electromagnetic compatibility, this paper starts from the computer electromagnetic and the conception of electromagnetic compatibility. And then, through the analysis of the main circuit and system of computer electromagnetic compatibility problems, we can design the computer circuits in term of electromagnetic compatibility. Finally, the basic contents and methods of EMC test are expounded in order to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of equipment.

  2. Role of value compatibility in IT adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunker, Deborah; Kautz, Karlheinz; Nguyen, Anne Luu Thanh

    2007-01-01

    Compatibility has been recognised as an important element in the adoption of IT innovations in organisations but as a concept it has been generally limited to technical or functional factors. Compatibility is also significant, however, with regard to value compatibility between the organisation......, and the adopted IT innovation. We propose a framework to determine value compatibility analysing the organisation's and information system's structure, practices and culture, and explore the value compatibility of an organisation with its adopted self-service computer-based information system. A case study...... was conducted to determine the congruence of an organisation's value and IT value compatibility. This study found that there was a high correspondence in the organisational structure and practice dimensions; however, there were organisational culture disparities. The cultural disparities reflected the self...

  3. Return of the JITAI: Applying a Just-in-Time Adaptive Intervention Framework to the Development of m-Health Solutions for Addictive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Evans, Brittney C; Flack, Daniel; Juarascio, Adrienne; Manasse, Stephanie; Zhang, Fengqing; Forman, Evan M

    2017-10-01

    Lapses are strong indicators of later relapse among individuals with addictive disorders, and thus are an important intervention target. However, lapse behavior has proven resistant to change due to the complex interplay of lapse triggers that are present in everyday life. It could be possible to prevent lapses before they occur by using m-Health solutions to deliver interventions in real-time. Just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) is an intervention design framework that could be delivered via mobile app to facilitate in-the-moment monitoring of triggers for lapsing, and deliver personalized coping strategies to the user to prevent lapses from occurring. An organized framework is key for successful development of a JITAI. Nahum-Shani and colleagues (2014) set forth six core elements of a JITAI and guidelines for designing each: distal outcomes, proximal outcomes, tailoring variables, decision points, decision rules, and intervention options. The primary aim of this paper is to illustrate the use of this framework as it pertains to developing a JITAI that targets lapse behavior among individuals following a weight control diet. We will detail our approach to various decision points during the development phases, report on preliminary findings where applicable, identify problems that arose during development, and provide recommendations for researchers who are currently undertaking their own JITAI development efforts. Issues such as missing data, the rarity of lapses, advantages/disadvantages of machine learning, and user engagement are discussed.

  4. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system analysis on adsorption studies of Reactive Red 198 from aqueous solution by SBA-15/CTAB composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Khadijeh; Tayebi, Habib-Allah

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the Mesoporous material SBA-15 were synthesized and then, the surface was modified by the surfactant Cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB). Finally, the obtained adsorbent was used in order to remove Reactive Red 198 (RR 198) from aqueous solution. Transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and BET were utilized for the purpose of examining the structural characteristics of obtained adsorbent. Parameters affecting the removal of RR 198 such as pH, the amount of adsorbent, and contact time were investigated at various temperatures and were also optimized. The obtained optimized condition is as follows: pH = 2, time = 60 min and adsorbent dose = 1 g/l. Moreover, a predictive model based on ANFIS for predicting the adsorption amount according to the input variables is presented. The presented model can be used for predicting the adsorption rate based on the input variables include temperature, pH, time, dosage, concentration. The error between actual and approximated output confirm the high accuracy of the proposed model in the prediction process. This fact results in cost reduction because prediction can be done without resorting to costly experimental efforts. SBA-15, CTAB, Reactive Red 198, adsorption study, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference systems (ANFIS).

  5. Vacuum Compatible Percussive Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible percussive dynamic cone penetrometer (PDCP), for establishing soil bin characteristics, with the ultimate...

  6. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Mycelial compatibility groups and pathogenicity of Sclerotinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was determined by mycelial compatibility grouping (MCG) and isolate aggressiveness comparisons. MCG, host specificity and aggressiveness of S. sclerotiorum isolates were assessed. Isolate pairs were designated compatible when no barrage zone formed at sites of contact. They were designated incompatible when a ...

  8. Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…

  9. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOWLER, K.D.

    2000-01-01

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process

  10. A practical exact maximum compatibility algorithm for reconstruction of recent evolutionary history

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry, Joshua L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Maximum compatibility is a method of phylogenetic reconstruction that is seldom applied to molecular sequences. It may be ideal for certain applications, such as reconstructing phylogenies of closely-related bacteria on the basis of whole-genome sequencing. Results Here I present an algorithm that rapidly computes phylogenies according to a compatibility criterion. Although based on solutions to the maximum clique problem, this algorithm deals properly with ambiguities in the data....

  11. HLW Flexible jumper materials compatibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-13

    H-Tank Farm Engineering tasked SRNL/Materials Science & Technology (MS&T) to evaluate the compatibility of Goodyear Viper® chemical transfer hose with HLW solutions. The hose is proposed as a flexible Safety Class jumper for up to six months service. SRNL/MS&T performed various tests to evaluate the effects of radiation, high pH chemistry and elevated temperature on the hose, particularly the inner liner. Test results suggest an upper dose limit of 50 Mrad for the hose. Room temperature burst pressure values at 50 Mrad are estimated at 600- 800 psi, providing a safety factor of 4.0-5.3X over the anticipated operating pressure of 150 psi and a safety factor of 3.0-4.0X over the working pressure of the hose (200 psi), independent of temperature effects. Radiation effects are minimal at doses less than 10 Mrad. Doses greater than 50 Mrad may be allowed, depending on operating conditions and required safety factors, but cannot be recommended at this time. At 250 Mrad, burst pressure values are reduced to the hose working pressure. At 300 Mrad, burst pressures are below 150 psi. At a bounding continuous dose rate of 57,870 rad/hr, the 50 Mrad dose limit is reached within 1.2 months. Actual dose rates may be lower, particularly during non-transfer periods. Refined dose calculations are therefore recommended to justify longer service. This report details the tests performed and interpretation of the results. Recommendations for shelf-life/storage, component quality verification, and post-service examination are provided.

  12. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS. The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  13. Selenium Incorporated Cationic Organochalcogen: Live Cell Compatible and Highly Photostable Molecular Stain for Imaging and Localization of Intracellular DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Pankaj; Kumar, Ajay; Dey, Gourab; Kumar, Rajendra; Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-05-04

    Successful integration of selenium unit into a newly designed cationic chemical architecture led to the development of a highly photostable molecular maker PA5 to be used in fluorescence microscopy as cellular nucleus staining agent for longer duration imaging under continuous laser illumination. Adaptation of a targeted single-atom modification strategy led to the development of a series of proficient DNA light-up probes (PA1-PA5). Further, their comparative photophysical studies in the presence of DNA revealed the potential of electron rich heteroatoms of chalcogen family in improving binding efficiency and specificity of molecular probes toward DNA. The findings of cell studies confirmed the outstanding cell compatibility of probe PA5 in terms of cell permeability, biostability, and extremely low cytotoxicity. Moreover, the photostability experiment employing continuous laser illumination in solution phase as well as in cell assay (both fixed and live cells) revealed the admirable photobleaching resistance of PA5. Finally, while investigating the phototoxicity of PA5, the probe was found not to exhibit light-induced toxicity even when irradiated for longer duration. All these experimental results demonstrated the promising standing of PA5 as a futuristic cell compatible potential stain for bioimaging and temporal profiling of DNA.

  14. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff). Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti. Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were.

  15. DOD Offshore Wind Mission Compatibility Assessments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the results of analyses conducted by the Department of Defense to assess the compatibility of offshore wind development with military assets...

  16. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  17. Ecological Compatibility Mode in Emotional Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Иванович Шаховский

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Language is a city to the building of which every human being brought a stone. R. Emerson The article demonstrates the necessity for the integration of different sciences to corroborate a new scientific direction in communicology called emotive linguoecology. The author postulates the interdependence of language ecology and human ecology with individual’s emotions. The study object is ecological compatibility in communication; the subject of the research is the role of emotions in shaping ecological compatibility of utterances. The research analyses of problems in effective communication, introspection, mass media and fiction text analysis, discourse analysis of emotional situations in institutional and interpersonal communication prove that there is no direct interdependence between emotions and ecological compatibility mode; this connection is situational. The author offers new perspectives on how to shift from the theory of speech culture to the ecological communication theory.

  18. Relationship between flanker identifiability and compatibility effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, W; Mecklinger, A

    1995-10-01

    What is the relation between the identifiability of masked flankers and their ability to induce compatibility effects in a letter classification task? Using a within-subjects design (n = 8), we first determined identification performance for two flankers (H or N) around an irrelevant target letter as a function of the time (stimulus onset asynchrony, or SOA) after which the flankers were masked. In a second condition, subjects classified the central letter of the same stimulus patterns irrespectively of the identity of the flankers. The compatibility effects increased with increasing identification performance as a function of SOA, and we found a significant compatibility effect even at an SOA at which the identifiability of the flankers did not differ significantly from zero. We discuss the statistical power of our design and an interpretation of our results in terms of a dissociation between perceptual processes and processes directly activating the motor system (direct parameter specification; cf. Neumann, 1990).

  19. Compatibility and testing of electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, C E

    2013-01-01

    Compatibility and Testing of Electronic Components outlines the concepts of component part life according to thresholds of failure; the advantages that result from identifying such thresholds; their identification; and the various tests used in their detection. The book covers topics such as the interconnection of miniature passive components; the integrated circuit compatibility and its components; the semiconductor joining techniques; and the thin film hybrid approach in integrated circuits. Also covered are topics such as thick film resistors, conductors, and insulators; thin inlays for el

  20. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  1. Compatibility of verapamil hydrochloride injection in commonly used large-volume parenterals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutie, M R; Lordi, N G

    1980-05-01

    The visual and chemical compatibilities of verapamil hydrochloride injection in 10 commonly used large-volume solutions packaged in glass, polyolefin, or polyvinyl chloride containers were studied. The mixtures, each containing 40 mg/liter of verapamil hydrochloride, were stored away from light for up to 48 hours at 25 degrees C. The solutions were examined visually for haze, precipitate formation, color change, and evolution of gas immediately after mixing and at 0.25, 1, 3, 8, 24, and 48 hours. Spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography were used to test for drug decomposition or chemical incompatibilities. All test methods used showed that no significant degradation of verapamil hydrochloride had taken place in the solutions or through contact with the containers. Slightly higher spectrophotometric readings for dextrose-containing solutions, though within experimental error, could have indicated the presence of dextrose degradation products. Evidence from this study suggests that verapamil hydrocholoride is compatible with the large-volume parenterals studied.

  2. Individual Preference Rankings Compatible with Prices, Income Distributions and Total Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    We consider the problem of determining the individual preference rankings that are necessarily implied by a dataset consisting of prices, income distributions and total resources. We show the equivalence between the compatibility with individual preference rankings and the existence of a solution...

  3. Compatibility of Calamus deerratus and Lacosperma secundiflorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was conducted to determine the optimum water to cement ratio for a locally manufactured Portland cement for use in wood composites. The effects of pre-processing and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the compatibility of two rattan canes (Calamus deerratus and Lacosperma secundiflorum) with cement were ...

  4. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.A.H.M.; Faerber, E.; Cesari, D.; Hobbs, A.C.; Kampen, B. van; Paez, J.; Wykes, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  5. Automatic kelvin probe compatible with ultrahigh vacuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baikie, I.D.; van der Werf, Kees; Oerbekke, H.; Broeze, J.; van Silfhout, Arend

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a new type of in situ ultrahigh‐vacuum compatible kelvin probe based on a voice‐coil driving mechanism. This design exhibits several advantages over conventional mechanical feed‐through and (in situ) piezoelectric devices in regard to the possibility of multiple probe

  6. Compatible taper equation for loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. McClure; R. L. Czaplewski

    1986-01-01

    Cao's compatible, segmented polynomial taper equation (Q. V. Cao, H. E. Burkhart, and T. A. Max. For. Sci. 26: 71-80. 1980) is fitted to a large loblolly pine data set from the southeastern United States. Equations are presented that predict diameter at a given height, height to a given top diameter, and volume below a given position on the main stem. All...

  7. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.), Vol. 111, No. 2, May 2001, pp. 241–247. Printed in India. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps. RENU CHUGH and SANJAY KUMAR. Department of Mathematics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124 001, India. MS received 31 January 2000; revised 11 December 2000.

  8. Choosing mates: complementary versus compatible genes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piálek, Jaroslav; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2005), s. 63 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6093201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : genetic compatibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 14.864, year: 2005

  9. Coal use in Italy and environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Fossil fuels have in Italy great importance. In Italy, in terms of environmental protection and for social acceptance, coal has had a real opposition not verified in other countries. Environmental compatibility of coal cycle and related technologies are discussed also consequently at the Kyoto protocol [it

  10. 36 CFR 1193.51 - Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... providing auditory output shall provide the auditory signal at a standard signal level through an industry.... Products which provide a function allowing voice communication and which do not themselves provide a TTY...) TTY signal compatibility. Products, including those providing voice communication functionality, shall...

  11. Globalisation and international compatibility - a challenge to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contexts of institutions for higher education are in flux with consequent learning challenges. One of these challenges is that of globalisation and the need for international compatibility. Another challenge is that Mode 2 learning programmes, material and methods need to be relevant to the specific context in which they ...

  12. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were used as indicators of ...

  13. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed... heat (estrus) may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with males, except for breeding purposes...

  14. Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  15. Component-compatibility in historical biogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandee, M.; Roos, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    -The problems of reconstructing historical relationships for areas of endemism from distributional data for groups of taxa and the cladistic relationships among the members of those groups can be solved by applying the two principles of parsimony and mutual inclusion or exclusion (compatibility) of

  16. Compatibility Between Electric Components in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Arana Aristi, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for investigation of the compatibility between electric components in wind farms by identifying critical resonances at different points of an offshore wind farm (OWF), based on systematic variation of critical parameters. In this way, the design of future OWF can...

  17. Plasmonic Modulator Using CMOS Compatible Material Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a design of ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically analyzed. The device l ayout utilizes alternative plas monic materials such as tr ansparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride which potentially can be applied for CMOS compatible process. The modulation i...

  18. CMOS Compatible Ultra-Compact Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2014-01-01

    A planar layout for an ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically investigated. Our device utilizes potentially CMOS compatible materials and can achieve 3-dB modulation in just 65nm and insertion loss <1dB at telecommunication wavelengths....

  19. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzika Aria

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, monitor, and improve physical rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, robotic or mechatronic devices with actuators and sensors need to be introduced into an MR environment. The common standard mechanical parts can not be used in MR environment and MR compatibility has been a tough hurdle for device developers. Methods This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that may be used in brain MR imaging during hand grip rehabilitation. We named the device MR_CHIROD (Magnetic Resonance Compatible Smart Hand Interfaced Rehabilitation Device. A novel feature of the device is the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERFs to achieve tunable and controllable resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. The device consists of four major subsystems: a an ERF based resistive element; b a gearbox; c two handles and d two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. The smart hand device is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Results Laboratory tests of the device indicate that it was able to meet its design objective to resist up to approximately 50% of the maximum handgrip force. The detailed

  20. Exploring adaptive program behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions. B...

  1. Exploring Adaptive Program Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions. B...

  2. Interactive virtual mock-ups for Remote Handling compatibility assessment of heavy components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhout, J. van; Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Koning, J.F.; Ronden, D.M.S.; Baar, M. de

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Specific ITER components require RHCA on hardware mock-ups. •Hardware mock-ups are expensive and have a long lead time. •Interactive Virtual Reality mock-ups are readily available and easily adapted. •This paper analysis and proposes improvements to simulator capabilities. -- Abstract: ITER standards Tesini (2009) require hardware mock-ups to validate the Remote Handling (RH) compatibility of RH class 1- and critical class 2-components. Full-scale mock-ups of large ITER components are expensive, have a long lead time and lose their relevance in case of design changes. Interactive Virtual Reality simulations with real time rigid body dynamics and contact interaction allow for RH Compatibility Assessment during the design iterations. This paper explores the use of interactive virtual mock-ups to analyze the RH compatibility of heavy component handling and maintenance. It infers generic maintenance operations from the analysis and proposes improvements to the simulator capabilities

  3. Enhancing blood compatibility of biodegradable polymers by introducing sulfobetaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun; Chen, Yuan-Wei; Wang, Xin; Luo, Xiang-Lin

    2011-06-15

    Novel biodegradable polycaprolactone containing N,N'-bis (2-hydroxyethyl) methylamine ammonium propane sulfonate (PCL-APS) was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and water contact angle (WCA). These measurements showed that the APS unit was introduced into polymers. The hydrolysis of PCL-APS was evaluated by soaking the polymer membranes in a pH = 3.20 acid solution. The rate of weight loss was increased with the content of APS increasing in polymer. The compatibility of polymers were evaluated by platelet adhesion, hemolytic test, and activated partial thromboplastic time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) experiments. Results showed that adhered platelets deceased after introducing sulfobetaine as compared to the control PCL, little hemolysis took place on PCL-APS, and APTT of PCL-APS polymers was prolonged than that of control PCL. Therefore, polycaprolactone containing sulfobetaine is a promising biodegradable polymer with good blood compatibility. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk

    2009-01-15

    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO{sub 4}), with IC50 values of 0.82 {mu}M and 0.85 {mu}M, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides.

  5. Enabling Generic Distributed Computing Infrastructure Compatibility For Workflow Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kozlowszky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solving workflow management system’s Distributed Computing Infrastructure (DCI incompatibility and their workflow interoperability issues are very challenging and complex tasks. Workflow management systems (and therefore their workflows, workflow developers and also their end-users are bounded tightly to some limited number of supported DCIs, and efforts required to allow additional DCI support. In this paper we are specifying a concept how to enable generic DCI compatibility for grid workflow management systems (such as ASKALON, MOTEUR, gUSE/WS-PGRADE, etc. on job and indirectly on workflow level. To enable DCI compatibility among the different workflow management systems we have developed the DCI Bridge software solution. In this paper we will describe its internal architecture, provide usage scenarios to show how the developed service resolve the DCI interoperability issues between various middleware types. The generic DCI Bridge service enables the execution of jobs onto the existing major DCI platforms (such as Service Grids (Globus Toolkit 2 and 4, gLite, ARC, UNICORE, Desktop Grids, Web services, or even cloud based DCIs.

  6. FUNGIBLE AND COMPATIBLE BIOFUELS: LITERATURE SEARCH, SUMMARY, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study described in this report is to summarize the various barriers to more widespread distribution of bio-fuels through our common carrier fuel distribution system, which includes pipelines, barges and rail, fuel tankage, and distribution terminals. Addressing these barriers is necessary to allow the more widespread utilization and distribution of bio-fuels, in support of a renewable fuels standard and possible future low-carbon fuel standards. These barriers can be classified into several categories, including operating practice, regulatory, technical, and acceptability barriers. Possible solutions to these issues are discussed; including compatibility evaluation, changes to bio-fuels, regulatory changes, and changes in the distribution system or distribution practices. No actual experimental research has been conducted in the writing of this report, but results are used to develop recommendations for future research and additional study as appropriate. This project addresses recognized barriers to the wider use of bio-fuels in the areas of development of codes and standards, industrial and consumer awareness, and materials compatibility issues.

  7. High-voltage-compatible, fully depleted CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Stephen E.; Bebek, Chris J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Emes, JohnE.; Fabricius, Max H.; Fairfield, Jessaym A.; Groom, Don E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, William F.; Palaio, Nick P.; Roe, Natalie A.; Wang, Guobin

    2006-05-15

    We describe charge-coupled device (CCD) developmentactivities at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).Back-illuminated CCDs fabricated on 200-300 mu m thick, fully depleted,high-resistivity silicon substrates are produced in partnership with acommercial CCD foundry.The CCDs are fully depleted by the application ofa substrate bias voltage. Spatial resolution considerations requireoperation of thick, fully depleted CCDs at high substrate bias voltages.We have developed CCDs that are compatible with substrate bias voltagesof at least 200V. This improves spatial resolution for a given thickness,and allows for full depletion of thicker CCDs than previously considered.We have demonstrated full depletion of 650-675 mu m thick CCDs, withpotential applications in direct x-ray detection. In this work we discussthe issues related to high-voltage operation of fully depleted CCDs, aswell as experimental results on high-voltage-compatible CCDs.

  8. Coating for components requiring hydrogen peroxide compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefiani, Ali (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a heretofore-unknown use for zirconium nitride as a hydrogen peroxide compatible protective coating that was discovered to be useful to protect components that catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide or corrode when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. A zirconium nitride coating of the invention may be applied to a variety of substrates (e.g., metals) using art-recognized techniques, such as plasma vapor deposition. The present invention further provides components and articles of manufacture having hydrogen peroxide compatibility, particularly components for use in aerospace and industrial manufacturing applications. The zirconium nitride barrier coating of the invention provides protection from corrosion by reaction with hydrogen peroxide, as well as prevention of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.

  9. Perturbation Solutions of the Quintic Duffing Equation with Strong Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pakdemirli

    Full Text Available The quintic Duffing equation with strong nonlinearities is considered. Perturbation solutions are constructed using two different techniques: The classical multiple scales method (MS and the newly developed multiple scales Lindstedt Poincare method (MSLP. The validity criteria for admissible solutions are derived. Both approximate solutions are contrasted with the numerical solutions. It is found that MSLP provides compatible solution with the numerical solution for strong nonlinearities whereas MS solution fail to produce physically acceptable solution for large perturbation parameters.

  10. Compatibility of refractory materials with boiling sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The program employed to determine the compatibility of commercially available refractories with boiling sodium is described. The effects of impurities contained within the refractory material, and their relations with the refractory's physical stability are discussed. Also, since consideration of refractories for use as an insulating material within Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Plants (LMFBR's) is currently under investigation; recommendations, based upon this program, are presented

  11. Survey - Monomethylhydrazine Propellant/Material Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    TRW (Ref. 21) indicated that the following aluminum alloys are fully compatible with MMH at 71’"C or below for short term use (2 weeks): 5052 , 5154...Either Obsolete Small Lot or Only Available Material Quantities in "Mill Run Lots" Aluminum alloys 5052 5083 5086 5154 54 56a 5254 6061 5454 5652... Aluminum alloys - types 5052 , 5083, 5086, 5154, 5254, 5456, 565?, 6061. Corrosion-resistant steels (CRES) - 304, 316, 316L, 321, 347, 430 4. Pertinent

  12. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Justin A., E-mail: jabriggs@stanford.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  13. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-07-01

    To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost.

  14. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented

  15. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  16. Compatibility of Segments of Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Ursell, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    A method of calculating (usually for the purpose of maximizing) the power-conversion efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator is based on equations derived from the fundamental equations of thermoelectricity. Because it is directly traceable to first principles, the method provides physical explanations in addition to predictions of phenomena involved in segmentation. In comparison with the finite-element method used heretofore to predict (without being able to explain) the behavior of a segmented thermoelectric generator, this method is much simpler to implement in practice: in particular, the efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator can be estimated by evaluating equations using only hand-held calculator with this method. In addition, the method provides for determination of cascading ratios. The concept of cascading is illustrated in the figure and the definition of the cascading ratio is defined in the figure caption. An important aspect of the method is its approach to the issue of compatibility among segments, in combination with introduction of the concept of compatibility within a segment. Prior approaches involved the use of only averaged material properties. Two materials in direct contact could be examined for compatibility with each other, but there was no general framework for analysis of compatibility. The present method establishes such a framework. The mathematical derivation of the method begins with the definition of reduced efficiency of a thermoelectric generator as the ratio between (1) its thermal-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and (2) its Carnot efficiency (the maximum efficiency theoretically attainable, given its hot- and cold-side temperatures). The derivation involves calculation of the reduced efficiency of a model thermoelectric generator for which the hot-side temperature is only infinitesimally greater than the cold-side temperature. The derivation includes consideration of the ratio (u) between the

  17. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...... neighborhoods. The tutorial also present applications of the adaptive large neighborhood search, mostly related to vehicle routing problems for which the heuristic has been extremely successful. We discuss how the heuristic can be parallelized and thereby take advantage of modern desktop computers...

  18. [Mechanical strength and mechano-compatibility of tissue-engineered bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Current artificial bones made of metals and ceramics may be replaced around a decade after implantation due to its low durability, which is brought on by a large difference from the host bone in mechanical properties, i.e., low mechano-compatibility. On the other hand, tissue engineering could be a solution with regeneration of bone tissues from stem cells in vitro. However, there are still some problems to realize exactly the same mechanical properties as those of real bone. This paper introduces the technical background of bone tissue engineering and discusses possible methods for installation of mechano-compatibility into a regenerative bone. At the end, future directions toward the realization of ideal mechano-compatible regenerative bone are proposed.

  19. Evolutionarily adapted hormesis-inducing stressors can be a practical solution to mitigate harmful effects of chronic exposure to low dose chemical mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Choi, Je-Yong; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2018-02-01

    Although the toxicity of synthetic chemicals at high doses is well known, chronic exposure to low-dose chemical mixtures has only recently been linked to many age-related diseases. However, it is nearly impossible to avoid the exposure to these low-dose chemical mixtures as humans are exposed to a myriad of synthetic chemicals as a part of their daily lives. Therefore, coping with possible harms due to low dose chemical mixtures is challenging. Interestingly, within the range of environmental exposure, disease risk does not increase linearly with increasing dose of chemicals, but often tends to plateau or even decrease with increasing dose. Hormesis, the over-compensation of various adaptive responses through cellular stresses, is one possible mechanism for this non-linearity. Although the hormetic effects of synthetic chemicals or radiation have long been debated in the field of toxicology, the hormesis concept has recently been generalized in the field of molecular biology; similar to responses to synthetic chemicals, mild to moderate intermittent stressors from any source can induce hormetic responses. Examples of stressors are exercise, calorie restriction, intermittent fasting, cognitive stimulation, and phytochemicals. Mitohormesis is hormesis induced by such stressors through mitochondrial retrograde signalling including the increased production of mild reactive oxygen species. Xenohormesis is phytochemical-induced hormesis, reflective of a mutualistic relationship between plant and animals. As humans had repeated exposure to all of these stressors during their evolution, the hormetic effects of these health behaviours may be considered to be evolutionarily adapted. Although hormesis induced by synthetic chemicals occurs in humans, such hormesis may not be recommended to the public due to unresolved issues on safety including the impossibility of control exposure. However, the use of personal health behaviors which enhance mitohormetic- or xenohormetic

  20. Preformulation compatibility screening of dika fat-drug mixtures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as screening technique for assessing compatibility between dika fat and drug substances. Dika fat was found to be compatible with aspirin, ascorbic acid, paracetamol, sulphanilamide, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, bromopheniramine maleate, chlorpheniramire ...

  1. The role of visual awareness for conflict adaptation in the masked priming task: comparing block-wise adaptation with trial-by-trial adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Shin’ya

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of participants’ visual awareness in the block-wise and the trial-by-trial adaptations. We employed a subliminal response compatibility task in which a prime arrow was briefly presented before the target arrow, and the participants were requested to indicate the direction of the target arrow. The direction of the prime and direction of the target were either the same (compatible trial) or different (incompatible trial). To examine block-wise adaptation, two bl...

  2. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  3. 47 CFR 76.1622 - Consumer education program on compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compatibility. Cable system operators shall provide a consumer education program on compatibility matters to... other customer premises equipment that is provided to subscribers, they shall advise their subscribers... of remote control units currently available from retailers that are compatible with the customer...

  4. Rust transformation/rust compatible primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeric, Dario A.; Miller, Christopher E.

    1993-01-01

    Proper surface preparation has been the key to obtain good performance by a surface coating. The major obstacle in preparing a corroded or rusted surface is the complete removal of the contaminants and the corrosion products. Sandblasting has been traditionally used to remove the corrosion products before painting. However, sandblasting can be expensive, may be prohibited by local health regulations and is not applicable in every situation. To get around these obstacles, Industry developed rust converters/rust transformers and rust compatible primers (high solids epoxies). The potential use of these products for military equipment led personnel of the Belvoir Research, Development and Engineering Center (BRDEC) to evaluate the commercially available rust transformers and rust compatible primers. Prior laboratory experience with commercially available rust converters, as well as field studies in Hawaii and Puerto Rico, revealed poor performance, several inherent limitations, and lack of reliability. It was obvious from our studies that the performance of rust converting products was more dependent on the amount and type of rust present, as well as the degree of permeability of the coating, than on the product's ability to form an organometallic complex with the rust. Based on these results, it was decided that the Military should develop their own rust converter formulation and specification. The compound described in the specification is for use on a rusted surface before the application of an organic coating (bituminous compounds, primer or topcoat). These coatings should end the need for sandblasting or the removing of the adherent corrosion products. They also will prepare the surface for the application of the organic coating. Several commercially available rust compatible primers (RCP) were also tested using corroded surfaces. All of the evaluated RCP failed our laboratory tests for primers.

  5. Adaptation : A Partially Automated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact

  6. Algebraic properties of compatible Poisson brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pumei

    2014-05-01

    We discuss algebraic properties of a pencil generated by two compatible Poisson tensors A( x) and B( x). From the algebraic viewpoint this amounts to studying the properties of a pair of skew-symmetric bilinear forms A and B defined on a finite-dimensional vector space. We describe the Lie group G P of linear automorphisms of the pencil P = { A + λB}. In particular, we obtain an explicit formula for the dimension of G P and discuss some other algebraic properties such as solvability and Levi-Malcev decomposition.

  7. Martensitic textures: Multiscale consequences of elastic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, S.R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    2001-03-01

    We show that a free energy entirely in the order-parameter strain variable(s), rather than the displacement field, provides a unified understanding of martensitic textures. We use compatibility equations, linking the strain tensor components in the bulk and at interfaces, that induce anisotropic order-parameter strain interactions. These two long-range bulk/interface potentials, together with local compositional fluctuations, drive the formation of global elastic textures. Relaxational simulations show the spontaneous formation (and evolution under stress/temperature quenches) of equal width parallel twins, branched twins, and tweed, including characteristic scaling of twin width with twin length. (author)

  8. San Francisco Bay Area CHARG: Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group, a Multi-Jurisdictional Collaboration to Develop Innovative Regional Solutions to Address Sea Level Rise and Improve Shoreline Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, R.

    2017-12-01

    For a challenge as complex and far-reaching as sea level rise and improving shoreline resiliency, strong partnerships between scientists, elected officials, decision-makers, and the general public are the only way that effective solutions can be developed. The San Francisco Bay, like many similar sheltered water coastal environments (for example, Galveston Bay, Tampa Bay, or Venetian Lagoon) offers a unique opportunity for multiple jurisdictions to collaborate to address sea level rise on a regional basis. For the San Francisco Bay, significant scientific progress has been made in building a real-time simulation model for riverine and Bay hydrodynamics. Other major scientific initiatives, such as morphology mapping, shoreline mapping, and a sediment budget are also underway. In 2014, leaders from the Bay Area science, engineering, planning, policy, elected, and regulatory communities representing jurisdictions around the Bay joined together to address sea level rise. The group includes people from local, regional, state, and federal agencies and organizations. Together, CHARG (Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group) established a collective vision and approach to implementing regional solutions. Decision-makers within many Bay Area jurisdictions are motivated to show demonstrable progress toward addressing sea level rise. However, the cost to implement shoreline resiliency solutions will be very large, and must be founded on strong science.CHARG is now tackling several key technical challenges. One is to develop science-based guidelines for local jurisdictions to determine when a project is local, sub-regional, or regional. Concurrently, several organizations are planning or implementing pilot shoreline resiliency projects and other programs. Many creative regional solutions are possible in a sheltered water environment that simply would not be feasible along the open coast. By definition, these solutions cannot be undertaken by one entity alone. Large

  9. Integration of environmentally compatible soldering technologies for waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosking, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    There has been a concentrated effort throughout the international microelectronics industry to phase out chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) materials and alleviate the serious problem of ozone depletion created by the release of CFCS. The development of more environmentally compatible manufacturing technologies is the cornerstone of this effort. Alternative materials and processes for cleaning and soldering have received special attention. Electronic. soldering typically utilizes rosin-based fluxes to promote solder wettability. Flux residues must be removed from the soldered parts when high product reliability is essential. Halogenated or CFC solvents have been the principle chemicals used to clean the residues. With the accelerated push to eliminate CFCs in the US by 1995, CFC-free solvents, aqueous-based cleaning, water soluble or ''no clean'' fluxes, and fluxless soldering technologies are being developed and quickly integrated into manufacturing practice. Sandia's Center for Solder Science and Technology has been ch g a variety of fluxless and alternative soldering technologies for DOE's waste minimization program. The work has focused on controlled atmosphere, laser, and ultrasonic fluxless soldering, protective metallic and organic coatings, and fluxes which have water soluble or low solids-based chemistries. With the increasing concern that Pb will also be banned from electronic soldering, Sandia has been characterizing the wetting, aging, and mechanical properties of Pb-fire solder alloys. The progress of these integrated studies will be discussed. Their impact on environmentally compatible manufacturing will be emphasized. Since there is no universal solution to the various environmental, safety, and health issues which currently face industry, the proposed technologies offer several complementary materials and processing options from which one can choose

  10. LED lamps in shipboard lighting systems: Aspects of electromagnetic compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beley V. F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in the development of different types of light sources and their energy characteristics have been described in the paper. Analysis of regulatory documents has been given. The results of experimental studies of a number of modern LED lamps have been described. Investigation has been made for a number of LED lamps produced by Philips, Xavax and Melitec. The experimental data have been obtained with the complex of devices: the dual-channel oscilloscope (GDS-71042, the power quality analyzer (Fluke-434 and the multi-function device EcoLight-01 (light-, pulse- and luminance meter. It has been shown that operation of LED lamps is characterized by emission of higher current harmonics and reactive power consumption, which depends on the type and design of the lamp driver. It has been found that the value of luminance created by LED lamps in case of acceptable (for ships prolonged deviation of voltage (–10 % is reduced by 3 %; in case of permissible short-term voltage deviation (–20 % luminance is reduced by 7 %. For incandescent lamps this indicator is characterized by a decrease in luminance by 40 % and 60 %, respectively. Despite the low sensitivity to voltage changes (in comparison with other types of lamps, the operation of LED lamps is also associated with the appearance of flicker. Absence of limitations for fluctuations of the light flux in shipboard lighting systems and imperfection of methods for determining the flicker make it difficult to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of LED lamps. Therefore due to reliability, environmental friendliness, energy efficiency and lumen maintenance LED lamps have prospects for introduction into shipboard lighting systems. However, to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of LED lighting systems it is necessary to conduct a detailed study of energy characteristics of LED lamps and to develop appropriate regulatory requirements and technical solutions.

  11. Faba Bean Can Adapt to Chocolate Spot Disease by Pretreatment with Shikimic and Salicylic Acids through Osmotic Adjustment, Solutes Allocation and Leaf Turgidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of shikimic and salicylic acids at the concentrations of 0.4 and 0.7 mM, respectively, or their combination as phenolic compounds and Ridomil MZ at the concentration of 250 g/100 L as a fungicide on osmotic pressure (OP, solutes allocation, organic acids, inorganic ions and relative water content were quantified in Vicia faba leaves infected by Botrytis fabae. Pathogen induced noticeable decrease in osmotic pressure, total soluble sugar (TSS and inorganic osmolytes (i.e. Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- while caused obvious increase in proline, total soluble nitrogen (TSN and organic acids (i.e. Keto and citric acids in water extract of the leaf of faba bean plants. Furthermore, pathogen caused marked decrease in relative water content (RWC of infected leaves and as a consequence the saturation water deficit (SWD was increased. Exogenous application of shikimic acid, salicylic acid or their combination could counteract the adverse effects of B. fabae on osmotic adjustment by inducing additional increase in proline, total soluble sugars, total soluble nitrogen and organic acids which in turn increase the osmotic pressure as well as relative water content in leaves of infected plants. Recovery of osmotic adjustment as well as leaf turgidity of infected host by using these chemical inducers may encourage the using of them as protective control means. The results of the present study showed also that the application of chemical inducers such as shikimic and salicylic acids or their interaction increased the resistance of Vicia faba against the chocolate spot disease.

  12. An administrative data merging solution for dealing with missing data in a clinical registry: adaptation from ICD-9 to ICD-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbraith P Diane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously described a method for dealing with missing data in a prospective cardiac registry initiative. The method involves merging registry data to corresponding ICD-9-CM administrative data to fill in missing data 'holes'. Here, we describe the process of translating our data merging solution to ICD-10, and then validating its performance. Methods A multi-step translation process was undertaken to produce an ICD-10 algorithm, and merging was then implemented to produce complete datasets for 1995–2001 based on the ICD-9-CM coding algorithm, and for 2002–2005 based on the ICD-10 algorithm. We used cardiac registry data for patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in fiscal years 1995–2005. The corresponding administrative data records were coded in ICD-9-CM for 1995–2001 and in ICD-10 for 2002–2005. The resulting datasets were then evaluated for their ability to predict death at one year. Results The prevalence of the individual clinical risk factors increased gradually across years. There was, however, no evidence of either an abrupt drop or rise in prevalence of any of the risk factors. The performance of the new data merging model was comparable to that of our previously reported methodology: c-statistic = 0.788 (95% CI 0.775, 0.802 for the ICD-10 model versus c-statistic = 0.784 (95% CI 0.780, 0.790 for the ICD-9-CM model. The two models also exhibited similar goodness-of-fit. Conclusion The ICD-10 implementation of our data merging method performs as well as the previously-validated ICD-9-CM method. Such methodological research is an essential prerequisite for research with administrative data now that most health systems are transitioning to ICD-10.

  13. The constitutive compatibility method for identification of material parameters based on full-field measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2013-10-01

    We revisit here the concept of the constitutive relation error for the identification of elastic material parameters based on image correlation. An additional concept, so called constitutive compatibility of stress, is introduced defining a subspace of the classical space of statically admissible stresses. The key idea is to define stresses as compatible with the observed deformation field through the chosen class of constitutive equation. This makes possible the uncoupling of the identification of stress from the identification of the material parameters. As a result, the global cost of the identification is strongly reduced. This uncoupling also leads to parametrized solutions in cases where the solution is non-unique as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Compatibility of ondansetron hydrochloride and methylprednisolone sodium succinate in multilayer polyolefin containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougouin, Christelle; Thelcide, Chloë; Crespin-Maillard, Fabienne; Maillard, Christian; Kinowski, Jean Marie; Favier, Mireille

    2005-10-01

    The compatibility of ondansetron hydrochloride and methylprednisolone sodium succinate in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection was studied. Test solutions of ondansetron hydrochloride 0.16 mg/mL and methylprednisolone sodium succinate 2.4 mg/mL were prepared in triplicate and tested in duplicate. Total volumes of 4 and 2 mL of ondansetron hydrochloride solution and methylprednisolone sodium succinate solution, respectively, were added to 50-mL multilayer polyolefin bags containing 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Bags were stored for 24 hours at 20-25 degrees C and for 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C. Chemical compatibility was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography, and physical compatibility was determined visually. Ondansetron hydrochloride was stable for up to 24 hours at 20-25 degrees C and up to 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C. Methylprednisolone sodium succinate was stable for up to 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C. When stored at 20-25 degrees C, methylprednisolone sodium succinate was stable for up to 7 hours in 5% dextrose injection and up to 24 hours in 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Compatibility data for solutions containing ondansetron hydrochloride plus methylprednisolone sodium succinate revealed that each drug was stable for up to 24 hours at 20-25 degrees C and up to 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C. Ondansetron 0.16 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride) and methylprednisolone 2.4 mg/mL (as the sodium succinate) mixed in 50-mL multilayer polyolefin bags were stable in both 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection for up to 24 hours at 20-25 degrees C and up to 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C.

  15. Toward Clinically Compatible Phase-Contrast Mammography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Scherer

    Full Text Available Phase-contrast mammography using laboratory X-ray sources is a promising approach to overcome the relatively low sensitivity and specificity of clinical, absorption-based screening. Current research is mostly centered on identifying potential diagnostic benefits arising from phase-contrast and dark-field mammography and benchmarking the latter with conventional state-of-the-art imaging methods. So far, little effort has been made to adjust this novel imaging technique to clinical needs. In this article, we address the key points for a successful implementation to a clinical routine in the near future and present the very first dose-compatible and rapid scan-time phase-contrast mammograms of both a freshly dissected, cancer-bearing mastectomy specimen and a mammographic accreditation phantom.

  16. An overview of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, M.; Qadeer, S.; Anwar, M.

    1998-01-01

    The world is becoming increasingly dependent upon the use of electrical and electronic equipment. In the recent years, introduction of semiconductor based devices, microprocessor and micro computer have brought about a technological revolution that has had far reaching effects in the home, in industry, in commerce and in defense. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the discipline which attempts to over come or, at least, minimize the effects of mismatch between equipment and the operating environment in accordance with agreed specifications, standards and regulations. Increased electromagnetic pollution in the environment has caused tremendous concern in the electronic industry and among users. Designers of the electronic products and systems want to be sure that their products do not emit excessive, unintentional radiation to interfere with the operation of the other systems, nor should these products be susceptible to electromagnetic interference which may degrade their performance. (author)

  17. Chemical compatibility of DWPF canistered waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require that the contents of the canistered waste form are compatible with one another and the stainless steel canister. The canistered waste form is a closed system comprised of a stainless steel vessel containing waste glass, air, and condensate. This system will experience a radiation field and an elevated temperature due to radionuclide decay. This report discusses possible chemical reactions, radiation interactions, and corrosive reactions within this system both under normal storage conditions and after exposure to temperatures up to the normal glass transition temperature, which for DWPF waste glass will be between 440 and 460 degrees C. Specific conclusions regarding reactions and corrosion are provided. This document is based on the assumption that the period of interim storage prior to packaging at the federal repository may be as long as 50 years

  18. Is Christian Education Compatible With Science Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael

    Science education and Christian education are not compatible if by Christian education one means teaching someone to be a Christian. One goal of science education is to give students factual knowledge. Even when there is no actual conflict of this knowledge with the dogmas of Christianity, there exists the potential for conflict. Another goal of science education is to teach students to have the propensity to be sensitive to evidence: to hold beliefs tentatively in light of evidence and to reject these beliefs in the light of new evidence if rejection is warranted by this evidence. This propensity conflicts with one way in which beliefs are often taught in Christian education: namely as fundamental dogmas, rather than as subject to revision in the light of the evidence.

  19. Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Carl D.; Watkins, Casey N.

    2006-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant weight-saving potential for aerospace applications in propellant and oxidizer tanks. This application for oxygen tanks presents the challenge of being oxygen compatible in addition to complying with the other required material characteristics. This effort reports on the testing procedures and data obtained in examining and selecting potential composite materials for oxygen tank usage. Impact testing of composites has shown that most of these materials initiate a combustion event when impacted at 72 ft-lbf in the presence of liquid oxygen, though testing has also shown substantial variability in reaction sensitivities to impact. Data for screening of 14 potential composites using the Bruceton method is given herein and shows that the 50-percent reaction frequencies range from 17 to 67 ft-lbf. The pressure and temperature rises for several composite materials were recorded to compare the energy releases as functions of the combustion reactions with their respective reaction probabilities. The test data presented are primarily for a test pressure of 300 psia in liquid oxygen. The impact screening process is compared with oxygen index and autogenous ignition test data for both the composite and the basic resin. The usefulness of these supplemental tests in helping select the most oxygen compatible materials is explored. The propensity for mechanical impact ignition of the composite compared with the resin alone is also examined. Since an ignition-free composite material at the peak impact energy of 72 ft-lbf has not been identified, composite reactivity must be characterized over the impact energy level and operating pressure ranges to provide data for hazard analyses in selecting the best potential material for liquid tank usage.

  20. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeser, Frauke; Weischer, Lutz; Thomae, Jakob; Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  1. Compatibility testing of vitrified waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1978-01-01

    The compatibility of vitrified radioactive waste with candidate canister materials will be evaluated with both cast and in-can melted vitrified waste. Both real and simulated sludges will be used. In addition, the compatibility of these materials with salt from a possible final storage location will be determined. Cast vitrified waste will be tested with ASTM A 333 and ASTM A 516 low-carbon steels and Type 304L stainless steel at 100, 600 and 800 0 C. Cast vitrified waste that has been devitrified by heat treatment will be tested at 100 0 C. Two types of test specimens will be used with either simulated or real sludges: (1) unsealed capsules made of pieces of mill-finished pipe into which vitrified waste is cast, and (2) sealed capsules containing a small container of vitrified waste identical to the ones in the unsealed capsule. In-can melted vitrified waste will be tested with synthetic sludge only and with ASTM A 333 and ASTM A 516 low-carbon steels, Type 304L stainless steel and Inconel 600. Two types of tests will be carried out: (1) melting vitrified waste in miniature metal canisters and (2) exposure of small (carefully measured) metal coupons to molten glass. The air oxidation rates of candidate canister materials will be determined, and specimens will also be exposed to salt from Drill Hole AEC-8 in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Sealed capsules containing an ASTM A 516 low-carbon steel or Type 304L stainless steel specimen partially embedded in a small block of salt will be heated

  2. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, Frauke [NewClimate - Institute for Climate Policy and Global Sustainability gGmbH, Bonn (Germany); Weischer, Lutz [Germanwatch e.V., Koeln (Germany); Thomae, Jakob [2degrees Investing Initiative, New York, NY (United States); Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-11-30

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  3. Establishing the evolutionary compatibility of potential sources of colonizers for overfished stocks: a population genomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Appleyard, Sharon A; Upston, Judy

    2015-02-01

    Identifying fish stock structure is fundamental to pinpoint stocks that might contribute colonizers to overfished stocks. However, a stock's potential to contribute to rebuilding hinges on demographic connectivity, a challenging parameter to measure. With genomics as a new tool, fisheries managers can detect signatures of natural selection and thus identify fishing areas likely to contribute evolutionarily compatible colonizers to an overfished area (i.e. colonizers that are not at a fitness disadvantage in the overfished area and able to reproduce at optimal rates). Identifying evolutionarily compatible stocks would help narrow the focus on establishing demographic connectivity where it matters. Here, we genotype 4723 SNPs in 616 orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) across five fishing areas off the Tasmanian coast in Australia. We ask whether these areas form a single genetic unit, and test for signatures of local adaptation. Results from amova, structure, discriminant analysis of principal components, BAYESASS and isolation by distance suggest that sampled locations are subjected to geneflow amounts that are above what is needed to establish 'drift connectivity'. However, it remains unclear whether there is a single panmictic population or several highly connected populations. Most importantly, we did not find any evidence of local adaptation, suggesting that the examined orange roughy stocks are evolutionarily compatible. The data have helped test an assumption of the orange roughy management programme and to formulate hypotheses regarding stock demographic connectivity. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential of genomics to inform fisheries management, even when evidence for stock structure is sparse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Identifying quantitative operation principles in metabolic pathways: a systematic method for searching feasible enzyme activity patterns leading to cellular adaptive responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorribas Albert

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization methods allow designing changes in a system so that specific goals are attained. These techniques are fundamental for metabolic engineering. However, they are not directly applicable for investigating the evolution of metabolic adaptation to environmental changes. Although biological systems have evolved by natural selection and result in well-adapted systems, we can hardly expect that actual metabolic processes are at the theoretical optimum that could result from an optimization analysis. More likely, natural systems are to be found in a feasible region compatible with global physiological requirements. Results We first present a new method for globally optimizing nonlinear models of metabolic pathways that are based on the Generalized Mass Action (GMA representation. The optimization task is posed as a nonconvex nonlinear programming (NLP problem that is solved by an outer-approximation algorithm. This method relies on solving iteratively reduced NLP slave subproblems and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP master problems that provide valid upper and lower bounds, respectively, on the global solution to the original NLP. The capabilities of this method are illustrated through its application to the anaerobic fermentation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We next introduce a method to identify the feasibility parametric regions that allow a system to meet a set of physiological constraints that can be represented in mathematical terms through algebraic equations. This technique is based on applying the outer-approximation based algorithm iteratively over a reduced search space in order to identify regions that contain feasible solutions to the problem and discard others in which no feasible solution exists. As an example, we characterize the feasible enzyme activity changes that are compatible with an appropriate adaptive response of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heat shock Conclusion Our results

  5. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding...... in such problems can be much reduced by making use of symmetry-adapted basis functions. The conventional method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets is through the application of group theory, but this can be difficult. This book describes an easier method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets...

  6. JPEG2000-Compatible Scalable Scheme for Wavelet-Based Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple yet efficient scalable scheme for wavelet-based video coders, able to provide on-demand spatial, temporal, and SNR scalability, and fully compatible with the still-image coding standard JPEG2000. Whereas hybrid video coders must undergo significant changes in order to support scalability, our coder only requires a specific wavelet filter for temporal analysis, as well as an adapted bit allocation procedure based on models of rate-distortion curves. Our study shows that scalably encoded sequences have the same or almost the same quality than nonscalably encoded ones, without a significant increase in complexity. A full compatibility with Motion JPEG2000, which tends to be a serious candidate for the compression of high-definition video sequences, is ensured.

  7. JPEG2000-Compatible Scalable Scheme for Wavelet-Based Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas André

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple yet efficient scalable scheme for wavelet-based video coders, able to provide on-demand spatial, temporal, and SNR scalability, and fully compatible with the still-image coding standard JPEG2000. Whereas hybrid video coders must undergo significant changes in order to support scalability, our coder only requires a specific wavelet filter for temporal analysis, as well as an adapted bit allocation procedure based on models of rate-distortion curves. Our study shows that scalably encoded sequences have the same or almost the same quality than nonscalably encoded ones, without a significant increase in complexity. A full compatibility with Motion JPEG2000, which tends to be a serious candidate for the compression of high-definition video sequences, is ensured.

  8. Polyurethane Organosilicate Nanocomposites as Blood Compatible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson H. Y. Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer clay nanocomposites (NCs show remarkable potential in the field of drug delivery due to their enhanced barrier properties. It is hypothesised that well dispersed clay particles within the polymer matrix create a tortuous pathway for diffusing therapeutic molecules, thereby resulting in more sustained release of the drug. As coatings for medical devices, these materials can simultaneously modulate drug release and improve the mechanical performance of an existing polymer system without introducing additional materials with new chemistries that can lead to regulatory concerns. In this study, polyurethane organosilicate nanocomposites (PUNCs coated onto stainless steel wires were evaluated for their feasibility as blood compatible coatings and as drug delivery systems. Heparin was selected as the model drug to examine the impact of silicate loading and modifier chain length in modulating release. Findings revealed that better dispersion was achieved from samples with lower clay loadings and longer alkyl chains. The blood compatibility of PUNCs as assessed by thrombin generation assays showed that the addition of silicate particles did not significantly decrease the thrombin generation lag time (TGT, p = 0.659 or the peak thrombin (p = 0.999 of polyurethane (PU. PUNC coatings fabricated in this research were not cytotoxic as examined by the cell growth inhibition assay and were uniformly intact, but had slightly higher growth inhibition compared to PU possibly due to the presence of organic modifiers (OM. The addition of heparin into PUNCs prolonged the TGT, indicating that heparin was still active after the coating process. Cumulative heparin release profiles showed that the majority of heparin released was from loosely attached residues on the surface of coils. The addition of heparin further prolonged the TGT as compared to coatings without added heparin, but a slight decrease in heparin activity was observed in the NCs

  9. EVA-Compatible Microbial Swab Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements—and to protect our science from human contamination—we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and suit surfaces for analysis, but requires a specialized tool for the job. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible swab tool that can be used to sample current space suits and life support systems. Data collected now will influence Mars life support and EVA hardware early in the planning process, before design changes become difficult and expensive.NASA’s EVA swab tool pairs a Space Shuttle-era tool handle with a commercially available swab tip mounted into a custom-designed end effector. A glove-compatible release mechanism allows the handle to quickly switch between swab tips, much like a shaving razor handle can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. Swab tips are stowed inside individual sterile containers, each fitted with a microbial filter that allows the container to equalize atmospheric pressure, but prevents cabin contaminants from rushing into the container when passing from the EVA environment into a pressurized cabin. A bank of containers arrayed inside a tool caddy allows up to six individual samples to be collected during a given spacewalk.NASA plans to use the tool in 2016 to collect samples from various spacesuits during ground testing to determine what (if any) human-borne microbial contamination leaks from the suit under simulated thermal vacuum conditions. Next, the tool will be used on board the International Space Station to assess the types of microbial contaminants found on external environmental control and life support system vents. Data will support

  10. A practical exact maximum compatibility algorithm for reconstruction of recent evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Joshua L

    2017-02-23

    Maximum compatibility is a method of phylogenetic reconstruction that is seldom applied to molecular sequences. It may be ideal for certain applications, such as reconstructing phylogenies of closely-related bacteria on the basis of whole-genome sequencing. Here I present an algorithm that rapidly computes phylogenies according to a compatibility criterion. Although based on solutions to the maximum clique problem, this algorithm deals properly with ambiguities in the data. The algorithm is applied to bacterial data sets containing up to nearly 2000 genomes with several thousand variable nucleotide sites. Run times are several seconds or less. Computational experiments show that maximum compatibility is less sensitive than maximum parsimony to the inclusion of nucleotide data that, though derived from actual sequence reads, has been identified as likely to be misleading. Maximum compatibility is a useful tool for certain phylogenetic problems, such as inferring the relationships among closely-related bacteria from whole-genome sequence data. The algorithm presented here rapidly solves fairly large problems of this type, and provides robustness against misleading characters than can pollute large-scale sequencing data.

  11. The high pH chemical and radiation compatibility of various liner materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a flexible membrane liner that has been proposed to line a concrete vault in which liquid low-level radioactive waste will be solidified. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene liners were tested at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in an EPA method 9090 format to determine their chemical compatibility with the waste. Radiation effects were also investigated. The liners were immersed in a highly caustic (pH>14), primarily inorganic solution at 90 degrees C. The liners were subjected to radiation doses up to 38.9 Mrad, which was the expected dose the liner would receive over a 30-year life inside the vault. Recent changes have placed the liner outside the vault. The acceptance criteria for judging the compatibility of the liner with radiation would be different that those used for judging chemical compatibility. The radiation damage over the life of the liner can be simulated in a short-term test. Both HDPE and polypropylene liners were judged to be acceptable from a chemical and radiation standpoint when placed outside of the vault, while several other liners were not compatible. Radiation did not have a significant effect on chemical degradation rates

  12. The high pH chemical and radiation compatibility of various liner materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.; Farnsworth, R.

    1990-01-01

    A flexible membrane liner has been proposed to line a concrete vault in which liquid low-level radioactive waste will be solidified. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene liners were tested at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in an EPA method 9090 format to determine their chemical compatibility with the waste. Radiation effects were also investigated. The liners were immersed in a highly caustic (pH>14), primarily inorganic solution at 90 degrees C. The liners were subjected to radiation doses up to 38.9 Mrad, which was the expected dose the liner would receive over a 30-year life inside the vault. Recent changes have placed the liner outside the vault. The acceptance criteria for judging the compatibility of the liner with radiation should be different than those used for judging chemical compatibility. The radiation damage over the life of the liner can be simulated in a short-term test. Both HDPE and polypropylene liners were judged to be acceptable from a chemical and radiation standpoint when placed outside of the vault, while several other liners were not compatible. Radiation did not have a significant effect on chemical degradation rates

  13. Chemical-Material Compatibility Study With Initial Decon Green Formulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartram, Philip W; Gibson, Monicia R; Henderson, Vikki D

    2003-01-01

    The army is currently developing Decon Green, a thorough decontaminant intended to be more effective, environmentally friendly, applicable to an extreme temperature range, and more material-compatible...

  14. DECISION STRATEGIES AND COGNITIVE ADAPTATIONS TO ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poleszczuk Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss the concept of adaptive rationality. I present a simple model of ecology and the set of decision rules. The basic structure of the process of cognitive adaptation to ecology is described as a structure comprising (1 perceptual space, (2 a function valuating perceived items, (3 a set of available decision rules and (4 the adaptation process - identification and selection of the best strategies in given ecological conditions. The presented model of ecosystem allows a conclusion that completely opposite strategies may be compatible with the assumption of adaptive rationality.

  15. Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same road situation is interpreted differently by car drivers and motorcyclists in ways congruent with wider accident rates. Analysis of the structure and content of the semantic networks reveals a greater degree of cognitive compatibility on faster roads such as motorways, but evidence of more critical incompatibilities on country roads and junctions. Both of these road types are implicated in helping to activate cognitive schema which in turn generate stereotypical behaviors unfavourable to the anticipation of motorcyclists by car drivers. The results are discussed in terms of practical measures such as road signs which warn of events behind as well as in front, cross-mode training and the concept of route driveability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultra-high vacuum compatible image furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, A; Boeuf, J; Bauer, A; Russ, B; Löhneysen, H v; Pfleiderer, C

    2011-01-01

    We report the design of an optical floating-zone furnace for single-crystal growth under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible conditions. The system is based on a commercial image furnace, which has been refurbished to be all-metal sealed. Major changes concern the use of UHV rotary feedthroughs and bespoke quartz-metal seals with metal-O-rings at the lamp stage. As a consequence, the procedure of assembling the furnace for crystal growth is changed completely. Bespoke heating jackets permit to bake the system. For compounds with elevated vapor pressures, the ultra-high vacuum serves as a precondition for the use of a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 10 bar. In the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Cu(2)MnAl, the improvements of purity result in an improved stability of the molten zone, grain selection, and, hence, single-crystal growth. Similar improvements are observed in traveling-solvent floating-zone growth of the antiferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn(3)Si. These improvements underscore the great potential of optical float-zoning for the growth of high-purity single crystals of intermetallic compounds.

  17. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels, coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT levels and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  18. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  19. Oxygen Compatibility Assessment of Components and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel; Sparks, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Fire hazards are inherent in oxygen systems and a storied history of fires in rocket engine propulsion components exists. To detect and mitigate these fire hazards requires careful, detailed, and thorough analyses applied during the design process. The oxygen compatibility assessment (OCA) process designed by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) can be used to determine the presence of fire hazards in oxygen systems and the likelihood of a fire. This process may be used as both a design guide and during the approval process to ensure proper design features and material selection. The procedure for performing an OCA is a structured step-by-step process to determine the most severe operating conditions; assess the flammability of the system materials at the use conditions; evaluate the presence and efficacy of ignition mechanisms; assess the potential for a fire to breach the system; and determine the reaction effect (the potential loss of life, mission, and system functionality as the result of a fire). This process should be performed for each component in a system. The results of each component assessment, and the overall system assessment, should be recorded in a report that can be used in the short term to communicate hazards and their mitigation and to aid in system/component development and, in the long term, to solve anomalies that occur during engine testing and operation.

  20. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Igor; Lindh, Jonas; Hong, Jaan; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Ferraz, Natalia

    2018-03-07

    Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  1. Topological spaces with a coarsest compatible quasi-uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some equivalent forms of the condition for the existence of a coarsest compatible (transitive) quasi-uniformity are presented. The T2 case is also discussed. As a tool we use an interesting description of the compatible transitive totally bounded quasi-uniformities. Quaestiones Mathematicae 23(2000), 67–75 ...

  2. Brain-Compatible Music Teaching Part 2: Teaching "Nongame" Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In the previous issue of "General Music Today," the Early Childhood column explored brain-compatible ways of teaching action songs and singing games. This article illustrates the application of brain-compatible ways to teach songs that do not lend themselves to actions or games. There are two ways of teaching songs. One is based on the assumption…

  3. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable system... offer to supply each subscriber with special equipment that will enable the simultaneous reception of...

  4. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. 76.630 Section 76.630 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or otherwise...

  5. 47 CFR 68.4 - Hearing aid-compatible telephones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible telephones. 68.4 Section... (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.4 Hearing aid-compatible... for export) or imported for use in the United States after August 16, 1989, must be hearing aid...

  6. 47 CFR 68.414 - Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. 68.414... (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures § 68.414 Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. Enforcement of §§ 68.4 and 68.112 is hereby delegated to those states...

  7. The compatibility between extension aims of staff and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pilot investigation was done to investigate the compatibility between extension aims of extension staff and those of their employer. It shows that only 50 percent of respondents have an acceptable understanding of the official aims (vision), and that none of the components of the official vision has sufficient compatibility ...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400...

  10. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  11. Scalable and DiI-compatible optical clearance of the mammalian brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing eHou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient optical clearance is fundamental for whole brain imaging. In particular, clearance of the brain without membrane damage is required for the imaging of lipophilic tracer-labeled neural tracts. Relying on an ascending gradient of fructose solutions, SeeDB can achieve sufficient transparency of the mouse brain while ensuring that the plasma membrane remains intact. However, it is challenging to extend this method to larger mammalian brains due to the extremely high viscosity of the saturated fructose solution. Here we report a SeeDB-derived optical clearing method, termed FRUIT, which utilizes a cocktail of fructose and urea. As demonstrated in the adult mouse brain, combination of these two highly water-soluble clearing agents exerts a synergistic effect on clearance. More importantly, the final FRUIT solution has low viscosity so as to produce transparency of the whole adult rabbit brain via arterial perfusion, which is impossible to achieve with a saturated fructose solution. In addition to good compatibility with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein, the cocktail also preserves the fluorescence of the lipophilic tracer DiI. This work provides a volume-independent optical clearing method which retains the advantages of SeeDB, particularly compatibility with lipophilic tracers.

  12. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  13. Adaptive unmanned aerial vechile control

    OpenAIRE

    Bernotaitis, Vilimantas

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyzes unmanned aerial vehicles and its adaptivity - their structures, operational principles and components. Also analyzing algorithms of adaptive neural networks and their usage in unmanned aerial vehicles. The main objective of this thesis is to analyze structures, control systems of unmanned aerial vehicles and their abilities to adapt to changing environment. This thesis contains analysis of already used solutions and their drawbacks. As research made in this thesis shown t...

  14. The Electromagnetic Compatibility Research Group: research questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Román Campos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department’s Electromag- netic Compatibility Research Group (EMC-UNC activities during the last 30 years. The group was involved in developing experimental tools during the early 1980s, such as constructing high-voltage apparatus, developing high-voltage practical work for students and observing electrical discharges. These tools enabled the group to spend a decade focused on resolving one of the Colombian electrical sector’s main EMC problems: distribution transformer’s failures caused by lightning. For almost a decade this investigation was focused on understanding the causes of the extremely high failure index in Colombian rural areas, especially in the Rionegro basin. The main result of this investigation was a reduction by one order of magnitude in mean 10% distribution transformer failure rate. During this research work a noticeable pattern was observed of several electrically-isolated me- tallic bodies immersed in an electric field (i.e. floating electrodes. This was led to initiating floating electrode studies and for mulating a new scientific question, “How do corona electrical discharges interact with floating electrodes?” This new research question was dealt with during the second half of the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s. This investigation was related to using electrostatically-accumulated charge on a floating electrode. This question opened up four research areas: gas discharge physics, generating fast current impulses, harvesting energy from the electric field and the possibility of high impedance current sources. This paper has summarised the most relevant work done by the EMC-UNC group on these topics. This floating electrode research work started by formulating four patents. Fresh research questions for the 2010s were related to measuring lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP, intentional electromagnetic

  15. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  16. Study on Compatibility of Polymer Hydrodynamic Size and Pore Throat Size for Honggang Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long core flow experiment was conducted to study problems like excessive injection pressure and effective lag of oil wells during the polymer flooding in Honggang reservoir in Jilin oilfield. According to the changes in viscosity and hydrodynamic dimensions before and after polymer solution was injected into porous media, the compatibility of polymer hydrodynamic dimension and the pore throat size was studied in this experiment. On the basis of the median of radius R of pore throats in rocks with different permeability, dynamic light scattering method (DLS was adopted to measure the hydrodynamic size Rh of polymer solution with different molecular weights. The results state that three kinds of 1500 mg/L concentration polymer solution with 2000 × 104, 1500 × 104, and 1000 × 104 molecular weight matched well with the pore throat in rocks with permeability of 300 mD, 180 mD, and 75 mD in sequence. In this case, the ratios of core pore throat radius median to the size of polymer molecular clew R/Rh are 6.16, 5.74, and 6.04. For Honggang oil reservoir in Jilin, when that ratio ranges from 5.5 to 6.0, the compatibility of polymer and the pore structure will be relatively better.

  17. Stability and visual compatibility of bretylium tosylate with selected large-volume parenterals and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perentesis, G P; Piltz, G W; Kirshcenbaum, H L; Navalakha, P; Aronoff, W; Cutie, A J

    1983-06-01

    The stability of bretylium tosylate when mixed with large-volume parenteral (LVP) solutions was assessed over a four-week period, and the compatibility of bretylium tosylate when mixed with eight frequently used drugs was evaluated. Bretylium tosylate admixtures of approximately 1 mg/ml were prepared in both polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags and glass bottles of 5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, and lactated Ringer's injection. The admixtures were examined visually and stored for four weeks at 25 +/- 0.5 degree C under fluorescent light. The concentrations of bretylium tosylate were determined spectrophotometrically at times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, 8, 24, and 48 hours and twice weekly thereafter for four weeks. Spectrophotometric assays were confirmed with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Admixtures of bretylium tosylate were prepared with aminophylline, calcium gluconate, digoxin, regular insulin, lidocaine hydrochloride, phenytoin sodium, procainamide hydrochloride, and quinidine gluconate in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The admixtures were examined visually for 48 hours. The concentration of bretylium tosylate did not change appreciably during the four-week study period. There were no signs of haze, precipitation, color change, or evolution of gas. There were no apparent differences in stability when comparing the glass with the PVC containers. Bretylium tosylate was also found to be compatible with all the additives tested except phenytoin sodium; a precipitate formed immediately when the latter drug was added to the bretylium tosylate solution. Bretylium tosylate was stable for four weeks in the LVP solutions studied in both glass and PVC containers. The admixtures of bretylium sodium with the other drugs were all visually compatible except those containing phenytoin sodium.

  18. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed...

  19. Interpersonal Compatibility and Self-Actualization in Sensitivity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, W. Brendan

    1972-01-01

    Significant positive changes in self actualization were attained in members of both intensive residential sensitivity training laboratories and nonintensive nonresidential sensitivity training laboratories. Affection compatibility was the prime interpersonal variable associated with self actualization gains. (Author)

  20. Compatibility of entomopathogenic fungi with extracts of plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compatibility of some commercial botanicals (Biospark, Phytophrate, Exodos, Biodos and Neemgold) and of solvent extracts of Syndrella nodiflora, Premna tomentosa, Vitex negundo, Ipomea carnea, Pteridium aquilinum (leaves) and Annona squomosa (seeds) with Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil., Isaria ...

  1. Oxygen System Compatibility Test - CF 188 NACES Configuration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michas, R. D

    2008-01-01

    A series of 84 unmanned tests of the NACES configuration CF188 oxygen system were conducted to demonstrate compatibility of system components reflected by acceptable flow and pressure characteristics...

  2. Kinematical Compatibility Conditions for Vorticity Across Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Roy

    2015-11-01

    This work develops the general kinematical compatibility conditions for vorticity across arbitrary shock waves in compressible, inviscid fluids. The vorticity compatibility conditions are derived from the curl of the momentum equation using singular distributions defined on two-dimensional shock wave surfaces embedded in three-dimensional flow fields. The singular distributions are represented as generalized differential operators concentrated on moving shock wave surfaces. The derivation of the compatibility conditions for vorticity requires the application of second-order generalized derivatives and elementary tensor algebra. The well-known vorticity jump conditions across a shock wave are then shown to follow from the general kinematical compatibility conditions for vorticity by expressing the flow field velocity in vectorial components normal and tangential to a shock surface.

  3. Compatibility and economic assessment of sweetpotato and garden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecological zone of Nigeria, to determine the compatibility and economic viability of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) and garden egg (Solanum gelio) intercrop during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons. Two sweetpotato varieties; NR05/022 and ...

  4. The compatibility of student teacher beliefs with research on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The findings suggest that the student teachers in this study held strong beliefs on a number of issues, especially on discipline and control, which are not compatible with research-based findings on supportive classroom climates. The article ...

  5. 47 CFR 68.316 - Hearing aid compatibility: Technical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., published by the Telecommunications Industry Association, copyright 1983, and reproduced by permission of the Telecommunications Industry Association: Electronic Industries Association Recommended Standard RS... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid compatibility: Technical...

  6. Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated laundry System (AMCILS) is proposed that uses a two phase water / water vapor system to allow good agitation of...

  7. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  8. Analysis and Application of Antagonism Compound Prescription Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyan; Wang, Can; Bai, Ming; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Deer horn glue is deer family animals deer or red deer horn made of solid plastic animal medicine, according to Chinese medicine “seven emotions together” theory, the antler and other Chinese herbal medicines compatibility can be better play its Medicinal value. In this paper, the chemical composition, pharmacological effects, compatibility analysis, clinical application and classic ancient prescriptions of antler are reviewed in recent years.

  9. MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY STUDY FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTER MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY STUDY FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTER MATERIALS ECBC-TR-1459 James D. Wright Jr. Mary...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) XX-09-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Mar 2016 – Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Materials ...Compatibility Study for Three-Dimensional Printer Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Wright

  10. Radiotracer experiments with biopolymers and bio-compatible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, D.

    2007-01-01

    The applications of biopolymer and biocompatible polymer employing radiotracers have been reviewed. Two different aspects have been studied. Environmentally benign methodologies for the removal, immobilization, separation or speciation of heavy, toxic elements and clinically important radionuclides have been developed using biopolymer and bio-compatible polymer as well. The complex formation ability of a bio-compatible polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), with clinically important radionuclides have been tested which have tremendous importance in radiopharmaceutical sciences. (author)

  11. Compatibility of intravenous ibuprofen with lipids and parenteral nutrition, for use as a continuous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jowell; Garg, Alka; Song, Yunmei; Fotios, Ambados; Andersen, Chad; Garg, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing interest to administer ibuprofen as a continuous infusion instead of a traditional bolus for treating Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). However, its compatibility data with commonly used drugs in the neonatal period, including parenteral nutrition (PN) and lipids is unavailable. The aim is to determine the compatibility of intravenous ibuprofen lysine with various ANZNN parenteral nutrition consensus group standard neonatal PN formulations and lipids. The PN and lipid solutions used in a tertiary neonatal unit were obtained. These included a Starter, Standard Preterm and low carbohydrate PN, and IV SMOF lipid admixture (SMOFLipid 20% 15 mL; Vitalipid N infant 4 mL, Soluvit N 1 mL) plus vitamin mixtures. 10% glucose was used as a control. 1:1 mixtures of different concentrations (1.25 to 5mg/mL) of ibuprofen lysine and each of the PN/glucose/lipid formulations were made. Samples were taken at hourly intervals for a total of 4 hours and tested for both physical (visual assessment, pH and microscopy) and chemical compatibility (High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis). Zeta potential and particle diameter were measured for SMOF lipid admixture and ibuprofen combination to assess emulsion stability. 24 hour stability of ibuprofen dilution in 5 mL BD Luer-lok polypropylene syringes at 25°C was also assessed. Most PN formed opaque solutions when mixed with ibuprofen 2.5 and 5mg/mL solutions. However, ibuprofen dilution of 1.25mg/mL produced clear, colourless solutions with no microscopic particles when mixed with all PN/glucose/lipid formulations tested. Ibuprofen was chemically stable with all PN and SMOF lipid admixture, for a period of 4 hours. The zeta potential and particle diameter were within acceptable limits. Ibuprofen lysine was stable over 24 hours in Luer-lok polypropylene syringes. Ibuprofen 1.25mg/mL is physically and chemically compatible with 10% glucose, starter PN, standard preterm and low carbohydrate PN, and SMOF lipid

  12. [Protective Effect of Component Compatibility Sini Decoction on Hypothyroidism Induced Renal Damage in Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Pei, Miao-rong

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the protective effect of component compatibility Sini Decoction on hypothyroidism induced renal damage in rats. The hypothyroidism model were established by 0.1% propylthiouracil (PTU) solution 10 m/kg for consecutive 15 days. Rats were randomly divided into model group, component compatibility Sini Decoction groups[ CSD 9. 6,4. 8 and 2. 4 g/ (kg · d)] and positive control group [Euthyrox 9 µg/(kg · d)]. Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the serum T3 and T4 levels; serum BUN content was detected by UV spectrophotometer and ELISA method were used to measure the CYS-C content. The kidney was weighed, and the pathological changes of the renal were detected by HE stain. Compared with blank control group, kidney weight coefficient, serum T3 and T4 levels in model group were decreased, while serum BUN and CYS-C contents were increased (P rats. Component compatibility Sini Decoction has a curative effect on hypothyroidism induced renal damage in rats.

  13. Stability and compatibility of lidocaine hydrochloride with selected large-volume parenterals and drug additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, H L; Aronoff, W; Perentesis, G P; Plitz, G W; Cutie, A J

    1982-06-01

    The stability of lidocaine hydrochloride in six commonly used large-volume parenterals when stored for 14 days and the visual compatibility of lidocaine hydrochloride in admixtures with eight frequently used drugs were studied. Lidocaine hydrochloride admixtures of 2 mg/ml were prepared in both glass and plastic containers of 5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, lactated Ringer's injection, 5% dextrose and lactated Ringer's injection, 0.45% sodium chloride injection (plastic container only), and 0.45% sodium chloride and 5% dextrose injection. The admixtures were examined visually and stored for 14 days at 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C under fluorescent light. Lidocaine hydrochloride concentrations were determined spectrophotometrically at times 0, 0.25, 1, 3, 8, and 24 hours, and at 24-hour intervals thereafter. Spectrophotometric assays were confirmed with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Admixtures of lidocaine hydrochloride were prepared with aminophylline, bretylium tosylate, calcium gluconate, digoxin, dopamine hydrochloride, regular insulin, phenytoin sodium, and procainamide hydrochloride in 5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, and lactated Ringer's injection. The admixtures were examined visually for 24 hours. Admixtures of lidocaine hydrochloride were stable for 14 days. All admixtures of lidocaine hydrochloride with other drugs were visually compatible except those containing phenytoin sodium. It is concluded that lidocaine hydrochloride is stable in the solutions studied for 14 days at 25 degrees C and visually compatible for 24 hours in admixtures containing all drugs studied except phenytoin sodium.

  14. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  15. Studies on compatibility of energetic materials by thermal methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Carvalho Mazzeu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compatibility of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants with those materials is studied to evaluate potential hazards when in contact with other materials during production, storage and handling. Compatibility can be studied by several thermal methods as DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, TG (Thermogravimetry, VST (Vacuum stability test and others. The test methods and well defined criteria are the most important elements when a compatibility study is being accomplished. In this paper, the compatibility of two very important high explosives used in ammunition, RDX (Cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine and HMX (Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine was studied with the materials: fluoroelastomer (Viton and powdered aluminum (Al, using DSC and VST methods. The criteria to judge the compatibility between materials is based on a standardization agreement (STANAG 4147, 2001, and the final conclusion is that explosives and this materials are compatible, but in DSC it was observed that the peak of decomposition temperature of the admixture of RDX with Al decreased in 3º C and another peak appeared after the decomposition peak.

  16. Coproduction of detergent compatible bacterial enzymes and stain removal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2015-10-01

    Most of the detergents that are presently produced contain the detergent compatible enzymes to improve and accelerate the washing performance by removing tough stains. The process is environment friendly as the use of enzymes in the detergent formulation reduces the utilization of toxic detergent constituents. The current trend is to use the detergent compatible enzymes that are active at low and ambient temperature in order to save energy and maintain fabric quality. As the detergent compatible bacterial enzymes are used together in the detergent formulation, it is important to co-produce the detergent enzymes in a single fermentation medium as the enzyme stability is assured, and production cost gets reduced enormously. The review reports on the production, purification, characterization and application of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases are available. However, there is no specific review or minireview on the concomitant production of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases. In this minireview, the coproduction of detergent compatible enzymes by bacterial species, enzyme stability towards detergents and detergent components, and stain release analysis were discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Volpe Center GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Program Plan : GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Workshop, Volpe Center, Cambridge MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    Approach to DOT GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment. Identify forums and provide public outreach to make sure the progress and work are as open and transparent as possible. Develop an implementation plan that incorporates aspects from the DOT ...

  18. The remote handling compatibility analysis of the ITER generic upper port plug structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronden, D.M.S.; Dammann, A.; Elzendoorn, B.; Giacomin, T.; Heemskerk, C.; Loesser, D.; Maquet, P.; Oosterhout, J. van; Pak, S.; Pitcher, C.S.; Portales, M.; Proust, M.; Udintsev, V.S.; Walsh, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We describe the remote handling compatibility of the ITER generic upper port plug. • Concepts are presented of specific design solutions to improve RH compatibility. • Simulation in VR of the GUPP DSM replacement indicates possible collisions. • Specific tooling concepts are proposed for GUPP handling equipment for the hot cell. - Abstract: The ITER diagnostics generic upper port plug (GUPP) is developed as a standardized design for all diagnostic upper port plugs, in which a variety of payloads can be mounted. Here, the remote handling compatibility analysis (RHCA) of the GUPP design is presented that was performed for the GUPP final design review. The analysis focuses mainly on the insertion and extraction procedure of the diagnostic shield module (DSM), a removable cassette that contains the diagnostic in-vessel components. It is foreseen that the DSM is a replaceable component – the procedure of which is to be performed inside the ITER hot cell facility (HCF), where the GUPP can be oriented in a vertical position. The DSM removal procedure in the HCF consists of removing locking pins, an M30 sized shoulder bolt and two electrical straps through the use of a dexterous manipulator, after which the DSM is lifted out of the GUPP by an overhead crane. For optimum access to its internals, the DSM is mounted in a handling device. The insertion of a new or refurbished DSM follows the reverse procedure. The RHCA shows that the GUPP design requires a moderate amount of changes to become fully compatible with RH maintenance requirements

  19. Adaptation Stories

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By Reg'

    formed a real foundation for endogenous, and, therefore, sustainable, strategies for adaptation to climate change. The stories reinforce what we already knew: that successful adaptation must come from the people who are living on the front lines, facing the many problems caused by climate change and climate variation.

  20. Query-Adaptive Reciprocal Hash Tables for Nearest Neighbor Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglong; Deng, Cheng; Lang, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have witnessed the success of binary hashing techniques in approximate nearest neighbor search. In practice, multiple hash tables are usually built using hashing to cover more desired results in the hit buckets of each table. However, rare work studies the unified approach to constructing multiple informative hash tables using any type of hashing algorithms. Meanwhile, for multiple table search, it also lacks of a generic query-adaptive and fine-grained ranking scheme that can alleviate the binary quantization loss suffered in the standard hashing techniques. To solve the above problems, in this paper, we first regard the table construction as a selection problem over a set of candidate hash functions. With the graph representation of the function set, we propose an efficient solution that sequentially applies normalized dominant set to finding the most informative and independent hash functions for each table. To further reduce the redundancy between tables, we explore the reciprocal hash tables in a boosting manner, where the hash function graph is updated with high weights emphasized on the misclassified neighbor pairs of previous hash tables. To refine the ranking of the retrieved buckets within a certain Hamming radius from the query, we propose a query-adaptive bitwise weighting scheme to enable fine-grained bucket ranking in each hash table, exploiting the discriminative power of its hash functions and their complement for nearest neighbor search. Moreover, we integrate such scheme into the multiple table search using a fast, yet reciprocal table lookup algorithm within the adaptive weighted Hamming radius. In this paper, both the construction method and the query-adaptive search method are general and compatible with different types of hashing algorithms using different feature spaces and/or parameter settings. Our extensive experiments on several large-scale benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed techniques can significantly outperform both

  1. Application of remote handling compatibility on ITER plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, S.; Rolfe, A.; Mills, S.F.; Tesini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The ITER plant will require fully remote maintenance during its operational life. For this to be effective, safe and efficient the plant will have to be developed in accordance with remote handling (RH) compatibility requirements. A system for ensuring RH compatibility on plant designed for Tokamaks was successfully developed and applied, inter alia, by the authors when working at the JET project. The experience gained in assuring RH compatibility of plant at JET is now being applied to RH relevant ITER plant. The methodologies required to ensure RH compatibility of plant include the standardization of common plant items, standardization of RH features, availability of common guidance on RH best practice and a protocol for design and interface review and approval. The protocol in use at ITER is covered by the ITER Remote Maintenance Management System (IRMMS) defines the processes and utilization of management controls including Plant Definition Forms (PDF), Task Definition Forms (TDFs) and RH Compatibility Assessment Forms (RHCA) and the ITER RH Code of Practice. This paper will describe specific examples where the authors have applied the methodology proven at JET to ensure remote handling compatibility on ITER plant. Examples studied are: ·ELM coils (to be installed in-vessel behind the Blanket Modules) - handling both in-vessel, in Casks and at the Hot Cell as well as fully remote installation and connection (mechanical and electrical) in-vessel. ·Neutral beam systems (in-vessel and in the NB Cell) - beam sources, cesium oven, beam line components (accessed in the NB Cell) and Duct Liner (remotely replaced from in-vessel). ·Divertor (in-vessel) - cooling pipe work and remotely operated electrical connector. The RH compatibility process can significantly affect plant design. This paper should therefore be of interest to all parties who develop ITER plant designs.

  2. Climate Compatible Development in the Mongolia Steppe: analysis of vulnerability and adaptation response to global changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Togtokh, C.; Galvin, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Climate change and variability, market and policy changes are shaping pastoral communities' decisions on what pathways their future livelihoods will take and how the steppe landscapes and river basins, are managed. Recent droughts and damaging winter storms (zuds) of the past two decades have exacerbated the situation and undermined the natural capital on which the pastoral livelihoods depend upon. River basins are critical natural resources well-being of social-ecological systems in Mongolia. River basins provide the ecosystem services which support pastoral communities and industrial and urban development. Green development strategies are strongly dependent on water resources. Consequently, integrated planning of river basin management is needed to maintain these critical ecosystem services to meet the multiple needs of livelihoods of communities in these basins and to support sustainable development activities within the basins. For this study our team worked in nine sums (i.e., county level administrative areas) in three river basins in two provinces (aimags) to collect household data from 144 households. We also collected census data from the aimags and national level to understand trends at the level of ecosystems and river basins. We have selected 3 sums in each river basis, representing forest steppe, steppe and desert steppe regions for comparison across river basins and ecological zones. FINDINGS: Integrated planning efforts would be enhanced through, one, use of a social-ecological framework and, two, the development of a cross-ministerial working group to address natural resource considerations. Across the three basins agriculture, pastoral, industrial, and urban needs vie for similar ecosystem services. The natural capital and ecosystem services of these basins need to be assessed to understand the vulnerability and capacity of the resources. The most frequently listed "best coping strategy" across all ecosystem types was for herders to have better cooperation, both among themselves and with administrators. They frequently expressed the idea that people working alone can't accomplish anything in comparison to when they work together. Development of cross ministry and cross-sectoral working groups were viewed as one such mechanism.

  3. Chromate reduction is expedited by bacteria engineered to produce the compatible solute trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Tamlyn M; Taylor, Erin A; Willis, Jennifer L; Shultz, Matthew S; Woodruff, Peter J

    2013-08-01

    The toxicity and solubility of chromium(VI) can be decreased by certain microbes that reduce chromium(VI) to chromium(III). However, these bacteria do not escape unscathed from this process. Chromium(VI) reduction damages the essential macromolecules of living systems. Trehalose protects organisms from chemical stress but has not been tested in the context of bioremediation. We engineered bacteria to produce trehalose and found that they then reduced 1 mM chromium(VI) to chromium(III), whereas wild-type cells were only able to reduce half that amount. Thus, by providing bacteria with a biochemical defense against the side-effects of chromate reduction may be a new approach to cleaning up sites that are contaminated with high levels of chromate.

  4. Effects of exogenous application of nano particles and compatible organic solutes on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmohammadi Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean semi-arid regions in northwestern Iran receive precipitation below potential evapotranspiration and are characterised by excessive heat and terminal drought stress. Exogenous application of some nanoparticles and growth regulators appears to alleviate the adverse effects of abiotic stress and improve plant performance. In the present paper, an attempt is made to evaluate the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA, glycine betaine (GB, ascorbic acid (AA, nano-silica (nSiO2 and nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2 suspensions on growth and yield components of sunflower (cv. Azargol in the semi-arid highland region of Maragheh, Iran. Plants were grown under rain-fed conditions with supplemental irrigation applied three times during the reproductive growth stages of growth. The results revealed that foliar application of SA considerably improved head diameter, chlorophyll content of plant leaves, and days to flowering, while it delayed physiological maturity for a fairly long time. Evaluation of the achene yield component indicated that application of GB significantly increased the weight of achenes when compared with other treatments. The percentage of empty achenes was considerably affected by treatments, the lowest percentage of hollow achenes being recorded for plants sprayed with GB, followed by ones sprayed with AA and nTiO2. The percentage of oil in sunflower achenes was substantially increased by foliar application of nano particles, the highest oil percentage being recorded in plants treated with nTiO2. The results also showed that the highest number of achenes per head, greatest kernel weight, and largest achene size were obtained by spraying with nanoparticle suspensions. Although all treatments improved the achene yield, the effect of nTiO2 was most prominent. The results of the present experiment support the conclusion that foliar application of nanoparticles may alleviate adverse environmental factors and improve the performance of plants in semi-arid regions.

  5. A facile novel fluorocarbon copolymer solution coating process for improving platelet compatibility of titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sophia Chao-Wei; Cheng, Chi-Hui; Chiu, Yun; Lin, Yi-Ching; Lin, Jui-Che

    2017-11-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys possess mechanical properties that are desirable in many biomedical applications compared to other metals. Furthermore, the native metal oxide layer that prevents further oxidation is also known to be biocompatible. However, clinical findings have shown that titanium and its alloys are prone to adverse bioreactions such as platelet adhesion and activation which could lead to thrombogenic complications. It has been found that surfaces modified with fluorocarbons could reduce the degree of both platelet adhesion and activation. Nevertheless, direct fluorocarbon deposition onto titanium substrates would require significant technical efforts. Instead, this research utilized a facile coating process with novel copolymers containing 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFEMA) and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) to modify the titanium surface, giving the surface lower surface energy and higher hydrophobicity, significantly reducing the thrombus formation while exhibiting good cytocompatibility. The anchorage group, phosphonic acid provided by VPA, can be covalently bound to the oxide surface of titanium metal. Via free radical polymerization, VPA and TFEMA formed copolymers with different hydrophobicity were then used to modify titanium substrates, on which a series of surface characterization, in vitro platelet adhesion tests, and cytotoxicity assays were performed. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the synthesis of the copolymers and the modification of Ti substrates. The platelet adhesion tests showed significantly reduced amount of adherent platelets on certain copolymer-modified Ti substrates with low degrees of activation. The in vitro cytotoxicity assays further highlighted that the modifications conducted on Ti does not induce cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Conceptual design of CFETR divertor remote handling compatible structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Huaichu, E-mail: yaodm@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Yao, Damao; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Zibo; Li, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design for the CFETR divertor have been proposed, especially the divertor remote handling compatible structure. • The degrees of freedom of the divertor are analyzed in order to validate the design the divertor supports structure. • Besides the ITER-like scheme, a new scheme for the divertor remote handling compatible supports is proposed, that is the rack and pinion mechanism. • The installation/removel process is verified through simulation in Delmia in order to check design quality for remote handling requirements. - Abstract: Divertor is one of key components of tokamak fusion reactor. The CFETR is China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor. Its divertor will expose to tritium environment and neutron radiation. Materials of the divertor will be radioactived, and cannot be handled by personnel directly. To develop structure which compatible with robots handle for installation, maintenance and removing is required. This paper introduces a conceptual design of CFETR divertor module which compatible with remote handling end-effectors. The divertor module is confined by inner and outer support. The inner support is only confined divertor module radial, toroidal and vertical moving freedom degrees, but not confined rotating freedom degrees. The outer support is the structure that can confine rotating freedom degrees and should also be compatible with remote handling end-effectors.

  7. Conceptual design of CFETR divertor remote handling compatible structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Huaichu; Yao, Damao; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Zibo; Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Conceptual design for the CFETR divertor have been proposed, especially the divertor remote handling compatible structure. • The degrees of freedom of the divertor are analyzed in order to validate the design the divertor supports structure. • Besides the ITER-like scheme, a new scheme for the divertor remote handling compatible supports is proposed, that is the rack and pinion mechanism. • The installation/removel process is verified through simulation in Delmia in order to check design quality for remote handling requirements. - Abstract: Divertor is one of key components of tokamak fusion reactor. The CFETR is China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor. Its divertor will expose to tritium environment and neutron radiation. Materials of the divertor will be radioactived, and cannot be handled by personnel directly. To develop structure which compatible with robots handle for installation, maintenance and removing is required. This paper introduces a conceptual design of CFETR divertor module which compatible with remote handling end-effectors. The divertor module is confined by inner and outer support. The inner support is only confined divertor module radial, toroidal and vertical moving freedom degrees, but not confined rotating freedom degrees. The outer support is the structure that can confine rotating freedom degrees and should also be compatible with remote handling end-effectors.

  8. Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for FY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility. It is written in accordance with requirements identified in Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (Mulkey et al. 1999) and Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program (Fowler 1999). In addition to analyses to support Compatibility, the Waste Feed Delivery program has requested that tank samples obtained for Compatibility also be analyzed to confirm the high-level waste and/or low-activity waste envelope(s) for the tank waste (Baldwin 1999). The analytical requirements to confirm waste envelopes are identified in Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Nguyen 1999a) and Data Quality Objectives for RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for High-Level Waste Feed Batch X (Nguyen 1999b)

  9. Viscosity Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Camilli, Fabio; Prados, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Viscosity solution is a notion of weak solution for a class of partial differential equations of Hamilton-Jacobi type. The range of applications of the notions of viscosity solution and Hamilton-Jacobi equations is enormous, including common class of partial differential equations such as evolutive problems and problems with boundary conditions, equations arising in optimal control theory, differential games, second-order equations arising in stochastic optimal control...

  10. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  11. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    intense relational mechanisms provide an effective means for contingency adaptation and therefore reduce the probability of premature termination. However, in situations where relationships are already governed by longer duration contracts, we argue that investments in relational mechanism create...

  12. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible...... and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  13. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  14. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....

  15. Biochemical mechanisms determine the functional compatibility of heterologous genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas; Schou, Thea S.; Munck, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Elucidating the factors governing the functional compatibility of horizontally transferred genes is important to understand bacterial evolution, including the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance, and to successfully engineer biological systems. In silico efforts and work using single-gene...... libraries have suggested that sequence composition is a strong barrier for the successful integration of heterologous genes. Here we sample 200 diverse genes, representing >80% of sequenced antibiotic resistance genes, to interrogate the factors governing genetic compatibility in new hosts. In contrast...... to previous work, we find that GC content, codon usage, and mRNA-folding energy are of minor importance for the compatibility of mechanistically diverse gene products at moderate expression. Instead, we identify the phylogenetic origin, and the dependence of a resistance mechanism on host physiology, as major...

  16. Compatibility grab sampling and analysis plan for fiscal year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility. Analytical requirements are taken from two revisions of the Compatibility data quality objectives (DQOs). Revision 1 of the DQO (Fowler 1995) listed analyses to be performed to meet both safety and operational data needs for the Compatibility program. Revision 2A of the DQO (Mulkey and Miller 1998) addresses only the safety-related requirements; the operational requirements of Fowler (1995) have not been superseded by Mulkey and Miller (1998). Therefore, safety-related data needs are taken from Mulkey and Miller (1998) and operational-related data needs are taken from Fowler (1995). Ammonia and total alpha analyses are also performed in accordance with Fowler (1998a, 1998b)

  17. Compatibility of niobium, titanium, and vanadium metals with LMFBR cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1975-10-01

    A series of laboratory capsule annealing experiments were conducted to assess the compatibility of niobium, vanadium, and titanium with 316 stainless steel cladding in the temperature range of 700 to 800 0 C. Niobium, vanadium, and titanium are cantidate oxygen absorber materials for control of oxygen chemistry in LMFBR fuel pins. Capsule examination indicated good compatibility between niobium and 316 stainless steel at 800 0 C. Potential compatibility problems between cladding and vanadium or titanium were indicated at 800 0 C under reducing conditions. In the presence of Pu/sub 0.25/U/sub 0.75/O/sub 1.98/ fuel (Δanti G 02 congruent to -160 kcal/mole) no reaction was observed between vanadium or titanium and cladding at 800 0 C

  18. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1992-10-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR pregrain the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing several research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Preliminary results is from these projects are reported in technical progress reports prepared by each researcher.

  19. The compatibility of fingerprint visualization techniques with immunolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Annemieke; Aalders, Maurice C G; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Lambrechts, Saskia A G

    2013-07-01

    The chemical composition of a fingermark potentially holds a wealth of information about the fingermark donor, which can be extracted by immunolabeling. Immunolabeling can be used to detect specific components in fingermarks; however, to be applicable in the forensic field, it should be compatible with commonly used fingerprint visualization techniques. In this study, the compatibility of immunolabeling with two different fingerprint visualization techniques, magnetic powdering and ninhydrin staining, was investigated on fingermarks deposited on glass and on nitrocellulose membranes. With dermcidin as antigen of interest, immunolabeling was performed successfully on all developed fingermarks. We can conclude that immunolabeling is compatible with magnetic powdering and ninhydrin staining, which can be of great forensic value. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Sexual compatibility in medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayol, J.P.; Coronado, P.; Taher, M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of the Sterile Insect Technique to control and/or eradicate insect pest populations has been extensively applied to medfly. However, patented differences in sexual compatibility between populations or strains from different origins has been a serious concern to a wider use of sterile flies, and in particular sterile males of genetic sexing strains (GSS). In the present experiments, the sexual compatibility and mating performance of flies from 9 countries representing 5 continents and 4 GSS were measured. It is demonstrated that, from a qualitative standpoint, wild medfly populations world-wide have not yet evolved specific sexual behaviors indicative of incipient pre-mating isolation mechanisms under local natural selection. Wild medfly populations are as sexually compatible with GSS as they are with other wild populations. On that basis, the same mass reared strain can now be used worldwide, as long as it fulfills the standard quality control requirements. (author)

  1. Chemical compatibility between cladding alloys and advanced fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fee, D.C.; Johnson, C.E.

    1975-05-01

    The National Advanced Fuels Program requires chemical, mechanical, and thermophysical properties data for cladding alloys. The compatibility behavior of cladding alloys with advanced fuels is critically reviewed. in carbide fuel pins, the principal compatibility problem is cladding carburization, diffusion of carbon into the cladding matrix accompanied by carbide precipitation. Carburization changes the mechanical properties of the cladding alloy. The extent of carburization increases in sodium (versus gas) bonded fuels. The depth of carburization increases with increasing sesquicarbide (M 2 C 3 ) content of the fuel. In nitride fuel pins, the principal compatibility problem is cladding nitriding, diffusion of nitrogen into the cladding matrix accompanied by nitride precipitation. Nitriding changes the mechanical properties of the cladding alloy. In both carbide and nitride fuel pins, fission products do not migrate appreciably to the cladding and do not appear to contribute to cladding attack. 77 references. (U.S.)

  2. Compatibility of niobium, titanium, and vanadium metals with LMFBR cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1975-10-01

    A series of laboratory capsule annealing experiments were conducted to assess the compatibility of niobium, vanadium, and titanium with 316 stainless steel cladding in the temperature range of 700 to 800/sup 0/C. Niobium, vanadium, and titanium are cantidate oxygen absorber materials for control of oxygen chemistry in LMFBR fuel pins. Capsule examination indicated good compatibility between niobium and 316 stainless steel at 800/sup 0/C. Potential compatibility problems between cladding and vanadium or titanium were indicated at 800/sup 0/C under reducing conditions. In the presence of Pu/sub 0.25/U/sub 0.75/O/sub 1.98/ fuel (..delta..anti G/sub 02/ congruent to -160 kcal/mole) no reaction was observed between vanadium or titanium and cladding at 800/sup 0/C.

  3. High-pressure hydrogen materials compatibility of piezoelectric films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvine, K. J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Bennett, W. D.; Bonham, C. C.; Skorski, D.; Pitman, S. G.; Dahl, M. E.; Henager, C. H.

    2010-11-01

    Hydrogen is well known for materials compatibility issues, including blistering and embrittlement in metals, which are challenges for its use as the next-generation "green" fuel. Beyond metals, hydrogen also degrades piezoelectric materials used as actuators used in direct injection hydrogen internal combustion engines. We present the materials compatibility studies of piezoelectric films in high-pressure hydrogen environments. Absorption of high-pressure hydrogen and composition changes were studied with an elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry in lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate thin films. Hydrogen surface degradation in the form of blistering and Pb mixing was also observed.

  4. Music and the brain - design of an MEG compatible piano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Castano, Julian; Rathbone, Daniel R; Hoffman, Rachel; Heng Yang; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Yang, Jason; Hornberger, Erik; Hanumara, Nevan C

    2017-07-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) neuroimaging has been used to study subjects' responses when listening to music, but research into the effects of playing music has been limited by the lack of MEG compatible instruments that can operate in a magnetically shielded environment without creating electromagnetic interference. This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of an MEG compatible piano keyboard with 25 full size keys that employs a novel 3-state optical encoder design and electronics to provide realistic velocity-controlled volume modulation. This instrument will allow researchers to study musical performance on a finer timescale than fMRI and enable a range of MEG studies.

  5. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Chunle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  6. Design of multichannel counting system for IBM PC and compatibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, B.; Ahmad, Z.; Osman, A.; Ysain, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    A Multichannel Counting System (MCCS), based on IBM-PC and compatible computer systems have been designed. The MCCS consists of a Multichannel Counting System plug-in interface card (MCCS-PC) for IBM PC and compatibles and a NIM-BIN module (MCCS-NB). The MCCS-PC provides simultaneous monitoring of upto seven independent SCA type inputs. An on board programmable timer provides elapsed time measurement. A menu-driven program for data acquisition and timer control has also been developed. (author) 8 figs

  7. Elements of a compatible optimization theory for coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemay, A.

    1969-01-01

    The first theory deals with the compatible optimization in coupled systems. A game theory for two players and with a non-zero sum is first developed. The conclusions are then extended to the case of a game with any finite number of players. After this essentially static study, the dynamic aspect of the problem is applied to the case of games which evolve. By applying PONTRYAGIN maximum principle it is possible to derive a compatible optimisation theorem which constitutes a necessary condition. (author) [fr

  8. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  9. Technical compatibility and safety of glass fiber in battery separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, R. [Schuller International, Toledo, OH (United States); Versen, R. [Schuller International, Littleton, CO (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Nonwovens comprised of glass fibers are both compatible with the relatively harsh chemical environment in lead acid batteries, and yet are safe to handle. The health and safety of glass fibers may seem confusing from a regulatory viewpoint, but are in fact highly tested and well understood scientifically to not cause respiratory disease. Nonwoven separators made from glass fibers are well situated to withstand scientific scrutiny in these times of suspicion of negative health effects ranging from second-hand smoke to tap water. This paper examines technical compatibility of the glass fibers in the battery, the health and safety aspects of glass fibers, and governmental and regulatory interpretation of studies.

  10. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  11. Investigation of drug-excipient compatibility using rheological and thermal tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Maitri R.

    HYPOTHESIS: We plan to investigate a different approach to evaluate drug-excipient physical compatibility using rheological and thermal tools as opposed to commonly used chemical techniques in pharmaceutical industry. This approach offers practical solutions to routinely associated problems arising with API's and commonly used hydrates forms of excipients. ABSTRACT: Drug-Excipient compatibility studies are an important aspect of pre-formulation and formulation development in pharmaceutical research and development. Various approaches have been used in pharmaceutical industry including use of thermal analysis and quantitative assessment of drug-excipient mixtures after keeping the samples under stress environment depending upon the type of formulation. In an attempt to provide better understanding of such compatibility aspect of excipients with different properties of API, various rheological and thermal studies were conducted on binary mixtures of excipients which exist in different hydrates. Dibasic Calcium Phosphate (DCP, anhydrous and dihydrate forms) and Lactose (Lac, anhydrous and monohydrate) were selected with cohesive API's (Acetaminophen and Aspirin). Binary mixtures of DCP and Lac were prepared by addition of 0% w/w to 50% w/w of the API into each powder blend. Rheological and thermal aspects were considered using different approaches such as powder rheometer, rotational shear cell and traditional rheometery approaches like angle of repose (AOR), hausner's ratio (HR) and cares index (CI). Thermal analysis was conducted using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and thermal effusivity. The data suggested that the powder rheometer showed distinctive understanding in the flowability behavior of binary mixtures with addition of increasing proportion of API's than traditional approaches. Thermal approaches revealed the potential interaction of water of crystallization DCP-D with the API (APAP) while such interactions were absent in DCP-A, while

  12. A Tol2 Gateway-Compatible Toolbox for the Study of the Nervous System and Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don, Emily K; Formella, Isabel; Badrock, Andrew P; Hall, Thomas E; Morsch, Marco; Hortle, Elinor; Hogan, Alison; Chow, Sharron; Gwee, Serene S L; Stoddart, Jack J; Nicholson, Garth; Chung, Roger; Cole, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    Currently there is a lack in fundamental understanding of disease progression of most neurodegenerative diseases, and, therefore, treatments and preventative measures are limited. Consequently, there is a great need for adaptable, yet robust model systems to both investigate elementary disease mechanisms and discover effective therapeutics. We have generated a Tol2 Gateway-compatible toolbox to study neurodegenerative disorders in zebrafish, which includes promoters for astrocytes, microglia and motor neurons, multiple fluorophores, and compatibility for the introduction of genes of interest or disease-linked genes. This toolbox will advance the rapid and flexible generation of zebrafish models to discover the biology of the nervous system and the disease processes that lead to neurodegeneration.

  13. Land Use Compatibility Assessment Using a Mdified Topsis Model: a Case Study of Elementary Schools in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, A.; Lotfian, M.; Moradi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Being one of the most controversial issues in urban planning, land use planning has always been in the focus of researches. Land use planning is a subdivision of urban planning which tends to arrange land uses in order to avoid conflicts among them. In order to achieve a transparent and effective urban planning, land uses should be located and allocated in an ideal situation so that avoid negative impacts from neighbouring parcels and land uses. Neighbouring land uses can produce externalities and negative impacts on other land uses because of inter-land use interaction. These externalities may be undesirable effects such as noise, air and visual pollution or may be caused by hazardous facilities. The main objective of this research is to propose a new multi-criteria evaluation model for land use compatibility assessment. Considering the fact that a considerable number of factors affect the compatibility degree of neighbouring land uses, a multi-criteria evaluation approach is employed to address the aforementioned problem. This research employs the integration of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) methods to facilitate land use compatibility evaluation with respect to optimism degree. The applicability of the proposed model is illustrated by the problem of land use compatibility assessment for elementary schools in Tehran. The results indicate that most of the current schools are situated in a location which is incompatible for the land use type of elementary school especially in the southern and central parts of the city.

  14. Assessing Coherence between Sector Policies and Climate Compatible Development: Opportunities for Triple Wins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Antwi-Agyei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate Compatible Development (CCD aims to deliver adaptation and mitigation without compromising development progress. To date, adaptation, mitigation and development related to key climate-sensitive sectors have often been treated separately. This paper uses qualitative document analysis, content analysis, expert interviews and a multi-stakeholder workshop to: examine the extent to which policies in climate-sensitive sectors align in framing adaptation, mitigation and development action; and identify key areas of policy coherence in Ghana. The paper answers the following questions: (i To what extent are Ghana’s agriculture, energy, water, forest and wildlife sector policies aligned with climate adaptation, mitigation and development? (ii What is the extent of policy coherence amongst climate-sensitive sector policies? (iii Where are the key intervention points available to enhance CCD activities? Findings demonstrate that Ghana’s climate-sensitive sector policies in agriculture, water, energy, forest and wildlife arenas have elements that demonstrate good alignment with adaptation, mitigation, and development priorities. However, as yet, there is only “limited coherence” between climate-sensitive sector policies. The paper identifies the following intervention points: (i the need to attach greater importance to the threat posed by climate change to agriculture; and (ii the need to address the lack of inter-agency and inter-ministerial approaches for building partnerships with other stakeholders. Multi-stakeholder workshop discussions highlighted significant challenges relating to limited coordination amongst institutions and agencies, limited institutional capacity and a lack of resources in ensuring coherence. This requires strengthening of national institutions such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA to provide appropriate mechanisms to ensure effective collaboration amongst climate-sensitive sectors to deliver

  15. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  16. Development of a UNIX network compatible reactivity computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.F.; Edwards, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A state-of-the-art UNIX network compatible controller and UNIX host workstation with MATLAB/SIMULINK software were used to develop, implement, and validate a digital reactivity calculation. An objective of the development was to determine why a Macintosh-based reactivity computer reactivity output drifted intolerably

  17. Pollen-pistil compatibility relationships in some Iranian almond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of pollen-pistil compatibility relationships among almond cultivars and genotypes is very important for breeders and growers. In the present study, PCR based technique was used to identify S-alleles in 10 late blooming almond genotypes. In total, 19 alleles were amplified by five primer pairs in the studied ...

  18. Are blood pressure values compatible with medication adherence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Are blood pressure values compatible with medication adherence in hypertensive patients? ... The patients with BP measurements completed the Medication Adherence Self‑Efficacy Scale‑Short Form 13 and the World Health Organization‑5 (WHO‑5) well‑being index. A Holter device was attached, and 24 h BP monitoring ...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 150 - Noise Compatibility Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The implementation of any restriction on the use of airport by any type or class of aircraft based on... purpose. (a) This appendix prescribes the content and the methods for developing noise compatibility... identify existing and future noncompatible land uses, based on airport operation and off-airport land uses...

  20. Visual land-use compatibility and scenic-resource quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Hendrix

    1977-01-01

    The effect that land-use relationships have upon perceived quality of the visual landscape is discussed, and a case is made for expansion of fit-misfit theory into what has been called visual land-use compatibility. An assessment methodology that was designed to test people's perceptions of land-use relationships is presented and the results are discussed.

  1. Genetics of wide compatible gene and variability studies in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 95; Issue 2. Genetics of wide compatible gene and variability studies in rice (Oryza sativa L.) S. REVATHI K. SAKTHIVEL S. MANONMANI M. UMADEVI R. USHAKUMARI S. ROBIN. RESEARCH NOTE Volume 95 Issue 2 June ...

  2. Using statistical compatibility to derive advanced probabilistic fatigue models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández-Canteli, A.; Castillo, E.; López-Aenlle, M.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 1131-1140 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [Fatigue 2010. Praha, 06.06.2010-11.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fatigue models * Statistical compatibility * Functional equations Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  3. Operation compatibility: a neglected contribution to dual-task costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, M.M.; Band, G.P.H.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, dual-task interference has been attributed to the consequences of task load exceeding capacity limitations. However, the current study demonstrates that in addition to task load, the mutual compatibility of the concurrent processes modulates whether 2 tasks can be performed in

  4. compatible volume-taper equations for predicting merchantable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    On the other hand they noted that volume- based systems, if derived from sufficiently unbiased volume equations will always be satisfactory for total volume estimation. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to develop a compatible volume and taper system for. Cupressus lusitanica stands in Munessa Shashemene. Forest ...

  5. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... malfunctions) upon the aerodynamic control of the airplane may not result in any condition that would require..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or both...), and exhaust must be shown to function properly under all operating conditions for which approval is...

  6. Compatible volume-taper equations for predicting merchantable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compatible systems of merchantable total tree cubic volume and stem taper equations are derived by integrating an existing volume equation. The systems are developed to yield volume at any merchantable length, total volume and for any merchantable top diameter. It is also demonstrated that the most common types of ...

  7. Compatibility of sodium with ceramic oxides employed in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena Moreno, V.

    1981-01-01

    This work is a review of experiments carried out up to the present time on the corrosion and compatibility of ceramic oxides with liquid sodium at temperatures corresponding to those in fast breeder reactors. The review also includes the results of a thermo-dynamic/liquid sodium reactions. The exercise has been conducted with a view to effecting experimental studies in the future. (Author)

  8. Compatibility of fixed orthodontic appliances with MR environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Starčuková, Jana; Linetskiy, I.; Bartušek, Karel; Krupa, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, Suppl. 1 (2006), EPOS 726:1-7 E-ISSN 1352-8661 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : orthodontic appliance * magnetic resonance * compatibility * dentistry * artifact Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2005 http://posters.webges.com/esmrmb/epos

  9. Identification of formation scales and design of compatible matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though 15% HCl was faster than 7.5% HCL in dissolving the scales, 7.5% HCl with corrosion inhibitors should be used for field application to avoid intense corrosion of pipes. The emulsion break and compatibility tests also indicated an effective treatment fluid system which had 100% separation within 10 minutes at the ...

  10. 47 CFR 68.112 - Hearing aid-compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... motel room is renovated or newly constructed, or the telephone in a hotel or motel room is replaced or... after January 1, 2000. (ii) The telephones in at least twenty percent of the guest rooms in a hotel or... at least twenty percent of the guest rooms in a hotel or motel must be hearing aid compatible, as...

  11. Compatibility of sodium with ceramic oxides employed in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, V.

    1981-01-01

    A review of experiments carried out up to the present time on the corrosion and compatibility of ceramic oxides with liquid sodium at temperatures corresponding to those in fast breeder reactors, is presented. The results of a thermo-dynamic/liquid sodium reactions are included. The exercise has been conducted with a view to effecting experimental studies in the future. (author) [es

  12. The Influence and Compatibility of Vegetable Oils and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetable oils used as skin permeation enhancers were selected on the basis of compatibility studies data. A total of eight monolithic systems were prepared by using different concentrations of drug-polymers-permeation enhancers. The permeation parameters, flux, permeability coefficient, enhancement ratio and ...

  13. Progress of the DUPIC Fuel Compatibility Analysis (IV) - Fuel Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ryu, Ho Jin; Roh, Gyu Hong; Jeong, Chang Joon; Park, Chang Je; Song, Kee Chan; Lee, Jung Won

    2005-10-01

    This study describes the mechanical compatibility of the direct use of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors (DUPIC) fuel, when it is loaded into a CANDU reactor. The mechanical compatibility can be assessed for the fuel management, primary heat transport system, fuel channel, and the fuel handling system in the reactor core by both the experimental and analytic methods. Because the physical dimensions of the DUPIC fuel bundle adopt the CANDU flexible (CANFLEX) fuel bundle design which has already been demonstrated for a commercial use in CANDU reactors, the experimental compatibility analyses focused on the generation of material property data and the irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel, which are used for the computational analysis. The intermediate results of the mechanical compatibility analysis have shown that the integrity of the DUPIC fuel is mostly maintained under the high power and high burnup conditions even though some material properties like the thermal conductivity is a little lower compared to the uranium fuel. However it is required to slightly change the current DUPIC fuel design to accommodate the high internal pressure of the fuel element. It is also strongly recommended to perform more irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel to accumulate a database for the demonstration of the DUPIC fuel performance in the CANDU reactor

  14. Contrastive Compatibility in Some Arabic Dialects and Their Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadora, Frederic J.

    1976-01-01

    This study assesses and characterizes lexical relationships among the major urban Syro-Lebanese varieties of Arabic. To achieve this quantitative analysis of degrees of similarity or differentiation, an analytical procedure based on lexical compatibility was developed. Secondarily, a classification of these varieties is presented as a by-product…

  15. Measures and electromagnetic compatibility; Mesures en compatibilite electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, A. [Centre Technique de TDF (France); Mardiguian, M.

    1998-09-01

    Since january 1996, the electrical compatibility is becoming more and more important with the european regulation (documented by the CE label) on electromagnetic disturbances. After the definitions and the classification of electromagnetic disturbances, the electrical appliances disturbances measure (radio frequencies and low frequencies, calibrating, appropriate instrumentation, operating conditions) and the immunity testing are presented. (A.L.B.)

  16. Developing Globally Compatible Institutional Infrastructures for Indian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Raj; Bartning, Augustine; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2010-01-01

    The authors profile developments in the globalization of Indian higher education, with an emphasis on emerging globally compatible institutional infrastructures. In recent decades, there has been an enormous amount of brain drain: the exodus of the brightest professionals and students to other countries. The article argues that the implementation…

  17. Error adaptation in mental arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Charlotte; Imbo, Ineke; De Brauwer, Jolien; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Until now, error and conflict adaptation have been studied extensively using simple laboratory tasks. A common finding is that responses slow down after errors. According to the conflict monitoring theory, performance should also improve after an error. However, this is usually not observed. In this study, we investigated whether the characteristics of the experimental paradigms normally used could explain this absence. More precisely, these paradigms have in common that behavioural adaptation has little room to be expressed. We therefore studied error and conflict adaptation effects in a task that encounters the richness of everyday life's behavioural adaptation--namely, mental arithmetic, where multiple solution strategies are available. In accordance with our hypothesis, we observed that post-error accuracy increases after errors in mental arithmetic. No support for conflict adaptation in mental arithmetic was found. Implications for current theories of conflict and error monitoring are discussed.

  18. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation......This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  19. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  20. IEEE 1988 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Seattle, WA, Aug. 2-4, 1988, Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various papers on electromagnetic compatibility are presented. Some of the optics considered include: field-to-wire coupling 1 to 18 GHz, SHF/EHF field-to-wire coupling model, numerical method for the analysis of coupling to thin wire structures, spread-spectrum system with an adaptive array for combating interference, technique to select the optimum modulation indices for suppression of undesired signals for simultaneous range and data operations, development of a MHz RF leak detector technique for aircraft harness surveillance, and performance of standard aperture shielding techniques at microwave frequncies. Also discussed are: spectrum efficiency of spread-spectrum systems, control of power supply ripple produced sidebands in microwave transistor amplifiers, an intership SATCOM versus radar electromagnetic interference prediction model, considerations in the design of a broadband E-field sensing system, unique bonding methods for spacecraft, and review of EMC practice for launch vehicle systems.

  1. A climate-compatible approach to development practice by international humanitarian NGOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Matthew; de Cruz, Ian

    2015-01-01

    If current climate-change predictions prove accurate, non-linear change, including potentially catastrophic change, is possible and the environments in which international humanitarian NGOs operate will change figuratively and literally. This paper proposes that a new approach to development is required that takes changing climate into account. This 'climate-compatible approach' to development is a bleak shift from some of the current orthodox positions and will be a major challenge to international humanitarian NGOs working with the most vulnerable. However, it is necessary to address the challenges and context such NGOs face, and the need to be resilient and adaptive to these changes. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  2. Core health promotion competencies in Australia: are they compatible with climate change action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rebecca; Smith, James A

    2011-12-01

    Health promotion principles for practice are closely aligned with that of environmental sustainability. Health promotion practitioners are well positioned to take action on climate change. However, there has been scant discussion about practice synergies and subsequently the type and nature of professional competencies that underpin such action. This commentary uses the Australian Health Promotion Association (AHPA) national core competencies for Health Promotion Practitioners as a basis to examine the synergies between climate change and health promotion action. We demonstrate that AHPA core competencies, such as program planning, evaluation and partnership building, are highly compatible for implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. We use food security examples to illustrate this case. There appears to be considerable synergy between climate change and health promotion action. This should be a key focus of future health promotion competency development in Australia.

  3. Compatibility of heat resistant alloys with boron carbide, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Shinichi; Kurasawa, Toshimasa; Endow, Taichi; Someya, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Isao.

    1986-08-01

    This paper includes an experimental result of out-of-pile compatibility and capsule design for irradiation test in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The compatibility between sheath material and neutron absorber materials for control rod devices (CRD) was examined for potential use in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) which is under development at JAERI. The purpose of the compatibility tests are preliminary evaluation of safety prior to irradiation tests. Preliminary compatibility evaluation was concerned with three items as follows : 1) Lithium effects on the penetrating reaction of Incoloy 800H alloy in contact with a mixture of boronated graphite and lithium hydroxide powders, 2) Short term tensile properties of Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR alloy reacted with boronated graphite and fracture mode analysis, 3) Reaction behavior of both alloys under transient power conditions of a VHTR. It was clear that the reaction rate constant of the Incoloy 800H alloy was accelerated by doping lithium hydroxide into the boron carbide and graphite powder. The mechanical properties of Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR alloy reacted with boronated graphite were decreased. Ultimate tensile strength and tensile ductilities at temperatures over 850 deg C were reduced, but there was no change in the proof (yield) stress. Both alloys exhibited a brittle intergranular fracture mode during transient power conditions of a VHTR and also exhibited severe penetration. Irradiation capsules for compatibility test were designed to simulate three irradiation conditions of VHTR: 1) steady state for VHTR, 2) Transient power condition, 3) Service limited life of CRD. Capsule irradiation experiments have been carried out satisfactorily and thus confirm the validity of the capsule design procedure. (author)

  4. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning.

  5. Multipolar Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2012-01-01

    A class of exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations is presented which contains infinite sets of gravitoelectric, gravitomagnetic and electromagnetic multipole moments. The multipolar structure of the solutions indicates that they can be used to describe the exterior gravitational field of an arbitrarily rotating mass distribution endowed with an electromagnetic field. The presence of gravitational multipoles completely changes the structure of the spacetime because of the appearance...

  6. Adaptation is...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    vital sector is under threat. While it is far from the only development challenge facing local farmers, extreme variations in the climate of West Africa in the past several decades have dealt the region a bad hand. Drought and flood now follow each other in succession. Adaptation is... “The floods spoiled our harvests and we.

  7. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  8. Adaptation Insights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    be given greater access to relevant information to help them adapt their farming practices and socio- economic strategies to climate change? To address this challenge, the project “InfoClim,” led by Senegal's. Ecological Monitoring Centre. (CSE) with support from the. CCAA program, aims at improving the access of farmers ...

  9. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  10. IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-18

    Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”, now published online, features a sample of policy-relevant adaptation research funded by IDRC's climate and water programs.

  11. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  12. An overview of innovations and industrial solutions in Protein Microarray Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shabarni; Manubhai, K P; Kulkarni, Vishwesh; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2016-04-01

    The complexity involving protein array technology reflects in the fact that instrumentation and data analysis are subject to change depending on the biological question, technical compatibility of instruments and software used in each experiment. Industry has played a pivotal role in establishing standards for future deliberations in sustenance of these technologies in the form of protein array chips, arrayers, scanning devices, and data analysis software. This has enhanced the outreach of protein microarray technology to researchers across the globe. These have encouraged a surge in the adaptation of "nonclassical" approaches such as DNA-based protein arrays, micro-contact printing, label-free protein detection, and algorithms for data analysis. This review provides a unique overview of these industrial solutions available for protein microarray based studies. It aims at assessing the developments in various commercial platforms, thus providing a holistic overview of various modalities, options, and compatibility; summarizing the journey of this powerful high-throughput technology. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. GRAFT COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN EUROPEAN PEAR CULTIVARS AND EAST MALLING “C” ROOTSTOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO DALAZEN MACHADO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Graft incompatibility is one of the main factors limiting european pear production in Brazil. At present, there is no clear indication of the best combination(s of european pear cultivars and quince rootstocks for graft compatibility. The study evaluated the graft compatibility for combinations of european Abbè Fetel, Rocha and Williams pear cultivars grafted onto the EMC quince rootstock. The experiment was performed in a commercial european pear orchard in the Urupema municipality, in State of Santa Catarina, during the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 growing seasons. The plant growth variables comprised the section increment (mm in the trunk diameter in the graft union region of cultivars and rootstocks; difference in the diameter of the graft for cultivars and rootstocks; “translocated” incompatibility; “located” incompatibility and the vascular connection in the graft union region, which was assessed by immersing the bases of the plants in a 0.08% succinic acid solution. There were “located” and “translocated” incompatibility between the european Williams pear cultivar and the EMC rootstock based on the vascular discontinuity in the graft union region, which prevented the translocation of succinic acid stain. Thus, the Williams/EMC combination is considered incompatible and it is not recommended for use in commercial orchards. The Rocha/EMC and Abbè Fetel/EMC are considered partially incompatible combinations and showed good development eight years after planting.

  14. Preparation and characterization compatible pellets for immobilization of colloidal sulphur nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlim, M.; Zarlaida, F.; Khaldun, I.; Dewi, R.; Jamilah, M.

    2018-03-01

    Mercury pollution in atmosphere is dominated by mercury vapour release from coal burning and gold-amalgam separation in gold mining. The initial steps in formulating a compatible mercury absorbent for mercury stabilization was fabrication of pellet supported colloidal sulphur. Sulphur is used to stabilize mercury vapour by formation of metacinnabar that has much lower toxicity. The sulphur reactivity toward mercury vapour can be enhanced by using colloidal sulphur nanoparticles immobilized on compatible pellets. Clay pellets would have heat resistance but in fact, they were less stable in aqueous solution although their stability increased with inclusion of rice husk ash and sawdust or pineapple leaf fibre in the composite. Pellets made of rice husk ash and polyvinyl acetate were stable in water at least for 24 hours. Sulphur from thiosulfate precursor that immobilized onto surface of pellet using chitosan as the stabilizer and the binding agent gave lower sulphur content compared to sulphur from other precursors (sulphur powder and sulphur-CS2). Sulphur from thiosulfate precursor was in form of colloid, has nanosize, and disperse particles on the surface of rice husk ash pellets. Sulphur immobilization methods affect on sulphur particles exposure on the pellet surface.

  15. Coefficient of crystal lattice matching as a parameter of substrate - crystal structure compatibility in silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Adding high-melting point elements (Mo, Nb, Ni, Ti, W to complex silumins results in hardening of the latter ones, owing to the formation of new intermetallic phases of the AlxMey type, with refinement of dendrites in α solution and crystals in β phase. The hardening is also due to the effect of various inoculants. An addition of the inoculant is expected to form substrates, the crystal lattice of which, or some (privileged lattice planes and interatomic spaces should bear a strong resemblance to the crystal nucleus. To verify this statement, using binary phase equilibria systems, the coefficient of crystal lattice matching, being one of the measures of the crystallographic similarity, was calculated. A compatibility of this parameter (up to 20% may decide about the structure compatibility between the substrate and crystal which, in turn, is responsible for the effectiveness of alloy modification. Investigations have proved that, given the temperature range of their formation, the density, the lattice type, and the lattice parameter, some intermetallic phases of the AlxMey type can act as substrates for the crystallisation of aluminium and silicon, and some of the silumin hardening phases.

  16. The compatibility of reform initiatives in inclusion and science education: Perceptions of science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Su-Hsiang

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine science teachers' instructional adaptations, testing and grading policies, as well as their perceptions toward inclusion. In addition, whether the perceptions and adaptations differ among three disability areas (learning disabilities, emotional handicaps, and mental handicaps), school level (elementary, middle, and high school), course content (life and physical science), instructional approach (textbook-oriented or activity-oriented), and other related variables was examined. Especially, the intention was to determine whether the two educational reform efforts (inclusion and excellence in science education) are compatible. In this study, 900 questionnaires were mailed to teachers in Indiana and 424 (47%) were returned. Due to incomplete or blank data, 38 (4%) responses were excluded. The final results were derived from a total of 386 respondents contributing to this investigation. The descriptive data indicated that teachers adapted their instruction moderately to accommodate students' special needs. In particular, these adaptations were made more frequently for students with mental handicaps (MH) or learning disabilities (LD), but less for students with emotional handicaps (EH). With respect to testing policies, less than half of the teachers (44.5%) used "same testing standards as regular students" for integrated LD students, while a majority of the teachers (57%) used such a policy for EH students. Unfortunately, considerably fewer teachers modified their grading policies for these two groups of students. In contrast, approximately two thirds of the teachers indicated that they used different testing or grading policies for MH students who were in the regular settings. Moreover, the results also showed that changes in classroom procedure did not occur much in the science teachers' classrooms. Perceptions of science teachers toward inclusion practices were somewhat mixed. Overall, teachers had neutral attitudes

  17. Adaptive Rotorcraft Condition and Usage Tracking System (ARCUTS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Electronic Machines (IEM), a leader in the development of innovative sensor solutions for transportation systems, will develop the Adaptive Rotorcraft...

  18. Effect of Time on Gypsum-Impression Material Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, John Boram

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of dental gypsum with three recently introduced irreversible hydrocolloid (alginate) alternatives. The test materials were Alginot® (Kerr™), Position Penta Quick® (3M ESPE™) and Silgimix ® (Sultan Dental™). The irreversible hydrocolloid impression material, Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial® (Dentsply Caulk™) served as the control. Materials and Methods: Testing of materials was conducted in accordance with ANSI/ADA Specification No. 18 for Alginate Impression Materials. Statistical Analysis: The 3-Way ANOVA test was used to analyze measurements between different time points at a significance level of (p Outcome: It was found that there was greater compatibility between gypsum and the alternative materials over time than the traditional irreversible hydrocolloid material that was tested. A statistically significant amount of surface change/incompatibility was found over time with the combination of the dental gypsum products and the control impression material (Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial®).

  19. THE COMPATIBILITY STUDENT CHOICE OF UNIVERSITY MAJORING; A PRELIMINARY STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daharnis Daharnis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuous improvements in order to optimize the basic education to higher education are still running. Based on that purpose, there are many factors to supporting the students' learning activities success; one of the factors is suitability with majors in university. The purpose of this study is to reveal the condition of the compatibility of students majoring with their interest, then to describe the information when the student choose their majoring. Samples in this study were 122 peoples, taken by random sampling from the Padang State University. Data obtained by distributing questionnaires. The results showed that there are students that their major do not match with their interest (22.13%, only 3.28% of students who feel compatible with their major. This result should be a major concern, particularly for counselor in schools for design counseling services to solve these problems. The result of this study used as a grand tour or a preliminary study for further research.

  20. Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel and skeletal muscle myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei; Zhang Li; Sun Liang; Wang Chengyue [Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Fan Ming; Liu Shuhong, E-mail: Weiwang_Ly@yahoo.com.c [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Science, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2009-04-15

    Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel (HAH) and skeletal muscle myoblasts has been investigated for the first time in the present paper. Skeletal muscle myoblasts were separated from skeletons of rats and incubated with a HAH-containing culture medium. Cell morphology, hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of the HAH scaffold were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Hoechest33258 fluorescent staining, the immunocytochemistry method and water adsorption rate measurement. It was found that at a proper concentration (around 0.5%) of hyaluronic acid, the hydrogel possessed good compatibility with skeletal muscle myoblasts. The hydrogel can create a three-dimensional structure for the growth of skeletal muscle myoblasts and benefit cell attachment to provide a novel scaffold material for the tissue engineering of skeletal muscle.

  1. COSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruta Dana Duda Daianu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The team leader is the author of vision, mentor, guide, motivator, source of encouragement and supportive team. The leader helps team members to focus on the big picture of the project, to give the best of them, to follow the right path and stay united. Leader qualities must necessarily include its ability to work together, to be folded on the processes that describe functional and structural developments in embedded team. The issue of the leader development includes the necessity to concurrently form the skills of tem working. The working paper underlines that these two formative desiderate are compatible, correlative and complementary. So, in the study that we undertake we proposed to determine the degree of compatibility between the two demands of education, as follows: the training of leader capable to exercise also the specific activities of teamwork

  2. Thermal compatibility studies of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Powder metallurgy dispersions of uranium silicides in an aluminum matrix have been developed by the international Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program as a new generation of proliferation-resistant fuels. A major issue of concern is the compatibility of the fuel with the matrix material and the dimensional stability of this fuel type. A total of 45 miniplate-type fuel plates were annealed at 400 deg. C for up to 1981 hours. A data base for the thermal compatibility of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum was established. No modification tested of a standard fuel plate showed any significant reduction of the plate swelling. The cause of the thermal growth of silicide fuel plates was determined to be a two-step process: 1) the reaction of the uranium silicide with aluminum to form U(AlSi) 3 and 2) the release of hydrogen and subsequent creep and pillowing of the fuel plate. (author)

  3. Compatibility of enteral products with commonly employed drug additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutie, A J; Altman, E; Lenkel, L

    1983-01-01

    Although drugs are routinely administered through gavage feedings set along with enteral products, there is little scientific data available to the physician, pharmacist, nurse, and dietician concerning the physical and chemical compatibility of drugs with enteral formulations. This study assesses the compatibility of Ensure (Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH), Ensure Plus (Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH), Osmolite (Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH) with antibiotics, gastrointestinal agents, antipsychotic agents, urinary antiseptics cough and cold medications, and other commonly used additives. All enteral formulations were examined immediately after mixing for phase changes, creaming, and particle growth using a contrast light and a rotation viscometer. Results are presented in a tabular format. Guidelines and recommendations concerning how the addition of troublesome drug additives can be added are also presented.

  4. Adaptive sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  5. Adaptive positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  6. Adaptable positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  7. ADAPTATION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn PETERS, M.Sc.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty subjects with lower limb disabilities participated in a simulator study. The purpose of the study was to investigate how an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC system together with two different hand controls for accelerator and brake influenced workload, comfort and driving behaviour and to further develop a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for drivers with disabilities. The installed ACC system could maintain a constant speed selected and set by the driver and it also adapted speed in order to keep a safe distance to a leading vehicle. Furthermore, it included a stop-and-go function. Two common types of hand controls for accelerator and brake were used. The hand controls were different both with respect to function, single or dual levers, and position, on the steering column or between the front seats. The subjects were all experienced drivers of adapted cars equipped with hand controls. All subjects drove 100km at two occasions, with and without the ACC system available but with the same hand control. Subjective workload was found to be significantly lower and performance better for the ACC condition. The difference in speed variation between manual and ACC supported driving increased with the distance driven which seems to support the previous finding. The subjects thought they could control both speed and distance to leading vehicles better while the ACC was available. ACC driving did not influence reaction time, speed level, lateral position or variation in lateral position. Headway during car following situations was shorter for the ACC condition compared to manual driving. The ACC was well received, trusted and wanted. It was concluded that the ACC system substantially decreased workload, increased comfort and did not influence safety negatively. The only difference found between the two types of hand controls was that drivers using the dual lever system had less variation in lateral position. The applied evaluation method proved

  8. Time-adaptive quantile regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    An algorithm for time-adaptive quantile regression is presented. The algorithm is based on the simplex algorithm, and the linear optimization formulation of the quantile regression problem is given. The observations have been split to allow a direct use of the simplex algorithm. The simplex method...... and an updating procedure are combined into a new algorithm for time-adaptive quantile regression, which generates new solutions on the basis of the old solution, leading to savings in computation time. The suggested algorithm is tested against a static quantile regression model on a data set with wind power...... production, where the models combine splines and quantile regression. The comparison indicates superior performance for the time-adaptive quantile regression in all the performance parameters considered....

  9. Physical compatibility of tedizolid phosphate with selected i.v. drugs during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Islam; Hamada, Yukihiro; Nicolau, David P

    2016-11-01

    The physical compatibility of commonly used agents that could be coadministered in the clinical setting with tedizolid phosphate during Y-site administration was evaluated. Tedizolid phosphate vials were reconstituted to a final concentration of 0.8 mg/mL. All other drugs were prepared according to manufacturers' recommendations and diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection (where applicable) to the highest standard concentrations used clinically. Y-site conditions were simulated in culture tubes by mixing 5 mL of tedizolid phosphate solution with 5 mL of the test drug solutions. The physical characteristics, turbidity, and pH of all admixtures were examined immediately after mixing and at 15, 60, and 120 minutes. Incompatibility was defined as gross precipitation, a positive Tyndall beam test, color changes, or increases in turbidity. With simulated Y-site administration, tedizolid phosphate was compatible with 69 of 86 drugs in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, including 24 of 31 antimicrobial agents. Of note, incompatibility was observed immediately after mixing except with ceftaroline and diphenhydramine, whose incompatibility with tedizolid phosphate was apparent after 15 and 60 minutes, respectively. Among the drug classes tested, tedizolid phosphate was compatible only with 1 aminoglycoside (amikacin) and incompatible with 1 echinocandin (caspofungin) and 1 cephalosporin (ceftaroline). In addition, tedizolid phosphate was incompatible with divalent cations (calcium chloride, calcium gluconate, and magnesium sulfate), probably due to precipitation with the phosphate component. A pH change of >1 unit occurred only with epinephrine (at 120 minutes). Tedizolid phosphate 0.8 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was physically compatible with 69 of 86 study drugs during simulated Y-site administration. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of materials for waste-canister compatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, H.E.; Mack, J.E.

    1981-10-01

    Sample materials of 7 waste forms and 15 potential canister materials were procured for compatibility tests. These materials were characterized before being placed in test, and the results are the main topic of this report. A test capsule was designed for the tests in which disks of a single waste form were contacted with duplicate samples of canister materials. The capsules are undergoing short-term tests at 800 0 C and long-term tests at 100 and 300 0 C

  11. Material compatibility of ORC working fluids with polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Eyerer, S.; Eyerer, P.; Eicheldinger, M.; Sax, S.; Wieland, C.; Spliethoff, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the material compatibility of refrigerants focusing on hydrofluoroolefines (HFO) with typical polymers in ORC plants and refrigeration units is analyzed with consistent testing conditions and a complete uncertainty analysis of the results. One state of-the-art refrigerant, namely R245fa, as well as the low-GWP fluids R1233zd-E and R1234yf are taken into account. The investigated polymers are ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM), fluoric rubber (FKM) and polytetrafluoroethylen...

  12. MRI Compatibility of Robot Actuation Techniques – A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor, a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRI images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cy...

  13. Pointing Hand Stimuli Induce Spatial Compatibility Effects and Effector Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio eNishimura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the automatic influence of perceiving a picture that indicates other’s action on one’s own task performance in terms of spatial compatibility and effector priming. Participants pressed left and right buttons with their left and right hands respectively, depending on the color of a central dot target. Preceding the target, a left or right hand stimulus (pointing either to the left or right with the index or little finger was presented. In Experiment 1, with brief presentation of the pointing hand, a spatial compatibility effect was observed: Responses were faster when the direction of the pointed finger and the response position were spatially congruent than when incongruent. The spatial compatibility effect was larger for the pointing index finger stimulus compared to the pointing little finger stimulus. Experiment 2 employed longer duration of the pointing hand stimuli. In addition to the spatial compatibility effect for the pointing index finger, the effector priming effect was observed: Responses were faster when the anatomical left/right identity of the pointing and response hands matched than when the pointing and response hands differed in left/right identity. The results indicate that with sufficient processing time, both spatial/symbolic and anatomical features of a static body part implying another’s action simultaneously influence different aspects of the perceiver’s own action. Hierarchical coding, according to which an anatomical code is used only when a spatial code is unavailable, may not be applicable if stimuli as well as responses contain anatomical features.

  14. New Explicit Solutions of (1 + 1)-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Broer-Kaup System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhilian; Zhou Jianping

    2010-01-01

    By using the compatibility method, many explicit solutions of the (1 + 1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Broer-Kaup system are constructed, which include new solutions expressed by error function, Bessel function, exponential function, and Airy function. Some figures of the solutions are given by the symbolic computation system Maple. (general)

  15. MRI compatible small animal monitoring and trigger system for whole body scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Krumbein, Ines; Reichenbach, Juergen R. [Jena University Hospital (Germany). Medical Physics Group; Pfeiffer, Norman [Jena University Hospital (Germany). Medical Physics Group; Ernst-Abbe-Fachhochschule Jena (Germany); Herrmann, Lutz [Ernst-Abbe-Fachhochschule Jena (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    Performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments with small animals requires continuous monitoring of vital parameters, especially the respiration rate. Clinical whole-body MR scanners represent an attractive option for preclinical imaging as dedicated animal scanners are cost-intensive in both investment and maintenance, thus limiting their availability. Even though impressive image quality is achievable with clinical MR systems in combination with special coils, their built-in physiologic monitoring and triggering units are often not suited for small animal imaging. In this work, we present a simple, MRI compatible low cost solution to monitor the respiration and heart rate of small animals in a clinical whole-body MR scanner. The recording and processing of the biosignals as well as the optimisation of the respiratory trigger generation is described. Additionally rat and mouse in-vivo MRI experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the monitoring and respiratory trigger system in suppressing motion artifacts. (orig.)

  16. Questions. Is sustainable development compatible with the opening of energy markets? The French trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapeyre, M.

    2003-03-01

    This document reports on a presentation given at the inter-town syndicate for gas and electricity in Ile-de-France (SIGEIF) by M. Lapeyre from the National federation of granted organizations and public corporations (FNCCR). This presentation treats of the opening of energy markets to competition and its compatibility with the sustainable development concepts: competition in the energy supply: economic growth (good and bad scenarios), social equity (foreign examples, specifications of energy supplies, control of obligations), environment; the network activity monopoly: difficulties generated by the opening of markets (rise of free prices, bad share of investments, outages, environmental constraints), solutions to be implemented to avoid such difficulties (standards, sanctions). A series of questions and answers precise some points of the presentation. (J.S.)

  17. Evaluation of compatibility and thermal properties of PP composites incorporated with Moringa oleifera fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, Daniel M.; Novack, Katia M.; Botaro, Vagner R.

    2011-01-01

    The 70s, marked by the oil crisis led to knowledge about environmental problems due to indiscriminate use of nonrenewable resources. The automobile manufacturers have sought to obtain new materials for building more efficient cars, which favored the development of high-performance polymers. One alternative was the use of agents of natural reinforcements in composites manufacturing. In this work, composites were prepared using polypropylene as matrix and as a reinforcing agent of natural seed pods of Moringa oleifera in different proportions, treated with sodium hydroxide solution 10%. These composites were characterized by TGA, DSC, XRD, MEV and water absorption. It was found that increasing the amount of fiber in the polymer matrix did not change significantly the morphology and amount of water absorption of the samples. It was also observed that the addition of larger amounts of fibers decreases the degradation temperature of the samples and their melting temperatures shifts to lower temperatures, indicative of compatibility matrix / reinforcement agents. (author)

  18. Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with R-134a and polyolester lubricant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schooley, D.L. [Imagination Resources, Inc., Dublin, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This report includes a broad list of processing fluids that are known to be used to manufacture air conditioning and refrigeration products. Sixty-four process fluids from this list were selected for compatibility studies with R-134a and ICI EMKARATE RL32H (32 ISO) polyolester lubricant. Solutions or suspensions of the process fluid residues in polyolester lubricant were heated for 14 days at 175{degrees}C (347{degrees}F) in evacuated sealed glass tubes containing only valve steel coupons. Miscibility tests were performed at 90 wt.% R-134a, 10 wt.% polyolester lubricant with process fluid residue contaminate and were scanned in 10{degrees}C (18{degrees}F) increments over a temperature range of ambient to -40{degrees}C (-40{degrees}F). Any sign of turbidity, haze formation or oil separation was considered the immiscibility point.

  19. A Zeroth Law Compatible Model to Kerr Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor G. Czinner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the thermodynamic and stability problem of Kerr black holes arising from the nonextensive/nonadditive nature of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula. Nonadditive thermodynamics is often criticized by asserting that the zeroth law cannot be compatible with nonadditive composition rules, so in this work we follow the so-called formal logarithm method to derive an additive entropy function for Kerr black holes also satisfying the zeroth law’s requirement. Starting from the most general, equilibrium compatible, nonadditive entropy composition rule of Abe, we consider the simplest non-parametric approach that is generated by the explicit nonadditive form of the Bekenstein–Hawking formula. This analysis extends our previous results on the Schwarzschild case, and shows that the zeroth law-compatible temperature function in the model is independent of the mass–energy parameter of the black hole. By applying the Poincaré turning point method, we also study the thermodynamic stability problem in the system.

  20. A JPEG backward-compatible HDR image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2012-10-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging is expected to become one of the technologies that could shape next generation of consumer digital photography. Manufacturers are rolling out cameras and displays capable of capturing and rendering HDR images. The popularity and full public adoption of HDR content is however hindered by the lack of standards in evaluation of quality, file formats, and compression, as well as large legacy base of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) displays that are unable to render HDR. To facilitate wide spread of HDR usage, the backward compatibility of HDR technology with commonly used legacy image storage, rendering, and compression is necessary. Although many tone-mapping algorithms were developed for generating viewable LDR images from HDR content, there is no consensus on which algorithm to use and under which conditions. This paper, via a series of subjective evaluations, demonstrates the dependency of perceived quality of the tone-mapped LDR images on environmental parameters and image content. Based on the results of subjective tests, it proposes to extend JPEG file format, as the most popular image format, in a backward compatible manner to also deal with HDR pictures. To this end, the paper provides an architecture to achieve such backward compatibility with JPEG and demonstrates efficiency of a simple implementation of this framework when compared to the state of the art HDR image compression.

  1. Compatibility analysis of 3D printer resin for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-08-30

    The salient features of microfluidics such as reduced cost, handling small sample and reagent volumes and less time required to fabricate the devices has inspired the present work. The incompatibility of three-dimensional printer resins in their native form and the method to improve their compatibility to many biological processes via surface modification are reported. The compatibility of the material to build microfluidic devices was evaluated in three different ways: (i) determining if the ultraviolet (UV) cured resin inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i.e. testing devices for PCR compatibility; (ii) observing agglutination complex formed on the surface of the UV cured resin when anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibodies and CRP proteins were allowed to agglutinate; and (iii) by culturing human embryonic kidney cell line cells and testing for its attachment and viability. It is shown that only a few among four in its native form could be used for fabrication of microchannels and that had the least effect on biological molecules that could be used for PCR and protein interactions and cells, whereas the others were used after treating the surface. Importance in building lab-on-chip/micrototal analysis systems and organ-on-chip devices is found.

  2. A compatible electrocutaneous display for functional magnetic resonance imaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, V; Cappelli, C; Vanello, N; Ricciardi, E; Scilingo, E P; Giovannetti, G; Santarelli, M F; Positano, V; Pietrini, P; Landini, L; Bicchi, A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose an MR (magnetic resonance) compatible electrocutaneous stimulator able to inject an electric current, variable in amplitude and frequency, into the fingertips in order to elicit tactile skin receptors (mechanoreceptors). The desired goal is to evoke specific tactile sensations selectively stimulating skin receptors by means of an electric current in place of mechanical stimuli. The field of application ranges from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tactile studies to augmented reality technology. The device here proposed is designed using safety criteria in order to comply with the threshold of voltage and current permitted by regulations. Moreover, MR safety and compatibility criteria were considered in order to perform experiments inside the MR scanner during an fMRI acquisition for functional brain activation analysis. Psychophysical laboratory tests are performed in order to define the different evoked tactile sensation. After verifying the device MR safety and compatibility on a phantom, a test on a human subject during fMRI acquisition is performed to visualize the brain areas activated by the simulated tactile sensation.

  3. Synthesis of artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrochidou, E; Alvanitopoulos, P F; Andreadis, I; Mallousi, K; Elenas, A

    2014-01-01

    The Hilbert–Huang transform is used to generate artificial seismic signals compatible with the acceleration spectra of natural seismic records. Artificial spectrum-compatible accelerograms are utilized instead of natural earthquake records for the dynamic response analysis of many critical structures such as hospitals, bridges, and power plants. The realistic estimation of the seismic response of structures involves nonlinear dynamic analysis. Moreover, it requires seismic accelerograms representative of the actual ground acceleration time histories expected at the site of interest. Unfortunately, not many actual records of different seismic intensities are available for many regions. In addition, a large number of seismic accelerograms are required to perform a series of nonlinear dynamic analyses for a reliable statistical investigation of the structural behavior under earthquake excitation. These are the main motivations for generating artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms and could be useful in earthquake engineering for dynamic analysis and design of buildings. According to the proposed method, a single natural earthquake record is deconstructed into amplitude and frequency components using the Hilbert–Huang transform. The proposed method is illustrated by studying 20 natural seismic records with different characteristics such as different frequency content, amplitude, and duration. Experimental results reveal the efficiency of the proposed method in comparison with well-established and industrial methods in the literature. (paper)

  4. Assessment of DUPIC fuel compatibility with CANDU-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H. B.; Roh, G. H.; Jeong, C. J.; Rhee, B. W.; Choi, J. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The compatibility of DUPIC fuel with the existing CANDU reactor was assessed. The technical issues of DUPIC fuel compatibility were chosen based on the CANDU physics design requirements and inherent characteristics of DUPIC fuel. The compatibility was assessed for the reference DUPIC fuel composition which was determined to reduce the composition heterogeneity and improve the spent PWR fuel utilization. Preliminary studies on a CANDU core loaded with DUPIC fuel have shown that the nominal power distribution is flatter than that of a natural uranium core when a 2-bundle shift refueling scheme is used, which reduces the reactivity worths of devices in the core and, therefore, the performance of reactivity devices was assessed. The safety of the core was assessed by a LOCA simulation and it was found that the power pulse upon LOCA can be maintained below that in the natural uranium core when a poison material is used in the DUPIC fuel. For the feasibility of handling DUPIC fuel in the plant, it will be necessary to introduce new equipment to load the DUPIC fuel in the refueling magazine. The radiation effect of DUPIC fuel on both the reactor hardware and the environment will require a quantitative analysis later. (author).

  5. Eco-Anthropic Compatibility - a Multidisciplinary Model in Urban Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO L. BIANCA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a multidisciplinary model of urban development which goes beyond the notion of ecological sustainability, by building on the concept of eco-anthropic compatibility. First of all I will sketch the historical development of human aggregations and I will underline the difference between ancient and modern aggregations. On the basis of this analysis, I will take into consideration the notion of sustainability and its possible application to present conurbations. I will underline several limits of the notion of sustainable development and I will propose a multidisciplinary model grounded on a broader and new notion: the eco-anthropic compatibility. Using this notion, which includes the idea of sustainability, it is possible to handle, within the model, the human factors and human living conditions inside an urban aggregation. Finally, I will state that the actual urban model is decaying and therefore, sooner or later, we will have to face the end of urban civilization; for this reason we can start imagining new future ways for human aggregations on the planet based on the notion of eco-anthropic compatibility.

  6. Directional control-response compatibility of joystick steered shuttle cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Zupanc, Christine M; Wallis, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Shuttle cars are an unusual class of vehicle operated in underground coal mines, sometimes in close proximity to pedestrians and steering errors may have very serious consequences. A directional control-response incompatibility has previously been described in shuttle cars which are controlled using a steering wheel oriented perpendicular to the direction of travel. Some other shuttle car operators are seated perpendicular to the direction of travel and steer the car via a seat mounted joystick. A virtual simulation was utilised to determine whether the steering arrangement in these vehicles maintains directional control-response compatibility. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to either a condition corresponding to this design (consistent direction), or a condition in which the directional steering response was reversed while driving in-bye (visual field compatible). Significantly less accurate steering performance was exhibited by the consistent direction group during the in-bye trials only. Shuttle cars which provide the joystick steering mechanism described here require operators to accommodate alternating compatible and incompatible directional control-response relationships with each change of car direction. A virtual simulation of an underground coal shuttle car demonstrates that the design incorporates a directional control-response incompatibility when driving the vehicle in one direction. This design increases the probability of operator error, with potential adverse safety and productivity consequences.

  7. Still seeking for an explanation of the Sequential Compatibility Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Privado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of the Compatibility Effect (CE according to the compatibility of the previous trial (Sequential Compatibility Effect, SCE in three types of attentional tasks is explored. The flankers and spatial Stroop tasks have different degrees of cognitive complexity. In all three tasks it is analyzed whether the SCE varies when the stimuli in consecutive trials are exactly the same (pure replicas or not. The data, collected from three independent samples (total N = 1.159, show the CE in the three tasks. However, SCE only shows up in the spatial Stroop task. The effect is smaller albeit still significant when the pure replica trials are removed, a result inconsistent with those of Mayr et al. (2003 and Hommel (1998 but consistent with the Conflict Theory (Botvinick et al., 2001. Furthermore, we also discuss the importance of cognitive complexity in relation to the perspective of Botvinick et al. (2004. From this point of view more complexity should be reflected in a greater presence of cognitive conflict, and therefore a higher SCE.

  8. Verification of Goal-Oriented HP-Adaptivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paszynski, M; Demkowicz, L; Pardo, D

    2005-01-01

    .... The analytical solution has been used to validate a goaloriented hp adaptive strategy based on a simultaneous solution of a dual problem, and an hp strategy based on minimizing the projection-based...

  9. Polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich [Bremen, DE; Miller, Kevin Michael [West Dundee, IL

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  10. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven...

  11. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  12. Development of CHARMM-Compatible Force-Field Parameters for Cobalamin and Related Cofactors from Quantum Mechanical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Anna; Parks, Jerry M; Gumbart, James C

    2018-02-13

    Corrinoid cofactors such as cobalamin are used by many enzymes and are essential for most living organisms. Therefore, there is broad interest in investigating cobalamin-protein interactions with molecular dynamics simulations. Previously developed parameters for cobalamins are based mainly on crystal structure data. Here, we report CHARMM-compatible force field parameters for several corrinoids developed from quantum mechanical calculations. We provide parameters for corrinoids in three oxidation states, Co 3+ , Co 2+ , and Co 1+ , and with various axial ligands. Lennard-Jones parameters for the cobalt center in the Co(II) and Co(I) states were optimized using a helium atom probe, and partial atomic charges were obtained with a combination of natural population analysis (NPA) and restrained electrostatic potential (RESP) fitting approaches. The Force Field Toolkit was used to optimize all bonded terms. The resulting parameters, determined solely from calculations of cobalamin alone or in water, were then validated by assessing their agreement with density functional theory geometries and by analyzing molecular dynamics simulation trajectories of several corrinoid proteins for which X-ray crystal structures are available. In each case, we obtained excellent agreement with the reference data. In comparison to previous CHARMM-compatible parameters for cobalamin, we observe a better agreement for the fold angle and lower RMSD in the cobalamin binding site. The approach described here is readily adaptable for developing CHARMM-compatible force-field parameters for other corrinoids or large biomolecules.

  13. Climate Change and Water Adaptation Options | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The impacts of climate change are increasing in their severity around the world. At greatest risk: vulnerable communities in developing countries. This project aims to share the practical climate change adaptation solutions arising from IDRC-funded research. IDRC, climate change, and water adaptation Since 2006, IDRC ...

  14. The MSP 2001 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, M. H.; Meloy, T. P.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M. G.; Frant, M. A.; Grannan, S. M.; Fuerstenau, D.; Keller, H. U.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Marshall, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust-related hazards to human exploration as part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise, MECA's goal is to evaluate potential geochemical and environmental hazards that may confront future Martian explorers, and to guide HEDS scientists in the development of high fidelity Mars soil simulants. The integrated MECA payload contains a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, an electrometer to characterize the electrostatics of the soil and its environment, and arrays of material patches to study the abrasive and adhesive properties of soil grains. The instrument will acquire soil samples with a robotic arm equipped with a camera. MECA will examine surface and subsurface soil and dust in order to characterize particle size, shape, hardness, and also physical characteristics that may provide clues to mineralogy. MECA will characterize soil/water mixtures with respect to pH, redox potential, total dissolved ions, and trace toxins. MECA will determine the nature of electrostatic charging associated with excavation of soil, and the influence of ionizing radiation on material properties. It will also observe natural dust accumulation on engineering materials. To accomplish these objectives, MECA is allocated a mass of 10 kg within an enclosure of 35 x 25 x 15 cm. The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) consists of four identical cells that will accept samples from surface and subsurface regions accessible to the Lander's robotic arm, mix them with water, and perform extensive analysis of the solution. Ion-selective electrodes and related sensors will evaluate total dissolved solids, redox potential, pH, and the concentration of many soluble ions and gases in wet Martian soil. These electrodes can detect potentially dangerous heavy-metal ions, emitted pathogenic gases, and the soil

  15. Advanced single-stream HDR coding using JVET JEM with backward compatibility options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topiwala, Pankaj; Dai, Wei; Krishnan, Madhu

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a state of the art approach in HDR/WCG video coding developed at FastVDO called FVHDR, and based on the JEM 6 Test Model of the Joint Exploration Team, a joint committee of ITU|ISO/IEC. A fully automatic adaptive video process that differs from a known HDR video processing chain (analogous to HDR10, herein called "anchor") developed recently in the standards committee JVET, is used. FVHDR works entirely within the framework of JEM software model, but adds additional tools. These tools can become an integral part of a future video coding standard, or be extracted as additional pre- and post-processing chains. Reconstructed video sequences using FVHDR show a subjective visual quality superior to the output of the anchor. Moreover the resultant SDR content generated by the data adaptive grading process is backward compatible. Representative objective results for the system include: results for DE100, and PSNRL100, were -13.4%, and -3.8% respectively.

  16. Compatibility of epirubicin-loaded DC bead™ with different non-ionic contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakbi, Iman; Krämer, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the compatibility of epirubicin-loaded DC bead™ with different non-ionic contrast media over a period of seven days when stored light protected under refrigerated conditions. DC bead™ (2 ml) (Biocompatibles UK Ltd) of the bead size 70-150 µm ( = DC bead M1) or bead size 100-300 µm were loaded with 75 mg epirubicin powder formulation (Farmorubicin® dissolved in 3 ml water for injection to a concentration of 25 mg/ml) or 76 mg epirubicin injection solution (Epimedac® 2 mg/ml) within 2 h or 6 h, respectively. After removal of the excess solution, the epirubicin-loaded beads were mixed in polypropylene syringes with an equal volume (∼1.5 ml) of contrast media, i.e. Accupaque™ 300 (Nycomed Inc.), Imeron® 300 (Bracco S.p.A), Ultravist® 300 (Bayer Pharma AG), Visipaque™ 320 (GE Healthcare) and agitated in a controlled manner to get a homogenous suspension. Syringes with loaded beads in contrast media were stored protected from light under refrigeration (2-8℃). Compatibility was determined by measuring epirubicin concentrations in the suspensions in triplicate on day 0, 1, and 7. A reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay with ultraviolet detection was utilized to analyze the concentration and purity of epirubicin. Mixing of epirubicin-loaded beads with different non-ionic contrast media released 0.1-0.5% of epirubicin over a period of 24 h, irrespectively, of the DC bead™ size or type of contrast media. No further elution or degradation was observed after seven days when the admixtures were stored protected from light under refrigeration. Compatibility of epirubicin-loaded DC bead™ with an equal volume of different contrast media in polypropylene syringes is given over a period of seven days. Due to a maximum elution of 0.1-0.5% of epirubicin from loaded DC bead™, admixtures with contrast media can be prepared in advance in centralized cytotoxic preparation units

  17. Redox-Magnetohydrodynamic Microfluidics Without Channels and Compatible with Electrochemical Detection Under Immunoassay Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Melissa C.; Nash, Christena K.; Fritsch, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    A unique capability of redox-magnetohydrodynamics (redox-MHD) for handling liquids on a small scale was demonstrated. A 1.2-μL solution plug was pumped from an injection site to a detector without the need for a channel to direct the flow. The redox pumping species did not interfere with enzymatic activity in a solution compatible with enzyme-linked immunoassays. Alkaline phosphatase (AP), a common enzyme label, converted p-aminophenyl phosphate (PAPP) to p-aminophenol (PAPR) in the presence of 2.5 mM Ru(NH3)6Cl2 and 2.5 mM Ru(NH3)6 Cl3, in 0.1 M Tris buffer (pH=9). A solution plug containing PAPP (no AP) was pumped through the surrounding solution containing AP (no PAPP), and the enzymatically-generated PAPR was easily detected and distinguishable electrochemically from the pumping species with square wave voltammetry down to 0.1 mM concentrations. The test device consisted of a silicon chip containing individually-addressable microband electrodes, placed on a 0.5-T NdFeB permanent magnet with the field oriented perpendicular to the chip. A 8.0-mm wide × 15.5-mm long × 1.5-mm high volume of solution was contained by a poly(dimethylsiloxane) gasket and capped with a glass slide. A steady-state fluid velocity of ~30 μm/s was generated in a reinforcing flow configuration between oppositely polarized sets of pumping electrodes with ~2.1 μA. PMID:20681513

  18. STABILITY AND COMPATIBILITY OF TAXOL WITH VARIOUS DRUGS DURING SIMULATED Y-SITE ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN PIL BURM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the compatibility and stability of Taxol with ondansetron, ranitidine, vancomycin and cephalosporins in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration. Two stock solutions of Taxol 0.3 and 1.2 mg/mL and each stock solutions of ondansetron 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/mL, ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL, vancomycin 1, 5 and 10 mg/mL and cephalosporins 20 mg/mL were prepared in glass bottles. Two mL of Taxol stock solution was mixed with 2 mL of each stock solution. Samples were removed at room temperature at time zero, one, two, four and 12 hours for immediate assay. Taxol concentrations were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. All solutions were prepared in triplicate, and each drug was assayed in duplicate. At the time of sampling assay and before any dilution, each sample was visually inspected for clarity, color and precipitation. The pH was also determined. Taxol in concentrations of 0.3 and 1.2 mg/mL was stable when mixed with either ondansetron (0.03, 0.1 or 0.3 mg/mL, as the hydrochloride salt, ranitidine (0.5 or 2.0 mg/mL, as the hydrochloride salt, vancomycin (1, 5 or 10 mg/mL, as the hydrochloride salt or cephalosporins 20 mg/mL and stored in glass containers for 12 hours. No precipitates, color changes, or haziness was seen. The changes in pH were minor.

  19. Genetic Algorithms for Case Adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, A.M.; Mohamed, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Case based reasoning (CBR) paradigm has been widely used to provide computer support for recalling and adapting known cases to novel situations. Case adaptation algorithms generally rely on knowledge based and heuristics in order to change the past solutions to solve new problems. However, case adaptation has always been a difficult process to engineers within (CBR) cycle. Its difficulties can be referred to its domain dependency; and computational cost. In an effort to solve this problem, this research explores a general-purpose method that applying a genetic algorithm (GA) to CBR adaptation. Therefore, it can decrease the computational complexity of the search space in the problems having a great dependency on their domain knowledge. The proposed model can be used to perform a variety of design tasks on a broad set of application domains. However, it has been implemented for the tablet formulation as a domain of application. The proposed system has improved the performance of the CBR design systems

  20. Integrated Force Method Solution to Indeterminate Structural Mechanics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Halford, Gary R.

    2004-01-01

    Strength of materials problems have been classified into determinate and indeterminate problems. Determinate analysis primarily based on the equilibrium concept is well understood. Solutions of indeterminate problems required additional compatibility conditions, and its comprehension was not exclusive. A solution to indeterminate problem is generated by manipulating the equilibrium concept, either by rewriting in the displacement variables or through the cutting and closing gap technique of the redundant force method. Compatibility improvisation has made analysis cumbersome. The authors have researched and understood the compatibility theory. Solutions can be generated with equal emphasis on the equilibrium and compatibility concepts. This technique is called the Integrated Force Method (IFM). Forces are the primary unknowns of IFM. Displacements are back-calculated from forces. IFM equations are manipulated to obtain the Dual Integrated Force Method (IFMD). Displacement is the primary variable of IFMD and force is back-calculated. The subject is introduced through response variables: force, deformation, displacement; and underlying concepts: equilibrium equation, force deformation relation, deformation displacement relation, and compatibility condition. Mechanical load, temperature variation, and support settling are equally emphasized. The basic theory is discussed. A set of examples illustrate the new concepts. IFM and IFMD based finite element methods are introduced for simple problems.

  1. Compatibility and stability of aloxi (palonosetron hydrochloride) admixed with dexamethasone sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trissel, Lawrence A; Zhang, Yanping

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of palonosetron hydrochloride 0.25 mg admixed with dexamethasone (as sodium phophate) 10 mg or 20 mg in 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinylchloride minibags, and also admixed with dexamethasone (as sodium phosphate) 3.3 mg in 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polypropylene syringes, at 4 deg C stored in the dark for 14 days, and at 23 deg C exposed to normal laboratory fluorescent light over 48 hours. Test samples of palonosetron hydrochloride 5 micrograms/mL with dexamethasone (as sodium phosphate) 0.2 mg/mL and also 0.4 mg/mL were prepared in polyvinylchloride minibags of each infusion solution. Additionally, palonosetron hydrochloride 25 micrograms/mL with dexamethasone (as sodium phosphate) 0.33 mg/mL in each infusion solution were prepared as 10 mL of test solution in 20-mL polypropylene syringes. Evaluations for physical and chemical stability were performed on samples taken initially and after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of storage at 4 deg C and after 1, 4, 24 and 48 hours at 23 deg C. Physical stability was assessed using visual observation in normal room light and using a high-intensity monodirectional light beam. In addition, turbidity and particle content were measured electronically. Chemical stability of the drug was evaluated by using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical technique. All samples were physically compatible throughout the study. The solutions remained clear and showed little or no change in particulate burden and haze level. Additionally, little or no loss of palonosetron hydrochloride and dexamethasone occurred in any of the samples at either temperature throughout the entire study period. Admixtures of palonosetron hydrochloride with dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 5% dextrose injection or in 0.9% sodium chloride injection packaged in polyvinylchloride minibags or in

  2. Natural pedagogy as evolutionary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György

    2011-04-12

    We propose that the cognitive mechanisms that enable the transmission of cultural knowledge by communication between individuals constitute a system of 'natural pedagogy' in humans, and represent an evolutionary adaptation along the hominin lineage. We discuss three kinds of arguments that support this hypothesis. First, natural pedagogy is likely to be human-specific: while social learning and communication are both widespread in non-human animals, we know of no example of social learning by communication in any other species apart from humans. Second, natural pedagogy is universal: despite the huge variability in child-rearing practices, all human cultures rely on communication to transmit to novices a variety of different types of cultural knowledge, including information about artefact kinds, conventional behaviours, arbitrary referential symbols, cognitively opaque skills and know-how embedded in means-end actions. Third, the data available on early hominin technological culture are more compatible with the assumption that natural pedagogy was an independently selected adaptive cognitive system than considering it as a by-product of some other human-specific adaptation, such as language. By providing a qualitatively new type of social learning mechanism, natural pedagogy is not only the product but also one of the sources of the rich cultural heritage of our species.

  3. Classification algorithms using adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Binev, Peter

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Institute of Mathematical Statistics. Algorithms for binary classification based on adaptive tree partitioning are formulated and analyzed for both their risk performance and their friendliness to numerical implementation. The algorithms can be viewed as generating a set approximation to the Bayes set and thus fall into the general category of set estimators. In contrast with the most studied tree-based algorithms, which utilize piecewise constant approximation on the generated partition [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 52 (2006) 1335.1353; Mach. Learn. 66 (2007) 209.242], we consider decorated trees, which allow us to derive higher order methods. Convergence rates for these methods are derived in terms the parameter - of margin conditions and a rate s of best approximation of the Bayes set by decorated adaptive partitions. They can also be expressed in terms of the Besov smoothness β of the regression function that governs its approximability by piecewise polynomials on adaptive partition. The execution of the algorithms does not require knowledge of the smoothness or margin conditions. Besov smoothness conditions are weaker than the commonly used Holder conditions, which govern approximation by nonadaptive partitions, and therefore for a given regression function can result in a higher rate of convergence. This in turn mitigates the compatibility conflict between smoothness and margin parameters.

  4. Modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for whole-body scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Ghomi, Reza; Bredella, Miriam A.; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Miller, Karen K. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Neuroendocrine Unit, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To develop a modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for muscle testing using a clinical 3 T MR scanner. An exercise device to provide isotonic resistance to plantar- or dorsiflexion was constructed from nonferrous materials and designed for easy setup and use in a clinical environment. Validation tests were performed during dynamic MR acquisitions. For this purpose, the device was tested on the posterior lower leg musculature of five subjects during 3 min of exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary plantarflexion during 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRS). Measures of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and pH were obtained before, during, and after the exercise protocol. At the end of exercise regimen, muscle PCr showed a 28% decrease from resting levels (to 21.8 {+-} 3.9 from 30.4 {+-} 3.0 mM) and the average PCr recovery rate was 35.3 {+-} 8.3 s. Muscle Pi concentrations increased 123% (to 14.6 {+-} 4.7 from 6.5 {+-} 3.3 mM) and pH decreased 1.5% (to 7.06 {+-} 0.14 from 7.17 {+-} 0.07) from resting levels. The described MR-compatible lower leg exercise was an effective tool for data acquisition during dynamic MR acquisitions of the calf muscles. The modular design allows for adaptation to other whole-body MR scanners and incorporation of custom-built mechanical or electronic interfaces and can be used for any MR protocol requiring dynamic evaluation of calf muscles. (orig.)

  5. Modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for whole-body scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Ghomi, Reza; Bredella, Miriam A; Thomas, Bijoy J; Miller, Karen K; Torriani, Martin

    2011-10-01

    To develop a modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for muscle testing using a clinical 3 T MR scanner. An exercise device to provide isotonic resistance to plantar- or dorsiflexion was constructed from nonferrous materials and designed for easy setup and use in a clinical environment. Validation tests were performed during dynamic MR acquisitions. For this purpose, the device was tested on the posterior lower leg musculature of five subjects during 3 min of exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary plantarflexion during 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). Measures of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and pH were obtained before, during, and after the exercise protocol. At the end of exercise regimen, muscle PCr showed a 28% decrease from resting levels (to 21.8 ± 3.9 from 30.4 ± 3.0 mM) and the average PCr recovery rate was 35.3 ± 8.3 s. Muscle Pi concentrations increased 123% (to 14.6 ± 4.7 from 6.5 ± 3.3 mM) and pH decreased 1.5% (to 7.06 ± 0.14 from 7.17 ± 0.07) from resting levels. The described MR-compatible lower leg exercise was an effective tool for data acquisition during dynamic MR acquisitions of the calf muscles. The modular design allows for adaptation to other whole-body MR scanners and incorporation of custom-built mechanical or electronic interfaces and can be used for any MR protocol requiring dynamic evaluation of calf muscles.

  6. Two scale high gain adaptive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan W.; Mareels, I.M.Y.; Mareels, Iven

    2004-01-01

    Simple adaptive controllers based on high gain output feedback suffer a lack of robustness with respect to bounded disturbances. Existing modifications achieve boundedness of all solutions but introduce solutions that, even in the absence of disturbances, do not achieve regulation. In this paper a

  7. Weapon and Sighting System Compatibility Assessment for Prototype Maxillofacial Protection Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Weapon and Sighting System Compatibility Assessment for Prototype Maxillofacial Protection Devices by Frank Morelli and William H. Harper...ARL-TR-6367 March 2013 Weapon and Sighting System Compatibility Assessment for Prototype Maxillofacial Protection Devices Frank Morelli...Compatibility Assessment for Prototype Maxillofacial Protection Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  8. Central Cross-Talk in Task Switching : Evidence from Manipulating Input-Output Modality Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the role of compatibility of input and output (I-O) modality mappings in task switching. We define I-O modality compatibility in terms of similarity of stimulus modality and modality of response-related sensory consequences. Experiment 1 included switching between 2 compatible tasks (auditory-vocal vs. visual-manual) and…

  9. 32 CFR 256.10 - Air installations compatible use zone noise descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air installations compatible use zone noise descriptors. 256.10 Section 256.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.10 Air installations compatible use zone noise descriptors. (...

  10. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may bring...

  11. Compatibility of the Radio Frequency Mass Gauge with Composite Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Greg; Mueller, Carl

    2015-01-01

    The radio frequency mass gauge (RFMG) is a low-gravity propellant quantity gauge being developed at NASA for possible use in long-duration space missions utilizing cryogenic propellants. As part of the RFMG technology development process, we evaluated the compatibility of the RFMG with a graphite-epoxy composite material used to construct propellant tanks. The key material property that can affect compatibility with the RFMG is the electrical conductivity. Using samples of 8552IM7 graphite-epoxy composite, we characterized the resistivity and reflectivity over a range of frequencies. An RF impedance analyzer was used to characterize the out-of-plane electrical properties (along the sample thickness) in the frequency range 10 to 1800 MHZ. The resistivity value at 500 MHz was 4.8 ohm-cm. Microwave waveguide measurements of samples in the range 1.7 2.6 GHz, performed by inserting the samples into a WR-430 waveguide, showed reflectivity values above 98. Together, these results suggested that a tank constructed from graphite-epoxy composite would produce good quality electromagnetic tank modes, which is needed for the RFMG. This was verified by room-temperature measurements of the electromagnetic modes of a 2.4 m diameter tank constructed by Boeing from similar graphite-epoxy composite material. The quality factor Q of the tank electromagnetic modes, measured via RF reflection measurements from an antenna mounted in the tank, was typically in the range 400 Q 3000. The good quality modes observed in the tank indicate that the RFMG is compatible with graphite-epoxy tanks, and thus the RFMG could be used as a low-gravity propellant quantity gauge in such tanks filled with cryogenic propellants.

  12. Compatibility with European law of opt-out legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, U.

    2000-01-01

    Should consensus with the utilities not be reached, Federal Minister for the Environment, Mr. Trittin, repeatedly announced to introduce opt-out legislation 'by dissent'. Both the constitutionality of such legislation and its compatibility with European law are topics of controversial debate in the literature. The decision taken by the Bavarian cabinet on February 8 in this year, to use all political and legal means against shutting down German nuclear power plants and, for this purpose, even to approach the European Commission on grounds of potential violation of European law, are reason enough to deal in more detail with the compatibility of an opt-out law with the Euratom Treaty and the EC Treaty. As the opt-out law does not yet exist, these considerations can only be of a theoretical nature. However, this is the working hypothesis assumed: Reprocessing is banned as of the entry into force of the opt-out law. This ban includes moving nuclear waste abroad for reprocessing. The peaceful use of nuclear power for electricity generation in power reactors operated for thirty years is forbidden. Older reactors may be run only for a transition period of another three years. (This includes abandoning the promotion purpose in the German Atomic Energy Act and a ban on building new power reactors). However, the operating life may be distributed in a flexible way. This contribution indicates that there are sound reasons and interesting approaches, respectively, in the literature for assuming that opting out by means of legislation, coupled with a ban on reprocessing, at least constitutes a violation of the freedom for goods and/or services. However, this cannot be derived unequivocally from either the Euratom Treaty or the EC Treaty or from rulings by the European Court of Justice. Ultimately, compatibility with European law of the ban on reprocessing can be decided only by the European Court of Justice. (orig.) [de

  13. The compatibility of the governance of nuclear power plant de commissioning and of the competitive regime en Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchapga, F.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plant decommissioning is a mandatory operation for which financial arrangements have been defined. Current European decommissioning reserve find management models were designed in a context of operator monopolies and public property regime. Because of electricity sector restructuring; businesses are no longer protected from market sanctions and stock market volatility (affecting firm's financial viability). These potential sanctions create uncertainty on the decommission in financing mechanism. Thus, the form of decommissioning funds management (internal or external) appears as the main compatibility determinant with the electricity competition regimes. In a market risks environment, external management solutions improve credibility of operator's decommissioning commitment. (authors)

  14. Adaptive evolution of molecular phenotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Torsten; Nourmohammad, Armita; Lässig, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phenotypes link genomic information with organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Quantitative traits are complex phenotypes that depend on multiple genomic loci. In this paper, we study the adaptive evolution of a quantitative trait under time-dependent selection, which arises from environmental changes or through fitness interactions with other co-evolving phenotypes. We analyze a model of trait evolution under mutations and genetic drift in a single-peak fitness seascape. The fitness peak performs a constrained random walk in the trait amplitude, which determines the time-dependent trait optimum in a given population. We derive analytical expressions for the distribution of the time-dependent trait divergence between populations and of the trait diversity within populations. Based on this solution, we develop a method to infer adaptive evolution of quantitative traits. Specifically, we show that the ratio of the average trait divergence and the diversity is a universal function of evolutionary time, which predicts the stabilizing strength and the driving rate of the fitness seascape. From an information-theoretic point of view, this function measures the macro-evolutionary entropy in a population ensemble, which determines the predictability of the evolutionary process. Our solution also quantifies two key characteristics of adapting populations: the cumulative fitness flux, which measures the total amount of adaptation, and the adaptive load, which is the fitness cost due to a population's lag behind the fitness peak. (paper)

  15. A Safety-Critical Java Technology Compatibility Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs; Ravn, Anders P.

    2014-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  16. A safety-critical java technology compatibility kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2014-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  17. Radiation damage studies of detector-compatible Si JFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), and Dipartimento di Informatica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)]. E-mail: dallabe@dit.unitn.it; Boscardin, Maurizio [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, I-38050 Povo di Trento, Via Sommarive, 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Candelori, Andrea [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo, 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Pancheri, Lucio [INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), and Dipartimento di Informatica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Piemonte, Claudio [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, I-38050 Povo di Trento, Via Sommarive, 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Ratti, Lodovico [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, and Dipartimento di Elettronica, Universita di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, I-38050 Povo di Trento, Via Sommarive, 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    We have largely improved the performance of our detector-compatible Si JFETs by optimizing the fabrication technology. New devices feature thermal noise values close to the theoretical ones, and remarkably low 1/f noise figures. In view of adopting these JFETs for X-ray imaging and HEP applications, bulk and surface radiation damage tests have been carried out by irradiating single transistors and test structures with neutrons and X-rays. Selected results from static and noise characterization of irradiated devices are discussed in this paper, and the impact of radiation effects on the performance of JFET-based circuits is addressed.

  18. Methane emissions and climate compatibility of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, B.

    1992-01-01

    Methane contributes directly and indirectly to the additional greenhouse effect caused by human activities. The vast majority of the anthropogenic methane release occurs worldwide in non-fossil sources such as rice cultivation, livestock operations, sanitary landfills and combustion of bio-mass. Methane emissions also occur during production, distribution and utilisation of fossil fuels. Also when considering the methane release and CO 2 -emissions of processes upstream of combustion, the ranking of environmental compatibility of natural gas, fuel oil and cool remains unchanged. Of all fossil fuels, natural gas contributes the least to the greenhouse effect. (orig.) [de

  19. Chemical compatibility of structural materials in alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L.; Haglund, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this task are to (a) evaluate the chemical compatibility of structural alloys such as V-5 wt.%Cr-5 wt.%Ti alloy and Type 316 stainless steel for application in liquid alkali metals such as lithium and sodium-78 wt.% potassium (NaK) at temperatures in the range that are of interest for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER); (b) evaluate the transfer of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen between structural materials and liquid metals; and (c) evaluate the effects of such transfers on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the materials for long-term service in liquid-metal-environments

  20. Technical Basis for Electromagnetic Compatibility Regulatory Guidance Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mays, Gary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this report is to serve as the technical basis document for the next, planned revision of this RG that highlights and provides the rationale for the recommended changes. The structure of this document follows and summarizes the several assessment activities undertaken during the course of this project to evaluate new and updated electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards, testing methods and limits, and relevant technology developments being incorporated into plant activities that may have EMI/RFI implications, as well as other specific issues, including impacts of electrostatic discharge (ESD) on safety equipment and impacts on increased usage of wireless devices in nuclear power plants.

  1. Radiation damage studies of detector-compatible Si JFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Candelori, Andrea; Pancheri, Lucio; Piemonte, Claudio; Ratti, Lodovico; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We have largely improved the performance of our detector-compatible Si JFETs by optimizing the fabrication technology. New devices feature thermal noise values close to the theoretical ones, and remarkably low 1/f noise figures. In view of adopting these JFETs for X-ray imaging and HEP applications, bulk and surface radiation damage tests have been carried out by irradiating single transistors and test structures with neutrons and X-rays. Selected results from static and noise characterization of irradiated devices are discussed in this paper, and the impact of radiation effects on the performance of JFET-based circuits is addressed

  2. Adaptive management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    a management framework, as well as of identified challenges and pathologies, are needed. Further discussion and systematic assessment of the approach is required, together with greater attention to its definition and description, enabling the assessment of new approaches to managing uncertainty, and AM itself.......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...

  3. Development of a PVAl/chitosan composite membrane compatible with the dermo-epidermic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Tiago Luiz de

    2009-03-01

    Due to the frequent incidence of people with skin lesions such as burns and ulcers and the lack of available donors, biomaterials with the capacity to mimic skin must be developed. In order to develop these biomaterials, polymers are used in the attempt to achieve characteristics which are closer to the target organ. In this direction, for several years our group has been developing dermo-epidermic substitutes, specifically biodegradable and biocompatible membranes made up of PVAl and chitosan. PVAl, a synthetic polymer, was used to imitate part of the human dermis and chitosan, a polymer of organic origin, was used in this study to stimulate growth and maintenance of the epidermis. Due to the variations of these commercially obtained polymers, the objective of this study was to characterize their physical and chemical properties, comparing them with the membrane previously obtained by our group with the intention of confirming the hypotheses of interferences put forward in this study. The PVAl membranes in the study (PVAl MP) that obtained characteristics most similar to the standard were those irradiated with 13 and 15 kGy; this last was chosen because it was the minimum dose necessary to achieve sterility. These membranes were also those which had the largest percentage of pores between 70 and 100 μm. For chitosan, the principal characteristics studied were the degree of acetylation (DA) and average molecular weight, both results demonstrated different characteristics than commercially indicated. Various membrane preparation protocols were carried out from the chitosan solution (2%). The membrane composed of the solution of chitosan homogenized with glycerol (20%) and dried at room temperature had the best interaction with keratinocytes. To finalize the study, this chitosan solution was poured over a PVAl membrane, lyophilized and impregnated with chitosan (2%) solution and the compound was kept at room temperature until a chitosan film formed on the upper

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF WIDE COMPATIBILITY VARIETIES IN SOME TROPICAL JAPONICA RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hairmansis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The F1 hybrid sterility in indica/japonica crosses is the major barrier in developing hybrid rice varieties between these two diverse germplasm. The sterility problem in japonica/indica hybrids can be overcome by using wide compatibility genes. The objective of this study was to identify wide compatibility varieties (WCVs in some tropical japonica rice. Twenty five tropical japonica varieties as male parents were crossed with indica (IR64 and japonica (Akitakomachi testers as female parents. The crosses were planted following a randomized complete block design with three replications. Varieties having average spikelet fertility of more than 70% with both the indica and japonica testers were rated as WCVs. Result from this study showed that six tropical japonica varieties were classified as WCVs, i.e., Cabacu, Grogol, Kencana Bali, Klemas, Lampung Lawer, and Napa. Hybrid sterility is caused by partial sterility of male and female gametes. The WCVs from the present study can be used in hybrid rice breeding program to solve hybrid sterility in indica/japonica hybrids.

  5. Aluminum nitride on titanium for CMOS compatible piezoelectric transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Joseph C; Petzold, Bryan C; Ninan, Biju; Mullapudi, Ravi; Pruitt, Beth L

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are widely used for microscale sensors and actuators but can pose material compatibility challenges. This paper reports a post-CMOS compatible fabrication process for piezoelectric sensors and actuators on silicon using only standard CMOS metals. The piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited on titanium (Ti) by reactive sputtering are characterized and microcantilever actuators are demonstrated. The film texture of the polycrystalline Ti and AlN films is improved by removing the native oxide from the silicon substrate in situ and sequentially depositing the films under vacuum to provide a uniform growth surface. The piezoelectric properties for several AlN film thicknesses are measured using laser doppler vibrometry on unpatterned wafers and released cantilever beams. The film structure and properties are shown to vary with thickness, with values of d(33f), d(31) and d(33) of up to 2.9, -1.9 and 6.5 pm V(-1), respectively. These values are comparable with AlN deposited on a Pt metal electrode, but with the benefit of a fabrication process that uses only standard CMOS metals.

  6. Dissociating Simon and affordance compatibility effects: silhouettes and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Zissis

    2014-12-01

    When a graspable object's handle is oriented to the same side as the response hand, responses are quicker and more accurate than when it is oriented to the opposite side. This effect has been attributed to the affordance of the object's handle (Tucker & Ellis, 1998). Recent findings suggest this effect results instead from an abstract spatial response code (i.e., Simon effect; Cho & Proctor, 2010). However, the stimuli used in these previous studies differ in the amount of object and environmental depth information they contain, which may be critical to conveying an affordance. This information could explain these disparate findings as well as dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects. Four experiments demonstrate that the Simon effect results from the absence of this information, as in a silhouette, and the affordance effect results from its presence, as in a photograph. A fifth experiment confirmed that modifying information associated with the affordance, rather than the modification itself, produced the effects observed in the previous experiments. These findings support the following: (a) the internal details of an object and environmental depth can dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects, (b) this information is necessary to convey the object's graspable affordance, and (c) the outer shape of the object is not sufficient to elicit an affordance effect. These findings are discussed in relation to the theory of embodied cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A variable torque motor compatible with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeck, W W; Ha, S-H; Farmaka, S; Nalcioglu, O

    2009-04-01

    High magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) do not allow the employment of conventional motors due to various incompatibility issues. This paper reports on a new motor that can operate in or near high field magnets used for MRI. The motor was designed to be operational with the MRI equipment and could be used in a rotating imaging gantry inside the magnet designed for dual modality imaging. Furthermore, it could also be used for image guided robotic interventional procedures inside a MRI system if so desired. The prototype motor was developed using magnetic resonance (MR) compatible materials, and its functionality with MR imaging was evaluated experimentally by measuring the performance of the motor and its effect on the MR image quality. Since in our application, namely, single photon emission tomography, the motor has to perform precise stepping of the gantry in small angular steps the most important parameter is the start-up torque. The experimental results showed that the motor has a start-up torque up to 1.37 Nm and rotates at 196 rpm when a constant voltage difference of 12 V is applied at a magnetic field strength of 1 T. The MR image quality was quantified by measuring the signal-to-noise of images acquired under different conditions. The results presented here indicate that the motor is MR compatible and could be used for rotating an imaging gantry or a surgical device inside the magnet.

  8. Evaluation of four methods for platelet compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, J.G.; Aster, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Four platelet compatibility assays were performed on serum and platelet or lymphocyte samples from 38 closely HLA-matched donor/recipient pairs involved in 55 single-donor platelet transfusions. The 22 patients studied were refractory to transfusions of pooled random-donor platelets. Of the four assays (platelet suspension immunofluorescence, PSIFT; 51 Cr release; microlymphocytotoxicity; and a monoclonal anti-IgG assay, MAIA), the MAIA was most predictive of platelet transfusion outcome (predictability, 74% for one-hour posttransfusion platelet recovery and 76% for 24-hour recovery). The only other assay to reach statistical significance was the PSIFT (63% predictability for one-hour posttransfusion recovery). The degree of HLA compatibility between donor and recipient (exact matches v those utilizing cross-reactive associations) was unrelated to the ability of the MAIA to predict transfusion results. The MAIA may be capable of differentiating HLA antibodies, ABO antibodies, and platelet-specific antibodies responsible for failure of HLA-matched and selectively mismatched single-donor platelet transfusions

  9. An MRI-compatible hand sensory vibrotactile system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fa; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Slota, Gregory P; Seo, Na Jin; Webster, John G

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the application of vibrotactile noise to the wrist or back of the hand has been shown to enhance fingertip tactile sensory perception (Enders et al 2013), supporting the potential for an assistive device worn at the wrist, that generates minute vibrations to help the elderly or patients with sensory deficit. However, knowledge regarding the detailed physiological mechanism behind this sensory improvement in the central nervous system, especially in the human brain, is limited, hindering progress in development and use of such assistive devices. To enable investigation of the impact of vibrotactile noise on sensorimotor brain activity in humans, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible vibrotactile system was developed to provide vibrotactile noise during an MRI of the brain. The vibrotactile system utilizes a remote (outside the MR room) signal amplifier which provides a voltage from -40 to +40 V to drive a 12 mm diameter piezoelectric vibrator (inside the MR room). It is portable and is found to be MRI-compatible which enables its use for neurologic investigation with MRI. The system was also found to induce an improvement in fingertip tactile sensation, consistent with the previous study.

  10. An MRI-compatible hand sensory vibrotactile system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fa; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Slota, Gregory P; Seo, Na Jin; Webster, John G

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the application of vibrotactile noise to the wrist or back of the hand has been shown to enhance fingertip tactile sensory perception (Enders et al 2013), supporting the potential for an assistive device worn at the wrist, that generates minute vibrations to help the elderly or patients with sensory deficit. However, knowledge regarding the detailed physiological mechanism behind this sensory improvement in the central nervous system, especially in the human brain, is limited, hindering progress in development and use of such assistive devices. To enable investigation of the impact of vibrotactile noise on sensorimotor brain activity in humans, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible vibrotactile system was developed to provide vibrotactile noise during an MRI of the brain. The vibrotactile system utilizes a remote (outside the MR room) signal amplifier which provides a voltage from –40 to +40 V to drive a 12 mm diameter piezoelectric vibrator (inside the MR room). It is portable and is found to be MRI-compatible which enables its use for neurologic investigation with MRI. The system was also found to induce an improvement in fingertip tactile sensation, consistent with the previous study. (note)

  11. Altruism and reward: motivational compatibility in deceased organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voo, Teck Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK. In this article, I cast a sceptical eye on the above Nuffield report's argument that its proposed funeral payment scheme would prompt deceased organ donations that remain altruistic (as defined by and valued the report). Specifically, I illustrate how this scheme may prompt various forms of mixed motivations which would not satisfy the report's definition of altruism. Insofar as the scheme produces an expectation of the reward, it stands diametrical to promoting an 'altruistic perspective'. My minimal goal in this article is to argue that altruism is not motivationally compatible with reward as an incentive for donation. My broader goal is to argue that if a financial reward is used to incentivize organ donation, then we should recognize that the donation system is no longer aiming to promote altruism. Rewarded donation would not be altruistic but it may be ethical given a persistent organ shortage situation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Compatibility between Hydraulic and Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Water Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh Z. Al Zubaidy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ceramic water filters were produced by using ten mixtures of different ratios of red clay and sawdust under different production conditions. The physical properties of these filters were tested. The production conditions include five press pressures ranged from 10 to 50MPa and a firing schedule having three different final temperatures of 1000, 1070, and 1100˚C. The tests results of the physical properties were used to obtain best compatibility between the hydraulic and the mechanical properties of these filters. Results showed that as the press pressure and the firing temperature are increased, the bulk density and the compressive and bending strengths of the produced filters are increased, while, the porosity and absorption are decreased. As the sawdust content is increased the bulk density and the compressive and bending strengths are decreased, while, the porosity and absorption are increased. High hydraulic conductivity is obtained at a firing temperature of 1070˚C when the sawdust content is less than 10%. Otherwise, it is increased as sawdust content and the firing temperature are increased. Filters made of mixture 92.5% red clay and 7.5% sawdust formed . under a press pressure of 20MPa and a firing temperature of 1070˚C gave the best compatibility between hydraulic and mechanical properties. In this case, the hydraulic conductivity was 50mm/day, the compressive strength was 14MPa, and the bending strength was 10.8MPa.

  13. Compatibility Studies on Elastomers and Polymers with Ethanol Blended Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Dhaliwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the compatibility studies of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 with four types of elastomer materials, namely, Neoprene rubber, Nitrile rubber, hydrogenated Nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR, and Polyvinyl chloride/Nitrile butadiene rubber blend (PVC/NBR, and two types of plastic materials, namely, Nylon-66 and Polyoxymethylene (Delrin. These materials have applications in automotives as engine seals, gaskets, fuel system seals and hoses, and so forth. Two types of the ethanol blended gasoline mixtures were used: (a gasoline containing 5% ethanol (E5, which is commercial form of gasoline available in India, and (b gasoline containing 10% ethanol (E10. The above materials were immersed in E5 and E10 for 500 hrs at 55°C. A set of eight different properties in E5 and E10 (visual inspection, weight change, volume change, tensile strength, percent elongation, flexural strength, impact strength, and hardness were measured after completion of 500 hrs and compared with reference specimens (specimens at 55°C without fuel and specimens at ambient conditions. Variation observed in different materials with respect to the above eight properties has been used to draw inference about the compatibility of these elastomeric/polymer materials with E10 fuel vis-à-vis E5 fuels. The data presented in this study is comparative in nature between the results of E10 and E5.

  14. Why a Gunk World is Compatible with Nihilism about Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Le Bihan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ted Sider argues that nihilism about objects is incompatible with the metaphysical possibility of gunk and takes this point to show that nihilism is flawed. I shall describe one kind of nihilism able to answer this objection. I believe that most of the things we usually encounter do not exist. That is, I take talk of macroscopic objects and macroscopic properties to refer to sets of fundamental properties, which are invoked as a matter of linguistic convention. This view is a kind of nihilism: it rules out the existence of objects; that is, from an ontological point of view, there are no objects. But unlike the moderate nihilism of Mark Heller, Peter van Inwagen and Trenton Merricks that claims that most objects do not exist, I endorse a radical nihilism according to which there are no objects in the world, but only properties instantiated in spacetime. As I will show, radical nihilism is perfectly compatible with the metaphysical possibility of gunk. It is also compatible with the epistemic possibility that we actually live in a gunk world. The objection raised by Ted Sider only applies to moderate nihilism that admits some objects in its ontology.

  15. Thermal compatibility studies of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1984-09-01

    Powder metallurgy dispersions of uranium silicides in an aluminum matrix have been developed by the international Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program as a new generation of proliferation-resistant fuels. A major issue of concern is the compatibility of the fuel with the matrix material and the dimensional stability of this fuel type. A total of 45 miniplate-type fuel plates were annealed at 400 0 C for up to 1981 hours. A data base for the thermal compatibility of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum was established. No modification tested of a standard fuel plate showed any significant reduction of the plate swelling. The cause of the thermal growth of silicide fuel plates was determined to be a two-step process: (1) the reaction of the uranium silicide with aluminum to form U(AlSi) 3 and (2) the release of hydrogen and subsequent creep and pillowing of the fuel plate. 9 references, 4 figures, 6 tables

  16. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Compatibility waves drive crystal growth on patterned substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhaus, T; Schmiedeberg, M; Löwen, H

    2013-01-01

    We explore the crystallization in a colloidal monolayer on a structured template starting from a few-particle nucleus. The competition between the substrate structure and that of the growing crystal induces a new crystal growth scenario. Unlike with the crystal growth in the bulk where a well-defined and connected crystal–fluid interface grows into the fluid, we identify a mechanism where a ‘compatibility wave’ of the prescribed nucleus with the underlying substrate structure dictates the growth direction and efficiency. The growth process is strongly anisotropic and proceeds via transient island formation in front of an initial solid–fluid interface. We demonstrate the validity of this compatibility wave concept for a large class of substrate structures including a square lattice and a quasicrystalline pattern. Dynamical density functional theory that provides a microscopic approach to the crystallization process is employed for colloidal hard spheres. Our predictions can be verified in experiments on confined colloids and also bear consequences for molecular crystal growth on structured substrates. (paper)

  18. Action compatibility in spatial knowledge developed through virtual navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, Holly A; Brunyé, Tad T

    2018-01-09

    Action-compatibility effects (ACEs) arise due to incongruity between perceptuo-motor traces stored in memory and the perceptuo-motor demands of a retrieval task. Recent research has suggested that ACEs arising during spatial memory retrieval are additionally modulated by individual differences in how experienced participants are with a college campus environment. However, the extent and nature of experience with a real-world environment is difficult to assess and control, and characteristics of the retrieval task itself might modulate ACEs during spatial memory retrieval. The present study provides a more controlled and in-depth examination of how individual differences and task-based factors interact to shape ACEs when participants retrieve spatial memories. In two experiments, participants with varied video game experience learned a virtual environment and then used the computer mouse to verify spatial relationships from different perspectives. Mouse trajectories demonstrated ACEs, differing by retrieval perspective and video game experience. Videogame experts demonstrated the ACE based on learned spatial relationships during egocentric retrieval only, whereas videogame novices showed the ACE based on semantic processing of directional terms only. Specifically, gaming experts invoke perspective-specific perceptuo-motor associations to retrieve spatial knowledge, whereas non-experts are influenced by semantically based associations specific to the retrieval task. Results are discussed in the context of action-compatibility effects, the intentional weighting hypothesis, and the flexible encoding and retrieval of spatial information.

  19. A Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test for Monocular SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Guerra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM is a key problem to solve in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. SLAM with a unique camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants, based entirely on a bearing-only sensor working over six DOF. The monocular SLAM method developed in this work is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D Feature Initialization, with the contribution of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test, HOHCT. The Delayed Inverse-Depth technique is used to initialize new features in the system and defines a single hypothesis for the initial depth of features with the use of a stochastic technique of triangulation. The introduced HOHCT method is based on the evaluation of statistically compatible hypotheses and a search algorithm designed to exploit the strengths of the Delayed Inverse-Depth technique to achieve good performance results. This work presents the HOHCT with a detailed formulation of the monocular DI-D SLAM problem. The performance of the proposed HOHCT is validated with experimental results, in both indoor and outdoor environments, while its costs are compared with other popular approaches.

  20. Low-power DRAM-compatible Replacement Gate High-k/Metal Gate Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzenthaler, R.; Schram, T.; Bury, E.; Spessot, A.; Caillat, C.; Srividya, V.; Sebaai, F.; Mitard, J.; Ragnarsson, L.-Å.; Groeseneken, G.; Horiguchi, N.; Fazan, P.; Thean, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the possibility of integration of High-k/Metal Gate (HKMG), Replacement Metal Gate (RMG) gate stacks for low power DRAM compatible transistors is studied. First, it is shown that RMG gate stacks used for Logic applications need to be seriously reconsidered, because of the additional anneal(s) needed in a DRAM process. New solutions are therefore developed. A PMOS stack HfO2/TiN with TiN deposited in three times combined with Work Function metal oxidations is demonstrated, featuring a very good Work Function of 4.95 eV. On the other hand, the NMOS side is shown to be a thornier problem to solve: a new solution based on the use of oxidized Ta as a diffusion barrier is proposed, and a HfO2/TiN/TaOX/TiAl/TiN/TiN gate stack featuring an aggressive Work Function of 4.35 eV (allowing a Work Function separation of 600 mV between NMOS and PMOS) is demonstrated. This work paves the way toward the integration of gate-last options for DRAM periphery transistors.

  1. A drug-compatible and temperature-controlled microfluidic device for live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Gomez-Escoda, Blanca; Munoz-Garcia, Javier; Babic, Julien; Griscom, Laurent; Wu, Pei-Yun Jenny; Coudreuse, Damien

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring cellular responses to changes in growth conditions and perturbation of targeted pathways is integral to the investigation of biological processes. However, manipulating cells and their environment during live-cell-imaging experiments still represents a major challenge. While the coupling of microfluidics with microscopy has emerged as a powerful solution to this problem, this approach remains severely underexploited. Indeed, most microdevices rely on the polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which strongly absorbs a variety of molecules commonly used in cell biology. This effect of the microsystems on the cellular environment hampers our capacity to accurately modulate the composition of the medium and the concentration of specific compounds within the microchips, with implications for the reliability of these experiments. To overcome this critical issue, we developed new PDMS-free microdevices dedicated to live-cell imaging that show no interference with small molecules. They also integrate a module for maintaining precise sample temperature both above and below ambient as well as for rapid temperature shifts. Importantly, changes in medium composition and temperature can be efficiently achieved within the chips while recording cell behaviour by microscopy. Compatible with different model systems, our platforms provide a versatile solution for the dynamic regulation of the cellular environment during live-cell imaging. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. On the compatibility equations of nonlinear and linear elasticity in the presence of boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoshtari, Arzhang; Yavari, Arash

    2015-12-01

    We use Hodge-type orthogonal decompositions for studying the compatibility equations of the displacement gradient and the linear strain with prescribed boundary displacements. We show that the displacement gradient is compatible if and only if for any equilibrated virtual first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor field, the virtual work done by the displacement gradient is equal to the virtual work done by the prescribed boundary displacements. This condition is very similar to the classical compatibility equations for the linear strain. Since these compatibility equations for linear and nonlinear strains involve infinite-dimensional spaces and consequently are not easy to use in practice, we derive alternative compatibility equations, which are written in terms of some finite-dimensional spaces and are more useful in practice. Using these new compatibility equations, we present some non-trivial examples that show that compatible strains may become incompatible in the presence of prescribed boundary displacements.

  3. Compatibility studies of nevirapine in physical mixtures with excipients for oral HAART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.G.G. de; Ferraz, H.G.; Severino, P.; Souto, E.B.

    2013-01-01

    Nevirapine is a hydrophobic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used in first line regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The drug has more than one crystalline form, which may have implications for its behaviour during production and also for its in vivo performance. This study was aimed at exploring the suitability of thermoanalytical methods for the solid-state characterization of commercial crystalline forms of nevirapine. The drug powder was characterized by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, measurements of density, flowability, solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and photostability measurements. The results showed that nevirapine has high stability and is not susceptible to degradation under light exposure. The drug showed compatibility with the excipients tested (lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl acetate copolymer (PVP/PVA), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)). Nevirapine has low solubility, an acid medium being the most appropriate medium for assessing the release of the drug from dosage forms. However, the data obtained from IDR testing indicate that dissolution is the critical factor for the bioavailability of this drug. - Graphical abstract: Bulk nevirapine powder analysed by scanning electron microscopy and the drug solubility profile in various buffer solutions. The pH values of the media in which the tests were conducted are also presented. Highlights: ► Nevirapine shows more than one crystalline form, that influence its in vivo and in vitro behaviour. ► DSC and TGA were used for solid-state characterization of crystalline forms of nevirapine. ► Nevirapine is compatible with lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, PVP/PVA copolymers and HPMC. ► The acid form of nevirapine is the most appropriate for assessing release profile from

  4. Compatibility studies of nevirapine in physical mixtures with excipients for oral HAART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.G.G. de; Ferraz, H.G. [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Severino, P. [Department of Biotechnological Processes, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto 4200-150 (Portugal); Souto, E.B., E-mail: eliana@ufp.edu.pt [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto 4200-150 (Portugal); Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Genomics and Biotechnology, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro (IBB-CGB/UTAD), 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2013-03-01

    Nevirapine is a hydrophobic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used in first line regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The drug has more than one crystalline form, which may have implications for its behaviour during production and also for its in vivo performance. This study was aimed at exploring the suitability of thermoanalytical methods for the solid-state characterization of commercial crystalline forms of nevirapine. The drug powder was characterized by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, measurements of density, flowability, solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and photostability measurements. The results showed that nevirapine has high stability and is not susceptible to degradation under light exposure. The drug showed compatibility with the excipients tested (lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl acetate copolymer (PVP/PVA), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)). Nevirapine has low solubility, an acid medium being the most appropriate medium for assessing the release of the drug from dosage forms. However, the data obtained from IDR testing indicate that dissolution is the critical factor for the bioavailability of this drug. - Graphical abstract: Bulk nevirapine powder analysed by scanning electron microscopy and the drug solubility profile in various buffer solutions. The pH values of the media in which the tests were conducted are also presented. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nevirapine shows more than one crystalline form, that influence its in vivo and in vitro behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSC and TGA were used for solid-state characterization of crystalline forms of nevirapine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nevirapine is compatible with lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, PVP/PVA copolymers and HPMC. Black

  5. Design of a MRI-compatible dielectric elastomer powered jet valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Sylvain; Chouinard, Patrick; Lucking Bigue, Jean-Philippe; Miron, Geneviève; Plante, Jean-Sébastien

    2011-04-01

    Binary Pneumatic Air Muscles (PAM) arranged in an elastically-averaged configuration can form a cost effective solution for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided robotic interventions like prostate cancer biopsies and brachytherapies. Such binary pneumatic manipulators require about 10 to 20 MRI-compatible valves to control the pressure state of each PAM. In this perspective, this paper presents the design of a novel dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) driven jet-valve to control the states of the PAMs. DEAs are MRI compatible actuators that are well suited to the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of the binary manipulation approach. The key feature of the proposed valve design is its 2 stages configuration in which the pilot stage is moved with minimal mechanical friction by a rotary antagonistic DEA made with acrylic polymer films. The prismatic geometry also integrates the jet nozzle within the DEA volume to provide a compact embodiment with a reduced number of parts. The low actuation stretches enabled by the rotary configuration minimize viscoelastic losses, and thus, maximize the frequency response of the actuator while maximizing its reliability potential. The design space of the proposed jet valve is studied using an Ogden hyperelastic model and the valve dynamics is predicted with a 1D Bergstrom-Boyce viscoelastic model. Altogether, the low friction of the pilot stage and optimized DEA dynamics provide an experimental shifting time of the complete assembly in the 200-300ms range. Results from this work suggest that the DEA driven jet valve has great potential for switching a large number of pneumatic circuits in a MRI environment with a compact, low cost and simple embodiment.

  6. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework: theory and application of improvement action and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2009-05-01

    Challenges facing management of manufacturing firms can be transformed into asset gains by giving careful consideration to the worker-work environment interface. The benefits of a 'healthy' interface may lead to sizable reductions in rising health care costs and retention of highly qualified workers. This paper presents a novel approach for the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The work tasks of this research consisted of: (a) fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention; (b) design concepts and process of improvement action/intervention generation; (c) assessment model of estimated gains in company's assets; (d) application demonstration in the manufacturing sector. The process of improvement action/intervention generation is described, preceded by a description of the fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention and system architecture. This is followed by a documentation of estimated asset gains as a result of the improvement plan. The results showed that expert workers were, on average, 78% in agreement with the algorithm-identified improvement actions. Their knowledge was used to update the recommended actions as well as to detail the multiple strategies required to address the improvement actions. As a result, an integrated improvement plan was developed resulting in estimated asset gains of $1.6 million, which was validated by the general manager. The research reported herein documented the theory and application of the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The economic assessment of the suggested improvement is also reported and this has proved to be an important driver to secure the firm collaboration of manufacturing enterprise management. An integrated improvement solution plan backed by a detailed economic assessment of suggested improvements is essential to demonstrate the full potential of workplace micro- and macro-ergonomic interventions.

  7. Vehicle compatibility in car-to-car collisions : literature review in the framework of the European research project "Improvement of crash compatibility between cars", Workpackage 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    In this report, a literature review is given on the subject of crash compatibility and incompatibility between cars. The study is based on scientific publications on this subject published over the last 15 years. The compatibility problem is described from three points of view: statistical,

  8. Adapting agriculture to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, S Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

    2007-12-11

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists.

  9. Fair adaptation to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, Jouni; Adger, W. Neil

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies social justice dilemmas associated with the necessity to adapt to climate change, examines how they are currently addressed by the climate change regime, and proposes solutions to overcome prevailing gaps and ambiguities. We argue that the key justice dilemmas of adaptation include responsibility for climate change impacts, the level and burden sharing of assistance to vulnerable countries for adaptation, distribution of assistance between recipient countries and adaptation measures, and fair participation in planning and making decisions on adaptation. We demonstrate how the climate change regime largely omits responsibility but makes a general commitment to assistance. However, the regime has so far failed to operationalise assistance and has made only minor progress towards eliminating obstacles for fair participation. We propose the adoption of four principles for fair adaptation in the climate change regime. These include avoiding dangerous climate change, forward-looking responsibility, putting the most vulnerable first and equal participation of all. We argue that a safe maximum standard of 400-500 ppm of CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere and a carbon tax of $20-50 per carbon equivalent ton could provide the initial instruments for operationalising the principles. (author)

  10. Solution Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; He, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Recovery of alumina from magnetic separation tailings of red mud has been investigated by Na2CO3 solution leaching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that most of the alumina is present as 12CaO·7Al2O3 and CaO·Al2O3 in the magnetic separation tailings. The shrinking core model was employed to describe the leaching kinetics. The results show that the calculated activation energy of 8.31 kJ/mol is characteristic for an internal diffusion-controlled process. The kinetic equation can be used to describe the leaching process. The effects of Na2CO3 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, and particle size on recovery of Al2O3 were examined.

  11. Increased drug load and polymer compatibility of bilayered orodispersible films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J. Carolina; Weggemans, Oekie A. F.; Boosman, Rene J.; Loos, Katja U.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.

    2017-01-01

    The addition of enalapril maleate to a casting solution for orodispersible films (ODFs) containing hypromellose and carbomer 974P as film forming agents (standard casting solution, SCS) caused a dose dependent reduction of the viscosity. This phenomenon was a serious problem in the preparation of

  12. Mirror neuron activation as a function of explicit learning: changes in mu-event-related power after learning novel responses to ideomotor compatible, partially compatible, and non-compatible stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmer, Lawrence P; Fournier, Lisa R

    2016-11-01

    Questions regarding the malleability of the mirror neuron system (MNS) continue to be debated. MNS activation has been reported when people observe another person performing biological goal-directed behaviors, such as grasping a cup. These findings support the importance of mapping goal-directed biological behavior onto one's motor repertoire as a means of understanding the actions of others. Still, other evidence supports the Associative Sequence Learning (ASL) model which predicts that the MNS responds to a variety of stimuli after sensorimotor learning, not simply biological behavior. MNS activity develops as a consequence of developing stimulus-response associations between a stimulus and its motor outcome. Findings from the ideomotor literature indicate that stimuli that are more ideomotor compatible with a response are accompanied by an increase in response activation compared to less compatible stimuli; however, non-compatible stimuli robustly activate a constituent response after sensorimotor learning. Here, we measured changes in the mu-rhythm, an EEG marker thought to index MNS activity, predicting that stimuli that differ along dimensions of ideomotor compatibility should show changes in mirror neuron activation as participants learn the respective stimulus-response associations. We observed robust mu-suppression for ideomotor-compatible hand actions and partially compatible dot animations prior to learning; however, compatible stimuli showed greater mu-suppression than partially or non-compatible stimuli after explicit learning. Additionally, non-compatible abstract stimuli exceeded baseline only after participants explicitly learned the motor responses associated with the stimuli. We conclude that the empirical differences between the biological and ASL accounts of the MNS can be explained by Ideomotor Theory. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Phylogeography, salinity adaptations and metabolic potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria based on a partial single cell genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Nigro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that has been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome (SAG of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis – previously developed based on 14C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines - that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source.

  14. Time-adaptive and history-adaptive multicriterion routing in stochastic, time-dependent networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretolani, Daniele; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2009-01-01

    We compare two different models for multicriterion routing in stochastic time-dependent networks: the classic "time-adaptive'' model and the more flexible "history-adaptive'' one. We point out several properties of the sets of efficient solutions found under the two models. We also devise a metho...

  15. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweiger D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorothea Schweiger,1 Andrea M Schoelermann,1 Alexander Filbry,1 Tina Hamann,1 Claudia Moser,2 Frank Rippke1 1Research and Development, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany; 2Moser Medical, Clinics for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Vienna, Austria Background: Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp.Methods: The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire.Results: Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants.Conclusion: Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test

  16. Modulation of the mechanical properties of ventricular extracellular matrix hydrogels with a carbodiimide crosslinker and investigation of their cellular compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Fujita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels made from the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM as two-dimensional (2D or 3D cell-culture substrates have beneficial biochemical effects on the differentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes. The mechanical properties of the substrates that match those of the host tissues have been identified as critical biophysical cues for coaxing the tissue-specific differentiation of stem cells. The objectives of the present study are (1 to fabricate hydrogels comprising pure ventricular ECM (vECM, (2 to make the gels possess mechanical properties similar to those of the decellularized ventricular tissue, and (3 to evaluate the cellular compatibility of the hydrogels. In order to achieve these aims, (1 a simplified protocol was developed to produce vECM solution easily and rapidly, (2 N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl-N’-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC was chosen to crosslink the hydrogels made from the vECM solution to enhance their mechanical properties and stabilize the microstructure of the gels, (3 rat embryonic fibroblasts or cardiomyocytes were cultured on these gels to determine the cellular compatibility of the gels. In particular, the nonlinearity and viscoelasticity of the gels were characterized quantitatively using a newly proposed nonlinear Kelvin model. The results showed that EDAC treatment allowed modulation of the mechanical properties of the gels to the same level as those of decellularized ventricular tissue in terms of the equilibrium elasticity and relaxation coefficient. Cell culture confirmed the cellular compatibility of the gels. Furthermore, an empirical relationship between the equilibrium elastic modulus of the gels and the vECM and EDAC concentrations was derived, which is important to tailor the mechanical properties of the gels. Finally, the influence of the mechanical properties of the gels on the behavior of cultured fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes was discussed.

  17. CAMAC-compatible differential pulse discriminator-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tselikov, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    A differential pulse discriminator-counter for a Moessbauer spectrometer is described. Input pulses are collected according to the following algorithm; a pulse is admitted into the channel depending on whether or not the preceding pulse fell into the discrimination window. The circuit does not contain delay lines to allow for the delay lines to allow for the delay of the signal from the upper-level discriminator with respect to the signal from the lower-level discriminator due to the finite rise time of the input pulses, which makes it possible to reduce the dead time of the discriminator to the actuation time of the threshold circuits. The pulse count rate is 150 MHz, the input amplitude is +/-3 V, the dead time is 6 nsec, and the delay from input to output is 14 nsec. The unit is CAMAC-compatible

  18. Electromagnetic environment and telecommunications: towards a cognitive electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeddam, Ahmed; Avril, Gautier; Tlich, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the electromagnetic environment management problem within the context of high speed digital transmissions deployed in wired telecommunication networks. Traditionally, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is assured by filtering for better electromagnetic immunity, and by cable shielding for emission limitation. However, like cognitive radio, we can also, for high speed wired transmissions, treat the EMC as an intelligent and autonomous system capable of perceiving its environment, interpreting it, making suited decisions, and reacting according to the constraints related to the electromagnetic environment. In this context, some application examples are here given in order to illustrate this evolution towards a cognitive EMC in wired networks. To cite this article: A. Zeddam et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  19. Laser welding of polymers, compatibility and mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Erik; Strange, Marianne; Kristensen, Jens Klæstrup

    2013-01-01

    with the development of related absorbers added to the polymer materials provide the possibility of joining transparent and non-transparent materials. The automotive industry, the medical device industry and the electronic industry are just some of the areas where the technology is widely implemented....... There is an increasing industrial interest in joining dissimilar polymers. To overcome the challenges involved increased focus is set on the understanding of joining mechanisms, morphology and molecular structure behavior. Also the understanding of resulting mechanical and thermal properties is presently subject...... for research and development. This paper presents some research results related to laser welding of various polymer materials, including weld compatibility investigations related to the joining of different polymers. Theory for bonding mechanisms, strength development, mechanical properties testing and other...

  20. Scanning diamond NV center probes compatible with conventional AFM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tony X.; Stöhr, Rainer J.; Yacoby, Amir

    2017-10-01

    Scanning probe microscopy using nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond has become a versatile tool with applications in physics, chemistry, life sciences, and earth and planetary sciences. However, the fabrication of diamond scanning probes with high photon collection efficiency, NV centers with long coherence times, and integrated radio frequency (RF) remains challenging due to the small physical dimensions of the probes and the complexity of the fabrication techniques. In this work, we present a simple and robust method to reliably fabricate probes that can be integrated with conventional quartz tuning fork based sensors as well as commercial silicon AFM cantilevers. An integrated RF micro-antenna for NV center spin manipulation is directly fabricated onto the probe making the design versatile and compatible with virtually all AFM instruments. This integration marks a complete sensor package for NV center-based magnetometry and opens up this scanning probe technique to the broader scientific community.

  1. Performance and Compatibility of Phosphonate-Based Superplasticizers for Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Coppola

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effectiveness of an innovative phosphonate-based superplasticizer (PNH for ready mixed concrete. Concrete specimens were manufactured by considering a constant initial workability, equal to 220 mm slump at the end of the mixing procedure. Workability was measured at 0, 30, and 60 min to evaluate the workability retention performances of the innovative superplasticizer. Compressive tests at 1, 7, and 28 days were carried out to evaluate the influence of the phosphonate-based superplasticizer on concrete setting and hardening. The concrete mixes were designed by considering 13 different cements to assess the superplasticizer-cement compatibility. The PNH-based admixture showed a better performance in terms of water reduction and workability retention with respect to napthalenesulphonate based admixtures (NSF; however, a higher dosage of PNH with respect to polycarboxylate ethers (PCEs was needed to get the same initial fluidity.

  2. A B-ISDN-compatible modem/codec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, F.; Miller, S.

    1991-01-01

    Coded modulation techniques for development of a broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN)-compatible modem/codec are investigated. The selected baseband processor system must support transmission of 155.52 Mbit/s of data over an INTELSAT 72-MHz transponder. Performance objectives and fundamental system parameters, including channel symbol rate, code rate, and the modulation scheme are determined. From several candidate codes, a concatenated coding system consisting of a coded octal phase shift keying modulation as the inner code and a high rate Reed-Solomon as the outer code is selected and its bit error rate performance is analyzed by computer simulation. The hardware implementation of the decoder for the selected code is also described.

  3. Compatibility between cellulose and hydrophobic polymer provided by microfibrillated lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang; Obersriebnig, Michael; Veigel, Stefan; Liebner, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Microfibrillated lignocellulose (MFLC) was produced from wood subjected to partial lignin extraction using an ethanol/water mixture. After homogenization, the average fibril diameter of MFLC was in the same range as conventional microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). Although MFLC exhibited higher wettability with water compared to MFC, AFM adhesion force measurements revealed high variability in surface polarity of MFLC compared to MFC. Specifically, domains of higher polarity than in MFC but also domains of lower polarity than in MFC were observed in MFLC. This tendency towards amphiphilic behavior of MFLC was used to provide enhanced compatibility with polycaprolactone and polystyrene matrices. With both polymers, a significantly more homogeneous distribution of fibrils was achieved using MFLC compared to MFC. In line with better dispersion of the fibrils, significantly more efficient mechanical reinforcement of polymers was obtained using MFLC compared to MFC. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Compatibility of candidate structural materials with static gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-01-01

    Scoping tests were conducted on compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chronimum. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant to corrosion in static gallium. At 400 degrees C, corrosion rates are ∼4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/y for Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than does nickel. The corrosion rates at 400 degrees C are ≥90 and 17 mm/y, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400 degrees C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds

  5. Neutron irradiation and compatibility testing of Li2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, D.L.; Krsul, J.R.; Laug, M.T.; Walters, L.C.; Tetenbaum, M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the neutron-irradiation behavior of 6 Li-enriched Li 2 O material in EBR-II. In addition, a stress-corrosion study was performed ex-reactor to test compatibility of Li 2 O materials with a variety of stainless steels. Results of the irradiation testing showed that tritium and helium retention in the Li 2 O (approx. 89% dense) lessened with neutron exposure. Helium and tritium retention appear to approach steady-state after approx. 1% 6 Li burnup. The stress-corrosion studies, using 316 stainless steel (Ti-modified) and a 35% Ni alloy, showed that stress does not enhance the corrosion, and that dry Li 2 O is not significantly corrosive, the LiOH content producing the corrosive effects. Corrosion, in general, was not severe as a passivation in sealed capsules seemed to occur after a time, greatly reducing corrosion rates

  6. MRI Compatibility of Robot Actuation Techniques – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor, a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRI images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cylinders function with no loss of SNR with controller both inside and outside of the scanner room. The Nanomotion motor performs with moderate loss of SNR when moving during imaging. The Shinsei is unsuitable for motion during imaging. All may be used when motion is appropriately interleaved with imaging cycles. PMID:18982643

  7. Testing the statistical compatibility of independent data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a goodness-of-fit method which tests the compatibility between statistically independent data sets. The method gives sensible results even in cases where the χ 2 minima of the individual data sets are very low or when several parameters are fitted to a large number of data points. In particular, it avoids the problem that a possible disagreement between data sets becomes diluted by data points which are insensitive to the crucial parameters. A formal derivation of the probability distribution function for the proposed test statistics is given, based on standard theorems of statistics. The application of the method is illustrated on data from neutrino oscillation experiments, and its complementarity to the standard goodness-of-fit is discussed

  8. On the fruitful compatibility of religious education and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolnough, Brian E.

    1996-04-01

    In this response the logical positivist approach of the authors is challenged, as is their propagation of the myth of an historical, endemic ‘conflict’ between science and religion. The authors' one dimensional approach to the world is shown to produce a limited world view, eliminating so much of human experience, of art, beauty, and music as well as religion. In contrast an awareness of different types of knowledge, with different criteria for truth, enables a fuller perspective in which science and religion, and art and music and human values, are all compatible. In conclusion, some ways in which Science Education and Religious Education can be taught to their mutual benefit are indicated.

  9. Ion implantation of graphene-toward IC compatible technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, U; Pierce, W; Kepaptsoglou, D M; Ramasse, Q; Zan, R; Gass, M H; Van den Berg, J A; Boothroyd, C B; Amani, J; Hofsäss, H

    2013-10-09

    Doping of graphene via low energy ion implantation could open possibilities for fabrication of nanometer-scale patterned graphene-based devices as well as for graphene functionalization compatible with large-scale integrated semiconductor technology. Using advanced electron microscopy/spectroscopy methods, we show for the first time directly that graphene can be doped with B and N via ion implantation and that the retention is in good agreement with predictions from calculation-based literature values. Atomic resolution high-angle dark field imaging (HAADF) combined with single-atom electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy reveals that for sufficiently low implantation energies ions are predominantly substitutionally incorporated into the graphene lattice with a very small fraction residing in defect-related sites.

  10. Development of environmentally compatible tribosystems with PVD-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Hornig, T.; Kienitz, S.; Klocke, F.; Krieg, T.

    2001-01-01

    PVD coatings offer a wide variety of applications. The focal point of this work is the development of an advanced type of PVD-hardcoating which allows machining with environmentally compatible lubricants. Representative examples for the investigations are the tribological systems 'turning of quenched and tempered steel 42CrMo4 V' and 'austenitic stainless steel X5CrNi18-10'. Ti-Hf-Cr-N and TiAlN/Al 2 O 3 were deposited by AIP- and H.I.S. TM - process respectively. These coating systems showed best results concerning oxidation wear and abrasive wear in former investigations. This was necessary because main cutting-edge life criterias are oxidation wear and abrasive wear at the minor cutting edge. Consequently, a high oxidation stability and a high hardness at high temperatures are required. (author)

  11. Environmental compatibility of CRYOPLANE the cryogenic-fuel aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, H.G. [Daimler Benz Aerospace Airbus, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    `CRYOPLANE` is the project name for an aircraft powered by cryogenic fuel, either liquid natural gas (LNG, mainly consisting of methane) or liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}). Emission of CO{sub 2}, unburnt hydrocarbons, soot and sulfur will be completely avoided by hydrogen combustion: LH{sub 2} is an extremely pure liquid. Emission of water as a primary combustion product is increased by a factor of 2.6. Exhaust gases behind hydrogen engines contain more water than behind kerosene engines, and hence can form contrails under a wider range of atmospheric conditions. Liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft promise big advantages relative to kerosene aircraft in terms of environmental compatibility. (R.P.)

  12. RSX system development under VAX/VMS compatibility mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuka, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Control System for the Proton Storage Ring now being built at Los Alamos will use a VAX-11/750 as its main control computer with several LSI-11/23 microprocessors reading and controlling the hardware. The VMS Compatibility Mode makes it possible to use the VAX as a development system for the LSI-11/23 microprocessors running the RSX-11S (stand-alone) operating system. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)-supplied software is used to generate the RSX-11S operating system and DECNET-11S network software. We use the VMS editors to create source files, the Macro-11 assembler and the PDP-11 Fortran-77 compiler to generate object code, and the RSX Task Builder to link the executable RSX task image. The RSX task then can be tested to some extent on the VAX before it is down-line loaded to the LSI-11/23 for further testing

  13. Biomedical Nanoparticles: Overview of Their Surface Immune-Compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Gamucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic- and therapeutic release-aimed nanoparticles require the highest degree of biocompatibility. Some physical and chemical characteristics of such nanomaterials are often at odds with this requirement. For instance, metals with specific features used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging need particular coatings to improve their blood solubility and increase their biocompatibility. Other examples come from the development of nanocarriers exploiting the different characteristics of two or more materials, i.e., the ability to encapsulate a certain drug by one core-material and the targeting capability of a different coating surface. Furthermore, all these “human-non-self” modifications necessitate proofs of compatibility with the immune system to avoid inflammatory reactions and resultant adverse effects for the patient. In the present review we discuss the molecular interactions and responses of the immune system to the principal nanoparticle surface modifications used in nanomedicine.

  14. Application of artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to investigate corrosion rate of zirconium-based nano-ceramic layer on galvanized steel in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavifard, S.M. [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Attar, M.M., E-mail: attar@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanbari, A. [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadgar, M. [Textile Engineering Department, Neyshabur University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Film formation of Zr-based conversion coating under different conditions was investigated. • We study the effect of some parameters on anticorrosion performance of conversion coating. • Optimization of processing conditions for surface treatment of galvanized steel was obtained. • Modeling and predicting corrosion current density of treated surfaces was performed using ANN and ANFIS. - Abstract: A nano-ceramic Zr-based conversion solution was prepared and optimization of Zr concentration, pH, temperature and immersion time for the treatment of hot-dip galvanized steel (HDG) was performed. SEM microscopy was utilized to investigate the microstructure and film formation of the layer and the anticorrosion performance of conversion coating was studied using polarization test. Artificial intelligence systems (ANN and ANFIS) were applied on the data obtained from polarization test and the models for predicting corrosion current density values were attained. The outcome of these models showed proper predictability of the methods. The influence of input parameters was discussed and the optimized conditions for Zr-based conversion layer formation on the galvanized steel were obtained as follows: pH 3.8–4.5, Zr concentration of about 100 ppm, ambient temperature and immersion time of about 90 s.

  15. Bioactive and Thermally Compatible Glass Coating on Zirconia Dental Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, A.; Hausmann, A.; Weber, M.; Fischer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58·10–6 K–1) than that of the zirconia (11.67·10–6 K–1). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. PMID:25421839

  16. Silicon photomultiplier modules for MRI-compatible PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Woo-Suk; Kim, Hyoungtaek; Cho, Gyuseong

    2015-04-01

    Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) modules were developed for use in positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI), which is a hybrid medical imaging technology. A PET-MRI is very efficient in the early diagnosis of representative senile diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. SiPMs comprise the core image sensor for MR-compatible PET applications since they have a low operational voltage, high gain, good timing resolution, ruggedness, insensitivity to magnetic fields, compactness, and low cost. In PET systems, SiPM microcells can be optimized by making a trade-off between photon detection efficiency (PDE) and dynamic range. The SiPM modules used in this study were fabricated at the National NanoFab Center (NNFC) of South Korea by using a customized CMOS processes. The SiPM modules were evaluated by first packaging them with a cost-effective PCB package instead of with a conventional ceramic package. Measurements on 1,400 SiPMs indicated a uniform breakdown voltage of 20.54 V with a standard deviation of 0.07 V. Moreover, the SiPM modules present a high and uniform energy resolution of 13.6% with a standard deviation of 0.5% at 511 keV with 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (Lu2(1-x)Y2xSiO5:Ce, LYSO) crystal coupling. These results indicated that the proposed devices offer adequate performance to form the foundation of an image sensor technology for MRI-compatible PET.

  17. Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H

    2015-02-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. © International & American Associations for Dental

  18. Container-content compatibility studies: a pharmaceutical team's integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Alda; Sehnal, Natacha; Alarcon, Antoine; Barcelo, Beatrice; Caire-Maurisier, François; Delaire, Myriam; Feuilloley, Marc; Genot, Stéphanie; Lacaze, Catherine; Pisarik, Luc; Smati, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Container-content compatibility studies are required as part of the submission of a new product market authorization file or for a change relating to the primary product-contact packaging. Many regulatory publications and guidances are available in the USA, Europe, and Japan. However these publications and guidances are not sufficiently precise enough to allow for consistent interpretation and implementation of the technical requirements. A working group has been formed by the French Society of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (SFSTP) in order to propose guidance for container-content interaction studies that meet both European and US requirements, and allows consistent and standardized information to be presented by the industry to the regulators. When a pharmaceutical drug product remains in prolonged contact with a material, the two critical points to consider are the drug product's quality and safety. A pharmaceutical evaluation of the container-content relationship should be done based on the knowledge of the contact material (e.g., type, physicochemical properties), its manufacturing processes (e.g., the type of sterilization that could potentially alter the interactions), and the formulation components involved in contact with this material (e.g., physicochemical properties, pharmaceutical presentation, route of administration). Quality is evaluated using the stability study performed on the product. Safety is partially evaluated with the stability study and is analyzed in conjunction with toxicity testing, specifically with cytotoxicity testing. The toxicity aspect is the key point of the container-content compatibility study and of patient safety. Migration tests are conducted when an interaction is suspected, or found based on previous results, to identify the component responsible for this interaction and to help select a new material if needed. Therefore, such tests are perhaps not the best ones to use for the purpose of safety evaluation

  19. Compatibility of heat resistant alloys with boron carbide, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Shin-ichi; Nagamatuya, Takaaki; Aoyama, Isao; Ito, Hisanori; Muraoka, Susumu.

    1982-12-01

    In the present design of the control rod for the experimental Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor, sintered pellets of boron carbide mixed with graphite are used as a neutron absorber, which are clad with the sheath material of Hastelloy XR. The sintered pellet contains 30 wt% of natural boron. Chemical reaction occurs between the neutron absorber and the sheath material when they contact mutually at elevated temperature. The term called compatibility is defined as the ability of those materials to be used together without undesirable reaction, in this report. The experimental results on the compatibility of both materials are presented and are discussed on three subjects as (1) the comparison between Hastelloy X and Hastelloy XR, (2) the long term exposure, (3) the effect of the reaction barrier. No difference was observed between Hastelloy X and Hastelloy XR within the conditions of the experiment at 850 0 C, 950 0 C and 1050 0 C for each 100 h concerning the first subject. On the second, the penetration depth of 74 um and 156 um were observed on Hastelloy X reacted with sintered pellets (boron carbide and graphite) at 750 0 C for 3000 h and 850 0 C for 2000 h, respectively. On the third subject, Hastelloy X surfaces were coated with zirconia or alumina powder by plasma spraying process and by calorizing process in order to prevent the above mentioned reaction. These specimens were tested under two conditions: the one was a simple heat test of 1000 0 C - 100 h and the other was five thermal cycles of 1000 0 C - 20 h. The test results showed that no reaction occurred in the both alloys themselves and some of the coated layers were stripped or cracked. (author)

  20. Compatibility of metal additive manufactured tungsten collimator for SPECT/MRI integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samudi, Amine M [INTEC, Ghent University/iMinds, Ghent (Belgium); Van Audenhaege, Karen [ELIS, Ghent University/iMinds, Gent (Belgium); Vermeeren, Gunter; Martens, Luc [INTEC, Ghent University/iMinds, Ghent (Belgium); Van Holen, Roel [ELIS, Ghent University/iMinds, Gent (Belgium); Joseph, Wout [INTEC, Ghent University/iMinds, Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-05-18

    We optimized the MR-compatibility of a novel tungsten collimator, produced with metal additive manufacturing that is part of a microSPECT insert for a preclinical SPECT/MRI scanner. We characterized the current density due to the gradient field and adapted the collimators by smart design to reduce the induced eddy currents. The z-gradient coil and the collimator were modeled with SEMCAD. The gradient strength was 510 mT/m, the gradient efficiency was about 3.4 mT/m/A. The setup was simulated with a working frequency of 10 kHz. The system consists of 7 identical collimators and digital silicon photomultipliers assembled in a ring. We evaluated the global reduction in current density J (reduction) based on the sum of all current densities in the collimator. We applied the following optimizations on the collimator: 1. We reduced the excessive material in the flanges. 2. We applied horizontal slits of 2 mm in the collimator surface. 3. We reduced material in the core; the photons are attenuated before they reach the core. The collimator will need a supporting structure. 4. The supporting structure can be avoided by using two vertical slits in the middle of the collimator. 5. We used a Z-shaped slit instead of the vertical slit. Results of simulations show that smaller flanges reduce the current density with 23%. The horizontal slits reduce the eddy currents with 6%. Using less material in the core or applying vertical slits results in the same reduction of current density. However, the vertical slits are cheaper because a hollow collimator requires supporting structures during production. Both can be combined if z-shaped slits are used to prevent attenuation problems. The reduction is then 27%. Finally, when all previous adaptations are combined, the reduction in eddy currents is about 56.3%.