WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptation assessments conference

  1. International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments: Conference summary and statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments was held in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, from May 22--25, 1995. Sponsored by the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the US Country Studies Program, and the directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands Government, it was the first international conference focusing exclusively on adaptation to climate change. More than 100 people from 29 countries on five continents participated. The conference primarily addressed measures to anticipate the potential effects of climate change to minimize negative effects and take advantage of any positive effects. The focus was on what governments, institutions, and individuals can do to prepare for climate change. The conference dealt with two major topics: What adaptation options are most effective and efficient in anticipating climate change and what methods should be used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation options. Brief summaries are given from the following sessions on agriculture; Water resources; coastal resources; ecosystems and forests; fisheries; human settlements; water and agriculture; and the panel session on international adaptation in national communications and other development plans and needs for technical assistance.

  2. Network-topology-adaptive quantum conference protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    As an important application of the quantum network communication,quantum multiparty conference has made multiparty secret communication possible.Previous quantum multiparty conference schemes based on quantum data encryption are insensitive to network topology.However,the topology of the quantum network significantly affects the communication efficiency,e.g.,parallel transmission in a channel with limited bandwidth.We have proposed two distinctive protocols,which work in two basic network topologies with efficiency higher than the existing ones.We first present a protocol which works in the reticulate network using Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and entanglement swapping.Another protocol,based on quantum multicasting with quantum data compression,which can improve the efficiency of the network,works in the star-like network.The security of our protocols is guaranteed by quantum key distribution and one-time-pad encryption.In general,the two protocols can be applied to any quantum network where the topology can be equivalently transformed to one of the two structures we propose in our protocols.

  3. Forest ecosystem genomics and adaptation: EVOLTREE conference report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, A.; Vinceti, B.; Alia, R.; Burczyk, J.; Cavers, S.; Degen, B.; Finkeldey, R.; Fluch, S.; Gömöry, D.; Gugerli, F.; Koelewijn, H.P.; Koskela, J.; Lefèvre, F.; Morgante, M.; Mueller-Starck, G.; Plomion, C.; Taylor, G.; Turok, J.; Savolainen, O.; Ziegenhagen, B.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a summary report of the international conference "Forest ecosystem genomics and adaptation" organized by the EVOLTREE Network of Excellence in San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Madrid), Spain, from 9 to 11 June 2010. Main achievements and results of the network are presented for the eight

  4. What actually confers adaptive capacity? Insights from agro-climatic vulnerability of Australian wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Bryan

    Full Text Available Vulnerability assessments have often invoked sustainable livelihoods theory to support the quantification of adaptive capacity based on the availability of capital--social, human, physical, natural, and financial. However, the assumption that increased availability of these capitals confers greater adaptive capacity remains largely untested. We quantified the relationship between commonly used capital indicators and an empirical index of adaptive capacity (ACI in the context of vulnerability of Australian wheat production to climate variability and change. We calculated ACI by comparing actual yields from farm survey data to climate-driven expected yields estimated by a crop model for 12 regions in Australia's wheat-sheep zone from 1991-2010. We then compiled data for 24 typical indicators used in vulnerability analyses, spanning the five capitals. We analyzed the ACI and used regression techniques to identify related capital indicators. Between regions, mean ACI was not significantly different but variance over time was. ACI was higher in dry years and lower in wet years suggesting that farm adaptive strategies are geared towards mitigating losses rather than capitalizing on opportunity. Only six of the 24 capital indicators were significantly related to adaptive capacity in a way predicted by theory. Another four indicators were significantly related to adaptive capacity but of the opposite sign, countering our theory-driven expectation. We conclude that the deductive, theory-based use of capitals to define adaptive capacity and vulnerability should be more circumspect. Assessments need to be more evidence-based, first testing the relevance and influence of capital metrics on adaptive capacity for the specific system of interest. This will more effectively direct policy and targeting of investment to mitigate agro-climatic vulnerability.

  5. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian;

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps in de...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  6. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  7. The Student Conference: A Model of Authentic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L Larkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the global marketplace, the ability to communicate, both orally and in writing, is a skillset demanded by employers. Unfortunately, typical academic exercises that involve written and oral communication are often just that ࿦ academic exercises. To provide a more authentic and robust experience, a student conference activity has been developed for use in a second-level physics course entitled Physics for a New Millennium (PNM at American University (AU. This activity involves writing a formal research paper using professional guidelines. In addition, students present their research paper during a class event modeled after an actual professional conference. A focus of this paper is to discuss the assessment strategies developed for the conference paper activity. A major goal of the assessment strategies designed for the conference paper and the associated presentation is to better capture (and then assess what students are actually learning in the course. This paper will provide an overview of the student conference paper activity with emphasis on its value as an alternative assessment tool. To that end, a synopsis of how the conference paper activity has been designed will be shared. This synopsis will begin with a general discussion of assessment, assessment methods, and the ཿlanguage of assessment.࿝ Following this synopsis a model of non-traditional assessment using the student conference paper will be highlighted. Subsequently a description of the course curriculum and the specific structure for the writing activity will be outlined as they relate to the learning outcomes for the course. Shadowing the presentation of the course-specific learning outcomes, a description of the strategies used to uncover student learning will be shared. These strategies provide an opportunity for multiple assessment ཿsnapshots࿝ to be made throughout various phases of the learning process. To illustrate these snapshots, examples from actual student

  8. 3rd International Conference on Ecosystem Assessment Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Sheng-Quan; Cao, Hu-hua; Ecosystem Assessment and Fuzzy Systems Management

    2014-01-01

    “Ecosystem Assessment and Fuzzy Systems Management” is the edited outcome of the 3rd International Conference on Ecosystem Assessment Management (ICEAM) and the Workshop on the Construction of an Early Warning Platform for Eco-tourism (WCEWPE) in Hainan on May 5-12, 2013, Haikou, China. The 3rd ICEAM and the WCEWPE, built on the success of previous conferences, are major Symposiums for scientists, engineers and logistic management researchers presenting their the latest achievements, developments and applications in all areas of Ecosystem Assessment Management, Early Warning Platform for Eco-tourism and fuzziology. It aims to strengthen relations between industry research laboratories and universities, and to create a primary symposium for world scientists. The book, containing 47 papers, is divided into five parts: “Ecosystem Assessment, Management and Information”; “Intelligent Algorithm, Fuzzy Optimization and Engineering Application”; “Spatial Data Analysis and Intelligent Information Proces...

  9. Assessing urban adaptive capacity to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Muñoz, Dahyann; Metzger, Marc J; Stuart, Neil; Wilson, A Meriwether W; Alvarez, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Despite the growing number of studies focusing on urban vulnerability to climate change, adaptive capacity, which is a key component of the IPCC definition of vulnerability, is rarely assessed quantitatively. We examine the capacity of adaptation in the Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile. A flexible methodology based on spatial fuzzy modelling was developed to standardise and aggregate, through a stepwise approach, seventeen indicators derived from widely available census statistical data into an adaptive capacity index. The results indicate that all the municipalities in the CMA increased their level of adaptive capacity between 1992 and 2002. However, the relative differences between municipalities did not change significantly over the studied timeframe. Fuzzy overlay allowed us to standardise and to effectively aggregate indicators with differing ranges and granularities of attribute values into an overall index. It also provided a conceptually sound and reproducible means of exploring the interplay of many indicators that individually influence adaptive capacity. Furthermore, it captured the complex, aggregated and continued nature of the adaptive capacity, favouring to deal with gaps of data and knowledge associated with the concept of adaptive capacity. The resulting maps can help identify municipalities where adaptive capacity is weak and identify which components of adaptive capacity need strengthening. Identification of these capacity conditions can stimulate dialogue amongst policymakers and stakeholders regarding how to manage urban areas and how to prioritise resources for urban development in ways that can also improve adaptive capacity and thus reduce vulnerability to climate change.

  10. Do Vertebrate Gut Metagenomes Confer Rapid Ecological Adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Antton; Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Bohmann, Kristine; Zepeda-Mendoza, Marie Lisandra; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2016-09-01

    During times of rapid environmental change, survival of most vertebrate populations depends on their phenomic plasticity. Although differential gene-expression and post-transcriptional processes of the host genome receive focus as the main molecular mechanisms, growing evidence points to the gut microbiota as a key driver defining hosts' phenotypes. We propose that the plasticity of the gut microbiota might be an essential factor determining phenomic plasticity of vertebrates, and that it might play a pivotal role when vertebrates acclimate and adapt to fast environmental variation. We contemplate some key questions and suggest methodological approaches and experimental designs that can be used to evaluate whether gut microorganisms provide a boost of plasticity to vertebrates' phenomes, thereby increasing their acclimation and adaptation capacity.

  11. Assessing the effectiveness of climate adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-10-15

    As governments and other agencies spend more money on adaptation to climate change they want to know that their investments are effective — that adaptation will keep development on track, that there is a fair distribution of costs and benefits, and that climate resilience is being built. But monitoring and evaluating adaptation policy and practice is not easy. Some approaches are unhelpful because they fail to integrate adaptation and development, use purely quantitative methods and do not include the perspectives of climate-vulnerable groups in their assessments. Enabling countries and organisations to effectively evaluate adaptation requires an inclusive approach built on sharing knowledge among all stakeholders — one that can capture behavioural and institutional changes and that answers to the needs of the climate-vulnerable poor.

  12. Conference on Environmental Assessment of Socioeconomic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ittelson, William

    1978-01-01

    Neglect of the relation between the socio-economic system and its natural environment has had detrimental consequences in the past, for example - the pollution of the natural environment (water, air and soil) by producing, using and consuming the products of our industrialized economy, - the forseeable exhaustion of natural resources by continuing the increase of industrial production. Most of the recent activities, both in research and in adminis­ tration, against these impacts have been technically oriented, with the aim of stimulating and introducing new technologies of produc­ tion and new products to diminish the environmental pollution. But these efforts, which are of course necessary, cannot be successful in approaching the aim - which should and must in the long-term view be defined as the development of society in balance with the natural environment. Therefore, in addition to an assess­ ment of technologies, emphasis should be put on an assessment of socio-economic systems. On di~~erent levels, i...

  13. Research on fast real-time adaptive audio mixing in multimedia conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xing; GU Wei-kang; YE Xiu-qing

    2005-01-01

    In multimedia conference, the capability of audio processing is basic and requires more for real-time criteria. In this article, we categorize and analyze the schemes, and provide several multipoint speech audio mixing schemes using weighted algorithm, which meet the demand of practical needs for real-time multipoint speech mixing, for which the ASW and AEW schemes are especially recommended. Applying the adaptive algorithms, the high-performance schemes we provide do not use the saturation operation widely used in multimedia processing. Therefore, no additional noise will be added to the output. The above adaptive algorithms have relatively low computational complexity and good hearing perceptibility. The schemes are designed for parallel processing, and can be easily implemented with hardware, such as DSPs, and widely applied in multimedia conference systems.

  14. Probabilistic assessment of uncertain adaptive hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Michael C.; Singhal, Surendra N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive composite structures using actuation materials, such as piezoelectric fibers, were assessed probabilistically utilizing intraply hybrid composite mechanics in conjunction with probabilistic composite structural analysis. Uncertainties associated with the actuation material as well as the uncertainties in the regular (traditional) composite material properties were quantified and considered in the assessment. Static and buckling analyses were performed for rectangular panels with various boundary conditions and different control arrangements. The probability density functions of the structural behavior, such as maximum displacement and critical buckling load, were computationally simulated. The results of the assessment indicate that improved design and reliability can be achieved with actuation material.

  15. Assessment To Promote Deep Learning: Insight from AAHE's 2000 and 1999 Assessment Conferences. Major Addresses from "Rising Expectations for Assessment: Can We Deliver?" AAHE Assessment Conference (Charlotte, North Carolina, June 14-18, 2000) [and] Highlights of Plenary Addresses from "Assessment as Evidence of Learning: Serving Student and Society," AAHE Assessment Conference (Denver, Colorado, June 13-16, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskie, Linda, Ed.

    Papers from two conferences explore efforts to meet rising expectations for higher education through fair and honest assessment. The papers from the 2000 conference are: (1) "A Conversation with Jorge Klor de Alva" (interviewed by Gail Mellow); (2) "Promoting Deep Learning through Teaching and Assessment" (Noel Entwistle); (3)…

  16. Assessment of governance strategies for climate adaptation in Flanders / Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Verhofstede, Björn; Leinfelder, Hans; Allaert, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Climate discourse in recent decades has mainly focused on the issue of mitigation. Through a better understanding and assessment of climate challenges, adaptation arises as a complementary strategy to mitigation. Vulnerability in relation to climate change is seen as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Adaptation can influence sensitivity while mitigating impacts on the exposure to climate change. (IPCC, 2007). Adaptation requires space for climate on a local scale and ...

  17. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  18. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-03-01

    Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  19. Prepare to be Wrong: Assessing and Designing for Adaptability, Flexibility, and Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (IDETC/ CIE 2007), Las Vegas, NV, September 4–7, 2007. 12 For a discussion of...and adaptable systems. The Threshold Confidence Level contours ( color code) represent the minimum annualized probability at which the adaptable...Engineering Conference (IDETC/ CIE 2007), Las Vegas, NV, September 4–7, 2007. Friedman, Norman. The U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History

  20. Methodical Approaches to the Assessment of Personnel Adaptation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Petrova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of system of adaptation of the personnel is a necessary link of personnel management. Unfortunately, importance of actions for career guidance and adaptation of workers is not seriously perceived by HR departments. Many state enterprises and commercial organizations still have no basic programs of adaptation. Introduction of a control system of adaptation in the enterprises represents rather complex challenge, but the solution of such important tasks for the enterprise depends on: the reduction of starting expenses, the reduction of staff turnover; perhaps faster achievement of the working indicators accepted for the organization – the employer. Adaptation process demands certain temporal and financial investments from the company. Therefore it is necessary to offer the mechanism of an assessment of efficiency of these expenses. It is revealed that now general indicators of assessment of efficiency of adaptation of only three types are used: professional, psychophysiological and social, and psychological. The conclusion is also drawn that, it is not enough for complex definition of results of this process: criteria by which it is possible to carry out a quantitative assessment, have to be “in a sheaf” with the purposes and problems of adaptation. On the example of the concrete organization, the technique of application of universal tool of an assessment of system effectiveness of adaptation of the personnel which can be used in any organization is offered and described.

  1. Conference Analysis Report of Assessments on Defect and Damage for a High Temperature Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Yeon

    2008-11-15

    This report presents the analysis on the state-of-the-art research trends on creep-fatigue damage, defect assessment of high temperature structure, development of heat resistant materials and their behavior at high temperature based on the papers presented in the two international conferences of ASME PVP 2008 which was held in Chicago in July 2008 and CF-5(5th International Conference on Creep, Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue) which was held in Kalpakkam, India in September 2008.

  2. Can You Hear Me Now? Assessing Students’ Classroom Communication Preferences via a Telephone Conference Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon G. Heilmann

    2012-01-01

    Telephone conference presentation delivery was compared to face-to-face classroom delivery in an undergraduate business course setting to assess whether concern over presenting in front of the class and/or gender impacted presentation mode preference. After completing a classroom exercise, students (n=102) were surveyed and asked to compare delivery methods from two courses, one requiring a telephone conference and the other requiring a face-to-face classroom presentation, in terms of perceiv...

  3. Forest climate change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment in Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, V. S.; Shrestha, H. L.; Agarwal, N. K.; Choudhurya, D.; Gilani, H.; Dhonju, H. K.; Murthy, M. S. R.

    2014-11-01

    Forests offer an important basis for creating and safeguarding more climate-resilient communities over Hindu Kush Himalayan region. The forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment to climate change and developing knowledge base to identify and support relevant adaptation strategies is realized as an urgent need. The multi scale adaptation strategies portray increasing complexity with the increasing levels in terms of data requirements, vulnerability understanding and decision making to choose a particular adaptation strategy. We present here how such complexities could be addressed and adaptation decisions could be either directly supported by open source remote sensing based forestry products or geospatial analysis and modelled products. The forest vulnerability assessment under climate change scenario coupled with increasing forest social dependence was studied using IPCC Landscape scale Vulnerability framework in Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in Nepal. Around twenty layers of geospatial information on climate, forest biophysical and forest social dependence data was used to assess forest vulnerability and associated adaptation needs using self-learning decision tree based approaches. The increase in forest fires, evapotranspiration and reduction in productivity over changing climate scenario was observed. The adaptation measures on enhancing productivity, improving resilience, reducing or avoiding pressure with spatial specificity are identified to support suitable decision making. The study provides spatial analytical framework to evaluate multitude of parameters to understand vulnerabilities and assess scope for alternative adaptation strategies with spatial explicitness.

  4. Identification of site-specific adaptations conferring increased neural cell tropism during human enterovirus 71 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Cordey

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one of the most virulent enteroviruses, but the specific molecular features that enhance its ability to disseminate in humans remain unknown. We analyzed the genomic features of EV71 in an immunocompromised host with disseminated disease according to the different sites of infection. Comparison of five full-length genomes sequenced directly from respiratory, gastrointestinal, nervous system, and blood specimens revealed three nucleotide changes that occurred within a five-day period: a non-conservative amino acid change in VP1 located within the BC loop (L97R, a region considered as an immunogenic site and possibly important in poliovirus host adaptation; a conservative amino acid substitution in protein 2B (A38V; and a silent mutation in protein 3D (L175. Infectious clones were constructed using both BrCr (lineage A and the clinical strain (lineage C backgrounds containing either one or both non-synonymous mutations. In vitro cell tropism and competition assays revealed that the VP1₉₇ Leu to Arg substitution within the BC loop conferred a replicative advantage in SH-SY5Y cells of neuroblastoma origin. Interestingly, this mutation was frequently associated in vitro with a second non-conservative mutation (E167G or E167A in the VP1 EF loop in neuroblastoma cells. Comparative models of these EV71 VP1 variants were built to determine how the substitutions might affect VP1 structure and/or interactions with host cells and suggest that, while no significant structural changes were observed, the substitutions may alter interactions with host cell receptors. Taken together, our results show that the VP1 BC loop region of EV71 plays a critical role in cell tropism independent of EV71 lineage and, thus, may have contributed to dissemination and neurotropism in the immunocompromised patient.

  5. Temporal Learning Analytics for Adaptive Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamitsiou, Zacharoula; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and early predictions of student performance could significantly affect interventions during teaching and assessment, which gradually could lead to improved learning outcomes. In our research, we seek to identify and formalize temporal parameters as predictors of performance ("temporal learning analytics" or TLA) and examine…

  6. Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

  7. Biohorizons: An eConference to Assess Human Biology in Large, First-Year Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Roger W.; Moni, Karen B.; Poronnik, Philip; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors detail the design, implementation and evaluation of an eConference entitled "Biohorizons," using a presage-process-product model to describe the development of an eLearning community. Biohorizons was a summative learning and assessment task aiming to introduce large classes of first-year Human Biology students to the practices of…

  8. Adaptation of forest ecosystems to air pollution and climate change: a global assessment on research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serengil Y

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and air pollution are two of the anthropogenic stressors that require international collaboration. Influence mechanisms and combating strategies towards them have similarities to some extent. Impacts of air pollution and climate change have long been studied under IUFRO Research Group 7.01 and state of the art findings are presented at biannual meetings. Monitoring, modelling, assessment of multiple stressors, ecophysiology, and nutrient cycles have been thoroughly studied aspects of climate change and air pollution research for a long time under the umbrella of IUFRO RG 7.01. Recently, social and economic issues together with water relations are gaining more attention in parallel with science requirements on adaptation. In this paper, we summarise the main research needs emphasized at the recent 24th IUFRO RG 7.01 Conference titled “Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change”. One important conclusion of the conference was the need for information on nutritional status of forest stands for sustainable forest management. It has been suggested to maintain long-term monitoring programs and to account for the effects of extreme years, and past and present management practices. Long-term monitoring can also help to understand the effects of forestry treatments on the nutrient and water budgets of the ecosystems which may enable to improve management practices like water saving silviculture.

  9. 30 CFR 845.18 - Procedures for assessment conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... actual prejudice as a result of the delay. (2) The Office shall post notice of the time and place of the... assessed with a notice of his or her action in the manner provided in 30 CFR 845.17(b) and shall include a.... (f) At formal review proceedings under sections 518, 521(a)(4), and 525 of the Act, no evidence as...

  10. Adaptive testing for psychological assessment: how many items are enough to run an adaptive testing algorithm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Menghin, Michaela M; Masters, Geoff N

    2013-01-01

    Although the principles of adaptive testing were established in the psychometric literature many years ago (e.g., Weiss, 1977), and practice of adaptive testing is established in educational assessment, it not yet widespread in psychological assessment. One obstacle to adaptive psychological testing is a lack of clarity about the necessary number of items to run an adaptive algorithm. The study explores the relationship between item bank size, test length and measurement precision. Simulated adaptive test runs (allowing a maximum of 30 items per person) out of an item bank with 10 items per ability level (covering .5 logits, 150 items total) yield a standard error of measurement (SEM) of .47 (.39) after an average of 20 (29) items for 85-93% (64-82%) of the simulated rectangular sample. Expanding the bank to 20 items per level (300 items total) did not improve the algorithm's performance significantly. With a small item bank (5 items per ability level, 75 items total) it is possible to reach the same SEM as with a conventional test, but with fewer items or a better SEM with the same number of items.

  11. Towards an Adaptive competency-based learning System using assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine El Faddouli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available E-learning is not restricted to publishing online content. The challenge is to apply pedagogical models using new information and communication technologies in order to adjust the learning process. This adaptation will take place by proposing an adaptive learning system. There are several e-learning environment adaptation approaches such as adaptive hypermedia and semantic web. In our proposed system, we focus on evaluation that has not been, up till now, given its real value in the e-learning environment. The purpose is to implement an adaptive learning system for individualized pedagogical paths through a personalized diagnosis of learners' performances. This proposed system relies mainly on assessment and the competency-based approach as a framework. To achieve this goal, we adopt an enhanced cycle of formative assessment while adhering to a service-oriented architecture. The system will be implemented as an activity in a pedagogical scenario defined responding to the learner's needs, while aligning with norms and standards.

  12. Quality assessment of adaptive 3D video streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Gutiérrez, Jesús; García, Narciso

    2013-03-01

    The streaming of 3D video contents is currently a reality to expand the user experience. However, because of the variable bandwidth of the networks used to deliver multimedia content, a smooth and high-quality playback experience could not always be guaranteed. Using segments in multiple video qualities, HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) of video content is a relevant advancement with respect to classic progressive download streaming. Mainly, it allows resolving these issues by offering significant advantages in terms of both user-perceived Quality of Experience (QoE) and resource utilization for content and network service providers. In this paper we discuss the impact of possible HAS client's behavior while adapting to the network capacity on enduser. This has been done through an experiment of testing the end-user response to the quality variation during the adaptation procedure. The evaluation has been carried out through a subjective test of the end-user response to various possible clients' behaviors for increasing, decreasing, and oscillation of quality in 3D video. In addition, some of the HAS typical impairments during the adaptation has been simulated and their effects on the end-user perception are assessed. The experimental conclusions have made good insight into the user's response to different adaptation scenarios and visual impairments causing the visual discomfort that can be used to develop the adaptive streaming algorithm to improve the end-user experience.

  13. Electronic Quality of Life Assessment Using Computer-Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) questionnaires are desirable for clinical practice but can be time-consuming to administer and interpret, making their widespread adoption difficult. Objective Our aim was to assess the performance of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-100 questionnaire as four item banks to facilitate adaptive testing using simulated computer adaptive tests (CATs) for physical, psychological, social, and environmental QoL. Methods We used data from the UK WHOQOL-100 questionnaire (N=320) to calibrate item banks using item response theory, which included psychometric assessments of differential item functioning, local dependency, unidimensionality, and reliability. We simulated CATs to assess the number of items administered before prespecified levels of reliability was met. Results The item banks (40 items) all displayed good model fit (P>.01) and were unidimensional (fewer than 5% of t tests significant), reliable (Person Separation Index>.70), and free from differential item functioning (no significant analysis of variance interaction) or local dependency (residual correlations banks were between 45% and 75% shorter than paper-based WHOQOL measures. Across the four domains, a high standard of reliability (alpha>.90) could be gained with a median of 9 items. Conclusions Using CAT, simulated assessments were as reliable as paper-based forms of the WHOQOL with a fraction of the number of items. These properties suggest that these item banks are suitable for computerized adaptive assessment. These item banks have the potential for international development using existing alternative language versions of the WHOQOL items. PMID:27694100

  14. Durability, adaptability and energy conservation (DAEC) assessment tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langford, D.A.; Macleod, I.; Dimitrijevic, B. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Maver, T.W. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Architecture and Building

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an evaluation tool for assessing the durability, adaptability and energy conservation of existing buildings and new building designs - DAEC Tool. The tool is one of the outcomes of the research project 'Sustainability of Buildings: Durability, Adaptability and Energy Conservation'. The paper examines the issues which were the basis for developing the metrics, and the application of the DAEC Tool in the evaluation of selected higher education buildings and a new building design for a community hospital. The paper explains how the DAEC Tool can be used in building design and building management. (author)

  15. Perceptual reasoning managed situation assessment and adaptive fusion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Ivan

    2001-08-01

    A unified perceptual reasoning system framework for adaptive sensor fusion and situation assessment is presented. The concept and application of perception, the resultant system architecture and its candidate renditions using knowledge- based systems and associative memory are discussed. The perceptual reasoning system is shown to be a natural governing mechanism for extracting, associating and fusing information from multiple sources while adaptively controlling the Joint Director of Laboratories (JDL) Fusion Model processes for optimum fusion system performance. The unified modular system construct is shown to provide a formal framework to accommodate various implementation alternatives. The application of this architectural concept is illustrated for representative network centric surveillance system architecture. A target identification system using Dempster-Shafer declarations level fusion is used to demonstrate the benefits of the adaptive perceptual reasoning system and the iterative evidential reasoning method.

  16. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  17. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Diann

    2011-09-01

    The third annual meeting of the AMSE/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in the heart of historic Philadelphia's cultural district, and included a pioneer banquet in the National Constitutional Center. The applications emphasis of the 2010 conference was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Alan Taub, vice president of General Motors global research and development, 'Smart materials in the automotive industry'; Dr Charles R Farrar, engineering institute leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 'Future directions for structural health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructure'; and Professor Christopher S Lynch of the University of California Los Angeles, 'Ferroelectric materials and their applications'. The SMASIS conference was divided into six technical symposia each of which included basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. The six symposia were: SYMP 1 Multifunctional Materials; SYMP 2 Active Materials, Mechanics and Behavior; SYMP 3 Modeling, Simulation and Control; SYMP 4 Enabling Technologies and Integrated System Design; SYMP 5 Structural Health Monitoring/NDE; and SYMP 6 Bio-inspired Smart Materials and Structures. In addition, the conference introduced a new student and young professional development symposium. Authors of papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2 and 6) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart Materials and Structures. This set of papers demonstrates the exceptional quality and originality of the conference presentations. We are appreciative of their efforts in producing this collection of highly relevant articles on smart materials.

  18. Can You Hear Me Now? Assessing Students’ Classroom Communication Preferences via a Telephone Conference Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon G. Heilmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Telephone conference presentation delivery was compared to face-to-face classroom delivery in an undergraduate business course setting to assess whether concern over presenting in front of the class and/or gender impacted presentation mode preference. After completing a classroom exercise, students (n=102 were surveyed and asked to compare delivery methods from two courses, one requiring a telephone conference and the other requiring a face-to-face classroom presentation, in terms of perceived effectiveness, feedback, teamwork, instructor cues, preparation time, and overall comfort. Independent sample t-test results indicated respondents who worried about presenting in front of the class believed the telephone conference format required more attention to verbal presentation quality, and they also worried more about presenting in the telephone conference format than respondents who did not worry about presenting in front of the class. In terms of gender, female respondents indicated more attention to visual aid was required during the teleconference format, believed the teleconference presentation format allowed for the same opportunity for feedback from the instructor as the formal presentation, were more likely to indicate they were concerned about speaking in front of the classroom during formal presentations, and were also more concerned about speaking during the teleconference than male respondents. Overall, results indicated the teleconference activity was perceived to be a practical alternative to the traditional face-to-face delivery method; however, females’ perceptions of discomfort across both delivery formats warrant further study.

  19. Development of a computerized adaptive test for Schizotypy assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT to evaluate schizotypy through "The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment" (ESQUIZO-Q, in non-clinical adolescents. METHODS: The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD=1.2. RESULTS: The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ≤ 0.30 was of 34 items. CONCLUSION: The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings.

  20. A new adaptive testing algorithm for shortening health literacy assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currie Leanne M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low health literacy has a detrimental effect on health outcomes, as well as ability to use online health resources. Good health literacy assessment tools must be brief to be adopted in practice; test development from the perspective of item-response theory requires pretesting on large participant populations. Our objective was to develop a novel classification method for developing brief assessment instruments that does not require pretesting on large numbers of research participants, and that would be suitable for computerized adaptive testing. Methods We present a new algorithm that uses principles of measurement decision theory (MDT and Shannon's information theory. As a demonstration, we applied it to a secondary analysis of data sets from two assessment tests: a study that measured patients' familiarity with health terms (52 participants, 60 items and a study that assessed health numeracy (165 participants, 8 items. Results In the familiarity data set, the method correctly classified 88.5% of the subjects, and the average length of test was reduced by about 50%. In the numeracy data set, for a two-class classification scheme, 96.9% of the subjects were correctly classified with a more modest reduction in test length of 35.7%; a three-class scheme correctly classified 93.8% with a 17.7% reduction in test length. Conclusions MDT-based approaches are a promising alternative to approaches based on item-response theory, and are well-suited for computerized adaptive testing in the health domain.

  1. Opportunities to Develop Adaptive Expertise during Student Teaching Conferences: Identifying Barriers and Exploring Intersubjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soslau, Elizabeth Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Pupils' classrooms are highly variable and teachers have a difficult time addressing the broad range of students' needs in diverse contexts. Additionally, teachers are often not taught how to learn from their own teaching and develop adaptive teaching expertise, a necessary ability for educators in a constantly changing social world. The…

  2. A Review of Cogent Reflection on the Economic Impact Assessment of Conferences – MICE Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MICE tourism has grown into an important economic sector in many places, and it is quite easy to understand the relevancy of estimating the economic impact of business tourists on the local and regional economies. Several industrial and academic researches has mentioned many methods for economic impact studies (direct, indirect and induced impacts of the conference - MICE tourism related events. Of these, the input-output (I-O model and general equilibrium models (REMI and REM II are widely used for the economic impact assessments. The current paper will review economic impact studies in the c conference - MICE tourism related events and then discusses the issues related to the I-O model and general equilibrium models framework

  3. Assessing adaptation to the health risks of climate change: what guidance can existing frameworks provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füssel, Hans-Martin

    2008-02-01

    Climate change adaptation assessments aim at assisting policy-makers in reducing the health risks associated with climate change and variability. This paper identifies key characteristics of the climate-health relationship and of the adaptation decision problem that require consideration in climate change adaptation assessments. It then analyzes whether these characteristics are appropriately considered in existing guidelines for climate impact and adaptation assessment and in pertinent conceptual models from environmental epidemiology. The review finds three assessment guidelines based on a generalized risk management framework to be most useful for guiding adaptation assessments of human health. Since none of them adequately addresses all key challenges of the adaptation decision problem, actual adaptation assessments need to combine elements from different guidelines. Established conceptual models from environmental epidemiology are found to be of limited relevance for assessing and planning adaptation to climate change since the prevailing toxicological model of environmental health is not applicable to many climate-sensitive health risks.

  4. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior: From Animals to Animats 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Gillian Hayes Contents ix The Evolution of Communication Schemes over Continuous Channels .......................................... 580 Gregory M...ethology. In Growing Points in The behaviour appropriate to the tool specified in the Ethology (ed. Bateson , P. and Hinde, R.). Cam- highest motivation...communication. Adaptive Behavior, 2:161-187, ior, pages 502-510, 1993. 1993. [27] Gregory Werner and Michael Dyer. Evolution of communication in artificial

  5. Adaptation and survival of plants in high stress habitats via fungal endophyte conferred stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rusty J.; Woodward, Claire; Redman, Regina S.

    2010-01-01

    From the Arctic to the Antarctic, plants thrive in diverse habitats that impose different levels of adaptive pressures depending on the type and degree of biotic and abiotic stresses inherent to each habitat (Stevens, 1989). At any particular location, the abundance and distribution of individual plant species vary tremendously and is theorized to be based on the ability to tolerate a wide range of edaphic conditions and habitat-specific stresses (Pianka, 1966). The ability of individual plant species to thrive in diverse habitats is commonly referred to as phenotypic plasticity and is thought to involve adaptations based on changes in the plant genome (Givnish, 2002; Pan et al., 2006; Robe and Griffiths, 2000; Schurr et al., 2006). Habitats that impose high levels of abiotic stress are typically colonized with fewer plant species compared to habitats imposing low levels of stress. Moreover, high stress habitats have decreased levels of plant abundance compared to low stress habitats even though these habitats may occur in close proximity to one another (Perelman et al., 2007). This is particularly interesting because all plants are known to perceive, transmit signals, and respond to abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, and salinity (Bartels and Sunkar, 2005; Bohnert et al., 1995). Although there has been extensive research performed to determine the genetic, molecular, and physiological bases of how plants respond to and tolerate stress, the nature of plant adaptation to high stress habitats remains unresolved (Leone et al., 2003; Maggio et al., 2003; Tuberosa et al., 2003). However, recent evidence indicates that a ubiquitous aspect of plant biology (fungal symbiosis) is involved in the adaptation and survival of at least some plants in high stress habitats (Rodriguez et al., 2008).

  6. Interaction with phosphoinositides confers adaptation onto the TRPV1 pain receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yao

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is a common feature of many sensory systems. But its occurrence to pain sensation has remained elusive. Here we address the problem at the receptor level and show that the capsaicin ion channel TRPV1, which mediates nociception at the peripheral nerve terminals, possesses properties essential to the adaptation of sensory responses. Ca(2+ influx following the channel opening caused a profound shift (approximately 14-fold of the agonist sensitivity, but did not alter the maximum attainable current. The shift was adequate to render the channel irresponsive to normally saturating concentrations, leaving the notion that the channel became no longer functional after desensitization. By simultaneous patch-clamp recording and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF imaging, it was shown that the depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 induced by Ca(2+ influx had a rapid time course synchronous to the desensitization of the current. The extent of the depletion was comparable to that by rapamycin-induced activation of a PIP2 5-phosphatase, which also caused a significant reduction of the agonist sensitivity without affecting the maximum response. These results support a prominent contribution of PIP2 depletion to the desensitization of TRPV1 and suggest the adaptation as a possible physiological function for the Ca(2+ influx through the channel.

  7. Genomic dissection of genotype x environment interactions conferring adaptation of cotton to arid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranga, Y; Menz, M; Jiang, C X; Wright, R J; Yakir, D; Paterson, A H

    2001-12-01

    The interaction of genotype with environment is of primary importance in many aspects of genomic research and is a special priority in the study of major crops grown in a wide range of environments. Water deficit, the major factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity worldwide, is expected to increase with the spread of arid lands. In genetically equivalent cotton populations grown under well-watered and water-limited conditions (the latter is responsible for yield reduction of approximately 50% relative to well-watered conditions), productivity and quality were shown to be partly accounted for by different quantitative trait loci (QTLs), indicating that adaptation to both arid and favorable conditions can be combined in the same genotype. QTL mapping was also used to test the association between productivity and quality under water deficit with a suite of traits often found to differ between genotypes adapted to arid versus well-watered conditions. In this study, only reduced plant osmotic potential was clearly implicated in improved cotton productivity under arid conditions. Genomic tools and approaches may expedite breeding of genotypes that respond favorably to specific environments, help test roles of additional physiological factors, and guide the isolation of genes that protect crop performance under arid conditions toward improved adaptation of crops to arid cultivation.

  8. The Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers metabolic adaptation to ingested material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Taubert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II (Pol(II dependent gene expression requires accessory factors termed transcriptional coregulators. One coregulator that universally contributes to Pol(II-dependent transcription is the Mediator, a multisubunit complex that is targeted by many transcriptional regulatory factors. For example, the Caenorhabditis elegans Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers the regulatory actions of the sterol response element binding protein SBP-1 and the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49 on fatty acid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that MDT-15 displays a broader spectrum of activities, and that it integrates metabolic responses to materials ingested by C. elegans. Depletion of MDT-15 protein or mutation of the mdt-15 gene abrogated induction of specific detoxification genes in response to certain xenobiotics or heavy metals, rendering these animals hypersensitive to toxin exposure. Intriguingly, MDT-15 appeared to selectively affect stress responses related to ingestion, as MDT-15 functional defects did not abrogate other stress responses, e.g., thermotolerance. Together with our previous finding that MDT-15:NHR-49 regulatory complexes coordinate a sector of the fasting response, we propose a model whereby MDT-15 integrates several transcriptional regulatory pathways to monitor both the availability and quality of ingested materials, including nutrients and xenobiotic compounds.

  9. Substitutions in woolly mammoth hemoglobin confer biochemical properties adaptive for cold tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Kevin L.; Roberts, Jason E.E.; Watson, Laura N.;

    2010-01-01

    We have genetically retrieved, resurrected and performed detailed structure-function analyses on authentic woolly mammoth hemoglobin to reveal for the first time both the evolutionary origins and the structural underpinnings of a key adaptive physiochemical trait in an extinct species. Hemoglobin...... on the chimeric β/δ-globin subunit of mammoth hemoglobin that provide a unique solution to this problem and thereby minimize energetically costly heat loss. This biochemical specialization may have been involved in the exploitation of high-latitude environments by this African-derived elephantid lineage during...

  10. Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information

  11. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Damage Assessment of Structures (DAMAS 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Damage Assessment of Structures (DAMAS) 2015. DAMAS has a long history of almost 20 years. The first DAMAS conference took place in 1995 (Pescara, Italy), followed by a biannual meeting in 1997 (Sheffield, UK), 1999 (Dublin, Ireland), 2001 (Cardiff, UK), 2003 (Southampton, UK), 2005 (Gdansk, Poland), 2007 (Torino, Italy), 2009 (Beijing, China), 2011 (Oxford, UK) and 2013 (Dublin, Ireland). The eleventh edition of DAMAS conference series, DAMAS 2015, is hosted by Ghent University, Belgium, and is held at the congress center Het Pand in Ghent city. Ghent is the capital and the largest city of the East Flanders province of the Flemish region of Belgium. Het Pand is the culture and congress center of Ghent University and is a historical monument. The conference is established as a major international forum for research topics relevant to damage assessment of engineering structures and systems including numerical simulations, signal processing of sensor measurements and theoretical techniques as well as experimental case studies. The presentations of DAMAS 2015 are divided into 6 main sessions, namely 1) Structural Health and Condition Monitoring, 2) Damage in Civil Engineering, 3) Damage in Machineries, 4) Damage in Composite Materials, 5) Sensing and Sensors and 6) Signal Processing. The organising committee is grateful to keynote speakers; Professor Guido De Roeck, Head of Structural Mechanics Division, KULeuven, Belgium, for his keynote lecture entitled 'Structural Health Monitoring: highlights and challenges', Professor Weidong Zhu, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, USA, for his keynote lecture entitled 'Vibration-based Structural Damage Detection: Theory and Applications' and Professor Wieslaw Ostachowicz, Head of the Laboratory of Active Materials and Smart Structures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland, for his keynote lecture entitled 'Damage Assessment and

  12. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    1999-07-29

    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  13. Resolution VII International Conference Working Group on Birds of Prey of Northern Eurasia “Birds of Prey of Northern Eurasia: Problems and Adaptation Under Modern Conditions”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From 19 to 24 September, 2016 VII International Conference of the Working Group on Raptors of Northern Eurasia “Birds of prey of Northern Eurasia: problems and adaptation under modern conditions” was held on the basis of the Sochi National Park. Materials for the conference were presented by 198 ornithologists from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Austria, Great Britain, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Estonia and the USA, who published 148 articles in two collections “Birds of prey of Northern Eurasia” and “Palearctic Harriers”.

  14. Mitigation and adaptation cost assessment: Concepts, methods and appropriate use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The present report on mitigation and adaptation costs addresses the complex issue of identifying synergies and tradeoffs between national priorities and mitigation policies, an issue that requires the integration of various disciplines so as to provide a comprehensive overview of future development trends, available technologies and economic policies. Further, the report suggests a new conceptual framework for treating the social aspects in assessing mitigation and adaptation costs in climate change studies. The impacts of certain sustainability indicators such as employment and poverty reduction on mitigation costing are also discussed in the report. Among the topics to be considered by over 120 distinguished international experts, are the elements of costing methodologies at both the micro and macro levels. Special effort will be made to include the impacts of such parameters as income, equity, poverty, employment and trade. Hence, the contents of this report are highly relevant to the authors of the Third Working Group in the development of the TAR. The report contains a chapter on Special Issues and Problems Related to Cost Assessment for Developing Countries. This chapter will provide valuable background in the further development of these concepts in the TAR because it is an area that has not received due attention in previous work. (au)

  15. Emerging contaminants: presentations at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnyak, George; Vandenberg, John; Yaroschak, Paul J; Williams, Larry; Prabhakaran, Krishnan; Hinz, John

    2011-07-15

    A session entitled "Emerging Contaminants" was held in April 2009 in Cincinnati, OH at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference. The purpose of the session was to share information on both programmatic and technical aspects associated with emerging contaminants. Emerging contaminants are chemicals or materials that are characterized by a perceived or real threat to human health or environment, a lack of published health standards or an evolving standard. A contaminant may also be "emerging" because of the discovery of a new source, a new pathway to humans, or a new detection method or technology. The session included five speakers representing the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and each of the military services. The DoD created the Emerging Contaminant Directorate to proactively address environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with emerging contaminants. This session described the scan-watch-action list process, impact assessment methodology, and integrated risk management concept that DoD has implemented to manage emerging contaminants. EPA presented emerging trends in health risk assessment. Researchers made technical presentations on the status of some emerging contaminates in the assessment process (i.e. manganese, RDX, and naphthalene).

  16. MRI assessment of cervical cancer for adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Schirl, Gertrude; Baldinger, Anja; Poetter, Richard [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Helbich, Thomas H. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept of Radiology

    2009-05-15

    Purpose: To assess the importance of the information obtained from MRI for adaptive cervix cancer radiotherapy. Patients and methods: 49 patients with cervix cancer, treated by external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and MRI-assisted high-dose-rate brachytherapy {+-} concomitant cisplatin, underwent MRI at diagnosis and at the time of brachytherapy fractions. 190 MRI examinations were performed. Pretreatment scans were correlated with clinical examination (CE) findings. Measurements in 3-D of the tumor extension and also of the distance from the tumor to the pelvic side wall were performed using both MRI and CE. The tumor volume regression induced initially by EBRT and the subsequent regression after each brachytherapy fraction were assessed. Results: MRI and CE showed 92% agreement in overall parametrial staging and 73% agreement in terms of vaginal involvement. There was, however, disagreement in parametrial side (right/left) classification in 25% of the parametria examined. These were patients with unilateral displacement of the cervix and contralateral invasion of the parametrium. The mean tumor volume on the pretreatment MRI scan (GTVD) was 61 cm{sup 3}. At the time of the four brachytherapy fractions the mean was 16 cm{sup 3}, 10 cm{sup 3}, 9 cm{sup 3}, and 8 cm{sup 3}, defined as the GTVBT plus the gray zones in the parametria. Conclusion: CE and MRI findings agree well in terms of overall staging. The clinical assessment of side-specific parametrial invasion improved when having access to the additional knowledge obtained from MRI. The greatest decrease in tumor volume occurs during EBRT, whereas tumor regression between the first and subsequent brachytherapy fractions is minor. (orig.)

  17. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2011 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 11) (Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 18-21 September 2011) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2011 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 11) (Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 18-21 September 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Diann

    2012-09-01

    The fourth annual meeting of the ASME/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in sunny Scottsdale, Arizona. Each year we strive to grow and offer new experiences. This year we held a special Guest Symposium on Sustainability along with two focused topic tracks on energy harvesting and active composites to encourage cross-fertilization between these important fields and our community. This cross-disciplinary emphasis was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Wayne Brown, President and founder of Dynalloy, Inc., 'Cross-Discipline Sharing'; Dr Brad Allenby, Arizona State University, 'You Want the Future? You can't Handle the Future!'; and Professor Aditi Chattopadhyay, Arizona State University, 'A Multidisciplinary Approach to Structural Health Monitoring and Prognosis'. SMASIS continues to grow our community through both social and technical interchange. The conference location, the exotic Firesky Resort and Spa, exemplified the theme of our Guest Symposium on Sustainability, being the only Green Seal certified resort in Arizona, and highlighting four elements thought to represent all that exist: fire, water, earth and air. Several special events were held around this theme including the night at the oasis reception sponsored by General Motors, sustainability bingo, smart trivia and student networking lunches, and an Arizona pow-wow with a spectacular Indian hoop dance. Our student and young professional development continues to grow strong with best paper and hardware competitions, scavenger student outing and games night. We are very proud that our students and young professionals are always seeking out ways to give back to the community, including organizing outreach to local high school talent. We thank all of our sponsors who made these special events possible. We hope that these social events provided participants with the opportunity to expand their own personal community and broaden their horizons. Our

  18. Quantitative Adaptation Analytics for Assessing Dynamic Systems of Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, John H.; Miner, Nadine E.; Wilson, Michael L.; Le, Hai D.; Kao, Gio K; Melander, Darryl J.; Longsine, Dennis Earl [Sandia National Laboratories, Unknown, Unknown; Vander Meer, Robert Charles,

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  19. Assessment of grammar comprehension: Adaptation of TROG for Serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Darinka Č.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present our adaptation and preliminary standardization of Test for Reception of Grammar TROG (Bishop, 1989 for Serbian language. TROG is a receptive test of grammatical structures, constructed primarily for an assessment of grammatical development and detection of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI. Due to the lack of standardized tests for language development in our clinical community, TROG is selected for adaptation as a test which includes two components relevant for discrimination of children with language difficulties: a measure of receptive abilities and b distinguishing knowledge of grammar from semantic aspect of comprehension. Preliminary standardization was done on a sample of 335 participants between 4 and 7 years of age, divided into 8 age subsamples. Since dynamic of language change at early ages is faster, age samples covered range of 3 months at the ages 4;0-4;2, 4;3-4;5, 4;6-4;8, 4;9-4;11, and range of 6 months at the ages 5;0-5;5, 5;6-5;11, 6;00-6;05, 6;06-6;11. Analyses have revealed that the first version of Serbian TROG is discriminative for the differences between age samples, but discrimination is smaller then it was expected. The test discriminates three age-samples (4;0-4;8, 4;9-5;5, and 5;6-6;11. It is easier for the children older then 5 years, which causes statistical significance of discrimination to tilt within a narrow margin around 0,05. Reliability of the whole instrument is estimated very high - between 0,86 and 0,91, depending on the method of estimation. However, reliability estimated for particular blocks (grammatical structure revealed that internal consistency of blocks is not homogeneous. This finding prevents reliable estimation of competence for particular structures, and makes difficult to define which contrast is understood by a child and which is not. Furthermore, internal inconsistency of blocks may also be additional source of low discrimination of test for children

  20. Power quality assessment using an adaptive neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, P.K.; Swain, D.P.; Mishra, B.R. [Regional Engineering Coll., Rourkela (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Rahman, S. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents an adaptive neural network approach for the estimation of harmonic components of a power system and the power quality. The neural estimator is based on the use of an adaptive perceptron consisting of a linear adaptive neuron called Adaline. The learning parameters in the proposed algorithm are adjusted to force the error between the actual and desired outputs to satisfy a stable difference error equation. The estimator tracks the Fourier coefficients of the signal data corrupted with noise and decaying dc components very accurately. Adaptive tracking of harmonic components of a power system can easily be done using this algorithm. Several numerical tests have been conducted for the adaptive estimation of harmonic components, total harmonic distortion and power quality of power system signals mixed with noise and decaying dc components.

  1. (Original article) Adaptive behavior: national perspective and evaluation with adaptive behavior assessment system

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior refers to conceptual, social and practical skills, which allow adaptating to the environment. This study aims to do a scientific literature review from the SciELO and to conduct further structural analysis with the ABAS-II, one of the main instruments to evaluate the construct. The results showed that Brazilian studies are recent, but they have been increasing in previous years, mainly concentrated in the multidisciplinary area. We identified 13 instruments in 46 articles, b...

  2. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation...... to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities.......Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible...

  3. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2013 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 13) (Snowbird, UT, USA, 16-18 September 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy; Naguib, Hani; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin; Daqaq, Mohammed; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu; Sarles, Andy

    2014-10-01

    The sixth annual meeting of the ASME Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) was held in the beautiful mountain encircled Snowbird Resort and Conference Center in Little Cottonwood Canyon near Salt Lake City, Utah. It is the conference's objective to provide an up-to-date overview of research trends in the entire field of smart materials systems in a friendly casual forum conducive to the exchange of ideas and latest results. As each year we strive to grow and offer new experiences, this year we included special focused topic tracks on nanoscale multiferroic materials and origami engineering. The cross-disciplinary emphasis was reflected in keynote speeches by Professor Kaushik Bhattacharya (California Institute of Technology) on 'Cyclic Deformation and the Interplay between Phase Transformation and Plasticity in Shape Memory Alloys', by Professor Alison Flatau (University of Maryland at College Park) on 'Structural Magnetostrictive Alloys: The Other Smart Material', and by Dr Leslie Momoda (Director of the Sensors and Materials Laboratories, HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA) on 'Architecturing New Functional Materials: An Industrial Perspective'. SMASIS 2013 was divided into seven symposia which span basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. SYMP 1. Development and Characterization of Multifunctional Materials. SYMP 2. Mechanics and Behavior of Active Materials. SYMP 3. Modeling, Simulation and Control of Adaptive Systems. SYMP 4. Integrated System Design and Implementation. SYMP 5. Structural Health Monitoring. SYMP 6. Bioinspired Smart Materials and Systems. SYMP 7. Energy Harvesting. Authors of selected papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2, and 6) as well as energy harvesting (symposium 7) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart

  4. Assessing Adaptive Functioning in Death Penalty Cases after Hall and DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Leigh D; Drogin, Eric Y; Guilmette, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    DSM-5 and Hall v. Florida (2014) have dramatically refocused attention on the assessment of adaptive functioning in death penalty cases. In this article, we address strategies for assessing the adaptive functioning of defendants who seek exemption from capital punishment pursuant to Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In particular, we assert that evaluations of adaptive functioning should address assets as well as deficits; seek to identify credible and reliable evidence concerning the developmental period and across the lifespan; distinguish incapacity from the mere absence of adaptive behavior; adhere faithfully to test manual instructions for using standardized measures of adaptive functioning; and account for potential bias on the part of informants. We conclude with brief caveats regarding the standard error of measurement (SEM) in light of Hall, with reference to examples of ordinary life activities that directly illuminate adaptive functioning relevant to capital cases.

  5. National Water Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment, Part I: Climate Change Adaptation Readiness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report “National Water Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment” is comprised of four parts (Part I to IV), each in an independent volume. The Part I report presented herein describes a preliminary regulatory and technical analysis of water infrastructure and regulations in the ...

  6. Crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment of adaptive video streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, M.; Søgaard, Jacob; Pokhrel, J.;

    2014-01-01

    In order to cater for user’s quality of experience (QoE) re- quirements, HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) based solutions of video services have become popular recently. User QoE feedback can be instrumental in improving the capabilities of such services. Perceptual quality experiments that involve ...

  7. Situation and threat assessment for urban scenarios in a distributed adaptive system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, S.P. van den; Hanckmann, P.; Ditzel, M.

    2011-01-01

    An approach for decision support, consisting of situation and threat assessment is described, as part of a distributed and adaptive multi-sensor fusion engine. The decision support module combines the management and assessment components for situations and threats. The situation assessment determine

  8. A Health Impact Assessment Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Brown

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru.

  9. A health impact assessment framework for assessing vulnerability and adaptation planning for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru.

  10. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation using an economic pluvial flood risk framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    It is anticipated that climate change is likely to lead to an increasing risk level of flooding in cities in northern Europe. One challenging question is how to best address the increasing flood risk and assess the costs and benefits of adapting to such changes. We established an integrated...... approach for identification and assessment of climate change adaptation options by incorporating climate change impacts, flood inundation modelling, economic tool and risk assessment and management. The framework is further extended and adapted by embedding a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the total...... uncertainty bounds propagated through the evaluation and identify the relative contribution of inherent uncertainties in the assessment. The case study is a small urban catchment located in Skibhus, Odense where no significant city development is anticipated. Two adaptation scenarios, namely pipe enlargement...

  11. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2012 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 12) (Stone Mountain, GA, USA, 19-21 September 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelecke, Stefan; Erturk, Alper; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Naguib, Hani; Huber, John; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Philen, Michael; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu

    2013-09-01

    The fifth annual meeting of the ASME/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) was held in beautiful Stone Mountain near Atlanta, GA. It is the conference's objective to provide an up-to-date overview of research trends in the entire field of smart materials systems. This was reflected in keynote speeches by Professor Eduard Arzt (Institute of New Materials and Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany) on 'Micro-patterned artificial 'Gecko' surfaces: a path to switchable adhesive function', by Professor Ray H Baughman (The Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas) on 'The diverse and growing family of carbon nanotube and related artificial muscles', and by Professor Richard James (University of Minnesota) on 'The direct conversion of heat to electricity using multiferroic materials with phase transformations'. SMASIS 2012 was divided into eight symposia which span basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. • SYMP 1. Development and characterization of multifunctional materials. • SYMP 2. Mechanics and behavior of active materials. • SYMP 3. Modeling, simulation and control of adaptive systems. • SYMP 4. Integrated system design and implementation. • SYMP 5. Structural health monitoring/NDE. • SYMP 6. Bio-inspired materials and systems. • SYMP 7. Energy harvesting. • SYMP 8. Structural and materials logic. This year we were particularly excited to introduce a new symposium on energy harvesting, which has quickly matured from a special track in previous years to an independent symposium for the first time. The subject cuts across fields by studying different materials, ranging from piezoelectrics to electroactive polymers, as well as by emphasizing different energy sources from wind to waves and ambient vibrations. Modeling, experimental studies, and technology applications all

  12. Assessing climate adaptation options and uncertainties for cereal systems in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, K.; Sultan, B.; Biasutti, M.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The already fragile agriculture production system in West Africa faces further challenges in meeting food security in the coming decades, primarily due to a fast increasing population and risks of climate change. Successful adaptation of agriculture should not only benefit in the current climate but should also reduce negative (or enhance positive) impacts for climate change. Assessment of various possible adaptation options and their uncertainties provides key information for prioritizing adaptation investments. Here, based on the several robust aspects of climate projections in this region (i.e. temperature increases and rainfall pattern shifts), we use two well-validated crop models (i.e. APSIM and SARRA-H) and an ensemble of downscaled climate forcing to assess five possible and realistic adaptation options (late sowing, intensification, thermal time increase, water harvesting and increased resilience to heat stress) in West Africa for the staple crop production of sorghum. We adopt a new assessment framework to account for both the impacts of adaptation options in current climate and their ability to reduce impacts of future climate change, and also consider changes in both mean yield and its variability. Our results reveal that most proposed "adaptation options" are not more beneficial in the future than in the current climate, i.e. not really reduce the climate change impacts. Increased temperature resilience during grain number formation period is the main adaptation that emerges. We also find that changing from the traditional to modern cultivar, and later sowing in West Sahel appear to be robust adaptations.

  13. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns. An increase in potential flood damage in the urban context is anticipated due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires a higher performance on flood...... risk quantification and assessment of appropriated adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper represents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give...... detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimations of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost benefit analysis. The results are aimed to provide important information to decision making on how best to adapt for urban pluvial...

  14. Adapting the Critical Thinking Assessment Test for Palestinian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sami; Drane, Denise; Light, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking is a key learning outcome for Palestinian students. However, there are no validated critical thinking tests in Arabic. Suitability of the US developed Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT) for use in Palestine was assessed. The test was piloted with university students in English (n = 30) and 4 questions were piloted in Arabic…

  15. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute...... to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics......, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa...

  16. Assessing the Quality of a Local Authority Conference and Hospitality Venue Using the ServQual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly Mike

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The close attention paid to service quality by successful private companies has become part of the environment within which most public service organizations now operate. The ServQual model has been used with success to help companies quantify customers' expectations and perceptions of their service and to use this analysis as the basis for improvement. More recently, the ServQual approach has been applied in public service contexts with mixed reliability and validity. This paper reports on the application of the ServQual model to a conference and hospitality venue operated by a Scottish local authority. The study investigates five distinct customer segments: conferences, meetings, receptions, performances, and weddings. The expectations-perceptions gaps are assessed for each of these segments using the ServQual model and the size and antecedents of ServQual Gap 1 is also examined.

  17. Adaptive Sampling Algorithms for Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Nuclear Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego Mandelli; Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear simulations are often computationally expensive, time-consuming, and high-dimensional with respect to the number of input parameters. Thus exploring the space of all possible simulation outcomes is infeasible using finite computing resources. During simulation-based probabilistic risk analysis, it is important to discover the relationship between a potentially large number of input parameters and the output of a simulation using as few simulation trials as possible. This is a typical context for performing adaptive sampling where a few observations are obtained from the simulation, a surrogate model is built to represent the simulation space, and new samples are selected based on the model constructed. The surrogate model is then updated based on the simulation results of the sampled points. In this way, we attempt to gain the most information possible with a small number of carefully selected sampled points, limiting the number of expensive trials needed to understand features of the simulation space. We analyze the specific use case of identifying the limit surface, i.e., the boundaries in the simulation space between system failure and system success. In this study, we explore several techniques for adaptively sampling the parameter space in order to reconstruct the limit surface. We focus on several adaptive sampling schemes. First, we seek to learn a global model of the entire simulation space using prediction models or neighborhood graphs and extract the limit surface as an iso-surface of the global model. Second, we estimate the limit surface by sampling in the neighborhood of the current estimate based on topological segmentations obtained locally. Our techniques draw inspirations from topological structure known as the Morse-Smale complex. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using a global prediction model versus local topological view of the simulation space, comparing several different strategies for adaptive sampling in both

  18. Robustness Assessment and Adaptive FDI for Car Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahavir Singh Sangha; Dingli Yu; J.Barry Gomm

    2008-01-01

    A new on-line fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme proposed for engines using an adaptive neural network classifier is evaluated for a wide range of operational modes to check the robustness of the scheme in this paper. The neural classifier is adaptive to cope with the significant parameter uncertainty, disturbances, and environment changes. The developed scheme is capable of diagnosing faults in on-line mode and can be directly implemented in an on-board diagnosis system (hardware). The robustness of the FDI for the closed-loop system with crankshaft speed feedback is investigated by testing it for a wide range of operational modes including robustness against fixed and sinusoidal throttle angle inputs, change in load, change in an engine parameter, and all these changes occurring at the same time. The evaluations are performed using a mean value engine model (MVEM), which is a widely used benchmark model for engine control system and FDI system design. The simulation results confirm the robustness of the proposed method for various uncertainties and disturbances.

  19. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Iain Brown

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government...

  20. Technology-enabled assessment of health professions education: consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Zubair; Boulet, John R; Cook, David A;

    2011-01-01

    The uptake of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in health professions education can have far-reaching consequences on assessment. The medical education community still needs to develop a deeper understanding of how technology can underpin and extend assessment practices. This arti......The uptake of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in health professions education can have far-reaching consequences on assessment. The medical education community still needs to develop a deeper understanding of how technology can underpin and extend assessment practices....... This article was developed by the 2010 Ottawa Conference Consensus Group on technology-enabled assessment to guide practitioners and researchers working in this area. This article highlights the changing nature of ICTs in assessment, the importance of aligning technology-enabled assessment with local context...... health professional education. Recommendations include adhering to principles of good assessment, the need for developing coherent institutional policy, using technologies to broaden the competencies to be assessed, linking patient-outcome data to assessment of practitioner performance, and capitalizing...

  1. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Boeckmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  2. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  3. Adapting Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Assess Social Work Students' Performance and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Marion; Regehr, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen; Katz, Ellen; Mylopoulos, Maria; Regehr, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The development of standardized, valid, and reliable methods for assessment of students' practice competence continues to be a challenge for social work educators. In this study, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), originally used in medicine to assess performance through simulated interviews, was adapted for social work to…

  4. Adapting the ADAM Manikin Technology for Injury Probability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-19

    injuries of interest for ADAM testing and to assess the state of the art for injury probability assessment criteria. This literature review, in and of...formed by the ischial and pubic rami are frequently at risk as is diastasis of the pubic symphysis and/or sacro -iliac joints. Based upon the historic,’l...Proceedings No. P-45). New York, NY, Society of Automotive Engineers, 296-308 (1972). 33. Gennarelli, T.A. State-of-the- Art of Head Injury Biomechanics

  5. Cross-Cultural Adaptations of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background According to general ethical and legal principles, valid consent must be obtained before starting any procedure. Objectives Due to the lack of a standard tool for assessing patients’ capacity to consent to medical treatment in Iran, the present study was carried out aiming to devise a Persian version of a cross-cultural adaptation of the MacArthur competence assessment tool. Patients and Methods By reviewing different methods of cultural translation and adaptation for assessment tools, and due to the lack of consensus on its processes, we selected Wild’s model as one of the most comprehensive methods in this regard. Wild’s (2005 10-stage model includes preparation, forward translation, reconciliation of the forward translation, back translation of reconciliation, back translation review, cognitive debriefing and cognitive review, and finalization, proofreading and final reporting. Using this model, we translated the MacArthur assessment tool and made it adaptable to Iranian patients. Results The MacArthur assessment tool is not dependent on any specific culture and language. As a result, if translation and its scientific adaptation are done based on an integrated and detailed model, the tool can be used for every culture and language. In other words, this tool is not culture-specific; so, it is applicable in cases where a translation is needed, and it can be culturally adapted to suit different societies. Conclusions In the present study, we are able to focus on and prove the efficacy and benefits of this measurement tool.

  6. Assessing confidence in management adaptation approaches for climate-sensitive ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. M.; Julius, S. H.; Weaver, C. P.

    2012-03-01

    A number of options are available for adapting ecosystem management to improve resilience in the face of climatic changes. However, uncertainty exists as to the effectiveness of these options. A report prepared for the US Climate Change Science Program reviewed adaptation options for a range of federally managed systems in the United States. The report included a qualitative uncertainty analysis of conceptual approaches to adaptation derived from the review. The approaches included reducing anthropogenic stressors, protecting key ecosystem features, maintaining representation, replicating, restoring, identifying refugia and relocating organisms. The results showed that the expert teams had the greatest scientific confidence in adaptation options that reduce anthropogenic stresses. Confidence in other approaches was lower because of gaps in understanding of ecosystem function, climate change impacts on ecosystems, and management effectiveness. This letter discusses insights gained from the confidence exercise and proposes strategies for improving future assessments of confidence for management adaptations to climate change.

  7. Adapting developing country epidemiological assessment techniques to improve the quality of health needs assessments in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handy Deirdre

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We were commissioned to carry out three health assessments in urban areas of Dublin in Ireland. We required an epidemiologically robust method that could collect data rapidly and inexpensively. We were dealing with inadequate health information systems, weak planning data and a history of inadequate recipient involvement in health service planning. These problems had also been identified by researchers carrying out health assessments in developing countries. This paper reports our experience of adapting a cluster survey model originally developed by international organisations to assess community health needs and service coverage in developing countries and applying our adapted model to three urban areas in Dublin, Ireland Methods We adapted the model to control for socio-economic heterogeneity, to take account of the inadequate population list, to ensure a representative sample and to account for a higher prevalence of degenerative and chronic diseases. We employed formal as well as informal communication methods and adjusted data collection times to maximise participation. Results The model we adapted had the capacity to ascertain both health needs and health care delivery needs. The community participated throughout the process and members were trained and employed as data collectors. The assessments have been used by local health boards and non-governmental agencies to plan and deliver better or additional services. Conclusion We were able to carry out high quality health needs assessments in urban areas by adapting and applying a developing country health assessment method. Issues arose relating to health needs assessment as part of the planning cycle and the role of participants in the process.

  8. Horizontal gene transfer confers adaptive advantages to phytopathogenic fungi: a case study of catalase-peroxidase in Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the exchange and stable integration of genetic material between different evolutionary lineages, is widely observed in fungi. We hypothesize that successful stabilization of HGT elements provides adaptive advantages (e.g., virulence). Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are ...

  9. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Assessment of the Adaptation Potential of Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesina Iryna M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to development of theoretical and methodological recommendations with respect to assessment of the adaptation potential of employees as an important prerequisite of development of employees and ensuring competitiveness of an enterprise. It contains the author’s interpretation of the adaptation potential as a possibility of adjusting to the environment with the aim of achieving socio-economic goals of an enterprise. Adaptation potential is a property of a person as a performer of labour functions and ability to master new methods of work, adjustment to new labour conditions, processing of information and also a communicative property. At the same time adaptation potential is an aggregate of motivational, professional, information and integration components of a person. For assessing the adaptation potential it is proposed to combine 360 degrees method and method of paired comparison, which facilitates increase of trustworthiness of results. The author marks out some criteria of assessment of the adaptation potential: ratio of professional experience, ratio of official experience, ratio of efficiency of work, independence in mastering new methods of work, fast adjustment to new labour conditions, ability to quickly process big volumes of information, mobility, high level of productivity under different labour conditions, sharpness of wit in different production situations, ability to form interpersonal relations in a collective and psychological features.

  10. Uncertainty assessment of urban pluvial flood risk in a context of climate change adaptation decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Zhou, Qianqian

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in climatic extremes in many regions. In Central and Northern Europe, this has led to more frequent and more severe floods. Along with improved flood modelling technologies this has enabled development of economic assessment of climate change adaptation...... basic assumptions in the economic analysis and the hydrological model, but also from the projection of future societies to local climate change impacts and suitable adaptation options. This presents a challenge to decision makers when trying to identify robust measures. We present an integrated...... uncertainty analysis, which can assess and quantify the overall uncertainty in relation to climate change adaptation to urban flash floods. The analysis is based on an uncertainty cascade that by means of Monte Carlo simulations of flood risk assessments incorporates climate change impacts as a key driver...

  11. Framework for economic pluvial flood risk assessment considering climate change effects and adaptation benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the water cycle by influencing the precipitation patterns. It is important to integrate the anticipated changes into the design of urban drainage in response to the increased risk level in cities. This paper presents a pluvial flood risk assessment framework...... to identify and assess adaptation options in the urban context. An integrated approach is adopted by incorporating climate change impact assessment, flood inundation modeling, economic tool, and risk assessment, hereby developing a step-by-step process for cost-benefit assessment of climate change adaptation...... measures. A Danish case study indicates that the introduced framework presented in the paper can be considered as an important decision support tool that can supplement and further develop existing decision practices in relation to urban drainage...

  12. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  13. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wende, Wolfgang, E-mail: W.Wende@ioer.de [Head of Research Area on Landscape Change and Management, Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development, Weberplatz 1, D-01217 Dresden (Germany); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [InteREAM, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Bobylev, Nikolai, E-mail: nikolaibobylev@gmail.com [School of Innovation Science, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251, Politechnicheskaya, 29, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg Research Centre for Ecological Safety of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 197110, Korpusnaya, 18, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Stratmann, Lars, E-mail: l.stratmann@ioer.de [Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development, Weberplatz 1, D-01217 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Countries are implementing CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 Degree-Sign C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO{sub 2} reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  14. Adaptive capacity indicators to assess sustainability of urban water systems - Current application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability is commonly assessed along environmental, societal, economic and technological dimensions. A crucial aspect of sustainability is that inter-generational equality must be ensured. This requires that sustainability is attained in the here and now as well as into the future. Therefore, what is perceived as 'sustainable' changes as a function of societal opinion and technological and scientific progress. A concept that describes the ability of systems to change is adaptive capacity. Literature suggests that the ability of systems to adapt is an integral part of sustainable development. This paper demonstrates that indicators measuring adaptive capacity are underrepresented in current urban water sustainability studies. Furthermore, it is discussed under which sustainability dimensions adaptive capacity indicators are lacking and why. Of the >90 indicators analysed, only nine are adaptive capacity indicators, of which six are socio-cultural, two technological, one economical and none environmental. This infrequent use of adaptive capacity indicators in sustainability assessments led to the conclusion that the challenge of dynamic and uncertain urban water systems is, with the exception of the socio-cultural dimension, not yet sufficiently reflected in the application of urban water sustainability indicators. This raises concerns about the progress towards urban water systems that can transform as a response variation and change. Therefore, research should focus on developing methods and indicators that can define, evaluate and quantify adaptive capacity under the economic, environmental and technical dimension of sustainability. Furthermore, it should be evaluated whether sustainability frameworks that focus on the control processes of urban water systems are more suitable for measuring adaptive capacity, than the assessments along environmental, economic, socio-cultural and technological dimensions.

  15. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  16. An Overview of Recent Developments in Cognitive Diagnostic Computer Adaptive Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Huebner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive diagnostic modeling has become an exciting new field of psychometric research. These models aim to diagnose examinees' mastery status of a group of discretely defined skills, or attributes, thereby providing them with detailed information regarding their specific strengths and weaknesses. Combining cognitive diagnosis with computer adaptive assessments has emerged as an important part of this new field. This article aims to provide practitioners and researchers with an introduction to and overview of recent developments in cognitive diagnostic computer adaptive assessments.

  17. Proceedings of the 2005 conference on assessment and remediation of contaminated sites in Arctic and cold climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggar, K.; Cotta, G.; Mullick, A.; Nahir, M.; Buchko, J.; Ho, A.; Guigard, S.; Goulden, W. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    With increasing activity and interest in the diamond mines and oil and gas industry in Canada's Arctic along with increased activity in the Antarctic, Alaska and Russia, the exchange of knowledge concerning development in the Arctic and other cold climates has become increasing relevant. The presentations at this conference focused on the assessment and remediation of contaminated sites in colder climates and regions around the world. Issues concerning Aboriginal involvement in impact management and collaborative planning were reviewed. The development of risk assessment methodologies and new remediation approaches and techniques were examined, as well as new closure and decommissioning management strategies. Issues concerning landfills, water migration, engineering and geologic considerations and barrier systems were reviewed. Other topics of discussion included the development of site-specific environmental criteria, issues concerning the remediation of mines, new developments in soil remediation, hydrocarbon, chlorinated ethenes and soil nitrogen ratios. Key challenges include the effects of cold temperatures on maintenance and remedial effectiveness, as well as the accumulation of hydrocarbons in the soil at low temperatures. Remediation planning and logistical support issues were also discussed. A total of 42 papers were presented at this conference, of which 10 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Brazilian adaptation of the Hotel Task: a tool for the ecological assessment of executive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Oliveira Cardoso

    Full Text Available Over recent years, neuropsychological research has been increasingly concerned with the need to develop more ecologically valid instruments for the assessment of executive functions. The Hotel Task is one of the most widely used ecological measures of executive functioning, and provides an assessment of planning, organization, self-monitoring and cognitive flexibility. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to adapt the Hotel Task for use in the Brazilian population. METHODS: The sample comprised 27 participants (three translators, six expert judges, seven healthy adults, ten patients with traumatic brain injuries and one hotel manager. The adaptation process consisted of five steps, which were repeated until a satisfactory version of the task was produced. The steps were as follows: (1 Translation; (2 Development of new stimuli and brainstorming among the authors; (3 Analysis by expert judges; (4 Pilot studies; (5 Assessment by an expert in business administration and hotel management. RESULTS: The adapted version proved adequate and valid for the assessment of executive functions. However, further research must be conducted to obtain evidence of the reliability, as well as the construct and criterion validity, sensitivity and specificity, of the Hotel Task. CONCLUSION: Many neurological and/or psychiatric populations may benefit from the adapted task, since it may make significant contributions to the assessment of dysexecutive syndromes and their impact on patient functioning.

  19. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  20. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37% of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90%) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  1. Nucleosome adaptability conferred by sequence and structural variations in histone H2A-H2B dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaytan, Alexey K; Landsman, David; Panchenko, Anna R

    2015-06-01

    Nucleosome variability is essential for their functions in compacting the chromatin structure and regulation of transcription, replication and cell reprogramming. The DNA molecule in nucleosomes is wrapped around an octamer composed of four types of core histones (H3, H4, H2A, H2B). Nucleosomes represent dynamic entities and may change their conformation, stability and binding properties by employing different sets of histone variants or by becoming post-translationally modified. There are many variants of histones H2A and H2B. Specific H2A and H2B variants may preferentially associate with each other resulting in different combinations of variants and leading to the increased combinatorial complexity of nucleosomes. In addition, the H2A-H2B dimer can be recognized and substituted by chaperones/remodelers as a distinct unit, can assemble independently and is stable during nucleosome unwinding. In this review we discuss how sequence and structural variations in H2A-H2B dimers may provide necessary complexity and confer the nucleosome functional variability.

  2. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was

  3. Assessing the adaptive capacity of agriculture in the Netherlands to the impacts of climate change under different market and policy scenarios (AgriAdapt project).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Reidsma, P.; Schaap, B.F.; Mandryk, M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Ewert, F.; Oort, van P.A.J.; Angulo, C.; Rumbaur, C.; Lock, R.; Enders, A.; Adenauer, M.; Heckelei, T.; Rötter, R.P.; Fronzek, S.; Carter, T.R.; Verhagen, A.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The AgriAdapt project has developed methodologies that enable (a) the assessment of impacts, risks and resiliencies for agriculture under changes in climatic conditions but also under changes of other drivers (market, technology, policy, etc.) and (b) the evaluation of adaptation strategies at farm

  4. INKAS – a guidance tool to assess the impact of adaptation measures against urban heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Buchholz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities are particularly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as heat waves, which are expected to increase in frequency, duration and intensity by the end of this century. Hence, climate adaptation in cities is necessary to improve their resilience against climate change impacts and to secure their sustainability, quality of life and economic strength. Urban planners, practitioners and decision-makers require knowledge about the effectiveness of city-scale climate adaptation measures to prioritise their options for action and to push forward the political process for the implementation of climate adaptation strategies in cities. The Deutscher Wetterdienst's new Information Portal for Climate Adaptation in Cities, INKAS, enables its users to assess and compare the quantitative effect of different adaptation measures for varying degrees of implementation. The impact of different climate adaptation measures designed to reduce summertime air temperatures in cities is systematically investigated by means of the urban climate modelling of idealised cities. INKAS is based on about 2000 urban climate simulations of various combinations of nine urban settlement types typical for Germany and of four urban surrounding countrysides. The simplified assumptions of idealised cities with typical urban settlement types simulated with the 3‑dimensional urban climate model MUKLIMO_3 increases the transferability of complex urban interrelations to local decision-makers and urban planners. Simulated adaptation measures include the use of materials with high reflectivity, the installation of green roofs and the transformation of impervious surfaces between buildings into pervious surfaces.

  5. Local Adaptation in European Firs Assessed through Extensive Sampling across Altitudinal Gradients in Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Dragos; Lascoux, Martin; Drouzas, Andreas D.; Källman, Thomas; Leonarduzzi, Cristina; Liepelt, Sascha; Piotti, Andrea; Popescu, Flaviu; Roschanski, Anna M.; Zhelev, Peter; Fady, Bruno; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background Local adaptation is a key driver of phenotypic and genetic divergence at loci responsible for adaptive traits variations in forest tree populations. Its experimental assessment requires rigorous sampling strategies such as those involving population pairs replicated across broad spatial scales. Methods A hierarchical Bayesian model of selection (HBM) that explicitly considers both the replication of the environmental contrast and the hierarchical genetic structure among replicated study sites is introduced. Its power was assessed through simulations and compared to classical ‘within-site’ approaches (FDIST, BAYESCAN) and a simplified, within-site, version of the model introduced here (SBM). Results HBM demonstrates that hierarchical approaches are very powerful to detect replicated patterns of adaptive divergence with low false-discovery (FDR) and false-non-discovery (FNR) rates compared to the analysis of different sites separately through within-site approaches. The hypothesis of local adaptation to altitude was further addressed by analyzing replicated Abies alba population pairs (low and high elevations) across the species’ southern distribution range, where the effects of climatic selection are expected to be the strongest. For comparison, a single population pair from the closely related species A. cephalonica was also analyzed. The hierarchical model did not detect any pattern of adaptive divergence to altitude replicated in the different study sites. Instead, idiosyncratic patterns of local adaptation among sites were detected by within-site approaches. Conclusion Hierarchical approaches may miss idiosyncratic patterns of adaptation among sites, and we strongly recommend the use of both hierarchical (multi-site) and classical (within-site) approaches when addressing the question of adaptation across broad spatial scales. PMID:27392065

  6. How assessment and reflection relate to more effective learning in adaptive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Biggs

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment (an immediate evaluation of significance or performance and reflection (a lengthy, deep consideration should be important components of adaptive management leading to learning. In this paper we use a prototype adaptive cycle and feedback framework, which are related to some aspects of learning theory, to examine the extent to which assessment and reflection were applied in a series of studies and initiatives in the Kruger National Park. In addition to evaluating assessment and reflection, we also considered how the various contributing components of each case were inter-related to provide a holistic view of each initiative.Two other studies in the Kruger National Park, which have examined learning specifically, are also discussed. One of them suggests that in a complex environment, learning necessarily has a dual nature, with each component of seven contrasting pairs of the aspects of learning in partial tension with the other. We use these dualities to further probe assessment, reflection, inter-relatedness and learning in the cases presented. Each contrasting aspect of a ‘learning duality’ turns out to emphasise either assessment or reflection, which reinforces the idea that both are needed to facilitate sufficient learning for successful adaptive management. We hope this analysis can act as a springboard for further study, practice and reflection on these important and often underrated components of adaptive management.Conservation implications: The better understanding of assessment and reflection as being largely separate but complementary actions will assist adaptive management practitioners to give explicit attention to both, and to relate them better to each other.

  7. Cultural adaptation of the scale Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia – PAINAD to Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gallego Valera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To translate and culturally adapt to Brazil the scale Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia(PAINAD.Method: The cultural adaptation process followed the methodology of a theorical reference, in five steps: translation to Brazilian Portuguese, consensual version of translations, back-translation to the original language, revision by a committee of specialists in the field and a equivalency pre-test. The instrument was assessed and applied by 27 health professionals in the last step. Results: The Escala de Avaliação de Dor em Demência Avançada was culturally adapted to Brazil and presented semantic equivalency to the original, besides clarity, applicability and easy comprehension of the instrument items. Conclusion: This process secured the psychometric properties as the reliability and content validity of the referred scale.

  8. Integrated urban flood risk assessmentadapting a multicriteria approach to a city

    OpenAIRE

    Kubal, C.; Haase, D.; Meyer, V.; Scheuer, S.

    2009-01-01

    Flood risk assessment is an essential part of flood risk management. As part of the new EU flood directive it is becoming increasingly more popular in European flood policy. Particularly cities with a high concentration of people and goods are vulnerable to floods. This paper introduces the adaptation of a novel method of multicriteria flood risk assessment, that was recently developed for the more rural Mulde river basin, to a city. The study site is Leipzig, Germany. The "urban" approach in...

  9. Assessing resilience in adolescence: The Spanish adaptation of the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Guilera, Georgina; Pereda, Noemí; Paños, Ana; Abad, Judit

    2015-01-01

    Background The concept and assessment of resilience have attracted considerable attention in recent years, but none of the instruments developed to measure resilience in adolescents have been adapted to the Spanish context. The Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ) provides a comprehensive and multidimensional assessment of the resources associated with resilience in adolescents. Methods This study analyzes the psychometric properties of the ARQ. Participants included a community sample o...

  10. Tools for climate change adaptation in water management - inventory and assessment of methods and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Swart, R.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes an inventory of methods and tools for assessing climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation options, focusing on the water sector. Two questions are central: What are the opportunities for international applications of Dutch methods and tools? And: Which methods and t

  11. Test Adaptation and Cross-Cultural Assessment From a Business Perspective: Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steven B.

    2005-01-01

    Test adaptation and cross-cultural assessment activities are skyrocketing as the demand for educational opportunities and personnel selection grow both within the United States and across the industrializing world. We chose a qualitative, case study approach to identify central themes encountered by ACT, a not-for-profit organization that has…

  12. Considering the Use of General and Modified Assessment Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Adam E.; Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    This article used several data sets from a large-scale state testing program to examine the feasibility of combining general and modified assessment items in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for different groups of students. Results suggested that several of the assumptions made when employing this type of mixed-item CAT may not be met for…

  13. Guidelines for Assessing the Need for Adaptive Devices for Visually Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Brian R.; de Oca, Patricia Montes

    1998-01-01

    Presents guidelines for orientation and mobility instructors and traffic engineers to assess the need for adaptive devices to make crosswalks at signalized intersections accessible to pedestrians with visual impairments. The discussions of audible and tactile pedestrian devices, along with case examples, distinguish when each device should be…

  14. Assessment of Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour among Individuals with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Daniella Levy; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Methods: Twenty-three Arab Bedouin…

  15. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Teacher Form, Ages 5 to 21, of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricak, O. Tolga; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model that highlighted 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II) was designed to be consistent with these models.…

  16. SIGEF Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Terceño-Gómez, Antonio; Ferrer-Comalat, Joan; Merigó-Lindahl, José; Linares-Mustarós, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected papers presented at the SIGEF conference, held at the Faculty of Economics and Business of the University of Girona (Spain), 06-08 July, 2015. This edition of the conference has been presented with the slogan “Scientific methods for the treatment of uncertainty in social sciences”. There are different ways for dealing with uncertainty in management. The book focuses on soft computing theories and their role in assessing uncertainty in a complex world. It gives a comprehensive overview of quantitative management topics and discusses some of the most recent developments in all the areas of business and management in soft computing including Decision Making, Expert Systems and Forgotten Effects Theory, Forecasting Models, Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Sets, Modelling and Simulation Techniques, Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms and Optimization and Control. The book might be of great interest for anyone working in the area of management and business economics and might be es...

  17. Database support for adaptation to climate change: An assessment of web-based portals across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Hilden, Mikael; Russel, Duncan; Dessai, Suraje

    2016-10-01

    The widely recognized increase in greenhouse gas emissions is necessitating adaptation to a changing climate, and policies are being developed and implemented worldwide, across sectors, and between government scales globally. The aim of this article is to reflect on one of the major challenges: facilitating and sharing information on the next adaptation practices. Web portals (i.e., web sites) for disseminating information are important tools in meeting this challenge, and therefore, we assessed the characteristics of select major portals across multiple scales. We found that there is a rather limited number of case studies available in the portals-between 900 and 1000 in total-with 95 that include cost information and 195 that include the participation of stakeholders globally. Portals are rarely cited by researchers, suggesting a suboptimal connection between the practical, policy-related, and scientific development of adaptation. The government portals often lack links on search results between US and European Union (EU) web sites, for example. With significant investments and policy development emerging in both the United States and the European Union, there is great potential to share information via portals. Moreover, there is the possibility of better connecting the practical adaptation experience from bottom-up projects to the science of adaptation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:627-631. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature: The Grey Audit: A Field Assessment in Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pejšová, Petra; Vyčítalová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Účelem zahraniční služební cesty byla účast PhDr. Petry Pejšové a Mgr. Hany Vyčítalové na dvoudenní konferenci „Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature“ v Bratislavě. Konference se koná každý rok, zaměřuje se na problematiku šedé literatury a mezinárodní odbornou diskusi o šedé literatuře. Na konferenci byl prezentován poster s názvem „Survey of Enhanced Publications in the Czech Republic“.

  19. An Experimental Assessment of Transverse Adaptive Fir Filters as Applied to Vibrating Structures Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Castello

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at assessing the performance of adaptive Finite Impulse Response (FIR filters on the identification of vibrating structures. Four adaptive algorithms were used: Least Mean Squares (LMS, Normalized Least Mean Squares (NLMS, Transform-Domain Least Mean Squares (TD – LMS and Set-Membership Binormalized Data-Reusing LMS Algorithm (SM – BNDRLMS. The capability of these filters to perform the identification of vibrating structures is shown on real experiments. The first experiment consists of an aluminum cantilever beam containing piezoelectric sensors and actuators and the second one is a steel pinned-pinned beam instrumented with accelerometers and an electromechanical shaker.

  20. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government. More progress was achieved on risk identification, screening and prioritisation compared to risk quantification. This was due to the inherent complexity and interdependence of ecological risks and their interaction with socio-economic drivers as well as a climate change. Robust strategies to manage risk were identified as those that coordinate organisational resources to enhance ecosystem resilience, and to accommodate inevitable change, rather than to meet specific species or habitats targets. The assessment also highlighted subjective and contextual components of risk appraisal including ethical issues regarding the level of human intervention in the natural environment and the proposed outcomes of any intervention. This suggests that goals for risk assessment need to be more clearly explicated and assumptions on tolerable risk declared as a primer for further dialogue on expectations for managed outcomes. Ecosystem-based adaptation may mean that traditional habitats and species conservation goals and existing regulatory frameworks no longer provide the best guide for long-term risk management thereby challenging the viability of some existing practices.

  1. The German Adaptation and Standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Julia A; Engel, Rolf R

    2007-02-01

    We developed the German Adaptation of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) under careful consideration of current adaptation literature and guidelines. The adaptation process included the translation of the 344 items into German, a back translation into English as well as the testing of the language equivalence using a bilingual sample. We then standardized the final German version of the PAI for the German population. We compared the American and German norm and reliability data. The observed differences in PAI scale means did not exceed 5 T scores. Internal consistency reliability showed a similar pattern in both language versions, although the German alpha coefficients were on average slightly lower than the American ones. Factor structure was similar in both versions. We discuss expectations about the German PAI and possible problems for its practical usefulness for the German-speaking population.

  2. Assessing Management Regimes in Transboundary River Basins: Do They Support Adaptive Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Interwies

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper presents such an overview, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management.

  3. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenle, Ademola A; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-09-15

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publications and patent-based data, we assess the impact of research and development (R&D) for new and existing technologies within the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We show that many developing countries invest limited resources for R&D in relevant technologies that have great potential for mitigation and adaption in agricultural production. We also discuss constraints including weak infrastructure, limited research capacity, lack of credit facilities and technology transfer that may hinder the application of innovation in tackling the challenges of climate change. A range of policy measures is also suggested to overcome identified constraints and to ensure that potentials of innovation for climate change mitigation and adaptation are realized.

  4. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Podesta, G; Fazey, I; Geeson, N; Hessel, R; Hubacek, K; Letson, D; Nainggolan, D; Prell, C; Rickenbach, M G; Ritsema, C; Schwilch, G; Stringer, L C; Thomas, A D

    2013-10-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change.

  5. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M.S.; Podesta, G.; Fazey, I.; Geeson, N.; Hessel, R.; Hubacek, K.; Letson, D.; Nainggolan, D.; Prell, C.; Rickenbach, M.G.; Ritsema, C.; Schwilch, G.; Stringer, L.C.; Thomas, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change. PMID:25844020

  6. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita

    2013-04-01

    International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries.

  7. Research in assessment: Consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuwirth, Lambert; Colliver, Jerry; Gruppen, Larry;

    2011-01-01

    educational research, a plethora of methodologies is available to cater to many different research questions. This article contains consensus positions and suggestions on various elements of medical education (assessment) research. Overarching is the position that without a good theoretical underpinning...

  8. Adapting the Apsim model for assessing maize cultivars performances through European stressing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lacube, Sébastien; Tardieu, Francois; Parent, Boris; Hammer, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Genetic progress will largely depend on the adaptation of new genotypes to the diversity of environments, market requirements and types of agriculture. Most experiments for cultivar evaluation use networks of field experiments to assess the suitability of hundreds of genotypes to environmental conditions. In most cases, most of them run for a few years, thereby taking into account a small fraction of the climatic variability. The use of crop models for predicting plant performance under di...

  9. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG, soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3 in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid

  10. Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain questionnaire: translation and linguistic adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Quality of life assessment among patients with brain tumors is important, given that new treatments have increased patient survival. The aim of this study was to translate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br questionnaire (version 4 into Portuguese, carry out cross-cultural adaptation and assess its reproducibility. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp. METHODS: Forty patients with a brain tumor seen at the neuro-oncology outpatient clinic participated in the study. The process of translation and back-translation was carried out, along with adaptation to the Portuguese language and Brazilian culture. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to test the reproducibility of the FACT-Br (version 4. RESULTS: The reproducibility of the questionnaire was excellent (ICC = 0.95; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.89-0.97. The ICC with a mean interval of 15 days between applications of the questionnaire was very good in all domains (ICC = 0.87 to 0.95. The mean time taken to answer the questionnaire was 6.27 ± 2.26 minutes, ranging from 3 to 11 minutes. CONCLUSION: The translated version of the FACT-Br questionnaire (version 4 adapted to the Portuguese language and Brazilian culture proved to be easily understood and achieved very good reproducibility among patients with diagnoses of brain tumors.

  11. Health impacts of climate change in Vanuatu: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne; McIver, Lachlan

    2013-01-30

    Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges and Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable due to, among other factors, their geography, demography and level of economic development. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used as a basis for the consideration of the potential health impacts of changes in the climate on the population of Vanuatu, to assess the risks and propose a range of potential adaptive responses appropriate for Vanuatu. The HIA process involved the participation of a broad range of stakeholders including expert sector representatives in the areas of bio-physical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food, who provided informed comment and input into the understanding of the potential health impacts and development of adaptation strategies. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed with the application of a qualitative process that considered both the consequences and the likelihood of each of the potential health impacts occurring. Potential adaptation strategies and actions were developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by the various sectors in Vanuatu to contribute to future decision making processes associated with the health impacts of climate change.

  12. Adaptive ultra-short-term wind power prediction based on risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Yusheng; Yu, Chen; Li, Kang;

    2016-01-01

    A risk assessment based adaptive ultra-short-term wind power prediction (USTWPP) method is proposed in this paper. The method first extracts features from the historical data, and split every wind power time series (WPTS) into several subsets defined by their stationary patterns. A WPTS that does...... not match with any of the stationary patterns is then included into a subset of non-stationary patterns. Every WPTS subset is then related to a USTWPP model which is specially selected and optimized offline based on the proposed risk assessment index. For on-line applications, the pattern of the last short...

  13. An approach for assessing human health vulnerability and public health interventions to adapt to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L; Kovats, R Sari; Menne, Bettina

    2006-12-01

    Assessments of the potential human health impacts of climate change are needed to inform the development of adaptation strategies, policies, and measures to lessen projected adverse impacts. We developed methods for country-level assessments to help policy makers make evidence-based decisions to increase resilience to current and future climates, and to provide information for national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The steps in an assessment should include the following: a) determine the scope of the assessment; b) describe the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes; c) identify and describe current strategies, policies, and measures designed to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes; d) review the health implications of the potential impacts of climate variability and change in other sectors; e) estimate the future potential health impacts using scenarios of future changes in climate, socioeconomic, and other factors; f) synthesize the results; and g) identify additional adaptation policies and measures to reduce potential negative health impacts. Key issues for ensuring that an assessment is informative, timely, and useful include stakeholder involvement, an adequate management structure, and a communication strategy.

  14. Climate-induced community relocations: using integrated social-ecological assessments to foster adaptation and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Bronen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather events coupled with sea level rise and erosion will cause coastal and riverine areas where people live and maintain livelihoods to disappear permanently. Adaptation to these environmental changes, including the permanent relocation of millions of people, requires new governance tools. In the USA, local governments, often with state-level and national-level support, will be primarily responsible for protecting residents from climate-change impacts and implementing policies needed to protect their welfare. Government agencies have a variety of tools to facilitate protection in place and managed coastal retreat but have very limited tools to facilitate community relocation. In addition, no institutional mechanism currently exists to determine whether and when preventive relocation needs to occur to protect people from climate change impacts. Based on research involving four Alaska Native communities threatened by climate-induced environmental impacts, I propose the design and implementation of an adaptive governance framework to respond to the need to relocate populations. In this context, adaptive governance means the ability of institutions to dynamically respond to climate change impacts. A component of this adaptive governance framework is a social-ecological monitoring and assessment tool that can facilitate collaborative knowledge production by community residents and governance institutions to guide sustainable adaptation strategies and determine whether and when relocation needs to occur. The framework, including the monitoring and assessment tool, has not been systematically tested. However, the potential use of this tool is discussed by drawing on empirical examples of Alaskan communities faced with accelerating rates of erosion.

  15. Integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ierland, E.C.; De Groot, R.S.; Kuikman, P.J.; Martens, P.; Amelung, B.; Daan, N.; Huynen, M.; Kramer, K.; Szoenyi, J.; Veraart, J.A.; Verhagen, A.; Van Vliet, A.; Van Walsum, P.E.V.; Westein, E. [Alterra, Wageningen, and International Centre for Integrative Studies, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    In recent decades, it has become increasingly clear that the global climate is becoming warmer and that regional climates are changing. This report summarizes the results of an integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands carried out between July 2000 and July 2001 within the framework of the Dutch National Research Program on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-2). The project's main aims were: - to provide an overview of scientific insights, expert judgements and stakeholders' perceptions of current and future impacts (positive and negative) of climate change for several economic sectors, human health, and natural systems in the Netherlands, considering various cross-sectoral interactions, - to develop a set of adaptation options for these sectors through a participatory process with the main stakeholders, - to perform an integrated assessment of cross-sectoral interactions of climate change impacts and adaptation options. Climate change impacts and adaptation options have been investigated for several important economic sectors (including agriculture, forestry, fisheries, industry, energy, transport, insurance and recreation and tourism), human health and natural systems (including soils, water and biodiversity issues).The results of this study are based on literature survey, a dialogue with experts and stakeholders. We are convinced that the report represents the most essential and relevant aspects of the impacts and adaptation options for climate change in the Netherlands, given the scenario setting of this study, the state of the art of current scientific knowledge, and today's expert and stakeholders' perceptions of the issues at stake. 215 refs.

  16. Adaptivity Assessment of Regional Semi-Parametric VTEC Modeling to Different Data Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Murat; Onur Karslıoǧlu, Mahmut

    2014-05-01

    Semi-parametric modelling of Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) combines parametric and non-parametric models into a single regression model for estimating the parameters and functions from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations. The parametric part is related to the Differential Code Biases (DCBs), which are fixed unknown parameters of the geometry-free linear combination (or the so called ionospheric observable). On the other hand, the non-parametric component is referred to the spatio-temporal distribution of VTEC which is estimated by applying the method of Multivariate Adaptive Regression B-Splines (BMARS). BMARS algorithm builds an adaptive model by using tensor product of univariate B-splines that are derived from the data. The algorithm searches for best fitting B-spline basis functions in a scale by scale strategy, where it starts adding large scale B-splines to the model and adaptively decreases the scale for including smaller scale features through a modified Gram-Schmidt ortho-normalization process. Then, the algorithm is extended to include the receiver DCBs where the estimates of the receiver DCBs and the spatio-temporal VTEC distribution can be obtained together in an adaptive semi-parametric model. In this work, the adaptivity of regional semi-parametric modelling of VTEC based on BMARS is assessed in different ground-station and data distribution scenarios. To evaluate the level of adaptivity the resulting DCBs and VTEC maps from different scenarios are compared not only with each other but also with CODE distributed GIMs and DCB estimates .

  17. Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, D.; Tscherning, K.; Kersebaum, K.; Dietz, J.; Dietrich, O.; Gomani, C.; Böhm, H.; Büchner, M.; Lischeid, G.,; Ojoyi, M.,

    2009-04-01

    Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in temperature, rainfall, flooding and drought (2) the affect changes in 1. will have on specific sectors namely agriculture (food security), water resources and ecosystem services. The cumulative effects of diminished surface and ground water flow on agricultural production coupled with increasing demand for food due to increase in human pressure will also be evaluated. Expected outputs of the project include (1) downscaled climate change scenarios for different IPCC emission scenarios (2) model based estimations of climate change impacts on hydrological cycle and assessment of land use options (3) scenarios of sustainable livelihoods and resilient agro-landscapes under climate change (4) assessment of adaptive practices and criteria for best adaptation practices. The presentation will focus on novel approaches that focus on the use of agro-ecosystem models to predict local and regional impacts of climate variability on food with specific needs of the end-user factored into model set-up process. In other words, model configurations adapted to the information needs of a specific end-user or audience are evaluated. The perception of risk within different end-users (small scale farmer versus a regional or state level policy maker) are explicitly taken into consideration with the overarching aim of maximizing the impact of the results obtained from computer-based simulations.

  18. Invited Colloquium on Negotiating the Complexities of Multilingual Assessment, AAAL Conference 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menken, Kate; Shohamy, Elana

    2015-01-01

    The invited colloquium on New Directions in Language Assessment held at the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) annual meeting in Portland, Oregon on March 22, 2014 brought together an international panel of scholars to together explore the possibilities and challenges of translanguaging and bi/multilingual approaches in…

  19. Towards intraoperative assessment of tumor margins in breast surgery using optical coherence elastography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brendan F.; Wijesinghe, Philip; Allen, Wes M.; Chin, Lixin; Latham, Bruce; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sampson, David D.

    2016-03-01

    Surgical excision of tumor is a critical factor in the management of breast cancer. The most common surgical procedure is breast-conserving surgery. The surgeon's goal is to remove the tumor and a rim of healthy tissue surrounding the tumor: the surgical margin. A major issue in breast-conserving surgery is the absence of a reliable tool to guide the surgeon in intraoperatively assessing the margin. A number of techniques have been proposed; however, the re-excision rate remains high and has been reported to be in the range 30-60%. New tools are needed to address this issue. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) shows promise as a tool for intraoperative tumor margin assessment in breast-conserving surgery. Further advances towards clinical translation are limited by long scan times and small fields of view. In particular, scanning over sufficient areas to assess the entire margin in an intraoperative timeframe has not been shown to be feasible. Here, we present a protocol allowing ~75% of the surgical margins to be assessed within 30 minutes. To achieve this, we have incorporated a 65 mm-diameter (internal), wide-aperture annular piezoelectric transducer, allowing the entire surface of the excised tumor mass to be automatically imaged in an OCT mosaic comprised of 10 × 10 mm tiles. As OCT is effective in identifying adipose tissue, our protocol uses the wide-field OCT to selectively guide subsequent local OCE scanning to regions of solid tissue which often present low contrast in OCT images. We present promising examples from freshly excised human breast tissue.

  20. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  1. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment - Wound Module to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Aparecida Rocha Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to adapt the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment - Wound Module to Brazilian Portuguese and to measure its psychometric properties: reliability and validity. Method: the cultural adaptation was undertaken following the stages of translation, synthesis of the translations, back translation, committee of specialists, pre-test and focus group. A total of 200 patients participated in the study. These were recruited in Primary Care Centers, Family Health Strategy Centers, in a philanthropic hospital and in a teaching hospital. Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and stability. Validity was ascertained through the correlation of the instrument's values with those of the domains of the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index - Wound Version and with the quality of life score of the visual analog scale. Results: the instrument presented adequate internal consistency (Cronbach alpha =0.86 and high stability in the test and retest (0.93. The validity presented correlations of moderate and significant magnitude (-0.24 to -0.48, p<0.0001. Conclusion: the results indicated that the adapted version presented reliable and valid psychometric measurements for the population with chronic wounds in the Brazilian culture.

  2. The Quantitative Crunch: The Impact of Bibliometric Research Quality Assessment Exercises on Academic Development at Small Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael; Shurville, Simon; Fernstrom, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Small and specialist inter-disciplinary conferences, particularly those relating to technology enhanced learning such as International Conference on Information and Communications Technology in Education, provide valuable opportunities for academics and academic-related/professional staff to report upon their research and development…

  3. Integrating human responses to climate change into conservation vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sean L; Venter, Oscar; Jones, Kendall R; Watson, James E M

    2015-10-01

    The impact of climate change on biodiversity is now evident, with the direct impacts of changing temperature and rainfall patterns and increases in the magnitude and frequency of extreme events on species distribution, populations, and overall ecosystem function being increasingly publicized. Changes in the climate system are also affecting human communities, and a range of human responses across terrestrial and marine realms have been witnessed, including altered agricultural activities, shifting fishing efforts, and human migration. Failing to account for the human responses to climate change is likely to compromise climate-smart conservation efforts. Here, we use a well-established conservation planning framework to show how integrating human responses to climate change into both species- and site-based vulnerability assessments and adaptation plans is possible. By explicitly taking into account human responses, conservation practitioners will improve their evaluation of species and ecosystem vulnerability, and will be better able to deliver win-wins for human- and biodiversity-focused climate adaptation.

  4. Assessing thermal comfort in Ghadames, Libya: application of the adaptive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, A.H.; Ealiwa, M.A.; Seden, M.R. [De Montfort Univ., School of Architecture, Leicester (United Kingdom); Howarth, A.T. [Nottingham Univ., School of the Built Environment, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This survey measures human thermal comfort and assesses the validity of the adaptive thermal comfort model when applied to the climatic extreme (hot dry) condition of Ghadames. This paper reviews the results from two field surveys of thermal comfort within two types of buildings, old (free running) and new (climate control), in Ghadames oasis in Libya in the summer seasons of August 1997 and July 1998. Questionnaires were collected from 19 buildings representing 88 subjects: nine old buildings that employ a natural ventilation system with a courtyard and ten new buildings that employ an air conditioning system. The results from the present study show that the neutral temperatures in old and new buildings are 31.6degC and 29.4degC respectively. The adaptive model is shown to be valid, without modification, for predicting the thermal comfort of sedentary occupants in such environments. (Author)

  5. Basic research on energy conservation in developing countries. Report of the International Conference on Adaptation and Mitigation Technologies for Climate Change; Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosanado jigyo. Kiko hendo ni kansuru tekio kanwa gijutsu kokusai kaigi hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The International Conference on Adaptation and Mitigation Technologies for Climate Change was held based on the 1st Conference of the Parties in 1995 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the 2nd evaluation report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This report carries the outline of this conference and minutes. Japanese government had studied the framework of activities implemented jointly (AIJ) for emission control of greenhouse gases by voluntary workers jointly with developing countries. The government decided the basis of the AIJ Japan program in 1995, and approved the evaluation guidelines of this program including confirmed and considered matters which are necessary for government offices related to this program to evaluate and approve each project. IPCC approved the 2nd evaluation report in its general meeting in 1995. This conference was thus held to discuss strategic technology and international cooperation with participation of writers of the 2nd IPCC report, policy planners of Asian countries, Japanese industries, governmental offices and NGO.

  6. Adaptive Semantic and Social Web-based learning and assessment environment for the STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Hassan; Atchison, Chris; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

    2014-05-01

    We are building a cloud- and Semantic Web-based personalized, adaptive learning environment for the STEM fields that integrates and leverages Social Web technologies to allow instructors and authors of learning material to collaborate in semi-automatic development and update of their common domain and task ontologies and building their learning resources. The semi-automatic ontology learning and development minimize issues related to the design and maintenance of domain ontologies by knowledge engineers who do not have any knowledge of the domain. The social web component of the personal adaptive system will allow individual and group learners to interact with each other and discuss their own learning experience and understanding of course material, and resolve issues related to their class assignments. The adaptive system will be capable of representing key knowledge concepts in different ways and difficulty levels based on learners' differences, and lead to different understanding of the same STEM content by different learners. It will adapt specific pedagogical strategies to individual learners based on their characteristics, cognition, and preferences, allow authors to assemble remotely accessed learning material into courses, and provide facilities for instructors to assess (in real time) the perception of students of course material, monitor their progress in the learning process, and generate timely feedback based on their understanding or misconceptions. The system applies a set of ontologies that structure the learning process, with multiple user friendly Web interfaces. These include the learning ontology (models learning objects, educational resources, and learning goal); context ontology (supports adaptive strategy by detecting student situation), domain ontology (structures concepts and context), learner ontology (models student profile, preferences, and behavior), task ontologies, technological ontology (defines devices and places that surround the

  7. Adapting a rapid river assessment protocols to be used by elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to adapt a rapid river assessment protocols (RAP to be used by elementary school children. The study was conducted in Ipameri, GO and the RAP was adapted for the evaluation of streams in the Cerrado biome. Based on two protocol models, the developed RAP included: physical parameters that affect the functioning of streams, language adapted to the educational level of elementary school and the presence of drawings that could facilitate the field application of RAP by the students. For consolidation of the adapted instrument, it was offered a monitoring workshop to 95 students from two public education institutions, and developed an analysis and interpretation of the pattern of responses obtained during the practical step of the workshop. The Bartlett and Levene tests revealed no statistical differences between the response patterns of the students, allowing to infer that the developed RAP was understandable by the evaluators. The application of the RAP was fast (20 to 40 minutes and the students reported that the developed instrument helped them to familiarize with environmental issues. In addition, the monitoring workshop helped them to understand the instrument and the available illustrations facilitated the field evaluation. In addition, the students concluded that they have become aware of the issues related to the water resource preservation and also that participation in the environmental monitoring workshop allowed the appropriation of knowledge about the river system functioning. It was concluded that adapted RAP has been proved to be a useful and interesting tool for using in environmental education projects and programs.

  8. Assessing mucus and airway morphology in response to a segmental allergen challenge using OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David C.; Miller, Alyssa J.; Holz, Jasmin A.; Szabari, Margit V.; Hariri, Lida P.; Harris, R. Scott; Cho, Jocelyn L.; Hamilos, Daniel L.; Luster, Andrew D.; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Asthma affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, and the prevalence of the disease appears to be increasing. One of the most important aspects of asthma is the excessive bronchoconstriction that results in many of the symptoms experienced by asthma sufferers, but the relationship between bronchoconstriction and airway morphology is not clearly established. We present the imaging results of a study involving a segmental allergen challenge given to both allergic asthmatic (n = 12) and allergic non-asthmatic (n = 19) human volunteers. Using OCT, we have imaged and assessed baseline morphology in a right upper lobe (RUL) airway, serving as the control, and a right middle lobe (RML) airway, in which the allergen was to be administered. After a period of 24 hours had elapsed following the administration of the allergen, both airways were again imaged and the response morphology assessed. A number of airway parameters were measured and compared, including epithelial thickness, mucosal thickness and buckling, lumen area, and mucus content. We found that at baseline epithelial thickness, mucosal thickness, and mucosal buckling were greater in AAs than ANAs. We also observed statistically significant increases in these values 24 hours after the allergen had been administered for both the ANA and AA sets. In comparison, the control airway which received a diluent showed no statistically significant change.

  9. Rapid full-field OCT assessment of clinical tissue specimens (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Harms, Fabrice; Brossollet, Charles; Benoit, Emilie; Martins, Franck; Boccara, Claude A.

    2016-03-01

    FFOCT (Full Field Optical Coherence Tomography) is a novel optical technology that gives access to very high resolution tomography images of biological tissues within minutes, non-invasively. This makes it an attractive tool to bridge the gap between medical imaging modalities (MRI, ultrasound, CT) used for cancer lesion identification or targeting and histological diagnosis. Clinical tissue specimens, such as surgical cancer margins or biopsies, can potentially be assessed rapidly, by the clinician, in the aim to help him decide on the course of action. A fast FFOCT prototype was built, that provides 1cm2 images with 1 µm resolution in 1 minute, and can accommodate samples up to 50mm diameter. Specific work was carried out to implement a large sample holder, high-speed image acquisition system, optimized scanning, and accelerated GPU tiles stitching. Results obtained on breast, urology, and digestive tissues show the efficiency of the technique for the detection of cancer on clinical tissue specimens, and reinforce the clinical relevance of the technique. The technical and clinical results show that the fast FFOCT system can successfully be used for a fast assessment of cancer excision margins or biopsies providing a very valuable tool in the clinical environment.

  10. Assessment of adaptation measures to high-mountain risks in Switzerland under climate uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccione, Veruska; Lontzek, Thomas; Huggel, Christian; Ott, Philipp; Salzmann, Nadine

    2015-04-01

    The economic evaluation of different adaptation options is important to support policy-makers that need to set priorities in the decision-making process. However, the decision-making process faces considerable uncertainties regarding current and projected climate impacts. First, physical climate and related impact systems are highly complex and not fully understood. Second, the further we look into the future, the more important the emission pathways become, with effects on the frequency and severity of climate impacts. Decision on adaptation measures taken today and in the future must be able to adequately consider the uncertainties originating from the different sources. Decisions are not taken in a vacuum but always in the context of specific social, economic, institutional and political conditions. Decision finding processes strongly depend on the socio-political system and usually have evolved over some time. Finding and taking decisions in the respective socio-political and economic context multiplies the uncertainty challenge. Our presumption is that a sound assessment of the different adaptation options in Switzerland under uncertainty necessitates formulating and solving a dynamic, stochastic optimization problem. Economic optimization models in the field of climate change are not new. Typically, such models are applied for global-scale studies but barely for local-scale problems. In this analysis, we considered the case of the Guttannen-Grimsel Valley, situated in the Swiss Bernese Alps. The alpine community has been affected by high-magnitude, high-frequency debris flows that started in 2009 and were historically unprecendented. They were related to thaw of permafrost in the rock slopes of Ritzlihorn and repeated rock fall events that accumulated at the debris fan and formed a sediment source for debris flows and were transported downvalley. An important transit road, a trans-European gas pipeline and settlements were severely affected and partly

  11. Conference-Courses for Academic Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Marvin

    1979-01-01

    The Wayne State University Studies/Weekend College Program demonstrates a cost effective, flexible model for conference courses. Designed to give adult, part-time students short-term intensive learning experiences, the conference course adapts typical conference activities (guest speakers, films, workshops) to a single or multidisciplinary theme,…

  12. The OTOLITH Experiment - Assessment of Otolith Function During Postflight Re-adaption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A. H.; Wood, S. J.; Schoenfeld, U.

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing "Otolith" experiment is designed to comprehensively assess the otolith function during the re-adaptation phase after spaceflight. The novel protocol includes unilateral testing of each of the two otolith organs the utricle and the saccule. To assess utricle function, the otolith-ocular response (OOR) and the subjective visual vertical (SVV) are measured during unilateral centrifugation, which permits independent stimulation of the right and left ear. Measurement of the unilateral otolith-ocular response (uOOR) yields information on the response behaviour of the right and left peripheral utricles, whereas the SVV reflects the behaviour of the entire pathway from the peripheral otolith receptors to the vestibular cortex. Thus, by comparative evaluation of the results from the two tests, the degree of peripheral versus central adaptation during the post-flight period can be determined. To assess unilateral saccule function, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are recorded. Since the saccules are predominantly aligned to gravity, and interplay with the antigravity muscles, it is hypothesised that these potentials shall be altered after spaceflight. To date the study has been conducted with 5 of a planned 8 short-flight Shuttle astronauts. Preliminary results will be discussed together with those from clinical studies of dizziness patients, where the same test protocol is employed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is supported by the German Aerospace Center (Grant DLR W130729) and is conducted under the auspices of ESA, in cooperation with NASA.

  13. Accounting for adaptive capacity and uncertainty in assessments of species’ climate-change vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alisa A.; Hand, Brian K.; Kovach, Ryan; Luikart, Gordon; Whited, Diane; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change vulnerability assessments (CCVAs) are valuable tools for assessing species’ vulnerability to climatic changes, yet failure to include measures of adaptive capacity and to account for sources of uncertainty may limit their effectiveness. Here, we provide a more comprehensive CCVA approach that incorporates all three elements used for assessing species’ climate change vulnerability: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. We illustrate our approach using case studies of two threatened salmonids with different life histories – anadromous steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and non-anadromous bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) – within the Columbia River Basin, USA. We identified general patterns of high vulnerability in low-elevation and southernmost habitats for both species. However, vulnerability rankings varied widely depending on the factors (climate, habitat, demographic, and genetic) included in the CCVA and often differed for the two species at locations where they were sympatric. Our findings illustrate that CCVA results are highly sensitive to data inputs and that spatial differences can complicate multi-species conservation. Our results highlight how CCVAs should be considered within a broader conceptual and computational framework for refining hypotheses, guiding research, and comparing plausible scenarios of species’ vulnerability for ongoing and projected climate change.

  14. Integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, K.; Kuikman, P.J.; Veraart, J.A.; Van Walsum, P.E.V.; Westein, E. [Alterra, Wageningen, and International Centre for Integrative Studies, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Verhagen, A. [Plant Research International, Wageningen (Netherlands); Daan, N. [Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research RIVO, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Van Ierland, E.C.; Szoenyi, J. [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); De Groot, R.S.; Van Vliet, A. [Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Martens, P.; Amelung, B.; Huynen, M. [International Centre for Integrative Studies, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2002-06-01

    In recent decades it has become increasingly clear that the global climate is warming and that regional climates are changing. The changes include alterations in rainfall pattern and intensities, sea level, and the frequencies of extreme weather events. Climate changes will not just have global effects, they will also occur regionally. The consequences will be felt and dealt with in our own region. In addition to studies at the European level, a study entitled 'An integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands' was carried out.

  15. Investigation of the Adaptability of Transient Stability Assessment Methods to Real-Time Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Sommer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    the runtime of each method with respect to the number of inputs. Furthermore, it allows to identify, which method is preferable in case of changes in the power system such as the integration of distributed power resources (DER). A comparison of the performance of the analyzed methods leads to the suggestion......In this paper, an investigation of the adaptability of available transient stability assessment methods to real-time operation and their real-time performance is carried out. Two approaches based on Lyapunov’s method and the equal area criterion are analyzed. The results allow to determine...

  16. Assessing aggressiveness quickly and efficiently: the Spanish adaptation of Aggression Questionnaire-refined version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Pujol, David; Kramp, Uwe; García-Forero, Carlos; Pérez-Ramírez, Meritxell; Andrés-Pueyo, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    The assessment of aggressiveness and the prediction of aggression has become a relevant research and applied topic in Psychiatry and Psychology. There have been many attempts in order to get a fast and reliable tool to measure aggression. Buss and Durkee started the pathway, and recently Bryant and Smith developed a tool with an enormous potential, a fast-applicable, reliable and valid test. We herein report a Spanish adaptation of this test and we show that aggressiveness can be measured rapidly, and in a simple, valid and reliable way across different populations. We focus on the discriminant capacity of this test to detect aggressive individuals.

  17. Fast full-field OCT assessment of clinical tissue specimens (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Harms, Fabrice; Brossolet, Charles; Benoit, Emilie; Martins, Franck; Boccara, Claude

    2016-03-01

    Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) offers a non-invasive method of obtaining images of biological tissues at ultrahigh resolution (1µm in all 3 directions) approaching traditional histological sections. Previous clinical studies have shown the high efficiency of this imaging technique for the detection of cancer on various organs. This promises great potential of the technique for an ex-vivo quick analysis of surgical resections or biopsy specimens, in the aim to help the surgeon/radiologist decide on the course of action. Here we will present some of the latest technical developments on a FFOCT system which can produce 1cm2 images with 1 µm resolution in 1 minute. Larger samples, up to 50mm diameter, can also be imaged. Details on the large sample handling, high-speed image acquisition, optimized scanning, and accelerated GPU tiles stitching will be given. Results on the clinical applications for breast, urology, and digestive tissues will also be given. They highlight the relevance of the system characteristics for the detection of cancer on ex-vivo specimens. FFOCT now appears clearly as a very fast and non-destructive imaging technique that provides a quick assessment of the tissue morphology. With the benefit of both new technical developments and clinical validation, it turned into a mature technique to be implemented in the clinical environment. In particular, the technique holds potential for the fast ex-vivo analysis of excision margins or biopsies in the operating room.

  18. In vivo perfusion assessment of an anastomosis surgery on porcine intestinal model (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hanh N. D.; Opferman, Justin; Decker, Ryan; Cheon, Gyeong W.; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Anastomosis, the connection of two structures, is a critical procedure for reconstructive surgery with over 1 million cases/year for visceral indication alone. However, complication rates such as strictures and leakage affect up to 19% of cases for colorectal anastomoses and up to 30% for visceral transplantation anastomoses. Local ischemia plays a critical role in anastomotic complications, making blood perfusion an important indicator for tissue health and predictor for healing following anastomosis. In this work, we apply a real time multispectral imaging technique to monitor impact on tissue perfusion due to varying interrupted suture spacing and suture tensions. Multispectral tissue images at 470, 540, 560, 580, 670 and 760 nm are analyzed in conjunction with an empirical model based on diffuse reflectance process to quantify the hemoglobin oxygen saturation within the suture site. The investigated tissues for anastomoses include porcine small (jejunum and ileum) and large (transverse colon) intestines. Two experiments using interrupted suturing with suture spacing of 1, 2, and 3 mm and tension levels from 0 N to 2.5 N are conducted. Tissue perfusion at 5, 10, 20 and 30 min after suturing are recorded and compared with the initial normal state. The result indicates the contrast between healthy and ischemic tissue areas and assists the determination of suturing spacing and tension. Therefore, the assessment of tissue perfusion will permit the development and intra-surgical monitoring of an optimal suture protocol during anastomosis with less complications and improved functional outcome.

  19. Assessment of the pathogenicity of cell-culture-adapted Newcastle disease virus strain Komarov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivam Visnuvinayagam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18th(final passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds.

  20. Assessment of the pathogenicity of cell-culture-adapted Newcastle disease virus strain Komarov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Thangavel, K; Lalitha, N; Malmarugan, S; Sukumar, Kuppannan

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC) system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18(th)(final) passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds.

  1. Web-based computer adaptive assessment of individual perceptions of job satisfaction for hospital workplace employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Chung

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop a web-based computer adaptive testing (CAT application for efficiently collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job satisfaction, we examined whether a 37-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ-37 could evaluate the job satisfaction of individual employees as a single construct. Methods The JCQ-37 makes data collection via CAT on the internet easy, viable and fast. A Rasch rating scale model was applied to analyze data from 300 randomly selected hospital employees who participated in job-satisfaction surveys in 2008 and 2009 via non-adaptive and computer-adaptive testing, respectively. Results Of the 37 items on the questionnaire, 24 items fit the model fairly well. Person-separation reliability for the 2008 surveys was 0.88. Measures from both years and item-8 job satisfaction for groups were successfully evaluated through item-by-item analyses by using t-test. Workers aged 26 - 35 felt that job satisfaction was significantly worse in 2009 than in 2008. Conclusions A Web-CAT developed in the present paper was shown to be more efficient than traditional computer-based or pen-and-paper assessments at collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job content.

  2. Pacing-induced congenital heart defects assessed by OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Stephanie M.; McPheeters, Matt T.; Wang, Yves T.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Strainic, James P.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2016-03-01

    The role of hemodynamics in early heart development is poorly understood. In order to successfully assess the impact of hemodynamics on development, we need to monitor and perturb blood flow, and quantify the resultant effects on morphology. Here, we have utilized cardiac optical pacing to create regurgitant flow in embryonic hearts and OCT to quantify regurgitation percentage and resultant morphology. Embryonic quail in a shell-less culture were optically paced at 3 Hz (well above the intrinsic rate or 1.33-1.67 Hz) on day 2 of development (3-4 weeks human) for 5 minutes. The pacing fatigued the heart and led to a prolonged period (> 1 hour) of increased regurgitant flow. Embryos were kept alive until day 3 (cardiac looping - 4-5 weeks human) or day 8 (4 chambered heart - 8 weeks human) to quantify resultant morphologic changes with OCT. All paced embryos imaged at day 3 displayed cardiac defects. The extent of regurgitant flow immediately after pacing was correlated with cardiac cushion size 24-hours post pacing (p-value congenital heart defects (CHDs) including 11/18 with valve defects, 5/18 with ventricular septal defects and 5/18 with hypoplastic right ventricles. Our data suggests that regurgitant flow leads to smaller cushions, which develop into abnormal valves and septa. Our model produces similar phenotypes as found in our fetal alcohol syndrome and velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome models suggesting that hemodynamics plays a role in these syndromes as well. Utilizing OCT and optical pacing to understand hemodynamics in development is an important step towards determining CHD mechanisms and ultimately developing earlier treatments.

  3. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) for rapid assessment of breast excision specimens (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachtel, Elena F.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Huck, Amelia E.; Rice-Stitt, Travis L.; Vangel, Mark G.; Smith, Barbara L.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Kang, DongKyun

    2016-03-01

    Unacceptably large percentage (20-40%) of breast cancer lumpectomy patients are required to undergo multiple surgeries when positive margins are found upon post-operative histologic assessment. If the margin status can be determined during surgery, surgeon can resect additional tissues to achieve tumor-free margin, which will reduce the need for additional surgeries. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal microscopy technology that has a potential to image the entire surgical margin within a short procedural time. Previously, SECM was shown to rapidly image a large area (10 mm by 10 mm) of human esophageal tissue within a short procedural time (15 seconds). When used in lumpectomy, SECM will be able to image the entire margin surface of ~30 cm2 in around 7.5 minutes. SECM images will then be used to determine margin status intra-operatively. In this paper, we present results from a study of testing accuracy of SECM for diagnosing malignant breast tissues. We have imaged freshly-excised breast specimens (N=46) with SECM. SECM images clearly visualized histomorphologic features associated with normal/benign and malignant breast tissues in a similar manner to histologic images. Diagnostic accuracy was tested by comparing SECM diagnoses made by three junior pathologists with corresponding histologic diagnoses made by a senior pathologist. SECM sensitivity and specificity were high, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. Intra-observer agreement and inter-observer agreement were also high, 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. Results from this study showed that SECM has a potential to accurately determine margin status during breast cancer lumpectomy.

  4. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lasage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings. A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD. Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr–1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr–1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD −107 to −1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different

  5. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by

  6. Assessing adaptation – Climate change and indigenous livelihood in the Andes of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marolyn Vidaurre de la Riva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case study of Charazani – Bolivia, this article outlines the understanding of adaptive strategies to cope with climate change and its impact on environmental and socioeconomic conditions that are affecting rural livelihoods. Mainly qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze data following the framework for vulnerability assessments of a socio-ecological system. Climate data reveals an increase of precipitation and temperature during the last decades. Furthermore the occurrence of extreme weather events, particularly drought, frost, hailstorms and consequently landslides and fire are increasing. Local testimonies highlight these events as the principle reasons for agricultural losses. This climatic variability and simultaneous social changes were identified as the drivers of vulnerability. Yet, several adaptive measures were identified at household, community and external levels in order to cope with such vulnerability; e.g. traditional techniques in agriculture and risk management. Gradually, farmers complement these activities with contemporary practices in agriculture, like intensification of land use, diversification of irrigation system and use of artificial fertilizers. As part of a recent trend community members are forced to search for new off-farm alternatives beyond agriculture for subsistence. Despite there is a correspondingly large array of possible adaptation measures that families are implementing, local testimonies point out, that farmers often do not have the capacity and neither the economical resources to mitigate the risk in agricultural production. Although several actions are already considered to promote further adaptive capacity, the current target is to improve existing livelihood strategies by reducing vulnerability to hazards induced by climate change.

  7. Climate change adaptation impact cost assessment in France; Evaluation du cout des impacts du changement climatique et de l'adaptation en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document reports the works of an inter-departmental group and of sector-based and transverse groups which aimed at assessing the impacts of climate change. After a first contribution about the assessment methodology, the works of sector-based groups and transverse groups are reported. These groups are dealing with agriculture, forest, infrastructures and built environment, tourism, energy, health, water, natural risks (and insurance and adaptation to climatic change in metropolitan France), biodiversity and land. For each of them, challenges, assessment approaches, first results and perspectives are discussed

  8. A Multimode Adaptive Pushover Procedure for Seismic Assessment of Integral Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mohtashami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new adaptive pushover procedure to account for the effect of higher modes in order to accurately estimate the seismic response of bridges. The effect of higher modes is considered by introducing a minimum value for the total effective modal mass. The proposed method employs enough number of modes to ensure that the defined total effective modal mass participates in all increments of the pushover loading. An adaptive demand curve is also developed for assessment of the seismic demand. The efficiency and robustness of the proposed method are demonstrated by conducting a parametric study. The analysis includes 18 four-span integral bridges with various heights of piers. The inelastic response history analysis is employed as reference solution in this study. Numerical results indicate excellent accuracy of the proposed method in assessment of the seismic response. For most bridges investigated in this study, the difference between the estimated response of the proposed method and the inelastic response history analysis is less than 25% for displacements and 10% for internal forces. This indicates a very good accuracy compared to available pushover procedures in the literature. The proposed method is therefore recommended to be applied to the seismic performance evaluation of integral bridges for engineering applications.

  9. Translation, cultural adaptation and content re-validation of the observational teamwork assessment for surgery tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya Arias, Ana Carolina; Barajas, Rocío; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H; Wheelock, Ana; Gaitán Duarte, Hernando; Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Background. Poor teamwork and nontechnical skill performance are increasingly recognized as important contributing factors to errors and adverse events in the operating room. Assessment of these safety critical skills is important to facilitate improvement, however there are no tools available to assess these safety skills in Latin America. This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt and content validate the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool for use in Latin America. Methods. A multi-phase, multi-method study was conducted: Phase 1: translation and back-translation; Phase 2: content validity assessed via expert consensus; Phase 3: inter-rater reliability assessed via real-time observation in 98 general surgical procedures using OTAS-S. Results. The first change in OTAS-S, was to distinguish between the surgical nurses and scrub technicians (both OR team members are captured in the nursing sub-team in the original OTAS). OTAS-S consists of 168 exemplar behaviors: 60/114 identical to the exemplars listed in the original OTAS tool, 48/114 original exemplars underwent minor modifications, 13 were duplicated (to account for the additional sub-team distinguished in OTAS-S), 6 original exemplars were removed, and 47 new exemplar behaviors were added. Inter-observer agreement was substantial (KW = 0.602; IC: 0.581-0.620). The calculated KW by phase, behaviors and teams were between 0.534 and 0.678. Conclusions. The study provides a content validated teamwork assessment tool for use within Colombian operating rooms and potentially Latin-American. OTAS-S can be used to assess the quality of teamwork in ORs, facilitate structured debriefing and thus improve patient safety and reduce team-related errors.

  10. Adapting the Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test into American sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Charlotte J; Herman, Rosalind C

    2011-01-01

    Signed languages continue to be a key element of deaf education programs that incorporate a bilingual approach to teaching and learning. In order to monitor the success of bilingual deaf education programs, and in particular to monitor the progress of children acquiring signed language, it is essential to develop an assessment tool of signed language skills. Although researchers have developed some checklists and experimental tests related to American Sign Language (ASL) assessment, at this time a standardized measure of ASL does not exist. There have been tests developed in other signed languages, for example, British Sign Language, that can serve as models in this area. The purpose of this study was to adapt the Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test for use in ASL in order to begin the process of developing a standardized measure of ASL skills. The results suggest that collaboration between researchers in different signed languages can provide a valuable contribution toward filling the gap in the area of signed language assessment.

  11. Adaptation and psychometric assessment of the Hebrew version of the Recovery Promoting Relationships Scale (RPRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Galia S; Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Garber-Epstein, Paula; Roe, David

    2014-03-01

    Recovery is supported by relationships that are characterized by human centeredness, empowerment and a hopeful approach. The Recovery Promoting Relationships Scale (RPRS; Russinova, Rogers, & Ellison, 2006) assesses consumer-provider relationships from the consumer perspective. Here we present the adaptation and psychometric assessment of a Hebrew version of the RPRS. The RPRS was translated to Hebrew (RPRS-Heb) using multiple strategies to assure conceptual soundness. Then 216 mental health consumers were administered the RPRS-Heb as part of a larger project initiative implementing illness management and recovery intervention (IMR) in community settings. Psychometric testing included assessment of the factor structure, reliability, and validity using the Hope Scale, the Working Alliance Inventory, and the Recovery Assessment Scale. The RPRS-Heb factor structure replicated the two factor structures found in the original scale with minor exceptions. Reliability estimates were good: Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.94. An estimate of 0.93 for the Recovery-Promoting Strategies factor, and 0.86 for the Core Relationship. Concurrent validity was confirmed using the Working Alliance Scale (rp = .51, p relationships with Hebrew speaking population.

  12. Adaptive Water Governance: Assessing the Institutional Prescriptions of Adaptive (Co-Management from a Governance Perspective and Defining a Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Huitema

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the institutional prescriptions of adaptive (co-management based on a literature review of the (water governance literature. The adaptive (co-management literature contains four institutional prescriptions: collaboration in a polycentric governance system, public participation, an experimental approach to resource management, and management at the bioregional scale. These prescriptions largely resonate with the theoretical and empirical insights embedded in the (water governance literature. However, this literature also predicts various problems. In particular, attention is called to the complexities associated with participation and collaboration, the difficulty of experimenting in a real-world setting, and the politicized nature of discussion on governance at the bioregional scale. We conclude this article by outlining a common research agenda that invites the collaborative efforts of adaptive (co-management and governance scholars.

  13. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi...

  14. The adaptive capacity wheel: a method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Meijerink, S.; Brink, van den M.A.; Jong, P.; Nooteboom, S.G.; Bergsma, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change potentially brings continuous and unpredictable changes in weather patterns. Consequently, it calls for institutions that promote the adaptive capacity of society and allow society to modify its institutions at a rate commensurate with the rate of environmental change. Institutions, t

  15. The Adaptive Capacity Wheel : a method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Joyeeta; Termeer, Catrien; Klostermann, Judith; Meijerink, Sander; van den Brink, Margo; Jong, Pieter; Nooteboom, Sibout; Bergsma, Emmy

    2010-01-01

    Climate change potentially brings continuous and unpredictable changes in weather patterns. Consequently, it calls for institutions that promote the adaptive capacity of society and allow society to modify its institutions at a rate commensurate with the rate of environmental change. Institutions, t

  16. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, an

  17. Adapting Tests of Sign Language Assessment for Other Sign Languages--A Review of Linguistic, Cultural, and Psychometric Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from…

  18. Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and

  19. Walking-adaptability assessments with the Interactive Walkway: Between-systems agreement and sensitivity to task and subject variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerse, Daphne J; Coolen, Bert H; Roerdink, Melvyn

    2017-03-02

    The ability to adapt walking to environmental circumstances is an important aspect of walking, yet difficult to assess. The Interactive Walkway was developed to assess walking adaptability by augmenting a multi-Kinect-v2 10-m walkway with gait-dependent visual context (stepping targets, obstacles) using real-time processed markerless full-body kinematics. In this study we determined Interactive Walkway's usability for walking-adaptability assessments in terms of between-systems agreement and sensitivity to task and subject variations. Under varying task constraints, 21 healthy subjects performed obstacle-avoidance, sudden-stops-and-starts and goal-directed-stepping tasks. Various continuous walking-adaptability outcome measures were concurrently determined with the Interactive Walkway and a gold-standard motion-registration system: available response time, obstacle-avoidance and sudden-stop margins, step length, stepping accuracy and walking speed. The same holds for dichotomous classifications of success and failure for obstacle-avoidance and sudden-stops tasks and performed short-stride versus long-stride obstacle-avoidance strategies. Continuous walking-adaptability outcome measures generally agreed well between systems (high intraclass correlation coefficients for absolute agreement, low biases and narrow limits of agreement) and were highly sensitive to task and subject variations. Success and failure ratings varied with available response times and obstacle types and agreed between systems for 85-96% of the trials while obstacle-avoidance strategies were always classified correctly. We conclude that Interactive Walkway walking-adaptability outcome measures are reliable and sensitive to task and subject variations, even in high-functioning subjects. We therefore deem Interactive Walkway walking-adaptability assessments usable for obtaining an objective and more task-specific examination of one's ability to walk, which may be feasible for both high

  20. EDITORIAL Smart materials, multifunctional composites, and morphing structures: selected papers from the 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST 2009) Smart materials, multifunctional composites, and morphing structures: selected papers from the 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2010-12-01

    The 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST) was held on 20-22 October 2009 in Hong Kong. This special section of Smart Materials and Structures is derived from the research papers presented at the conference. Of the 106 papers presented at the conference, 11 papers were reviewed and accepted for this special section, following the regular review procedures of the journal. This special section is focused on smart materials, multifunctional composites, and applications on morphing structures. Smart materials. Smart materials are the foundation of adaptive structures and intelligent systems. The development of new materials will lead to significant improvement in various applications. Three articles are focused on the fabrication of new materials and investigation of their behaviors: Barium strontium zirconate titanate ((Ba1-xSrx)(ZrxTi1-x)O3; BSZT, x = 0.25 and 0.75) ceramics with a highly crystalline structure were fabricated using the combustion technique. The microstructure of BSZT powders exhibited an almost-spherical morphology and had a porous agglomerated form. Polyaniline (PANI)/clay nanoparticles with unique core-shell structure were synthesized via Pickering emulsion polymerization. By dispersing PANI/clay nanoparticles in silicone oil, the ER fluid was made. Magnetic field effects were investigated on the deposition rate and surface morphology of chromium nitride coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering for superior hardness, excellent wear and oxidation resistance. The surface morphology of chromium nitride films was also examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Multifunctional composites. Composites are made from two or more constituent materials so they can combine the best properties of different materials. Five papers deal with fabrication, testing, and modeling of various multifunctional composites: A new active structural fiber (ASF) was fabricated by coating a single carbon fiber with a concentric

  1. Computational Intelligence : International Joint Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rosa, Agostinho; Cadenas, José; Dourado, António; Madani, Kurosh; Filipe, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the sixth International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2014), held in Rome, Italy, from 22 to 24 October 2014. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA), the International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA), and the International Conference on Neural Computation Theory and Applications (NCTA). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 210 submissions, from 51 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 15% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality and audience in...

  2. Towards a robust methodology to assess coastal impacts and adaptation policies for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution aims to present preliminary results from efforts towards (i) the development of the integrated risk assessment tool LISCoAsT for Europe (Large scale Integrated Sea-level and Coastal Assessment Tool); (ii) the assessment of coastal risk along the European coastline in view of climate change; and (iii) the development and application of a robust methodology to evaluate adaptation options for the European coastline under climate change scenarios. The overall approach builds on the disaster risk methodology proposed by the IPCC SREX (2012) report, defining risk as the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Substantial effort has been put in all the individual components of the risk assessment chain, including: (1) the development of dynamic scenarios of catastrophic coastal hazards (e.g., storm surges, sea-level rise) in view of climate change; (2) quantification, mapping and forecasting exposure and vulnerability in coastal areas; (3) carrying out a bottom-up, highly disaggregated assessment of climate impacts on coastal areas in Europe in view of global warming; (4) estimating the costs and assessing the effectiveness of different adaptation options. Projections indicate that, by the end of this century, sea levels in Europe will rise on average between 45 and 70 cm; while projections of coastal hazard showed that for some European regions, the increased storminess can be an additional significant driver of further risk. Projections of increasing extreme storm surge levels (SSL) were even more pronounced under the business-as-usual RCP8.5 concentration pathway, in particular along the Northern Europe coastline. The above are also reflected in the coastal impact projections, which show a significant increase in the expected annual damage (EAD) from coastal flooding. The present EAD for Europe of 800 million €/year is projected to increase up to 2.4 and 3.2 billion €/year by 2040 under RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively, and to 11

  3. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  4. Spectral assessment of mesh adaptations for the analysis of the dynamical longitudinal behavior of railway bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, J. [Inst. for Transportation Technologies, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Ruge, P. [Inst. of Dynamics of Structures, Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Extensive studies, concerning the longitudinal behavior of long railway bridges due to braking forces have been done by measurements in situ, and by statical, as well as dynamical simulations. Thereby, the only consistent numerical realization with respect to the measured data was the dynamical one. However, the consecutive discretizations in space and time with time-dependent system matrices are extremely time consuming due to the moving loads and varying stiffness of the ballast under, and in front of, the moving train. Therefore, every effort should be made to optimize the discretization in the space domain. This paper presents a strategy for assessing the quality of finite elements in space and for applying an adaptive mesh-refinement for this special engineering problem. The method is characterized by a spectral assessment, comparing a certain set of eigenvalues of the actual discretization with those of a very fine and rather exact numerical model. The error estimator introduced in this paper controls a whole set of global eigenvalues with corresponding natural vibration modes in order to assess certain types of shape functions. Thus, the procedure estimates local modifications on the one hand and p-properties on the other by means of global indication. (orig.)

  5. Climate change impact and adaptation assessment on food consumption utilizing a new scenario framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Shin, Yonghee; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Akemi

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the impacts of climate change and agricultural autonomous adaptation measures (changes in crop variety and planting dates) on food consumption and risk of hunger considering uncertainties in socioeconomic and climate conditions by using a new scenario framework. We combined a global computable general equilibrium model and a crop model (M-GAEZ), and estimated the impacts through 2050 based on future assumptions of socioeconomic and climate conditions. We used three Shared Socioeconomic Pathways as future population and gross domestic products, four Representative Concentration Pathways as a greenhouse gas emissions constraint, and eight General Circulation Models to estimate climate conditions. We found that (i) the adaptation measures are expected to significantly lower the risk of hunger resulting from climate change under various socioeconomic and climate conditions. (ii) population and economic development had a greater impact than climate conditions for risk of hunger at least throughout 2050, but climate change was projected to have notable impacts, even in the strong emission mitigation scenarios. (iii) The impact on hunger risk varied across regions because levels of calorie intake, climate change impacts and land scarcity varied by region.

  6. Nostradamus conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Emilio; Nostradamus: Modern Methods of Prediction, Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Systems

    2013-01-01

    This proceeding book of Nostradamus conference (http://nostradamus-conference.org) contains accepted papers presented at this event in 2012. Nostradamus conference was held in the one of the biggest and historic city of Ostrava (the Czech Republic, http://www.ostrava.cz/en), in September 2012. Conference topics are focused on classical as well as modern methods for prediction of dynamical systems with applications in science, engineering and economy. Topics are (but not limited to): prediction by classical and novel methods, predictive control, deterministic chaos and its control, complex systems, modelling and prediction of its dynamics and much more.

  7. Integrated assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakicenovic, N.; Amann, M.; Fischer, G.

    1995-12-31

    Integrated assessment aims to develop a framework for the analysis of mitigation and adaption strategies to deal with the impacts of global change. It is a recent, rapidly evolving field, IIASA has been an active contributor to its development through in-house research as well as collaborative activities. The latter includes a series of influential conferences on economic aspects and integrated assessment of climate change, as well as the Energy Modeling Forum on integrated assessment models comparison, organized jointly with Stanford University. Various impacts including those of energy use are discussed. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  8. A robust impact assessment that informs actionable climate change adaptation: future sunburn browning risk in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Leanne; Darbyshire, Rebecca; Erwin, Tim; Goodwin, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Climate change impact assessments are predominantly undertaken for the purpose of informing future adaptation decisions. Often, the complexity of the methodology hinders the actionable outcomes. The approach used here illustrates the importance of considering uncertainty in future climate projections, at the same time providing robust and simple to interpret information for decision-makers. By quantifying current and future exposure of Royal Gala apple to damaging temperature extremes across ten important pome fruit-growing locations in Australia, differences in impact to ripening fruit are highlighted, with, by the end of the twenty-first century, some locations maintaining no sunburn browning risk, while others potentially experiencing the risk for the majority of the January ripening period. Installation of over-tree netting can reduce the impact of sunburn browning. The benefits from employing this management option varied across the ten study locations. The two approaches explored to assist decision-makers assess this information (a) using sunburn browning risk analogues and (b) through identifying hypothetical sunburn browning risk thresholds, resulted in varying recommendations for introducing over-tree netting. These recommendations were location and future time period dependent with some sites showing no benefit for sunburn protection from nets even by the end of the twenty-first century and others already deriving benefits from employing this adaptation option. Potential best and worst cases of sunburn browning risk and its potential reduction through introduction of over-tree nets were explored. The range of results presented highlights the importance of addressing uncertainty in climate projections that result from different global climate models and possible future emission pathways.

  9. Assessing indigenous knowledge systems and climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture: A case study of Chagaka Village, Chikhwawa, Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomwa, Emmanuel Charles; Joshua, Miriam Kalanda; Ngongondo, Cosmo; Monjerezi, Maurice; Chipungu, Felistus

    In Malawi, production from subsistence rain fed agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. In response to the adverse effects of climate change and variability, a National Adaptation Programme of Action is used as framework for implementing adaptation programmes. However, this framework puts limited significance on indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). In many parts of the world, IKS have shown potential in the development of locally relevant and therefore sustainable adaptation strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the role of IKS in adaptation to climate change and variability in the agricultural sector in a rural district of Chikhwawa, southern Malawi. The study used both qualitative data from focus group and key informant interviews and quantitative data from household interviews and secondary data to address the research objectives. The study established that the local communities are able to recognise the changes in their climate and local environment. Commonly mentioned indicators of changing climatic patterns included delayed and unpredictable onset of rainfall, declining rainfall trends, warming temperatures and increased frequency of prolonged dry spells. An analysis of empirical data corroborates the people's perception. In addition, the community is able to use their IKS to adapt their agricultural systems to partially offset the effects of climate change. Like vulnerability to climate change, IKS varies over a short spatial scale, providing locally relevant adaptation to impacts of climate change. This paper therefore advocates for the integration of IKS in programmes addressing adaptation to climate change and vulnerability. This will serve to ensure sustainable and relevant adaptation strategies.

  10. Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions

  11. Summarizing components of U.S. Department of the Interior vulnerability assessments to focus climate adaptation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Laura M.; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Carter, Shawn L.

    2015-09-29

    A secretarial order identified climate adaptation as a critical performance objective for future management of U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) lands and resources in response to global change. Vulnerability assessments can inform climate adaptation planning by providing insight into what natural resources are most at risk and why. Three components of vulnerability—exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity—were defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as necessary for identifying climate adaptation strategies and actions. In 2011, the DOI requested all internal bureaus report ongoing or completed vulnerability assessments about a defined range of assessment targets or climate-related threats. Assessment targets were defined as freshwater resources, landscapes and wildlife habitat, native and cultural resources, and ocean health. Climate-related threats were defined as invasive species, wildfire risk, sea-level rise, and melting ice and permafrost. Four hundred and three projects were reported, but the original DOI survey did not specify that information be provided on exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity collectively as part of the request, and it was unclear which projects adhered to the framework recommended by the IPCC. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center conducted a supplemental survey to determine how frequently each of the three vulnerability components was assessed. Information was categorized for 124 of the 403 reported projects (30.8 percent) based on the three vulnerability components, and it was discovered that exposure was the most common component assessed (87.9 percent), followed by sensitivity (68.5 percent) and adaptive capacity (33.1 percent). The majority of projects did not fully assess vulnerability; projects focused on landscapes/wildlife habitats and sea-level rise were among the minority that simultaneously addressed all three vulnerability

  12. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidsma, Pytrik; Wolf, Joost; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Schaap, Ben F.; Mandryk, Maryia; Verhagen, Jan; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2015-04-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot account for all relevant climate change impacts and adaptation options, and (2) changes in technology, policy and prices have had and are likely to have larger impacts on farms than climate change. While crop modelling indicates positive impacts of climate change on yields of major crops in 2050, a semi-quantitative and participatory method assessing impacts of extreme events shows that there are nevertheless several climate risks. A range of adaptation measures are, however, available to reduce possible negative effects at crop level. In addition, at farm level farmers can change cropping patterns, and adjust inputs and outputs. Also farm structural change will influence impacts and adaptation. While the 5th IPCC report is more negative regarding impacts of climate change on agriculture compared to the previous report, also for temperate regions, our results show that when putting climate change in context of other drivers, and when explicitly accounting for adaptation at crop and farm level, impacts may be less negative in some regions and opportunities are revealed. These results refer to a temperate region, but an integrated assessment may also change perspectives on climate change for other parts of the world.

  13. Climate change and forests: Impacts and adaption. A regional assessment for the Western Ghats, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sukumar, R. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deshingkar, P. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Potential climate change over the next 50 to 100 years could have major impacts on tropical forests. Forests, particularly in the tropics, are subjected to anthropogenic pressures leading to degradation and loss of forest ecosystems. Given the significant dependence of local people and economies on forests in tropical and temperate countries, there is a need to assess the possible impacts of climate change and to develop adaption measures. The diversity of forest types in the Western Ghats ranges from wet evergreen and deciduous forest to dry thorn and montane forests with a wide range of annual rainfall regimes (from less than 65 cm to over 300 cm). The study was conducted in two regions of the Western Ghats; the Uttara Kannada district and the Nilgiris. Climate change projections for 2020 and 2050 were used in assessing the possible impacts on forests. In general, the `most likely` projections of climate change were an increase in mean temperature in the range of 0.3-1.0 deg C and an increase in precipitation of 3-8% over the study regions by the year 2050. The `worst case` scenario was an increase in temperature of 1 deg C and a decrease in precipitation by 8% by 2050. To assess the vegetational responses to climate change, a simple model based on present-day correlations between climatic (mean annual temperature and precipitation) and vegetation types for these regions was developed. Likely changes in the areas under different forest types were assessed for `moderate climate` sensitivity and central scaling factor (referred to as the `most likely scenario`) for the years 2020 and 2050, and `high climate` sensitivity and a lower scaling factor (the `worst case scenario`) for 2050 90 refs, 15 figs, 15 tabs

  14. Consensus conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annika Porsborg; Lassen, Jesper

    Our results point to significant national variation both in terms of the perceived aim of consensus conferences, expectations to conference outcomes, conceptions of the roles of lay people and experts, and in terms of the way in which the role of public deliberation is interpreted. Interestingly...

  15. Integrated urban flood risk assessmentadapting a multicriteria approach to a city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kubal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk assessment is an essential part of flood risk management. As part of the new EU flood directive it is becoming increasingly more popular in European flood policy. Particularly cities with a high concentration of people and goods are vulnerable to floods. This paper introduces the adaptation of a novel method of multicriteria flood risk assessment, that was recently developed for the more rural Mulde river basin, to a city. The study site is Leipzig, Germany. The "urban" approach includes a specific urban-type set of economic, social and ecological flood risk criteria, which focus on urban issues: population and vulnerable groups, differentiated residential land use classes, areas with social and health care but also ecological indicators such as recreational urban green spaces. These criteria are integrated using a "multicriteria decision rule" based on an additive weighting procedure which is implemented into the software tool FloodCalc urban. Based on different weighting sets we provide evidence of where the most flood-prone areas are located in a city. Furthermore, we can show that with an increasing inundation extent it is both the social and the economic risks that strongly increase.

  16. PROBLEM BASED LEARNING: ADAPTING MODEL OF MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CHANGING TO STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alias Masek

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Exam oriented system has long time been practiced whether in the school or at higher educational level. It is common to see that students learn to rote memorization as preparation to pass in the examination. As consequences, the graduates’ ability to apply knowledge in the workplace becomes an issue to be debated. This has led to the loud calls for the new authentic learning environment that may increase students’ ability to apply knowledge, skills and at the same time promoting students’ with higher order thinking levels such as problem solving and critical thinking skills. Within this, the need on educational revamp is seem crucial, and this should be done from the grass root levels. Therefore, student centered learning using Problem Based Learning (PBL approach is suggested to be introduced in integrated living skills subject. The model will be designed to focus on monitoring and assessment methods in fostering student continuous development in three domain areas of knowledge, technical and personal skills. Moreover, this method is believed to be able to incorporate lifelong learning and self directed learning skills that helps student to sustain in our educational system. Thus, the study aims to look into the possible ways of adapting PBL monitoring and assessment methods into existing practices in lifelong learning settings in TVET.

  17. Axial length and cone density as assessed with adaptive optics in myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Dabir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the variations in cone mosaic in myopia and its correlation with axial length (AL. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-five healthy myopic volunteers underwent assessment of photoreceptors using adaptive optics retinal camera at 2° and 3° from the foveal center in four quadrants superior, inferior, temporal and nasal. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17 (IBM. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to study the relation between cone density and AL, quadrant around the fovea and eccentricity from the fovea. Results: The mean cone density was significantly lower as the eccentricity increased from 2° from the fovea to 3° (18,560 ± 5455-16,404 ± 4494/mm 2 respectively. There was also a statistically significant difference between four quadrants around the fovea. The correlation of cone density and spacing with AL showed that there was a significant inverse relation of AL with the cone density. Conclusion: In myopic patients with good visual acuity cone density around the fovea depends on the quadrant, distance from the fovea as well as the AL. The strength of the relation of AL with cone density depends on the quadrant and distance.

  18. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  19. Adaptation decision-making in the Nordic Countries: assessing the potential for joint action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhola, Sirkku; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Davis, Marion

    2014-01-01

    on the issue. This paper explores the potential for Nordic cooperation on adaptation; specifically, for the development of a regional adaptation strategy. In particular, it addresses two questions (1) What is the current state of adaptation in the Nordic countries? and (2) What are the potential benefits...

  20. [Attaching importance to study on acute health risk assessment and adaptation of air pollution and climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X M

    2017-03-10

    Air pollution and climate change have become key environmental and public health problems around the world, which poses serious threat to human health. How to assess and mitigate the health risks and increase the adaptation of the public have become an urgent topic of research in this area. The six papers in this issue will provide important and rich information on design, analysis method, indicator selection and setting about acute health risk assessment and adaptation study of air pollution and climate change in China, reflecting the advanced conceptions of multi-center and area-specific study and multi-pollutant causing acute effect study. However, the number and type of the cities included in these studies were still limited. In future, researchers should further expand detailed multi-center and multi-area study coverage, conduct area specific predicting and early warning study and strengthen adaptation study.

  1. Development and Climate Change: A Mainstreaming Approach for Assessing Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Adaptation Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2009-01-01

    how development policy indicators in practice can be used to assess climate change impacts and adaptation measures based on three case studies, namely a road project in flood prone areas of Mozambique, rainwater harvesting in the agricultural sector in Tanzania and malaria protection in Tanzania...

  2. Climate Change and Potato Production in Contrasting South African Agro-Ecosystems 2. Assessing Risks and Opportunities of Adaptation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the risks and opportunities posed by climate change to potato growers in South Africa and to evaluate adaptation measures in the form of changes in planting time growers could adopt to optimise land and water use efficiencies in potato, using a climate model of past, presen

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a Bengali Health Assessment Questionnaire for use in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Nazrul; Baron Basak, T.; Oude Voshaar, M.A.; Ferdous, N.; Rasker, J.J.; Atiqul Haq, S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To translate and adapt the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) into Bengali (BHAQ) for use in Bangladeshi populations and to test its reliability and validity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method: The HAQ-DI was translated using rigorous forward-backward prot

  4. The Development of an ICF-Oriented, Adaptive Physician Assessment Instrument of Mobility, Self-care, and Domestic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Erik; Fleitz, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and psychometric testing of an adaptive, International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)-oriented questionnaire to be processed by the rehabilitation physician that aids in assessing mobility, self-care, and domestic life (Moses-Physician). The intent is to develop a physician…

  5. Turning the Page on Pen-and-Paper Questionnaires: Combining Ecological Momentary Assessment and Computer Adaptive Testing to Transform Psychological Assessment in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Chris J

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes new opportunities for patient-centred assessment methods which have come about by the increased adoption of affordable smart technologies in biopsychosocial research and medical care. In this commentary, we review modern assessment methods including item response theory (IRT), computer adaptive testing (CAT), and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and explain how these methods may be combined to improve psychological assessment. We demonstrate both how a 'naïve' selection of a small group of items in an EMA can lead to unacceptably unreliable assessments and how IRT can provide detailed information on the individual information that each item gives thus allowing short form assessments to be selected with acceptable reliability. The combination of CAT and IRT can ensure assessments are precise, efficient, and well targeted to the individual; allowing EMAs to be both brief and accurate.

  6. Turning the Page on Pen-and-Paper Questionnaires: Combining Ecological Momentary Assessment and Computer Adaptive Testing to Transform Psychological Assessment in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Chris J.

    2017-01-01

    The current paper describes new opportunities for patient-centred assessment methods which have come about by the increased adoption of affordable smart technologies in biopsychosocial research and medical care. In this commentary, we review modern assessment methods including item response theory (IRT), computer adaptive testing (CAT), and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and explain how these methods may be combined to improve psychological assessment. We demonstrate both how a ‘naïve’ selection of a small group of items in an EMA can lead to unacceptably unreliable assessments and how IRT can provide detailed information on the individual information that each item gives thus allowing short form assessments to be selected with acceptable reliability. The combination of CAT and IRT can ensure assessments are precise, efficient, and well targeted to the individual; allowing EMAs to be both brief and accurate.

  7. An integrated stochastic approach to the assessment of agricultural water demand and adaptation to water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Butler, A. P.; McIntyre, N.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing water demands from growing populations coupled with changing water availability, for example due to climate change, are likely to increase water scarcity. Agriculture will be exposed to risk due to the importance of reliable water supplies as an input to crop production. To assess the efficiency of agricultural adaptation options requires a sound understanding of the relationship between crop growth and water application. However, most water resource planning models quantify agricultural water demand using highly simplified, temporally lumped estimated crop-water production functions (CWPFs). Such CWPFs fail to capture the biophysical complexities in crop-water relations and mischaracterise farmers ability to respond to water scarcity. Application of these models in policy analyses will be ineffective and may lead to unsustainable water policies. Crop simulation models provide an alternative means of defining the complex nature of the CWPF. Here we develop a daily water-limited crop model for this purpose. The model is based on the approach used in the FAO's AquaCrop model, balancing biophysical and computational complexities. We further develop the model by incorporating improved simulation routines to calculate the distribution of water through the soil profile. Consequently we obtain a more realistic representation of the soil water balance with concurrent improvements in the prediction of water-limited yield. We introduce a methodology to utilise this model for the generation of stochastic crop-water production functions (SCWPFs). This is achieved by running the model iteratively with both time series of climatic data and variable quantities of irrigation water, employing a realistic rule-based approach to farm irrigation scheduling. This methodology improves the representation of potential crop yields, capturing both the variable effects of water deficits on crop yield and the stochastic nature of the CWPF due to climatic variability. Application to

  8. Converging Indicators for Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; DeRoshia, Charles W.; Taylor, Bruce; Hines, Seleimah; Bright, Andrew; Dodds, Anika

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new methodology for assessing the deleterious effects of spaceflight on crew health and performance. It is well known that microgravity results in various physiological alterations, e.g., headward fluid shifts which can impede physiological adaptation. Other factors that may affect crew operational efficiency include disruption of sleep-wake cycles, high workload, isolation, confinement, stress and fatigue. From an operational perspective, it is difficult to predict which individuals will be most or least affected in this unique environment given that most astronauts are first-time flyers. During future lunar and Mars missions space crews will include both men and women of multi-national origins, different professional backgrounds, and various states of physical condition. Therefore, new methods or technologies are needed to monitor and predict astronaut performance and health, and to evaluate the effects of various countermeasures on crew during long duration missions. This paper reviews several studies conducted in both laboratory and operational environments with men and women ranging in age between 18 to 50 years. The studies included the following: soldiers performing command and control functions during mobile operations in enclosed armored vehicles; subjects participating in laboratory tests of an anti-motion sickness medication; subjects exposed to chronic hypergravity aboard a centrifuge, and subject responses to 36-hours of sleep deprivation. Physiological measurements, performance metrics, and subjective self-reports were collected in each study. The results demonstrate that multivariate converging indicators provide a significantly more reliable method for assessing environmental effects on performance and health than any single indicator.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian version of the Eating Assessment Tool - EAT-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maria Inês Rebelo; Remaili, Carla Bogossian; Behlau, Mara

    2013-12-16

    The Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) was conceptually developed in the United States from data collected from 482 patients, for use as a self-administered survey regarding risk identification of dysphagia and symptoms related to clinical response to treatment. The purpose of this study is to present the cultural equivalence of the Brazilian version of the EAT-10. The process followed the Scientific Advisory Committee of Medical Outcome Trust (SACMOT). The questionnaire was translated by two Brazilian bilingual speech-language pathologists, aware of the purpose of this study. A back translation was performed by a third Brazilian speech-language pathologist, bilingual and English teacher that had not participated in the previous stage. After comparing both translations, a final version of the questionnaire was produced and called Instrumento de Autoavaliação da Alimentação (EAT-10). It was administered to 107 adult inpatients of the Hospital São Paulo, cwith request for bedside clinical evaluation of swallow. During the process of translation and cultural adaptation, no item was modified and/or suppressed. The EAT-10 maintained the same structure as the original American English version with ten questions, of which three of functional domain, three of emotional domain and four of physical symptoms domain. The cultural equivalence of the Brazilian version of the EAT-10 was demonstrated, being a score of three points or above it the cutoff for dysphagia risk, also for the Brazilian population.

  10. Development and pilot testing the Family Conference Rating Scale: A tool aimed to assess interprofessional patient-centred communication and collaboration competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojeiji, Sue; Byszewski, Anna; Wood, Tim

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence-based literature on the essential communication and collaboration skills to guide health care teams in conducting and assessing their performance in the Family Conference (FC). The authors developed and collected validity evidence for a rating scale of team FC performance, the Family Conference Rating Scale (FCRS). In phase 1, essential FC communication and collaboration skills were identified through a review of existing communication tools and literature on team functioning; a draft 34-item scale was developed. In phase 2, the scale was narrowed to a 6-category, 9-point scale with descriptors of expected behaviours through an iterative process: testing of the scale on 10 FC transcripts by two experts, soliciting feedback from a focus group of seven health care providers, and testing by non-experts on 49 live FCs. In phase 3, scores on the revised scale were validated by 10 health care providers from different disciplines by rating three videos of FCs of variable quality. Raters were able to detect inter-video variation in FC quality. The reliability of the FCRS was 0.95 and the inter-rater reliability, 0.68. The FCRS may enhance the ability of health professions educators to teach and assess interprofessional patient-centred communication and collaboration competencies.

  11. The Adaptation Finance Gap Update - with insights from the INDCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Anne; Bee, Skylar; Puig, Daniel

    In 2014 the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) published its first global Adaptation Gap Report (AGR 2014) (UNEP, 2014), which put forward a preliminary framework for assessing adaptation gaps along with an initial assessment in three selected areas: finance, technology and knowledge...... will be published in the spring of 2016. This update is intended as an input to discussions at the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It brings together key findings on adaptation costs and finance from AGR 2014...... and preliminary findings from the 2016 assessment. Furthermore, it draws on insights concerning adaptation costs and related finance needs, as stated in the adaptation components in the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) – the post-2020 climate actions that countries intend to undertake...

  12. Technology-enabled assessment of health professions education: consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Zubair; Boulet, John R; Cook, David A;

    2011-01-01

    health professional education. Recommendations include adhering to principles of good assessment, the need for developing coherent institutional policy, using technologies to broaden the competencies to be assessed, linking patient-outcome data to assessment of practitioner performance, and capitalizing...

  13. Feasibility and Acceptability of Adapting the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Assessment for Preschoolers in the Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Erica G; Ledoux, Tracey; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-12-01

    Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) represents a failure to self-regulate intake leading to overconsumption. Existing research on EAH has come from the clinical setting, limiting our understanding of this behavior. The purpose of this study was to describe the adaptation of the clinical EAH paradigm for preschoolers to the classroom setting and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of measuring EAH in the classroom. The adapted protocol was implemented in childcare centers in Houston, Texas (N=4) and Phoenix, Arizona (N=2). The protocol was feasible, economical, and time efficient, eliminating previously identified barriers to administering the EAH assessment such as limited resources and the time constraint of delivering the assessment to participants individually. Implementation challenges included difficulty in choosing palatable test snacks that were in compliance with childcare center food regulations and the limited control over the meal that was administered prior to the assessment. The adapted protocol will allow for broader use of the EAH assessment and encourage researchers to incorporate the assessment into longitudinal studies in order to further our understanding of the causes and emergence of EAH.

  14. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyniuk O.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment for use in Brazil with informal caregivers of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rochelly do Nascimento Mota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment CRA for use in Brazil with informal caregivers of dependent elderly METHOD A methodological study, of five steps: initial translation, synthesis of translations, retro-translation, evaluation by a judge committee and a pre-test, with 30 informal caregivers of older persons in Fortaleza, Brazil. Content validity was assessed by five experts in gerontology and geriatrics. The cross-cultural adaptation was rigorously conducted, allowing for inferring credibility. RESULTS The Brazilian version of the CRA had a simple and fast application (ten minutes, easily understood by the target audience. It is semantically, idiomatically, experimentally and conceptually equivalent to the original version, with valid content to assess the burden of informal caregivers for the elderly (Content Validity Index = 0.883. CONCLUSION It is necessary that other psychometric properties of validity and reliability are tested before using in care practice and research.

  16. Quantitative adaptation analytics for assessing dynamic systems of systems: LDRD Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Readiness & Sustainment Technologies (6133, M/S 1188); Miner, Nadine E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Military & Energy Systems Analysis (6114, M/S 1188); Wilson, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Resilience and Regulatory Effects (6921, M/S 1138); Le, Hai D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Readiness & Sustainment Technologies (6133, M/S 1188); Kao, Gio K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Networked System Survivability & Assurance (5629, M/S 0671); Melander, Darryl J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Software Systems R& D (9525, M/S 1188); Longsine, Dennis Earl [Sandia National Laboratories, Unknown, Unknown; Vander Meer, Jr., Robert C. [SAIC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  17. Improving the Usability of Integrated Assessment for Adaptation Practice: Insights from the U.S. Southeast Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Bremond, Ariane; Preston, Benjamin; Rice, Jennie S.

    2014-10-01

    Energy systems comprise a key sector of the U.S. economy, and one that has been identified as potentially vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. However, understanding of adaptation processes in energy companies and private entities more broadly is limited. It is unclear, for example, the extent to which energy companies are well-served by existing knowledge and tools emerging from the impacts, adaptation and vulnerability (IAV) and integrated assessment modeling (IAM) communities and/or what experiments, analyses, and model results have practical utility for informing adaptation in the energy sector. As part of a regional IAM development project, we investigated available evidence of adaptation processes in the energy sector, with a particular emphasis on the U.S. Southeast and Gulf Coast region. A mixed methods approach of literature review and semi-structured interviews with key informants from energy utilities was used to compare existing knowledge from the IAV community with that of regional stakeholders. That comparison revealed that much of the IAV literature on the energy sector is climate-centric and therefore disconnected from the more integrated decision-making processes and institutional perspectives of energy utilities. Increasing the relevance of research and assessment for the energy sector will necessitate a greater investment in integrated assessment and modeling efforts that respond to practical decision-making needs as well as greater collaboration between energy utilities and researchers in the design, execution, and communication of those efforts.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program: Proceedings of the carbon dioxide and climate research program conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, L E [ed.

    1980-12-01

    Papers presented at the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program Conference are included in this volume. Topics discussed are: the carbon cycle; modeling the carbon system; climatic response due to increased CO2; climate modeling; the use of paleoclimatic data in understanding climate change; attitudes and implications of CO2; social responses to the CO2 problem; a scenario for atmospheric CO2 to 2025; marine photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle; and the role of tropical forests in the carbon balance of the world. Separate abstracts of nine papers have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  19. Conceptual Modeling for Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management in the Barycz Valley, Lower Silesia, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kronenberg

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that causes are linked in a linear chain, they concentrate on technological developments (“hard path” as the only solutions to environmental problems. Adaptive Management is recognized as a promising alternative approach directly addressing links between social and ecological systems and involving stakeholders in the analysis and decision process. This “soft path” requires special tools to facilitate collaboration between “experts” and stakeholders in analyzing complex situations and prioritizing policies and actions. We have applied conceptual modeling to increase communication, understanding and commitment in the project of seven NGOs “Sustainable Regional Development in the Odra Catchment”. The main goal was to help our NGO partners to facilitate their efforts related to developing sustainable policies and practices to respond to large-scale challenges (EU accession, global changes in climate and economy to their natural, economic and socio-cultural heritages. Among the variety of sustainability issues explored by these NGOs, two (extensive agricultural practices and “green” local products were examined by using Adaptive Management (AM as a framework that would link analysis, discussion, research, actions and monitoring. Within the AM framework the project coordinators used tools of systems analysis (Mental Model Mapping to facilitate discussions in which NGO professionals and local stakeholders could graphically diagram and study their understanding of what factors interacted and

  20. Climate change risks and adaptation options across Australian seafood supply chains – A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fleming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already impacting the biology of the oceans and some dependent industries are in turn responding to these impacts. The development of response options for users of marine resources, such as fishers, is important in guiding adaptation efforts. However, harvesting fish is only the first step in a supply chain that delivers seafood to consumers. Impacts higher up the chain have seldom been considered in fisheries-climate research yet an understanding of these impacts and how climate risks and adaptation information are interpreted and used by stakeholders across the chain is vital for developing viable and sustainable adaptation options. We examined stakeholder perceptions of points where climate change impacts and adaptations currently occur, or may occur in the future, across the supply chains of several Australian fisheries (southern rock lobster, tropical rock lobster, prawn and aquaculture sectors (oyster, aquaculture prawn. We found that climate change impacts are well understood at the harvest stage and there is evidence of potential impacts and disruption to supply chains. Yet, there currently is no strong driver for change higher up the chain. Holistic adaptation planning along the supply chain, underpinned by targeted information and policy for the catch, processing and distribution, and marketing phases is needed. This effort is needed now, as some adaptation options have long lead times, and a delay in adaptation planning may limit future options. Given potential lead times and associated uncertainty, a risk-based approach is recommended with regard to adaptation planning for Australia’s seafood sector.

  1. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation options in urban flash floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Adaptation is necessary to cope with the increasing flood risk in cities due to climate change in many regions of the world. Decision marking of adaptation strategies often requires a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis to indicate the net benefits of proposed options. Priority...

  2. Climate change adaptation impact cost assessment in France. Second phase report. September 2009; Evaluation du cout des impacts du changement climatique et de l'adaptation en France. Rapport de la deuxieme phase. Septembre 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Firstly, this report presents the context and challenges of works dealing with climate change adaptation assessment: observations and perspectives of climate change, concepts and definitions of adaptation to climate change, adaptation within national, European and international context, objectives and organisation of the France's inter-departmental Group. It describes the chosen methodology: hypothesis, methodological tools (climate model), bibliographical tool, and heat wave counting methodology. It discusses the present results, outlines the encountered difficulties and discusses the perspectives for future work

  3. Proceedings of the ADPA/AIAA/ASME/SPIE Conference on Active and Adaptive Structures Held in Alexandria, Virginia on November 4 - 8, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-08

    program (Yiu 1991), and at the Air Force Institute of Technology ( Gaudreault et al 1991). More effort should be concentrated on integration applicable...Adaptive Struct’res ed B K Wada, J L Fanson. and K Miura (Lancaster Pa: Technomic) pp 373-401 Gaudreault M L D, Liebst B S, and Bagley R L 1991 "Simultaneous

  4. Assessing migration and adaptation from two or more points of view: Cultural-historical theory and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Portes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study validates a new tool for assessing differences in cultural adaptation for both majority and less dominant minority/immigrant adults in college in general. The Cultural Adaptation and Development Inventory (CADI is a self-report measure validated across multi-ethnic groups. The reliability and validity of a four factor model are adequate based several replication studies. Overall, the CADI provided evidence for a culturally valid measurement that shows both convergent and discriminant validity. Predicted ethnic group and gender differences were replicated with new groups of respondents for factors measuring Inter-Cultural Stress, Helplessness/Optimism, Positive Inter-cultural Adaptation and Inter-cultural Insensitivity. The study’s socio-cultural and usual types of validity is discussed in relation Berry’s (2003, Portes (1999 and Vygotski’s (1978 views regarding sociogenesis.

  5. A Web-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) to Assess Patient Perception in Hospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun; Lai, Wen-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Background Many hospitals have adopted mobile nursing carts that can be easily rolled up to a patient’s bedside to access charts and help nurses perform their rounds. However, few papers have reported data regarding the use of wireless computers on wheels (COW) at patients’ bedsides to collect questionnaire-based information of their perception of hospitalization on discharge from the hospital. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and the precision of CAT-based measures of perceptions of hospitalized patients, as compared with those of nonadaptive testing (NAT). An Excel module of our CAT multicategory assessment is provided as an example. Method A total of 200 patients who were discharged from the hospital responded to the CAT-based 18-item inpatient perception questionnaire on COW. The numbers of question administrated were recorded and the responses were calibrated using the Rasch model. They were compared with those from NAT to show the advantage of CAT over NAT. Results Patient measures derived from CAT and NAT were highly correlated (r = 0.98) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P = .14). CAT required fewer questions than NAT (an efficiency gain of 42%), suggesting a reduced burden for patients. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of gender and other demographic characteristics. Conclusions CAT-based administration of surveys of patient perception substantially reduced patient burden without compromising the precision of measuring patients’ perceptions of hospitalization. The Excel module of animation-CAT on the wireless COW that we developed is recommended for use in hospitals. PMID:21844001

  6. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa M. Lamarão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81% for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%. Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken.

  7. Mendel conference

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected accepted papers of Mendel conference that has been held in Brno, Czech Republic in June 2015. The book contents three chapters which represent recent advances in soft computing including intelligent image processing and bio-inspired robotics.: Chapter 1: Evolutionary Computing, and Swarm intelligence, Chapter 2: Neural Networks, Self-organization, and Machine Learning, and Chapter3: Intelligent Image Processing, and Bio-inspired Robotics. The Mendel conference was established in 1995, and it carries the name of the scientist and Augustinian priest Gregor J. Mendel who discovered the famous Laws of Heredity. In 2015 we are commemorating 150 years since Mendel's lectures, which he presented in Brno on February and March 1865. The main aim of the conference was to create a periodical possibility for students, academics and researchers to exchange their ideas and novel research methods.  .

  8. Application of Structured Decision Making to an Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Options for Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Innes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A logical starting point for climate change adaptation in the forest sector is to proactively identify management practices and policies that have a higher likelihood of achieving management objectives across a wide range of potential climate futures. This should be followed by implementation of these options and monitoring their success in achieving management objectives within an adaptive management context. Here, we implement an approach to identify locally appropriate adaptation options by tapping into the experiential knowledge base of local forest practitioners while at the same time, building capacity within this community to implement the results. We engaged 30 forest practitioners who are involved with the implementation of a regional forest management plan in identifying climate change vulnerabilities and evaluating alternative adaptation options. A structured decision-making approach was used to frame the assessment. Practitioners identified 24 adaptation options that they considered important to implement in order to achieve the regional goals and objectives of sustainable forest management in light of climate change.

  9. Development and Climate Change: A Mainstreaming Approach for Assessing Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Adaptation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Trærup, Sara

    2009-05-01

    The paper introduces the so-called climate change mainstreaming approach, where vulnerability and adaptation measures are assessed in the context of general development policy objectives. The approach is based on the application of a limited set of indicators. These indicators are selected as representatives of focal development policy objectives, and a stepwise approach for addressing climate change impacts, development linkages, and the economic, social and environmental dimensions related to vulnerability and adaptation are introduced. Within this context it is illustrated using three case studies how development policy indicators in practice can be used to assess climate change impacts and adaptation measures based on three case studies, namely a road project in flood prone areas of Mozambique, rainwater harvesting in the agricultural sector in Tanzania and malaria protection in Tanzania. The conclusions of the paper confirm that climate risks can be reduced at relatively low costs, but the uncertainty is still remaining about some of the wider development impacts of implementing climate change adaptation measures.

  10. Assessment of Multi-Joint Coordination and Adaptation in Standing Balance: A Novel Device and System Identification Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Denise; Schouten, Alfred C; Aarts, Ronald G K M; van der Kooij, Herman

    2015-11-01

    The ankles and hips play an important role in maintaining standing balance and the coordination between joints adapts with task and conditions, like the disturbance magnitude and type, and changes with age. Assessment of multi-joint coordination requires the application of multiple continuous and independent disturbances and closed loop system identification techniques (CLSIT). This paper presents a novel device, the double inverted pendulum perturbator (DIPP), which can apply disturbing forces at the hip level and between the shoulder blades. In addition to the disturbances, the device can provide force fields to study adaptation of multi-joint coordination. The performance of the DIPP and a novel CLSIT was assessed by identifying a system with known mechanical properties and model simulations. A double inverted pendulum was successfully identified, while force fields were able to keep the pendulum upright. The estimated dynamics were similar as the theoretical derived dynamics. The DIPP has a sufficient bandwidth of 7 Hz to identify multi-joint coordination dynamics. An experiment with human subjects where a stabilizing force field was rendered at the hip (1500 N/m), showed that subjects adapt by lowering their control actions around the ankles. The stiffness from upper and lower segment motion to ankle torque dropped with 30% and 48%, respectively. Our methods allow to study (pathological) changes in multi-joint coordination as well as adaptive capacity to maintain standing balance.

  11. Conference Notification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Roskill Information Services and Metal Events Ltd areorganizing the 2nd International Rare Earths Conference,which will be held at the Conrad Hotel in Hong Kong onFebruary 28 to March 2 2006.The program is structured tocover all the main aspects of the rare earths industry,including development of Chinese rare earth industry; trendsin rare earths demand; potential constraints on supply;research on potential capacity of rare earths supply chain.Global rare earths consumers will attend the conference.Registra...

  12. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation options in urban flash floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    presented is based on a flood risk framework that is in accordance with the EU flood directive, but adapted and extended to incorporate anticipated future changes due to city development and hydrologic extremes. The framework is used to study the importance of inherent uncertainties in order to find robust...... adaptation options. The case study is a small urban catchment where no significant city development is anticipated. Therefore the main focus is on estimation of impact of uncertainties related to present and future hydrological conditions, impacts on assets, and costing of the damages. The uncertainties......Adaptation is necessary to cope with the increasing flood risk in cities due to anthropogenic climate change in many regions of the world. The choice of adaptation strategies can and should be based on a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis to indicate the net benefits of proposed options...

  13. Ocean Environmental Assessment and Adaptive Resource Management within the Framework of IOOS and CLEANER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, J.; Brezonik, P.; Clesceri, N.; Gouldman, C.; Jamail, R.; Zilkoski, D.

    2006-12-01

    environmental field facilities (or observatories). Mutual coordination and collaboration would exist among these coasts through RES interactions based on a cyberinfrastructure supporting all aspects of quantitative analysis. Because the U.S. Ocean Action Plan refers to the creation of a National Water Quality Monitoring Network, a close liaison between IOOS and WATERS Network could be mutually advantageous considering the shared visions, goals and objectives. A focus on activities and initiatives involving sensor and sensor networks for coastal margin observation and assessment would be a specific instance of this liaison, leveraging the infrastructural base of both organizations to maximize resource allocation. This coordinated venture with intelligent environmental systems would include new specialized coastal monitoring networks, and management of near-real-time data, including data assimilation models. An ongoing NSF planning grant aimed at environmental observatory design for coastal margins is a component of the broader WATERS Network planning for collaborative research to support adaptive and sustainable environmental management. We propose a collaborative framework between IOOS and WATERS Network wherein collaborative research will be enabled by cybernetworks to support adaptive and sustainable management of the coastal regions.

  14. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation options in urban flash floods

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation is necessary to cope with the increasing flood risk in cities due to anthropogenic climate change in many regions of the world. The choice of adaptation strategies can and should be based on a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis to indicate the net benefits of proposed options. However, the analysis is complicated by irreducible uncertainties about present and future hydrologic conditions as well as the present and future vulnerability of the area in question. Further, model...

  15. Adaptation level as the basic health status characteristics: possibilitics of its assessment and forecasting of desadaptation violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysochyna I.L.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of comprehensive survey with integrative assessment of health state (medical history data, physical examination, anthropometry, battery of psychological tests (Eysenck, Shmishek’s Personality Inventory (teen version, tapping - test by E.P. Ilyin, children's questionnaire of neuroses; test for rapid assessment of health, activity and mood, anxiety diagnosis by Spielberg - Khanin; Luscher test, color relations test level of adaptation was defined in 236 children from orphanages aged from 4 to 18 years. The manifestations of maladjustment were registered both on psychological level (neuroticism, high anxiety, decreased performance, activity and psychological endurance, sleep disturbance, presence of accentuation and neurotic disorders and somatic level (recurrent acute respiratory infections, poor physical development, exacerbation of chronic foci of infection and burdened biological history; this summarizes conclusions on a low level of health status of children in orphanages. The author has developed mathematical models of adaptation assessment and prediction of desadaptation, which allowed to identify children at risk for the development of adaptation disorders and children with maladjustment; according to the level and severity of maladaptive disorders correction programs are designed.

  16. Multi-disciplinary assessments of climate change impacts on agriculture to support adaptation decision making in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko; Kanamaru, Hideki

    2016-04-01

    Many existing climate change impact studies, carried out by academic researchers, are disconnected from decision making processes of stakeholders. On the other hand many climate change adaptation projects in developing countries lack a solid evidence base of current and future climate impacts as well as vulnerabilities assessment at different scales. In order to fill this information gap, FAO has developed and implemented a tool "MOSAICC (Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change)" in several developing countries such as Morocco, the Philippines and Peru, and recently in Malawi and Zambia. MOSAICC employs a multi-disciplinary assessment approach to addressing climate change impacts and adaptation planning in the agriculture and food security sectors, and integrates five components from different academic disciplines: 1. Statistical downscaling of climate change projections, 2. Yield simulation of major crops at regional scale under climate change, 3. Surface hydrology simulation model, 4. Macroeconomic model, and 5. Forestry model. Furthermore MOSAICC has been developed as a capacity development tool for the national scientists so that they can conduct the country assessment themselves, using their own data, and reflect the outcome into the national adaptation policies. The outputs are nation-wide coverage, disaggregated at sub-national level to support strategic planning, investments and decisions by national policy makers. MOSAICC is designed in such a way to promote stakeholders' participation and strengthen technical capacities in developing countries. The paper presents MOSAICC and projects that used MOSAICC as a tool with case studies from countries.

  17. ECMOR 4. 4th European conference on the mathematics of oil recovery. Topic B: Heterogeneity description and assessment of uncertainty. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The report with collected proceedings from a conference, deals with mathematics of oil recovery with the focus on heterogeneity description and assessment of uncertainty. Topics of proceedings are as follow: Reservoir engineering and uncertainty - how much we know about what we don't know; sampling from Bayesian models in reservoir characterization; improvement in the truncated Gaussian method - combining several Gaussian functions; Levy stochastic model for the variations in the properties in sedimentary rock; modelling sub-seismic fault patterns using a marked point process; marked point models with complex conditioning used for modelling of shales; integration of large- and small-scale data using Fourier transforms; ranking of production performance from detailed geological models; direct solution reservoir flow equations with uncertain parameters. Nine papers are prepared. 83 refs., 58 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Conference Report: CAQD Conference 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Silver

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nestled on the banks of the river Lahn in central Germany, the 15th CAQD conference was held at Marburg. A beautiful provincial town, it is one of very few that was spared the bombings of WWII; now providing the perfect backdrop for meeting to discuss developments in qualitative technology. This was the second international conference in the series with more than 140 delegates from 14 countries, including: Canada, Brazil, Portugal, the UK, as well as Germany. Hosted by MAGMA, the Marburg Research Group for Methodology and Evaluation, in partnership with Philipps-University Marburg, CAQD prioritizes a user-focus which balances practical and methodological workshops with conference presentations. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302249

  19. A Conceptual Framework for Assessment of Governance Performance of Lake Basins: Towards Transformation to Adaptive and Integrative Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Emmanuel Cookey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Governance is essential to lake basin management, but it is the most challenged and needs increased attention. Lake Basin Governance performance assessment is designed to measure the progress and impacts of policies, institutions and the roles of various actors in ensuring sustainability. It measures the performance of technical/operational, social/networks, and institutional arrangement that make up the socio-ecological system. Governance performance assessment becomes very necessary with over-emphasis of institutions on resources utilization and exploitation. The purpose of this paper is to present a governance performance assessment framework specifically for lake basins. The Adaptive Integrated Lake Basin Management (AILBM framework is a diagnostic and prescriptive performance assessment tool with an outcome to produce an adaptive and integrative system with equity, inclusiveness, transparency, accountability and flexibility to problem-solving and resilience. A case study on water governance performance assessment of the Songkhla Lake Basin (SLB in Thailand is provided for illustration and application and indicated a poor performance rating on governance in the Basin, revealing gaps, defects, strengths and weaknesses in the current system, necessary to recommend future improvements.

  20. Conference Hopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Annual conference outlines tasks for 2010 to solidify China’s economic recovery through rational investment and increasing consumptionc hina will adhere to a consistent and stable economic strategy, putting in place a proactive fiscal policy and an accommodative monetary policy for the 2010 fiscal year-the macro-economic course mapped out during China’s Central

  1. Task-oriented quality assessment and adaptation in real-time mission critical video streaming applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2015-02-01

    In recent years video traffic has become the dominant application on the Internet with global year-on-year increases in video-oriented consumer services. Driven by improved bandwidth in both mobile and fixed networks, steadily reducing hardware costs and the development of new technologies, many existing and new classes of commercial and industrial video applications are now being upgraded or emerging. Some of the use cases for these applications include areas such as public and private security monitoring for loss prevention or intruder detection, industrial process monitoring and critical infrastructure monitoring. The use of video is becoming commonplace in defence, security, commercial, industrial, educational and health contexts. Towards optimal performances, the design or optimisation in each of these applications should be context aware and task oriented with the characteristics of the video stream (frame rate, spatial resolution, bandwidth etc.) chosen to match the use case requirements. For example, in the security domain, a task-oriented consideration may be that higher resolution video would be required to identify an intruder than to simply detect his presence. Whilst in the same case, contextual factors such as the requirement to transmit over a resource-limited wireless link, may impose constraints on the selection of optimum task-oriented parameters. This paper presents a novel, conceptually simple and easily implemented method of assessing video quality relative to its suitability for a particular task and dynamically adapting videos streams during transmission to ensure that the task can be successfully completed. Firstly we defined two principle classes of tasks: recognition tasks and event detection tasks. These task classes are further subdivided into a set of task-related profiles, each of which is associated with a set of taskoriented attributes (minimum spatial resolution, minimum frame rate etc.). For example, in the detection class

  2. Teaching of Psychology Conference: Ideas & Innovations. Proceedings from the Annual Conference (24th, Tarrytown, NY, March 19-20, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell-Carter, Marya, Ed.; Gonder, Jennifer, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Conference proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on the Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations, sponsored by the Psychology Department of the State University of New York at Farmingdale. The conference theme for 2010 was Fostering, Assessing, and Sustaining Student Engagement. The conference featured two keynote addresses from prominent…

  3. Evolution of KaiC-Dependent Timekeepers: A Proto-circadian Timing Mechanism Confers Adaptive Fitness in the Purple Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijun Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian (daily rhythms are a fundamental and ubiquitous property of eukaryotic organisms. However, cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotic group for which bona fide circadian properties have been persuasively documented, even though homologs of the cyanobacterial kaiABC central clock genes are distributed widely among Eubacteria and Archaea. We report the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris (that harbors homologs of kaiB and kaiC only poorly sustains rhythmicity in constant conditions-a defining characteristic of circadian rhythms. Moreover, the biochemical characteristics of the Rhodopseudomonas homolog of the KaiC protein in vivo and in vitro are different from those of cyanobacterial KaiC. Nevertheless, R. palustris cells exhibit adaptive kaiC-dependent growth enhancement in 24-h cyclic environments, but not under non-natural constant conditions. Therefore, our data indicate that Rhodopseudomonas does not have a classical circadian rhythm, but a novel timekeeping mechanism that does not sustain itself in constant conditions. These results question the adaptive value of self-sustained oscillatory capability for daily timekeepers and establish new criteria for circadian-like systems that are based on adaptive properties (i.e., fitness enhancement in rhythmic environments, rather than upon observations of persisting rhythms in constant conditions. We propose that the Rhodopseudomonas system is a "proto" circadian timekeeper, as in an ancestral system that is based on KaiC and KaiB proteins and includes some, but not necessarily all, of the canonical properties of circadian clocks. These data indicate reasonable intermediate steps by which bona fide circadian systems evolved in simple organisms.

  4. Objective standardized clinical assessment with feedback: Adapting the objective structured clinical examination for postgraduate psychiatry training in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prabha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE is used commonly for assessment of psychiatry trainees but has been used less for teaching. Aim and Setting: This study describes the adaptation of the OSCE method for training purposes in a postgraduate psychiatry training center in India and the initial findings with regard to trainee performance. Materials and Methods : The adapted method was called the objective structured clinical assessment with feedback (OSCAF. The adaptation included several steps - modifying existing OSCE patterns for language and cultural appropriateness, using supervised roleplaying instead of standardized or simulated patients and evolving an assessment method (14-item checklist that would generate feedback. This exercise was conducted in front of a group of multidisciplinary peers and supervisors. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics and ANOVA were used. Results: Analysis of the performance based on the 14-item checklist assessing common elements of any patient-related interaction in 34 different OSCAF tasks indicated the following: less-than-satisfactory (< 75% performances in the following areas - assuring confidentiality (73.5%, assessing comfort (62%, summarizing (60%, closure (62% and checking whether the ′patient′ had understood what was being communicated (42%. Based on the nature of clinical situations, performances on some specific and difficult OSCAF situations were found to be inadequate and indicated need for further training. Conclusions: We have been able to demonstrate OSCAF to be a convenient, cost-effective training method in psychiatry, with limited demands on resources; however, further refinements in ratings and feedback methods and studies on effectiveness may enhance its utility.

  5. Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies are not created equal: Assessment of Impacts and Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Matei

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable urban expansion requires an extension of contemporary approaches that focus nearly exclusively on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers have proposed biophysical approaches to urban heat island mitigation (e.g., via deployment of cool or green roofs) but little is known how these technologies vary with place and season and what impacts are beyond those of near surface temperature. Using a suite of continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations for the United States, we examine hydroclimatic impacts for a variety of U.S. urban expansion (to the year 2100) and urban adaptation futures and compare those to contemporary urban extent. Adaptation approaches include widespread adoption of cool roofs, green roofs, and a hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs). Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibits hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependent. For some regions and seasons, urban-induced warming of 3°C can be completely offset by the adaptation approaches examined. For other regions and seasons, widespread adoption of some adaptation strategies can result in significant reduction in precipitation. Finally, implications of large-scale urbanization for seasonal energy demand will be examined.

  6. Methodological framework, analytical tool and database for the assessment of climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skougaard Kaspersen, P.; Halsnaes, K.; Gregg, J.; Drews, M.

    2012-12-15

    In this report we provide recommendations about how more consistent studies and data can be provided based on available modelling tools and data for integrated assessment of climate change risks and adaptation options. It is concluded that integrated assessments within this area requires the use of a wide range of data and models in order to cover the full chain of elements including climate modelling, impact, risks, costs, social issues, and decision making. As an outcome of this activity a comprehensive data and modelling tool named Danish Integrated Assessment System (DIAS) has been developed, this may be used by researchers within the field. DIAS has been implemented and tested in a case study on urban flooding caused by extreme precipitation in Aarhus, and this study highlights the usefulness of integrating data, models, and methods from several disciplines into a common framework. DIAS is an attempt to describe such a framework with regards to integrated analysis of climate impacts and adaptation. The final product of the DTU KFT project ''Tool for Vulnerability analysis'' is NOT a user friendly Climate Adaptation tool ready for various types of analysis that may directly be used by decision makers and consultant on their own. Rather developed methodology and collected/available data can serve as a starting point for case specific analyses. For this reason alone this work should very much be viewed as an attempt to coordinate research, data and models outputs between different research institutes from various disciplines. It is unquestionable that there is a future need to integrate information for areas not yet included, and it is very likely that such efforts will depend on research projects conducted in different climate change adaptation areas and sectors in Denmark. (Author)

  7. Effects of an adapted physical activity program in a group of elderly subjects with flexed posture: clinical and instrumental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frizziero Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flexed posture commonly increases with age and is related to musculoskeletal impairment and reduced physical performance. The purpose of this clinical study was to systematically compare the effects of a physical activity program that specifically address the flexed posture that marks a certain percentage of elderly individuals with a non specific exercise program for 3 months. Methods Participants were randomly divided into two groups: one followed an Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture and the other one completed a non-specific physical activity protocol for the elderly. A multidimensional clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 months including anthropometric data, clinical profile, measures of musculoskeletal impairment and disability. The instrumental assessment of posture was realized using a stereophotogrammetric system and a specific biomechanical model designed to describe the reciprocal position of the body segments on the sagittal plane in a upright posture. Results The Adapted Physical Activity program determined a significant improvement in several key parameters of the multidimensional assessment in comparison to the non-specific protocol: decreased occiput-to-wall distance, greater lower limb range of motion, better flexibility of pectoralis, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles, increased spine extensor muscles strength. Stereophotogrammetric analysis confirmed a reduced protrusion of the head and revealed a reduction in compensative postural adaptations to flexed posture characterized by knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion in the participants of the specific program. Conclusion The Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture significantly improved postural alignment and musculoskeletal impairment of the elderly. The stereophotogrammetric evaluation of posture was useful to measure the global postural alignment and especially to analyse the possible compensatory strategies

  8. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 2: Site performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains twelve papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics of this volume include: performance assessment methodology; remedial action alternatives; site selection and site characterization procedures; intruder scenarios; sensitivity analysis procedures; mathematical models for mixed waste environmental transport; and risk assessment methodology. Individual papers were processed separately for the database. (TEM)

  9. Physiological assessment of military professional adaptation and organism functional status of higher military schools resident students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondrashov V.V.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of organism functional status of resident students of military medical higher schools in different situations and modes of professional education (during their study day, round-the clock shifts in a clinic, duties, and an examination period in the process of military professional adaptation have been analyzed. The technique of functional body status optimization which takes into account both psycho-physiological specificity of military professional training as well as the regularities of psycho-physiologic reserve-capacity changes and military professional adaptation has been worked out. It constitutes the sum total of physiologically proved structural and functional components such as adaptation improvements, correction and recreation of functional body status

  10. [The problem of health state assessment from the point of view of adaptational reactions theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, O M

    2004-01-01

    Human health condition can be estimated only using adaptive responses theory. We include overactivation responses and incomplete adaptation in addition to stress reactions in the distress-group. Quiet and raised activation reactions were included into the eustress-group. All health spectrum should be divided in three groups. For health persons: 1) physiologic standard = safe health level = eustress reactions of high reactivity level 2) prenosological conditions = eustress reactions of low reactivity level, orientation, 3) premorbid conditions = adaptation mechanism breaking = distress reaction. For patients: 1) auspicious course of the disease = complete remission = eustress reactions of high reactivity level, 2) indefinite course of the disease = partial remission = eustress reactions of low reactivity level, orientation, 3) severe course of the disease = absence of remission = unfavorable prognosis = distress reaction.

  11. Quality assessment in lan houses through the adaptation of the servqual instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago José Menezes Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted with the objective of developing an adapted questionnaire from the SERVQUAL instrument to measure the quality of services provided by Lan Houses. In addition, the use of analysis Quartiles  was investigated in prioritizing the items to perform corrective actions to improve the quality of service analysis. For achieve this objectives, an adaptation of the SERVQUAL instrument was developed based on the literature and interviews with managers of Lan Houses, from where information was extracted for its adaptation to the object of study. Once developed, the instrument was used and the managerial implications of its use (in conjunction with the Quartiles Analysis were discussed with the Lan House’s manager, from where feedback was obtained for the validity of the model developed.

  12. Assessing employability capacities and career adaptability in a sample of human resource professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Employers have come to recognise graduates’ employability capacities and their ability to adapt to new work demands as important human capital resources for sustaining a competitive business advantage.Research purpose: The study sought (1 to ascertain whether a significant relationship exists between a set of graduate employability capacities and a set of career adaptability capacities and (2 to identify the variables that contributed the most to this relationship.Motivation for the study: Global competitive markets and technological advances are increasingly driving the demand for graduate knowledge and skills in a wide variety of jobs. Contemporary career theory further emphasises career adaptability across the lifespan as a critical skill for career management agency. Despite the apparent importance attached to employees’ employability and career adaptability, there seems to be a general lack of research investigating the association between these constructs.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional, quantitative research design approach was followed. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations and canonical correlation analysis were performed to achieve the objective of the study. The participants (N = 196 were employed in professional positions in the human resource field and were predominantly early career black people and women.Main findings: The results indicated positive multivariate relationships between the variables and showed that lifelong learning capacities and problem solving, decision-making and interactive skills contributed the most to explaining the participants’ career confidence, career curiosity and career control.Practical/managerial implications: The study suggests that developing professional graduates’ employability capacities may strengthen their career adaptability. These capacities were shown to explain graduates’ active engagement in career management strategies

  13. Life cycle assessment of stormwater management in the context of climate change adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    adaptation strategies. The approach is tested using a climate change adaptation strategy for a catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark. A stormwater management system, using green infrastructure and local retention measures in combination with planned routing of stormwater on the surfaces to manage runoff......-103 person equivalents/year) in all analysed impact categories. The main impacts are caused by managing rain events with return periods between 0.2 and 10 years. The impacts of handling smaller events with a return period of up to 0.2 years and extreme events with a return period of up to 100 years are lower...

  14. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  15. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  16. Sociolinguistic reflection on neuropsychological assessment: an insight into selected culturally adapted battery of Lebanese Arabic cognitive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna; Zamrini, Edward; Pasquier, Florence; Chelune, Gordon; Fadel, Patricia; Hayek, Maryse

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological tests (NPTs) are highly dependent on education, culture differences as well as age and sex. It is therefore essential to take these factors into consideration when translating NPTs to be used in screening for cognitive impairment. Translations into Arabic must respect the principles of linguistic relativity and cultural specificity of the population under study. The objective is to assess feasibility and outcome of translating neuropsychological tests to Arabic. A team of Lebanese professionals selected a battery of screening NPTs. These tests were translated into Arabic and independently back translated by a team of sociolinguists and cultural specialists. The translations were adapted to suit the Lebanese culture. The final NPT translated versions were reached by consensus of an expert panel and tested on a group of independently living community-dwelling elderly. Translated items had to be modified when: (1) terms could not be translated using one word as required by the test; (2) Concepts were foreign to the culture; (3) Translated words carried multiple meanings; (4) Words were rarely used in Lebanon; (5) Sentences did not have an equivalent; and (6) Words had letters pronounced differently by subgroups in Lebanon. Despite all measures to maintain cultural sensitivity in translations, non-linguistic challenges remained. A battery of cognitive screening tests were translated into Arabic and adapted for the Lebanese population. These adaptations allow for a better assessment of cognitive abilities since they reflect the thought patterns of the population. The challenge is to establish local normative data.

  17. Cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr scale of pain assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Aparecida Bussotti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to perform the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr scale, with children under 18 years old, affected by cerebral palsy, presenting or not cognitive impairment and unable to report their pain.Method: methodological development study of translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. After approval by the ethics committee, the process aimed at translation and back-translation, evaluation of translation and back-translation using the Delphi technique and assessment of cultural equivalence. The process included the five categories of the scale and the four application instructions, considering levels of agreement equal to or greater than 80%.Results: it was necessary three rounds of the Delphi technique to achieve consensus among experts. The agreement achieved for the five categories was: Face 95.5%, Legs 90%, Activity 94.4%, Cry 94.4% and Consolability 99.4%. The four instructions achieved the following consensus levels: 1st 99.1%, 2nd 99.2%, 3rd 99.1% and 4th 98.3%.Conclusion: the method enabled the translation and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. This is a study able to expand the knowledge of Brazilian professionals on pain assessment in children with CP

  18. Assessment of Insert Sizes and Adapter Content in Fastq Data from NexteraXT Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Susan Turner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Illumina NexteraXT transposon protocol is a cost effective way to generate paired end libraries. However the resulting insert size is highly sensitive to the concentration of DNA used, and the variation of insert sizes is often large. One consequence of this is some fragments may have an insert shorter than the length of a single read, particularly where the library is designed to produce overlapping paired end reads in order to produce longer continuous sequences. Such small insert sizes mean fewer longer reads, and also result in the presence of adapter at the end of the read. Here is presented a protocol to use publicly available tools to identify read pairs with small insert sizes and so likely to contain adapter, to check the sequence of the adapter, and remove adapter sequence from the reads. This protocol does not require a reference genome or prior knowledge of the sequence to be trimmed. Whilst the presence of fragments with small insert sizes may be a particular problem for NexteraXT libraries, the principle can be applied to any Illumina dataset in which the presence of such small inserts is suspected.

  19. SERVQUAL Application and Adaptation for Educational Service Quality Assessments in Russian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeeva, Railya B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an adaptation of the SERVQUAL survey method for measuring the quality of higher educational services in a Russian university context. We use a new analysis and a graphical technique for presentation of results. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology of this research follows the classic…

  20. Quality Assessment of Adaptive Bitrate Videos using Image Metrics and Machine Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Brunnström, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive bitrate (ABR) streaming is widely used for distribution of videos over the internet. In this work, we investigate how well we can predict the quality of such videos using well-known image metrics, information about the bitrate levels, and a relatively simple machine learning method...

  1. Assessment of Model Predictive and Adaptive Glucose Control Strategies for People with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe;

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses overnight blood glucose stabilization in people with type 1 diabetes using a Model Predictive Controller (MPC). We use a control strategy based on an adaptive ARMAX model in which we use a Recursive Extended Least Squares (RELS) method to estimate parameters of the stochastic...

  2. A Simulation Study of Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Computer-Adaptive Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; And Others

    Simulated data were used to investigate the performance of modified versions of the Mantel-Haenszel and standardization methods of differential item functioning (DIF) analysis in computer-adaptive tests (CATs). Each "examinee" received 25 items out of a 75-item pool. A three-parameter logistic item response model was assumed, and…

  3. Conference information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Thermag Ⅳ- The 4th International Conference on Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature of IIR Refrigeration technology is widely used today. However, traditional vapor compression/expansion refrigeration technology has some disadvantages, such as low conversion efficiency of vapor compressor, and emission of the ozonosphere depletion gas and greenhouse effect gas, etc. Magnetic refrigeration is a new cooling technology with huge potential application prospect, characterized by high efficiency, energy saving and environmental friendly.

  4. Assessing adaptive capacity of institutions to climate change : a comparative case study of the Dutch Wadden Sea and the Venice Lagoon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munaretto, S.; Klostermann, J.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we assess the adaptive capacity of relevant institutions for ecosystems and environmental management in two complex systems: the Dutch Wadden Sea and the Venice Lagoon. A new tool called the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) is used to diagnose strengths and weaknesses in the institutional

  5. Advancing scientific base lines for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation in mountain regions in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, C.; Jurt, N. Salzmann, C.; Calanca, P.; Ordonez, A. Diaz, J.; Zappa, T. Jonas M.; Konzelmann, T.; Lagos, P.; Obersteiner, M.; Rohrer, M.; Silverio, W.

    2009-04-01

    Adaptation to climate change impacts is a major challenge for the human society. For countries in development, consistent base lines of expected impacts at the regional scale are required to plan and implement low-cost adaptation measures that effectively address societal needs. However, donors and implementing agencies are often confronted with a lack of scientific data. This poses a serious problem to global adaptation funds, such as the one established under the UNFCCC, which are predominantly directed towards developing countries. This contribution summarizes recent experiences gained from international projects in the Andes, by the Peruvian and Swiss Governments, and the World Bank, on the development of scientific base lines for selected regions in the Peruvian Andes. The focus is on the nexus between water resources, food security and natural disasters. The analysis shows that Peruvian Andes are among the most vulnerable regions to climate change. Negative impacts on water resources are expected from the rapid retreat of glaciers, extended and more frequent drought periods and increasing human needs. Climate change impacts are exacerbated by continued sub-optimal resource management. As a consequence of growing stresses, water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation is increasingly limited. Assessment of the current conditions and reliable projections for the future are hampered by scarce data availability and methodological problems, such as downscaling of global and regional climate scenarios, cross-sector effects, and others. It is critical that related uncertainties, and the propagation thereof, are assessed throughout the impact analysis for an improved management of adaptation measures. Challenges furthermore include communication and understanding among different actors, including the scientific community, political and implementation agencies, and local population. Based on our experiences we will outline a good practice

  6. Capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived...... cells than the rescued parental O1K B64 virus. The two chimeric viruses displayed the expected antigenicity in serotype-specific antigen ELISAs. Following inoculation of each virus into cattle, the rescued O1K B64 strain proved to be attenuated whereas, with each chimeric virus, typical clinical signs...... from the O/UKG/34/2001 or A/Turkey 2/2006 field viruses, were constructed using the backbone from the O1K B64 cDNA, and viable viruses (O1K/O-UKG and O1K/A-Tur, respectively) were successfully rescued in each case. These viruses grew well in primary bovine thyroid cells but grew less efficiently in BHK...

  7. Fluorescent scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for cellular resolution in vivo mouse retinal imaging: benefits and drawbacks of implementing adaptive optics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Goswami, Mayank; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is a very important imaging tool in ophthalmology research. By combing with Adaptive Optics (AO) technique, AO-SLO can correct for ocular aberrations resulting in cellular level resolution, allowing longitudinal studies of single cells morphology in the living eyes. The numerical aperture (NA) sets the optical resolution that can be achieve in the "classical" imaging systems. Mouse eye has more than twice NA of the human eye, thus offering theoretically higher resolution. However, in most SLO based imaging systems the imaging beam size at mouse pupil sets the NA of that instrument, while most of the AO-SLO systems use almost the full NA of the mouse eye. In this report, we first simulated the theoretical resolution that can be achieved in vivo for different imaging beam sizes (different NA), assumingtwo cases: no aberrations and aberrations based on published mouse ocular wavefront data. Then we imaged mouse retinas with our custom build SLO system using different beam sizes to compare these results with theory. Further experiments include comparison of the SLO and AO-SLO systems for imaging different type of fluorescently labeled cells (microglia, ganglion, photoreceptors, etc.). By comparing those results and taking into account systems complexity and ease of use, the benefits and drawbacks of two imaging systems will be discussed.

  8. The wanted change against climate change: assessing the role of organic farming as an adaptation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindakshan, Sreejith; Sherief, Aliyaru Kunju

    2010-01-01

    Conventional input intensive agriculture practised over the last century has been a major contributor to climate change, second only to energy sector. The communities engaged in pesticide and synthetic input rich agriculture is most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Many emerging economies including India have had the opportunity to develop National Adaptation Plans of Action in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change but implementation of those pro...

  9. Assessing the Adaptability to Irregular Rest-Work Rhythms in Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Aeronautica Militare Italiana, CSV Reparto Medicina Aerospaziale Pratica di Mare, 00040 Pomezia (Roma) Italy 2 Dipartimento di Psicologia - Universitd...characteristics to adapt to increased work errors and impaired social work at unusual hours. and family relationship. In addition, there is an increased mortality...DUTY: a brief questionnaire on critical evaluation. Journal of Personality the sleep-wake cycle and vigilance filled in and Social Psychology. 58: 844

  10. Assessing Acceptance of Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems: Prior Knowledge vs Cognitive Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mampadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceived usefulness and ease of use have proved to be key determinants of the acceptance and usage of e-learning systems. On the contrary, little is known about students perceptions in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems (AEHS. In this paper, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was utilized to investigate university students attitudes towards AEHSs. The goal of the study was to investigate whether students perceptions towards AEHS that adapts basing on cognitive styles were comparable to perceptions of students using AEHS that adapts basing on prior knowledge. This is part of a project to determine how prior knowledge and cognitive styles could be combined in AEHS to maximize learning and comprehension of educational materials. To this end, the study presented in this paper developed two AEHSs, one tailored to students prior knowledge while the other to their cognitive styles with emphasis on Holist-Serialist dimension. Comparative effects of using the two systems employing perceptions and attitudes as a measure were then investigated. In total, 104 students participated in the study, 60 students using the prior knowledge version while 44 participated on the cognitive styles version. The findings indicate that students using the cognitive styles version had more positive attitudes and perceptions towards their version than those who used the prior knowledge version. The implications of these results for the design of effective AEHSs combining prior knowledge and cognitive styles are discussed.

  11. From Risk Towards Resilience: Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptability to Climate Change in the Mekong Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, F. H.; Yasuhara, K.; Tamura, M.; Tabayashi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    While efforts to mainstream climate adaptation have only begun in recent years, many developing regions are already taking measures to proof themselves from various natural disasters, including storm surges, flooding, land subsidence, and erosion. In the Asia-Pacific region, one of the most vulnerable in the world, climate resilience is urgently needed due to sea level rise and the increasing frequency and intensity of climate events. Yet, many regions and communities are unprepared due to insufficient awareness of disaster risks. In order to utilize the science of the changing environment more effectively, there is a critical need to understand the social context and perception of those who are affected by climate change. Using the Mekong Delta region in Vietnam as an example, we discuss our current efforts to develop a vulnerability and adaptation index for building climate resilience in the Asia-Pacific Region. A survey of current adaptation efforts in this region will be shown and preliminary findings from our survey to understand the perception of disaster risk in this region will be discussed.

  12. Mitochondrial genome sequences of Artemia tibetiana and Artemia urmiana: assessing molecular changes for high plateau adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hangxiao; Luo, Qibin; Sun, Jing; Liu, Fei; Wu, Gang; Yu, Jun; Wang, Weiwei

    2013-05-01

    Brine shrimps, Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), inhabit hypersaline environments and have a broad geographical distribution from sea level to high plateaus. Artemia therefore possess significant genetic diversity, which gives them their outstanding adaptability. To understand this remarkable plasticity, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of two Artemia tibetiana isolates from the Tibetan Plateau in China and one Artemia urmiana isolate from Lake Urmia in Iran and compared them with the genome of a low-altitude Artemia, A. franciscana. We compared the ratio of the rate of nonsynonymous (Ka) and synonymous (Ks) substitutions (Ka/Ks ratio) in the mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences and found that atp8 had the highest Ka/Ks ratios in comparisons of A. franciscana with either A. tibetiana or A. urmiana and that atp6 had the highest Ka/Ks ratio between A. tibetiana and A. urmiana. Atp6 may have experienced strong selective pressure for high-altitude adaptation because although A. tibetiana and A. urmiana are closely related they live at different altitudes. We identified two extended termination-associated sequences and three conserved sequence blocks in the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genomes. We propose that sequence variations in the D-loop region and in the subunits of the respiratory chain complexes independently or collectively contribute to the adaptation of Artemia to different altitudes.

  13. Climate Hazard Assessment for Stakeholder Adaptation Planning in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Radley M.; Gornitz, Vivien; Bader, Daniel A.; Ruane, Alex C.; Goldberg, Richard; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a time-sensitive approach to climate change projections, developed as part of New York City's climate change adaptation process, that has provided decision support to stakeholders from 40 agencies, regional planning associations, and private companies. The approach optimizes production of projections given constraints faced by decision makers as they incorporate climate change into long-term planning and policy. New York City stakeholders, who are well-versed in risk management, helped pre-select the climate variables most likely to impact urban infrastructure, and requested a projection range rather than a single 'most likely' outcome. The climate projections approach is transferable to other regions and consistent with broader efforts to provide climate services, including impact, vulnerability, and adaptation information. The approach uses 16 Global Climate Models (GCMs) and three emissions scenarios to calculate monthly change factors based on 30-year average future time slices relative to a 30- year model baseline. Projecting these model mean changes onto observed station data for New York City yields dramatic changes in the frequency of extreme events such as coastal flooding and dangerous heat events. Based on these methods, the current 1-in-10 year coastal flood is projected to occur more than once every 3 years by the end of the century, and heat events are projected to approximately triple in frequency. These frequency changes are of sufficient magnitude to merit consideration in long-term adaptation planning, even though the precise changes in extreme event frequency are highly uncertain

  14. Adaptive Measurement of Well-Being: Maximizing Efficiency and Optimizing User Experience during Individual Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraatz, Miriam; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2016-08-01

    Well-being is linked to important societal factors such as health care costs and productivity and has experienced a surge in development activity of both theories and measurement. This study builds on validation of the Well-Being 5 survey and for the first time applies Item Response Theory, a modern and flexible measurement paradigm, to form the basis of adaptive population well-being measurement. Adaptive testing allows survey questions to be administered selectively, thereby reducing the number of questions required of the participant. After the graded response model was fit to a sample of size N = 12,035, theta scores were estimated based on both the full-item bank and a simulation of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). Comparisons of these 2 sets of score estimates with each other and of their correlations with external outcomes of job performance, absenteeism, and hospital admissions demonstrate that the CAT well-being scores maintain accuracy and validity. The simulation indicates that the average survey taker can expect a reduction in number of items administered during the CAT process of almost 50%. An increase in efficiency of this extent is of considerable value because of the time savings during the administration of the survey and the potential improvement of user experience, which in turn can help secure the success of a total population-based well-being improvement program. (Population Health Management 2016;19:284-290).

  15. Geothermal direct heat program: roundup technical conference proceedings. Volume II. Bibliography of publications. State-coupled geothermal resource assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscetta, C.A. (ed.)

    1982-07-01

    Lists of publications are presented for the Geothermal Resource Assessment Program for the Utah Earth Science Laboratory and the following states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  16. Organizational Leadership Assessment in Servant Organizations: Adaptation for Turkish Culture, Language Validity and Examination of Factor Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı KAHVECİ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to adapt Laub’s (1999 Organizational Leadership Assessment in Servant Organizations to Turkish literaturate on servant leadership. Validity and reliability analyzes were conducted. The original instrument included 60 questions and six dimensions. Data was collected from primaryschool teachers in Eskişehir and Balıkesir. Descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analyis were used to analyze the data. Resulst indicated that, a valid and relaible instrument included 54 questions with two dimensions.

  17. Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) for Parental Assessment of Adolescent Problematic Internet Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kriston, Levente; Kegel, Katharina; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The surge of problematic Internet use in adolescents is a continuously growing problem across the globe. To our knowledge, to date valid questionnaire-based measurement of problematic Internet use is possible only by self-assessment. The objective for the present study was to adapt an established instrument for a parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this questionnaire. Methods Data were collected from a representative German sample of 1,000 parents of adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years using a standardized questionnaire. To assess problematic Internet use, we adapted the established Young Diagnostic Questionnaire by rewording the items to survey a parental rating instead of a self-report ("Parental version of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire," PYDQ). Additionally, we assessed the Internet usage time, parental monitoring, family functioning, school performance of the adolescent, and parent-adolescent conflicts. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis based on the 8 items of the PYDQ modeled as categorical indicators and one latent factor using a robust weighted least squares estimator. We also calculated a reliability coefficient, the acceptance of the instrument, and performed correlation analyses. Results The unidimensional model showed excellent global goodness-of-fit (χ(2)/df = 1.65, RMSEA = 0.03, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.99) and satisfactory factor loadings (standardized values ranged from 0.60 to 0.77). We observed a reliability coefficient of 0.70, a good acceptance of the instrument, and the correlation analyses indicated the construct validity of the PYDQ. Discussion and conclusion The proposed PYDQ is a suitable instrument for parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use.

  18. Managing uncertainty, ambiguity and ignorance in impact assessment by embedding evolutionary resilience, participatory modelling and adaptive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Gunn, Jill A E; Pope, Jenny; Retief, Francois

    2015-03-15

    In the context of continuing uncertainty, ambiguity and ignorance in impact assessment (IA) prediction, the case is made that existing IA processes are based on false 'normal' assumptions that science can solve problems and transfer knowledge into policy. Instead, a 'post-normal science' approach is needed that acknowledges the limits of current levels of scientific understanding. We argue that this can be achieved through embedding evolutionary resilience into IA; using participatory workshops; and emphasising adaptive management. The goal is an IA process capable of informing policy choices in the face of uncertain influences acting on socio-ecological systems. We propose a specific set of process steps to operationalise this post-normal science approach which draws on work undertaken by the Resilience Alliance. This process differs significantly from current models of IA, as it has a far greater focus on avoidance of, or adaptation to (through incorporating adaptive management subsequent to decisions), unwanted future scenarios rather than a focus on the identification of the implications of a single preferred vision. Implementing such a process would represent a culture change in IA practice as a lack of knowledge is assumed and explicit, and forms the basis of future planning activity, rather than being ignored.

  19. Potential for the adaptation of probabilistic risk assessments by end-users and decision-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Brink, van den P.J.; Byrne, P.; Brock, T.C.M.; Brown, C.; Crocker, J.; Goerlitz, G.; Hart, A.; Scholderer, J.; Solomon, K.

    2008-01-01

    In the area of risk assessment associated with ecotoxicological and plant protection products, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodologies have been developed that enable quantification of variability and uncertainty. Despite the potential advantages of these new methodologies, end-user and re

  20. Experimental assessment of thermal effects of high power density light stimulation for optogenetics control of deep brain structures (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senova, Suhan; Scisniak, Ilona; Chiang, Chih Chieh; Doignon, Isabelle; Martin, Claire; Palfi, Stephane; Chaillet, Antoine; Pain, Frederic

    2016-03-01

    2D surface maps of light distribution and temperature increase were recorded in wild type anesthetized rats brains during 90s light stimulation at 478nm (blue) and 638nm (red) with continuous or pulsed optical stimulations with corresponding power ranging from 100 up to 1200 mW/mm² at the output of an optical fiber. Post mortem maps were recorded in the same animals to assess the cooling effect of blood flow. Post mortem histological analysis were carried out to assess whether high power light stimulations had phototoxic effects or could trigger non physiological functional activation. Temperature increase remains below physiological changes (0,5 -1°) for stimulations up to 400mW/mm² at 40Hz. . Histology did not show significant irreversible modifications or damage to the tissues. The spatial profile of light distribution and heat were correlated and demonstrate as expected a rapid attenuation with diatnce to the fiber.

  1. Improvements and adaptive changes to the fuel channel fitness-for-service assessment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedran, P.J. [Canadian Power Utility Services Limited, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The first formal Fitness-for-Service (FFS) assessment methodology in the CANDU industry was issued to the AECB in 1991 in the CANDU Pressure Tube Fitness-for-Service Guidelines (FFSG), which were later incorporated into CSA N285.8 in the mid 1990s. While the utilities have continued to benefit greatly from repeated, successful FFS assessments, industry changes since 1991 have conspired to apply mounting pressures on the FFS community, to the potential detriment of the assessment process. This paper identifies inherent challenges, historical challenges, and more recent difficulties encountered by the FFS assessment community and gives recommendations for relieving some of the mounting pressures on the FFS assessors and for improving the FFS assessment process. (author)

  2. Quantitative assessment of optical properties in healthy cartilage and repair tissue by optical coherence tomography and histology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sanne M. A.; Cernohorsky, Paul; de Bruin, Daniel M.; van der Pol, Edwin; Savci-Heijink, Cemile D.; Strackee, Simon D.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-02-01

    Quantification of the OCT signal is an important step toward clinical implementation of a diagnostic tool in cartilage imaging. Discrimination of structural cartilage differences in patients with osteoarthritis is critical, yet challenging. This study assesses the variation in the optical attenuation coefficient (μOCT) between healthy cartilage, repair tissue, bone and layers within repair tissue in a controlled setting. OCT and histology was used to assess goat talus articular surfaces in which central osteochondral defects were created. Exact matches of OCT and histology were selected for research. μOCT measurements were taken from healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Measured μOCT in healthy cartilage was higher compared to both repair tissue and bone tissue. Two possible mechanisms for the difference in attenuation were investigated. We studied morphological parameters in terms of nucleus count, nucleus size and inter-nucleus distance. Collagen content in healthy cartilage and repair tissue was assessed using polarization microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the nuclei did not demonstrate a difference in nucleus size and count between healthy cartilage and repair tissue. In healthy cartilage, cells were spaced farther apart and had a lower variation in local nuclear density compared to repair tissue. Polarization microscopy suggested higher collagen content in healthy cartilage compared to repair tissue. μOCT measurements can distinguish between healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Results suggest that cartilage OCT attenuation measurements could be of great impact in clinical diagnostics of osteoarthritis.

  3. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  4. Cultural adaptation: translatability assessment and linguistic validation of the patient-reported outcome instrument for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Herrera, Leticia; Lasch, Kathryn; Popielnicki, Ana; Nishida, Akito; Arbuckle, Rob; Banderas, Benjamin; Zentner, Susan; Gagainis, Ingrid; Zeiher, Bernhardt

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Following a 2009 US Food and Drug Administration guidance, a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument was developed to support end points in multinational clinical trials assessing irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) symptom severity. Our objective was to assess the translatability of the IBS-D PRO instrument into ten languages, and subsequently perform a cultural adaptation/linguistic validation of the questionnaire into Japanese and US Spanish. Materials and methods Translatability assessments of the US English version of the IBS-D PRO were performed by experienced PRO translators who were native speakers of each target language and currently residing in target-language countries. Languages were Chinese (People’s Republic of China), Dutch (the Netherlands), French (Belgium), German (Germany), Japanese (Japan), Polish (Poland), Portuguese (Brazil), Russian (Russia), Spanish (Mexico), and Spanish (US). The project team assessed the instrument to identify potential linguistic and/or cultural adaptation issues. After the issues identified were resolved, the instrument was translated into Spanish (US) and Japanese through a process of two forward translations, one reconciled translation, and one backward translation. The project team reviewed the translated versions before the instruments were evaluated by cognitive debriefing interviews with samples of five Spanish (US) and five Japanese IBS-D patients. Results Linguistic and cultural adaptation concerns identified during the translatability assessment required minor revisions, mainly the presentation of dates/times and word structure. During the cognitive debriefing interviews, two of five Spanish respondents misunderstood the term “bowel movement” to mean only diarrhea in the Spanish version. Consequently, the term was changed from “movimiento intestinal” to “evacuaciones”. None of the Japanese respondents identified issues with the Japanese version. Conclusion

  5. Cultural adaptation: translatability assessment and linguistic validation of the patient-reported outcome instrument for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Herrera L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leticia Delgado-Herrera,1 Kathryn Lasch,2 Ana Popielnicki,3 Akito Nishida,4 Rob Arbuckle,5 Benjamin Banderas,6 Susan Zentner,1 Ingrid Gagainis,1 Bernhardt Zeiher1 1Astellas Pharma Global Development, Northbrook, IL, 2Pharmerit International, Newton, MA, USA; 3TransPerfect, Linguistic Validation Group, Boston, MA, USA; 4Development Project Management, Astellas Pharma Inc, Tokyo, Japan; 5Patient-Centered Outcomes Adelphi Values, Bollington, UK; 6Patient-Centered Outcomes Adelphi Values, Boston, MA, USA Background and objective: Following a 2009 US Food and Drug Administration guidance, a new patient-reported outcome (PRO instrument was developed to support end points in multinational clinical trials assessing irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D symptom severity. Our objective was to assess the translatability of the IBS-D PRO instrument into ten languages, and subsequently perform a cultural adaptation/linguistic validation of the questionnaire into Japanese and US Spanish. Materials and methods: Translatability assessments of the US English version of the IBS-D PRO were performed by experienced PRO translators who were native speakers of each target language and currently residing in target-language countries. Languages were Chinese (People’s Republic of China, Dutch (the Netherlands, French (Belgium, German (Germany, Japanese (Japan, Polish (Poland, Portuguese (Brazil, Russian (Russia, Spanish (Mexico, and Spanish (US. The project team assessed the instrument to identify potential linguistic and/or cultural adaptation issues. After the issues identified were resolved, the instrument was translated into Spanish (US and Japanese through a process of two forward translations, one reconciled translation, and one backward translation. The project team reviewed the translated versions before the instruments were evaluated by cognitive debriefing interviews with samples of five Spanish (US and five Japanese IBS-D patients. Results

  6. Evaluation of a computer-adaptive test for the assessment of depression (D-CAT) in clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliege, Herbert; Becker, Janine; Walter, Otto B; Rose, Matthias; Bjorner, Jakob B; Klapp, Burghard F

    2009-01-01

    In the past, a German Computerized Adaptive Test, based on Item Response Theory (IRT), was developed for purposes of assessing the construct depression [Computer-adaptive test for depression (D-CAT)]. This study aims at testing the feasibility and validity of the real computer-adaptive application.The D-CAT, supplied by a bank of 64 items, was administered on personal digital assistants (PDAs) to 423 consecutive patients suffering from psychosomatic and other medical conditions (78 with depression). Items were adaptively administered until a predetermined reliability (r > or = 0.90) was attained. For validation purposes, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered. Another sample of 114 patients was evaluated using standardized diagnostic interviews [Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)].The D-CAT was quickly completed (mean 74 seconds), well accepted by the patients and reliable after an average administration of only six items. In 95% of the cases, 10 items or less were needed for a reliable score estimate. Correlations between the D-CAT and the HADS, CES-D, and BDI ranged between r = 0.68 and r = 0.77. The D-CAT distinguished between diagnostic groups as well as established questionnaires do.The D-CAT proved an efficient, well accepted and reliable tool. Discriminative power was comparable to other depression measures, whereby the CAT is shorter and more precise. Item usage raises questions of balancing the item selection for content in the future.

  7. Performance assessment of electric power generations using an adaptive neural network algorithm and fuzzy DEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javaheri, Zahra

    2010-09-15

    Modeling, evaluating and analyzing performance of Iranian thermal power plants is the main goal of this study which is based on multi variant methods analysis. These methods include fuzzy DEA and adaptive neural network algorithm. At first, we determine indicators, then data is collected, next we obtained values of ranking and efficiency by Fuzzy DEA, Case study is thermal power plants In view of the fact that investment to establish on power plant is very high, and maintenance of power plant causes an expensive expenditure, moreover using fossil fuel effected environment hence optimum produce of current power plants is important.

  8. Conference Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, P. A.; Dutrizac, J. E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] [eds.

    2001-07-01

    This workshop is part of a continuing series of joint workshops organized by CANMET of Natural Resources Canada and the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission in the areas of sustainable metallurgical processing, recycling and environmental protection. The program presented at this conference also benefited from the organizational support of the Canadian Association of Recycling Industries. Over the past twenty years these workshops served as a valuable forum for the discussion of the technological issues associated with metallurgical processing, recycling and compliance with environmental regulations within the framework of sustainable development. The program this year was organized in five sessions. A total of 32 papers were presented. Session One emphasized the international dimension of modern research as illustrated by the Intelligent Manufacturing System (MIS) program. Session Two dealt with recycling, with special attention to the recycling of plastics and construction materials. Session Three was devoted to highlighting European efforts to treat chromium-bearing solutions or to find alternatives to chromium salts in surface treatment operations. Session Four emphasized primary and secondary zinc processing and the importance of energy conservation. The final session reviewed waste management practices and the utilization of waste materials. Opening addresses by representatives of the sponsoring organizations and a list of conference attendees and their affiliations are also included.

  9. NATO Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, W

    1975-01-01

    The contents of this volume involve selection, emendation and up-dating of papers presented at the NATO Conference "Mathe­ matical Analysis of Decision problems in Ecology" in Istanbul, Turkey, July 9-13, 1973. It was sponsored by the System Sciences Division of NATO directed by Dr. B. Bayraktar with local arrange­ ments administered by Dr. Ilhami Karayalcin, professor of the Department of Industrial Engineering at the Technical University of Istanbul. It was organized by A. Charnes, University professor across the University of Texas System, and Walter R.Lynn, Di­ rector of the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Cornell Unjversity. The objective of the conference was to bring together a group of leading researchers from the major sciences involved in eco­ logical problems and to present the current state of progress in research of a mathematical nature which might assist in the solu­ tion of these problems. Although their presentations are not herein recorded, the key­ note address of Dr....

  10. EGC Conferences

    CERN Document Server

    Ritschard, Gilbert; Pinaud, Bruno; Venturini, Gilles; Zighed, Djamel; Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Management

    This book is a collection of representative and novel works done in Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, Clustering and Classification that were originally presented in French at the EGC'2012 Conference held in Bordeaux, France, on January 2012. This conference was the 12th edition of this event, which takes place each year and which is now successful and well-known in the French-speaking community. This community was structured in 2003 by the foundation of the French-speaking EGC society (EGC in French stands for ``Extraction et Gestion des Connaissances'' and means ``Knowledge Discovery and Management'', or KDM). This book is intended to be read by all researchers interested in these fields, including PhD or MSc students, and researchers from public or private laboratories. It concerns both theoretical and practical aspects of KDM. The book is structured in two parts called ``Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining'' and ``Classification and Feature Extraction or Selection''. The first part (6 chapters) deals with...

  11. Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D Morrison

    Full Text Available Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK, 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

  12. Wide-field optical coherence elastography for intraoperative assessment of tumour margins in breast cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Wes M.; Chin, Lixin; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2016-03-01

    Incomplete excision of tumour margins is a major issue in breast-conserving surgery. Currently 20 - 60% of cases require a second surgical procedure required as a result of cancer recurrence. A number of techniques have been proposed to assess margin status, including frozen section analysis and imprint cytology. However, the recurrence rate after using these techniques remains very high. Over the last several years, our group has been developing optical coherence elastography (OCE) as a tool for the intraoperative assessment of tumour margins in breast cancer. We have reported a feasibility study on 65 ex vivo samples from patients undergoing mastectomy or wide local excision demonstrates the potential of OCE in differentiating benign from malignant tissue. In this study, malignant tissue was readily distinguished from surrounding relative tissue by a distinctive heterogeneous pattern in micro-elastograms. To date the largest field of view for a micro-elastogram is 20 x 20mm, however, lumpectomy samples are typically ~50 x 50 x 30mm. For OCE to progress as a useful clinical tool, elastograms must be acquired over larger areas to allow a greater portion of the surface area of lumpectomies to be assessed. Here, we propose a wide-field OCE scanner that utilizes a piezoelectric transducer with an internal diameter of 65mm. In this approach partially overlapped elastograms are stitched together forming a mosaic with overall dimensions of 50 x 50mm in a total acquisition time of 15 - 30 minutes. We present results using this approach on both tissue-mimicking phantoms and tissue, and discuss prospects for shorter acquisitions times.

  13. Assessing tetraplegic patients' neuro-muscular adaptations to a six-week physiotherapeutic programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Kayode Israel; Kubeyinje, Oluwaseun S; Agwubike, Elias O

    2012-07-05

    Spinal cord injury is a life-transforming condition of sudden onset that can have devastating consequences. A multidisciplinary, functional goal-oriented programme is required to enable the tetraplegic patient live as fully and independently life as possible. Physiotherapy is a very important part of the multidisciplinary team required to prevent many of the immobilization complications that may result in serious functional limitations, reduce overall morbidity and achieve well patterned recovery. This study therefore highlights the neuromuscular adaptations of tetraplegic patients to physiotherapy over a period of six weeks. Fifteen patients participated in this study and the results showed that even though changes in the musculoskeletal parameters are inevitable in tetraplegics, the extent/degree of reduction of these parameters was grossly minimized in the studied subjects through the administration of physiotherapeutic measures. However, further research using a large sample size will be required to evaluate the physiologic adaptations of the neuromuscular system to the physiotherapy interventions among patients with spinal cord injury.

  14. Representative Agricultural Pathways and Scenarios for Regional Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation. 5; Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Roberto O.; Antle, John M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alexander C.; Vervoort, Joost; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hathie, Ibrahima; Tui, Sabine Homann-Kee; Mulwa, Richard; Nhemachena, Charles; Ponnusamy, Paramasivam; Rasnayaka, Herath; Singh, Harbir

    2015-01-01

    The global change research community has recognized that new pathway and scenario concepts are needed to implement impact and vulnerability assessment where precise prediction is not possible, and also that these scenarios need to be logically consistent across local, regional, and global scales. For global climate models, representative concentration pathways (RCPs) have been developed that provide a range of time-series of atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations into the future. For impact and vulnerability assessment, new socio-economic pathway and scenario concepts have also been developed, with leadership from the Integrated Assessment Modeling Consortium (IAMC).This chapter presents concepts and methods for development of regional representative agricultural pathways (RAOs) and scenarios that can be used for agricultural model intercomparison, improvement, and impact assessment in a manner consistent with the new global pathways and scenarios. The development of agriculture-specific pathways and scenarios is motivated by the need for a protocol-based approach to climate impact, vulnerability, and adaptation assessment. Until now, the various global and regional models used for agricultural-impact assessment have been implemented with individualized scenarios using various data and model structures, often without transparent documentation, public availability, and consistency across disciplines. These practices have reduced the credibility of assessments, and also hampered the advancement of the science through model intercomparison, improvement, and synthesis of model results across studies. The recognition of the need for better coordination among the agricultural modeling community, including the development of standard reference scenarios with adequate agriculture-specific detail led to the creation of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) in 2010. The development of RAPs is one of the cross-cutting themes in AgMIP's work

  15. Assessment of the status of fluidized-bed combustion based on the papers of the Fifth International Conference: methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report constitutes a status assessment of fluidized-bed combustion power-generation technology undertaken as part of an ongoing program sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Division of Environmental Control Technology under the Assistant Secretary for Environment. The study, based on the papers presented at the Fifth International Conference on Fluidized-Bed Combustion in 1977, was prepared by the MITRE Corporation, with support from Argonne National Laboratory. Information abstracted from the papers was categorized according to various technical considerations and summarized. Issues and problems associated with the technology were identified from these summaries. These issues and problems, with any associated information gaps, were ranked in terms of their significance, taking into account the needs of potential users of the technology. The resulting data base is presented in a series of matrices showing concentrations of activity, reported information, issues and problems, and relative significance. Areas in which further investigation is required, as indicated using this methodology, include selection, preparation, feeding, and utilization of fuel and sorbent; disposal of solid wastes; heat transfer; emissions control; optimization of operating parameters and control procedures; corrosion and erosion of construction materials, and equipment configuration.

  16. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  17. Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa: Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; McCusker, Brent

    2008-11-01

    As climate change has emerged as a significant threat, there is much concern about how vulnerable agricultural communities will adapt, particularly as global population continues to rise. Much of the current lack of productivity and economic marginalization of African agriculture arises from global trade regimes that give a competitive advantage to Western farmers, from low use of agricultural inputs, and from a dearth of infrastructure and services for the agriculture sector. For centuries, African farmers have used a wide variety of risk-reducing livelihood strategies, including diversifying income sources, switching crops, and investing in marketing. However, improving their productivity to ``modern'' levels has remained a distant dream, resulting in a continual reduction in investment in the sector over the past five decades.

  18. Impact assessment and coastal climate change adaptation in a local transdisciplinary perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Broge, N. H.; Knudsen, Per

    , private and public institutions, and the local communities provides: understanding of the immediate and potential future challenges; appreciation of different stakeholder motives, business agendas, legislative constraints etc., and common focus on how to cost-efficiently adapt to and manage impacts...... of climate change. The platform is dynamically updated with additional data and knowledge, e.g. from climate change evidence, or, by provision of updated regional models of future sea level rise. In order to integrate natural hazards and impact development over time, models on hydrology, geology...... to map vulnerability and risk, and strategies for community engagement and capacity-building are included. The initial bias towards the natural sciences, to a large extent dictated by technical stakeholder focus and data availability, is gradually balanced as especially economics and social sciences take...

  19. Regeneration of multiple shoots from transgenic potato events facilitates the recovery of phenotypically normal lines: assessing a cry9Aa2 gene conferring insect resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Jeanne ME

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recovery of high performing transgenic lines in clonal crops is limited by the occurrence of somaclonal variation during the tissue culture phase of transformation. This is usually circumvented by developing large populations of transgenic lines, each derived from the first shoot to regenerate from each transformation event. This study investigates a new strategy of assessing multiple shoots independently regenerated from different transformed cell colonies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. Results A modified cry9Aa2 gene, under the transcriptional control of the CaMV 35S promoter, was transformed into four potato cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer using a nptII gene conferring kanamycin resistance as a selectable marker gene. Following gene transfer, 291 transgenic lines were grown in greenhouse experiments to assess somaclonal variation and resistance to potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller. Independently regenerated lines were recovered from many transformed cell colonies and Southern analysis confirmed whether they were derived from the same transformed cell. Multiple lines regenerated from the same transformed cell exhibited a similar response to PTM, but frequently exhibited a markedly different spectrum of somaclonal variation. Conclusions A new strategy for the genetic improvement of clonal crops involves the regeneration and evaluation of multiple shoots from each transformation event to facilitate the recovery of phenotypically normal transgenic lines. Most importantly, regenerated lines exhibiting the phenotypic appearance most similar to the parental cultivar are not necessarily derived from the first shoot regenerated from a transformed cell colony, but can frequently be a later regeneration event.

  20. Social Science at the Center for Adaptive Optics: Synergistic Systems of Program Evaluation, Applied Research, Educational Assessment, and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, B. K.; Hunter, L.; Shaw, J. M.; Metevier, A. J.; Raschke, L.; Espinoza, E.; Geaney, E. R.; Reyes, G.; Rothman, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the interaction of four elements of social science as they have evolved in concert with the Center for Adaptive Optics Professional Development Program (CfAO PDP). We hope these examples persuade early-career scientists and engineers to include social science activities as they develop grant proposals and carry out their research. To frame our discussion we use a metaphor from astronomy. At the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC), the CfAO PDP and the Educational Partnership Center (EPC) are two young stars in the process of forming a solar system. Together, they are surrounded by a disk of gas and dust made up of program evaluation, applied research, educational assessment, and pedagogy. An idea from the 2001 PDP intensive workshops program evaluation developed into the Assessing Scientific Inquiry and Leadership Skills (AScILS) applied research project. In iterative cycles, AScILS researchers participated in subsequent PDP intensive workshops, teaching social science while piloting AScILS measurement strategies. Subsequent "orbits" of the PDP program evaluation gathered ideas from the applied research and pedagogy. The denser regions of this disk of social science are in the process of forming new protoplanets as tools for research and teaching are developed. These tools include problem-solving exercises or simulations of adaptive optics explanations and scientific reasoning; rubrics to evaluate the scientific reasoning simulation responses, knowledge regarding inclusive science education, and student explanations of science/engineering inquiry investigations; and a scientific reasoning curriculum. Another applied research project is forming with the design of a study regarding how to assess engineering explanations. To illustrate the mutual shaping of the cross-disciplinary, intergenerational group of educational researchers and their projects, the paper ends with a description of the professional trajectories of some of the

  1. MUSME Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of MUSME 2014, held at Huatulco in Oaxaca, Mexico, October 2014. Topics include analysis and synthesis of mechanisms; dynamics of multibody systems; design algorithms for mechatronic systems; simulation procedures and results; prototypes and their performance; robots and micromachines; experimental validations; theory of mechatronic simulation; mechatronic systems; and control of mechatronic systems. The MUSME symposium on Multibody Systems and Mechatronics was held under the auspices of IFToMM, the International Federation for Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science, and FeIbIM, the Iberoamerican Federation of Mechanical Engineering. Since the first symposium in 2002, MUSME events have been characterised by the way they stimulate the integration between the various mechatronics and multibody systems dynamics disciplines, present a forum for facilitating contacts among researchers and students mainly in South American countries, and serve as a joint conference for the ...

  2. Why the complex nature of integrated ecosystem assessments requires a flexible and adaptive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the approach taken by the ICES to integrated ecosystem assessments (IEAs) in the context of the wider evolution of IEAs and the science/policy landscape within the ICES region. It looks forward and considers the challenges facing the development of IEAs, specifically those of

  3. Northwest regional climate hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment draws from a large bank of information developed by scientists and extension specialists in the Northwest to describe where we need to focus when dealing with climate risks to working landscapes. The changing climate has many secondary effects, such as irrigation water loss, increase...

  4. Assessment at North Carolina State University: Adapting to Change in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Marilee J.; Griffiths, Jane H.; Rust, Jon P.

    2009-01-01

    Effectively introducing change in job responsibilities, particularly when dealing with tenured faculty, can be challenging. More often, additions or changes to work tasks, such as integrating assessment procedures into existing work tasks, requires employees to apply new and/or more complex knowledge, skill, and ability. When compared to…

  5. Adapting the "Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test" into American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Charlotte J.; Herman, Rosalind C.

    2011-01-01

    Signed languages continue to be a key element of deaf education programs that incorporate a bilingual approach to teaching and learning. In order to monitor the success of bilingual deaf education programs, and in particular to monitor the progress of children acquiring signed language, it is essential to develop an assessment tool of signed…

  6. Modeling of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) using WRF - Assessment of adaptation and mitigation strategies for the city of Stuttgart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Suppan, Peter; Emeis, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cities are warmer than their surroundings (called urban heat island, UHI). UHI influence urban atmospheric circulation, air quality, and ecological conditions. UHI leads to upward motion and compensating near-surface inflow from the surroundings which import rural trace substances. Chemical and aerosol formation processes are modified due to increased temperature, reduced humidity and modified urban-rural trace substance mixtures. UHIs produce enhanced heat stress for humans, animals and plants, less water availability and modified air quality. Growing cities and Climate Change will aggravate the UHI and its effects and urgently require adaptation and mitigation strategies. Prior to this, UHI properties must be assessed by surface observations, ground- and satellite-based vertical remote sensing and numerical modelling. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is an instrument to simulate and assess this phenomenon based on boundary conditions from observations and global climate models. Three urbanization schemes are available with WRF, which are tested during this study for different weather conditions in central Europe and will be enhanced if necessary. High resolution land use maps are used for this modeling effort. In situ measurements and Landsat thermal images are employed for validation of the results. The study will focus on the city of Stuttgart located in the south western part of Germany that is situated in a caldera-like orographic feature. This municipality has a long tradition in urban climate research and thus is well equipped with climatologic measurement stations. By using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), it is possible to simulate several scenarios for different surface properties. By increasing the albedo of roof and wall layers in the urban canopy model or by replacing urban land use by natural vegetation, simple urban planning strategies can be tested and the effect on urban heat island formation and air quality can be

  7. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghizadeh Atefeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food insecurity in Isfahan, Iran, using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model. Methods The U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module was translated into Farsi and after adaptation, administered to a representative sample. Data were provided by 2,004 randomly selected households from all sectors of the population of Isfahan, Iran, during 2005. Results 53.1 percent reported that their food had run out at some time during the previous 12 months and they did not have money to buy more, while 26.7 percent reported that an adult had cut the size of a meal or skipped a meal because there was not enough money for food, and 7.2 percent reported that an adult did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money for food. The severity of the items in the adult scale, estimated under Rasch-model assumptions, covered a range of 6.65 logistic units, and those in the child scale 11.68 logistic units. Most Item-infit statistics were near unity, and none exceeded 1.20. Conclusion The range of severity of items provides measurement coverage across a wide range of severity of food insecurity for both adults and children. Both scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal validity, although several items should be improved. The similarity of the response patterns in the Isfahan and the U.S. suggests that food insecurity is experienced, managed, and described similarly in the two countries.

  8. Assessment of cerebrospinal fluid outflow conductance using an adaptive observer--experimental and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, K; Manchester, I R; Andersson, N; Shiriaev, A; Malm, J; Eklund, A

    2007-11-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients have a disturbance in the dynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system. The outflow conductance, C, of the CSF system has been suggested to be prognostic for positive outcome after treatment with a CSF shunt. All current methods for estimation of C have drawbacks; these include lack of information on the accuracy and relatively long investigation times. Thus, there is a need for improved methods. To accomplish this, the theoretical framework for a new adaptive observer (OBS) was developed which provides real-time estimation of C. The aim of this study was to evaluate the OBS method and to compare it with the constant pressure infusion (CPI) method. The OBS method was applied to data from infusion investigations performed with the CPI method. These consisted of repeated measurements on an experimental set-up and 30 patients with suspected INPH. There was no significant difference in C between the CPI and the OBS method for the experimental set-up. For the patients there was a significant difference, -0.84+/-1.25 microl (s kPa)(-1), mean +/- SD (paired sample t-test, poutflow conductance.

  9. Biochemical adaptations in middle-distance runners: an assessment of blood and anthropometric parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Di Majo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the mechanism underlying the physiological adaptation of purely aerobic workout, we investigated the effect of 2 months of training on nine males (17-22 year-old middle distance running agonistic athletes. Blood sample was collected in the morning to analyze: hematological parameters, lipid profile, liver function enzymes [glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT] and skeletal and myocardial markers of muscle damage [creatin kinase (CK and creatin kinase MB (CK-MB]. Endurance training, as it implies high oxygen consumption, should increase reactive oxygen species, but it has been shown that exercise leads to increased activation of antioxidant defenses. In fact, serum levels of γ-GT enzyme and total CK were not increased. On the other hand, a statistical significant reduction of CKMB has been observed. There were not variations in hematological parameters. As far as the anthropometric value is concerned, after two months of training there was a change in weight (P<0.0001. Finally, any oxidative and biological stress was highlighted in the middle distance runners but, since this is a preliminary study, it would be of interest to replicate the study on a larger sample.

  10. Classification and assessment of water bodies as adaptive structural measures for flood risk management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, William R; Yang, Qinli; Scholz, Miklas

    2010-09-01

    Severe rainfall events have become increasingly common in Europe. Flood defence engineering works are highly capital intensive and can be limited by land availability, leaving land and communities exposed to repeated flooding. Any adaptive drainage structure must have engineered inlets and outlets that control the water level and the rate of release. In Scotland, there are a relatively high number of drinking water reservoirs (operated by Scottish Water), which fall within this defined category and could contribute to flood management control. Reducing the rate of runoff from the upper reaches of a catchment will reduce the volume and peak flows of flood events downstream, thus allowing flood defences to be reduced in size, decreasing the corresponding capital costs. A database of retention basins with flood control potential has been developed for Scotland. The research shows that the majority of small and former drinking water reservoirs are kept full and their spillways are continuously in operation. Utilising some of the available capacity to contribute to flood control could reduce the costs of complying with the EU Flood Directive. Furthermore, the application of a previously developed classification model for Baden in Germany for the Scottish data set showed a lower diversity for basins in Scotland due to less developed infrastructure. The principle value of this approach is a clear and unambiguous categorisation, based on standard variables, which can help to promote communication and understanding between stakeholders.

  11. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology for noise assessment of wind turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  12. ABISM: an interactive image quality assessment tool for adaptive optics instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H.; Tourneboeuf, Martin

    2016-07-01

    ABISM (Automatic Background Interactive Strehl Meter) is a interactive tool to evaluate the image quality of astronomical images. It works on seeing-limited point spread functions (PSF) but was developed in particular for diffraction-limited PSF produced by adaptive optics (AO) systems. In the VLT service mode (SM) operations framework, ABISM is designed to help support astronomers or telescope and instruments operators (TIOs) to quickly measure the Strehl ratio (SR) during or right after an observing block (OB) to evaluate whether it meets the requirements/predictions or whether is has to be repeated and will remain in the SM queue. It's a Python-based tool with a graphical user interface (GUI) that can be used with little AO knowledge. The night astronomer (NA) or Telescope and Instrument Operator (TIO) can launch ABISM in one click and the program is able to read keywords from the FITS header to avoid mistakes. A significant effort was also put to make ABISM as robust (and forgiven) with a high rate of repeatability. As a matter of fact, ABISM is able to automatically correct for bad pixels, eliminate stellar neighbours and estimate/fit properly the background, etc.

  13. An open trial assessment of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Laurent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a companion article 1, we described the development and evaluation of software designed to remediate dyscalculia. This software is based on the hypothesis that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in its access via symbolic information. Here we review the evidence for this hypothesis, and present results from an initial open-trial test of the software in a sample of nine 7–9 year old children with mathematical difficulties. Methods Children completed adaptive training on numerical comparison for half an hour a day, four days a week over a period of five-weeks. They were tested before and after intervention on their performance in core numerical tasks: counting, transcoding, base-10 comprehension, enumeration, addition, subtraction, and symbolic and non-symbolic numerical comparison. Results Children showed specific increases in performance on core number sense tasks. Speed of subitizing and numerical comparison increased by several hundred msec. Subtraction accuracy increased by an average of 23%. Performance on addition and base-10 comprehension tasks did not improve over the period of the study. Conclusion Initial open-trial testing showed promising results, and suggested that the software was successful in increasing number sense over the short period of the study. However these results need to be followed up with larger, controlled studies. The issues of transfer to higher-level tasks, and of the best developmental time window for intervention also need to be addressed.

  14. Assessment of femoral bone quality using co-occurrence matrices and adaptive regions of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritscher, Karl David; Schuler, Benedikt; Grünerbl, Agnes; Hänni, Markus; Schwieger, Karsten; Suhm, Norbert; Schubert, Rainer

    2007-03-01

    The surgical treatment of femur fractures, which often result from osteoporosis, is highly dependent on the quality of the femoral bone. Unsatisfying results of surgical interventions like early loosening of implants may be one result of altered bone quality. However, clinical diagnostic techniques to quantify local bone quality are limited and often highly observer dependent. Therefore, the development of tools, which automatically and reproducibly place regions of interest (ROI) and asses the local quality of the femoral bone in these ROIs would be of great help for clinicians. For this purpose, a method to position and deform ROIs automatically and reproducibly depending on the size and shape of the femur will be presented. Moreover, an approach to asses the femur quality, which is based on calculating texture features using co-occurrence matrices and these adaptive regions, will be proposed. For testing purposes, 15 CT-datasets of anatomical specimen of human femora are used. The correlation between the texture features and biomechanical properties of the proximal femoral bone is calculated. First results are very promising and show high correlation between the calculated features and biomechanical properties. Testing the method on a larger data pool and refining the algorithms to further increase its sensitivity for altered bone quality will be the next steps in this project.

  15. Assessing an Adaptive Cycle in a Social System under External Pressure to Change: the Importance of Intergroup Relations in Recreational Fisheries Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Arlinghaus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle constitutes a heuristic originally used to interpret the dynamics of complex ecosystems in response to disturbance and change. It is assumed that socially constructed governance systems go through similar phases (K, Ω [omega], α [alpha], r as evident in ecological adaptive cycles. Two key dimensions of change shaping the four phases of an adaptive cycle are the degree of connectedness and the range of potential in the system. Our purpose was to quantitatively assess the four phases of the adaptive cycle in a social system by measuring the potential and connectedness dimensions and their different levels in each of the four phases. We assessed these dimensions using quantitative data from content analysis of magazine articles describing the transition process of East German recreational fisheries governance after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. This process was characterized by the discussion of two governance alternatives amendable for implementation: a central East German and a decentralized West German approach. Contrary to assumptions in the adaptive cycle heuristic, we were unable to identify the four phases of the adaptive cycle in our governance system based on quantitatively assessed levels of connectedness and potential alone. However, the insertion of in-group (East Germans and out-group (West Germans dimensions representing the two governance alternatives in our analysis enabled us to identify the specific time frames for all four phases of the adaptive cycle on a monthly basis. These findings suggest that an unmodified "figure-eight model" of the adaptive cycle may not necessarily hold in social systems. Inclusion of disciplinary theories such as intergroup relation theory will help in understanding adaptation processes in social systems.

  16. Opportunities for Collaborative Adaptive Management Progress: Integrating Stakeholder Assessments into Progress Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Berkley

    2013-12-01

    There are differences among stakeholders in the indicators they consider as relevant to the assessment of progress. Elucidating these differences can provide useful information about system components and relationships that are important to public support of a CAM program and progress. One of the sources of differences in progress assessments among stakeholders comes from their diverse perceptions about the desired and current states of the social-ecological systems. Stakeholder behavior can be inconsistent between group and individual settings. Individually they may make plans, based on their assessments, that do not conform to the group plan because of their unique interests and preferences. The results of this study need to be further tested. The framework should be used through multiple cycles to determine whether the information gathered with this approach results in additional progress as compared with past approaches. In particular, it would be helpful to test whether gathering such information resulted in a decrease in stakeholders electing to go outside of the CAM process to get their needs met.

  17. [Assessing work-related stress: an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcatto, Francesco; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Di Blas, Lisa; Ferrante, Donatella

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a preliminary validation of an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool (IT), an instrument for assessing work-related stress at the organizational level, originally developed in Britain by the Health and Safety Executive. A scale that assesses the physical work environment has been added to the original version of the IT. 190 employees of the University of Trieste have been enrolled in the study. A confirmatory analysis showed a satisfactory fit of the eight-factors structure of the instrument. Further psychometric analysis showed adequate internal consistency of the IT scales and good criterion validity, as evidenced by the correlations with self-perception of stress, work satisfaction and motivation. In conclusion, the Indicator Tool proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of work-related stress at the organizational level, and it is also compatible with the instructions provided by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (Circular letter 18/11/2010).

  18. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  19. An adaptive regional input-output model and its application to the assessment of the economic cost of Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2008-06-01

    This article proposes a new modeling framework to investigate the consequences of natural disasters and the following reconstruction phase. Based on input-output tables, its originalities are (1) the taking into account of sector production capacities and of both forward and backward propagations within the economic system; and (2) the introduction of adaptive behaviors. The model is used to simulate the response of the economy of Louisiana to the landfall of Katrina. The model is found consistent with available data, and provides two important insights. First, economic processes exacerbate direct losses, and total costs are estimated at $149 billion, for direct losses equal to $107 billion. When exploring the impacts of other possible disasters, it is found that total losses due to a disaster affecting Louisiana increase nonlinearly with respect to direct losses when the latter exceed $50 billion. When direct losses exceed $200 billion, for instance, total losses are twice as large as direct losses. For risk management, therefore, direct losses are insufficient measures of disaster consequences. Second, positive and negative backward propagation mechanisms are essential for the assessment of disaster consequences, and the taking into account of production capacities is necessary to avoid overestimating the positive effects of reconstruction. A systematic sensitivity analysis shows that, among all parameters, the overproduction capacity in the construction sector and the adaptation characteristic time are the most important.

  20. Fire Risk Assessment of Adaptive Re-Use of Historic Shop Houses for Sleeping Accommodations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mydin M.A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heritage buildings were generally constructed without regard for fire risks or the requirements for fire protection, as are obligatory in new constructions. When a heritage building undergoes a change to its original function, improvements to the building’s fire safety are necessary to meet the needs of possible increases in occupancy loads and to account for fire risks related to the new usage. This research focuses on fire safety risks, fire protection and safety systems as well as the rules and regulations that an adaptive reuse heritage shop house is bound to when transitioning to a sleeping accommodation, which, in this case, means becoming a hotel. In this research, six heritage shop houses were chosen as case studies. The objectives of this research were to evaluate current fire emergency plans as well as to identify and assess possible fire hazards created by adaptive reuse of heritage shop houses to sleeping accommodations in Penang through a series of observations and interviews. The results of the research show that most of the buildings were provided with inadequate fire safety systems.

  1. Evaluating Responses in Complex Adaptive Systems: Insights on Water Management from the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA

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    Erin Bohensky

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are embedded in complex adaptive systems. These systems are riddled with nonlinearities, uncertainties, and surprises, and are made increasingly complex by the many human responses to problems or changes arising within them. In this paper we attempt to determine whether there are certain factors that characterize effective responses in complex systems. We construct a framework for response evaluation with three interconnected scopes or spatial and temporal domains: the scope of an impact, the scope of the awareness of the impact, and the scope of the power or influence to respond. Drawing from the experience of the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA, we explore the applicability of this framework to the example of water management in southern Africa, where an ongoing paradigm shift in some areas has enabled a transition from supply-side to demand-side responses and the creation of new institutions to manage water across scales. We suggest that the most effective responses exhibit congruence between the impact, awareness, and power scopes; distribute impacts across space and time; expand response options; enhance social memory; and depend on power-distributing mechanisms. We conclude by stressing the need for sufficient flexibility to adapt responses to the specific, ever-evolving contexts in which they are implemented. Although our discussion focuses on water in southern Africa, we believe that the framework has broad applicability to a range of complex systems and places.

  2. The potential role of health impact assessment in tackling the complexity of climate change adaptation for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen L; Proust, Katrina; Spickett, Jeffery; Capon, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    Managing an issue of the magnitude, scope and complexity of climate change is a daunting prospect, yet one which nations around the world must face. Climate change is an issue without boundaries--impacts will cut across administrative and geographical borders and be felt by every sector of society. Responses to climate change will need to employ system approaches that take into account the relationships that cross organisational and sectoral boundaries. Solutions designed in isolation from these interdependencies will be unlikely to succeed, squandering opportunities for long-term effective adaptation. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a structural approach to identify, evaluate and manage health impacts of climate change that is inclusive of a wide range of stakeholders. Climate change will affect decision-making across every government level and sector and the health implications of these decisions can also be addressed with HIA. Given the nature of the issue, HIA of climate change will identify a large number of variables that influence the type and extent of health impacts and the management of these impacts. In order to implement the most effective adaptation measures, it is critica that an understanding of the interactions between these variables is developed. The outcome of HIA of climate change can therefore be strengthened by the introduction of system dynamics tools, such as causal loop diagrams, that are designed to examine interactions between variables and the resulting behaviour of complex systems.

  3. Objectively-assessed outcome measures: a translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure applied to the Chedoke McMaster Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Standardised translation and cross-cultural adaptation (TCCA) procedures are vital to describe language translation, cultural adaptation, and to evaluate quality factors of transformed outcome measures. No TCCA procedure for objectively-assessed outcome (OAO) measures exists. Furthermore, no official German version of the Canadian Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI) is available. Methods An eight-step for TCCA procedure for OAO was developed (TCCA-OAO) based on...

  4. Preliminary adaptation into Portuguese of a standardised picture set for the use in research and neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMPÉIA SABINE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli and words have been widely used to evaluate mnemonic processes in clinical settings, neuropsychological investigations, as well as in studies on the mechanisms underlying the phenomena of memory. However, there seem to be few studies of standardisation of pictures for research in this field. The present paper aimed at adapting the use of a set of pictures standardised for English speaking subjects for Portuguese speakers. Name agreement of 150 pictures was assessed in 100 high-school students. Ninety pictures were found to present the same name for over 90 subjects. Results yield data that may help create more controlled tests for the study of memory for pictorial stimuli in Brazil.

  5. A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; CHENG Xu-Hua; WANG Xian-Wei; AI Hui; DUAN Hai-Lai; HE Jian; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment of climate change impacts on economy, society and ecological environment in the coastal areas of South China based on published literatures;it also proposes suitable adaptation strategies and counter-measures. Review shows that climate change has resulted in sea level rise in the coastal areas of South China, increasing the occurrence and intensity of storm surges, aggravating the influence of saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, urban drainage and flood control, threatening the coastal facility and infrastructures, inundating lowland areas, offsetting mudflat silting, and degrading mangroves and coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to support the sustainable development in the coastal areas of South China, it is critical to improve the monitoring and early warning system, enhance prevention criteria, fortify coastal protection engineering, strengthen salt tide prevention, and reinforce the ecological restoration and protection.

  6. Sustainability Impact Assessment of two forest-based bioenergy production systems related to mitigation and adaption to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Tuomasjukka, Diana

    2016-04-01

    New forest management strategies are necessary to resist and adapt to Climate Change (CC) and to maintain ecosystem functions such as forest productivity, water storage and biomass production. The increased use of forest-based biomass for energy generation as well as the application of combustion or pyrolysis co-products such as ash or biochar back into forest soils is being suggested as a CC mitigation and adaptation strategy while trying to fulfil the targets of both: (i) Europe 2020 growth strategy in relation to CC and energy sustainability and (ii) EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy. The energy stored in harvested biomass can be released through combustion and used for energy generation to enable national energy security (reduced oil dependence) and the substitution of fossil fuel by renewable biomass can decrease the emission of greenhouse gases.In the end, the wood-ash produced in the process can return to the forest soil to replace the nutrients exported by harvesting. Another way to use biomass in this green circular framework is to pyrolyse it. Pyrolysis of the biomass produce a carbon-rich product (biochar) that can increase carbon sequestration in the soils and liquid and gas co-products of biomass pyrolysis can be used for energy generation or other fuel use thereby offsetting fossil fuel consumption and so avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. Both biomass based energy systems differ in the amount of energy produced, in the co-product (biochar or wood ash) returned to the field, and in societal impacts they have. The Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) was used for modelling both energy production systems. ToSIA integrates several different methods, and allows a quantification and objective comparison of economic, environmental and social impacts in a sustainability impact assessment for different decision alternatives/scenarios. We will interpret the results in order to support the bioenergy planning in temperate forests under the

  7. The Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Program, Climate Services, and Meeting the National Climate Change Adaptation Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Udall, B.; Miles, E.; Dow, K.; Anderson, C.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Hartmann, H.; Jones, J.; Mote, P.; Ray, A.; Shafer, M.; White, D.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA-led RISA Program has grown steadily to nine regions and a focus that includes both natural climate variability and human-driven climate change. The RISAs are, at their core, university-based and heavily invested in partnerships, particularly with stakeholders, NOAA, and other federal agencies. RISA research, assessment and partnerships have led to new operational climate services within NOAA and other agencies, and have become important foundations in the development of local, state and regional climate change adaptation initiatives. The RISA experience indicates that a national climate service is needed, and must include: (1) services prioritized based on stakeholder needs; (2) sustained, ongoing regional interactions with users, (3) a commitment to improve climate literacy; (4) support for assessment as an ongoing, iterative process; (5) full recognition that stakeholder decisions are seldom made using climate information alone; (6) strong interagency partnership; (7) national implementation and regional in focus; (8) capability spanning local, state, tribal, regional, national and international space scales, and weeks to millennia time scales; and (9) institutional design and scientific support flexible enough to assure the effort is nimble enough to respond to rapidly-changing stakeholder needs. The RISA experience also highlights the central role that universities must play in national climate change adaptation programs. Universities have a tradition of trusted regional stakeholder partnerships, as well as the interdisciplinary expertise - including social science, ecosystem science, law, and economics - required to meet stakeholder climate-related needs; project workforce can also shift rapidly in universities. Universities have a proven ability to build and sustain interagency partnerships. Universities excel in most forms of education and training. And universities often have proven entrepreneurship, technology transfer and private sector

  8. Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation policy integration in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli-Sihvola, K.; Väätäinen-Chimpuku, S.

    2015-12-01

    Integration of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) policies, their implementation measures and the contribution of these to development has been gaining attention recently. Due to the shared objectives of CCA and particularly Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), a component of DRM, their integration provides many benefits. At the implementation level, DRR and CCA are usually integrated. Policy integration, however, is often lacking. This study presents a novel analysis of the policy integration of DRR and CCA by 1) suggesting a definition for their integration at a general and further at horizontal and vertical levels, 2) using an analysis framework for policy integration cycle, which separates the policy formulation and implementation processes, and 3) applying these to a case study in Zambia. Moreover, the study identifies the key gaps in the integration process, obtains an understanding of identified key factors for creating an enabling environment for the integration, and provides recommendations for further progress. The study is based on a document analysis of the relevant DRM, climate change (CC), agriculture, forestry, water management and meteorology policy documents and Acts, and 21 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. Horizontal integration has occurred both ways, as the revised DRM policy draft has incorporated CCA, and the new CC policy draft has incorporated DRR. This is not necessarily an optimal strategy and unless carefully implemented, it may create pressure on institutional structures and duplication of efforts in the implementation. Much less vertical integration takes place, and where it does, no guidance on how potential goal conflicts with sectorial and development objectives ought to be handled. The objectives of the instruments show convergence. At the programme stage, the measures are fully integrated as they can be classified as robust CCA measures, providing benefits in the current and future

  9. Environmental prediction, risk assessment and extreme events: adaptation strategies for the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Peter J; Jian, Jun

    2011-12-13

    The uncertainty associated with predicting extreme weather events has serious implications for the developing world, owing to the greater societal vulnerability to such events. Continual exposure to unanticipated extreme events is a contributing factor for the descent into perpetual and structural rural poverty. We provide two examples of how probabilistic environmental prediction of extreme weather events can support dynamic adaptation. In the current climate era, we describe how short-term flood forecasts have been developed and implemented in Bangladesh. Forecasts of impending floods with horizons of 10 days are used to change agricultural practices and planning, store food and household items and evacuate those in peril. For the first time in Bangladesh, floods were anticipated in 2007 and 2008, with broad actions taking place in advance of the floods, grossing agricultural and household savings measured in units of annual income. We argue that probabilistic environmental forecasts disseminated to an informed user community can reduce poverty caused by exposure to unanticipated extreme events. Second, it is also realized that not all decisions in the future can be made at the village level and that grand plans for water resource management require extensive planning and funding. Based on imperfect models and scenarios of economic and population growth, we further suggest that flood frequency and intensity will increase in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Yangtze catchments as greenhouse-gas concentrations increase. However, irrespective of the climate-change scenario chosen, the availability of fresh water in the latter half of the twenty-first century seems to be dominated by population increases that far outweigh climate-change effects. Paradoxically, fresh water availability may become more critical if there is no climate change.

  10. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  11. TRANSLATION AND ADAPTATION OF THE BATES-JENSEN WOUND ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR THE BRAZILIAN CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fernanda dos Santos Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio metodológico destinado a la traducción y la adaptación del Bates-Jensen Wound Assessment Tool para la cultura brasileña a través de cinco etapas: traducción, síntesis, retro-traducción, revisión por un panel de expertos y las pruebas de la versión traducida. La versión en portugués fue evaluada por 28 enfermeras que verificaron la comprensión de los elementos y la practicidad. El comité de especialistas evaluó la equivalencia entre las versiones originales y traducidas, lo que resulta en una menor concordancia del 80% para siete de los ítems de la guía, que posteriormente fueron modificados. En el instrumento, los 13 ítems obtuvieron una tasa de concordancia superior al 80%, excepto para el ítem de la evaluación de la herida, que obtuvo el 40%. La prueba de la versión pre-final demostró buena factibilidad. El Bates-Jensen Wound Assessment Tool está disponible en Brasil para su uso en la investigación y la práctica clínica. La fiabilidad y la validez de las pruebas deben ser consideradas en futuros estudios.

  12. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  13. The future of outcomes measurement: item banking, tailored short-forms, and computerized adaptive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, David; Gershon, Richard; Lai, Jin-Shei; Choi, Seung

    2007-01-01

    The use of item banks and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) begins with clear definitions of important outcomes, and references those definitions to specific questions gathered into large and well-studied pools, or "banks" of items. Items can be selected from the bank to form customized short scales, or can be administered in a sequence and length determined by a computer programmed for precision and clinical relevance. Although far from perfect, such item banks can form a common definition and understanding of human symptoms and functional problems such as fatigue, pain, depression, mobility, social function, sensory function, and many other health concepts that we can only measure by asking people directly. The support of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), as witnessed by its cooperative agreement with measurement experts through the NIH Roadmap Initiative known as PROMIS (www.nihpromis.org), is a big step in that direction. Our approach to item banking and CAT is practical; as focused on application as it is on science or theory. From a practical perspective, we frequently must decide whether to re-write and retest an item, add more items to fill gaps (often at the ceiling of the measure), re-test a bank after some modifications, or split up a bank into units that are more unidimensional, yet less clinically relevant or complete. These decisions are not easy, and yet they are rarely unforgiving. We encourage people to build practical tools that are capable of producing multiple short form measures and CAT administrations from common banks, and to further our understanding of these banks with various clinical populations and ages, so that with time the scores that emerge from these many activities begin to have not only a common metric and range, but a shared meaning and understanding across users. In this paper, we provide an overview of item banking and CAT, discuss our approach to item banking and its byproducts, describe testing options, discuss an

  14. Coastal impacts, adaptation, and vulnerabilities: a technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia; Davidson, Margaret; Burkett, Virginia; Davidson, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    climate change and the effects of human development, could affect the sustainability of many existing coastal communities and natural resources. This report, one of a series of technical inputs for the third NCA conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, examines the known effects and relationships of climate change variables on the coasts of the U.S. It describes the impacts on natural and human systems, including several major sectors of the U.S. economy, and the progress and challenges to planning and implementing adaptation options. Below we present the key findings from each chapter of the report, beginning with the following key findings from Chapter 1: Introduction and Context.

  15. Linear prediction of atmospheric wave-fronts for tomographic Adaptive Optics systems: modelling and robustness assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Kate; Lardiere, Olivier; Andersen, Dave; Bradley, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We use a theoretical frame-work to analytically assess temporal prediction error functions on von-Karman turbulence when a zonal representation of wave-fronts is assumed. Linear prediction models analysed include auto-regressive of order up to three, bilinear interpolation functions and a minimum mean square error predictor. This is an extension of the authors' previously published work (see ref. 2) in which the efficacy of various temporal prediction models was established. Here we examine the tolerance of these algorithms to specific forms of model errors, thus defining the expected change in behaviour of the previous results under less ideal conditions. Results show that +/- 100pc wind-speed error and +/- 50 deg are tolerable before the best linear predictor delivers poorer performance than the no-prediction case.

  16. Triticale adaption and competence assessment result in the high lands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, Wasihun

    2014-01-01

    Triticale is a crop that resulted from the addition of chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum ) and rye cereals (Secale cereale). The crop came on the market as bread cereal in the 1980s. Different varieties were released. Triticale is a high yielding crop when compared with tef, wheat and barley, particularly on locations with soil nutrient deficiency. The study was initiated with the question to which extent the growing of triticale crop (Triticosecale Wittmack) improves food security, and which factors can play a major role for its successful adoption, particularly in major food insecure areas of Ethiopia. The study has three main objectives: (1) to investigate the adaptability of triticale to the Ethiopian agro-ecological conditions, particularly in areas with low soil fertility, hence this is a crop considered to provide considerably a higher harvest under low agricultural inputs, such as fertilizer, insects and pests sprays; (2) to analyze the injera--and bread-baking quality of the crop in comparison with tef (a staple cereal limited to Ethiopia) and wheat cereals, and examine the acceptance by consumers of these products made from this grain. The study was conducted in the two major triticale producing districts (wereda), Farta and Estie of the South Gondar Administrative Zone in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The production of crops and the adoption of triticale as a new technology by smallholder farmers are influenced by several factors such as family size, age, gender and education of the household head, availability of agricultural extension services and farm credits, and labour. Despite the high yield and widespread adoption of triticale crop in the study areas and the Amhara Region at large, it faced some amount of resistance from a few farmers and some agriculturalists. This is because of the possibility of soil nutrients exploitation by the triticale plant, with a consequent drop of nutrition for the succeeding crops. This is however, a hardly valid

  17. Bridge Performance Assessment Based on an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System with Wavelet Filter for the GPS Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the performance assessment of the Huangpu Bridge in Guangzhou, China based on long-term monitoring in real-time by the kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS technique. Wavelet transformde-noising is applied to filter the GPS measurements, while the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS time series output-only model is used to predict the deformations of GPS-bridge monitoring points. In addition, GPS and accelerometer monitoring systems are used to evaluate the bridge oscillation performance. The conclusions drawn from investigating the numerical results show that: (1the wavelet de-noising of the GPS measurements of the different recording points on the bridge is a suitable tool to efficiently eliminate the signal noise and extract the different deformation components such as: semi-static and dynamic displacements; (2 the ANFIS method with two multi-input single output model is revealed to powerfully predict GPS movement measurements and assess the bridge deformations; and (3 The installed structural health monitoring system and the applied ANFIS movement prediction performance model are solely sufficient to assure bridge safety based on the analyses of the different filtered movement components.

  18. Construct validation of 4 food-environment assessment methods: adapting a multitrait-multimethod matrix approach for environmental measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Raine, Kim D; Wild, T Cameron; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Thompson, Mary E; Frank, Lawrence D

    2014-02-15

    Few studies have assessed the construct validity of measures of neighborhood food environment, which remains a major challenge in accurately assessing food access. In this study, we adapted a psychometric tool to examine the construct validity of 4 such measures for 3 constructs. We used 4 food-environment measures to collect objective data from 422 Ontario, Canada, food stores in 2010. Residents' perceptions of their neighborhood food environment were collected from 2,397 households between 2009 and 2010. Objective and perceptual data were aggregated within buffer zones around respondents' homes (at 250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m, and 1,500 m). We constructed multitrait-multimethod matrices for each scale to examine construct validity for the constructs of food availability, food quality, and food affordability. Convergent validity between objective measures decreased with increasing geographic scale. Convergent validity between objective and subjective measures increased with increasing geographic scale. High discriminant validity coefficients existed between food availability and food quality, indicating that these two constructs may not be distinct in this setting. We conclude that the construct validity of food environment measures varies over geographic scales, which has implications for research, policy, and practice.

  19. Integrating a Detailed Agricultural Model in a Global Economic Framework: New methods for assessment of climate mitigation and adaptation opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Calvin, K.; Zhang, X.; Wise, M.; West, T. O.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change and food security are global issues increasingly linked through human decision making that takes place across all scales from on-farm management actions to international climate negotiations. Understanding how agricultural systems can respond to climate change, through mitigation or adaptation, while still supplying sufficient food to feed a growing global population, thus requires a multi-sector tool in a global economic framework. Integrated assessment models are one such tool, however they are typically driven by historical aggregate statistics of production in combination with exogenous assumptions of future trends in agricultural productivity; they are not yet capable of exploring agricultural management practices as climate adaptation or mitigation strategies. Yet there are agricultural models capable of detailed biophysical modeling of farm management and climate impacts on crop yield, soil erosion and C and greenhouse gas emissions, although these are typically applied at point scales that are incompatible with coarse resolution integrated assessment modeling. To combine the relative strengths of these modeling systems, we are using the agricultural model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate), applied in a geographic data framework for regional analyses, to provide input to the global economic model GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model). The initial phase of our approach focuses on a pilot region of the Midwest United States, a highly productive agricultural area. We apply EPIC, a point based biophysical process model, at 60 m spatial resolution within this domain and aggregate the results to GCAM agriculture and land use subregions for the United States. GCAM is then initialized with multiple management options for key food and bioenergy crops. Using EPIC to distinguish these management options based on grain yield, residue yield, soil C change and cost differences, GCAM then simulates the optimum distribution of the available

  20. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    papers were accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The total number of submitted and accepted papers for this year's conference represents a significant increase over previous Fluid Mechanics Conferences, and has expanded its initial national character and borders which speaks to the great vitality of fluid mechanics. We hope that these proceedings will be used not only as a document of the event but also to assess achievements and new paths to be taken in fluid mechanics research. Finally, we would like to congratulate the winners of the 2014 Professor Janusz W Elsner Competition Ruri Hidema from Japan, Fernando Tejero from Spain and Lukasz Laniewski-Wollk from Poland. Acknowledgements We would like to express grateful appreciation to our colleagues from the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics, as well as to the International Scientific Committee i.e. Members and the Advisory Board. Their advice and efforts have helped us to overcome the problems normally associated with organising international meetings. Special thanks goes to the reviewers for their work in encouraging the submission of papers and the subsequent review of all papers. Their contribution cannot be overestimated. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference was organised by AGH University of Science and Technology, the Polish Academy of Sciences the Committee of Mechanics and the AGH-UST Foundation. Proceedings was published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The demanding work involved could not have been done without the contribution of so many individuals from all institutions as well as numerous external co-workers. Without their extremely valuable help such a meeting would have been impossible. Thank you all so much! Details of the committees are available in the PDF

  1. Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Conference, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the presentation submitted at the Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (ARD) Conference. It contains three volumes: ARD hardware technology; ARD software technology; and ARD operations. The purpose of this conference is to identify the technologies required for an on orbit demonstration of the ARD, assess the maturity of these technologies, and provide the necessary insight for a quality assessment of the programmatic management, technical, schedule, and cost risks.

  2. Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Conference, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the presentation submitted at the Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (ARD) Conference. The document contains three volumes: ARD hardware technology; ARD software technology; and ARD operations. The purpose of this conference is to identify the technologies required for an on orbit demonstration of ARD, assess the maturity of these technologies, and provide the necessary insight for a quality assessment of programmatic management, technical, schedule, and cost risks.

  3. Conference Teaching: A Response to Donald M. Murray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasourelis, John Paul

    2006-01-01

    This instructional note describes the successful application and adaptation of teacher-student conference techniques as suggested by Donald M. Murray in his book "A Writer Teaches Writing." Athanasourelis states that while he believes that Murray overestimates students' abilities when he describes the conference process as "the working talk of…

  4. The Best of Both Worlds: Writing Conferences on the Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Samila Sturgell

    One of the best teaching methods adaptable to the computer is the writing conference. The student and teacher meet at the computer and work with the piece directly on the screen. Holding writing conferences at the computer allows the teacher to get closer to the student's writing processes and to determine the stage or stages with which the…

  5. The Assessment of Muscular Effort, Fatigue, and Physiological Adaptation Using EMG and Wavelet Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan B Graham

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α is a transcription factor co-activator that helps coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis within skeletal muscle following exercise. While evidence gleaned from submaximal exercise suggests that intracellular pathways associated with the activation of PGC-1α, as well as the expression of PGC-1α itself are activated to a greater extent following higher intensities of exercise, we have recently shown that this effect does not extend to supramaximal exercise, despite corresponding increases in muscle activation amplitude measured with electromyography (EMG. Spectral analyses of EMG data may provide a more in-depth assessment of changes in muscle electrophysiology occurring across different exercise intensities, and therefore the goal of the present study was to apply continuous wavelet transforms (CWTs to our previous data to comprehensively evaluate: 1 differences in muscle electrophysiological properties at different exercise intensities (i.e. 73%, 100%, and 133% of peak aerobic power, and 2 muscular effort and fatigue across a single interval of exercise at each intensity, in an attempt to shed mechanistic insight into our previous observations that the increase in PGC-1α is dissociated from exercise intensity following supramaximal exercise. In general, the CWTs revealed that localized muscle fatigue was only greater than the 73% condition in the 133% exercise intensity condition, which directly matched the work rate results. Specifically, there were greater drop-offs in frequency, larger changes in burst power, as well as greater changes in burst area under this intensity, which were already observable during the first interval. As a whole, the results from the present study suggest that supramaximal exercise causes extreme localized muscular fatigue, and it is possible that the blunted PGC-1α effects observed in our previous study are the result of fatigue

  6. Adapted hydropower-driven water supply system: assessment of an underground application in an Indonesian karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Nestmann, F.

    2016-09-01

    Populated karst landscapes can be found all over the world, although their natural boundary conditions mostly lead to distinct challenges regarding a sustainable water supply. Especially in developing and emerging countries, this situation aggravates since appropriate technologies and water management concepts are rarely available. Against this background, the interdisciplinary, German-Indonesian joint project " Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia", funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), focused on the development and exemplary implementation of adapted techniques to remedy the partly severe water scarcity in the region Gunung Sewu. This karst area, widely known as " Java's poorhouse", is located on the southern coast of Java Island and distinctly suffers from the mentioned constraints. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the conceptual and technical achievements of the "IWRM Indonesia" joint research project are characterized by a high potential for multiplication not only for karst areas but also for non-karst regions. One of the project's major accomplishments is the erection of an innovative hydropower-driven water supply facility located in a karst cave 100 m below ground and continuously supplying tens of thousands of people with fresh water. Referring to the plant's innovative character and the demanding conditions on-site, the implementation was a highly iterative process leading to today's autonomous operation by an Indonesian public authority. Based on the experiences gained during design, construction, operation and monitoring phase, this paper introduces an implementation approach for adapted technologies as well as a comprising technical and economical assessment of the plant's operation.

  7. Conference this! Lead Pipers compare conference experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As library travel budgets are increasingly slashed around the country, it’s a tough time for conference-going. In this group post, we compare notes about the conferences we’ve attended, which have been our favorites, and why. We hope this will generate creative ideas on good conferences (online or in-person to look forward to, and maybe offer [...

  8. Closing the loop: an interactive action-research conference format for delivering updated medical information while eliciting Latina patient/family experiences and psychosocial needs post-genetic cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Deborah J; Deri, Julia; Ricker, Charité; Perez, Martin A; Ogaz, Raquel; Feldman, Nancy; Viveros, Lori A; Paz, Benjamin; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Blazer, Kathleen R

    2012-09-01

    A patient/family-centered conference was conducted at an underserved community hospital to address Latinas' post-genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) medical information and psychosocial support needs, and determine the utility of the action research format. Latinas seen for GCRA were recruited to a half-day conference conducted in Spanish. Content was partly determined from follow-up survey feedback. Written surveys, interactive discussions, and Audience Response System (ARS) queries facilitated the participant-healthcare professional action research process. Analyses included descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The 71 attendees (41 patients and 27 relatives/friends) were primarily non-US born Spanish-speaking females, mean age 43 years. Among patients, 73 % had a breast cancer history; 85 % had BRCA testing (49 % BRCA+). Nearly all (96 %) attendees completed the conference surveys and ARS queries; ≥48 % participated in interactive discussions. Most (95 %) agreed that the format met their personal interests and expectations and provided useful information and resources. Gaps/challenges identified in the GCRA process included pre-consult anxiety, uncertainty about reason for referral and expected outcomes, and psychosocial needs post-GCRA, such as absorbing and disseminating risk information to relatives and concurrently coping with a recent cancer diagnosis. The combined action research and educational conference format was innovative and effective for responding to continued patient information needs and addressing an important data gap about support needs of Latina patients and family members following genetic cancer risk assessment. Findings informed GCRA process improvements and provide a basis for theory-driven cancer control research.

  9. Testing a participatory integrated assessment (PIA approach to select climate change adaptation actions to enhance wetland sustainability: The case of Poyang Lake region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2015-06-01

    It should be noted that while the case study evaluated adaptation policies or options to climate change, it was not completed in terms of discussing in detail all the key components of the PIA approach. However, the case study represents the state-of-the-arts research in climate change impact assessment and adaptation option evaluation, particularly in linking with wetland ecosystem sustainability. Findings of the case study have indicated that the potential effects of climate change on wetland sustainability are quite significant. The case has also identified adaptation measures considered by stakeholders to be potentially effective for reducing vulnerability of wetland ecosystems. It is clear that wetland ecosystem sustainability goals will be unachievable without mainstreaming adaptation measures into wetland conservation and health programs under a changing climate.

  10. Towards Adaptive Educational Assessments: Predicting Student Performance using Temporal Stability and Data Analytics in Learning Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Gautam [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; McNair, Wade [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Data-driven assessments and adaptive feedback are becoming a cornerstone research in educational data analytics and involve developing methods for exploring the unique types of data that come from the educational context. For example, predicting college student performance is crucial for both the students and educational institutions. It can support timely intervention to prevent students from failing a course, increasing efficacy of advising functions, and improving course completion rate. In this paper, we present our efforts in using data analytics that enable educationists to design novel data-driven assessment and feedback mechanisms. In order to achieve this objective, we investigate temporal stability of students grades and perform predictive analytics on academic data collected from 2009 through 2013 in one of the most commonly used learning management systems, called Moodle. First, we have identified the data features useful for assessments and predicting student outcomes such as students scores in homework assignments, quizzes, exams, in addition to their activities in discussion forums and their total Grade Point Average(GPA) at the same term they enrolled in the course. Second, time series models in both frequency and time domains are applied to characterize the progression as well as overall projections of the grades. In particular, the model analyzed the stability as well as fluctuation of grades among students during the collegiate years (from freshman to senior) and disciplines. Third, Logistic Regression and Neural Network predictive models are used to identify students as early as possible who are in danger of failing the course they are currently enrolled in. These models compute the likelihood of any given student failing (or passing) the current course. The time series analysis indicates that assessments and continuous feedback are critical for freshman and sophomores (even with easy courses) than for seniors, and those assessments may be

  11. DEVELOPMENT WITHOUT PROGRAMMING AND APPLICATION IN ADAPTIVE MODE OF THE TECHNIQUES OF REALTOR EXPRESS BENCHMARKING ASSESSMENT (COMPARATIVE SALES IN THE SYSTEM-COGNITIVE ANALYSIS AND EIDOS INTELLECTUAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the real numerical example of pre-owned cars we show the development without programming and application in adaptive mode of realtor rapid assessment methodology for benchmarking assessment (comparative sales using system-cognitive analysis and Eidos intellectual system. The level of complexity of required works corresponds to the laboratory work on systems of artificial intelligence and knowledge representation

  12. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): A New Measure for Assessing Adolescent Personality and Personality Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-01-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative "DSM"-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347…

  13. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, November 29... addressing risks to reliability that were identified in earlier Commission technical conferences....

  14. National Standardization Conference 2003 held in Haikou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Li Zhonghai, diector of Standardization Administration of China,pointed out in the national standardization conference held in Haikou,Haian provice on Feb 27th,2003 that technical standard,the important part of productive forces,should adapt to the historical transformation of Chinese economy management system and operating mechanisms, and serve economic construction and social development.

  15. The Impressive Annual Conference of ITMF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Si

    2009-01-01

    @@ Experiencing the last annual conference of ITMF in Mauritius, we attended this spectacle pageant this year in Shanghai. Based on the features of current situation in textile industry, ITMF this time chanted the slogan that "the construction adaptation of global textile industry in the context of new technology revolution.

  16. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  17. Global land use implications of biofuels: State of the art conference and workshop on modelling global land use implications in the environmental assessment of biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kløverpris, J.; Wenzel, H.; Banse, M.A.H.; Mila I. Canals, L.; Reenberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope On 4¿5 June 2007, an international conference was held in Copenhagen. It provided an interdisciplinary forum where economists and geographers met with LCA experts to discuss the challenges of modelling the ultimate land use changes caused by an increased demand for biofuel

  18. Great Lakes Integrated Sciences + Assessments: Connecting Users and Generators of Scientific Information to Inform Climate Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baule, W. J.; Briley, L.; Brown, D.; Gibbons, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes Integrated Sciences + Assessments (GLISA) is one of eleven NOAA Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISAs) and is a co-hosted by the University of Michigan and Michigan State University. The Great Lakes region falls between areas that are typically defined as the Midwest and Northeast in the United States and also includes portions of Ontario in Canada. This unique and complex region holds approximately 21% of global surface fresh water and is home to 23 million people on the United States side of the basin alone. GLISA functions as a bridge between climate science researchers and boundary organizations in the Great Lakes region, with the goals of contributing to the long-term sustainability of the region in face of a changing climate and to facilitate smart decision-making backed by sound scientific knowledge. Faculty and staff associated with GLISA implement physical and social science practices in daily operations, which includes but is not limited to: activating the boundary chain model to facilitate the transfer of knowledge through the community, integrating local and historical climate data into decision-making processes, addressing uncertainty and the downscaling of climate information, and implementing network analyses to find key access points to information networks across the Great Lakes region. GLISA also provides funding for projects related to climate and climate change adaptation in the Great Lakes region, as well as expertise to partner organizations through collaborations. Information from boundary organizations, stakeholders, and collaborators also flows back to GLISA to aid in the determination of the physical and social science needs of the region. Recent findings point to GLISA playing a crucial role in the scaling information across scales of government and ensuring that federal agencies and local stakeholders are able to learn from one another and share experiences and knowledge to continue building climate ready

  19. A neonatal mouse spinal cord injury model for assessing post-injury adaptive plasticity and human stem cell integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Boulland

    Full Text Available Despite limited regeneration capacity, partial injuries to the adult mammalian spinal cord can elicit variable degrees of functional recovery, mediated at least in part by reorganization of neuronal circuitry. Underlying mechanisms are believed to include synaptic plasticity and collateral sprouting of spared axons. Because plasticity is higher in young animals, we developed a spinal cord compression (SCC injury model in the neonatal mouse to gain insight into the potential for reorganization during early life. The model provides a platform for high-throughput assessment of functional synaptic connectivity that is also suitable for testing the functional integration of human stem and progenitor cell-derived neurons being considered for clinical cell replacement strategies. SCC was generated at T9-T11 and functional recovery was assessed using an integrated approach including video kinematics, histology, tract tracing, electrophysiology, and high-throughput optical recording of descending inputs to identified spinal neurons. Dramatic degeneration of axons and synaptic contacts was evident within 24 hours of SCC, and loss of neurons in the injured segment was evident for at least a month thereafter. Initial hindlimb paralysis was paralleled by a loss of descending inputs to lumbar motoneurons. Within 4 days of SCC and progressively thereafter, hindlimb motility began to be restored and descending inputs reappeared, but with examples of atypical synaptic connections indicating a reorganization of circuitry. One to two weeks after SCC, hindlimb motility approached sham control levels, and weight-bearing locomotion was virtually indistinguishable in SCC and sham control mice. Genetically labeled human fetal neural progenitor cells injected into the injured spinal cord survived for at least a month, integrated into the host tissue and began to differentiate morphologically. This integrative neonatal mouse model provides opportunities to explore early

  20. Making it personal: Diversity and deliberation in climate adaptation planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopali Phadke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerabilities and health burdens of climate change fall disproportionately upon lower income communities and communities of color. Yet the very groups who are most affected by climate change impacts are least likely to be involved in climate adaptation discussions. These communities face critical barriers to involvement including historical disenfranchisement, as well as a sense that climate change is distant and not personally relevant. Boundary organizations are increasingly playing an important role in bringing science to bear on policy decision-making with respect to climate change adaptation, an issue fraught with political and ideological tensions. Our project aimed to engage underrepresented communities in climate change adaptation decision-making using a neighborhood consensus conference model developed and tested in several diverse districts of Saint Paul, Minnesota. Our partnership, a “linked chain” of boundary organizations, devised a neighborhood consensus conference model to present best-available climate data as tangible, place-based scenarios. In so doing, we made climate change “personal” for those who remain outside of climate change planning discourses and opened an opportunity for them to assess their community’s vulnerabilities and communicate their priorities for public investment. Our neighborhood-based model built trust and social capital with local residents and allowed us to bring new voices into conversations around climate change adaptation concerns and priorities. We believe this work will have a long term impact on local climate adaptation planning decisions.

  1. Scale invariant feature transform in adaptive radiation therapy: a tool for deformable image registration assessment and re-planning indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Chiara; Peroni, Marta; Riboldi, Marco; Sharp, Gregory C.; Ciardo, Delia; Alterio, Daniela; Orecchia, Roberto; Baroni, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) aims at compensating for anatomic and pathological changes to improve delivery along a treatment fraction sequence. Current ART protocols require time-consuming manual updating of all volumes of interest on the images acquired during treatment. Deformable image registration (DIR) and contour propagation stand as a state of the ART method to automate the process, but the lack of DIR quality control methods hinder an introduction into clinical practice. We investigated the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method as a quantitative automated tool (1) for DIR evaluation and (2) for re-planning decision-making in the framework of ART treatments. As a preliminary test, SIFT invariance properties at shape-preserving and deformable transformations were studied on a computational phantom, granting residual matching errors below the voxel dimension. Then a clinical dataset composed of 19 head and neck ART patients was used to quantify the performance in ART treatments. For the goal (1) results demonstrated SIFT potential as an operator-independent DIR quality assessment metric. We measured DIR group systematic residual errors up to 0.66 mm against 1.35 mm provided by rigid registration. The group systematic errors of both bony and all other structures were also analyzed, attesting the presence of anatomical deformations. The correct automated identification of 18 patients who might benefit from ART out of the total 22 cases using SIFT demonstrated its capabilities toward goal (2) achievement.

  2. Assessing body image in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): validation of the adapted Satisfaction with Appearance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinberg, Leslie J; Kudel, Ian; White, Barbara; Kwan, Amy; Medley, Keya; Wigley, Fredrick; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer

    2007-03-01

    People with scleroderma often experience disfiguring appearance-related changes in socially visible and interpersonally salient areas. Although disfigurement can lead to body image dissatisfaction, this phenomenon has not been well investigated due to the lack of a disfigurement-specific measure. The Satisfaction With Appearance (SWAP) scale, previously developed in burn survivors, was adapted and administered to 254 participants with scleroderma to evaluate its psychometric integrity and its validity for use in a different medical population that experiences changes in appearance. Principal component analysis revealed two factors - Subjective Dissatisfaction and Perceived Social Impact - rather than the four found in burn victims. Excellent estimates of internal consistency and temporal stability and strong evidence for the reliability of the two-factor solution were found. The resulting factor structure in a scleroderma population suggests that differing medical conditions may create alternate constellations of BID, reflects the need for body image researchers to assess psychometrics across medical populations and may have clinical implications for BID interventions.

  3. Responding to climate change in New York State: the ClimAID integrated assessment for effective climate change adaptation in New York State. Final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is already beginning to affect New York State, and these impacts are projected to grow. At the same time, the state has the ability to develop adaptation strategies to prepare for and respond to climate risks now and in the future. The ClimAID assessment provides information on climate change impacts and adaptation for eight sectors in New York State: water resources, coastal zones, ecosystems, agriculture, energy, transportation,telecommunications, and public health. Observed climate trends and future climate projections were developed for seven regions across the state. Within each of the sectors, climate risks, vulnerabilities, and adaptation strategies are identified. Integrating themes across all of the sectors are equity and environmental justice and economics.Case studies are used to examine specific vulnerabilities and potential adaptation strategies in each of the eight sectors. These case studies also illustrate the linkages among climate vulnerabilities, risks, and adaptation, and demonstrate specific monitoring needs. Stakeholder participation was critical to the ClimAID assessment process to ensure relevance to decision makers across the state.

  4. Flexible Adaptivity in AEHS Using Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesling, Arne; Krause, Daniel; Herder, Eelco

    2008-01-01

    Koesling, A., Krause, D., & Herder, E. (2008). Flexible Adaptivity in AEHS Using Policies. In W. Nejdl, J. Kay, P. Pu & E. Herder (Eds.), Proceedings Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems 5th International Conference, AH 2008 (pp. 410-415). July 29-August, 1, 2008, Hannover, Germany: Le

  5. Outcomes of a faculty development conference in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Kroeker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical Education International (MEI, an organization that provides faculty development to medical educators in developing countries, wanted information on the program effectiveness of its faculty development conferences. Objectives: To assess the outcomes of an MEI faculty development conference in Mongolia on the knowledge, confidence in applying new skills, and attitudes of participants. Methods: A retrospective pretest survey of participants was used to assess the outcomes of a 3-day faculty development conference given twice at the Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences. The survey assessed participant views on their ability to meet the objectives of the conference, the perceived overall value of the conference, and their suggestions for improvements in future MEI conferences. Results: Twenty participants (65% completed surveys. Participants reported significant changes in agreement with their ability to meet the objectives of the conference in all of the pre-post measures (pre-post p<0.001. The value of attending the conference was ranked at a mean score of 4.05 on a Likert scale from 1 to 5, with 1 indicating “Strongly Disagree” and 5 “Strongly Agree.” Conference attendees indicated interest in additional training on more advanced topics. Conclusion: Overall, the findings indicate that conference attendees gained knowledge and confidence in applying new skills and valued the training received from a faculty development conference led by physicians from the USA. Further research is needed to determine long-term impact on residency education in Mongolia.

  6. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  7. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  8. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  9. Testing a participatory integrated assessment(PIA) approach to select climate change adaptation actions to enhance wetland sustainability: The case of Poyang Lake region in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Li; YIN; Yongyuan; DU; De-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The necessity of mainstreaming climate adaptation strategies or policies into natural resource management plans has been recognized by the UNFCCC.The IPCC AR5 report suggests a growing demand for research to provide information for a deeper and more useful understanding of climate adaptation options,and indicates a lack of effective methods to meet this increasing demand of policymakers.In this respect,a participatory integrated assessment(PIA) approach is presented in this paper to provide an effective means to mainstream wetland climate change adaptation in rural sustainable development strategies,and thus to reduce climate vulnerability and to enhance rural community livelihood.The PIA approach includes a series of research activities required to assess climate impacts on wetland ecosystems,and to prioritize adaptation responses.A range of adaptation options that address key aspects of the wetland ecosystem resilience and concerns are evaluated against community based on sustainable development indicators.The PIA approach is able to identify desirable adaptation options which can then be implemented to improve wetland ecosystem health and to enhance regional sustainable development in a changing climate.For illustration purpose,the PIA was applied in a case study in Poyang Lake(PYL) region,a critical wetland and water ecosystem in central China with important international biodiversity linkages,and a locale for key policy experiments with ecosystem rehabilitation.The PIA was used to facilitate the integration of wetland climate change adaptation in rural sustainable development actions with multi-stakeholders participation.In particular,the case shows how the PIA can be designed and implemented to select effective and practical climate change adaptation options to enhance ecosystem services management and to reduce resource use conflicts and rural poverty.Worked in partnership with multi-stakeholders and assisted with a multi-criteria decision making tool

  10. International Conference on Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    OMICS International, (conference series) the World Class Open Access Publisher and Scientific Event Organizer is hosting “International Conference on physics” which is going to be the biggest conference dedicated to Physics. The theme “Highlighting innovations and challenges in the field of Physics” and it features a three day conference addressing the major breakthroughs, challenges and the solutions adopted. The conference will be held during June 27-29, 2016 at New Orleans, USA. Will be published in: http://physics.conferenceseries.com/

  11. Proceedings of the Conference on Chemical Risk Assessment in the DoD: science, Policy, and Practice Held in Dayton, Ohio on April 8-11, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    prior exposure to lead could result in " The majority of NFL sites on the list through 1988 Andogeus relesses of lead during pregnancy . we either...at the United Nations Conference on Environment uncertainties in scientific observations. Diagnosis of neoplas- and Development in 1992 in Brazil...classic signs of hydrocarbon-induced nephropathy were pathologically cietermined with isopropylcyclohexane and tertiary butylcyclohexane producing the

  12. CONFERENCE PROGRAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Tuesday, October 3, 2000   0700-0800 hrs Registration      0800-0845 hrs Opening Remarks   Mr. Zhu Qingsheng, Vice Minister, MOH, China   Dr. Alex Malaspina, International Life Sciences Institute, USA      0845-0930 hrs Science as the Basis for Public Health Decisions in Nutrition and Food Safety in Asia   Dr. Kraisid Tontisirin, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy      0930-1000 hrs BREAK      1000 hrs PLENARY SESSION Ⅰ:   RISK ANALYSIS IN FOOD SAFETY/PRACTICAL APPROACHES FOR ASIAN COUNTRIES      Chair: Dr. Sue Ferenc, ILSI Risk Science Institute, USA      1000-1030 hrs Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment   Dr. Simon Brooke-Taylor, Australia New Zealand Food Authority, Australia      1030-1100 hrs Risk Management—An Industry Approach   Dr. Anthony Huggett, Néstle R & D Centre Pte Ltd, Singapore      1100-1130 hrs Risk Analysis in Action   Dr. In-Sang Song, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korean Food and Drug Administration, Korea

  13. Holistic view to integrated climate change assessment and extreme weather adaptation in the Lake Victoria Basin East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, F.; Koike, T.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme weather events have been the leading cause of disasters and damage all over the world.The primary ingredient to these disasters especially floods is rainfall which over the years, despite advances in modeling, computing power and use of new data and technologies, has proven to be difficult to predict. Also, recent climate projections showed a pattern consistent with increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events in the East African region.We propose a holistic integrated approach to climate change assessment and extreme event adaptation through coupling of analysis techniques, tools and data. The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) in East Africa supports over three million livelihoods and is a valuable resource to five East African countries as a source of water and means of transport. However, with a Mesoscale weather regime driven by land and lake dynamics,extreme Mesoscale events have been prevalent and the region has been on the receiving end during anomalously wet years in the region. This has resulted in loss of lives, displacements, and food insecurity. In the LVB, the effects of climate change are increasingly being recognized as a significant contributor to poverty, by its linkage to agriculture, food security and water resources. Of particular importance are the likely impacts of climate change in frequency and intensity of extreme events. To tackle this aspect, this study adopted an integrated regional, mesoscale and basin scale approach to climate change assessment. We investigated the projected changes in mean climate over East Africa, diagnosed the signals of climate change in the atmosphere, and transferred this understanding to mesoscale and basin scale. Changes in rainfall were analyzed and similar to the IPCC AR4 report; the selected three General Circulation Models (GCMs) project a wetter East Africa with intermittent dry periods in June-August. Extreme events in the region are projected to increase; with the number of wet days

  14. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates. To introduce an alternative, the ?learning conference,? that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes. Design....../methodology/approach: A typical full-day conference is analyzed. It has six hours of podium talk and twenty-five minutes for delegates to become involved. What model of learning can possibly lie behind this? The transfer model, which assumes learners to be empty vessels. An alternative view is that conference delegates...... are active professionals in search of inspiration, and they also want to share knowledge with their peers at the conference. A theory of the conference as a forum for mutual inspiration and human co-flourishing is proposed, as are four design principles for a learning conference: 1. Presentations must...

  15. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...

  16. Knowledge and institutional requirements to promote land degradation neutrality in drylands - An analysis of the outcomes of the 3rd UNCCD scientific conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Safriel, Uriel; Abraham, Elena; de Vente, Joris; Essahli, Wafa; Escadafal, Richard; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Achieving land degradation neutrality (LDN) through sustainable land management (SLM) targets the maintenance or restoration of the productivity of land, and therefore has to include decision-makers, knowledge generators and knowledge holders at the different relevant geographic scales. In order to enhance the implementation of the Convention, the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification therefore decided that each future session of its Committee on Science and Technology (CST) would be organized in a predominantly scientific and technical conference-style format. This contribution will outline the major outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference that will be held in Cancún, Mexico, from 9 to 12 March 2015, on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought issues (DLDD) for poverty reduction and sustainable development. The conference follows an exceptional new round table conference format that will allow the various stakeholders to discuss scientific as well as the contribution of traditional knowledge and practices in combating land degradation. This format should provide two-way communication and enable deeper insight into the availability and contribution of all forms of knowledge for achieving LDN through the assessment of: • the vulnerability of lands to DLDD and climate change and the adaptive capacities of socio-ecosystems; • best examples of adapted, knowledge-based practices and technologies; • monitoring and assessment methods to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation practices and technologies. The outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference will serve as a basis for discussing: • contributions of science to diagnose the status of land; • research gaps that need to be addressed to achieve LDN for poverty reduction; • additional institutional requirements to optimally bridge knowledge generation, knowledge maintenance and knowledge implementation at the science

  17. Mind the gap in SEA: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst climate change mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vammen Larsen, Sanne, E-mail: sannevl@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University, Lautrupvang 1A, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Kornov, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, 9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Wejs, Anja, E-mail: wejs@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, 9220 Aalborg O (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) climate change mitigation and adaptation and b) climate change and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish SEA practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in SEA practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish SEA reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between climate change and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural-cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the SEA process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include climate change in the assessments

  18. A multi-institutional and interdisciplinary approach to the assessment of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the Peruvian Central Andes: problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Martínez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A local integrated assessment of the vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the Mantaro River Basin, located in Peruvian Central Andes, was developed between years 2003 to 2005. In this paper we present some lessons learned during the development of this study, emphasizing the multi-institutional and interdisciplinary efforts, briefly showing the methodological aspects, and pointing out the main problems found.

  19. Impacts of Climate Changes in Ukraine on Hydrological Regime and Water Resources: Assessment and Measures of Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukalo, V.

    2009-12-01

    Results of implementation of the National Climate Program of Ukraine in the area of researches of climate changes on hydrological regime and surface water resources are presented. The researches have been carried out for major plain rivers of different natural zones of Ukraine. Researches showed that were no large changes of mean annual flow discharges for long-term period. The trend of increase or decrease of mean annual flow has not been revealed. Other results are obtained for mean monthly and seasonal discharges (snow spring flood in March - May, summer - autumn low flow in June - September, winter low flow in December - February). An increase of discharges has been revealed for northern rivers in all months, except for April and May. The larges increase of river flow has taken place in winter months. A tendency of decrease of mean flow for period of spring floods for the most rivers has been revealed. Maximum spring discharges became less approximately on 25% - 40%. There was an increase of discharges in a winter low flow period. Investigations of a runoff for Carpathians rivers have shown an increase of mean annual flow on 13- 27%. Since 1975 a frequency of high floods has increased for the Carpathians rivers. During last years 6 - 10 high floods have been formed annually. The assessment of possible changes of hydrological regime until 2030 has been carried out by Ukrainian hydrologists using the approaches developed in the State Hydrological Institute (Russia). There are essential peculiarities in possible hydrological changes for northern and southern plain rivers. The 15-25% rise in annual runoff for northern rivers is expected. Particularly, important changes are to be expected in a distribution of runoff by seasons: a rise in winters and a fall in springs. Unfavorable changes are expected for rivers of forest - steppe and steppe zones - decreasing of mean annual runoff up to 30-50%. There may be changes in distribution of river flow during hydrological

  20. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    María Baca; Peter Läderach; Jeremy Haggar; Götz Schroth; Oriana Ovalle

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic ...

  1. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of climate change and

  2. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Baca

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of

  3. Assessment of functional state and adaptation reserves of machine operators in agriculture with different work experience in the profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Raikin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of hemodynamic parameters’ evaluation (blood pressure, heart rate, minute volume of blood, total peripheral vascular resistance and adaptation (adaptive capacity of the circulatory system, the index of physical condition, body mass index to job strains in machine operators of agriculture with a different experience in the profession are presented. It was found that 27 % of the patients – machine operators were in a state of unsatisfactory adaptation and 18.8 % in the state of failure of adaptation options when functional body reserves were sharply reduced, indicating that the work in hazardous conditions resulted in a significant deterioration of the functional state of exhaustion and adaptation reserves. It was found that the professional experience of 10 years or more is a risk factor for the health of machine workers in agriculture, causing the violation of functional state and exhaustion of adaptive reserves of an organism, as evidenced by a statistically significant correlation between the indicators of functional status and work experience in the profession.

  4. Second International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, António; Rosa, Agostinho; Filipe, Joaquim; Computational Intelligence

    2012-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the second International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2010), held in Valencia, Spain, from 24 to 26 October 2010. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Fuzzy Computation (ICFC), the International Conference on Evolutionary Computation (ICEC), and the International Conference on Neural Computation (ICNC). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 236 submissions, from 49 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, only 30 submissions were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation, leading to a full paper acceptance ratio of 13%. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality and audience inte...

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of parametrial tumour spread and regression patterns in adaptive cervix cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Maximilian P.; Fidarova, Elena [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)], e-mail: maximilian.schmid@akhwien.at; Poetter, Richard [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria)] [and others

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-morphologic differences in parametrial infiltration on tumour response during primary radio chemotherapy in cervical cancer. Material and methods: Eighty-five consecutive cervical cancer patients with FIGO stages IIB (n = 59) and IIIB (n = 26), treated by external beam radiotherapy ({+-}chemotherapy) and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy, underwent T2-weighted MRI at the time of diagnosis and at the time of brachytherapy. MRI patterns of parametrial tumour infiltration at the time of diagnosis were assessed with regard to predominant morphology and maximum extent of parametrial tumour infiltration and were stratified into five tumour groups (TG): 1) expansive with spiculae; 2) expansive with spiculae and infiltrating parts; 3) infiltrative into the inner third of the parametrial space (PM); 4) infiltrative into the middle third of the PM; and 5) infiltrative into the outer third of the PM. MRI at the time of brachytherapy was used for identifying presence (residual vs. no residual disease) and signal intensity (high vs. intermediate) of residual disease within the PM. Left and right PM of each patient were evaluated separately at both time points. The impact of the TG on tumour remission status within the PM was analysed using {chi}2-test and logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 170 PM were analysed. The TG 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 were present in 12%, 11%, 35%, 25% and 12% of the cases, respectively. Five percent of the PM were tumour-free. Residual tumour in the PM was identified in 19%, 68%, 88%, 90% and 85% of the PM for the TG 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The TG 3 - 5 had significantly higher rates of residual tumour in the PM in comparison to TG 1 + 2 (88% vs. 43%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: MRI-morphologic features of PM infiltration appear to allow for prediction of tumour response during external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A predominantly infiltrative tumour spread at the

  6. Communicating Climate Change Science to Stakeholders for Assessments of Impact and Adaptation: Experiences at the Municipal Level in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P. R.; Mate, D.; Tansey, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    The assessment of climate change impacts and the identification of adaptation strategies require understandable communication of climate change science and its uncertainties to a diverse group of stakeholders. This paper will report on the experience being gained from a set of municipal case studies conducted in Canada, where climate change impacts such as water resource depletion, permafrost melting and coastal sea level rise are being addressed. Two aspects will be discussed: the local process of stakeholder interaction and the effort to bring the local experiences to a national level through development of municipal best practice guides. Ideally, stakeholders are engaged at the local level through a structured process. This is to avoid the common problem that pre-existing tensions between stakeholders tend to dominate unstructured discussions and distract attention from the target issue. One-on-one interviews with the stakeholders and research into the socio-economic history of the communities provide background on the issues that may arise before group workshops are attempted. When workshops involving stakeholders are held, they are professionally facilitated and the science delivery is carefully rationed into digestible portions that enable informed discussion of specific climate change scenarios. Municipalities can be engaged at political, practitioner and public levels not only as major stakeholders, but also as key partners in the communication process. We have used presentations to council, direct involvement of city planning departments and public events such as Science and Technology Week to nurture two-way communication. We have also put considerable thought into the effort to communicate these experiences to the over one thousand communities across the country that will not benefit from a case study. Our initial approach was to develop best practice guides on climate change topics based on the successes and lessons learned in the case studies. While

  7. Expectations for Cancun Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING ZHITAO

    2010-01-01

    Compared with the great hopes raised by the Copenhagen Climate Conference in 2009, the 2010 UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun aroused fewer expectations. However, the international community is still waiting for a positive outcome that will benefit humankind as a whole. The Cancun conference is another important opportunity for all the participants to advance the Bali Road Map negotiations after last year's meeting in Copenhagen, which failed to reach a legally binding treaty for the years beyond 2012.

  8. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13

    2005-01-01

    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.

  9. Adapting to the Changing Climate: An Assessment of Local Health Department Preparations for Climate Change-Related Health Threats, 2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Roser-Renouf

    Full Text Available Climate change poses a major public health threat. A survey of U.S. local health department directors in 2008 found widespread recognition of the threat, but limited adaptive capacity, due to perceived lack of expertise and other resources.We assessed changes between 2008 and 2012 in local public health departments' preparedness for the public health threats of climate change, in light of increasing national polarization on the issue, and widespread funding cutbacks for public health. A geographically representative online survey of directors of local public health departments was conducted in 2011-2012 (N = 174; response rate = 50%, and compared to the 2008 telephone survey results (N = 133; response rate = 61%.Significant polarization had occurred: more respondents in 2012 were certain that the threat of local climate change impacts does/does not exist, and fewer were unsure. Roughly 10% said it is not a threat, compared to 1% in 2008. Adaptation capacity decreased in several areas: perceived departmental expertise in climate change risk assessment; departmental prioritization of adaptation; and the number of adaptation-related programs and services departments provided. In 2008, directors' perceptions of local impacts predicted the number of adaptation-related programs and services their departments offered, but in 2012, funding predicted programming and directors' impact perceptions did not. This suggests that budgets were constraining directors' ability to respond to local climate change-related health threats. Results also suggest that departmental expertise may mitigate funding constraints. Strategies for overcoming these obstacles to local public health departments' preparations for climate change are discussed.

  10. Conference proceedings ISES 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Peerstrup Ahrendt, Line; Malmkvist, Jens

    The 10th Internatinal Equitation Science Conference is held i Denmark from August 6th - 9th 2014. This book of proceedings contaions abstracts of 35 oral and 57 poster presentations within the conference themes Equine Stress, Learning and Training as well as free papers.......The 10th Internatinal Equitation Science Conference is held i Denmark from August 6th - 9th 2014. This book of proceedings contaions abstracts of 35 oral and 57 poster presentations within the conference themes Equine Stress, Learning and Training as well as free papers....

  11. How urban system vulnerabilities to flooding could be assessed to improve resilience and adaptation in spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasi, Riccardo; Viavattene, Christophe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2016-04-01

    Natural hazards damage assets and infrastructure inducing disruptions to urban functions and key daily services. These disruptions may be short or long with a variable spatial scale of impact. From an urban planning perspective, measuring these disruptions and their consequences at an urban scale is fundamental in order to develop more resilient cities. Whereas the assessment of physical vulnerabilities and direct damages is commonly addressed, new methodologies for assessing the systemic vulnerability at the urban scale are required to reveal these disruptions and their consequences. Physical and systemic vulnerability should be measured in order to reflect the multifaceted fragility of cities in the face of external stress, both in terms of the natural/built environment and socio-economic sphere. Additionally, a systemic approach allows the consideration of vulnerability across different spatial scales, as impacts may vary and be transmitted across local, regional or national levels. Urban systems are spatially distributed and the nature of this can have significant effects on flood impacts. The proposed approach identifies the vulnerabilities of flooding within urban contexts, including both in terms of single elementary units (buildings, infrastructures, people, etc.) and systemic functioning (urban functions and daily life networks). Direct losses are appraised initially using conventional methodologies (e.g. depth-damage functions). This aims to both understand the spatial distribution of physical vulnerability and associated losses and, secondly, to identify the most vulnerable building types and ways to improve the physical adaptation of our cities, proposing changes to building codes, design principles and other municipal regulation tools. The subsequent systemic approach recognises the city as a collection of sub-systems or functional units (such as neighbourhoods and suburbs) providing key daily services for inhabitants (e.g. healthcare facilities

  12. 3rd international conference, LDIC 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz-Reiter, Bernd; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The volume comprises the proceedings of the third International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics LDIC 2012. The scope of the conference targeted the identification, analysis, and description of the dynamics of logistic processes and networks. The spectrum ranged from the modeling and planning of processes and innovative methods like autonomous control and knowledge management to the new technologies provided by radio frequency identification, mobile communication, and networking. The growing dynamics in the area of logistics poses completely new challenges: Logistic processes and networks must rapidly and flexibly adapt to continuously changing conditions. LDIC 2012 provided a venue for researchers from academia and industry interested in the technical advances in dynamics in logistics. The conference addressed research in logistics from a wide range of fields, e.g. engineering, computer science and operations research. The volume consists of two invited papers and of 49 contributed papers divided into var...

  13. Assessing the spatial dependence of adaptive loci in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds using AFLP markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Colli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the past decades, neutral DNA markers have been extensively employed to study demography, population genetics and structure in livestock, but less interest has been devoted to the evaluation of livestock adaptive potential through the identification of genomic regions likely to be under natural selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landscape genomics can greatly benefit the entire livestock system through the identification of genotypes better adapted to specific or extreme environmental conditions. Therefore we analyzed 101 AFLP markers in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds both with Matsam software, based on a correlative approach (SAM, and with Mcheza and Bayescan, two FST based software able to detect markers carrying signatures of natural selection. Matsam identified four loci possibly under natural selection--also confirmed by FST-outlier methods--and significantly associated with environmental variables such as diurnal temperature range, frequency of precipitation, relative humidity and solar radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that landscape genomics can provide useful information on the environmental factors affecting the adaptive potential of livestock living in specific climatic conditions. Besides adding conservation value to livestock genetic resources, this knowledge may lead to the development of novel molecular tools useful to preserve the adaptive potential of local breeds during genetic improvement programs, and to increase the adaptability of industrial breeds to changing environments.

  14. Mathematical Problems in Biology : Victoria Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1974-01-01

    A conference on "Some Mathematical Problems in Biology" was held at the University of Victoria, Victoria, B. C. , Canada, from May 7 - 10, 1973. The participants and invited speakers were mathematicians interested in problems of a biological nature, and scientists actively engaged in developing mathematical models in biological fields. One aim of the conference was to attempt to assess what the recent rapid growth of mathematical interaction with the biosciences has accomplished and may accomplish in the near future. The conference also aimed to expose the problems of communication bet~",een mathematicians and biological scientists, and in doing so to stimulate the interchange of ideas. It was recognised that the topic spans an enormous breadth, and little attempt was made to balance the very diverse areas. Widespread active interest was shown in the conference, and just over one hundred people registered. The varied departments and institutions across North America from which the participants came made it bo...

  15. AN ALGORITHM FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF SUBJECTIVE ADAPTIVE THERMAL COMFORT CONDITIONS BASED ON MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort conditions in the built environment are strictly related not only to the thermal and geometric building features and to air-conditioning systems, but also to the building destination, to its using profile and to the biological-metabolic-psychological characteristics of users. As a consequence, there is a strong claim for new models, both subjective and adaptive to the environment, in aparticular holistic vision of the problem, with regards to the novel tern user-plant-building system. In such a frame, through the paper the characterization of an algorithm aimed at subjective adaptive thermal comfort evaluations, enriching the one proposed by Fanger with an adaptive approach, is carried out using a Multi Agent System (MAS, based on Intelligent Agents, able to follow user’s needs and preferences in different contexts and expectations.

  16. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.

    1997-10-01

    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the full text or extended abstracts of papers number 61- to number 114

  17. Assessing hazard risk, cost of adaptation and traditional land use activities in the context of permafrost thaw in communities in Yukon and the Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkert, B.; Perrin, A.; Calmels, F.

    2015-12-01

    Together with its partners, the Northern Climate ExChange (NCE, part of the Yukon Research Centre at Yukon College) has been mapping permafrost-related hazard risk in northern communities since 2010. By integrating geoscience and climate project data, we have developed a series of community-scale hazard risk maps. The maps depict hazard risk in stoplight colours for easy interpretation, and support community-based, future-focused adaptation planning. Communities, First Nations, consultants and local regulatory agencies have used the hazard risk maps to site small-scale infrastructure projects, guide land planning processes, and assess suitability of land development applications. However, we know that assessing risk is only one step in integrating the implications of permafrost degradation in societal responses to environmental change. To build on our permafrost hazard risk maps, we are integrating economic principles and traditional land use elements. To assess economic implications of adaptation to permafrost change, we are working with geotechnical engineers to identify adaptation options (e.g., modified building techniques, permafrost thaw mitigation approaches) that suit the risks captured by our existing hazard risk maps. We layer this with an economic analysis of the costs associated with identified adaptation options, providing end-users with a more comprehensive basis upon which to make decisions related to infrastructure. NCE researchers have also integrated traditional land use activities in assessments of permafrost thaw risk, in a project led by Jean Marie River First Nation in the Northwest Territories. Here, the implications of permafrost degradation on food security and land use priorities were assessed by layering key game and gathering areas on permafrost thaw vulnerability maps. Results indicated that close to one quarter of big and small game habitats, and close to twenty percent of key furbearer and gathering areas within the First Nation

  18. Assessment of reporting quality of conference abstracts in sports injury prevention according to CONSORT and STROBE criteria and their subsequent publication rate as full papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Uzung

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The preliminary results of a study are usually presented as an abstract in conference meetings. The reporting quality of those abstracts and the relationship between their study designs and full paper publication rate is unknown. We hypothesized that randomized controlled trials are more likely to be published as full papers than observational studies. Methods 154 oral abstracts presented at the World Congress of Sports Injury Prevention 2005 Oslo and the corresponding full paper publication were identified and analysed. The main outcome measures were frequency of publication, time to publication, impact factor, CONSORT (for Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials score, STROBE (for Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology score, and minor and major inconsistencies between the abstract and the full paper publication. Results Overall, 76 of the 154 (49% presented abstracts were published as full papers in a peer-reviewed journal with an impact factor of 1.946 ± 0.812. No significant difference existed between the impact factor for randomized controlled trials (2.122 ± 1.015 and observational studies (1.913 ± 0.765, p = 0.469. The full papers for the randomized controlled trials were published after an average (SD of 17 months (± 13 months; for observational studies, the average (SD was 12 months (± 14 months (p = 0.323. A trend was observed in this study that a higher percentage of randomized controlled trial abstracts were published as full papers (71% vs. 47%, p = 0.078 than observational trials. The reporting quality of abstracts, published as full papers, significantly increased compared to conference abstracts both in randomized control studies (CONSORT: 5.7 ± 0.7 to 7.2 ± 1.3; p = 0.018, CI -2.7 to -0.32 and in observational studies (STROBE: 8.2 ± 1.3 to 8.6 ± 1.4; p = 0.007, CI -0.63 to -0.10. All of the published abstracts had at least one minor inconsistency (title, authors

  19. Expectations for Cancun Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Compared with the great hopes raised by the Copenhagen Climate Conference in 2009, the 2010 UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun aroused fewer expectations. However, the international community is still waiting for a positive outcome that will benefit humankind as a whole.

  20. Radiation`96. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The conference program includes eight invited lectures which cover a range of contemporary topics in radiation science and technology. In addition, thirty-two oral papers were presented, along with forty-five posters. The conference handbook contains one-page precis or extended abstracts of all presentations, and is a substantial compendium of current radiation research in Australia.

  1. Southwest regional climate hub and California subsidiary hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the potential vulnerability of specialty crops, field crops, forests, and animal agriculture to climate-driven environmental changes. Here, vulnerability is defined as a function of exposure to climate change effects, sensitivity to these effects, and adaptive capacity. The exp...

  2. Assessing Levels of Adaptation during Implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions: Introducing the Rogers-Rutten Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Shelly-Ann K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Richter, Donna L.; Hussey, Jim; Elder, Keith; Lindley, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Most HIV-prevention funding agencies require the use of evidence-based behavioral interventions, tested and proven to be effective through outcome evaluation. Adaptation of programs during implementation is common and may be influenced by many factors, including agency mission, time constraints, and funding streams. There are few theoretical…

  3. Climate-proof planning for flood-prone areas : assessing the adaptive capacity of planning institutions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Margo; Meijerink, Sander; Termeer, Catrien; Gupta, Joyeeta

    2014-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that adapting low-lying, flood-prone deltas to the projected impacts of climate change is of great importance. Deltas are densely populated and often subject to high risk. Climate-proof planning is, however, not only a new but also a highly complex task that poses proble

  4. Climate-proof planning for flood-prone areas: assessing the adaptive capacity of planning institutions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den M.A.; Meijerink, S.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that adapting lowlying, flood-prone deltas to the projected impacts of climate change is of great importance. Deltas are densely populated and often subject to high risk. Climate-proof planning is, however, not only a new but also a highly complex task that poses problem

  5. Climate-proof planning for flood-prone areas: assessing the adaptive capacity of planning institutions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, M.; Meijerink, S.; Termeer, C.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that adapting low-lying, flood-prone deltas to the projected impacts of climate change is of great importance. Deltas are densely populated and often subject to high risk. Climate-proof planning is, however, not only a new but also a highly complex task that poses proble

  6. Quantitative assessment of the importance of phenotypic plasticity in adaptation to climate change in wild bird populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Vedder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation. Here, we use a detailed individual-specific long-term population study of great tits (Parus major breeding in Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK to parameterise a mechanistic model and thus directly estimate the rate of environmental change to which in situ adaptation is possible. Using the effect of changes in early spring temperature on temporal synchrony between birds and a critical food resource, we focus in particular on the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to population persistence. Despite using conservative estimates for evolutionary and reproductive potential, our results suggest little risk of population extinction under projected local temperature change; however, this conclusion relies heavily on the extent to which phenotypic plasticity tracks the changing environment. Extrapolating the model to a broad range of life histories in birds suggests that the importance of phenotypic plasticity for adjustment to projected rates of temperature change increases with slower life histories, owing to lower evolutionary potential. Understanding the determinants and constraints on phenotypic plasticity in natural populations is thus crucial for characterising the risks that rapidly changing environments pose for the persistence of such populations.

  7. Quantitative assessment of the importance of phenotypic plasticity in adaptation to climate change in wild bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C

    2013-07-01

    Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation. Here, we use a detailed individual-specific long-term population study of great tits (Parus major) breeding in Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK to parameterise a mechanistic model and thus directly estimate the rate of environmental change to which in situ adaptation is possible. Using the effect of changes in early spring temperature on temporal synchrony between birds and a critical food resource, we focus in particular on the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to population persistence. Despite using conservative estimates for evolutionary and reproductive potential, our results suggest little risk of population extinction under projected local temperature change; however, this conclusion relies heavily on the extent to which phenotypic plasticity tracks the changing environment. Extrapolating the model to a broad range of life histories in birds suggests that the importance of phenotypic plasticity for adjustment to projected rates of temperature change increases with slower life histories, owing to lower evolutionary potential. Understanding the determinants and constraints on phenotypic plasticity in natural populations is thus crucial for characterising the risks that rapidly changing environments pose for the persistence of such populations.

  8. Adaptive Management Tools for Nitrogen: Nitrogen Index, Nitrogen Trading Tool and Nitrogen Losses Environmental Assessment Package (NLEAP-GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Average nitrogen (N) use efficiencies are approximately fifty percent and can be even lower for shallower rooted systems grown on irrigated sandy soils. These low N use efficiencies need to be increased if reactive N losses to the environmental are to be reduced. Recently, USDA-NRCS identified Adapt...

  9. Ambiguous Tilt and Translation Motion Cues after Space Flight and Otolith Assessment during Post-Flight Re-Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes during space flight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with other sensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation and perceptual illusions following Gtransitions. These studies are designed to examine both the physiological basis and operational implications for disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances following short duration space flights.

  10. 3rd Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Louie, Berverly; McCarthy, Sandy

    1985-01-01

    Cryocoolers 3 documents the output of the Third Cryocooler Conference, held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, on September 17-18, 1984. About 140 people from 10 countries attended the conference representing industry, government, and academia. A total of 26 papers were presented orally at the conference and all appear in written form in the proceedings. The focus of this conference was on small cryocoolers in the temperature range of 4 - 80 K. Mechanical and nonmechanical types are discussed in the various papers. Applications of these small cryocoolers include the cooling of infrared detectors, cryopumps, small superconducting devices and magnets, and electronic devices. The conference proceedings reproduced here was published by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado as NBS Special Publication #698.

  11. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and discriminative validity of the Danish version of the short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Sørensen, Lotte; Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer;

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is abundant evidence that physical activity has a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. Questionnaires are simple and inexpensive to apply to measure physical activity. Purpose / Aim of Study: Translate and cross-cultural adapt the short questionna......Background: There is abundant evidence that physical activity has a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. Questionnaires are simple and inexpensive to apply to measure physical activity. Purpose / Aim of Study: Translate and cross-cultural adapt the short...... 47.2 � 12.6 years and mean period 37.1 � 14.9 days between test and retest. The relative reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the absolute reliability with standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC). The discriminative validity...

  12. Adaptive and integrated water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahl-Wostl, C.; Kabat, P.; Möltgen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a key environmental challenge of the 21st century. Developing and implementing innovative management approaches and how to cope with the increasing complexity and uncertainties was the theme of the first International Conference on Adaptive and Integrated Water Manage

  13. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  14. Objectively-assessed outcome measures: a translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure applied to the Chedoke McMaster Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Sabine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardised translation and cross-cultural adaptation (TCCA procedures are vital to describe language translation, cultural adaptation, and to evaluate quality factors of transformed outcome measures. No TCCA procedure for objectively-assessed outcome (OAO measures exists. Furthermore, no official German version of the Canadian Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI is available. Methods An eight-step for TCCA procedure for OAO was developed (TCCA-OAO based on the existing TCCA procedure for patient-reported outcomes. The TCCA-OAO procedure was applied to develop a German version of the CAHAI (CAHAI-G. Inter-rater reliability of the CAHAI-G was determined through video rating of CAHAI-G. Validity evaluation of the CAHAI-G was assessed using the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA. All ratings were performed by trained, independent raters. In a cross-sectional study, patients were tested within 31 hours after the initial CAHAI-G scoring, for their motor function level using the subscales for arm and hand of the CMSA. Inpatients and outpatients of the occupational therapy department who experienced a cerebrovascular accident or an intracerebral haemorrhage were included. Results Performance of 23 patients (mean age 69.4, SD 12.9; six females; mean time since stroke onset: 1.5 years, SD 2.5 years have been assessed. A high inter-rater reliability was calculated with ICCs for 4 CAHAI-G versions (13, 9, 8, 7 items ranging between r = 0.96 and r = 0.99 (p Conclusions The TCCA-OAO procedure was validated regarding its feasibility and applicability for objectively-assessed outcome measures. The resulting German CAHAI can be used as a valid and reliable assessment for bilateral upper limb performance in ADL in patients after stroke.

  15. Assessment of adaptation strategies to flooding: A comparative study between informal settlements of Keko Machungwa in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Sangkrah in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of informal settlements in developing countries are located in high risk areas(low-lying lands and on river banks. This situation is caused by poverty and the inabilityof authorities to supply planned plots for building to meet demands of the growing urbanpopulations. Informal settlements have, in turn, triggered disaster risks, flooding being just oneof them. As a way of reducing impacts of flooding, residents in informal settlements have resortedto the use of structural adaptation strategies. Despite these efforts, the vulnerability of peopleand properties in informal settlements is increasing. This article aimed to provide an answer as towhy this is the case, by assessing and comparing the technical suitability of adaptation strategiesto flooding in the informal settlements of Sangkrah and Keko Machungwa and recommendingmeasures for improvement. Household interviews, physical observation (visual inspections ofsigns of damage and deterioration, measurements of height of physical adaptation strategies,mapping, photographing, and in-depth interviews were the key methods employed. Generally,in both cases, it was determined that flood mitigation and risk minimisation measures throughstructural adaptation strategies were hardly achieved at the household level, as adaptationstrategies were constructed with little or no attention to acceptable technical considerations.However, when levels of compliance to technical considerations in the construction of houseswere compared between the two cases, they were found to be slightly higher in Sangkrah thanin Keko Machungwa. Residents in Sangkrah demonstrated a slight difference, especially in theuse of reinforced concrete (4.3% for constructing a building’s foundation, as well as in the useof ceramics (72.9% to construct the floor. In order to deliver technically suitable adaptationstrategies, efforts need to be directed toward: regulating and controlling the construction ofstructures for

  16. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.

    1997-10-01

    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the foreword, technical program, the author index and of the papers (1-60) presented at the conference.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire".

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Lopes, Sofia Manuela; Duarte, José Alberto; Mesquita, Cristina Teresa Torrão Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge is an important factor in patients with ankylosing spondylitis regarding the adoption of appropriate behaviours and education. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt and validate "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire" for the Portuguese population with ankylosing spondylitis. The Portuguese version of "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire" was administered to a sample of 180 subjects, from which 63 individuals responded. The adaptation process involved translation, back-translation and submission to a committee of experts in the area, culminating with a Portuguese version of the instrument. Next, the scale reliability and validity were assessed. There was a statistically significant decrease from test to retest, although the intra-class correlation coefficient between test and retest was 0.76 (95 % CI 0.61-0.86), which was considered good. From 180 individuals, 63 (35.0 %) subjects were available for the present study. The proportion of individuals that correctly answered each item ranged from 19 to 92 %, corresponding to items 8 and 13, respectively. The mean number of correct answers was 8.5 [mean (SD) = 2.4] in 12 questions. The proposed Portuguese version of the ankylosing spondylitis knowledge scale showed good reliability, reproducibility and construct validity.

  18. Final report on the Copper Mountain conference on multigrid methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on April 6-11, 1997. It took the same format used in the previous Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid Method conferences. Over 87 mathematicians from all over the world attended the meeting. 56 half-hour talks on current research topics were presented. Talks with similar content were organized into sessions. Session topics included: fluids; domain decomposition; iterative methods; basics; adaptive methods; non-linear filtering; CFD; applications; transport; algebraic solvers; supercomputing; and student paper winners.

  19. Assessing the sustainability and adaptive capacity of the gooseneck barnacle co-management system in Asturias, N. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Antonella; Gelcich, Stefan; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    The gooseneck barnacle fishery in Asturias (N. Spain) has undergone three important changes: (1) the early implementation of a co-management system based on Territorial User Rights for Fishing, (2) a change in management measures (due to a decrease in landings), and (3) an economic crisis. This has allowed us to analyze the systems' sustainability in time through examining five critical variables: landings, effort, catch per unit effort (CPUE), mean market prices, and annual revenue. Additionally, we used focus groups and questionnaires to determine the response of the system to these three changes. Co-management has succeeded in maintaining or increasing CPUE throughout all management areas and produced stable mean market prices. This was achieved through flexible management policies and adaptive strategies adopted by the fishers, such as increased selectivity and diversification. The analysis of this fishery provides important lessons regarding the need to understand the evolutionary dynamics of co-management and the importance of embracing adaptive capacity.

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation of the DLOTCA-G (Dynamic Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment – for geriatric population to Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Cristina Fachinetti Marques

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The DLOTCA-G battery (Dynamic Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment - for Geriatrics is a dynamic assessment of the cognitive components of the elderly that evaluates eight areas: orientation, visual and spatial perception, praxis, visual motor construction, thinking operations, memory, and consciousness. Objective: To conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the DLOTCA-G battery to the Portuguese language. Methods: The cross-cultural adaptation process was carried out through the following methodology: translation; back translation; evaluation of semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalences; and pre-test. Results: In the translation phase, some words were added or deleted in order to improve the understanding of the Portuguese version. In the evaluation of the semantic and idiomatic equivalence, 23 of the 355 items evaluated were discordant. None of the 37 items analyzed in the conceptual equivalence evaluation was discordant. Regarding cultural equivalence, two of the 37 items evaluated was discordant. The discordant items were modified from suggestions given by experts, generating the third translated and adapted version of the battery, which was used during the pre-test in a sample of 10 elderly persons of the community. In this phase, no difficulties were identified in its application, both for professionals and the elderly. The average time of the battery application was 48.7 minutes. Conclusions: The DLOTCA-G battery is the first dynamic assessment of cognitive components in elderly people available in Portuguese, and it presents good applicability. No difficulties were identified in its implementation by the examiners or in its comprehension by the elderly people.

  1. Impacts Of Climate Change On Ecosystems Management In Africa: An Assessment Of Disaster Risk Management And Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele-Murisa, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is a synthesis of eight studies which demonstrate the interface between disaster risk management (DRM) and adaptation. The studies; conducted from November 2011 to July 2012 included diverse ecosystems from forests, coastlines, rural areas to a lake region and showed that climate change/variability are major factors among other factors such as deforestation and land degradation, unsustainable land use practices, overharvesting of natural products and invasive species encroachment that are causing changes in ecosystems. The most common extreme events reported included shifts in and shorter rainfall seasons, extended droughts, increased temperatures, extreme heat, heavy rainfall, flooding, inundation, strong winds and sea level rises. As a result of these climate phenomena, adverse impacts on ecosystems and communities were reported as biodiversity loss, reduced fish catch, reduced water for forests/agriculture/consumption, increased rough waves, coastal erosion/sediment deposition and lastly land/mud slides in order of commonality. In response to these impacts communities are practicing coping and adaptation strategies but there is a huge gap between proper DRM and adaptation. This is mainly because the adaptation is practiced as an aftermath with very little effort propelled towards proactive DRM or preparedness. In addition, national level policies are archaic and do not address the current environmental changes. This was demonstrated in Togo where wood energy potential is deteriorating at an unprecedented rate but is projected to increase between 6.4% and 101% in the near and far future if the national forest action plans are implemented; preventing an energy crisis in the country. This shows that appropriate legal and policy frameworks and well planned responses to projected extreme events and climate changes are crucial in order to prevent disasters and to achieve sustainable utilisation of resources in the continent.

  2. An assessment of implications of adaptive licensing for pharmaceutical intellectual property and regulatory exclusivity rights in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, A; Faulkner, S D; Schoonderbeek, C; Jong, B; Kung, J; Brindley, D; Barker, R

    2016-12-01

    One of the key advantages of adaptive licensing (AL) is to align the licensing of new medicines more closely with patient needs for earlier access to beneficial treatments. From an innovators perspective, "earlier" market access may seem an obvious incentive to gain earlier revenue generation. However, this is offset with an "earlier" start to patent and regulatory protection periods, which, depending on the technology, disease, population, and timing of subsequent asset protection periods, can present a conflict.

  3. Report of the Joint IPCC WG 2 and 3 expert meeting on the integration of adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development into the 4. IPCC assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The objectives for this meeting at Reunion Island were: - To feed new views from outside the climate change literature into the assessment of Working Group II (WG II) and WG III concerning the strongly interrelated area of adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development. - to dove-tail zero-order draft texts of WG II and WG III (by the authors) with a view to ensuring that the treatment of Adaptation and Mitigation (AM) and Sustainable Development (SD) issues in both assessments is: 'Consistent, Complementary, Concise and Complete' ('4 Cs'). Furthermore, it was decided that the deliverable should be: - Recommendations for the writing team of WG II fourth Assessment Report (AR4) for incorporation of AM and SD issues in their First Order Draft (following their 2. Lead Author meeting in Cairns, 14-17 March 2005); - Recommendations for the writing team of WG III for incorporation in their Zero-order Draft (ZOD, to be completed 11 March 2005) The programme of the meeting was developed by the TSUs of WG II and III under the responsibility of the co-chairs of WG II and III. Day 1 the programme was devoted to a series of key note speakers, covering both potential user views as well as relevant new perspectives on the handling of AM and SD issues. These areas have not been fully addressed in the IPCC assessment work to date. The invited experts elaborated on 'new science areas' or 'new literatures' that inform parts of the AR4. The morning programme of Day 1 also contained an opening session featuring several ministers of Environment of neighbouring Small Island States, a representative of the European Parliament, and government officials from both the French Republic and Reunion Island. Day 2 and 3 were used for working sessions between authors on the integration of adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development into the contributions of Working Groups II and III of the AR4. The full programme is attached to the document. The

  4. Conference Report: Wyoming Invitational Conference on Instructional Applications of Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Bob

    This report: (1) describes the organization of an invitational conference aimed at gathering direction from classroom teachers regarding instructional applications of computers; (2) provides copies of all materials used in organizing such a conference; and (3) reports the results of the conference in terms of conference products (resolutions,…

  5. Key landscape ecology metrics for assessing climate change adaptation options: rate of change and patchiness of impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Breshears, David D.; Allen, Craig D.; Miller, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Under a changing climate, devising strategies to help stakeholders adapt to alterations to ecosystems and their services is of utmost importance. In western North America, diminished snowpack and river flows are causing relatively gradual, homogeneous (system-wide) changes in ecosystems and services. In addition, increased climate variability is also accelerating the incidence of abrupt and patchy disturbances such as fires, floods and droughts. This paper posits that two key variables often considered in landscape ecology—the rate of change and the degree of patchiness of change—can aid in developing climate change adaptation strategies. We use two examples from the “borderland” region of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. In piñon-juniper woodland die-offs that occurred in the southwestern United States during the 2000s, ecosystem services suddenly crashed in some parts of the system while remaining unaffected in other locations. The precise timing and location of die-offs was uncertain. On the other hand, slower, homogeneous change, such as the expected declines in water supply to the Colorado River delta, will likely impact the entire ecosystem, with ecosystem services everywhere in the delta subject to alteration, and all users likely exposed. The rapidity and spatial heterogeneity of faster, patchy climate change exemplified by tree die-off suggests that decision-makers and local stakeholders would be wise to operate under a Rawlsian “veil of ignorance,” and implement adaptation strategies that allow ecosystem service users to equitably share the risk of sudden loss of ecosystem services before actual ecosystem changes occur. On the other hand, in the case of slower, homogeneous, system-wide impacts to ecosystem services as exemplified by the Colorado River delta, adaptation strategies can be implemented after the changes begin, but will require a fundamental rethinking of how ecosystems and services are used and valued. In

  6. Adaptive management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...... the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...

  7. Motor Learning Abilities Are Similar in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Compared to Controls as Assessed by Adaptation to Unilateral Leg-Weighting during Gait: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Diane L.; Stanley, Christopher J.; Bulea, Thomas C.; Park, Hyung Soon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) demonstrate high response variability to motor training insufficiently accounted for by age or severity. We propose here that differences in the inherent ability to learn new motor tasks may explain some of this variability. Damage to motor pathways involving the cerebellum, which may be a direct or indirect effect of the brain injury for many with CP, has been shown to adversely affect the ability to learn new motor tasks and may be a potential explanation. Classic adaptation paradigms that evaluate cerebellar integrity have been utilized to assess adaptation to gait perturbations in adults with stroke, traumatic brain injury and other neurological injuries but not in children with CP. Materials and Methods: A case-control study of 10 participants with and 10 without hemiplegic CP within the age range of 5–20 years was conducted. Mean age of participants in the CP group was slightly but not significantly higher than controls. Step length and swing time adaptation, defined as gradual accommodation to a perturbation, and aftereffects, or maintenance of the accommodation upon removal of the perturbation, to unilateral leg weighing during treadmill gait were quantified to assess group differences in learning. Results: Adaptation and aftereffects were demonstrated in step length across groups with no main effect for group. In CP, the dominant leg had a greater response when either leg was weighted. Swing time accommodated immediately (no adaptation) in the weighted leg only, with the non-dominant leg instead showing a more pronounced response in CP. Discussion: This group of participants with unilateral CP did not demonstrate poorer learning or retention similar to reported results in adult stroke. Deficits, while not found here, may become evident in those with other etiologies or greater severity of CP. Our data further corroborate an observation from the stroke literature that repeated practice of exaggerating the

  8. Stochastic-based fuzzy risk assessment of SO{sub 2} emission from a power station[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, J.; Chen, B.; Husain, T. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2009-07-01

    Electricity production from fossil-fuel power plants is one of the main sources of air pollution. Risk assessment is a significant component for power plant air emission management. The most important output from risk assessment is the capacity to provide the basis of a decision-making process. The results of such decisions should be presented to environmental managers and the public in plain language rather than complex calculations. Uncertainty is inherent in any environmental risk assessment, and has 2 main origins, notably stochastic and cognitive. Research is under way to explore techniques that can incorporate these 2 kinds of uncertainties into the assessment process. The probability theory, or Monte Carlo simulation, is commonly used for stochastic uncertainties, while the possibilistic theory, or fuzzy logic, is used for cognitive uncertainties. In this study, a stochastic-based fuzzy risk assessment method was developed for a risk assessment of ambient air quality. The objective was to accurately predict contaminant transport and fate in ambient air and effectively assess the associated environmental and health risks. The proposed stochastic-based fuzzy risk assessment model was able to systematically quantify both probabilistic and possibilistic uncertainties associated with terrain conditions, environmental guidelines, and health criteria in air quality management systems. The results obtained from the improved simulation, uncertainty analysis and risk assessment are expected to provide more realistic decision support and bring significant environmental and economic benefits. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    The typical one-day conference attended by managers or professionals in search of inspiration is packed with PowerPoint presentations and offers little opportunity for involvement or knowledge sharing. Behind the conventional conference format lurks the transfer model of learning, which finds...... little support amongst serious students of learning. The professional conference as a forum for knowledge sharing is in dire need of a new learning theory and a more enlightened practice. The notion of human flourishing is offered as basis for theory, and four simple design principles for the so......-called “learning conference” are proposed: People go to conferences to 1. get concise input, 2. interpret it in the light of their ongoing concerns, 3. talk about their current projects and 4. meet the other attendees and be inspired by them. Six practical techniques that induce attendees to do these things...

  10. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  11. Ranking Operations Management Conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik Joost; Gupta, Sushil; Laptaned, U.

    2007-01-01

    Several publications have appeared in the field of Operations Management which rank Operations Management related journals. Several ranking systems exist for journals based on , for example, perceived relevance and quality, citation, and author affiliation. Many academics also publish at conferences

  12. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    are described: Individual reflection, the buzz dyad, ?You have won two consultants, free of charge?, facilitated group work, the knowledge exchange, and lunch with gaffer tape. Originality/value: This paper introduces modern learning theory and techniques into an educational context which has resisted......Purpose: To call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates. To introduce an alternative, the ?learning conference,? that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes. Design....../methodology/approach: A typical full-day conference is analyzed. It has six hours of podium talk and twenty-five minutes for delegates to become involved. What model of learning can possibly lie behind this? The transfer model, which assumes learners to be empty vessels. An alternative view is that conference delegates...

  13. Tackling conference carbon footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozier, Jim

    2016-12-01

    In reply to Margaret Harris's Lateral Thoughts article "Putting my foot down", which discussed the challenges of attending a conference with a physical disability (October p76) and a subsequent letter by Anna Wood (November p18).

  14. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  15. Proceedings of the Conference on Educational Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    The philosophy, strategies, and pitfalls of educational accountability, and information on the development and implementation of accountability programs are outlined in this conference report. Educational accountability is a term used in connection with activities such as assessment, evaluation, auditing, and performance contacting. The speakers'…

  16. Conference proceedings: Protecting people and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, S. J.; Ward, C. J. W.; Smith, D. W. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    Papers presented at the 1997 Environmental Engineering Conference in Edmonton, Alberta are presented in these two volumes. A total of 148 papers are included. Topics addressed by the papers range from risk assessment to site characterization, from management of residuals to wastewater and solid waste management, from contaminated soils and groundwater contamination to industrial wastes and air quality issues.

  17. 2nd SUMO Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the conference proceedings of the Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) conference 2014, Berlin. The included research papers cover a wide range of topics in traffic planning and simulation, including open data, vehicular communication, e-mobility, urban mobility, multimodal traffic as well as usage approaches. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.  

  18. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  19. [Postvagotomy adaptation syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, V A

    1998-01-01

    It was established in experiment, that the changes of the natural resistance of organism indexes and of the peritoneal cavity cytology has compensatory-adaptational character while the denervation-adaptational syndrome occurrence and progress, which may be assessed as eustress. Vagotomy and operative trauma cause qualitatively different reactions of an organism.

  20. Cultural and linguistic adaptability of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System as a measure of psychotic characteristics and severity of mental disturbance in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-So; Viglione, Donald J; Green, Elizabeth E; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl; Su, Jian-An; Chang, Yi-Ting

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the cultural and linguistic adaptability of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS), a new Rorschach administration, scoring, and interpretation system that minimizes psychometric weaknesses of the Comprehensive System (CS). This investigation addressed the validity of R-PAS measures of psychotic characteristics and psychopathology severity in Taiwan, including the incremental validity of the R-PAS relative to the CS variables measuring the same constructs. Ninety Taiwanese individuals (75 psychiatric patients and 15 nonpatients) were tested with standard R-PAS administration and scoring. Two non-Rorschach severity of disturbance measures and 2 psychosis measures served as independent criterion measures. The R-PAS measures were found to be valid in Taiwan in assessing psychotic symptoms and psychopathology severity, thus demonstrating cultural and linguistic adaptability. Moreover, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated incremental validity for the R-PAS variables over their CS counterparts, providing support that the R-PAS revisions enhance the test psychometrically. These research findings also demonstrate the viability of the R-PAS as a Rorschach system that can be effectively employed outside the U.S. in a different language and culture.

  1. Assessment of Damage and Adaptation Strategies for Structures and Infrastructure from Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise for a Coastal Community in Rhode Island, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Small

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of inundation, erosion, and wave damage for a coastal community in Rhode Island, USA. A methodology called the Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI was used that incorporates levels of inundation including sea level rise, wave heights using STWAVE, and detailed information about individual structures from an E911 database. This information was input into damage functions developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers following Hurricane Sandy. Damage from erosion was evaluated separately from local published erosion rates. Using CERI, two different adaptation strategies were evaluated that included a combination of dune restoration, protective berms, and a tide gate. A total of 151 out of 708 structures were estimated to be protected from inundation and wave action by the combined measures. More importantly, the use of CERI allowed for the assessment of the impact of different adaptation strategies on both individual structures and an entire community in a Geographical Information Systems (GIS environment. This tool shows promise for use by coastal managers to assess damage and mitigate risk to coastal communities.

  2. Abstracts of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering annual conference including the general conference, the 1. international structural specialty conference, the 1. international construction specialty conference, and the 1. specialty conference on disaster mitigation : towards a sustainable future[General Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, M.; Loov, R.E.; Ruwanpura, J.; El-Hacha, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Kroman, J. [City of Calgary, AB (Canada); Rankin, J. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Dunaszegi, L. [Earth Tech Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for national and international practicing engineers, researchers and technical experts to discuss sustainable solutions to infrastructure development. Discussions focused on recent developments in new technologies for building more economic and sustainable infrastructure, while improving the safety of buildings, bridges, roads, water supply and sewage treatment systems. The conference was held in conjunction with associated specialty conferences, including a first international structures specialty conference, a first international construction specialty conference, and a first specialty conference on disaster mitigation. This book of abstracts highlights all the specialty conferences and accompanies a CD-ROM that has the full text of all the papers. Manuscripts of the full papers submitted to the specialty conferences were peer-reviewed by international scientific committees. The general conference provided a forum to learn about new technologies and future directions in various areas of civil engineering. It included a special theme session on sustainable development and a special session on innovation and information technology. Other technical sessions focused on topics such as civil engineering history and education; infrastructure management and renewal; asset management; risk assessment and management; engineering materials and mechanics; environmental engineering and science; hydrotechnical engineering; cold region engineering; and, transportation engineering. The general conference featured 88 presentations, of which 15 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  3. Resistance to the novel fungicide pyrimorph in Phytophthora capsici: risk assessment and detection of point mutations in CesA3 that confer resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhili; Shao, Jingpeng; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xiaohong; Hu, Jian; Qin, Zhaohai; Liu, Xili

    2013-01-01

    Pyrimorph is a novel fungicide with high activity against the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici. We investigated the risk that P. capsici can develop resistance to pyrimorph. The baseline sensitivities of 226 P. capsici isolates, tested by mycelial growth inhibition, showed a unimodal distribution with a mean EC(50) value of 1.4261 (± 0.4002) µg/ml. Twelve pyrimorph-resistant mutants were obtained by repeated exposure to pyrimorph in vitro with a frequency of approximately 1 × 10(-4). The resistance factors of the mutants ranged from 10.67 to 56.02. Pyrimorph resistance of the mutants was stable after 10 transfers on pyrimorph-free medium. Fitness in sporulation, cystospore germination, and pathogenicity in the pyrimorph-resistant mutants was similar to or less than that in the parental wild-type isolates. On detached pepper leaves and pepper plants treated with the recommended maximum dose of pyrimorph, however, virulence was greater for mutants with a high level of pyrimorph resistance than for the wild type. The results suggest that the risk of P. capsici developing resistance to pyrimorph is low to moderate. Among mutants with a high level of pyrimorph resistance, EC(50) values for pyrimorph and CAA fungicides flumorph, dimethomorph, and mandipropamid were positively correlated. This indicated that point mutations in cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3) may confer resistance to pyrimorph. Comparison of CesA3 in isolates with a high level of pyrimorph resistance and parental isolates showed that an amino acid change from glutamine to lysine at position 1077 resulted in stable, high resistance in the mutants. Based on the point mutations, an allele-specific PCR method was developed to detect pyrimorph resistance in P. capsici populations.

  4. Resistance to the novel fungicide pyrimorph in Phytophthora capsici: risk assessment and detection of point mutations in CesA3 that confer resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Pang

    Full Text Available Pyrimorph is a novel fungicide with high activity against the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici. We investigated the risk that P. capsici can develop resistance to pyrimorph. The baseline sensitivities of 226 P. capsici isolates, tested by mycelial growth inhibition, showed a unimodal distribution with a mean EC(50 value of 1.4261 (± 0.4002 µg/ml. Twelve pyrimorph-resistant mutants were obtained by repeated exposure to pyrimorph in vitro with a frequency of approximately 1 × 10(-4. The resistance factors of the mutants ranged from 10.67 to 56.02. Pyrimorph resistance of the mutants was stable after 10 transfers on pyrimorph-free medium. Fitness in sporulation, cystospore germination, and pathogenicity in the pyrimorph-resistant mutants was similar to or less than that in the parental wild-type isolates. On detached pepper leaves and pepper plants treated with the recommended maximum dose of pyrimorph, however, virulence was greater for mutants with a high level of pyrimorph resistance than for the wild type. The results suggest that the risk of P. capsici developing resistance to pyrimorph is low to moderate. Among mutants with a high level of pyrimorph resistance, EC(50 values for pyrimorph and CAA fungicides flumorph, dimethomorph, and mandipropamid were positively correlated. This indicated that point mutations in cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3 may confer resistance to pyrimorph. Comparison of CesA3 in isolates with a high level of pyrimorph resistance and parental isolates showed that an amino acid change from glutamine to lysine at position 1077 resulted in stable, high resistance in the mutants. Based on the point mutations, an allele-specific PCR method was developed to detect pyrimorph resistance in P. capsici populations.

  5. Conference scene: DGVS spring conference 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolligs, Frank Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The 3rd annual DGVS Spring Conference of the German Society for Gastroenterology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten) was held at the Seminaris Campus Hotel in Berlin, Germany, on 8-9 May, 2009. The conference was organized by Roland Schmid and Matthias Ebert from the Technical University of Munich, Germany. The central theme of the meeting was 'translational gastrointestinal oncology: towards personalized medicine and individualized therapy'. The conference covered talks on markers for diagnosis, screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer, targets for molecular therapy, response prediction in clinical oncology, development and integration of molecular imaging in gastrointestinal oncology and translational research in clinical trial design. Owing to the broad array of topics and limitations of space, this article will focus on biomarkers, response prediction and the integration of biomarkers into clinical trials. Presentations mentioned in this summary were given by Matthias Ebert (Technical University of Munich, Germany), Esmeralda Heiden (Epigenomics, Berlin, Germany), Frank Kolligs (University of Munich, Germany), Florian Lordick (University of Heidelberg, Germany), Hans Jorgen Nielsen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Anke Reinacher-Schick (University of Bochum, Germany), Christoph Röcken (University of Berlin, Germany), Wolff Schmiegel (University of Bochum, Germany) and Thomas Seufferlein (University of Halle, Germany).

  6. Conference Report: The BPS Annual Conference 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will review four papers presented at the British Psychological Society Annual Conference held this year in London held over a 3 day period. The Conference included a variety of scientific presentations and discussions through symposia, roundtable discussions, single papers and poster sessions. Although numerous papers took an experimental approach, few applied any type of qualitative methodology. The topics covered within the different psychological disciplines spanned from early childhood through old age; I have chosen four papers that covered a life course perspective and took into consideration clinical issues as well. The first paper discusses a grounded theory approach used to analyse a play therapy session between therapist and child. The second review reports some recent findings in the way the brains of people on the autistic spectrum disorder might function. The third paper discusses positive psychology and how such an emerging movement has influenced new research in the field. The last paper reviewed will discuss the issue of the ageing process, and I will present some arguments related to the useful application of qualitative methodologies within this area of research. In conclusion, I will highlight some personal reflections on the Conference and the need for a greater balance between qualitative and quantitative methodologies to be used in collaboration rather than as antagonists. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402176

  7. Adaptation of Kirkpatrick's Four Level Model of Training Criteria to Assessment of Learning Outcomes and Program Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praslova, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of educational effectiveness provides vitally important feedback to Institutions of Higher Education. It also provides important information to external stakeholders, such as prospective students, parents, governmental and local regulatory entities, professional and regional accrediting organizations, and representatives of the…

  8. Performance assessment of a pre-partitioned adaptive chemistry approach in large-eddy simulation of turbulent flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiot, Perrine; Liang, Youwen; Newale, Ashish; Pope, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    A pre-partitioned adaptive chemistry (PPAC) approach recently developed and validated in the simplified framework of a partially-stirred reactor is applied to the simulation of turbulent flames using a LES/particle PDF framework. The PPAC approach was shown to simultaneously provide significant savings in CPU and memory requirements, two major limiting factors in LES/particle PDF. The savings are achieved by providing each particle in the PDF method with a specialized reduced representation and kinetic model adjusted to its changing composition. Both representation and model are identified efficiently from a pre-determined list using a low-dimensional binary-tree search algorithm, thereby keeping the run-time overhead associated with the adaptive strategy to a minimum. The Sandia D flame is used as benchmark to quantify the performance of the PPAC algorithm in a turbulent combustion setting. In particular, the CPU and memory benefits, the distribution of the various representations throughout the computational domain, and the relationship between the user-defined error tolerances used to derive the reduced representations and models and the actual errors observed in LES/PDF are characterized. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-FG02-90ER14128.

  9. Assessing the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids to climate change in an irrigated district of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Bonfante, Antonello; De Mascellis, Roberto; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Menenti, Massimo; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Climate change will cause significant changes in water distribution and availability; as a consequence the water resources in some areas (like Mediterranean regions) will be limiting factors to the cultivation of some species, included cereals. So the perspective of climate change requires an analysis of the adaptation possibilities of food and fiber species currently cultivated. A powerful tool for adaptation is the relevant intra-specific biodiversity of crops. The knowledge, for different crop cultivars, of the responses to different environmental conditions (e.g. yield response functions to water regime) can be a tool to identify adaptation options to future climate. Moreover, simulation models of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system can be coupled with future climate scenarios to predict the soil water regime also accounting for different irrigation scheduling options. In this work the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in an irrigated district of Southern Italy (the "Destra Sele" plain, an area of about 18.000 ha), where maize is extensively grown for water buffalo feeding. Horticultural crops (tomato, fennel, artichoke) are grown, as well. The methodology applied is based on two complementary elements: - a database on climatic requirements of 30 maize hybrids: the yield response functions to water availability were determined from experimental data derived both from scientific literature and from field trials carried out by ISAFOM-CNR. These functions were applied to describe the behaviour of the hybrids with respect to the relative evapotranspiration deficit; - the simulation performed by the agro-hydrological model SWAP (soil-water-plant and atmosphere), to determine the future soil water regime at landscape scale. Two climate scenarios were studied: "past" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios were generated within the Italian National Project AGROSCENARI. Climate scenarios at low spatial

  10. An integrated framework to assess adaptation options to climate change impacts in an irrigated basin in Central North Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Meza, F. J.; Alvarez, P.; Maureira, F.; Sanchez, A.; Tapia, A.; Cortes, M.; Dale, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Future climate conditions could potentially affect water supply and demand on water basins throughout the world but especially on snowmelt-driven agriculture oriented basins that can be found throughout central Chile. Increasing temperature and reducing precipitation will affect both the magnitude and timing of water supply this part of the world. Different adaptation strategies could be implemented to reduce the impacts of such scenarios. Some could be incorporated as planned policies decided at the basin or Water Use Organization levels. Examples include changing large scale irrigation infrastructure (reservoirs and main channels) either physically or its operation. Complementing these strategies it is reasonable to think that at a disaggregated level, farmers would also react (adapt) to these new conditions using a mix of options to either modify their patterns of consumption (irrigation efficiency, crop mix, crop area reduction), increase their ability to access new sources of water (groundwater, water markets) or finally compensate their expected losses (insurance). We present a modeling framework developed to represent these issues using as a case study the Limarí basin located in Central Chile. This basin is a renowned example of how the development of reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure can reduce climate vulnerabilities allowing the economic development of a basin. Farmers in this basin tackle climate variability by adopting different strategies that depend first on the reservoir water volume allocation rule, on the type and size of investment they have at their farms and finally their potential access to water markets and other water supplies options. The framework developed can be used to study these strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The cornerstone of the framework is an hydrology and water resources model developed on the WEAP platform. This model is able to reproduce the large scale hydrologic features of the basin such as

  11. Digital technologies to support planning, treatment, and fabrication processes and outcome assessments in implant dentistry. Summary and consensus statements. The 4th EAO consensus conference 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Cordaro, Luca; van Assche, Nele

    2015-01-01

    AND METHODS: Three reviews were available for assessing the current literature and provided the basis for the discussions and the consensus report. One review dealt with the use of computers to plan implant therapy and to place implants in partially and fully edentulous patients. A second one focused on novel...... techniques and methods to assess treatment outcomes and the third compared CAD/CAM-fabricated reconstructions to conventionally fabricated ones. RESULTS: The consensus statements, the clinical recommendations, and the implications for research, all of them after approval by the plenum of the consensus...

  12. An Analysis of Chinglish in Press Conference Interpretation-Case Study on the In-terpretation of the 2nd guangdong International Consultative Conference (GICC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珊

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims at analyzing the Chinglish in press conference interpretation with context adaptation of Belgian lin-guist Jef Verschueren’s Adaptation Theory as the theoretical framework. In Adaptation Theory, context includes all kinds of fac-tors that concern the environment in which the communication takes place, with non-linguistic factors like the physical world, the social world and the mental world playing an important role. Taking the press conference interpretation of the 2nd Guang-dong International Consultative Conference as an example, the author attempts to prove the presumption that Adaptation Theory can be applied to spot and reduce the Chinglish in interpreting. It is concluded that the theory of adaptation to the mental world and social world can be applied to reduce the Chinglish of two particular kinds to the minimum level and achieve successful com-munication.

  13. Adaptation of the food-craving questionnaire trait for the assessment of chocolate cravings: validation across British and Spanish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sonia; Warren, Cortney S; Moreno, Silvia; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio; Gleaves, David H; Fernández, María del Carmen; Vila, Jaime

    2007-07-01

    English and Spanish versions of the FCQ-T [Cepeda-Benito, A., Gleaves, D. H., Williams, T. L., & Erath, S. A. (2000). The development and validation of the state and trait food-cravings questionnaires. Behavior Therapy, 31, 151-173] were adapted to create the food chocolate-craving questionnaire trait (FCCQ-T). Female college students from England (N=293), and Spain (N=373) completed the FCCQ-T. Good and similar measurement fits for the English and Spanish versions were found. In concordance with the higher consumption of chocolate in Britain, British women reported greater chocolate cravings than Spanish women. Overall, the FCCQ-T appears a well-suited instrument to investigate chocolate cravings in English- and Spanish-speaking populations.

  14. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Hamlet

    2011-05-01

    infrastructure and institutional arrangements provide a reasonably solid foundation for coping with climate change impacts, and that the mandates of existing water resources policy and water resources management institutions are at least consistent with the fundamental objectives of climate change adaptation. A deeper inquiry into the underlying nature of PNW water resources systems, however, reveals significant and persistent obstacles to climate change adaptation, which will need to be overcome if effective use of the region's extensive water resources management capacity can be brought to bear on this problem. Primary obstacles include assumptions of stationarity as the fundamental basis of water resources system design, entrenched use of historical records as the sole basis for planning, problems related to the relatively short time scale of planning, lack of familiarity with climate science and models, downscaling procedures, and hydrologic models, limited access to climate change scenarios and hydrologic products for specific water systems, and rigid water allocation and water resources operating rules that effectively block adaptive response. Institutional barriers include systematic loss of technical capacity in many water resources agencies following the dam building era, jurisdictional fragmentation affecting response to drought, disconnections between water policy and practice, and entrenched bureaucratic resistance to change in many water management agencies. These factors, combined with a federal agenda to block climate change policy in the US during the Bush administration have (with some exceptions contributed to widespread institutional "gridlock" in the PNW over the last decade or so despite a growing awareness of climate change as a significant threat to water management. In the last several years, however, significant progress has been made in surmounting some of these obstacles, and the region's water resources agencies at all levels of governance are making

  15. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Hamlet

    2010-07-01

    existing water resources infrastructure and institutional arrangements provide a solid foundation for coping with climate change impacts, and that the mandates of existing water resources policy and water resources management institutions are at least consistent with the fundamental objectives of climate change adaptation. A deeper inquiry into the underlying nature of PNW water resources systems, however, reveals significant and persistent obstacles to climate change adaptation, which will need to be overcome if effective use of the region's extensive water resources management capacity can be brought to bear on this problem. Primary obstacles include assumptions of stationarity as the fundamental basis of water resources system design, entrenched use of historic records as the sole basis for planning, problems related to the relatively short time scale of planning, lack of familiarity with climate science and models, downscaling procedures, and hydrologic models, limited access to climate change scenarios and hydrologic products for specific water systems, and rigid water allocation and water resources operating rules that effectively block adaptive response. Institutional barriers include systematic loss of technical capacity in many water resources agencies following the dam building era, jurisdictional fragmentation affecting response to drought, disconnections between water policy and practice, and entrenched bureaucratic resistance to change in many water management agencies. These factors, combined with a federal agenda to block climate change policy in the US during the Bush administration has (with some exceptions led to institutional "gridlock" in the PNW over the last decade or so despite a growing awareness of climate change as a significant threat to water management. In the last several years, however, significant progress has been made in surmounting these obstacles, and the region's water resources agencies at all levels of governance are making progress

  16. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.

    2011-05-01

    provide a reasonably solid foundation for coping with climate change impacts, and that the mandates of existing water resources policy and water resources management institutions are at least consistent with the fundamental objectives of climate change adaptation. A deeper inquiry into the underlying nature of PNW water resources systems, however, reveals significant and persistent obstacles to climate change adaptation, which will need to be overcome if effective use of the region's extensive water resources management capacity can be brought to bear on this problem. Primary obstacles include assumptions of stationarity as the fundamental basis of water resources system design, entrenched use of historical records as the sole basis for planning, problems related to the relatively short time scale of planning, lack of familiarity with climate science and models, downscaling procedures, and hydrologic models, limited access to climate change scenarios and hydrologic products for specific water systems, and rigid water allocation and water resources operating rules that effectively block adaptive response. Institutional barriers include systematic loss of technical capacity in many water resources agencies following the dam building era, jurisdictional fragmentation affecting response to drought, disconnections between water policy and practice, and entrenched bureaucratic resistance to change in many water management agencies. These factors, combined with a federal agenda to block climate change policy in the US during the Bush administration have (with some exceptions) contributed to widespread institutional "gridlock" in the PNW over the last decade or so despite a growing awareness of climate change as a significant threat to water management. In the last several years, however, significant progress has been made in surmounting some of these obstacles, and the region's water resources agencies at all levels of governance are making progress in addressing the fundamental

  17. Assessing damage cost estimation of urban pluvial flood risk as a mean of improving climate change adaptations investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård Olsen, Anders; Zhou, Qianqian; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    Estimating the expected annual damage (EAD) due to flooding in an urban area is of great interest for urban water managers and other stakeholders. It is a strong indicator for a given area showing how it will be affected by climate change and how much can be gained by implementing adaptation......-linear relation which could be contributed by the Danish design standards for drainage systems. Three different methods for estimating the EAD were tested and the choice of method is less important than accounting for the log-linear shift. This then also means that the statistical approximation of the EAD used...... in previous studies appears to be valid and is a good assumption. The EAD estimation can be simplified by having a single unit cost per flooded area which is multiplied with the extent of the flood. It does however depend on the lower threshold chosen in the estimation of the flood extent....

  18. Lexmeter: validation of an automated system for the assessment of lexical competence of medical students as a base for an adaptive e-learning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio eConsorti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Distance learning is used in medical education, even if some recent meta-analyses indicated that it is no more effective than traditional methods. To exploit the technological capabilities, adaptive distance learning systems aim to bridge the gap between the educational offer and the learner’s need. A decrease of lexical competence has been noted in many western countries, so lexical competence could be a possible target for adaptation. The Adaptive message learning project (Am-learning is aimed at designing and implementing an adaptive e-learning system, driven by lexical competence. The goal of the project is to modulate texts according to the estimated skill of learners, to allow a better comprehension. Lexmeter is the first of the four modules of the Am-learning system. It outlines an initial profile of the learner’s lexical competence and can also produce cloze tests, a test based on a completion task.A validation test of Lexmeter was run on 443 medical students of the 1st, 3rd and 6th year at the University Sapienza of Rome. Six cloze tests were automatically produced, with ten gaps each. The tests were different for each year and with varying levels of difficulty. A last cloze test was manually created as a control. The difference of the mean score between the easy tests and the tests with a medium level of difficulty was statistically significant for the 3rd year students but not for 1st and 6th year. The score of the automatically generated tests showed a slight but significant correlation with the control test. The reliability (Cronbach alpha of the different tests fluctuated under and above .60, as an acceptable level. In fact, classical item analysis revealed that the tests were on the average too simple.Lexical competence is a relevant outcome and its assessment allows an early detection of students at risk. Cloze tests can also be used to assess specific knowledge of technical jargon and to train reasoning skill.

  19. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 1: Regulatory updates, performance assessment, understanding remedial action efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Eighteen papers are presented in this volume. The section on regulatory updates present papers on EPA, NRC, and DOE regulations. The performance assessment section presents studies on disposal facilities at ORNL, Hanford, and the Feed Materials Production Center. The remedial action section papers discuss programs and remedial action activities. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Proceedings of the fourth annual hazardous materials management conference/central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This conference is covered under the following headings: Adaptive control of robot manipulators; Analysis of manufacturing systems; Impedance and force control; Coordination of multiple industrial robot; Stereo vision; Robot control; Industrial application; and Control architectures.

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Dutch version of the scored patient-generated subjective global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sealy, Martine J.; Hass, Ulrike; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Schans, Cees P. van der; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    2014-01-01

    Posterpresentatie gehouden tijdens en in het kader van Clinical Nutrition Week 2014. Background: Nutritional assessment is considered to be an important element in the nutrition care process of cancer patients, since nutritional status is positively associated with health outcome. The Scored Patient

  2. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  3. Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laane, R.W.P.M.; Slijkerman, D.M.E.; Vethaak, A.D.; Schobben, J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention

  4. 2nd Bozeman Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, John

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of papers delivered by the partici­ pants at the second Conference on Computation and Control held at Mon­ tana State University in Bozeman, Montana from August 1-7, 1990. The conference, as well as this proceedings, attests to the vitality and cohesion between the control theorist and the numerical analyst that was adver­ tised by the first Conference on Computation and Control in 1988. The proceedings of that initial conference was published by Birkhiiuser Boston as the first volume of this same series entitled Computation and Control, Proceedings of the Bozeman Conference, Bozeman, Montana, 1988. Control theory and numerical analysis are both, by their very nature, interdisciplinary subjects as evidenced by their interaction with other fields of mathematics and engineering. While it is clear that new control or es­ timation algorithms and new feedback design methodologies will need to be implemented computationally, it is likewise clear that new problems in computation...

  5. Resistance assessment for oxathiapiprolin in Phytophthora capsici and the detection of a point mutation (G769W in PcORP1 that confers resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang eMiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential for oxathiapiprolin resistance in Phytophthora capsici was evaluated. The baseline sensitivities of 175 isolates to oxathiapiprolin were initially determinated and found to conform to a unimodal curve with a mean EC50 value of 5.61×10-4 μg/ml. Twelve stable oxathiapiprolin-resistant mutants were generated by fungicide adaption in two sensitive isolates, LP3 and HNJZ10. The fitness of the LP3-mutants was found to be similar to or better than that of the parental isolate LP3, while the HNJZ10-mutants were found to have lost the capacity to produce zoospores. Taken together these results suggest that the risk of P. capsici developing resistance to oxathiapiprolin is moderate. Comparison of the PcORP1 genes in the LP3-mutants and wild-type parental isolate, which encode the target protein of oxathiapiprolin, revealed that a heterozygous mutation caused the amino acid substitution G769W. Transformation and expression of the mutated PcORP1-769W allele in the sensitive wild-type isolate BYA5 confirmed that the mutation in PcORP1 was responsible for the observed oxathiapiprolin resistance. Finally diagnostic tests including As-PCR and CAPs were developed to detect the oxathiapiprolin resistance resulting from the G769W point mutation in field populations of P. capsici.

  6. Evaluating the need for integrated land use and land cover analysis for robust assessment of climate adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2016-04-01

    Several climate adaptation and mitigation strategies incorporate land use and land cover change to address global carbon balance and also food, fuel, fiber, and water resource sustainability. However, Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) are not consistent across the CMIP5 model simulations because only the land use input was harmonized. Differences in LULCC impede understanding of global change because such differences can dramatically alter land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange in response to differences in associated use and distribution of land resources. For example, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) overestimates 2005 atmospheric CO2 concentration by 18 ppmv, and we explore the contribution of historical LULCC to this bias in relation to the effects of CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition on terrestrial carbon. Using identical land use input, a chronologically referenced LULCC that accounts for pasture, as opposed to the default year-2000 referenced LULCC, increases this bias to 27 ppmv because more forest needs to be cleared for land use. Assuming maximum forest retention for all land conversion reduces the new bias to ~21 ppmv, while minimum forest retention increases the new bias to ~32 ppmv. Corresponding ecosystem carbon changes from the default in 2005 are approximately -28 PgC, -10 PgC, and -43 PgC, respectively. This 33 PgC uncertainty range due to maximizing versus minimizing forest area is 66% of the estimated 50 PgC gain in ecosystem carbon due to CO2 fertilization from 1850-2005, and 150% of the estimated 22 PgC gain due to nitrogen deposition. This range is also similar to the 28 PgC difference generated by changing the LULCC reference year and accounting for pasture. These results indicate that LULCC uncertainty is not only a major driver of bias in simulated atmospheric CO2, but that it could contribute even more to this bias than uncertainty in CO2 fertilization or nitrogen deposition. This highlights the need for more accurate

  7. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michie Susan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, including diet and health. The aims of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning for improving dietary behaviours. Methods/Design The research will consist of a systematic review and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Studies will be considered for the review if they are randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged 13 or over, which evaluate the effectiveness or efficacy of interactive software programmes for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcome measures will be those related to dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes of energy, nutrients and dietary fibre, or the estimated number of servings per day of foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures will be objective clinical measures that are likely to respond to changes in dietary behaviours, such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Knowledge, self-efficacy, intention and emotion will be examined as mediators of dietary behaviour change in order to explore potential mechanisms of action. Databases will be searched using a comprehensive four-part search strategy, and the results exported to a bibliographic database. Two review authors will independently screen results to identify potentially eligible studies, and will independently extract data from included studies, with any discrepancies at each stage settled by a third author. Standardised forms and criteria will be used. A descriptive analysis of included

  8. AgMIP's Transdisciplinary Agricultural Systems Approach to Regional Integrated Assessment of Climate Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, John M.; Valdivia, Roberto O.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Janssen, Sander; Jones, James W.; Porter, Cheryl H.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alexander C.; Thorburn, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes methods developed by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to implement a transdisciplinary, systems-based approach for regional-scale (local to national) integrated assessment of agricultural systems under future climate, biophysical, and socio-economic conditions. These methods were used by the AgMIP regional research teams in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia to implement the analyses reported in their respective chapters of this book. Additional technical details are provided in Appendix 1.The principal goal that motivates AgMIP's regional integrated assessment (RIA) methodology is to provide scientifically rigorous information needed to support improved decision-making by various stakeholders, ranging from local to national and international non-governmental and governmental organizations.

  9. Assessing arboreal adaptations of bird antecedents: testing the ecological setting of the origin of the avian flight stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Alexander Dececchi

    Full Text Available The origin of avian flight is a classic macroevolutionary transition with research spanning over a century. Two competing models explaining this locomotory transition have been discussed for decades: ground up versus trees down. Although it is impossible to directly test either of these theories, it is possible to test one of the requirements for the trees-down model, that of an arboreal paravian. We test for arboreality in non-avian theropods and early birds with comparisons to extant avian, mammalian, and reptilian scansors and climbers using a comprehensive set of morphological characters. Non-avian theropods, including the small, feathered deinonychosaurs, and Archaeopteryx, consistently and significantly cluster with fully terrestrial extant mammals and ground-based birds, such as ratites. Basal birds, more advanced than Archaeopteryx, cluster with extant perching ground-foraging birds. Evolutionary trends immediately prior to the origin of birds indicate skeletal adaptations opposite that expected for arboreal climbers. Results reject an arboreal capacity for the avian stem lineage, thus lending no support for the trees-down model. Support for a fully terrestrial ecology and origin of the avian flight stroke has broad implications for the origin of powered flight for this clade. A terrestrial origin for the avian flight stroke challenges the need for an intermediate gliding phase, presents the best resolved series of the evolution of vertebrate powered flight, and may differ fundamentally from the origin of bat and pterosaur flight, whose antecedents have been postulated to have been arboreal and gliding.

  10. Adaptation and risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  11. Assessing Hippocampal Development and Language in Early Childhood: Evidence From a New Application of the Automatic Segmentation Adapter Tool

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Volumetric assessments of the hippocampus and other brain structures during childhood provide useful indices of brain development and correlates of cognitive functioning in typically and atypically developing children. Automated methods such as FreeSurfer promise efficient and replicable segmentation, but may include errors which are avoided by trained manual tracers. A recently devised automated correction tool that uses a machine learning algorithm to remove systematic errors, the Automatic...

  12. Multi-criteria decision analysis with fuzzy probabilistic risk assessment for produced water management[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofarrah, A.; Husain, T.; Hawboldt, K. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented an integrated approach for management of produced water (PW) from oil and gas production. A multi-criteria analysis technique was integrated with risk assessment methodology to enhance the decision making process. As an integral part of overall environmental risk analyses, risk management involves selecting the most appropriate action, and integrating the results of risk assessment with engineering data, social, economic, and political concerns to make an acceptable decision. The risk assessment process involves objectivity, whereas risk management involves preferences and attitudes, which have objective and subjective elements. Choosing an alternative based on risk criteria is challenging for decision makers. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) can be used for this purpose. The proposed decision analysis framework integrates fuzzy-probabilistic risk assessment (FPRA) methodology into a fuzzy multi-criteria decision making (FMCDM) analysis. The centroid method was used for defuzzification and ranking alternatives. The efficacy of the integrated technique was demonstrated in an application where 3 types of PW management systems for offshore oil and gas operations were evaluated. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. CT angiography after carotid artery stenting: assessment of the utility of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuya, Keita; Shinohara, Yuki; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Sakamoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Takashi [Tottori University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Brain and Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Iwata, Naoki; Kishimoto, Junichi [Tottori University, Division of Clinical Radiology Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Kaminou, Toshio [Osaka Minami Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Follow-up CT angiography (CTA) is routinely performed for post-procedure management after carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, the stent lumen tends to be underestimated because of stent artifacts on CTA reconstructed with the filtered back projection (FBP) technique. We assessed the utility of new iterative reconstruction techniques, such as adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), for CTA after CAS in comparison with FBP. In a phantom study, we evaluated the differences among the three reconstruction techniques with regard to the relationship between the stent luminal diameter and the degree of underestimation of stent luminal diameter. In a clinical study, 34 patients who underwent follow-up CTA after CAS were included. We compared the stent luminal diameters among FBP, ASIR, and MBIR, and performed visual assessment of low attenuation area (LAA) in the stent lumen using a three-point scale. In the phantom study, stent luminal diameter was increasingly underestimated as luminal diameter became smaller in all CTA images. Stent luminal diameter was larger with MBIR than with the other reconstruction techniques. Similarly, in the clinical study, stent luminal diameter was larger with MBIR than with the other reconstruction techniques. LAA detectability scores of MBIR were greater than or equal to those of FBP and ASIR in all cases. MBIR improved the accuracy of assessment of stent luminal diameter and LAA detectability in the stent lumen when compared with FBP and ASIR. We conclude that MBIR is a useful reconstruction technique for CTA after CAS. (orig.)

  14. Cultural adaptation and reproducibility validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD-Brazil) scale in non-verbal adult patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcia Carla Morete; Minson, Fabiola Peixoto; Lopes, Ana Carolina Biagioni; Laselva, Claudia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To adapt the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) scale to Brazilian Portuguese with respect to semantic equivalence and cultural aspects, and to evaluate the respective psychometric properties (validity, feasibility, clinical utility and inter-rater agreement). Methods Two-stage descriptive, cross-sectional retrospective study involving cultural and semantic validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the scale, and investigation of its psychometric properties (validity, reliability and clinical utility). The sample consisted of 63 inpatients presenting with neurological deficits and unable to self-report pain. Results Semantic and cultural validation of the PAINAD scale was easily achieved. The scale indicators most commonly used by nurses to assess pain were “Facial expression”, “Body language” and “Consolability”. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the scale has proved to be valid and accurate; good levels of inter-rater agreement assured reproducibility. Conclusion The scale has proved to be useful in daily routine care of hospitalized adult and elderly patients in a variety of clinical settings. Short application time, ease of use, clear instructions and the simplicity of training required for application were emphasized. However, interpretation of facial expression and consolability should be given special attention during pain assessment training. PMID:25993063

  15. Keeley Probes as a Tool for Uncovering Student Ideas: How Do Teachers Use Formative Assessment Probes to Plan and Adapt Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Kalin

    Formative assessment probes, known as Keeley probes, are one tool teachers use to reveal students' scientific misconceptions, so that they can move them closer to conceptual understanding. The purpose of this research was to document how four elementary school teachers used formative assessment probes to plan and adapt instruction to improve student learning. Specifically: • How did teachers choose appropriate probes? What learning goals did teachers hope to address by using the probe? • What instructional sequences did teachers envision when planning to use a probe? • What did teachers notice when analyzing student data from a probe? • How did teachers use the information to modify their instructional practice? This exploratory study addresses key issues by exploring through qualitative methods how four elementary teachers used Keeley formative assessment probes in the classroom through a series of individual and group interviews. The results, reported as case studies and themes, indicate that Keeley probes may be used to help teachers strengthen their pedagogical content knowledge and as an anchor for classroom discussions. Teachers reported that students were highly engaged when considering Keeley probing questions. Teachers in this study had questions about how to analyze data collected through formative assessment, and what instructional steps they needed to take to address misconceptions. The central finding of the study is that a teacher's subject-area knowledge as well as the ability to identify students' misconceptions and make instructional decisions based on those ideas, both elements of pedagogical content knowledge, play a key role in how effectively teachers use Keeley formative assessment probes towards improving learning. Ultimately, this study showed that while the use of Keeley probes did improve opportunities for students to deepen scientific understanding, a gap still exists between the potential of formative assessment and the practical

  16. PHYSICS FOR HEALTH: CONFERENCE

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    ICTR-PHE 2016 - International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health -, co organized by CERN, aims at developing new strategies to better diagnose and treat cancer, by uniting biology and physics with clinics. Through the various sessions and symposia, the scientific programme offers the delegates the opportunity to discuss, in a friendly atmosphere, the latest progress in physics breakthroughs for health applications. The third edition of this conference took place at CICG (Centre International de Conférence Genève) from 15 to 19 Feb 2016.

  17. MASSACHUSETTS DIVISION OF FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE ADAPTATION PLANNING USING AN EXPERT PANEL BASED HABITAT VULNERABLITY ASSESSMENT John O'Leary, MA Div. of Fisheries and Wildlife and Hector Galbraith, Ph d. Climate Change Initiative, Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, J. A.; Galbraith, H.

    2010-12-01

    We are using the results from a recently completed Habitat Vulnerability Assessment (HVA) for adaptation planning within the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. We used Regional Downscale Climate Projections to provide exposure information for the assessment and an Expert Panel of biologists to provide information on the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of the habitat types we assessed. We estimated the vulnerability of 22 key habitat types which were identified in the State Wildlife Action Plan (SWAP). Results of the expert panel based HVA include a relative ranking of vulnerability to climate change for these habitats within Massachusetts, a confidence score for the estimated vulnerability for each habitat type evaluated and a narrative identifying the factors which influence the vulnerability of the habitat. We also evaluated the vulnerability of the Species in Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) from the SWAP to climate change conditions. The SGCN are linked to their primary habitat types. The HVA results along with recommendations from the National Academies Report: Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change America’s Climate Choices: Panel on Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change will inform “climate smart” adaptation strategies for agency management, acquisition, and research and monitoring programs that build on and do not replace existing implementation strategies. We believe that the adaptation planning process that we outline in this presentation could serve as a model for resource agencies and others who are in the process of developing their response to anticipated impacts from climate change conditions. We are also engaged in a collaborative effort to conduct a Regional Habitat Vulnerability Assessment (RHVA). Results form the RHVA will provide the MDFW with the ability to assess adaptation strategies based on regional need.

  18. In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mietchen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temperatures below the freezing point of water and the ensuing ice crystal formation pose serious challenges to cell structure and function. Consequently, species living in seasonally cold environments have evolved a multitude of strategies to reorganize their cellular architecture and metabolism, and the underlying mechanisms are crucial to our understanding of life. In multicellular organisms, and poikilotherm animals in particular, our knowledge about these processes is almost exclusively due to invasive studies, thereby limiting the range of conclusions that can be drawn about intact living systems. METHODOLOGY: Given that non-destructive techniques like (1H Magnetic Resonance (MR imaging and spectroscopy have proven useful for in vivo investigations of a wide range of biological systems, we aimed at evaluating their potential to observe cold adaptations in living insect larvae. Specifically, we chose two cold-hardy insect species that frequently serve as cryobiological model systems--the freeze-avoiding gall moth Epiblema scudderiana and the freeze-tolerant gall fly Eurosta solidaginis. RESULTS: In vivo MR images were acquired from autumn-collected larvae at temperatures between 0 degrees C and about -70 degrees C and at spatial resolutions down to 27 microm. These images revealed three-dimensional (3D larval anatomy at a level of detail currently not in reach of other in vivo techniques. Furthermore, they allowed visualization of the 3D distribution of the remaining liquid water and of the endogenous cryoprotectants at subzero temperatures, and temperature-weighted images of these distributions could be derived. Finally, individual fat body cells and their nuclei could be identified in intact frozen Eurosta larvae. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that high resolution MR techniques provide for interesting methodological options in comparative cryobiological investigations, especially in vivo.

  19. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: assessment for the 2013-2015 hunting seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This report describes progress on the development of an adaptive harvestmanagement strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese near their agreed target level (60,000) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark. Specifically, this report provides an optimal harvest quota for the 2013-2015 hunting seasons and describes a process for evaluating whether emergency hunting closures would be needed during that period. By combining varying hypotheses about survival and reproduction, a suite of nine models have been developed that represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent, and the extent to which spring temperatures are important. The most current set of monitoring information was used to update model weights for the 1991 – 2012 period. Current model weights suggest no evidence for density-dependent survival. These results suggest that the pink-footed goose population may have recently experienced a release from density-dependent mechanisms, corresponding to the period of most rapid growth in population size. There was equivocal evidence for the effect of May temperature days (number of days with temperatures above freezing) on survival and on reproduction. The optimal harvest strategy suggests that the appropriate annual harvest quota for the 20132015 period is 15,000; hence there is no need to take emergency measures to close the upcoming hunting season. For comparison, the estimated harvest in 2012 was 11,000. If the harvest quota of 15,000 were met, the autumn 2013 population count is expected to be 76,000. If only the most recent 3-year mean harvest were realized (11,500), an autumn population size of 80,000 thousand is expected. Thus, it may be that harvest is approaching the magnitude needed to stabilize the population.

  20. An extended modeling approach to assess climate change impacts on groundwater recharge and adaptation in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hashemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of future climate scenarios on surface and groundwater resources was simulated using a modeling approach for an artificial recharge area in arid southern Iran. Future climate data for the periods of 2010–2030 and 2030–2050 were acquired from the Canadian Global Coupled Model (CGCM 3.1 for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1. These scenarios were adapted to the studied region using the delta-change method. The modified version of the HBV model (Qbox was used to simulate runoff in a flash flood prone catchment. The model was calibrated and validated for the period 2002–2011 using daily discharge data. The projected climate variables were used to simulate future runoff. The rainfall–runoff model was then coupled to a calibrated groundwater flow and recharge model (MODFLOW to simulate future recharge and groundwater hydraulic head. The results of the rainfall–runoff modeling showed that under the B1 scenario the number of floods might increase in the area. This in turn calls for a proper management, as this is the only source of fresh water supply in the studied region. The results of the groundwater recharge modeling showed no significant difference between present and future recharge for all scenarios. Owing to that, four abstraction and recharge scenarios were assumed to simulate the groundwater level and recharged water in the studied aquifer. The results showed that the abstraction scenarios have the most substantial effect on the groundwater level and the continuation of current pumping rate would lead to a groundwater decline by 18 m up to 2050.

  1. 78 FR 27963 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, July 9, 2013... to the webcast. The Capitol Connection provides technical support for webcasts and offers the...

  2. LandCaRe DSS--an interactive decision support system for climate change impact assessment and the analysis of potential agricultural land use adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenkel, Karl-Otto; Berg, Michael; Mirschel, Wilfried; Wieland, Ralf; Nendel, Claas; Köstner, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Decision support to develop viable climate change adaptation strategies for agriculture and regional land use management encompasses a wide range of options and issues. Up to now, only a few suitable tools and methods have existed for farmers and regional stakeholders that support the process of decision-making in this field. The interactive model-based spatial information and decision support system LandCaRe DSS attempts to close the existing methodical gap. This system supports interactive spatial scenario simulations, multi-ensemble and multi-model simulations at the regional scale, as well as the complex impact assessment of potential land use adaptation strategies at the local scale. The system is connected to a local geo-database and via the internet to a climate data server. LandCaRe DSS uses a multitude of scale-specific ecological impact models, which are linked in various ways. At the local scale (farm scale), biophysical models are directly coupled with a farm economy calculator. New or alternative simulation models can easily be added, thanks to the innovative architecture and design of the DSS. Scenario simulations can be conducted with a reasonable amount of effort. The interactive LandCaRe DSS prototype also offers a variety of data analysis and visualisation tools, a help system for users and a farmer information system for climate adaptation in agriculture. This paper presents the theoretical background, the conceptual framework, and the structure and methodology behind LandCaRe DSS. Scenario studies at the regional and local scale for the two Eastern German regions of Uckermark (dry lowlands, 2600 km(2)) and Weißeritz (humid mountain area, 400 km(2)) were conducted in close cooperation with stakeholders to test the functionality of the DSS prototype. The system is gradually being transformed into a web version (http://www.landcare-dss.de) to ensure the broadest possible distribution of LandCaRe DSS to the public. The system will be continuously

  3. TBI ADAPTER: traumatic brain injury assessment diagnosis advocacy prevention and treatment from the emergency room--a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Latha; Daneshvar, Yasamin; Bodhit, Aakash; Ayala, Sarah; Patel, Pratik S; Lottenberg, Lawrence L; York, Donna; Counsell, Colleen; Peters, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    There is no standard treatment algorithm for patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). This is in part because of the heterogeneity of the injury pattern and the patient profile, and the lack of evidence-based guidelines, especially for mild TBI in adults. As TBI is seen more and more frequently in the ED, a standardized assessment would be beneficial in terms of efficiency. The authors present their ED approach to mild TBI evaluation in the ED, along with results to date. These data represent a prospective observational cohort study, where each patient provided individual, written informed consent.

  4. Assessment of the risk of drowning at low-head dams used as sea lamprey barriers in Ontario[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, K.A.; Thomson, J.; Amos, M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering; Hallett, A. [A. Hallett, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada); Aktar, A. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Katopodis, C. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Freshwater Inst.

    2009-07-01

    In 2003, there were 54 fixed-crest lamprey barriers used in the Great Lakes region, with more construction planned. Although the barriers are relatively small structures of about 1-2 m in height, they present a drowning hazard. On the downstream side of the structure, a submerged hydraulic jump creates a strong vortex flow that even an experienced swimmer cannot escape. This study developed a method to assess the risk of hazardous flows at the barrier sites to enable dam owners to decide whether or not mitigative measures need to be undertaken at their sites. This hazard assessment was demonstrated for 2 existing lamprey barriers in Ontario, namely the Duffins Creek Barrier at Ajax and the Little Otter Creek Barrier near Straffordville. However, the work can be applied to the dam safety assessment and the development of potential mitigative strategies for drowning at other low-head dams and weirs. A flow-duration curves was developed for each site in order to determine the risk of having a drowning hazard at the barrier sites. In the flow-duration analysis, the percentage time, or probability, that a given flow rate was equalled or exceeded was calculated directly from observations of the average daily discharge in the channel. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  5. 气候变化国家评估报告(Ⅱ):气候变化的影响与适应%China's National Assessment Report on Climate Change (Ⅱ): Climate change impacts and adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林而达; 许吟隆; 吴绍洪

    2007-01-01

    Significant and various impacts of climate change have been observed in China, showing both positive and adverse effects, dominantly the latter, in different sectors and regions. It is very likely that future climate change would cause significant adverse impacts on the ecosystems, agriculture, water resources, and coastal zones in China. Adoption of adaptive measures to climate change can alleviate the adverse impact, therefore such measures should be incorporated into the medium-and long-term national economic and social development plans. Because China has done relatively limited research on impact assessment and our understanding of climate change is incomplete, the current impact assessment methodologies used and results obtained contain many uncertainties. To reduce the uncertainties and develop effective and practical climate change adaptive measures in China, it is necessary to emphasize regional case studies on adaptive measures, enlarge the scope of climate change research, and strengthen the assessment of the impacts resulted from extreme weather/climate events.

  6. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of an instrument designed for the assessment of quality of life in orthognatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Monteiro de Araújo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ was developed in 2000 and validated in 2002, aiming at assessing the impact and the benefits of orthosurgical treatment on patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVE: Cross-culturally translate into Brazilian Portuguese and back-translate into English a quality of life instrument, assuring maintenance of its properties. METHODS: At first, equivalence of concepts and items was discussed by a group of specialists who scrutinized all questionnaire items. Additionally, four patients in need of orthosurgical treatment were interviewed by means of the focus group methodology. Relevance of the questionnaire items was assured prior to its translation which was carried out by two translators who worked independently. Both translations were tested in 20 patients and then consolidated. The consolidated questionnaire version was back-translated into English by two translators who worked independently, and the consolidated back-translation was assessed by the authors of the original questionnaire as well as by the researchers. RESULTS: The OQLQ was translated into Brazilian Portuguese. This translation was tested in a pilot study comprising 12 patients, aged between 16 and 34 years old. CONCLUSION: The OQLQ Brazilian Portuguese translation proves to be an appropriate instrument to access the impact of dentofacial deformities on the quality of life of patients in the Brazilian public health system and who are in need of orthosurgical treatment.

  7. International conference on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Strings conference is an annual event that brings the entire string theory community together. Since the 1980s, it has grown to be the largest and most important conference in the field. The aim is to review recent developments in string theory and to stimulate scientific exchanges among the participants. This is the second Strings conference organised in Beijing, after Strings 2006. Following the tradition, besides scientific talks, the conference will also include some public lectures open to a general audience.

  8. Report on the Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ralph S.

    1983-01-01

    The themes of the 1982 annual conference of the American Association of University Professors are outlined. They include the importance of planning, selective versus across-the-board retrenchment strategies, definitions and problems of financial exigency, program reduction, and affirmative action claims. (MSE)

  9. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  10. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  11. International Nuclear Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We are pleased to announce that the 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC2016) will take place in Adelaide (Australia) from September 11-16, 2016. The 25th INPC was held in Firenze in 2013 and the 24th INPC in Vancouver, Canada, in 2010. The Conference is organized by the Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter at the University of Adelaide, together with the Australian National University and ANSTO. It is also sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by a number of organisations, including AUSHEP, BNL, CoEPP, GSI and JLab. INPC 2016 will be held in the heart of Adelaide at the Convention Centre on the banks of the River Torrens. It will consist of 5 days of conference presentations, with plenary sessions in the mornings, up to ten parallel sessions in the afternoons, poster sessions and a public lecture. The Conference will officially start in the evening of Sunday 11th September with Registration and a Reception and will end late on the afternoon of ...

  12. Graphics Conference Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    1. The 13th International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision'2005, University of West Bohemia, Campus-Bory Plzen (very close to Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic)Czech Republic, January 31 - February 4, 2005. http://wscg.zcu.cz, skala@kiv.zcu.cz

  13. On the Conference Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyckoson, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes three conference presentations on the effects of the economic climate on academic libraries in Iowa. These presentations focused on the impact of austerity budgets on collection development, library services and personnel, and possible management approaches to retrenchment in these areas. (CLB)

  14. European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jol, A.; Isoard, S.

    2010-09-01

    Vulnerability to natural and technological disasters is increasing due to a combination of intensifying land use, increasing industrial development, further urban expansion and expanding infrastructure and also climate change. At EU level the European Commission's White Paper on adaptation to climate change (published in 2009) highlights that adaptation actions should be focused on the most vulnerable areas and communities in Europe (e.g. mountains, coastal areas, river flood prone areas, Mediterranean, Arctic). Mainstreaming of climate change into existing EU policies will be a key policy, including within the Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Nature protection and biodiversity policies, integrated coastal zone management, other (sectoral) policies (agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, health) and disaster risk prevention. 2010 is the international year on biodiversity and the Conference of Parties of the biodiversity convention will meet in autumn 2010 (Japan) to discuss amongst other post-2010 strategies, objectives and indicators. Both within the Biodiversity Convention (CBD) and the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) there is increasing recognition of the need for integration of biodiversity conservation into climate change mitigation and adaptation activities. Furthermore a number of European countries and also some regions have started to prepare and/or have adopted national adaptation plans or frameworks. Sharing of good practices on climate change vulnerability methods and adaptation actions is so far limited, but is essential to improve such plans, at national, sub national and local level where much of the adaptation action is already taking place and will be expanding in future, also involving increasingly the business community. The EU Clearinghouse on CC impacts, vulnerability and adaptation should address these needs and it is planned to be operational end of 2011. The EEA is expected to have a role in its

  15. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  16. Results of an adaptive environmental assessment modeling workshop concerning potential impacts of drilling muds and cuttings on the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auble, Gregor T.; Andrews, Austin K.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Marmorek, David R.

    1983-01-01

    communities which were conceptualized as being adapted to frequent storms. This behavior was generated by the set of assumptions about linkages and functional relationships used to construct the model. Areas of uncertainty included methods for extrapolating 96-hr LC50 so results to exposures of varying lengths and concentrations; recovery rates of benthic communities; responses to various depths and rates of burial; fate and effects of the plume in relationship to stratification layers; and long-term and sub-lethal effects of slightly elevated concentrations of discharged materials. Evaluation of the assumptions of the Soft Bottom Submodel suggest that the assumptions used may have been relatively liberal estimates of resiliency of these communities. Discussion of "closed" water bodies such as bays and estuaries indicated several reasons to expect different and more complex fate and effects behavior in these areas. These factors included different species and communities (such as aquatic macrophytes and oyster beds), more complex circulation and stratification patterns, and potentially more active resuspension processes. Much of the possible difference in behavior in these areas centers around the extent to which they are “closed” or in the relative residence times of water and sediments in these areas as they determine the long-term dispersion of discharged material. Despite the complexity and variability of these areas, a large body of knowledge (such as that concerning fate and physical effects of dredge spoil) that could be effectively employed in analysis of potential fate and physical effects in enclosed areas was identified.

  17. Cross-cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of the Korean Version of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cholhee; Lee, Youn-Woo; Yoon, Duck Mi; Kim, Do Wan; Nam, Da Jeong; Kim, Do-Hyeong

    2015-09-01

    Distinction between neuropathic pain and nociceptive pain helps facilitate appropriate management of pain; however, diagnosis of neuropathic pain remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) pain scale and assess its reliability and validity. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original LANSS pain scale into Korean was established according to the published guidelines. The Korean version of the LANSS pain scale was applied to a total of 213 patients who were expertly diagnosed with neuropathic (n = 113) or nociceptive pain (n = 100). The Korean version of the scale had good reliability (Cronbach's α coefficient = 0.815, Guttman split-half coefficient = 0.800). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.928 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.885-0.959 (P < 0.001), suggesting good discriminate value. With a cut-off score ≥ 12, sensitivity was 72.6%, specificity was 98.0%, and the positive and negative predictive values were 98% and 76%, respectively. The Korean version of the LANSS pain scale is a useful, reliable, and valid instrument for screening neuropathic pain from nociceptive pain.

  18. International Conference Educational Robotics 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Moro, Michele; Menegatti, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    This book includes papers presented at the International Conference “Educational Robotics 2016 (EDUROBOTICS)”, Athens, November 25, 2016. The papers build on constructivist and constructionist pedagogy and cover a variety of topics, including teacher education, design of educational robotics activities, didactical models, assessment methods, theater robotics, programming & making electronics with Snap4Arduino, the Duckietown project, robotics driven by tangible programming, Lego Mindstorms combined with App Inventor, the Orbital Education Platform, Anthropomorphic Robots and Human Meaning Makers in Education, and more. It provides researchers interested in educational robotics with the latest advances in the field with a focus on science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics (STEAM) education. At the same time it offers teachers and educators from primary to secondary and tertiary education insights into how educational robotics can trigger the development of technological interest and 21st c...

  19. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  20. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair

    2012-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects.