WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptation and use of specific materials

  1. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  2. Non-specific Adaptive Reactions of Athletes: Evaluation and Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Naumova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studies changes in non-specific adaptive reactions (NSAR of athletes who practice Wushu and Qigong and take Kladorod, a biological product made from plant material. The results of our study demonstrate the effectiveness of Kladorod as a remedy to enhance adaptive capacity with the possibility of application for training of athletes without any restrictions within the criteria of doping control.

  3. A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koniges, A E; Masters, N D; Fisher, A C; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Benson, D; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B T; Wang, P; Maddox, B R; Hansen, J F; Kalantar, D H; Dixit, P; Jarmakani, H; Meyers, M A

    2009-03-03

    Fragmentation is a fundamental material process that naturally spans spatial scales from microscopic to macroscopic. We developed a mathematical framework using an innovative combination of hierarchical material modeling (HMM) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. This framework has been implemented in a new multi-physics, multi-scale, 3D simulation code, NIF ALE-AMR. New multi-material volume fraction and interface reconstruction algorithms were developed for this new code, which is leading the world effort in hydrodynamic simulations that combine AMR with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) techniques. The interface reconstruction algorithm is also used to produce fragments following material failure. In general, the material strength and failure models have history vector components that must be advected along with other properties of the mesh during remap stage of the ALE hydrodynamics. The fragmentation models are validated against an electromagnetically driven expanding ring experiment and dedicated laser-based fragmentation experiments conducted at the Jupiter Laser Facility. As part of the exit plan, the NIF ALE-AMR code was applied to a number of fragmentation problems of interest to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One example shows the added benefit of multi-material ALE-AMR that relaxes the requirement that material boundaries must be along mesh boundaries.

  4. Adaptation of College English Classroom Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余跃

    2015-01-01

    Materials adaptation involves changing existing materials so that they become more suitable for specific learners, teach⁃ers or situations. This paper reviews the current state of this field, and makes suggestions for and gives example of innovative and principled approaches to college English classroom materials adaptation.

  5. Adaptive Strategies for Materials Design using Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    We compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.

  6. Verification and operation of adaptive materials in space.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargaville, Tim Richard; Elliott, Julie M.; Jones, Gary D.; Celina, Mathias Christopher

    2006-12-01

    Piezoelectric polymers based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are of interest as smart materials for novel space-based telescope applications. Dimensional adjustments of adaptive thin polymer films are achieved via controlled charge deposition. Predicting their long-term performance requires a detailed understanding of the piezoelectric property changes that develop during space environmental exposure. The overall materials performance is governed by a combination of chemical and physical degradation processes occurring in low Earth orbit as established by our past laboratory-based materials performance experiments (see report SAND 2005-6846). Molecular changes are primarily induced via radiative damage, and physical damage from temperature and atomic oxygen exposure is evident as depoling, loss of orientation and surface erosion. The current project extension has allowed us to design and fabricate small experimental units to be exposed to low Earth orbit environments as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiments program. The space exposure of these piezoelectric polymers will verify the observed trends and their degradation pathways, and provide feedback on using piezoelectric polymer films in space. This will be the first time that PVDF-based adaptive polymer films will be operated and exposed to combined atomic oxygen, solar UV and temperature variations in an actual space environment. The experiments are designed to be fully autonomous, involving cyclic application of excitation voltages, sensitive film position sensors and remote data logging. This mission will provide critically needed feedback on the long-term performance and degradation of such materials, and ultimately the feasibility of large adaptive and low weight optical systems utilizing these polymers in space.

  7. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  8. A method for subject-specific modelling and optimisation of the cushioning properties of insole materials used in diabetic footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistergos, Panagiotis E; Naemi, Roozbeh; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a numerical method that can be used to investigate the cushioning properties of different insole materials on a subject-specific basis. Diabetic footwear and orthotic insoles play an important role for the reduction of plantar pressure in people with diabetes (type-2). Despite that, little information exists about their optimum cushioning properties. A new in-vivo measurement based computational procedure was developed which entails the generation of 2D subject-specific finite element models of the heel pad based on ultrasound indentation. These models are used to inverse engineer the material properties of the heel pad and simulate the contact between plantar soft tissue and a flat insole. After its validation this modelling procedure was utilised to investigate the importance of plantar soft tissue stiffness, thickness and loading for the correct selection of insole material. The results indicated that heel pad stiffness and thickness influence plantar pressure but not the optimum insole properties. On the other hand loading appears to significantly influence the optimum insole material properties. These results indicate that parameters that affect the loading of the plantar soft tissues such as body mass or a person's level of physical activity should be carefully considered during insole material selection. PMID:25937545

  9. Teaching Materials Evaluation and Adaptation of a Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈化

    2014-01-01

    Teaching materials are quite important for teachers and students. Students only pay attention to interesting materials which can be counted good. Teachers should adapt the materials if they want to make the learning really take place and make their teaching more effective. The teaching materials in Unit 7 Weather in 21st Century Practical College English Viewing, Listen-ing&Speaking I can be counted good. But it is not good enough and needs adapting to make it better.

  10. Development of the Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, S.

    1995-01-01

    A travel cane was adapted for use by a 10-year-old boy with cortical blindness, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy affecting his left arm and leg. The Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane utilizes the affected arm to hold the cane while leaving the other hand free for trailing walls, opening doors, carrying objects, and holding handrails.…

  11. The influence of student characteristics on the use of adaptive e-learning material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Seters, J. R.; Ossevoort, M. A.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive e-learning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics

  12. The influence of student characteristics on the use of adaptive e-learning material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seters, van J.R.; Ossevoort, M.A.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive elearning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics

  13. Adaptability of Alfalfa and Ryegrass to New Reclamation Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZHAO-FENG; ZHANG Lei-na; FENG Yong-jun; KANG Jing-tao

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the adaptability of the alfalfa and ryegrass to the new artificial soil that was composed of fly ash and furfural residue. The potted experiments were taken to compare the growth conditions, yields, and qualities of both grasses. Some pots were covered with wheat stalks and others without. The medium Fluvo-aquic soil was taken as control. The results indicated that the growth of two grasses in the mixture were inferior to their growth in the control in initial period. With the leaching of rain and irrigation, the two grasses improved gradually. The alfalfa and ryegrass both could grow in the new mixture, and the ryegrass would be better to plant in no covered material and the alfalfa in covered. This will be a new way to reclaim subsided land and to improve the environment in mining area.

  14. The geography of sex-specific selection, local adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification. PMID:26194274

  15. The geography of sex-specific selection, local adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification.

  16. The specificity of stimulus-specific adaptation in human auditory cortex increases with repeated exposure to the adapting stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Paul M; Krumbholz, Katrin

    2013-12-01

    The neural response to a sensory stimulus tends to be more strongly reduced when the stimulus is preceded by the same, rather than a different, stimulus. This stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is ubiquitous across the senses. In hearing, SSA has been suggested to play a role in change detection as indexed by the mismatch negativity. This study sought to test whether SSA, measured in human auditory cortex, is caused by neural fatigue (reduction in neural responsiveness) or by sharpening of neural tuning to the adapting stimulus. For that, we measured event-related cortical potentials to pairs of pure tones with varying frequency separation and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). This enabled us to examine the relationship between the degree of specificity of adaptation as a function of frequency separation and the rate of decay of adaptation with increasing SOA. Using simulations of tonotopic neuron populations, we demonstrate that the fatigue model predicts independence of adaptation specificity and decay rate, whereas the sharpening model predicts interdependence. The data showed independence and thus supported the fatigue model. In a second experiment, we measured adaptation specificity after multiple presentations of the adapting stimulus. The multiple adapters produced more adaptation overall, but the effect was more specific to the adapting frequency. Within the context of the fatigue model, the observed increase in adaptation specificity could be explained by assuming a 2.5-fold increase in neural frequency selectivity. We discuss possible bottom-up and top-down mechanisms of this effect.

  17. Specificity and timescales of cortical adaptation as inferences about natural movie statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Michoel; Coen-Cagli, Ruben; Schwartz, Odelia

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is a phenomenological umbrella term under which a variety of temporal contextual effects are grouped. Previous models have shown that some aspects of visual adaptation reflect optimal processing of dynamic visual inputs, suggesting that adaptation should be tuned to the properties of natural visual inputs. However, the link between natural dynamic inputs and adaptation is poorly understood. Here, we extend a previously developed Bayesian modeling framework for spatial contextual effects to the temporal domain. The model learns temporal statistical regularities of natural movies and links these statistics to adaptation in primary visual cortex via divisive normalization, a ubiquitous neural computation. In particular, the model divisively normalizes the present visual input by the past visual inputs only to the degree that these are inferred to be statistically dependent. We show that this flexible form of normalization reproduces classical findings on how brief adaptation affects neuronal selectivity. Furthermore, prior knowledge acquired by the Bayesian model from natural movies can be modified by prolonged exposure to novel visual stimuli. We show that this updating can explain classical results on contrast adaptation. We also simulate the recent finding that adaptation maintains population homeostasis, namely, a balanced level of activity across a population of neurons with different orientation preferences. Consistent with previous disparate observations, our work further clarifies the influence of stimulus-specific and neuronal-specific normalization signals in adaptation. PMID:27699416

  18. Spatiotemporal specificity of contrast adaptation in mouse primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Elizabeth LeDue

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged viewing of high contrast gratings alters perceived stimulus contrast, and produces characteristic changes in the contrast response functions of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1. This is referred to as contrast adaptation. Although contrast adaptation has been well studied, its underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated contrast adaptation in mouse V1 with the goal of establishing a quantitative description of this phenomenon in a genetically manipulable animal model. One interesting aspect of contrast adaptation that has been observed both perceptually and in single unit studies is its specificity for the spatial and temporal characteristics of the stimulus. Therefore in the present work we determined if the magnitude of contrast adaptation in mouse V1 neurons was dependent on the spatial frequency and temporal frequency of the adapting grating. We used protocols that were readily comparable with previous studies in cats and primates, and also a novel contrast ramp stimulus that characterized the spatial and temporal specificity of contrast adaptation simultaneously. Similar to previous work in higher mammals, we found that contrast adaptation was strongest when the spatial frequency and temporal frequency of the adapting grating matched the test stimulus. This suggests similar mechanisms underlying contrast adaptation across animal models and indicates that the rapidly advancing genetic tools available in mice could be used to provide insights into this phenomenon.

  19. Material and Social Construction: A Framework for the Adaptation of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M. Keenan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a formulation of a framework for understanding the nature of change, particularly climate change, as it applies to the scale of a building. Through an exploration of various scientific and social scientific literutre, the article positions the concept of adaptation as the appropriate mode for understanding and managing change. Through the classification of a duality of material and social construction in the ontological composition of a building, various lines of thought relating to adaptive capacity and adaptive cycling within systems theory are appropriated within an integrated framework for adaptation. Specifically, it is theorized that as buildings as objects are developing greater capacities for intergrated operations and management through artificial intelligence, they will possess an ex ante capacity to autonomously adapt in dynamic relation to and with the ex post adaptation of owners and operators. It is argued that this top-down and bottom-up confluence of multi-scalar dynamic change is consistent with the prevailing theory of Panarchy applied in social-ecological systems theory. The article concludes with normative perspectives on the limitations of systems theory in architecture, future directions for research and an alternative positioning of professional practices.

  20. Smart Materials For The Realization Of An Adaptive Building Component

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, C.M.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This research focusses on the realization of adaptive architecture with the use of advanced material technology. Current material research has shown significant advances with the development of “smart” materials. Smart materials are “capable of automatically and inherently sensing or detecting chang

  1. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  2. Most substrates suitable if you adapt the watering and fertiliser : take note of specific plants needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity in substrates keeps growing. You can't say that one is better than the other if you take into account their characteristics and adapt the watering and fertilisation. But you also need take into account the specific requirements of the plant which we'll discuss in this article.

  3. Species- and Strain-Specific Adaptation of the HSP70 Super Family in Pathogenic Trypanosomatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drini, Sima; Criscuolo, Alexis; Lechat, Pierre; Imamura, Hideo; Skalický, Tomáš; Rachidi, Najma; Lukeš, Julius; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Späth, Gerald F

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotic genomes encode multiple members of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family, which evolved distinctive structural and functional features in response to specific environmental constraints. Phylogenetic analysis of this protein family thus can inform on genetic and molecular mechanisms that drive species-specific environmental adaptation. Here we use the eukaryotic pathogen Leishmania spp. as a model system to investigate the evolution of the HSP70 protein family in an early-branching eukaryote that is prone to gene amplification and adapts to cytotoxic host environments by stress-induced and chaperone-dependent stage differentiation. Combining phylogenetic and comparative analyses of trypanosomatid genomes, draft genome of Paratrypanosoma and recently published genome sequences of 204 L. donovani field isolates, we gained unique insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the Leishmania HSP70 protein family. We provide evidence for (i) significant evolutionary expansion of this protein family in Leishmania through gene amplification and functional specialization of highly conserved canonical HSP70 members, (ii) evolution of trypanosomatid-specific, non-canonical family members that likely gained ATPase-independent functions, and (iii) loss of one atypical HSP70 member in the Trypanosoma genus. Finally, we reveal considerable copy number variation of canonical cytoplasmic HSP70 in highly related L. donovani field isolates, thus identifying this locus as a potential hot spot of environment-genotype interaction. Our data draw a complex picture of the genetic history of HSP70 in trypanosomatids that is driven by the remarkable plasticity of the Leishmania genome to undergo massive intra-chromosomal gene amplification to compensate for the absence of regulated transcriptional control in these parasites. PMID:27371955

  4. Evolution of speech-specific cognitive adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart ede Boer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews theoretical results that shed light on what kind of cognitive adaptations we can expect to have evolved for (combinatorial speech and then reviews concrete empirical work investigating adaptations for combinatorial speech. The paper argues that an evolutionary perspective is natural when investigating cognitive adaptations related to speech and language. This is because properties of language are determined through complex interaction between biologically evolved cognitive mechanisms (possibly adapted to language and cultural (evolutionary processes. It turns out that there is as yet no strong direct evidence for cognitive traits that have undergone selection related to speech in general or combinatorial structure in particular, but there is indirect evidence that indicates selection. However, the traits that may have undergone selection are expected to be continuously variable ones, rather than the discrete ones that linguists have focused on traditionally.

  5. The Implication and Application of Communicative Approach to Designing and Adapting ELT Materials for Chinese College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靓

    2009-01-01

    The Communicative approach is a main stream in current ELT classroom.This approach mainly aims at developing learners'communicative competences to equip them to be proficient in real life communication in English.The communicative approach influences the belief of language learning,teaching,methodology and inevitably the syllabus and also ELT materials.However,communicative materials are not quite suitable for Chinese learners all the time,cause it can not meet the some specific expectations and competences of Chinese learners and teachers.Thus,adaptation is needed to make materials more workable and help learners to develop their language proficiency.This essay will first introduce the communicative approach and materials briefly and then analyses the reasons of adaptation according to the specific context of Chinese college learners.

  6. The Implication and Application of Communicative Approach to Designing and Adapting ELT Materials for Chinese College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靓

    2009-01-01

    The Communicative approach is a main stream in current ELT classroom.This approach mainly aims at developing leamers'communicative competences to equip them to be,proficient in real life communication in English.The communicative approach influences the belief of language learning,teaching,methodology and inevitably the syllabus and also ELT materials.However.communicative materials are not quite suitable for Chinese learners all the time,cause it can not meet the some specific expectations and competences of Chinese learners and teachers.Thus,adaptation is needed to make materials more.workable and help learners to develop their language proficiency.This essay will first introduce the communicative approach and materials briefly and then analyses the reasons of adaptation according to the specific context of Chinese college learners.

  7. A neurocomputational model of stimulus-specific adaptation to oddball and Markov sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Mill; Martin Coath; Thomas Wennekers; Denham, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) occurs when the spike rate of a neuron decreases with repetitions of the same stimulus, but recovers when a different stimulus is presented. It has been suggested that SSA in single auditory neurons may provide information to change detection mechanisms evident at other scales (e.g., mismatch negativity in the event related potential), and participate in the control of attention and the formation of auditory streams. This article presents a spiking-neuron mo...

  8. A neurocomputational model of stimulus-specific adaptation to oddball and Markov sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mill

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA occurs when the spike rate of a neuron decreases with repetitions of the same stimulus, but recovers when a different stimulus is presented. It has been suggested that SSA in single auditory neurons may provide information to change detection mechanisms evident at other scales (e.g., mismatch negativity in the event related potential, and participate in the control of attention and the formation of auditory streams. This article presents a spiking-neuron model that accounts for SSA in terms of the convergence of depressing synapses that convey feature-specific inputs. The model is anatomically plausible, comprising just a few homogeneously connected populations, and does not require organised feature maps. The model is calibrated to match the SSA measured in the cortex of the awake rat, as reported in one study. The effect of frequency separation, deviant probability, repetition rate and duration upon SSA are investigated. With the same parameter set, the model generates responses consistent with a wide range of published data obtained in other auditory regions using other stimulus configurations, such as block, sequential and random stimuli. A new stimulus paradigm is introduced, which generalises the oddball concept to Markov chains, allowing the experimenter to vary the tone probabilities and the rate of switching independently. The model predicts greater SSA for higher rates of switching. Finally, the issue of whether rarity or novelty elicits SSA is addressed by comparing the responses of the model to deviants in the context of a sequence of a single standard or many standards. The results support the view that synaptic adaptation alone can explain almost all aspects of SSA reported to date, including its purported novelty component, and that non-trivial networks of depressing synapses can intensify this novelty response.

  9. A neurocomputational model of stimulus-specific adaptation to oddball and Markov sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Robert; Coath, Martin; Wennekers, Thomas; Denham, Susan L

    2011-08-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) occurs when the spike rate of a neuron decreases with repetitions of the same stimulus, but recovers when a different stimulus is presented. It has been suggested that SSA in single auditory neurons may provide information to change detection mechanisms evident at other scales (e.g., mismatch negativity in the event related potential), and participate in the control of attention and the formation of auditory streams. This article presents a spiking-neuron model that accounts for SSA in terms of the convergence of depressing synapses that convey feature-specific inputs. The model is anatomically plausible, comprising just a few homogeneously connected populations, and does not require organised feature maps. The model is calibrated to match the SSA measured in the cortex of the awake rat, as reported in one study. The effect of frequency separation, deviant probability, repetition rate and duration upon SSA are investigated. With the same parameter set, the model generates responses consistent with a wide range of published data obtained in other auditory regions using other stimulus configurations, such as block, sequential and random stimuli. A new stimulus paradigm is introduced, which generalises the oddball concept to Markov chains, allowing the experimenter to vary the tone probabilities and the rate of switching independently. The model predicts greater SSA for higher rates of switching. Finally, the issue of whether rarity or novelty elicits SSA is addressed by comparing the responses of the model to deviants in the context of a sequence of a single standard or many standards. The results support the view that synaptic adaptation alone can explain almost all aspects of SSA reported to date, including its purported novelty component, and that non-trivial networks of depressing synapses can intensify this novelty response. PMID:21876661

  10. The effects of varying resistance-training loads on intermediate- and high-velocity-specific adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Bishop, P; Hunter, G; Fleisig, G

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in velocity-specific adaptations in moderately resistance-trained athletes who trained with either low or high resistances. The study used tests of sport-specific skills across an intermediate- to high-velocity spectrum. Thirty NCAA Division I baseball players were randomly assigned to either a low-resistance (40-60% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) training group or a high-resistance (70-90% 1RM) training group. Both of the training groups intended to maximallv accelerate each repetition during the concentric phase (IMCA). The 10 weeks of training consisted of 4 training sessions a week using basic core exercises. Peak force, velocity, and power were evaluated during set angle and depth jumps as well as weighted jumps using 30 and 50% 1RM. Squat 1RMs were also tested. Although no interactions for any of the jump tests were found, trends supported the hypothesis of velocity-specific training. Percentage gains suggest that the combined use of heavier training loads (70-90% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak force in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. Trends also show that the combined use of lighter training loads (40-60% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak power and peak velocity in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. The high-resistance group improved squats more than the low-resistance group (p IMCA to increase 1RM strength in the lower bodies of resistance-trained athletes.

  11. Use of Adaptive Study Material in Education in E-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostolányová, Katerina; Šarmanová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Personalised education is a topical matter today and the impact of ICT on education has been covered extensively. The adaptation of education to various types of student is an issue of a vast number of papers presented at diverse conferences. The topic incorporates the fields of information technologies and eLearning, but in no small part also the…

  12. Thermotropic and Thermochromic Polymer Based Materials for Adaptive Solar Control

    OpenAIRE

    Olaf Mühling; Ralf Ruhmann; Arno Seeboth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the actual status of development in adaptive solar control by use of thermotropic and organic thermochromic materials. Such materials are suitable for application in smart windows. In detail polymer blends, hydrogels, resins, and thermoplastic films with a reversible temperature-dependent switching behavior are described. A comparative evaluation of the concepts for these energy efficient materials is given as well. Furthermore, the change of strategy from...

  13. Simulation and Rapid Prototyping of Adaptive Control Systems using the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge the gap between simulation and prototype controller...... implementation. This is done using the code generation capabilities of Real Time Workshop in combination with C s-function blocks for adaptive control in Simulink. In the paper the design of each group of blocks normally found in adaptive controllers is outlined. The block types are, identification, controller...... design, controller and state variable filter.The use of the Adaptive Blockset is demonstrated using a simple laboratory setup. Both the use of the blockset for simulation and for rapid prototyping of a real-time controller are shown....

  14. Modular Sequence: English as a Second Language, Methods and Techniques. TTP 001.13 Evaluating and Adapting Materials. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alberto; Melnick, Susan L.

    The purpose of this unit of work is to provide the teacher participant with some useful guidelines for evaluating and adapting written materials for specific English as a second language (ESL) classes. There is pre- and post-assessment of specific learning tasks relevant to evaluating and adapting materials as well as learning activities, which…

  15. Exploring Preservice Elementary Teachers' Critique and Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials in Respect to Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here represents a preliminary effort undertaken to address the role of teachers in supporting students' learning and decision-making about socioscientific issues (SSI) by characterizing preservice elementary teachers' critique and adaptation of SSI-based science curriculum materials and identifying factors that serve to mediate…

  16. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  17. Simultaneous Enrichment of Cysteine-containing Peptides and Phosphopeptides Using a Cysteine-specific Phosphonate Adaptable Tag (CysPAT) in Combination with titanium dioxide (TiO2) Chromatography*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Honggang; Haar Petersen, Martin; Ibañez-Vea, Maria; Lassen, Pernille S.; Larsen, Martin R.; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine is a rare and conserved amino acid involved in most cellular functions. The thiol group of cysteine can be subjected to diverse oxidative modifications that regulate many physio-pathological states. In the present work, a Cysteine-specific Phosphonate Adaptable Tag (CysPAT) was synthesized to selectively label cysteine-containing peptides (Cys peptides) followed by their enrichment with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. The CysPAT strategy was developed using a synthetic peptide, a standard protein and subsequently the strategy was applied to protein lysates from Hela cells, achieving high specificity and enrichment efficiency. In particular, for Cys proteome analysis, the method led to the identification of 7509 unique Cys peptides from 500 μg of HeLa cell lysate starting material. Furthermore, the method was developed to simultaneously enrich Cys peptides and phosphorylated peptides. This strategy was applied to SILAC labeled Hela cells subjected to 5 min epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. In total, 10440 unique reversibly modified Cys peptides (3855 proteins) and 7339 unique phosphopeptides (2234 proteins) were simultaneously identified from 250 μg starting material. Significant regulation was observed in both phosphorylation and reversible Cys modification of proteins involved in EGFR signaling. Our data indicates that EGF stimulation can activate the well-known phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream signaling molecules, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK1 and MAPK3), however, it also leads to substantial modulation of reversible cysteine modifications in numerous proteins. Several protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) showed a reduction of the catalytic Cys site in the conserved putative phosphatase HC(X)5R motif indicating an activation and subsequent de-phosphorylation of proteins involved in the EGF signaling pathway. Overall, the CysPAT strategy is a straight forward, easy and promising

  18. The materiality of materials and artefacts used in science classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Material objects and artefacts receive limited attention in science education (Roehl, 2012) though they shape emerging interactions. This is surprising given science has material and a social dimensions (Pickering, 1995) whereby new knowledge develops as a consensus explanation of natural phenomena...... that is mediated significantly through materials and instruments used. Here we outline the ways teachers deployed material objects and artefacts by identifying their materiality to provide scenarios and resources (Roth, 2005) for interactions. Theoretical framework We use Ingold's (2011) distinction between...... materials as natural objects in this world and artefacts as manmade objects. We are aware that in a classroom material objects and artefacts shape, and are shaped by classroom practice through the way they selectively present scientific explanations. However, materials and artefacts have no intrinsic...

  19. Evolution of adaptation mechanisms: Adaptation energy, stress, and oscillating death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorban, Alexander N; Tyukina, Tatiana A; Smirnova, Elena V; Pokidysheva, Lyudmila I

    2016-09-21

    In 1938, Selye proposed the notion of adaptation energy and published 'Experimental evidence supporting the conception of adaptation energy.' Adaptation of an animal to different factors appears as the spending of one resource. Adaptation energy is a hypothetical extensive quantity spent for adaptation. This term causes much debate when one takes it literally, as a physical quantity, i.e. a sort of energy. The controversial points of view impede the systematic use of the notion of adaptation energy despite experimental evidence. Nevertheless, the response to many harmful factors often has general non-specific form and we suggest that the mechanisms of physiological adaptation admit a very general and nonspecific description. We aim to demonstrate that Selye׳s adaptation energy is the cornerstone of the top-down approach to modelling of non-specific adaptation processes. We analyze Selye׳s axioms of adaptation energy together with Goldstone׳s modifications and propose a series of models for interpretation of these axioms. Adaptation energy is considered as an internal coordinate on the 'dominant path' in the model of adaptation. The phenomena of 'oscillating death' and 'oscillating remission' are predicted on the base of the dynamical models of adaptation. Natural selection plays a key role in the evolution of mechanisms of physiological adaptation. We use the fitness optimization approach to study of the distribution of resources for neutralization of harmful factors, during adaptation to a multifactor environment, and analyze the optimal strategies for different systems of factors. PMID:26801872

  20. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  1. Specificity, cross-talk and adaptation in Interferon signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilman, Anton

    Innate immune system is the first line of defense of higher organisms against pathogens. It coordinates the behavior of millions of cells of multiple types, achieved through numerous signaling molecules. This talk focuses on the signaling specificity of a major class of signaling molecules - Type I Interferons - which are also used therapeutically in the treatment of a number of diseases, such as Hepatitis C, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. Puzzlingly, different Interferons act through the same cell surface receptor but have different effects on the target cells. They also exhibit a strange pattern of temporal cross-talk resulting in a serious clinical problem - loss of response to Interferon therapy. We combined mathematical modeling with quantitative experiments to develop a quantitative model of specificity and adaptation in the Interferon signaling pathway. The model resolves several outstanding experimental puzzles and directly affects the clinical use of Type I Interferons in treatment of viral hepatitis and other diseases.

  2. Adapting Formal Education Materials for Out-of-School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise A.; Gibbons, H.

    2006-12-01

    Out-of-school programs present significant opportunities to reinforce and extend classroom learning. How can we work effectively with these programs to engage youth in science and technology? What types of materials can be easily integrated into out-of-school learning experiences? How can existing formal education materials be adapted for use in out-of-school settings? To address these questions, the Space Telescope Science Institute and the Pacific Science Center have engaged in a project that builds on a network of informal science education centers and community-based organizations developed for a national outreach program associated with the NOVA/PBS Origins series. As part of this effort, the Pacific Science Center has held a focus group with local community-based organizations serving underserved and underrepresented youth, and engaged 20 sites in Washington, California, and Tennessee in testing formal education materials adapted for use in out-of-school settings. We report preliminary focus group and field-test results, including emerging best practices for adapting formal education materials for use in out-of-time settings. Results from this project will enable a variety of education and public outreach programs to extend the reach of their materials to new audiences in a way that bridges the formal and informal science education realms.

  3. DIRECT AND ADAPTIVE SLICING ON CAD MODEL OF IDEAL FUNCTIONAL MATERIAL COMPONENTS (IFMC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Daoming; Jia Zhenyuan; Guo Dongming

    2005-01-01

    A brand new direct and adaptive slicing approach is proposed, which can apparently improve the part accuracy and reduce the building time. At least two stages are included in this operation: getting the crossing contour of the cutting plane with the solid part and determining the layer thickness. Apart from usual SPI algorithm, slicing of the solid model has its special requirements.Enabling the contour line segments of the cross-section as long as possible is one of them, which is for improving manufacturing efficiency and is reached by adaptively adjusting the step direction and the step size at every crossing point to obtain optimized secant height. The layer thickness determination can be divided into two phases: the geometry-based thickness estimation and the material-based thickness verifying. During the former phase, the geometry tolerance is divided into two parts: a variety of curves are approximated by a circular arc, which introduces the first part, and the deviation error between the contour line in LM process and the circular arc generates the second part. The latter phase is mainly verifying the layer thickness estimated in the former stage and determining a new one if necessary. In addition, an example using this slicing algorithm is also illustrated.

  4. Development and use of reference materials and quality control materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current knowledge is summarized on correct use of commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) and reference materials (RMs). Acknowledged are also the limitations and restrictions analysts have to face if they want to apply quality control. The concept of in-house RMs or quality control materials (QCMs) is advocated to supplement the use of CRMs for quality control purposes. On hand advice on how to select, prepare, characterize and use these QCMs is given from the experts' perspective. Several scenarios are described to make this concept widely applicable to: advanced laboratories with CRMs with validated analytical techniques available, laboratories with less experience and facilities, as well as cases were labile compounds and unstable matrices are involved. Each scenario considers different approaches to overcome the lack of appropriate CRMs and advise on the preparation of QCMs, which might fit the particular purpose

  5. Adaptive Remodeling of the Bacterial Proteome by Specific Ribosomal Modification Regulates Pseudomonas Infection and Niche Colonisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Little

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional control of protein abundance is a highly important, underexplored regulatory process by which organisms respond to their environments. Here we describe an important and previously unidentified regulatory pathway involving the ribosomal modification protein RimK, its regulator proteins RimA and RimB, and the widespread bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP (cdG. Disruption of rimK affects motility and surface attachment in pathogenic and commensal Pseudomonas species, with rimK deletion significantly compromising rhizosphere colonisation by the commensal soil bacterium P. fluorescens, and plant infection by the pathogens P. syringae and P. aeruginosa. RimK functions as an ATP-dependent glutamyl ligase, adding glutamate residues to the C-terminus of ribosomal protein RpsF and inducing specific effects on both ribosome protein complement and function. Deletion of rimK in P. fluorescens leads to markedly reduced levels of multiple ribosomal proteins, and also of the key translational regulator Hfq. In turn, reduced Hfq levels induce specific downstream proteomic changes, with significant increases in multiple ABC transporters, stress response proteins and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases seen for both ΔrimK and Δhfq mutants. The activity of RimK is itself controlled by interactions with RimA, RimB and cdG. We propose that control of RimK activity represents a novel regulatory mechanism that dynamically influences interactions between bacteria and their hosts; translating environmental pressures into dynamic ribosomal changes, and consequently to an adaptive remodeling of the bacterial proteome.

  6. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain in parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Roberts, Dale C.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gains) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. Our earlier work demonstrated this phenomenon of context-specific adaptation for saccadic eye movements: we asked for gain decrease in one context state and gain increase in another context state, and then determined if a change in the context state would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal and vertical eye position and head orientation could serve, to varying degrees, as cues for switching between two different saccade gains. In the present study, we asked whether gravity magnitude could serve as a context cue: saccade adaptation was performed during parabolic flight, which provides alternating levels of gravitoinertial force (0 g and 1.8 g). Results were less robust than those from ground experiments, but established that different saccade magnitudes could be associated with different gravity levels.

  7. Urban adaptation planning: the use and limits of climate science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodman, David; Carmin, Joann

    2011-11-15

    Cities face a mounting challenge from climate change. In developed and developing countries alike, rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, higher sea levels, and more frequent and severe extreme events such as droughts and floods threaten to overwhelm urban infrastructure, services and management systems. City officials recognise the need to adapt to climate change, and use scientific evidence to support their plans for doing so. But the precise details of these changes and the local impacts they will have cannot be predicted. Decision makers must learn to draw on scientific data while simultaneously managing the uncertainty inherent in future projections. Across the world, forward-looking city officials are proving themselves to be 'urban adaptation leaders' — mobilising political and public support for and devising flexible approaches to adaptation.

  8. Thermotropic and Thermochromic Polymer Based Materials for Adaptive Solar Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Mühling

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to present the actual status of development in adaptive solar control by use of thermotropic and organic thermochromic materials. Such materials are suitable for application in smart windows. In detail polymer blends, hydrogels, resins, and thermoplastic films with a reversible temperature-dependent switching behavior are described. A comparative evaluation of the concepts for these energy efficient materials is given as well. Furthermore, the change of strategy from ordinary shadow systems to intrinsic solar energy reflection materials based on phase transition components and a first remark about their realization is reported. Own current results concerning extruded films and high thermally stable casting resins with thermotropic properties make a significant contribution to this field.

  9. Effect of adaptation and pulp density on bioleaching of mine waste using indigenous acidophilic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K.; Kim, B.; Lee, D.; Choi, N.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    Adaptation to environment is a natural phenomena that takes place in many animals, plants and microorganisms. These adapted organisms achieve stronger applicability than unadapted organisms after habitation in a specific environment for a long time. In the biohydrometallurgical industry, adaptation to special environment conditions by selective culturing is the most popular method for improving bioleaching activity of strains-although that is time consuming. This study investigated the influence of the bioleaching efficiency of mine waste under batch experimental conditions (adaptation and pulp density) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from acid mine drainage in Go-seong and Yeon-hwa, Korea. We conducted the batch experiments at the influences of parameters, such as the adaptation of bacteria and pulp density of the mine waste. In the adaptation case, the value of pH in 1'st adaptation bacteria sample exhibited lower than in 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. And the content of both Cu and Zn at 1'st adaptation bacteria sample appeared lower than at 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. In the SEM analysis, the rod-shaped bacteria with 1μm in length were observed on the filter paper (pore size - 0.45μm). The results of pulp density experiments revealed that the content of both Cu and Zn increased with increasing pulp density, since the increment of pulp density resulted in the enhancement of bioleaching capacity.

  10. Impact of Adaptive Materials on Teachers and their Students with Visual Impairments in Secondary Science and Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Stefanich, Greg P.; Boody, Robert M.; Peiffer, Belinda

    2011-04-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, important in today's world, are underrepresented by students with disabilities. Students with visual impairments, although cognitively similar to sighted peers, face challenges as STEM subjects are often taught using visuals. They need alternative forms of access such as enlarged or audio-converted text, tactile graphics, and involvement in hands-on science. This project focused on increasing teacher awareness of and providing funds for the purchase of supplemental adaptive resources, supplies, and equipment. We examined attitude and instructional changes across the year of the programme in 15 science and mathematics teachers educating students with visual impairments. Positive changes were noted from pretest to posttest in student and teacher perspectives, and in teacher attitudes towards students with disabilities in STEM classes. Teachers also provided insights into their challenges and successes through a reflective narrative. Several adolescent students resisted accommodations to avoid appearing conspicuous to peers. Teachers implemented three strategies to address this: providing the adaptations to all students in the class; convincing the student of the need for adaptation; and involving the class in understanding and accepting the student's impairment. A variety of teacher-created adaptations for various science and mathematics labs are reported. Another finding was many adaptations provided for the student with visual impairment benefitted the entire class. This study supports the claim that given knowledgeable, supportive teachers, and with appropriate accommodations such as tactile or auditory materials, students with visual impairments can be as successful and engaged as other students in science and mathematics.

  11. Adaptation of Instructional Materials Motivation Survey to Turkish: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Kutu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to adapt “Instructional Materials Motivation Survey [IMMS]”, developed by J. M. Keller, to Turkish and investigate validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the survey. The original version of the survey was composed of 36 items gathered under four factors (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction. The survey was translated into Turkish. Views of 15 faculty members who were expert in Turkish and foreign language were sought in terms of correctness of meaning in Turkish and integrity of items into culture of Turkish education system. Turkish version of the survey was administered to total of 262 university students from Education Faculties of Ataturk and Erzincan Universities. The item-total correlations were calculated, and items which had negative or low correlation with the total survey score (r<.30 were excluded from the survey. The construct validity of the survey was examined by exploratory factor analysis. Varimax rotation technique was used due to the separation into irrelevant factors. Finally the survey was constructed from 24 item gathered under two factors. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach Alpha for the whole survey was calculated as 0.83, and 0.79 and 0.69 for the two sub-factors respectively.

  12. Material Removal and Specific Energy in the Dynamic Scratching of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

    2006-11-01

    Mechanical responses of three gamma titanium aluminides (TiAls) (denoted as Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) subjected to dynamic scratching were studied by using a single-grit pendulum (rotating) scratch tester. The maximum depth of groove was ~ 0.07 mm, and the scratch velocity used was ~ 1.0 m/s. Normal and tangential forces were monitored. The material removal mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scratches were measured by using a laser profilometer. The mechanical properties of the tested TiAls were characterized by the instantaneous specific energy, scratch resistance and scratch hardness as related to the depth of groove. Extensive thermal softening was observed in the dynamic scratch of the tested TiAls, which facilitated both the detachments of developing chips and the pile-ups of materials on side ridges. Sizable fractures were observed in the transverse direction on the tested TiAls; these fractures tended to participate in the chip formation, depending on the microstructure of the TiAl and the size of the scratch groove. Specific energy and scratch hardness are depth-dependent to various degrees for the tested TiAls. The materiel removal might be subjected to different mechanisms, but the overall response of materials can be effectively characterized by the HEM (Hwang, Evans and Malkin) model and the PSR (proportional specimen resistance) model. The obtained depth-independent specific energy and scratch hardness can be used to screen the candidate materials for the specific purpose depending on whether the application is scratch-dominant or impact-dominant. Among the three tested TiAls, the TiAl with larger colony or grain size exhibits a stronger capability of energy dissipation in the material loss or material removal (higher depth-independent specific energy), while the TiAl with smaller colony size show a higher resistance against the indentation (higher depth-independent scratch hardness). The observations and

  13. Inlays made from a hybrid material: adaptation and bond strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, M A; Campos, F; Ramos, N C; Rippe, M P; Valandro, L F; Melo, R M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal fit, marginal adaptation, and bond strengths of inlays made of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic and polymer-infiltrated ceramic. Twenty molars were randomly selected and prepared to receive inlays that were milled from both materials. Before cementation, internal fit was achieved using the replica technique by molding the internal surface with addition silicone and measuring the cement thicknesses of the pulpal and axial walls. Marginal adaptation was measured on the occlusal and proximal margins of the replica. The inlays were then cemented using resin cement (Panavia F2.0) and subjected to two million thermomechanical cycles in water (200 N load and 3.8-Hz frequency). The restored teeth were then cut into beams, using a lathe, for microtensile testing. The contact angles, marginal integrity, and surface patterns after etching were also observed. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (p<0.05), the Tukey test for internal fit and marginal adaptation, and the Student t-test for bond strength. The failure types (adhesive or cohesive) were classified on each fractured beam. The results showed that the misfit of the pulpal walls (p=0.0002) and the marginal adaptation (p=0.0001) of the feldspathic ceramic were significantly higher when compared to those of the polymer-infiltrated ceramic, while the bond strength values of the former were higher when compared to those of the latter. The contact angle of the polymer-infiltrated ceramic was also higher. In the present study, the hybrid ceramic presented improved internal and marginal adaptation, but the bond strengths were higher for the feldspathic ceramic. PMID:25405903

  14. Graded territories: Towards the design, specification and simulation of materially graded bending active structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    The ability to make materials with bespoke behavior affords new perspectives on incorporating material properties within the design process not available through natural materials. This paper reports the design and assembly of two bending-active, fibre-reinforced composite structures. Within these...... structures, the property of bending is activated and varied through bespoke material means so as to match a desired form. Within the architectural design process, formal control depends upon design approaches for material specification and simulation that consider behavior at the level of the material...

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation and initial validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Odetunde, Marufat O; Odole, Adesola C

    2012-12-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted to Yoruba language by including Yoruba culture-specific examples in items SC4, UE2 and UE6. The adapted English version (AEV) was independently translated into Yoruba by two language experts who later agreed on a consensus translation, which was then back translated, subjected to an expert committee review and pretested; a cognitive debriefing interview was also carried out to generate the Yoruba translated version (YTV). Thirty-five stroke survivors completed the AEV and Yoruba version (YV) in English and Yoruba. The order of administration was randomized. Data were analysed using Spearman's rank order correlation and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test at a P value less than 0.05. The mean age of the participants (23 men, 12 women) was 58.5±11.3 years. The domain scores of the participants on AEV and YV did not differ significantly, except in the work/productivity domain. In both versions, the mean domain score of the participants was the highest in the language domain [22.6±3.8 (AEV) and 22.7±3.4 (YV)] and the lowest in the work domain [9.0±3.7 (AEV) and 8.0±3.3 (YTV)]. Domain scores on both versions correlated significantly (P<0.05). Participants' ratings of their current state and prestroke state correlated significantly (P<0.01) in all the general areas, except energy and mood. The YTV of SS-QoL 2.0 fulfilled the initial criteria for validity.

  16. Specific Monoclonal Antibody Overcomes the Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium's Adaptive Mechanisms of Intramacrophage Survival and Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarmistha Devi Aribam

    Full Text Available Salmonella-specific antibodies play an important role in host immunity; however, the mechanisms of Salmonella clearance by pathogen-specific antibodies remain to be completely elucidated since previous studies on antibody-mediated protection have yielded inconsistent results. These inconsistencies are at least partially attributable to the use of polyclonal antibodies against Salmonella antigens. Here, we developed a new monoclonal antibody (mAb-449 and identified its related immunogen that protected BALB/c mice from infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In addition, these data indicate that the mAb-449 immunogen is likely a major protective antigen. Using in vitro infection studies, we also analyzed the mechanism by which mAb-449 conferred host protection. Notably, macrophages infected with mAb-449-treated S. Typhimurium showed enhanced pathogen uptake compared to counterparts infected with control IgG-treated bacteria. Moreover, these macrophages produced elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and nitric oxide, indicating that mAb-449 enhanced macrophage activation. Finally, the number of intracellular bacteria in mAb-449-activated macrophages decreased considerably, while the opposite was found in IgG-treated controls. Based on these findings, we suggest that, although S. Typhimurium has the potential to survive and replicate within macrophages, host production of a specific antibody can effectively mediate macrophage activation for clearance of intracellular bacteria.

  17. Detecting lineage-specific adaptive evolution of brain-expressed genes in human using rhesus macaque as outgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Wang, Jun;

    2006-01-01

    Comparative genetic analysis between human and chimpanzee may detect genetic divergences responsible for human-specific characteristics. Previous studies have identified a series of genes that potentially underwent Darwinian positive selection during human evolution. However, without a closely...... related species as outgroup, it is difficult to identify human-lineage-specific changes, which is critical in delineating the biological uniqueness of humans. In this study, we conducted phylogeny-based analyses of 2633 human brain-expressed genes using rhesus macaque as the outgroup. We identified 47...... candidate genes showing strong evidence of positive selection in the human lineage. Genes with maximal expression in the brain showed a higher evolutionary rate in human than in chimpanzee. We observed that many immune-defense-related genes were under strong positive selection, and this trend was more...

  18. Material Removal and Specific Energy in the Dynamic Scratching of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Lin, H.-T.; Wereszczak, A.A.

    2006-11-30

    Mechanical responses of three gamma titanium aluminides (TiAls) (denoted as Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) subjected to dynamic scratching were studied by using a single-grit pendulum (rotating) scratch tester. The maximum depth of groove was {approx} 0.07 mm, and the scratch velocity was {approx} 1.0 m/s. Normal and tangential forces were monitored. The material removal mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scratches were measured by using a laser profilometer. The mechanical properties of the tested TiAls were characterized by the instantaneous specific energy, scratch resistance and scratch hardness as related to the groove depth. Extensive thermal softening was observed in the dynamic scratch test of the TiAls, which facilitated both the detachment of developing chips and pile-up of material on side ridges. Sizable fractures were observed in the transverse direction in the tested TiAls; these fractures tended to participate in the chip formation, depending on the microstructure of the TiAl and the size of the scratch groove. Specific energy and scratch hardness are depth-dependent to various degrees for the TiAls tested. The material removal might be subjected to different mechanisms, but the overall material response can be effectively characterized by the HEM (Hwang, Evans and Malkin) model and the PSR (proportional specimen resistance) model. The depth-independent specific energy and scratch hardness can be used to screen candidate materials for the applications that are scratch-dominated versus impact-dominated. Among the three tested TiAls, the TiAl with larger colony or grain size exhibits a stronger capability of energy dissipation during material removal (higher depth-independent specific energy), while the TiAl with smaller colony size shows a higher resistance to indentation (higher depth-independent scratch hardness). The observations and conclusions in this study can serve as a base line for the further

  19. A noncontact measurement technique for the specific heat and total hemispherical emissivity of undercooled refractory materials

    OpenAIRE

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1994-01-01

    A noncontact measurement technique for the constant pressure specific heat (c(pl)) and the total hemispherical emissivity (epsilon(T1)) of undercooled refractory materials is presented. In purely radiative cooling, a simple formula which relates the post-recalescence isotherm duration and the undercooling level to c(pl) is derived. This technique also allows us to measure epsilon(Tl) once C(pl) is known. The experiments were performed using the high-temperature high-vacuum electrostatic levit...

  20. Brazilian cross-cultural translation and adaptation of the "Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items"

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Mansueto Mourao; Caroline Martins Araujo; Luiz Sergio Mageste Barbosa; Rodrigo Santiago Gomez; Burns, Ted M.; Stela Maris Aguiar Lemos; Antonio Lucio Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Objective To translate and to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the “Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items” (MG-QOL15). Method The original English version of the questionnaire was translated into Portuguese. This version was revised and translated back into English. Later, both English versions were compared and the divergences were corrected in the Portuguese text. At a second stage, ten patients with MG followed at the Neuromuscular Diseases Clini...

  1. Modular titanium alloy neck adapter failures in hip replacement - failure mode analysis and influence of implant material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloemer Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modular neck adapters for hip arthroplasty stems allow the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intraoperatively. Fretting or crevice corrosion may lead to failure of such a modular device due to high loads or surface contamination inside the modular coupling. Unfortunately we have experienced such a failure of implants and now report our clinical experience with the failures in order to advance orthopaedic material research and joint replacement surgery. The failed neck adapters were implanted between August 2004 and November 2006 a total of about 5000 devices. After this period, the titanium neck adapters were replaced by adapters out of cobalt-chromium. Until the end of 2008 in total 1.4% (n = 68 of the implanted titanium alloy neck adapters failed with an average time of 2.0 years (0.7 to 4.0 years postoperatively. All, but one, patients were male, their average age being 57.4 years (36 to 75 years and the average weight 102.3 kg (75 to 130 kg. The failures of neck adapters were divided into 66% with small CCD of 130° and 60% with head lengths of L or larger. Assuming an average time to failure of 2.8 years, the cumulative failure rate was calculated with 2.4%. Methods A series of adapter failures of titanium alloy modular neck adapters in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem was investigated. For patients having received this particular implant combination risk factors were identified which were associated with the occurence of implant failure. A Kaplan-Meier survival-failure-analysis was conducted. The retrieved implants were analysed using microscopic and chemical methods. Modes of failure were simulated in biomechanical tests. Comparative tests included modular neck adapters made of titanium alloy and cobalt chrome alloy material. Results Retrieval examinations and biomechanical simulation revealed that primary micromotions initiated fretting within the modular tapered neck

  2. SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS TiO2 MATERIALS WITH HIGH SPECIFIC AREA USING INORGANIC ACIDS AS CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Huang; Guangsheng Luo; Liming Yang; Yujun Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis process for preparing mesoporous titanium dioxide materials in the absence of any templates and using inorganic acids as catalysts. Tetrabutyl titanate was used as the precursor at ambient temperature, and four different inorganic acids, i.e., hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric, were used as catalysts.The as-prepared mesoporous TiO2 materials were characterized by SEM, XRD and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. The influences of different inorganic acids on the properties of TiO2 were discussed and compared in details. Experiments showed that the inorganic acids have significant effects on the surface area, pore volume, pore size,and pore size distribution of the products. The mesoporous TiO2 materials catalyzed by phosphoric acid exhibited the largest specific surface area and largest pore volume with narrow pore size distribution. Vacuum and infrared drying methods tested in the process were found to have subtle impact on the structure of the TiO2 materials prepared.

  3. Curriculum Design for Inquiry: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Mobilization and Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Curriculum materials are crucial tools with which teachers engage students in science as inquiry. In order to use curriculum materials effectively, however, teachers must develop a robust capacity for pedagogical design, or the ability to mobilize a variety of personal and curricular resources to promote student learning. The purpose of this study…

  4. Birth and rapid subcellular adaptation of a hominoid-specific CDC14 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Rosso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication was prevalent during hominoid evolution, yet little is known about the functional fate of new ape gene copies. We characterized the CDC14B cell cycle gene and the functional evolution of its hominoid-specific daughter gene, CDC14Bretro. We found that CDC14B encodes four different splice isoforms that show different subcellular localizations (nucleus or microtubule-associated and functional properties. A microtubular CDC14B variant spawned CDC14Bretro through retroposition in the hominoid ancestor 18-25 million years ago (Mya. CDC14Bretro evolved brain-/testis-specific expression after the duplication event and experienced a short period of intense positive selection in the African ape ancestor 7-12 Mya. Using resurrected ancestral protein variants, we demonstrate that by virtue of amino acid substitutions in distinct protein regions during this time, the subcellular localization of CDC14Bretro progressively shifted from the association with microtubules (stabilizing them to an association with the endoplasmic reticulum. CDC14Bretro evolution represents a paradigm example of rapid, selectively driven subcellular relocalization, thus revealing a novel mode for the emergence of new gene function.

  5. Universality and Specificity of Fractal Dimension of Fractured Surfaces in Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    After calculation on the fracture angles under various conditions of specific surface energies with different symmetry operations of rotation, the complicated behavior of dependence of fractal dimension on the structure of crystal is shown. It is found that the crack propagates along the weakest crystal plane no matter what the direction of the maximum stress is if the anisotropy is sufficiently strong; and then, the fractal dimension of the fractured surfaces might be determined by the approximate fractal structure already existed in the material. Specificity of the fractal dimension of fractured surfaces would be easy to appear in this case. Reversely, the crack propagates along the direction of the maximum stress no matter what direction of the weakest crystal plane is if the anisotropy is sufficiently weak. Universality of the fractal dimension of fractured surfaces would be possible to appear in this case. In many real materials, universality and specificity of the materials are associated. The fractal dimension measured may more or less be influenced by the structure of materials and it shows its universality through the specificity of materials.

  6. Optimal multitrial prediction combination and subject-specific adaptation for minimal training brain switch designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, L.; Blokland, Y.M.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Bruhn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A brai

  7. Pan-genome analyses identify lineage- and niche-specific markers of evolution and adaptation in Epsilonproteobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eZhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing availability of complete bacterial genomes has created new opportunities for reconstructing bacterial evolution, but it has also highlighted the difficulty to fully understand the genomic and functional variations occurring among different lineages. Using the class Epsilonproteobacteria as a case study, we investigated the composition, flexibility, and function of its pan-genomes. Models were constructed to extrapolate the expansion of pan-genomes at three different taxonomic levels. The results show that, for Epsilonproteobacteria the seemingly large genome variations among strains of the same species are less noticeable when compared with groups at higher taxonomic ranks, indicating that genome stability is imposed by the potential existence of taxonomic boundaries. The analyses of pan-genomes has also defined a set of universally conserved core genes, based on which a phylogenetic tree was constructed to confirm that thermophilic species from deep-sea hydrothermal vents represent the most ancient lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria. Moreover, by comparing the flexible genome of a chemoautotrophic deep-sea vent species to 1 genomes of species belonging to the same genus, but inhabiting different environments, and 2 genomes of other vent species, but belonging to different genera, we were able to delineate the relative importance of lineage-specific versus niche-specific genes. This result not only emphasizes the overall importance of phylogenetic proximity in shaping the variable part of the genome, but also highlights the adaptive functions of niche-specific genes. Overall, by modeling the expansion of pan-genomes and analyzing core and flexible genes, this study provides snapshots on how the complex processes of gene acquisition, conservation, and removal affect the evolution of different species, and contribute to the metabolic diversity and versatility of Epsilonproteobacteria.

  8. Context-specific adaptation of pursuit initiation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, M.; Abe, H.; Hasegawa, S.; Usui, T.; Hasebe, H.; Miki, A.; Zee, D. S.; Shelhauser, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if multiple states for the initiation of pursuit, as assessed by acceleration in the "open-loop" period, can be learned and gated by context. METHODS: Four normal subjects were studied. A modified step-ramp paradigm for horizontal pursuit was used to induce adaptation. In an increasing paradigm, target velocity doubled 230 msec after onset; in a decreasing paradigm, it was halved. In the first experiment, vertical eye position (+/-5 degrees ) was used as the context cue, and the training paradigm (increasing or decreasing) changed with vertical eye position. In the second experiment, with vertical position constant, when the target was red, training was decreasing, and when green, increasing. The average eye acceleration in the first 100 msec of tracking was the index of open-loop pursuit performance. RESULTS: With vertical position as the cue, pursuit adaptation differed between up and down gaze. In some cases, the direction of adaptation was in exact accord with the training stimuli. In others, acceleration increased or decreased for both up and down gaze but always in correct relative proportion to the training stimuli. In contrast, multiple adaptive states were not induced with color as the cue. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple values for the relationship between the average eye acceleration during the initiation of pursuit and target velocity could be learned and gated by context. Vertical position was an effective contextual cue but not target color, implying that useful contextual cues must be similar to those occurring naturally, for example, orbital position with eye muscle weakness.

  9. Adaptability and stability of strawberry cultivars using a mixed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Ferreira Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although strawberry crops have a strong socio-economic impact on the agricultural sector of Espírito Santo State, there are few studies on the performance of strawberry cultivars in different locations and years under a low tunnel management system (LT. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the parameters of adaptability and stability of strawberry cultivars under LT-protected cultivation using the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetically predicted values. Seven strawberry cultivars were assessed (‘Dover’, ‘Camino Real’, ‘Ventana’, ‘Camarosa’, ‘Seascape’, ‘Diamante’ and ‘Aromas’ in the agricultural years 2006/7, 2007/8 and 2008/9 in three locations in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo State. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with 3 replications and 15 plants per plot. The analysis of deviance for the yield (ton. ha-1 demonstrated that only the effects of genotype and the triple interaction genotype x location x year were significant, which indicates the presence of genetic variability among the cultivars and the inconsistency of the position among the genotypes for combinations of year and location. Considering the selection for yield, adaptability and stability, in LT-protected cultivation, cultivars Camarosa and Aromas are highlighted for expressing average values that were 22% higher than the overall mean of the cultivars (24.55 ton. há-1 in the environments assessed.

  10. Species-Specific Adaptations of Trypanosome Morphology and Motility to the Mammalian Host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel L Bargul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomes thrive in the bloodstream and tissue spaces of a wide range of mammalian hosts. Infections of cattle cause an enormous socio-economic burden in sub-Saharan Africa. A hallmark of the trypanosome lifestyle is the flagellate's incessant motion. This work details the cell motility behavior of the four livestock-parasites Trypanosoma vivax, T. brucei, T. evansi and T. congolense. The trypanosomes feature distinct swimming patterns, speeds and flagellar wave frequencies, although the basic mechanism of flagellar propulsion is conserved, as is shown by extended single flagellar beat analyses. Three-dimensional analyses of the trypanosomes expose a high degree of dynamic pleomorphism, typified by the 'cellular waveform'. This is a product of the flagellar oscillation, the chirality of the flagellum attachment and the stiffness of the trypanosome cell body. The waveforms are characteristic for each trypanosome species and are influenced by changes of the microenvironment, such as differences in viscosity and the presence of confining obstacles. The distinct cellular waveforms may be reflective of the actual anatomical niches the parasites populate within their mammalian host. T. vivax displays waveforms optimally aligned to the topology of the bloodstream, while the two subspecies T. brucei and T. evansi feature distinct cellular waveforms, both additionally adapted to motion in more confined environments such as tissue spaces. T. congolense reveals a small and stiff waveform, which makes these parasites weak swimmers and destined for cell adherence in low flow areas of the circulation. Thus, our experiments show that the differential dissemination and annidation of trypanosomes in their mammalian hosts may depend on the distinct swimming capabilities of the parasites.

  11. Adaptation of adhesive post and cores to dentin after in vitro occlusal loading: evaluation of post material influence

    OpenAIRE

    Dietschi, Didier; Ardu, Stefano; Rossier-Gerber, Anne; Krejci, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Fatigue resistance of post and cores is critical to the long term behavior of restored nonvital teeth. The purpose of this in vitro trial was to evaluate the influence of the post material's physical properties on the adaptation of adhesive post and core restorations after cyclic mechanical loading.

  12. Approximation of NURBS Curves and Surfaces Using Adaptive Equidistant Parameterizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aziguli Wulamu; GOETTING Marc; ZECKZER Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) curves and surfaces are very important tools for modelling curves and surfaces. Several important details, such as the choice of the sample points, of the parameterization, and of the termination condition, are however not well described. These details have a great influence on the performance of the approximation algorithm, both in terms of quality as well as time and space usage. This paper described how to sample points, examining two standard parameterizations: equidistant and chordal. A new and local parameterization, namely an adaptive equidistant model, was proposed, which enhances the equidistant model. Localization can also be used to enhance the chordal parameterization. For NURBS surfaces, one must choose which direction will be approximated first and must pay special attention to surfaces of degree 1 which have to be handled as a special case.

  13. Gender-Specific Models of Work-Bound Korean Adolescents' Social Supports and Career Adaptability on Subsequent Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyojung; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    A Korean national database, the High School Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey, was used to examine the influence of perceived social supports (family and school) and career adaptability on the subsequent job satisfaction of work-bound adolescents 4 months after their transition from high school to work. Structural equation modeling analysis…

  14. Genomics-Based Exploration of Virulence Determinants and Host-Specific Adaptations of Pseudomonas syringae Strains Isolated from Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Dudnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas syringae species complex has recently been named the number one plant pathogen, due to its economic and environmental impacts, as well as for its role in scientific research. The bacterium has been repeatedly reported to cause outbreaks on bean, cucumber, stone fruit, kiwi and olive tree, as well as on other crop and non-crop plants. It also serves as a model organism for research on the Type III secretion system (T3SS and plant-pathogen interactions. While most of the current work on this pathogen is either carried out on one of three model strains found on dicot plants with completely sequenced genomes or on isolates obtained from recent outbreaks, not much is known about strains isolated from grasses (Poaceae. Here, we use comparative genomics in order to identify putative virulence-associated genes and other Poaceae-specific adaptations in several newly available genome sequences of strains isolated from grass species. All strains possess only a small number of known Type III effectors, therefore pointing to the importance of non-Type III secreted virulence factors. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  15. Generalization of Hindi OCR Using Adaptive Segmentation and Font Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mudit; Ma, Huanfeng; Doermann, David

    In this chapter, we describe an adaptive Indic OCR system implemented as part of a rapidly retargetable language tool effort and extend work found in [20, 2]. The system includes script identification, character segmentation, training sample creation, and character recognition. For script identification, Hindi words are identified in bilingual or multilingual document images using features of the Devanagari script and support vector machine (SVM). Identified words are then segmented into individual characters, using a font-model-based intelligent character segmentation and recognition system. Using characteristics of structurally similar TrueType fonts, our system automatically builds a model to be used for the segmentation and recognition of the new script, independent of glyph composition. The key is a reliance on known font attributes. In our recognition system three feature extraction methods are used to demonstrate the importance of appropriate features for classification. The methods are tested on both Latin and non-Latin scripts. Results show that the character-level recognition accuracy exceeds 92% for non-Latin and 96% for Latin text on degraded documents. This work is a step toward the recognition of scripts of low-density languages which typically do not warrant the development of commercial OCR, yet often have complete TrueType font descriptions.

  16. Specification of failure-handling requirements as policy rules on self-adaptive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, João Henrique; Castro, Jaelson; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Most adaptive systems have compensation mechanisms for recovering from or preventing failures. However, sometimes a compensation is not essential. Hence, diagnosing and compensating each and every one of their failures may be ineffective. Rather than polluting a requirements specification with fine grained definition of failure-handling conditions, this work aims to increase the flexibility of failure handling in self-adaptive systems using tolerance policies. We allow the expression...

  17. Robust semi-automatic segmentation of single- and multichannel MRI volumes through adaptable class-specific representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Casper F.; Passmore, Peter J.

    2002-05-01

    Segmentation of MRI volumes is complicated by noise, inhomogeneity and partial volume artefacts. Fully or semi-automatic methods often require time consuming or unintuitive initialization. Adaptable Class-Specific Representation (ACSR) is a semi-automatic segmentation framework implemented by the Path Growing Algorithm (PGA), which reduces artefacts near segment boundaries. The user visually defines the desired segment classes through the selection of class templates and the following segmentation process is fully automatic. Good results have previously been achieved with color cryo section segmentation and ACSR has been developed further for the MRI modality. In this paper we present two optimizations for robust ACSR segmentation of MRI volumes. Automatic template creation based on an initial segmentation step using Learning Vector Quantization is applied for higher robustness to noise. Inhomogeneity correction is added as a pre-processing step, comparing the EQ and N3 algorithms. Results based on simulated T1-weighed and multispectral (T1 and T2) MRI data from the BrainWeb database and real data from the Internet Brain Segmentation Repository are presented. We show that ACSR segmentation compares favorably to previously published results on the same volumes and discuss the pros and cons of using quantitative ground truth evaluation compared to qualitative visual assessment.

  18. Learning to Critique and Adapt Science Curriculum Materials: Examining the Development of Preservice Elementary Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Carrie J.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers often engage in curricular planning by critiquing and adapting existing curriculum materials to contextualize lessons and compensate for their deficiencies. Designing instruction for students is shaped by teachers' ability to apply a variety of personal resources, including their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study…

  19. Apical adaptation, sealing ability and push-out bond strength of five root-end filling materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés AMOROSO-SILVA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the fluid filtration, adaptation to the root canal walls, and the push-out bond strength of two resin-based sealers and three calcium silicate-based retrograde filling materials. Fifty maxillary canines were shaped using manual instruments and the apical portion was sectioned. Retrograde cavities of 3-mm depth were prepared. The specimens were divided into five groups (n = 10: Sealer 26 (S26; MBPc (experimental; MTA; Portland cement with 20% zirconium oxide (PC/ZO, and Portland cement with 20% calcium tungstate (PC/CT. The fluid filtration was measured at 7 and 15 days. To evaluate the interfacial adaptation, sections of the teeth, 1 and 2 mm from the apex, were prepared and the percentage of gaps was calculated. The push-out bond strength at 2 mm from the apex was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA/Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. At 7 and 15 days (p = 0.0048, p = 0.006, the PC/CT group showed higher fluid filtration values when compared to other groups. At 1 mm from the apex, no statistical differences in the adaptation were found among the cements (p = 0.44. At 2 mm from the apex, the PC/ZO group presented statistically lower percentage of gaps than S26, MBPc, and MTA (p = 0.0007. The MBPc group showed higher push-out bond strength than other cements evaluated (p = 0.0008. The fluid filtration and interfacial adaptation of the calcium silicate-based cements were similar to those of the resin-based cements. The resinous cement MBPc showed superior push-out bond strength.

  20. Adapted VTA and SIA method in tree static assessment with use of resistography

    OpenAIRE

    PERNEK, MILAN; Lacković, Nikola; MAČAK-HADŽIOMEROVIĆ, AMRA; Stamenković, Vanja

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: This paper introduces a method for assessment of static safety by using the combination of adapted VTA and SIA methods and a resistograph. The aim is to assess the static as reliably as possible and without the need for expensive equipment. The purpose of this paper is to propose amethod for the static assessment which could be applied in practice in the future. Materials and Methods: Seven trees in the Botanical Garden of the Faculty of Science (University of Z...

  1. Adaptive coupling between damage mechanics and peridynamics: a route for objective simulation of material degradation up to complete failure

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2016-05-17

    The objective (mesh-independent) simulation of evolving discontinuities, such as cracks, remains a challenge. Current techniques are highly complex or involve intractable computational costs, making simulations up to complete failure difficult. We propose a framework as a new route toward solving this problem that adaptively couples local-continuum damage mechanics with peridynamics to objectively simulate all the steps that lead to material failure: damage nucleation, crack formation and propagation. Local-continuum damage mechanics successfully describes the degradation related to dispersed microdefects before the formation of a macrocrack. However, when damage localizes, it suffers spurious mesh dependency, making the simulation of macrocracks challenging. On the other hand, the peridynamic theory is promising for the simulation of fractures, as it naturally allows discontinuities in the displacement field. Here, we present a hybrid local-continuum damage/peridynamic model. Local-continuum damage mechanics is used to describe “volume” damage before localization. Once localization is detected at a point, the remaining part of the energy is dissipated through an adaptive peridynamic model capable of the transition to a “surface” degradation, typically a crack. We believe that this framework, which actually mimics the real physical process of crack formation, is the first bridge between continuum damage theories and peridynamics. Two-dimensional numerical examples are used to illustrate that an objective simulation of material failure can be achieved by this method.

  2. Adaptive coupling between damage mechanics and peridynamics: A route for objective simulation of material degradation up to complete failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles; Azdoud, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The objective (mesh-independent) simulation of evolving discontinuities, such as cracks, remains a challenge. Current techniques are highly complex or involve intractable computational costs, making simulations up to complete failure difficult. We propose a framework as a new route toward solving this problem that adaptively couples local-continuum damage mechanics with peridynamics to objectively simulate all the steps that lead to material failure: damage nucleation, crack formation and propagation. Local-continuum damage mechanics successfully describes the degradation related to dispersed microdefects before the formation of a macrocrack. However, when damage localizes, it suffers spurious mesh dependency, making the simulation of macrocracks challenging. On the other hand, the peridynamic theory is promising for the simulation of fractures, as it naturally allows discontinuities in the displacement field. Here, we present a hybrid local-continuum damage/peridynamic model. Local-continuum damage mechanics is used to describe "volume" damage before localization. Once localization is detected at a point, the remaining part of the energy is dissipated through an adaptive peridynamic model capable of the transition to a "surface" degradation, typically a crack. We believe that this framework, which actually mimics the real physical process of crack formation, is the first bridge between continuum damage theories and peridynamics. Two-dimensional numerical examples are used to illustrate that an objective simulation of material failure can be achieved by this method.

  3. Design of a Domain-Specific Language for Material Flow Analysis using Microsoft DSL tools: An Experience Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Material Flow Analysis (MFA) is the procedure of measuring and assessing the mass flows of matter (solid waste, water, food...) and substances (carbon, phosphorus ...) within a process or a system for the period of time. In this paper we propose a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) to model MFA...... in a waste management modeling context. The result is that we integrate the DSL within a waste management modeling software called EASETECH and we show how the proposed DSL allows the domain experts to extend the software without involving of software developers....

  4. [In vitro comparison of marginal adaptation of various filling materials. I. Effect of the filling material on marginal adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kóhalmi, T; Gorzo, I; Mari, A; Nagy, K

    1999-03-01

    In a two-month in vitro experiment cervical marginal adaptation was examined in relation to the preparation, filling method and restorative material. Fifty Class II cavities were prepared in fifty extracted sound human premolar and molar teeth extending to the approximal cement-enamel junction. The cavities to receive composite restorations were bevelled at the vestibulo-occlusal and -approximal enamel margins, the other aspects of the cavity enamel and gingival margins at the cement-enamel junction being prepared conventionally. The cavities for amalgam were prepared and filled conventionally. The specimens were cycled in different buffer solutions and temperature, modelling possible variations in the oral environment and examined with SEM. The results were analysed using ANOVA. The best marginal adaptation among the composites was achieved with Charisma, Estilux Posterior, Durafil and Prisma AP. H at the bevelled enamel margins, the worst marginal fit was with Heliomolar and Polofil. It was concluded, that adhesive technique reduces, but does not eliminate marginal leakage. PMID:10205985

  5. Caste- and sex-specific adaptations within the olfactory pathway in the brain of the ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zube, Christina; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Olfaction plays a key role in mediating ant behavior, and ant societies are characterized by caste- and sex-specific division of labor. We propose that caste- and sex-specific adaptations in the olfactory pathway promote differences in olfactory behavior. This study compares olfactory centers in the brain of large (major) workers, small (minor) workers, virgin queens, and males of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. The number of glomeruli in the antennal lobe was similar in the female castes, although the glomerular volumes differed. Males had approximately 45% fewer glomeruli compared to females (approximately 258 and approximately 434) and one antennal sensory tract was absent. A dual output pathway to the mushroom bodies was present in males. In contrast to females, however, the number of glomeruli connected to the medial antennocerebral tract was substantially smaller than those associated with the lateral tract. All glomeruli in the male antennal lobe contained serotonergic processes, whereas in the female castes glomeruli in the large tract six cluster lacked serotonergic innervations. We conclude that differences in general glomerular organization are subtle among the female castes, but sex-specific differences in the number, connectivity and neuromodulatory innervation of glomeruli are substantial and likely to underlie differences in olfactory processing and learning. PMID:18621145

  6. Caste- and sex-specific adaptations within the olfactory pathway in the brain of the ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zube, Christina; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Olfaction plays a key role in mediating ant behavior, and ant societies are characterized by caste- and sex-specific division of labor. We propose that caste- and sex-specific adaptations in the olfactory pathway promote differences in olfactory behavior. This study compares olfactory centers in the brain of large (major) workers, small (minor) workers, virgin queens, and males of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. The number of glomeruli in the antennal lobe was similar in the female castes, although the glomerular volumes differed. Males had approximately 45% fewer glomeruli compared to females (approximately 258 and approximately 434) and one antennal sensory tract was absent. A dual output pathway to the mushroom bodies was present in males. In contrast to females, however, the number of glomeruli connected to the medial antennocerebral tract was substantially smaller than those associated with the lateral tract. All glomeruli in the male antennal lobe contained serotonergic processes, whereas in the female castes glomeruli in the large tract six cluster lacked serotonergic innervations. We conclude that differences in general glomerular organization are subtle among the female castes, but sex-specific differences in the number, connectivity and neuromodulatory innervation of glomeruli are substantial and likely to underlie differences in olfactory processing and learning.

  7. Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

    2006-10-01

    This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

  8. Adaptation of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium dimerum to the specific aquatic environment provided by the water systems of hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Christian; Laurent, Julie; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Barbezant, Marie; Sixt, Nathalie; Dalle, Frédéric; Aho, Serge; Bonnin, Alain; Hartemann, Philippe; Sautour, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Members of the Fusarium group were recently detected in water distribution systems of several hospitals in the world. An epidemiological investigation was conducted over 2 years in hospital buildings in Dijon and Nancy (France) and in non-hospital buildings in Dijon. The fungi were detected only within the water distribution systems of the hospital buildings and also, but at very low concentrations, in the urban water network of Nancy. All fungi were identified as Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC) by sequencing part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene. Very low diversity was found in each complex, suggesting the existence of a clonal population for each. Density and heterogeneous distributions according to buildings and variability over time were explained by episodic detachments of parts of the colony from biofilms in the pipes. Isolates of these waterborne populations as well as soilborne isolates were tested for their ability to grow in liquid medium in the presence of increasing concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, copper sulfate, anti-corrosion pipe coating, at various temperatures (4°-42 °C) and on agar medium with amphotericin B and voriconazole. The waterborne isolates tolerated higher sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate concentrations and temperatures than did soilborne isolates but did not show any specific resistance to fungicides. In addition, unlike waterborne isolates, soilborne isolates did not survive in water even supplemented with glucose, while the former developed in the soil as well as soilborne isolates. We concluded the existence of homogeneous populations of FOSC and FDSC common to all contaminated hospital sites. These populations are present at very low densities in natural waters, making them difficult to detect, but they are adapted to the specific conditions offered by the complex water systems of public hospitals in Dijon and Nancy and probably other

  9. Brazilian cross-cultural translation and adaptation of the "Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mansueto Mourao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To translate and to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the “Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items” (MG-QOL15. Method The original English version of the questionnaire was translated into Portuguese. This version was revised and translated back into English. Later, both English versions were compared and the divergences were corrected in the Portuguese text. At a second stage, ten patients with MG followed at the Neuromuscular Diseases Clinic from the University Hospital, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais answered the questionnaire. The authors analyzed the difficulties and misunderstandings in the application of the questionnaire. Results The questions 8, 13 and 15 were considered difficult to understand and were modified in the final Portuguese version. Most patients (70% had a total score above 25, and the statements 3, 8 and 9 showed the highest scores. Conclusion The Brazilian version of the questionnaire MG-QOL15 seems to be a promising tool for the assessment of Brazilian patients with MG.

  10. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Bolhari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resect- ing the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20(a total of 8 subgroups. Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P<0.05 as the limit of significance.Results: There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation of the 8 tested groups (P>0.05.Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the mar- ginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate .

  11. Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Provides the tools needed to successfully perform adaptive tests across a broad range of datasets Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS illustrates the power of adaptive tests and showcases their ability to adjust the testing method to suit a particular set of data. The book utilizes state-of-the-art software to demonstrate the practicality and benefits for data analysis in various fields of study. Beginning with an introduction, the book moves on to explore the underlying concepts of adaptive tests, including:Smoothing methods and normalizing transforma

  12. Stimuli-Adaptable Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    The work presented in this Thesis deals with the development of a stimuli-adaptable polymer material based on the UV-induced dimerisation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. It is in the nature of an adhesive to adhere very well to its substrate and therefore problems can arise upon removal...... of the adhesive. This is also known from skin adhesives where it is very undesirable to cause damage to the skin. The overall idea of this project was to resolve this problem by developing a material which could switch between an adhesive and a non-adhesive state. Switchable adhesion is known in the literature...... but the presented work has a new approach to the field by basing itself on the idea of developing a network into which a photo-active polymer is mixed and which function as an adhesive. Upon irradiation with UV-light for a short time a non-adhering inter-penetrating network material would be formed. Two simple...

  13. M-Learning: Implications in Learning Domain Specificities, Adaptive Learning, Feedback, Augmented Reality, and the Future of Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the potential and effectiveness of m-learning in the field of Education and Learning domains. The purpose of this research is to illustrate how mobile technology can and is affecting novel change in instruction, from m-learning and the link to adaptive learning, to the uninitiated learner and capacities of…

  14. Topology optimization of compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Xinxing; Ge Wenjie; Sun Chao; Liu Xiaoyong

    2014-01-01

    An approach for designing the compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite material is proposed based on the topology optimization. Firstly, an equivalent constitutive relationship of laminated glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite plates has been built based on the symmetric laminated plate theory. Then, an optimization objective function of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was used to minimize the least square error (LSE) between deformed curve and desired aerodynamics shape. Af...

  15. Implementation and use of composite materials in Fedem

    OpenAIRE

    Tyldum, Tor Helge

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this master thesis was to implement composite materials in the analyzing software Fedem. Composite materials have become much used materials for various applications; they are used in everything from windmill blades and offshore diving life boats to sporting equipment.Because of the increasing use of composite materials Fedem Technology AS analyses more and more mechanisms containing parts made from these materials. They therefore wanted to implement an element in Fedem that ...

  16. Material selection,hardness after heat treatment and use specification of steel extrusion toolings%钢挤压工模具材质选择、热处理硬度及使用规范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包进平; 赵云路; 薛荣敬

    2012-01-01

    For the high temperature strength and toughness of the traditional hot working die steel materials can not meet the requirement of the steel extrusion toolings, and their comprehensive costs are high, so the hot working die steel material 1. 2367 suiting for steel extrusion toolings was proposed. And the differences between them and the traditional hot working die steel materials were compared. The material selection, suitable hardness after heat treatment and use specification of each steel extrusion toolings were described in detail. The frequently water cooling usually resulted in the die steel thermal fatigue, so the viewpoint of water cooling replaced by several toolings cycle use and natural cooling was proposed.%由于传统热作模具钢的高温强韧性不能满足钢挤压工模具的要求以及综合成本较高等原因,提出了适合用于钢挤压工模具的热作模具钢材质1.2367,并将其与传统热作模具钢进行对比;对各种钢挤压工模具材质选择、适宜的热处理硬度及使用规范进行了较为详细的叙述;对频繁水冷容易造成模具钢热疲劳的问题,提出了利用多件工模具循环使用并采取自然冷却的方法代替水冷的观点.

  17. Feasibility study for the development of certified reference materials for specific migration testing. Part 1: Initial migrant concentration and specific migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, N.H.; Störmer, A.; Bradley, E.L.; Brandsch, R.; Cooper, I.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Franz, R.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a project with the main objective of developing the know how to produce certified reference materials (CRMs) for specific migration testing. Certification parameters discussed are the initial concentration of the migrant in the polymer (C-P,C- 0) and the specific migration into a

  18. Adaptive increases in expression and vasodilator activity of estrogen receptor subtypes in a blood vessel-specific pattern during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Karina M; Li, Wei; Reslan, Ossama M; Siddiqui, Waleed T; Opsasnick, Lauren A; Khalil, Raouf A

    2015-11-15

    Normal pregnancy is associated with adaptive hemodynamic, hormonal, and vascular changes, and estrogen (E2) may promote vasodilation during pregnancy; however, the specific E2 receptor (ER) subtype, post-ER signaling mechanism, and vascular bed involved are unclear. We tested whether pregnancy-associated vascular adaptations involve changes in the expression/distribution/activity of distinct ER subtypes in a blood vessel-specific manner. Blood pressure (BP) and plasma E2 were measured in virgin and pregnant (day 19) rats, and the thoracic aorta, carotid artery, mesenteric artery, and renal artery were isolated for measurements of ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [G protein-coupled ER (GPER)] expression and tissue distribution in parallel with relaxation responses to E2 (all ERs) and the specific ER agonist 4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)-tris-phenol (PPT; ERα), diarylpropionitrile (DPN; ERβ), and G1 (GPER). BP was slightly lower and plasma E2 was higher in pregnant versus virgin rats. Western blots revealed increased ERα and ERβ in the aorta and mesenteric artery and GPER in the aorta of pregnant versus virgin rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the increases in ERs were mainly in the intima and media. In phenylephrine-precontracted vessels, E2 and PPT caused relaxation that was greater in the aorta and mesenteric artery but similar in the carotid and renal artery of pregnant versus virgin rats. DPN- and G1-induced relaxation was greater in the mesenteric and renal artery than in the aorta and carotid artery, and aortic relaxation to G1 was greater in pregnant versus virgin rats. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester with or without the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin with or without the EDHF blocker tetraethylammonium or endothelium removal reduced E2, PPT, and G1-induced relaxation in the aorta of pregnant rats, suggesting an endothelium-dependent mechanism, but did not affect E2-, PPT

  19. Controlled synthesis of organic nanophotonic materials with specific structures and compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qiu Hong; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-10-29

    Organic nanomaterials have drawn great interest for their potential applications in high-speed miniaturized photonic integration due to their high photoluminescence quantum efficiency, structural processability, ultrafast photoresponse, and excellent property engineering. Based on the rational design on morphological and componential levels, a series of organic nanomaterials have been controllably synthesized in recent years, and their excitonic/photonic behaviors has been fine-tuned to steer the light flow for specific optical applications. This review presents a comprehensive summary of recent breakthroughs in the controlled synthesis of organic nanomaterials with specific structures and compositions, whose tunable photonic properties would provide a novel platform for multifunctional applications. First, we give a general overview of the tailored construction of novel nanostructures with various photonic properties. Then, we summarize the design and controllable synthesis of composite materials for the modulation of their functionalities. Subsequently, special emphasis is put on the fabrication of complex nanostructures towards wide applications in isolated photonic devices. We conclude with our personal viewpoints on the development directions in the novel design and controllable construction of organic nanomaterials for future applications in highly integrated photonic devices and chips.

  20. Assessing equivalence of two assays using sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge; Burdick, Richard K

    2007-01-01

    The equivalence of two assays is determined using the sensitivity and specificity relative to a gold standard. The equivalence-testing criterion is based on a misclassification rate proposed by Burdick et al. (2005) and the intersection-union test (IUT) method proposed by Berger (1982). Using a variance components model and IUT methods, we construct bounds for the sensitivity and specificity relative to the gold standard assay based on generalized confidence intervals. We conduct a simulation study to assess whether the bounds maintain the stated test size. We present a computational example to demonstrate the method described in the paper.

  1. Adaptive translation as a mechanism of stress response and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The composition of the cellular proteome is commonly thought to strictly adhere to the genetic code. However, accumulating evidence indicates that cells also regulate the synthesis of mutant protein molecules that deviate from the genetic code. Production of mutant proteins varies in amounts and specificity and generally occurs when cells are stressed or undergo environmental adaptation. The deliberate synthesis of protein mutants suggests that some of these proteins can be useful in cellular...

  2. Using patient-specific phantoms to evaluate deformable image registration algorithms for adaptive radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nick; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Kim, Jinkoo; Adams, Jeffrey; Li, Shunshan; Wen, Ning; Chetty, Indrin J; Zhong, Hualiang

    2013-11-04

    The quality of adaptive treatment planning depends on the accuracy of its underlying deformable image registration (DIR). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of two DIR algorithms, B-spline-based deformable multipass (DMP) and deformable demons (Demons), implemented in a commercial software package. Evaluations were conducted using both computational and physical deformable phantoms. Based on a finite element method (FEM), a total of 11 computational models were developed from a set of CT images acquired from four lung and one prostate cancer patients. FEM generated displacement vector fields (DVF) were used to construct the lung and prostate image phantoms. Based on a fast-Fourier transform technique, image noise power spectrum was incorporated into the prostate image phantoms to create simulated CBCT images. The FEM-DVF served as a gold standard for verification of the two registration algorithms performed on these phantoms. The registration algorithms were also evaluated at the homologous points quantified in the CT images of a physical lung phantom. The results indicated that the mean errors of the DMP algorithm were in the range of 1.0 ~ 3.1 mm for the computational phantoms and 1.9 mm for the physical lung phantom. For the computational prostate phantoms, the corresponding mean error was 1.0-1.9 mm in the prostate, 1.9-2.4mm in the rectum, and 1.8-2.1 mm over the entire patient body. Sinusoidal errors induced by B-spline interpolations were observed in all the displacement profiles of the DMP registrations. Regions of large displacements were observed to have more registration errors. Patient-specific FEM models have been developed to evaluate the DIR algorithms implemented in the commercial software package. It has been found that the accuracy of these algorithms is patient dependent and related to various factors including tissue deformation magnitudes and image intensity gradients across the regions of interest. This may suggest that

  3. Safe use of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials have become essential tools in much of the research conducted in the biological and medical sciences. Procedures documented in this manual are only examples of the numerous applications of radioactive materials in the field of parasitology. Like many chemical reagents and much of the equipment found in laboratories, radionuclides can be hazardous if used carelessly. Exposure to large doses of ionizing radiation has been shown to increase the risk of cancer in humans and animals, and has been shown to increase the risk of genetic abnormalities in animal studies. Everyone handling radionuclides in a research program has a responsibility to follow safe laboratory practices for use of these materials. Most research institutions will have a radiation safety organization which may include a Radiation Safety Officer and a Radiation Safety Committee. Procedures developed by the radiation safety organization must be followed in order to protect personnel working with radioactive material, and the public, from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Investigators must also know and follow regulations established by government agencies for the use and disposal of radioactive materials. In this chapter some basic information on procedures for the safe use of radioactive materials in the laboratory is provided. Greater detail for specific operations and radiation safety concerns may be obtained from documents referred to in the text

  4. The Determinants of Household Recycling: A Material Specific Analysis of Unit Pricing and Recycling Program Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Karen; Martinez, Salvador; Jenkins, Robin; Podolsky, Michael, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, national, household-level data set containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling has a significant and substantial positive effect on the percentage recycled of all fiv...

  5. Adaptation at specific loci. I. Natural selection on phosphoglucose isomerase of Colias butterflies: Biochemical and population aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, W B

    1977-09-01

    Electrophoretic variants of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) in Colias butterflies have been studied from field and laboratory viewpoints. The transmission pattern is that of a dimeric enzyme controlled by one structural gene locus. Populations usually harbor four to six allelic mobility classes. These mobility classes are shared among species complexes, though their frequencies differ widely. Preliminary Ferguson plot analysis of the variants has been carried out. Purified preparations of Colias PGI alleles are more effective in standardizing Ferguson plots than heterologous proteins, such as ferritin. Variation of Ferguson plot parameters is not an infallible guide to electrophoretically "cryptic alleles," as one putative case proved to be due to nonallele-specific effects. S, M, and F mobility classes in two Colias semispecies show the same retardation coefficients in Ferguson plots. Adults early in the flight periods of their nonoverlapping generations show genotype frequencies in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, but heterozygote excess develops as the insects age. Simple directional selection and large-scale population mixing are unlikely to be causes of this, although several other selection modes remain possible. Identical-by-descent lines of the four frequent-to-common alleles in C. eurytheme have been set up in culture, and enzyme has been purified from these for study of functional properties. Major differenecs in heat stability and in various kinetic parameters are found among the ten possible genotypes. In some cases, heterosis for kinetic parameters is seen; in other cases, opposing trends in kinetic function and heat stability create potential for net heterosis in function. Possible interpretations of these results in an adaptive metabolic context are discussed, and directions for further work are stated. PMID:914029

  6. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhari, Behnam; Ashofteh Yazdi, Kazem; Sharifi, Farnood; Pirmoazen, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resecting the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20)(a total of 8 subgroups). Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the marginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate. PMID:26622276

  7. Pre-adjustment of adult attachment style to extrinsic risk levels via early attachment style is neither specific, nor reliable, nor effective, and is thus not an adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Honekopp, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism proposed by Del Giudice by which adult attachment style is adapted to the extrinsic risk in the local environment via attachment style during the early years does not fulfill important criteria of an adaptation. The proposed mechanism is neither specific, nor developmentally reliable, nor effective. Therefore, it should not be considered an adaptation.

  8. A comparative study of software adaptation using remote method call and Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFFONSO, F. J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The software development process has been directed, over the years, to various methodologies with specific purposes to attend emerging needs. Besides, it can also be noticed, during this period, that some processes require mechanisms related to software reuse and greater speed in the development stage. An important factor in this context is the mutation (adaptation, which occurs in all the software's life cycle, due to its customers' needs or due to technological changes. Regarding the latter factor, it has been observed a significant increase in developments that use distributed applications through the World Wide Web or remote application. Based on the adaptation idea and on the necessity of software distribution systems, this paper presents a technique to reconfigure software capable of acting in several developmental contexts (local, distributed and/or Web. In order to demonstrate its applicability, a case study, through the use of service orientation and remote calls, was done to show the software adaptation in the development of applications. Besides, comparative results among the approaches used in the development of reconfigurable applications are also presented.

  9. The guide to PAMIR theory and use of Parameterized Adaptive Multidimensional Integration Routines

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen L

    2013-01-01

    PAMIR (Parameterized Adaptive Multidimensional Integration Routines) is a suite of Fortran programs for multidimensional numerical integration over hypercubes, simplexes, and hyper-rectangles in general dimension p, intended for use by physicists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and engineers. The programs, which are available on the internet at website and are free for non-profit research use, are capable of following localized peaks and valleys of the integrand. Each program comes with a Message-Passing Interface (MPI) parallel version for cluster use as well as serial versions. The first chapter presents introductory material, similar to that on the PAMIR website, and the next is a "manual" giving much more detail on the use of the programs than is on the website. They are followed by many examples of performance benchmarks and comparisons with other programs, and a discussion of the computational integration aspects of PAMIR, in comparison with other methods in the literature. The final chapt...

  10. Simulation Research on Adaptive Control of a Six-degree-of-freedom Material-testing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive controller equipped with a stiffness estimation method for a novel material-testing machine, in order to alleviate the performance depression caused by the stiffness variance of the tested specimen. The dynamic model of the proposed machine is built using the Kane method, and the kinematic model is established with a closed-form solution. The stiffness estimation method is developed based on the recursive least-squares method and the proposed stiffness equivalent matrix. Control performances of the adaptive controller are simulated in detail. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed controller can greatly improve the control performance of the target material-testing machine by online stiffness estimation and adaptive parameter tuning, especially in low-cycle fatigue (LCF and high-cycle fatigue (HCF tests.

  11. Specific of adaptation foreign student with different health and physical preparedness level to employments on physical education in Kharkov National Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukavenko H.G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The specific of adaptation of foreign students is considered to Ukrainian university reality. Researches were conducted with participation 762 students from 62 countries. Possibilities of teaching of all objects are rotined in English language. The results of questionnaire of students of the first course are presented. Attitude of students is exposed toward an object and their level of physical preparedness. Traditions and departmental of other countries teaching are rotined. Methods and facilities of reduction of adaptation period are presented the increase of level of physical and mental capacity.

  12. On Automatic Modeling and Use of Domain-specific Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Knappe, Rasmus; Bulskov, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly introduce an approach to the modeling of a domain-specific ontology for use in connection with a given document collection. Secondly, we present a methodology for deriving conceptual similarity from the domain-specific ontology. Adopted for ontology representation is a s...

  13. Trait-specific consequences of inbreeding on adaptive phenotypic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Loeschcke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes may stress organisms and stimulate an adaptive phenotypic response. Effects of inbreeding often interact with the environment and can decrease fitness of inbred individuals exposed to stress more so than that of outbred individuals. Such an interaction may stem from a reduced...... ability of inbred individuals to respond plastically to environmental stress; however, this hypothesis has rarely been tested. In this study, we mimicked the genetic constitution of natural inbred populations by rearing replicate Drosophila melanogaster populations for 25 generations at a reduced...... temperatures were assessed for traits known to vary across temperatures, namely abdominal pigmentation, wing size, and wing shape. We found no significant difference in phenotypic plasticity in pigmentation or in wing size between inbred and control populations, but a significantly higher plasticity in wing...

  14. Developing a Sealing Material: Effect of Epoxy Modification on Specific Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schoberleitner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To develop a matched sealing material for socket rehabilitation of grey cast iron pipes, an epoxy resin is modified by the addition of different components to improve the flexibility. Three different modifications are made by adding ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM rubber powder, reactive liquid polymer (ATBN and epoxidized modifier. In this paper the effect of the modification method as well as the influence of absorption of water on the mechanical and physical properties are analyzed in terms of: tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, adhesion performance, pressure resistance, glass transition temperature and water content. A comparison with neat epoxy shows for all materials that the modulus of elasticity and strength decrease. Unlike other tested modification methods, the modification with rubber powder did not enhance the flexibility. All materials absorb water and a plasticization effect arises with further changes of mechanical and physical properties. The application of the sealant on the grey cast iron leads to a reduction of the strain at break (in comparison to the common tensile test of the pure materials and has to be evaluated. The main requirement of pressure resistance up to 1 MPa was tested on two chosen materials. Both materials fulfill this requirement.

  15. Discovery and Optimization of Materials Using Evolutionary Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tu C; Winkler, David A

    2016-05-25

    Materials science is undergoing a revolution, generating valuable new materials such as flexible solar panels, biomaterials and printable tissues, new catalysts, polymers, and porous materials with unprecedented properties. However, the number of potentially accessible materials is immense. Artificial evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms, which explore large, complex search spaces very efficiently, can be applied to the identification and optimization of novel materials more rapidly than by physical experiments alone. Machine learning models can augment experimental measurements of materials fitness to accelerate identification of useful and novel materials in vast materials composition or property spaces. This review discusses the problems of large materials spaces, the types of evolutionary algorithms employed to identify or optimize materials, and how materials can be represented mathematically as genomes, describes fitness landscapes and mutation operators commonly employed in materials evolution, and provides a comprehensive summary of published research on the use of evolutionary methods to generate new catalysts, phosphors, and a range of other materials. The review identifies the potential for evolutionary methods to revolutionize a wide range of manufacturing, medical, and materials based industries. PMID:27171499

  16. Discovery and Optimization of Materials Using Evolutionary Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tu C; Winkler, David A

    2016-05-25

    Materials science is undergoing a revolution, generating valuable new materials such as flexible solar panels, biomaterials and printable tissues, new catalysts, polymers, and porous materials with unprecedented properties. However, the number of potentially accessible materials is immense. Artificial evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms, which explore large, complex search spaces very efficiently, can be applied to the identification and optimization of novel materials more rapidly than by physical experiments alone. Machine learning models can augment experimental measurements of materials fitness to accelerate identification of useful and novel materials in vast materials composition or property spaces. This review discusses the problems of large materials spaces, the types of evolutionary algorithms employed to identify or optimize materials, and how materials can be represented mathematically as genomes, describes fitness landscapes and mutation operators commonly employed in materials evolution, and provides a comprehensive summary of published research on the use of evolutionary methods to generate new catalysts, phosphors, and a range of other materials. The review identifies the potential for evolutionary methods to revolutionize a wide range of manufacturing, medical, and materials based industries.

  17. Northern range expansion of European populations of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi is associated with global warming-correlated genetic admixture and population-specific temperature adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Tautz, Diethard

    2013-04-01

    Poleward range expansions are observed for an increasing number of species, which may be an effect of global warming during the past decades. However, it is still not clear in how far these expansions reflect simple geographical shifts of species ranges, or whether new genetic adaptations play a role as well. Here, we analyse the expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi into Northern Europe during the last century. We have used a range-wide sampling of contemporary populations and historical specimens from museums to trace the phylogeography and genetic changes associated with the range shift. Based on the analysis of mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP markers, we observe a higher level of genetic diversity in the expanding populations, apparently due to admixture of formerly isolated lineages. Using reciprocal transplant experiments for testing overwintering tolerance, as well as temperature preference and tolerance tests in the laboratory, we find that the invading spiders have possibly shifted their temperature niche. This may be a key adaptation for survival in Northern latitudes. The museum samples allow a reconstruction of the invasion's genetic history. A first, small-scale range shift started around 1930, in parallel with the onset of global warming. A more massive invasion of Northern Europe associated with genetic admixture and morphological changes occurred in later decades. We suggest that the latter range expansion into far Northern latitudes may be a consequence of the admixture that provided the genetic material for adaptations to new environmental regimes. Hence, global warming could have facilitated the initial admixture of populations and this resulted in genetic lineages with new habitat preferences. PMID:23496675

  18. Feasibility study for the development of certified reference materials for specific migration testing. Part 1: initial migrant concentration and specific migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffers, N H; Störmer, A; Bradley, E L; Brandsch, R; Cooper, I; Linssen, J P H; Franz, R

    2004-12-01

    The paper describes a project with the main objective of developing the know how to produce certified reference materials (CRMs) for specific migration testing. Certification parameters discussed are the initial concentration of the migrant in the polymer (C(P),0) and the specific migration into a food simulant under certain temperature/time conditions. Sixteen preliminary candidate CRMs were defined and produced. The most important polymers (low- and high-density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephtalate (PET), plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC), rigid PVC, polyamides (PA)) and additives as well as monomers representing different physicochemical properties as target substances for migration were chosen. The stability and homogeneity of the migrants in the materials were tested and methods for the determination of the certification parameters were developed and validated. > From the 16 materials produced, the six most suitable CRM candidates (LDPE//Irganox 1076/Irgafos 168, LDPE//1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene (DPBD), HDPE//Chimassorb 81/Uvitex OB, PP homo//Irganox 1076/Irgafos 168, HIPS, 1% mineral oil//styrene, PA 6//caprolactam) were selected. The feasibility of CRM production for the six candidate materials was demonstrated and a trial certification exercise was performed with participation of all four partner laboratories. All six materials showed suitable properties for future production as certified reference materials. PMID:15799565

  19. Optimal Multitrial Prediction Combination and Subject-Specific Adaptation for Minimal Training Brain Switch Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Loukianos; Blokland, Yvonne; Farquhar, Jason; Bruhn, Jorgen

    2016-06-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A brain switch is a particular BCI system where the system is required to distinguish from two separate mental tasks corresponding to the on-off commands of a switch. Such applications require a low false positive rate (FPR) while having an acceptable response time (RT) until the switch is activated. In this work, we develop a methodology that produces optimal brain switch behavior through subject specific (SS) adaptation of: a) a multitrial prediction combination model and b) an SI classification model. We propose a statistical model of combining classifier predictions that enables optimal FPR calibration through a short calibration session. We trained an SI classifier on a training synchronous dataset and tested our method on separate holdout synchronous and asynchronous brain switch experiments. Although our SI model obtained similar performance between training and holdout datasets, 86% and 85% for the synchronous and 69% and 66% for the asynchronous the between subject FPR and TPR variability was high (up to 62%). The short calibration session was then employed to alleviate that problem and provide decision thresholds that achieve when possible a target FPR=1% with good accuracy for both datasets. PMID:26529768

  20. Estimating patient specific uncertainty parameters for adaptive treatment re-planning in proton therapy using in vivo range measurements and Bayesian inference: application to setup and stopping power errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarbe, Rudi; Janssens, Guillaume; Sterpin, Edmond

    2016-09-01

    In proton therapy, quantification of the proton range uncertainty is important to achieve dose distribution compliance. The promising accuracy of prompt gamma imaging (PGI) suggests the development of a mathematical framework using the range measurements to convert population based estimates of uncertainties into patient specific estimates with the purpose of plan adaptation. We present here such framework using Bayesian inference. The sources of uncertainty were modeled by three parameters: setup bias m, random setup precision r and water equivalent path length bias u. The evolution of the expectation values E(m), E(r) and E(u) during the treatment was simulated. The expectation values converged towards the true simulation parameters after 5 and 10 fractions, for E(m) and E(u), respectively. E(r) settle on a constant value slightly lower than the true value after 10 fractions. In conclusion, the simulation showed that there is enough information in the frequency distribution of the range errors measured by PGI to estimate the expectation values and the confidence interval of the model parameters by Bayesian inference. The updated model parameters were used to compute patient specific lateral and local distal margins for adaptive re-planning.

  1. Organism-adapted specificity of the allosteric regulation of pyruvate kinase in lactic acid bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Veith

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PYK is a critical allosterically regulated enzyme that links glycolysis, the primary energy metabolism, to cellular metabolism. Lactic acid bacteria rely almost exclusively on glycolysis for their energy production under anaerobic conditions, which reinforces the key role of PYK in their metabolism. These organisms are closely related, but have adapted to a huge variety of native environments. They include food-fermenting organisms, important symbionts in the human gut, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In contrast to the rather conserved inhibition of PYK by inorganic phosphate, the activation of PYK shows high variability in the type of activating compound between different lactic acid bacteria. System-wide comparative studies of the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria are required to understand the reasons for the diversity of these closely related microorganisms. These require knowledge of the identities of the enzyme modifiers. Here, we predict potential allosteric activators of PYKs from three lactic acid bacteria which are adapted to different native environments. We used protein structure-based molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic modeling to predict and validate potential activators of PYK. Specifically, we compared the electrostatic potential and the binding of phosphate moieties at the allosteric binding sites, and predicted potential allosteric activators by docking. We then made a kinetic model of Lactococcus lactis PYK to relate the activator predictions to the intracellular sugar-phosphate conditions in lactic acid bacteria. This strategy enabled us to predict fructose 1,6-bisphosphate as the sole activator of the Enterococcus faecalis PYK, and to predict that the PYKs from Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show weaker specificity for their allosteric activators, while still having fructose 1,6-bisphosphate play the main activator role in vivo. These differences in the specificity of allosteric

  2. Comparative proteome analysis reveals conserved and specific adaptation patterns of Staphylococcus aureus after internalization by different types of human non-professional phagocytic host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin eSurmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide range of diseases. Although formerly regarded as extracellular pathogen, it has been shown that S. aureus can also be internalized by host cells and persist within these cells. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed survival and physiological adaptation of S. aureus HG001 after internalization by two human lung epithelial cell lines (S9 and A549, and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293. Combining enrichment of bacteria from host-pathogen assays by cell sorting and quantitation of the pathogen´s proteome by mass spectrometry we characterized S. aureus adaptation during the initial phase between 2.5 h and 6.5 h post-infection. Starting with about 2x106 bacteria, roughly 1,450 S. aureus proteins, including virulence factors and metabolic enzymes were identified by spectral comparison and classical database searches. Most of the bacterial adaptation reactions, such as decreases in levels of ribosomal proteins and metabolic enzymes or increases in amounts of proteins involved in arginine and lysine biosynthesis, coding for terminal oxidases and stress responsive genes or activation of the sigma factor SigB were observed after internalization into any of the three cell lines studied. However, differences were noted in central carbon metabolism including regulation of fermentation and threonine degradation. Since these differences coincided with different intracellular growth behavior, complementary profiling of the metabolome of the different non-infected host cell types was performed. This revealed similar levels of intracellular glucose but host cell specific differences in the amounts of amino acids such as glycine, threonine or glutamate. With this comparative study we provide an impression of the common and specific features of the adaptation of S. aureus HG001 to specific host cell environments as a starting point for follow-up studies with different strain isolates and

  3. Comparative proteome analysis reveals conserved and specific adaptation patterns of Staphylococcus aureus after internalization by different types of human non-professional phagocytic host cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmann, Kristin; Michalik, Stephan; Hildebrandt, Petra; Gierok, Philipp; Depke, Maren; Brinkmann, Lars; Bernhardt, Jörg; Salazar, Manuela G.; Sun, Zhi; Shteynberg, David; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Moritz, Robert L.; Wollscheid, Bernd; Lalk, Michael; Völker, Uwe; Schmidt, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide range of diseases. Although formerly regarded as extracellular pathogen, it has been shown that S. aureus can also be internalized by host cells and persist within these cells. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed survival and physiological adaptation of S. aureus HG001 after internalization by two human lung epithelial cell lines (S9 and A549), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293). Combining enrichment of bacteria from host-pathogen assays by cell sorting and quantitation of the pathogen's proteome by mass spectrometry we characterized S. aureus adaptation during the initial phase between 2.5 h and 6.5 h post-infection. Starting with about 2 × 106 bacteria, roughly 1450 S. aureus proteins, including virulence factors and metabolic enzymes were identified by spectral comparison and classical database searches. Most of the bacterial adaptation reactions, such as decreased levels of ribosomal proteins and metabolic enzymes or increased amounts of proteins involved in arginine and lysine biosynthesis, enzymes coding for terminal oxidases and stress responsive proteins or activation of the sigma factor SigB were observed after internalization into any of the three cell lines studied. However, differences were noted in central carbon metabolism including regulation of fermentation and threonine degradation. Since these differences coincided with different intracellular growth behavior, complementary profiling of the metabolome of the different non-infected host cell types was performed. This revealed similar levels of intracellular glucose but host cell specific differences in the amounts of amino acids such as glycine, threonine or glutamate. With this comparative study we provide an impression of the common and specific features of the adaptation of S. aureus HG001 to specific host cell environments as a starting point for follow-up studies with different strain isolates and regulatory

  4. Thermal comfort in apartments in India: Adaptive use of environmental controls and hindrances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2011-04-15

    Energy used in buildings in India is ever-increasing. About 47% of total energy in Indian residential buildings is used for ventilation controls alone. Comfort temperatures defined in Indian codes are inappropriate (23-26 C). There are no thermal comfort field studies in residences reported from India. The author conducted a field study in apartments in Hyderabad, in summer and monsoon seasons in 2008. The present paper discusses the occupants' methods of environmental control, behavioural adaptation and impediments. Due to poor adaptive opportunities, about 60% of occupants were uncomfortable in summer. The comfort range obtained in this study (26.0-32.5 C), was way above the standard. Fanger's PMV always overestimated the actual sensation. The occupants adapted through the use of personal environmental controls, clothing, metabolism and many behavioural control actions. Use of fans, air coolers and A/c s increased with temperature, and was impeded by their poor efficacy and noise, occupant's attitudes and economic affordability. Air-coolers and A/c s were mostly used in top- floors, as the available adaptive opportunities were insufficient. Behavioural adaptation was higher in summer and was limited in higher economic groups always. Subjects frequently exposed to A/c environments, tolerated thermal extremes little, and desired ''thermal indulgence''. This study calls for special adaptation methods for top-floor flats. (author)

  5. On the specific surface area of nanoporous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, E.; De Jong, E.; Zinchenko, A.; Vukovic, Z.; Vukovic, I.; Punzhin, S.; Loos, K.; ten Brinke, G.; De Raedt, H. A.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    2011-01-01

    A proper quantification of the specific surface area of nanoporous materials is necessary for a better understanding of the properties that are affected by the high surface-area-to-volume ratio of nanoporous metals, nanoporous polymers and nanoporous ceramics. In this paper we derive an analytical e

  6. Topology optimization of compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Xinxing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach for designing the compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite material is proposed based on the topology optimization. Firstly, an equivalent constitutive relationship of laminated glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite plates has been built based on the symmetric laminated plate theory. Then, an optimization objective function of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was used to minimize the least square error (LSE between deformed curve and desired aerodynamics shape. After that, the topology structures of wing leading edge of different glass fiber ply-orientations were obtained by using the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP model and sensitivity filtering technique. The desired aerodynamics shape of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was obtained based on the proposed approach. The topology structures of wing leading edge depend on the glass fiber ply-orientation. Finally, the corresponding morphing experiment of compliant wing leading edge with composite materials was implemented, which verified the morphing capability of topology structure and illustrated the feasibility for designing compliant wing leading edge. The present paper lays the basis of ply-orientation optimization for compliant adaptive wing leading edge in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV field.

  7. Preparation and quality control of materials used in the reference buffer material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A.; Hnatiw, D.S.J.; Kohle, C.L.

    1992-09-15

    This document summarizes the methodologies developed for preparing the reference buffer material (RBM) for use in laboratory-scale and field-scale experiments. Two commercially available concrete mixers have been successfully used to repeatedly produce homogeneous bulk buffer and backfill materials. The components, blending procedures, quality control sampling requirements, and mixing checklists used in the production of the reference buffer material are presented. Use of these directions will ensure that consistent batching of sealing materials is achieved and operator-induced variability is minimized.

  8. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  9. Moving HAIRS: Towards adaptive, homeostatic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna

    Dynamic structures that respond reversibly to changes in their environment are central to self-regulating thermal and lighting systems, targeted drug delivery, sensors, and self-propelled locomotion. Since an adaptive change requires energy input, an ideal strategy would be to design materials that harvest energy directly from the environment and use it to drive an appropriate response. This lecture will present the design of a novel class of reconfigurable materials that use surfaces bearing arrays of nanostructures put in motion by environment-responsive gels. Their unique hybrid architecture, and chemical and mechanical properties can be optimized to confer a wide range of adaptive behaviors. Using both experimental and modeling approaches, we are developing these hydrogel-actuated integrated responsive systems (HAIRS) as new materials with reversible optical and wetting properties, as a multifunctional platform for controlling cell differentiation and function, and as a first homeostatic system with autonomous self-regulation.

  10. Probing the mechanism of material specific peptides for optical biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sathish K.; Estephan, Elias; Martin, Marta; Cloitre, Thierry; Gergely, Csilla

    2013-05-01

    The possibility to engineer bio-nanomaterials with programmed synthesis and controlled immobilization of biomolecules through biomimetic molecular evolution approach has been demonstrated. Material specific peptides with exquisite molecular recognition function were used as a linker for the attachment of biomolecules. Exploring the origin of peptide material specificity not only opens up rational design approach with precise control over biomimetic bio-sensor design, but more importantly provides a new route of functionalizing for various material surfaces with enhanced sensitivity over classical grafting chemistry. To study the fine prints of experimentally obtained peptides, theoretical understanding of surface interactions may serve as important clues for further refinement. By taking advantage of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and density functional theory (DFT), we investigated the origin of this smart recognition function through the strength of interaction of experimentally selected 12mer peptides revealing high binding affinity towards n+-Si(100). Here, we attempt for the very first time to model the interaction of the peptides (in buffer solution) with semiconductors and we calculate their binding energies at the atomic level, enabling thereby linking direct evidence to our experimental evidence. Several peptide conformations have been taken into account simultaneously upon the surface. Our studies demonstrate that the peptides possess certain recognition function and their high interaction energy with the surface makes them unique among the populations. Our work is a step towards the understanding of the interactions between peptides and semiconductor surfaces that is a highly relevant challenge in the development of novel devices with a high degree of biocompatibility as well.

  11. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  12. Investigation on Adaptive Re-use of Heritage Building in George Town, Penang

    OpenAIRE

    Marhamah Abdul Hadi; Md Azree Othuman Mydin; Noor Faisal Abas

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive re-use of heritage buildings in George Town has gained attention from their owners. Their owners either private owners or government, want to adapt their respective buildings to new usage for instance to become a gallery, museum, restaurant, boutique hotel and many more. Every heritage building that is being adapted to paper main objective is to identify the changes made in terms of structure, space and material when adapting the heritage buildings to a new usage ...

  13. Assessing the spatial dependence of adaptive loci in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds using AFLP markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Colli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the past decades, neutral DNA markers have been extensively employed to study demography, population genetics and structure in livestock, but less interest has been devoted to the evaluation of livestock adaptive potential through the identification of genomic regions likely to be under natural selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landscape genomics can greatly benefit the entire livestock system through the identification of genotypes better adapted to specific or extreme environmental conditions. Therefore we analyzed 101 AFLP markers in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds both with Matsam software, based on a correlative approach (SAM, and with Mcheza and Bayescan, two FST based software able to detect markers carrying signatures of natural selection. Matsam identified four loci possibly under natural selection--also confirmed by FST-outlier methods--and significantly associated with environmental variables such as diurnal temperature range, frequency of precipitation, relative humidity and solar radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that landscape genomics can provide useful information on the environmental factors affecting the adaptive potential of livestock living in specific climatic conditions. Besides adding conservation value to livestock genetic resources, this knowledge may lead to the development of novel molecular tools useful to preserve the adaptive potential of local breeds during genetic improvement programs, and to increase the adaptability of industrial breeds to changing environments.

  14. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overkamp, W.; Ercan, O.; Herber, M.; Maris, van A.J.; Kleerebezem, M.; Kuipers, O.P.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h-1) are an unexplored research area in B. subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. T

  15. Increasing Time-Efficiency and Accuracy of Robotic Machining Processes Using Model-Based Adaptive Force Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sörnmo, Olof; Olofsson, Björn; Robertsson, Anders; Johansson, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Machining processes in the industry of today are rarely performed using industrial robots. In the cases where robots are used, machining is often performed using position control with a conservative feed-rate, to avoid excessive process forces. There is a great benefit in controlling the process forces instead, so as to improve the time-efficiency by applying the maximum allowed force, and thus removing the maximum amount of material per time unit. This paper presents a novel adaptive force c...

  16. The process of organisational adaptation through innovations, and organisational adaptability

    OpenAIRE

    Tikka, Tommi

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the process of organisational adaptation and organisational adaptability. The study generates a theoretical framework about organisational adaptation behaviour and conditions that have influence on success of organisational adaptation. The research questions of the study are: How does an organisation adapt through innovations, and which conditions enhance or impede organisational adaptation through innovations? The data were gathered from five case organisations withi...

  17. Improvement of flight simulator feeling using adaptive fuzzy backlash compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Amara, Zied; Bordeneuve-Guibé, Joël

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we addressed the problem of improving the control of DC motors used for the specific application of a 3 degrees of freedom moving base flight simulator. Indeed the presence of backlash in DC motors gearboxes induces shocks and naturally limits the flight feeling. In this paper, dynamic inversion with Fuzzy Logic is used to design an adaptive backlash compensator. The classification property of fuzzy logic techniques makes them a natural candidate for the rejection of errors indu...

  18. Adaptation to stroke using a model of successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, C; Hevey, D; Hickey, A; O'Neill, D

    2012-01-01

    The process of adaptation to the physical and psychosocial consequences after stroke is a major challenge for many individuals affected. The aim of this study was to examine if stroke patients within 1 month of admission (n = 153) and followed up at 1 year (n = 107) engage in selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) adaptive strategies and the relationship of these strategies with functional ability, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and depression 1 year later. Adaptive strategies were measured using a 15-item SOC questionnaire. Internal and external resources were assessed including recovery locus of control, stroke severity, and socio-demographics. Outcome measures were the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (SS-QoL), the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale and the Depression Subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Findings indicated that stroke patients engaged in the use of SOC strategies but the use of these strategies were not predictive of HRQOL, functional ability or depression 1 year after stroke. The use of SOC strategies were not age specific and were consistent over time, with the exception of the compensation subscale. Results indicate that SOC strategies may potentially be used in response to loss regulation after stroke and that an individual's initial HRQOL functional ability, levels of depression and socio-economic status that are important factors in determining outcome 1 year after stroke. A stroke-specific measure of SOC may be warranted in order to detect significant differences in determining outcomes for a stroke population.

  19. Chemically specific multiscale modeling of clay-polymer nanocomposites reveals intercalation dynamics, tactoid self-assembly and emergent materials properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, James L; Groen, Derek; Coveney, Peter V

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative description is presented of the dynamical process of polymer intercalation into clay tactoids and the ensuing aggregation of polymer-entangled tactoids into larger structures, obtaining various characteristics of these nanocomposites, including clay-layer spacings, out-of-plane clay-sheet bending energies, X-ray diffractograms, and materials properties. This model of clay-polymer interactions is based on a three-level approach, which uses quantum mechanical and atomistic descriptions to derive a coarse-grained yet chemically specific representation that can resolve processes on hitherto inaccessible length and time scales. The approach is applied to study collections of clay mineral tactoids interacting with two synthetic polymers, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(vinyl alcohol). The controlled behavior of layered materials in a polymer matrix is centrally important for many engineering and manufacturing applications. This approach opens up a route to computing the properties of complex soft materials based on knowledge of their chemical composition, molecular structure, and processing conditions. PMID:25488829

  20. Face adaptation effects: Reviewing the impact of adapting information, time, and transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to adapt is essential to live and survive in an ever-changing environment such as the human ecosystem. Here we review the literature on adaptation effects of face stimuli to give an overview of existing findings in this area, highlight gaps in its research literature, initiate new directions in face adaptation research and help to design future adaptation studies. Furthermore, this review should lead to better understanding of the processing characteristics as well as the mental representations of face-relevant information. The review systematises studies at a behavioral level in respect of a framework which includes 3 dimensions representing the major characteristics of studies in this field of research. These dimensions comprise (1 the specificity of adapting face information, e.g. identity, gender or age aspects of the material to be adapted to, (2 aspects of timing (e.g., the sustainability of adaptation effects, and (3 transfer relations between face images presented during adaptation and adaptation tests (e.g., images of the same or different identities. The review concludes with options for how to combine findings across different dimensions to demonstrate the relevance of our framework for future studies.

  1. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity

  2. Access and comprehension - Teachers use of simplified language materials

    OpenAIRE

    Rix, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the current use of simplified language materials (SLMs) by primary and secondary teachers across England. Drawing on a survey of 33 schools the paper examines the degree to which teachers and support teachers currently use simplified language materials and the reasons they give for their usage. It discusses both the contradictions and similarities between teachers' perceptions of the value of SLMs and the existing research base. It focuses on current national guidance, the...

  3. Investigation on Adaptive Re-use of Heritage Building in George Town, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhamah Abdul Hadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive re-use of heritage buildings in George Town has gained attention from their owners. Their owners either private owners or government, want to adapt their respective buildings to new usage for instance to become a gallery, museum, restaurant, boutique hotel and many more. Every heritage building that is being adapted to paper main objective is to identify the changes made in terms of structure, space and material when adapting the heritage buildings to a new usage specifically into a gallery. Two heritage buildings are chosen as case studies for this paper which are Rumah Teh Bunga and Fort Cornwallis; both buildings located in Penang, Malaysia. The changes made to these two buildings were analyzed using the guidelines provided which are Guideline for Conservation areas and Heritage Buildings and National Heritage Acts 2005. Both buildings will be analyzed using National Heritage Acts, while only Fort Cornwallis will be analyzed using Guideline for Conservation areas and Heritage Buildings. Adaptation of these two heritage buildings requires changes in structure, space and material. The changes in Rumah Teh Bunga focuses more on materials and space while changes in Fort Cornwallis emphasize more to space and addition of other structures. Analysis on the changes are made by using the guideline provided, most of the changes made to both of these heritage buildings comply the rules and regulations stated in the guideline. It was found from the data that some of the reasons on why the owner change Rumah Teh Bunga to gallery are because of its complicated procedure that involves in privatization of this building to other owner and the need to promote the heritage significance of this building to the public. As for Fort Cornwallis, the adaptation is more on strengthening its value as a fort and becoming a tourist attraction.

  4. Cost of riparian buffer zones: A comparison of hydrologically adapted site-specific riparian buffers with traditional fixed widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, T.; Lundström, J.; Kuglerová, L.; Laudon, H.; Öhman, K.; Ågren, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Traditional approaches aiming at protecting surface waters from the negative impacts of forestry often focus on retaining fixed width buffer zones around waterways. While this method is relatively simple to design and implement, it has been criticized for ignoring the spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemical processes and biodiversity in the riparian zone. Alternatively, a variable width buffer zone adapted to site-specific hydrological conditions has been suggested to improve the protection of biogeochemical and ecological functions of the riparian zone. However, little is known about the monetary value of maintaining hydrologically adapted buffer zones compared to the traditionally used fixed width ones. In this study, we created a hydrologically adapted buffer zone by identifying wet areas and groundwater discharge hotspots in the riparian zone. The opportunity cost of the hydrologically adapted riparian buffer zones was then compared to that of the fixed width zones in a meso-scale boreal catchment to determine the most economical option of designing riparian buffers. The results show that hydrologically adapted buffer zones were cheaper per hectare than the fixed width ones when comparing the total cost. This was because the hydrologically adapted buffers included more wetlands and low productive forest areas than the fixed widths. As such, the hydrologically adapted buffer zones allows more effective protection of the parts of the riparian zones that are ecologically and biogeochemically important and more sensitive to disturbances without forest landowners incurring any additional cost than fixed width buffers.

  5. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  6. Analysis and Design of a Morphing Wing Tip using Multicellular Flexible Matrix Composite Adaptive Skins

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, Tyler

    2009-01-01

    The material presented in this thesis uses concepts of the finite element and doublet panel methods to develop a structural-aerodynamic coupled mathematical model for the analysis of a morphing wing tip composed of smart materials. Much research is currently being performed within many facets of engineering on the use of smart or intelligent materials. Examples of the beneficial characteristics of smart materials might include altering a structureâ s mechanical properties, controlling its dy...

  7. Sliding mode control of wind-induced vibrations using fuzzy sliding surface and gain adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenozhi, Suresh; Yu, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Although fuzzy/adaptive sliding mode control can reduce the chattering problem in structural vibration control applications, they require the equivalent control and the upper bounds of the system uncertainties. In this paper, we used fuzzy logic to approximate the standard sliding surface and designed a dead-zone adaptive law for tuning the switching gain of the sliding mode control. The stability of the proposed controller is established using Lyapunov stability theory. A six-storey building prototype equipped with an active mass damper has been used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller towards the wind-induced vibrations.

  8. Characterization and Mechanical Behavior of Composite Material Using FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Irfan Sadaq

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Composites have been used extensively in applications such as pipes and pressure vessels. Therefore there is need for furtherstudies on the physical and mechanical properties of these materials. In the present work composite laminates made of gl;ass fiber and epoxy resin are tested to find the strength of the laminate and also its mechanical properties. By using FEA (Ansys 11.0 the optimum helix angle is determined for the composite material

  9. Characterization and Mechanical Behavior of Composite Material Using FEA

    OpenAIRE

    S. Irfan Sadaq; J. Dhanraj Pamar; Dr.N Seetharamaih; Afroz Mehar

    2013-01-01

    Composites have been used extensively in applications such as pipes and pressure vessels. Therefore there is need for furtherstudies on the physical and mechanical properties of these materials. In the present work composite laminates made of gl;ass fiber and epoxy resin are tested to find the strength of the laminate and also its mechanical properties. By using FEA (Ansys 11.0) the optimum helix angle is determined for the composite material

  10. Fault Adaptive Control of Overactuated Systems Using Prognostic Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most fault adaptive control research addresses the preservation of system stability or functionality in the presence of a specific failure (fault). This paper...

  11. Microassembly of Heterogeneous Materials using Transfer Printing and Thermal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Hohyun; Yang, Zining; Han, Kewen; Handler, Drew E.; Nguyen, Thong Nhu; Schutt-Aine, Jose; Bahl, Gaurav; Kim, Seok

    2016-01-01

    Enabling unique architectures and functionalities of microsystems for numerous applications in electronics, photonics and other areas often requires microassembly of separately prepared heterogeneous materials instead of monolithic microfabrication. However, microassembly of dissimilar materials while ensuring high structural integrity has been challenging in the context of deterministic transferring and joining of materials at the microscale where surface adhesion is far more dominant than body weight. Here we present an approach to assembling microsystems with microscale building blocks of four disparate classes of device-grade materials including semiconductors, metals, dielectrics, and polymers. This approach uniquely utilizes reversible adhesion-based transfer printing for material transferring and thermal processing for material joining at the microscale. The interfacial joining characteristics between materials assembled by this approach are systematically investigated upon different joining mechanisms using blister tests. The device level capabilities of this approach are further demonstrated through assembling and testing of a microtoroid resonator and a radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch that involve optical and electrical functionalities with mechanical motion. This work opens up a unique route towards 3D heterogeneous material integration to fabricate microsystems. PMID:27427243

  12. Microassembly of Heterogeneous Materials using Transfer Printing and Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Hohyun; Yang, Zining; Han, Kewen; Handler, Drew E; Nguyen, Thong Nhu; Schutt-Aine, Jose; Bahl, Gaurav; Kim, Seok

    2016-01-01

    Enabling unique architectures and functionalities of microsystems for numerous applications in electronics, photonics and other areas often requires microassembly of separately prepared heterogeneous materials instead of monolithic microfabrication. However, microassembly of dissimilar materials while ensuring high structural integrity has been challenging in the context of deterministic transferring and joining of materials at the microscale where surface adhesion is far more dominant than body weight. Here we present an approach to assembling microsystems with microscale building blocks of four disparate classes of device-grade materials including semiconductors, metals, dielectrics, and polymers. This approach uniquely utilizes reversible adhesion-based transfer printing for material transferring and thermal processing for material joining at the microscale. The interfacial joining characteristics between materials assembled by this approach are systematically investigated upon different joining mechanisms using blister tests. The device level capabilities of this approach are further demonstrated through assembling and testing of a microtoroid resonator and a radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch that involve optical and electrical functionalities with mechanical motion. This work opens up a unique route towards 3D heterogeneous material integration to fabricate microsystems. PMID:27427243

  13. Microassembly of Heterogeneous Materials using Transfer Printing and Thermal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Hohyun; Yang, Zining; Han, Kewen; Handler, Drew E.; Nguyen, Thong Nhu; Schutt-Aine, Jose; Bahl, Gaurav; Kim, Seok

    2016-07-01

    Enabling unique architectures and functionalities of microsystems for numerous applications in electronics, photonics and other areas often requires microassembly of separately prepared heterogeneous materials instead of monolithic microfabrication. However, microassembly of dissimilar materials while ensuring high structural integrity has been challenging in the context of deterministic transferring and joining of materials at the microscale where surface adhesion is far more dominant than body weight. Here we present an approach to assembling microsystems with microscale building blocks of four disparate classes of device-grade materials including semiconductors, metals, dielectrics, and polymers. This approach uniquely utilizes reversible adhesion-based transfer printing for material transferring and thermal processing for material joining at the microscale. The interfacial joining characteristics between materials assembled by this approach are systematically investigated upon different joining mechanisms using blister tests. The device level capabilities of this approach are further demonstrated through assembling and testing of a microtoroid resonator and a radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch that involve optical and electrical functionalities with mechanical motion. This work opens up a unique route towards 3D heterogeneous material integration to fabricate microsystems.

  14. Quality Assessment of Adaptive Bitrate Videos using Image Metrics and Machine Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Brunnström, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive bitrate (ABR) streaming is widely used for distribution of videos over the internet. In this work, we investigate how well we can predict the quality of such videos using well-known image metrics, information about the bitrate levels, and a relatively simple machine learning method...

  15. Metallic Functionally Graded Materials: A Specific Class of Advanced Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerzy J.Sobczak; Ludmil Drenchev

    2013-01-01

    Functionally graded materials,including their characterization,properties and production methods are a new rapidly developing field of materials science.The aims of this review are to systematize the basic production techniques for manufacturing functionally graded materials.Attention is paid to the principles for obtaining graded structure mainly in the metal based functionally graded materials.Several unpublished results obtained by the authors have been discussed briefly.Experimental methods and theoretical analysis for qualitative and quantitative estimation of graded properties have also been presented.The article can be useful for people who work in the field of functionally graded structures and materials,and who need a compact informative review of recent experimental and theoretical activity in this area.

  16. Sensorless control of salient PMSM with adaptive integrator and resistance online identification using strong tracking filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shaokang; Wu, Peijun; Ji, Jinhu; Li, Xuchun

    2016-02-01

    This article presents a sensorless control approach of salient PMSM with an online parameter identifier. Adaptive Integrator is proposed and utilised for the estimation of active flux and rotor position. As a result, integrator overflow caused by DC offset is avoided. Meanwhile, an online stator resistance identification algorithm using strong tracking filter is employed, and the identified stator resistance is fed back to the estimating algorithm. Thus, the estimating algorithm can calculate the rotor position correctly. Simulations and experimental results validate the feasibility of both adaptive integrator and the parameter identification method.

  17. Informing material specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Karmon, Ayelet

    2012-01-01

    programmable architectural design tools and advanced computer numerically controlled (CNC) knitting machines we understand the practice of textile design as a particular class of material design that enables variegation across both material and structure. Our aim for the experiments is firstly: the design......Architecture is entering a radical rethinking of its material practice. Advancements in material science and more complex models of material simulation as well as the interfaces between design and fabrication are fundamentally changing the way we conceive and design our built environment. This new...... technological platform allows an unprecedented control over the material. Creating direct links between the space of design and the space of fabrication, the idea of the hyper specified material developed in direct response to defined design criteria calls upon a new material practice in which designers...

  18. Motor adaptation and generalization of reaching movements using motor primitives based on spatial coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-02-15

    The brain processes sensory and motor information in a wide range of coordinate systems, ranging from retinal coordinates in vision to body-centered coordinates in areas that control musculature. Here we focus on the coordinate system used in the motor cortex to guide actions and examine physiological and psychophysical evidence for an allocentric reference frame based on spatial coordinates. When the equations of motion governing reaching dynamics are expressed as spatial vectors, each term is a vector cross product between a limb-segment position and a velocity or acceleration. We extend this computational framework to motor adaptation, in which the cross-product terms form adaptive bases for canceling imposed perturbations. Coefficients of the velocity- and acceleration-dependent cross products are assumed to undergo plastic changes to compensate the force-field or visuomotor perturbations. Consistent with experimental findings, each of the cross products had a distinct reference frame, which predicted how an acquired remapping generalized to untrained location in the workspace. In response to force field or visual rotation, mainly the coefficients of the velocity- or acceleration-dependent cross products adapted, leading to transfer in an intrinsic or extrinsic reference frame, respectively. The model further predicted that remapping of visuomotor rotation should under- or overgeneralize in a distal or proximal workspace. The cross-product bases can explain the distinct patterns of generalization in visuomotor and force-field adaptation in a unified way, showing that kinematic and dynamic motor adaptation need not arise through separate neural substrates.

  19. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimanian, M; Badalyan, M; Panosyan, V; Gabrielyan, E; Panossian, A; Wikman, G; Wagner, H

    2005-11-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized (simple randomisation), pilot (phase III) study of Chisan, (ADAPT-232; a standardised fixed combination of extracts of Rhodiola rosea L., Schisandra chinensis Turcz. Baill., and Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim) was carried out on two parallel groups of patients suffering from acute nonspecific pneumonia. Sixty patients (males and females; 18-65 years old) received a standard treatment with cephazoline, bromhexine, and theophylline: in addition, one group of 30 patients was given Chisan mixture, whilst the second group of 30 patients received a placebo, each medication being taken twice daily from the beginning of the study for 10-15 days. The primary outcome measurements were the duration of antibiotic therapy associated with the clinical manifestations of the acute phase of the disease, together with an evaluation of mental performance in a psychometric test and the self-evaluation of quality-of-life (QOL) (WHOQOL-Bref questionnaires) before treatment and on the first and fifth days after clinical convalescence. The mean duration of treatment with antibiotics required to bring about recovery from the acute phase of the disease was 2 days shorter in patients treated with Chisan compared with those in the placebo group. With respect to all QOL domains (physical, psychological, social and ecological), patients in the Chisan group scored higher at the beginning of the rehabilitation period, and significantly higher on the fifth day after clinical convalescence, than patients in the control group. Clearly, adjuvant therapy with ADAPT-232 has a positive effect on the recovery of patients by decreasing the duration of the acute phase of the illness, by increasing mental performance of patients in the rehabilitation period, and by improving their QOL. Both the clinical and laboratory results of the present study suggest that Chisan (ADAPT-232) can be recommended in the standard treatment of patients with acute non-specific

  20. SPECIFICS OF WAR JOURNALISM: THE PROBLEM OF CAMOUFLAGE AND THE LANGUAGE SPECIFICS OF USING COLOR NAMES FOR DENOTING CAMOUFLAGE UNIFORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Polyakova, D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses some specifics of war journalism, such as the issue of journalists’ security and the problem of using camouflage in the conditions of war and social conflicts, as well as the features of professional military language is terms of using color names for denoting camouflage uniforms in Russian and American English.

  1. Shape memory actuators - potentials and specifics of their technical use and electrical activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Strittmatter a,b

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to a martensitic phase change shape memory alloys can revert to their original shape by heating when they undergo an appropriate treatment. Actuator elements with this shape memory effect can show a significant design change combined with a considerable force. Therefore they can be used to solve many technical tasks in the field of actuating elements and mechatronics. These intelligent materials will play an increasing role in the next years, especially within the automotive technology, energy management, power and mechanical engineering as well as medical technology. In order to use the potential of these materials in an optimal way it is necessary to know and understand the extraordinary and unconventional properties of shape memory alloys.This paper will present the commonly used systems of shape memory alloys of today including their performance characteristics and will explain the basics of the shape memory effect in a vivid way. A multitude of application possibilities of shape memory actuators will be presented, in particular the research and development projects that have been carried out at the Konstanz University of Applied Sciences during the last years. In this way a solid state heat engine and an intramedullary nail for bone elongation will be presented as well as various adaptive systems for automotive safety and comfort systems, driven by shape memory elements. Regarding the applications in the automotive field a special focus will be given to different electrical activations to enable very fast contraction times of the shape memory components.

  2. Improving the precision of CBIR systems by color and texture feature adaptation using GSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rashedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Content-based image retrieval, CBIR, is an interesting problem of pattern recognition. This paper is devoted to the presentation an approach to reduce the semantic gap between low level visual features and high level semantics by parameter adaptation in feature extraction sub-block. In the proposed method, GSA is used. In texture feature extraction, the parameters of a 6-tap parametrized orthogonal mother wavelet and in color feature extraction, the quantization levels are adapted to reach maximum precision of the image retrieval system. Experimental results and comparison with the conventional CBIR system are reported on a database of 1000 images. Results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adapted image retrieval system.

  3. Adaptation Criteria for the Personalised Delivery of Learning Materials: A Multi-Stage Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Personalised e-Learning represents a major step-change from the one-size-fits-all approach of traditional learning platforms to a more customised and interactive provision of learning materials. Adaptive learning can support the learning process by tailoring learning materials to individual needs. However, this requires the initial preparation of…

  4. Time course analysis reveals gene-specific transcript and protein kinetics of adaptation to short-term aerobic exercise training in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Egan

    Full Text Available Repeated bouts of episodic myofibrillar contraction associated with exercise training are potent stimuli for physiological adaptation. However, the time course of adaptation and the continuity between alterations in mRNA expression and protein content are not well described in human skeletal muscle. Eight healthy, sedentary males cycled for 60 min at 80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak each day for fourteen consecutive days, resulting in an increase in VO2peak of 17.5±3.8%. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, and on the morning following (+16 h after exercise the first, third, seventh, tenth and fourteenth training sessions. Markers of mitochondrial adaptation (Cyt c and COXIV expression, and citrate synthase activity were increased within the first week of training, but the mtDNA/nDNA ratio was unchanged by two weeks of training. Accumulation of PGC-1α and ERRα protein during training suggests a regulatory role for these factors in adaptations of mitochondrial and metabolic gene expression. A subset of genes were transiently increased after one training session, but returned to baseline levels thereafter, which is supportive of the concept of transcriptional capacity being particularly sensitive to the onset of a new level of contractile activity. Thus, gene-specific temporal patterns of induction of mRNA expression and protein content are described. Our results illustrate the phenomenology of skeletal muscle plasticity and support the notion that transcript level adjustments, coupled to accumulation of encoded protein, underlie the modulation of skeletal muscle metabolism and phenotype by regular exercise.

  5. Stillbirth and the small fetus: Use of a sex specific versus a non-sex specific growth standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudell, Amanda S.; Cahill, Alison G.; Tuuli, Methodius G.; Macones, George A.; Odibo, Anthony O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if the use of a sex specific standard to define small for gestational age (SGA) will improve prediction of stillbirth. Study design We performed a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies excluding anomalies, aneuploidy, undocumented fetal sex or birthweight. SGA was defined as birthweight < 10th percentile by the non-sex specific and sex specific Alexander standards. The association between SGA and stillbirth using these standards was assessed using logistic regression. Results Among 57,170 pregnancies meeting inclusion criteria, 319 (0.6%) pregnancies were complicated by stillbirth. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the prediction of stillbirth was greater for the sex-specific compared to the non-sex specific standard (0.83 vs. 0.72 P< 0.001). Conclusion Our findings suggest adoption of a sex specific standard for diagnosis of SGA as it is more discriminative in identifying the SGA fetus at risk for stillbirth. PMID:25789818

  6. ACTRESS: Domain-Specific Modeling of Self-Adaptive Software Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Krikava, Filip; Collet, Philippe; France, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A common approach for engineering self-adaptive software systems is to use Feedback Control Loops (FCLs). Advances have led to more explicit and safer design of some control architectures, however, there is a need for more integrated and systematic approaches that support end-to-end integration of FCLs into software systems. In this paper, we propose a tooled approach that enables researchers and engineers to design and integrate adaptation mechanisms into software systems through FCLs. It co...

  7. Use of UHPC in Bridge Structures: Material Modeling and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Gunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC is a promising new class of concrete material that is likely to make a significant contribution to addressing the challenges associated with the load capacity, durability, sustainability, economy, and environmental impact of concrete bridge infrastructures. This paper focuses on the material modeling of UHPC and design of bridge girders made of UHPC. A two-phase model used for modeling the behavior of UHPC was briefly discussed, and the model was implemented in a preliminary design case study. Based on the implemented design and the reported use of UHPC in bridge applications, the advantages, limitations, and future prospects of UHPC bridges were discussed, highlighting the need for innovative research and design to make optimum use of the favorable properties of the material in bridge structures.

  8. Sports-specific adaptation of left ventricular muscle mass in athlete's heart. II: An echocardiographic study with 400-m runners and soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhausen, A; Monz, T; Kindermann, W

    1996-11-01

    Regarding the influence of the left ventricular (LV) adaptation by sports-specific factors the supposed endurance training have so far been compared mainly to strength conditioning. In the present study we investigated the echocardiographic LV measurements of endurance-trained athletes in different kinds of endurance sports (running and ball games) by using matched-pair procedures. We examined 22 male soccer players (S) and 22 male 400-m runners (R) on a regional up to a national level with--each similar in pairs--the following body mass (S: 75.7 +/-5.0 kg; R: 75.2 +/- 5.6), body surface area (S: 1.97 +/- 0.09 m2; R: 1.98 +/- 0.09), fat-free body mass (S: 68.4 +/- 4.6 kg; R: 68.3 +/- 5.3) and individual anaerobic threshold as a criterion to determine the running endurance (S: 14.23 +/- 0.79 km.h-1; R: 14.25 +/- 0.80). The body dimensions-related heart volume (HV/lean body mass: S: 14.2 +/- 1.5 ml.kg-1; R: 13.4 +/- 1.0) as well as the absolute and body surface-related LV internal diameter (EDD: S: 55.0 +/- 3.8 mm; R: 52.7 +/- 3.3; EDD/body-surface area: S: 27.8 +/- 1.9 mm.m-2; R: 26.6 +/- 1.3) were measured significantly higher in S as compared to R (p form (typical for ball games) and a different volume/intensity ratio could significantly influence the LV adaptation beside the endurance performance as well as constitutional and genetic factors. PMID:9119536

  9. Dosimetric- and Geometric Evaluation of Adaptive H&N IMRT Using Deformable Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiland, R.B.; Behrens, C. F.; Sjöström, D.;

    2012-01-01

    for OAR showed some variation between dCT and ReCT, especially for the parotid glands. The LCF were similar for dCT and ReCT, whereas NTOF were larger for ReCT than for dCT. Despite variation in volume and dose, between dCT and ReCT, the differences were within acceptable limits for most of the patients....... the performance of a DIR algorithm, using geometric and dosimetric measures. Materials and Methods: Seven patients treated with IMRT were included in this study, each with a planning- and midterm CT (pCT, ReCT) as well as a CBCT, acquired on the same day as the ReCT. ReCT served as the ground truth for evaluation...... of the DIR. A deformed CT (dCT) with contours was created by deforming the pCT and associated manually drawn contours to the CBCT. A commercially software using the Demons DIR algorithm (SmartAdapt, Varian Medical Systems, v.11.0) was utilized. A geometrical comparison was based on the estimated volumes from...

  10. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    OpenAIRE

    Marlen Lopez; Ramon Rubio; Santiago Martın; Ben Croxford; Richard Jackson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and nee...

  11. Peripheral adaptive filtering in human olfaction? Three studies on prevalence and effects of olfactory training in specific anosmia in more than 1600 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Mueller, Laura; Schmidt, Anna; Muench, Marcus; Hummel, Cornelia; Gisselmann, Guenter; Hatt, Hanns; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Selective processing of environmental stimuli improves processing capacity and allows adaptive modulation of behavior. The thalamus provides an effective filter of central sensory information processing. As olfactory projections, however, largely bypass the thalamus, other filter mechanisms must consequently have evolved for the sense of smell. We investigated whether specific anosmia - the inability to perceive a specific odor whereas detection of other substances is unaffected - represents an effective peripheral filter of olfactory information processing. In contrast to previous studies, we showed in a sample of 1600 normosmic subjects, that specific anosmia is by no means a rare phenomenon. Instead, while the affected odor is highly individual, the general probability of occurrence of specific anosmia is close to 1. In addition, 25 subjects performed daily olfactory training sessions with enhanced exposure to their particular "missing" smells for the duration of three months. This resulted in a significant improvement of sensitivity towards the respective specific odors. We propose specific anosmia to occur as a rule, rather than an exception, in the sense of smell. The lack of perception of certain odors may constitute a flexible peripheral filter mechanism, which can be altered by exposure.

  12. Glucocorticoids, metabolic adaptations and recovery : studies in specific mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auvinen, Hanna Elina

    2013-01-01

    Today’s Western society and work promotes a sedentary lifestyle. This, coupled with high caloric food availability has increased obesity followed by an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological data show a clear as

  13. Supervised and Unsupervised Speaker Adaptation Using Confidence Measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJia; LIHusheng; LIUJing; LIURunsheng

    2003-01-01

    The speaker adaptation is an effective means of improving the performance of a speech recognition system,and it can be divided into supervised or unsupervised speaker adaptation.In this paper a kind of confidence measure based on the word lattice structure is proposed and is used for the supervised and unsupervised speaker adaptation.The reliability of the recognition results can be evaluated by the confidence measure,and the uncertain parts in the recognition results can be removed or be given smaller weights in the speaker adaptation process.The experiments show that the confidence can effectively eliminate the suspicious speech and improve the performance of the supervised and unsupervised adaptation considerably.The performance difference between the supervised and unsupervised adaptation is reduced by using the confidence measure based on the word lattice structure.

  14. Design of Responsive and Active (Soft) Materials Using Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Bedolla Pantoja, Marco; Mushenheim, Peter C; Wang, Xiaoguang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2016-06-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) are widely known for their use in liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Indeed, LCDs represent one of the most successful technologies developed to date using a responsive soft material: An electric field is used to induce a change in ordering of the LC and thus a change in optical appearance. Over the past decade, however, research has revealed the fundamental underpinnings of potentially far broader and more pervasive uses of LCs for the design of responsive soft material systems. These systems involve a delicate interplay of the effects of surface-induced ordering, elastic strain of LCs, and formation of topological defects and are characterized by a chemical complexity and diversity of nano- and micrometer-scale geometry that goes well beyond that previously investigated. As a reflection of this evolution, the community investigating LC-based materials now relies heavily on concepts from colloid and interface science. In this context, this review describes recent advances in colloidal and interfacial phenomena involving LCs that are enabling the design of new classes of soft matter that respond to stimuli as broad as light, airborne pollutants, bacterial toxins in water, mechanical interactions with living cells, molecular chirality, and more. Ongoing efforts hint also that the collective properties of LCs (e.g., LC-dispersed colloids) will, over the coming decade, yield exciting new classes of driven or active soft material systems in which organization (and useful properties) emerges during the dissipation of energy. PMID:26979412

  15. A Novel Broadband MIMO/OFDM System Using Adaptive Modulation and Adaptive Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANYahan; KhaledBenLetaief; CAOZhigang; QIUYonghong

    2005-01-01

    OFDM (Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) has been widely regarded as an effective modulation technique for mitigating the effects of ISI in a frequency selective fading channel and for providing reliable high-data transmission over wireless links. Adaptive modulation combined with adaptive transmit and receive diversity can achieve further increases in system's capacity and bandwidth efficiency, as well as in QoS improvement in conventional OFDM systems. In this paper, we propose a novel broadband MIMO/OFDM system using adaptive modulation and adaptive transmit and receive diversity. By applying an EVD on each sub-carrier channel matrix, joint optimal transmit and receive antenna weights as well as maximal SNR on each sub-carrier are obtained. Then, by employing adaptive modulation on each sub-carrier, the maximal SNR on each sub-carrier obtained by adaptive transmit and receive diversity is further maximized through adaptive bit assignment and power assignment on each sub-carrier under the constraint of power and overall bit rate. Simulation results show that the proposed system can achieve better performance than an adaptive antenna array based OFDM system without adaptive modulation over multipath fading channels.

  16. Parallel simulation of multiphase flows using octree adaptivity and the volume-of-fluid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaglah, Gilou; Delaux, Sébastien; Fuster, Daniel; Hoepffner, Jérôme; Josserand, Christophe; Popinet, Stéphane; Ray, Pascal; Scardovelli, Ruben; Zaleski, Stéphane

    2011-02-01

    We describe computations performed using the Gerris code, an open-source software implementing finite volume solvers on an octree adaptive grid together with a piecewise linear volume of fluid interface tracking method. The parallelisation of Gerris is achieved by domain decomposition. We show examples of the capabilities of Gerris on several types of problems. The impact of a droplet on a layer of the same liquid results in the formation of a thin air layer trapped between the droplet and the liquid layer that the adaptive refinement allows to capture. It is followed by the jetting of a thin corolla emerging from below the impacting droplet. The jet atomisation problem is another extremely challenging computational problem, in which a large number of small scales are generated. Finally we show an example of a turbulent jet computation in an equivalent resolution of 6×1024 cells. The jet simulation is based on the configuration of the Deepwater Horizon oil leak.

  17. Adaptive Control of Flexible Structures Using Residual Mode Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Flexible structures containing a large number of modes can benefit from adaptive control techniques which are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. In this paper, we focus on a direct adaptive control approach that has been extended to handle adaptive rejection of persistent disturbances. We extend our adaptive control theory to accommodate troublesome modal subsystems of a plant that might inhibit the adaptive controller. In some cases the plant does not satisfy the requirements of Almost Strict Positive Realness. Instead, there maybe be a modal subsystem that inhibits this property. This section will present new results for our adaptive control theory. We will modify the adaptive controller with a Residual Mode Filter (RMF) to compensate for the troublesome modal subsystem, or the Q modes. Here we present the theory for adaptive controllers modified by RMFs, with attention to the issue of disturbances propagating through the Q modes. We apply the theoretical results to a flexible structure example to illustrate the behavior with and without the residual mode filter. We have proposed a modified adaptive controller with a residual mode filter. The RMF is used to accommodate troublesome modes in the system that might otherwise inhibit the adaptive controller, in particular the ASPR condition. This new theory accounts for leakage of the disturbance term into the Q modes. A simple three-mode example shows that the RMF can restore stability to an otherwise unstable adaptively controlled system. This is done without modifying the adaptive controller design.

  18. GUIDANCE FOR THE PROPER CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MATERIALS AND SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS FOR DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PORTSMOUTH JH; BLACKFORD LT

    2012-02-13

    Regulatory concerns over the proper characterization of certain waste streams led CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to develop written guidance for personnel involved in Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) activities, facility management and Waste Management Representatives (WMRs) involved in the designation of wastes for disposal on and off the Hanford Site. It is essential that these waste streams regularly encountered in D&D operations are properly designated, characterized and classified prior to shipment to a Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility (TSDF). Shipments of waste determined by the classification process as Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) must also be compliant with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOE) regulations as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The compliant shipment of these waste commodities is critical to the Hanford Central Plateau cleanup mission. Due to previous problems and concerns from DOE assessments, CHPRC internal critiques as well as DOT, a management decision was made to develop written guidance and procedures to assist CHPRC shippers and facility personnel in the proper classification of D&D waste materials as either LSA or SCO. The guidance provides a uniform methodology for the collection and documentation required to effectively characterize, classify and identify candidate materials for shipping operations. A primary focus is to ensure that waste materials generated from D&D and facility operations are compliant with the DOT regulations when packaged for shipment. At times this can be difficult as the current DOT regulations relative to the shipment of LSA and SCO materials are often not clear to waste generators. Guidance is often sought from NUREG 1608/RAMREG-003 [3]: a guidance document that was jointly developed by the DOT and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and published in 1998. However, NUREG 1608 [3] is now thirteen years old and

  19. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  20. Electromagnetic Processing of Materials Materials Processing by Using Electric and Magnetic Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    This book is both a course book and a monograph. In fact, it has developed from notes given to graduate course students on materials processing in the years 1989 to 2006. Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (EPM), originates from a branch of materials science and engineering developed in the 1980s as a field aiming to create new materials and/or design processes by making use of various functions which appear when applying the electric and magnetic fields to materials. It is based on transport phenomena, materials processing and magnetohydrodynamics. The first chapter briefly introduces the history, background and technology of EPM. In the second chapter, the concept of transport phenomena is concisely introduced and in the third chapter the essential part of magnetohydrodynamics is transcribed and readers are shown that the concept of transport phenomena does not only apply to heat, mass and momentum, but also magnetic field. The fourth chapter describes electromagnetic processing of electrica...

  1. Tissue-specific calibration of extracellular matrix material properties by transforming growth factor-β and Runx2 in bone is required for hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jolie L; Brauer, Delia S.; Johnson, Jacob; Chen, Carol G.; Akil, Omar; Balooch, Guive; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Chin, Emily N.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Butcher, Kristin; Ritchie, Robert O.; Schneider, Richard A; Lalwani, Anil; Derynck, Rik; Marshall, Grayson W.

    2010-01-01

    By investigating the role of bone quality in hearing, this study provides evidence that signaling pathways and lineage-specific transcription factors cooperate to define the tissue-specific and functionally essential material properties of the extracellular matrix.

  2. The brain uses adaptive internal models of scene statistics for sensorimotor estimation and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Sang; Knill, David C

    2013-03-12

    Because of uncertainty and noise, the brain should use accurate internal models of the statistics of objects in scenes to interpret sensory signals. Moreover, the brain should adapt its internal models to the statistics within local stimulus contexts. Consider the problem of hitting a baseball. The impoverished nature of the visual information available makes it imperative that batters use knowledge of the temporal statistics and history of previous pitches to accurately estimate pitch speed. Using a laboratory analog of hitting a baseball, we tested the hypothesis that the brain uses adaptive internal models of the statistics of object speeds to plan hand movements to intercept moving objects. We fit Bayesian observer models to subjects' performance to estimate the statistical environments in which subjects' performance would be ideal and compared the estimated statistics with the true statistics of stimuli in an experiment. A first experiment showed that subjects accurately estimated and used the variance of object speeds in a stimulus set to time hitting behavior but also showed serial biases that are suboptimal for stimuli that were uncorrelated over time. A second experiment showed that the strength of the serial biases depended on the temporal correlations within a stimulus set, even when the biases were estimated from uncorrelated stimulus pairs subsampled from the larger set. Taken together, the results show that subjects adapted their internal models of the variance and covariance of object speeds within a stimulus set to plan interceptive movements but retained a bias to positive correlations. PMID:23440185

  3. Adaptation of ICT for children with specific learning difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen, Brigita

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to review the legislation pertaining to education of children with special needs in the Republic of Slovenia. The Elementary School Act and the Placement of Children with Special Needs Act define the groups of special needs in Slovenia; moreover, the two acts prescribe the procedures of placing and acquiring an individualised programme. Through an individualised programme, the pupil is eligible for adjustments allowing equal integration into the educational process. ...

  4. First adaptation of the European ceramic B. I. T. blanket design to the updated DEMO specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzidei, L.; Cecchi, P.; Cevolani, S.; Gallina, M.; Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V.; Talarico, C.; Violante, V.; Vettraino, V.; Zampaglione, V. (Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy)); Proust, E.; Giancarli, L.; Raepsaet, X.; Szczepanski, J.; Vallette, F.; Baraer, L.; Bielak, B.; Mercier, J. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DRN/DMT/SERMA, C.E.N. Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1991-12-01

    The DEMO specifications defined so as to ensure the consistency of the various blanket conceptual design studies performed within the framework of the European Test Blanket Programme have been recently updated. A very first attempt has been made to adapt the European Ceramic Breeder Inside-Tube DEMO blanket to these new specifications. Two solutions have been investigated. The first would ensure tritium self-sufficiency of the plant with a large safety margin. The other one, which fully preserves the design simplicity and reliability of the initial design, appears to be somewhat marginal from the tritium breeding capability point of view, but to offer good improvement prospects. (orig.).

  5. Role of non-enzymatic antioxidants on the bivalves' adaptation to environmental mercury: Organ-specificities and age effect in Scrobicularia plana inhabiting a contaminated lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to investigate the role of non-enzymatic antioxidants on adaptive skills over time in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana environmentally exposed to mercury. Inter-age (2+, 3+, 4+, 5+ year old) and organ-specific (gills, digestive gland) approaches were applied in bivalves collected from moderately and highly contaminated sites at Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). S. plana's adaptive skills were dependent on the contamination extent; under moderate contamination scenario, the intervention of the different antioxidants took place harmoniously, evidencing an adjustment capacity increasing with the age. Under higher contamination degree, S. plana failed to cope with mercury threat, showing an age-dependent deterioration of the defense abilities. In organ-specific approach, the differences were particularly evident for thiol-compounds, since only gills displayed the potential to respond to moderate levels by increasing non-protein thiols and total glutathione. Under high contamination degree, both organs were unable to increase thiol-compounds, which were compensated by the ascorbic acid elevation. - Highlights: ► Results demonstrated non-enzymatic antioxidants' importance on protecting bivalves. ► S. plana's adaptive skills over time depend on the contamination extent. ► Antioxidants intervention evidenced an adjustment capacity increasing with the age. ► Gills responded to mercury moderate levels by increasing thiols and glutathione. ► Ascorbic acid displayed a compensatory role where organs failed to increase thiols. - Results demonstrated the importance of non-enzymatic antioxidants on protecting S. plana from mercury pro-oxidant action, under environmentally realistic conditions.

  6. An adaptable product for material processing and life science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassick, Gregory; Dobbs, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Experiment Control System II (ECS-II) is designed to make available to the microgravity research community the same tools and mode of automated experimentation that their ground-based counterparts have enjoyed for the last two decades. The design goal was accomplished by combining commercial automation tools familiar to the experimenter community with system control components that interface with the on-orbit platform in a distributed architecture. The architecture insulates the tools necessary for managing a payload. By using commercial software and hardware components whenever possible, development costs were greatly reduced when compared to traditional space development projects. Using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components also improved the usability documentation, and reducing the need for training of the system by providing familiar user interfaces, providing a wealth of readily available documentation, and reducing the need for training on system-specific details. The modularity of the distributed architecture makes it very amenable for modification to different on-orbit experiments requiring robotics-based automation.

  7. Adaptive Flow Simulation of Turbulence in Subject-Specific Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm on Massively Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Onkar; Jansen, Kenneth; Shephard, Mark; Taylor, Charles

    2007-11-01

    Flow within the healthy human vascular system is typically laminar but diseased conditions can alter the geometry sufficiently to produce transitional/turbulent flows in regions focal (and immediately downstream) of the diseased section. The mean unsteadiness (pulsatile or respiratory cycle) further complicates the situation making traditional turbulence simulation techniques (e.g., Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (RANSS)) suspect. At the other extreme, direct numerical simulation (DNS) while fully appropriate can lead to large computational expense, particularly when the simulations must be done quickly since they are intended to affect the outcome of a medical treatment (e.g., virtual surgical planning). To produce simulations in a clinically relevant time frame requires; 1) adaptive meshing technique that closely matches the desired local mesh resolution in all three directions to the highly anisotropic physical length scales in the flow, 2) efficient solution algorithms, and 3) excellent scaling on massively parallel computers. In this presentation we will demonstrate results for a subject-specific simulation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using stabilized finite element method on anisotropically adapted meshes consisting of O(10^8) elements over O(10^4) processors.

  8. Reliability and consistency of plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle function using an adapted force sledge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are various limitations to existing methods of studying plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanics, predominantly related to measurement validity and reliability. This study utilizes an innovative adaptation to a force sledge which isolates the plantarflexors and ankle for analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the sledge loading protocol to be used, most appropriate method of data analysis and measurement reliability in a group of healthy, non-injured subjects. Twenty subjects (11 males, 9 females; age: 23.5 ±2.3 years; height: 1.73 ±0.08 m; mass: 74.2 ±11.3 kg) completed 11 impacts at five different loadings rated on a scale of perceived exertion from 1 to 5, where 5 is a loading that the subject could only complete the 11 impacts using the adapted sledge. Analysis of impacts 4–8 or 5–7 using loading 2 provided consistent results that were highly reliable (single intra-class correlation, ICC > 0.85, average ICC > 0.95) and replicated kinematics found in hopping and running. Results support use of an adapted force sledge apparatus as an ecologically valid, reliable method of investigating plantarflexor SSC function and MTU mechanics in a dynamic controlled environment. (paper)

  9. SOCIAL ADAPTABILITY OF YOUNG PEOPLE WITH MENTAL DISABILITIES FOR INDEPENDENT LIFE IN SOCIETY: ESSENCE, SPECIFICITY, LEVELS OF EXISTENCE, CRITERIA AND INDICATORS FOR THEIR EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Grebennikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was prepared within the framework of the state assignment of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation No. 3307 In the article the authors explain the nature and content of social adaptability of graduates psycho-neurological boarding schools (young people with disabilities from 24 to 27 years old with mild mental retardation to independent life in society; note that this adaptability is characterized by the level of proficiency of graduate boarding norms of social behavior, professional orientation and socio-moral experience of self in different situations. Reveal the content of main components (motivational, cognitive, activity that determine the social adaptability of the graduate psycho-neurological boarding school; lead characteristics of the levels of formation of social adaptability of graduates of psycho-neurological boarding schools for independent living (minimal-basic level; socially stable level; social perspective level. Also, the authors consider the principles of implementation of socio-pedagogical support of adaptation of graduates of the boarding school to independent life in society (in particular, the principle of the humanistic nature of the relationship specialists of psycho-neurological boarding schools with young people with disabilities; the principle of individual approach; the principle of variability and complexity of forms, methods, means of support; the principle of the priority of the interests of professional and personal development of a young disabled person in the implementation of socio-pedagogical support of its adaptation to independent life in society, etc..

  10. Stimulus-specific adaptation at the synapse level in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Wang; Yi-Fan Han; Ying-Shing Chan; Jufang He

    2014-01-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is observed in many brain regions in humans and animals. SSA of cortical neurons has been proposed to accumulate through relays in ascending pathways. Here, we examined SSA at the synapse level using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of primary cultured cortical neurons of the rat. First, we found that cultured neurons had high firing capability with 100-Hz current injection. However, neuron firing started to adapt to repeated electrically activated synaptic...

  11. Removal of blue indigo and cadmium present in aqueous solutions using a modified zeolitic material and an activated carbonaceous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years the use of water has been increased substantially, it has been also altered its quality as a result of human activities such as mining, industrial activities and others. Water pollution caused by dyes and heavy metals has adverse effects on the environment, since both pollutants are very persisten even after conventional treatments. Denim blue and cadmium are not biodegradable. There is a growing interest in finding new, efficient and low cost alternative materials to remove such pollutants from the aqueous medium. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a modified zeolitic tuff and an activated carbonaceous material obtained from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the removal of denim blue and cadmium. The zeolitic material was modified with Na+ and Fe3+ solutions to improve its sorption properties for the removal of cadmium and denim blue, respectively. Carbonaceous material was treated with 10% HCl solution to remove ashes. Both materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis (EDS), specific surface areas (Bet), thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Simultaneously, the denim blue dye was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and its pKa value was determined, these data allowed the determination of its chemical properties and its acid-base behavior in solution. In the content of this work the term indigo blue was changed by denim blue, as it corresponds to the commercial name of the dye. To assess the sorption capacity of sorbents, the sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms in batch system were determined; the results were fitted to mathematical models such as the pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and second order to describe the sorption kinetics and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms to describe sorption processes. The results show that the most efficient material to remove denim blue from aqueous solutions is the carbonaceous material, and

  12. Self-assembled selenium monolayers: from nanotechnology to materials science and adaptive catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romashov, Leonid V; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2013-12-23

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of selenium have emerged into a rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several promising opportunities in materials chemistry and catalysis. Comparison between sulfur-based self-assembled monolayers and newly developed selenium-based monolayers reveal outstanding complimentary features on surface chemistry and highlighted the key role of the headgroup element. Diverse structural properties and reactivity of organosulfur and organoselenium groups on the surface provide flexible frameworks to create new generations of materials and adaptive catalysts with unprecedented selectivity. Important practical utility of adaptive catalytic systems deals with development of sustainable technologies and industrial processes based on natural resources. Independent development of nanotechnology, materials science and catalysis has led to the discovery of common fundamental principles of the surface chemistry of chalcogen compounds.

  13. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  14. Biodiversity and cold adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Xin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-adapted bacteria and archaea are widely distributed in cold environments on Earth, such as permafrost, cold soils and deserts, glaciers, lakes, sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic and high mountains, as well as the deep sea, ice caves and the atmospheric stratosphere etc. Cold-adapted organisms inhabiting these environments exhibit rich diversity. Studies on the biogeography of psychrophiles will enable us to understand their biodiversity, distribution and origins. Due to long-term living in cold regions, cold-adapted bacteria and archeae have developed specific physiological mechanisms of adaptation to cold environments. These mechanisms include: regulating the fluidity of the cytoplasmic membrane through adjusting the composition of membrane lipids; achieving low-temperature protection through compatibility solute, antifreeze proteins, ice-binding proteins, ice-nucleation proteins and anti-nucleating proteins; production of heat-shock and coldshock proteins, cold acclimation protein and DEAD-box RNA helicase at low temperatures; production of cold-active enzymes; increasing energy generation and conservation. With the rapid development of sequencing technology, various omics-based approaches have been used to reveal cold-adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles at the genomic level.

  15. Timing of ibuprofen use and musculoskeletal adaptations to exercise training in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowski, Catherine M.; Karen Shea; Barry, Daniel W; Linnebur, Sunny A.; Pamela Wolfe; John Kittelson; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) increase in bone in response to mechanical loading and stimulate bone formation. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme responsible for PG synthesis, by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) impairs the bone formation response to loading in animals when administered before, but not after, loading. The aim was to determine whether the timing of ibuprofen use (400 mg before versus after exercise sessions) is a significant determinant of the adaptive respons...

  16. Stimulus-specific adaptation and deviance detection in the rat auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevo Taaseh

    Full Text Available Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA is the specific decrease in the response to a frequent ('standard' stimulus, which does not generalize, or generalizes only partially, to another, rare stimulus ('deviant'. Stimulus-specific adaptation could result simply from the depression of the responses to the standard. Alternatively, there may be an increase in the responses to the deviant stimulus due to the violation of expectations set by the standard, indicating the presence of true deviance detection. We studied SSA in the auditory cortex of halothane-anesthetized rats, recording local field potentials and multi-unit activity. We tested the responses to pure tones of one frequency when embedded in sequences that differed from each other in the frequency and probability of the tones composing them. The responses to tones of the same frequency were larger when deviant than when standard, even with inter-stimulus time intervals of almost 2 seconds. Thus, SSA is present and strong in rat auditory cortex. SSA was present even when the frequency difference between deviants and standards was as small as 10%, substantially smaller than the typical width of cortical tuning curves, revealing hyper-resolution in frequency. Strong responses were evoked also by a rare tone presented by itself, and by rare tones presented as part of a sequence of many widely spaced frequencies. On the other hand, when presented within a sequence of narrowly spaced frequencies, the responses to a tone, even when rare, were smaller. A model of SSA that included only adaptation of the responses in narrow frequency channels predicted responses to the deviants that were substantially smaller than the observed ones. Thus, the response to a deviant is at least partially due to the change it represents relative to the regularity set by the standard tone, indicating the presence of true deviance detection in rat auditory cortex.

  17. Multi-omics analysis of niche specificity provides new insights into ecological adaptation in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Cui, Zhouqi; Xie, Guanlin; Jin, Gulei; Kube, Michael; Li, Bin; Zhou, Xueping

    2016-08-01

    Different lifestyles, ranging from a saprophyte to a pathogen, have been reported in bacteria of one species. Here, we performed genome-wide survey of the ecological adaptation in four Burkholderia seminalis strains, distinguished by their origin as part of the saprophytic microbial community of soil or water but also including human and plant pathogens. The results indicated that each strain is separated from the others by increased fitness in medium simulating its original niche corresponding to the difference between strains in metabolic capacities. Furthermore, strain-specific metabolism and niche survival was generally linked with genomic variants and niche-dependent differential expression of the corresponding genes. In particular, the importance of iron, trehalose and d-arabitol utilization was highlighted by the involvement of DNA-methylation and horizontal gene transfer in niche-adapted regulation of the corresponding operons based on the integrated analysis of our multi-omics data. Overall, our results provided insights of niche-specific adaptation in bacteria. PMID:26859773

  18. Vibration Control of Flexible Spacecraft Using Adaptive Controller

    OpenAIRE

    George, V. I.; B. Ganesh Kamath; I. Thirunavukkarasu; Ciji Pearl Kurian

    2012-01-01

    The aim is to develop vibration control of flexible spacecraft by adaptive controller. A case study will be carried out which simulates planar motion of flexible spacecraft as a coupled hybrid dynamics of rigid body motion and the flexible arm vibration. The notch filter and adaptive vibration controller, which updates filter and controller parameters continuously from the sensor measurement, are implemented in the real time control. The least mean square algorithm using the adaptive notch fi...

  19. Making Legacy LMS adaptable using Policy and Policy templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesling, Arne; Herder, Eelco; De Coi, Juri; Abel, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    Koesling, A., Herder, E., De Coi, J., & Abel, F. (2008). Making Legacy LMS adaptable using Policy and Policy templates. In J. Baumeister & M. Atzmüller, Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Adaptivity and User Modeling in Interactive System, ABIS 2008 (pp. 35-40). October, 6-8, 2008, Würzburg, German

  20. Adaptive Control of Linear Modal Systems Using Residual Mode Filters and a Simple Disturbance Estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Mark; Frost, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Flexible structures containing a large number of modes can benefit from adaptive control techniques which are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. In this paper, we focus on a direct adaptive control approach that has been extended to handle adaptive rejection of persistent disturbances. We extend our adaptive control theory to accommodate troublesome modal subsystems of a plant that might inhibit the adaptive controller. In some cases the plant does not satisfy the requirements of Almost Strict Positive Realness. Instead, there maybe be a modal subsystem that inhibits this property. This section will present new results for our adaptive control theory. We will modify the adaptive controller with a Residual Mode Filter (RMF) to compensate for the troublesome modal subsystem, or the Q modes. Here we present the theory for adaptive controllers modified by RMFs, with attention to the issue of disturbances propagating through the Q modes. We apply the theoretical results to a flexible structure example to illustrate the behavior with and without the residual mode filter.

  1. Effect of Surfactant/Silica and Hydrothermal Time on the Specific Surface Area of Mesoporous Materials from Coal-Measure Kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qisheng; LI Shuiping

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous materials with the highest surface area were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment from coal-measure kaolin using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as template. The effect of several factors on surface area of products also had been discussed. The products were characterized by FTIR, HRTEM and N2 adsorption and desorption isotherm plot methods. There was typical structure as Si-O, Si-OH and Si-O-Si of mesoporous materials in the framework of synthesized materials; the pore size distributions of the products showed a sharp peak at 3.82 nm. The effect of hydrothermal treatment time and the amount of template on the specific surface area of mesoporous materials was important, when the Surf/Si = 0.135, and hydrothermal time = 12 h, and the surface area of the product reached up to 1 070 m2/g, which was higher than other products.

  2. The coordinated control of SVC and excitation of generators Using Adaptive Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berbaoui Brahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the feedback linearized technique and control of differential and algebraic systems, the Indirect Adaptive fuzzy excitation control is presented in this paper for SVC (static var compensator and generator excitation controllers in power systems with nonlinear loads. It can improve both the power angle stability ofgenerators and the voltage behavior at the SVC location. Simulation results shown that the proposed controller IAFLC, compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system. In addition, this system is used through the Algerian South-Western power system (SONELGAZ "Algerian electrical society" NAAMA city and BECHAR city.

  3. Exploring the Use of Adaptively Restrained Particles for Graphics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Luc Manteaux; Fran\\xe7ois Faure; Stephane Redon; Marie-Paule Cani

    2013-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we explore the use of Adaptively Restrained (AR) particles for graphics simulations. Contrary to previous methods, Adaptively Restrained Particle Simulations (ARPS) do not adapt time or space sampling, but rather switch the positional degrees of freedom of particles on and off, while letting their momenta evolve. Therefore, inter-particles forces do not have to be updated at each time step, in contrast with traditional methods that spend a lot of time ...

  4. Genetic specificity and potential for local adaptation between dengue viruses and mosquito vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Jason H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several observations support the hypothesis that vector-driven selection plays an important role in shaping dengue virus (DENV genetic diversity. Clustering of DENV genetic diversity at a particular location may reflect underlying genetic structure of vector populations, which combined with specific vector genotype × virus genotype (G × G interactions may promote adaptation of viral lineages to local mosquito vector genotypes. Although spatial structure of vector polymorphism at neutral genetic loci is well-documented, existence of G × G interactions between mosquito and virus genotypes has not been formally demonstrated in natural populations. Here we measure G × G interactions in a system representative of a natural situation in Thailand by challenging three isofemale families from field-derived Aedes aegypti with three contemporaneous low-passage isolates of DENV-1. Results Among indices of vector competence examined, the proportion of mosquitoes with a midgut infection, viral RNA concentration in the body, and quantity of virus disseminated to the head/legs (but not the proportion of infected mosquitoes with a disseminated infection strongly depended on the specific combinations of isofemale families and viral isolates, demonstrating significant G × G interactions. Conclusion Evidence for genetic specificity of interactions in our simple experimental design indicates that vector competence of Ae. aegypti for DENV is likely governed to a large extent by G × G interactions in genetically diverse, natural populations. This result challenges the general relevance of conclusions from laboratory systems that consist of a single combination of mosquito and DENV genotypes. Combined with earlier evidence for fine-scale genetic structure of natural Ae. aegypti populations, our finding indicates that the necessary conditions for local DENV adaptation to mosquito vectors are met.

  5. Learning an EMG Controlled Game: Task-Specific Adaptations and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Ludger; van der Sluis, Corry K.; van Dijk, Hylke W.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2016-01-01

    Video games that aim to improve myoelectric control (myogames) are gaining popularity and are often part of the rehabilitation process following an upper limb amputation. However, direct evidence for their effect on prosthetic skill is limited. This study aimed to determine whether and how myogaming improves EMG control and whether performance improvements transfer to a prosthesis-simulator task. Able-bodied right-handed participants (N = 28) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The intervention group was trained to control a video game (Breakout-EMG) using the myosignals of wrist flexors and extensors. Controls played a regular Mario computer game. Both groups trained 20 minutes a day for 4 consecutive days. Before and after training, two tests were conducted: one level of the Breakout-EMG game, and grasping objects with a prosthesis-simulator. Results showed a larger increase of in-game accuracy for the Breakout-EMG group than for controls. The Breakout-EMG group moreover showed increased adaptation of the EMG signal to the game. No differences were found in using a prosthesis-simulator. This study demonstrated that myogames lead to task-specific myocontrol skills. Transfer to a prosthesis task is therefore far from easy. We discuss several implications for future myogame designs. PMID:27556154

  6. Learning an EMG Controlled Game: Task-Specific Adaptations and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Ludger; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Dijk, Hylke W; Bongers, Raoul M

    2016-01-01

    Video games that aim to improve myoelectric control (myogames) are gaining popularity and are often part of the rehabilitation process following an upper limb amputation. However, direct evidence for their effect on prosthetic skill is limited. This study aimed to determine whether and how myogaming improves EMG control and whether performance improvements transfer to a prosthesis-simulator task. Able-bodied right-handed participants (N = 28) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The intervention group was trained to control a video game (Breakout-EMG) using the myosignals of wrist flexors and extensors. Controls played a regular Mario computer game. Both groups trained 20 minutes a day for 4 consecutive days. Before and after training, two tests were conducted: one level of the Breakout-EMG game, and grasping objects with a prosthesis-simulator. Results showed a larger increase of in-game accuracy for the Breakout-EMG group than for controls. The Breakout-EMG group moreover showed increased adaptation of the EMG signal to the game. No differences were found in using a prosthesis-simulator. This study demonstrated that myogames lead to task-specific myocontrol skills. Transfer to a prosthesis task is therefore far from easy. We discuss several implications for future myogame designs. PMID:27556154

  7. 3D design and electric simulation of a silicon drift detector using a spiral biasing adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-yun; Xiong, Bo; Li, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    The detector system of combining a spiral biasing adapter (SBA) with a silicon drift detector (SBA-SDD) is largely different from the traditional silicon drift detector (SDD), including the spiral SDD. It has a spiral biasing adapter of the same design as a traditional spiral SDD and an SDD with concentric rings having the same radius. Compared with the traditional spiral SDD, the SBA-SDD separates the spiral's functions of biasing adapter and the p-n junction definition. In this paper, the SBA-SDD is simulated using a Sentaurus TCAD tool, which is a full 3D device simulation tool. The simulated electric characteristics include electric potential, electric field, electron concentration, and single event effect. Because of the special design of the SBA-SDD, the SBA can generate an optimum drift electric field in the SDD, comparable with the conventional spiral SDD, while the SDD can be designed with concentric rings to reduce surface area. Also the current and heat generated in the SBA are separated from the SDD. To study the single event response, we simulated the induced current caused by incident heavy ions (20 and 50 μm penetration length) with different linear energy transfer (LET). The SBA-SDD can be used just like a conventional SDD, such as X-ray detector for energy spectroscopy and imaging, etc.

  8. Adaptive Robust Sliding Mode Vibration Control of a Flexible Beam Using Piezoceramic Sensor and Actuator: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo Lin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of an adaptive robust sliding mode control scheme based on the Lyapunov’s direct method for active vibration control of a flexible beam using PZT (lead zirconate titanate sensor and actuator. PZT, a type of piezoceramic material, has the advantages of high reliability, high bandwidth, and solid state actuation and is adopted here in forms of surface-bond patches for vibration control. Two adaptive robust sliding mode controllers for vibration suppression are designed: one uses a discontinuous bang-bang robust compensator and the other uses a smooth compensator with a hyperbolic tangent function. Both controllers guarantee asymptotic stability, as proved by the Lyapunov’s direct method. Experimental results verified the effectiveness and the robustness of both adaptive sliding mode controllers. However, from the experimental results, the bang-bang robust compensator causes small-magnitude chattering because of the discontinuous switching actions. With the smooth compensator, vibration is quickly suppressed and no chattering is induced. Furthermore, the robustness of the controllers is successfully demonstrated with ensured effectiveness in vibration control when masses are added to the flexible beam.

  9. Techniques of English Textbooks Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧雯; 杨竞欧

    2014-01-01

    This essay attempts to aim English teachers to evaluate and adapt the current English textbooks.According to different levels and majors of the students,English teachers can enhance the teaching materials and their teaching skills.This paper would provide several useful techniques for teachers to make evaluations and adaptations of using teaching materials.

  10. Examining the Domain-Specificity of Metacognition Using Academic Domains and Task-Specific Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brianna M.; Berman, Ashleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition refers to students' knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as their accuracy in predicting their academic performance. This study addressed two major questions: 1) how do metacognitive knowledge, regulation and accuracy differ across domains?, and 2) how do students' individual differences relate to their reported…

  11. Using Frustration in the Design of Adaptive Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Gilleade, Kiel; Dix, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In efforts to attract a wider audience, videogames are beginning to incorporate adaptive gameplay mechanics. Unlike the more traditional videogame, adaptive games can cater the gaming experience to the individual user and not just a particular group of users as with the former. Affective videogames, games that respond to the user's emotional state, may hold the key to creating such gameplay mechanics. In this paper we discus how the emotion frustration may be used in the design of adaptive vi...

  12. ICAN Computer Code Adapted for Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in developing composite micromechanics and macromechanics theories over the last three decades. These activities have resulted in several composite mechanics theories and structural analysis codes whose applications range from material behavior design and analysis to structural component response. One of these computer codes, the Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN), is designed primarily to address issues related to designing polymer matrix composites and predicting their properties - including hygral, thermal, and mechanical load effects. Recently, under a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with a Fortune 500 corporation, Master Builders Inc., ICAN was adapted to analyze building materials. The high costs and technical difficulties involved with the fabrication of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites sometimes limit their use. Particulate-reinforced composites can be thought of as a viable alternative. They are as easily processed to near-net shape as monolithic materials, yet have the improved stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness that is characteristic of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. For example, particlereinforced metal-matrix composites show great potential for a variety of automotive applications, such as disk brake rotors, connecting rods, cylinder liners, and other hightemperature applications. Building materials, such as concrete, can be thought of as one of the oldest materials in this category of multiphase, particle-reinforced materials. The adaptation of ICAN to analyze particle-reinforced composite materials involved the development of new micromechanics-based theories. A derivative of the ICAN code, ICAN/PART, was developed and delivered to Master Builders Inc. as a part of the cooperative activity.

  13. Model-driven transformation and validation of adaptive educational hypermedia using CAVIAr

    OpenAIRE

    Melia, Mark; Pahl, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Authoring of Adaptive Educational Hypermedia is a complex activity requiring the combination of a range of design and validation techniques.We demonstrate how Adaptive Educational Hypermedia can be transformed into CAVIAr courseware validation models allowing for its validation. The model-based representation and analysis of different concerns and model-based mappings and transformations are key contributors to this integrated solution. We illustrate the benefits of Model Driven Engineering m...

  14. Flight envelope protection of aircraft using adaptive neural network and online linearisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hohyun; Kim, Youdan

    2016-03-01

    Flight envelope protection algorithm is proposed to improve the safety of an aircraft. Flight envelope protection systems find the control inputs to prevent an aircraft from exceeding structure/aerodynamic limits and maximum control surface deflections. The future values of state variables are predicted using the current states and control inputs based on linearised aircraft model. To apply the envelope protection algorithm for the wide envelope of the aircraft, online linearisation is adopted. Finally, the flight envelope protection system is designed using adaptive neural network and least-squares method. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed scheme.

  15. Safety research program of LWR fuels and materials using the Japan materials testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power up-rates, burn-up extension and long term operation enable us to utilize Light Water Reactors efficiently. This will have the fuels and structural materials exposed to severe operational condition for a longer period, which can affect their integrity. Continuous researches for solving irradiation-related issues on the fuels for high-duty uses and the plant aging are essential in order to realize the up-graded uses of LWR safely. Japanese regulator has decided to install new irradiation test facilities in the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). For the fuels tests, transient tests facility is being constructed for the power transient tests of new design BWR fuels. For the materials tests, the irradiation test loops under well controlled environment simulating BWR water chemistry condition and a large irradiation capsule, which can accommodate 1 inch-thickness compact tension specimens in an inert gas environment, are being prepared for the researches on stress corrosion cracking and irradiation embrittlement, respectively. These fuels and materials irradiation tests will be started in 2011 after refurbishment of JMTR. (author)

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CIVIL ENGINEERING WITH REGARD TO THE USE OF ECO AND NANO MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC MILOS Z.; DJORIC-VELJKOVIC SNEZANA M.; KARAMARKOVIC JUGOSLAV P.

    2015-01-01

    The looks of any environment, the identity of which is expressed through its form, structure and color, is one of the most significant characteristics of any area. The first structures that catch the observer's eye are buildings and urban structures. People have always attached importance to the choice of building materials and interior design. Materials used have been specific for certain regions. In the era of modern technology and the expansion of new technical advances, the man and his en...

  17. Tractography of the parahippocampal gyrus and material specific memory impairment in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Yogarajah, M.; Powell, H.W.R.; Parker, G J M; Alexander, D. C.; Thompson, P J; Symms, M.R.; Boulby, P.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.A.; Barker, G.J.; Koepp, M J.; Duncan, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with disrupted memory function. The structural changes underlying this memory impairment have not been demonstrated previously with tractography.Methods: We performed a tractography analysis of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scans in 18 patients with unilateral TLE undergoing presurgical evaluation, and in 10 healthy controls. A seed region in the anterior parahippocampal gyrus was selected from which to trace the white matter con...

  18. Exotic properties of neutrinos using effective Lagrangians and specific models

    CERN Document Server

    Aparici, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation presents several works on nonstandard properties of neutrinos exploiting the synergies between effective field theory and models. The phenomena are first analysed by means of effective operators, which allow to discuss their phenomenological consequences and to derive estimations about the mass scale of the heavy particles needed to induce the new interactions. In a second phase we propose models that realise the effective operators, allowing us to check the conclusions of effective field theory as well as to extract new phenomenological features of the scenarios considered. The text is divided into two parts: in the first one we apply these ideas to an effective interaction that generates magnetic dipole moments for right-handed neutrinos, and in the second one we discuss a family of operators that violate lepton number without quarks, and which can allow for large rates of neutrinoless double $\\beta$ decay and small neutrino masses. The right-handed neutrino magnetic moments have ...

  19. Performance assessment of electric power generations using an adaptive neural network algorithm and fuzzy DEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javaheri, Zahra

    2010-09-15

    Modeling, evaluating and analyzing performance of Iranian thermal power plants is the main goal of this study which is based on multi variant methods analysis. These methods include fuzzy DEA and adaptive neural network algorithm. At first, we determine indicators, then data is collected, next we obtained values of ranking and efficiency by Fuzzy DEA, Case study is thermal power plants In view of the fact that investment to establish on power plant is very high, and maintenance of power plant causes an expensive expenditure, moreover using fossil fuel effected environment hence optimum produce of current power plants is important.

  20. Characterization of geological materials using ion and photon beams.

    CERN Document Server

    Torok, S B; Tuniz, C

    1998-01-01

    Geological specimens are often complex materials that require different analytical methods for their characterization. The parameters of interest may include the chemical composition of major, minor and trace elements. The chemical compounds incorporated in the minerals, the crystal structure and isotopic composition need to be considered. Specimens may be highly heterogeneous thus necessitating analytical methods capable of measurements on small sample volumes with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. Much essential information on geological materials can be obtained by using ion or photon beams. In this chapter we describe the principal analytical techniques based on particle accelerators, showing some applications that are hardly possible with conventional methods. In particular, the following techniques will be discussed: (1) Synchrotron radiation (SR) induced X-ray emission (SRIXE) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PEE) and other ion beam techniques for trace element analysis. (2) Accelerator mass...

  1. Design of Meta-Materials Outside the Homogenization Limit Using Multiscale Analysis and Topology Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Christopher

    The field of meta-materials engineering has largely expanded mechanical design possibilities over the last two decades; some notable design advances include the systematic engineering of negative Poisson's ratio materials and functionally graded materials, materials designed for optimal electronic and thermo-mechanical performances, and the design of materials under uncertainty. With these innovations, the systematic engineering of materials for design-specific uses is becoming more common in industrial and military uses. The motivation for this body of research is the design of the shear beam for a non-pneumatic wheel. Previously, a design optimization of a finite element model of the non-pneumatic wheel was completed, where a linear elastic material was simulated in the shear beam to reduce hysteretic energy losses. As part of the optimization, a set of optimal orthotropic material properties and other geometric properties were identified for the shear beam. Given that no such natural linear elastic material exists, a meta-material can be engineered that meets these properties using the aforementioned tools. However, manufacturing constraints prevent the use of standard homogenization analysis and optimization tools in the engineering of the shear beam due to limitations in the accuracy of the homogenization process for thin materials. In this research, the more general volume averaging analysis is shown to be an accurate tool for meta-material analysis for engineering thin-layered materials. Given an accurate analysis method, several optimization formulations are proposed, and optimality conditions are derived to determine the most mathematically feasible and numerically reliable formulation for topology optimization of a material design problem using a continuous material interpolation over the design domain. This formulation is implemented to engineer meta-materials for problems using the volume averaging analysis, which includes the use of variable linking

  2. Adaptation and security validation of an irradiator suitable for use of cesium-137 sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Rogério M.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of offering a new application for 137Cs sources that were previously used in brachytherapy, we developed an irradiator for TL and OSL dosimeters by adapting a shielded storage container; this irradiator was named SOPHIA. It was assembled from a cubic iron casing, filled with lead, with external dimensions of 25 × 25 × 25 cm3. It has three different drawers with two sample holders suitable for samples or dosimeters with dimensions of up to 2 cm. Dose distribution of the surface of sample holder was obtained with EBT-3 radiochromic film and detectors thermoluminescent CaSO4: Dy. Regarding the security conditions of irradiation, the whole routine procedure for placement and removal of samples was simulated using Monte Carlo code. The equipment presented proper security conditions and the doses received by users during procedures for placement and extraction of the samples are in accordance with international standards.

  3. Locomotor Experience and Use of Social Information Are Posture Specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Ishak, Shaziela; Karasik, Lana B.; Lobo, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of locomotor experience on infants' perceptual judgments in a potentially risky situation--descending steep and shallow slopes--while manipulating social incentives to determine where perceptual judgments are most malleable. Twelve-month-old experienced crawlers and novice walkers were tested on an adjustable…

  4. Sorting of pistachio nuts using image processing techniques and an adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Abdollahnejad Barough

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most important agricultural products of Iran and it is priced due to the quality and type. One of the significant factors of pistachio cost is its type in terms of shell. Filled split pistachio nut has the most quality and is utilized as nuts, while the closed shell type has lower cost, at the same time is economically efficient in food industry such as confectionery. Now, pistachio sorting is performed usually by human and sometimes using electromechanical apparatuses. Classification of pistachio by human is time consuming and is done with an unacceptable accuracy, on the other hand, electromechanical and electro optical apparatuses damages pistachio because the mechanism used in them while separating. So, the need to develop automated systems that could be implemented by intelligent ways is evident to increase the speed and accuracy of classification. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 samples of pistachios contains 100 Filled split, 100 Filled non-split and 100 split blank nuts ones are used. The training set consisted of 60 samples of each type of opened nuts, closed and empty opened shell nuts a total of 180 samples and the evaluation set consisted of 40 samples of each type of opened shell, closed shell and empty opened shell nuts a total of 120 samples. The principle of this study is implemented in two steps: 1 sample imaging and image processing to extract features 2 fuzzy network design based on the characteristics of data and training. To select useful features from the hypothesis, C4.5 decision tree is used. C4.5 algorithm makes a greedy top to bottom search on the hypothesis, and is made by the question what feature must be at the root of the tree. By the help of statistical methods, extracted features from the images were prioritized and the most appropriate features for classification of training set were selected. The algorithm chooses the best features as their number is minimum

  5. Investigation and Comparison of Recording Time of Steady State Evoked Potentials Using Three Methods of Kalman, Ziarani and adaptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Mehri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing assessment in infants and children younger than two years is an impor­tant issue, because the golden time of the language learning and speaking is under the age of two. Steady state auditory evoked potentials (SSAEPs is one of the best ways of the objective hearing assess­ment for infants and young children. The need for long time of stimulation and recording re­stricted the clinical uses of this method. Therefore, the reduction of the recording time is a common prob­lem. SSAEP signals are contaminated with background EEG signals of the brain and nervous sys­tem. To discriminate these signals the approach is using averaging method.Materials and Methods: In this work two adaptive methods were programmed and tried on (SSAEP sig­nals. The first method was the work of the Ziarani et al. and the second was the enhanced Kalman fil­ter. To assess suggested methods and to compare them with traditional averaging one, two sets of clini­cal signals prepared with Rotmen research group in university of Toronto were applied. Results: The speed of the extraction of the SSAEP signals with the Ziarani method is 1.6 times faster than the averaging method. The extraction time of the enhanced adaptive Kalman filter is 13.1 times faster than currently used averaging methods. Conclusion: The Kalman filter method seems to be more reliable than the other two methods. In addi­tion, this new application of the Kalman filter in hearing assessment could be more beneficial and faster than other methods as an objective method.

  6. Reading Materials Adaption for English Language Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to the observance of ELT (English Language Training)classes in China, the selection of reading materials becomes a big problem. Most teachers there are in a traditional way of following the textbooks, and regard texts given in those books as the sole resource of teaching materials. However, those texts are not ideal for all situations, and when there are problems, we need to make improvements instead of sticking to the authority of textbooks. In this paper the author will illustrate the necessity of adapting reading textbooks mainly in a Chinese ELT context and set forth some corresponding suggestions about adaption in differ- ent cases.

  7. Adaptive wave filtering for dynamic positioning of marine vessels using maximum likelihood identification: Theory and experiments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hassani, V.; Sorensen, A.J.; Pascoal, A.M.

    parameter. The proposed adaptive wave filter borrows from maximum likelihood identification techniques. The general form of the logarithmic likelihood function is derived and the dominant wave frequency (the uncertain parameter) is identified by maximizing...

  8. Specific and rapid analysis of ubiquinones using Craven's reaction and HPLC with postcolumn derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Haruo; Kodjabachian, David; Ishida, Masami

    2007-09-01

    A new method for the analysis of ubiquinones in various samples was developed using an HPLC system with postcolumn derivatization. Craven's reaction, a specific color reaction for the analysis of ubiquinones, was used in the system. Because the reaction progressed in organic solvents that contained ubiquinones and ethylcyanoacetate under an alkaline condition, the selectivity for ubiquinone detection was higher than that for ubiquinone detection using the nonderivatized ultraviolet detection system at 275 nm, a system widely used for the analysis of ubiquinones. The new detection system can avoid the adverse effects of impurities. Furthermore, it can confirm specificity by stopping the color reaction under a neutral condition. The detection limit for ubiquinone-10 was 1 ng (1.2 pmol). A good linearity for the calibration curve was observed in the range of 11.7 pmol to 11.7 nmol. To investigate the possible application of this method, various samples, such as soybean capsules used as a dietary supplement and biological materials (rice as well as bovine plasma and liver samples), were applied to the system and their ubiquinone contents were quantified. This method is thought to be widely and conveniently applicable for determining the level of ubiquinones because of its high selectivity for ubiquinone detection. PMID:17579247

  9. Despeckling of medical ultrasound images using data and rate adaptive lossy compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Swamy, M N S; Plotkin, Eugene

    2005-06-01

    A novel technique for despeckling the medical ultrasound images using lossy compression is presented. The logarithm of the input image is first transformed to the multiscale wavelet domain. It is then shown that the subband coefficients of the log-transformed ultrasound image can be successfully modeled using the generalized Laplacian distribution. Based on this modeling, a simple adaptation of the zero-zone and reconstruction levels of the uniform threshold quantizer is proposed in order to achieve simultaneous despeckling and quantization. This adaptation is based on: (1) an estimate of the corrupting speckle noise level in the image; (2) the estimated statistics of the noise-free subband coefficients; and (3) the required compression rate. The Laplacian distribution is considered as a special case of the generalized Laplacian distribution and its efficacy is demonstrated for the problem under consideration. Context-based classification is also applied to the noisy coefficients to enhance the performance of the subband coder. Simulation results using a contrast detail phantom image and several real ultrasound images are presented. To validate the performance of the proposed scheme, comparison with two two-stage schemes, wherein the speckled image is first filtered and then compressed using the state-of-the-art JPEG2000 encoder, is presented. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme works better, both in terms of the signal to noise ratio and the visual quality. PMID:15957598

  10. Considering adaptation and the 'function' of traits in the classroom, using wiki tools

    OpenAIRE

    Rands, SA

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of the process of adaptation (whereby a population becomes better suited to its environment over evolutionary time) is acknowledged to be a difficult one. Many studies have shown that there is an inherent misunderstanding of the term, which is often related to the learner adopting the common rather than biological usage of the term in the learner’s language. But understanding adaptation is essential to understanding evolution, and learners need to be encouraged to...

  11. Processing of pulse oximeter signals using adaptive filtering and autocorrelation to isolate perfusion and oxygenation components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibey, Bennett; Subramanian, Hariharan; Ericson, Nance; Xu, Weijian; Wilson, Mark; Cote, Gerard L.

    2005-03-01

    A blood perfusion and oxygenation sensor has been developed for in situ monitoring of transplanted organs. In processing in situ data, motion artifacts due to increased perfusion can create invalid oxygenation saturation values. In order to remove the unwanted artifacts from the pulsatile signal, adaptive filtering was employed using a third wavelength source centered at 810nm as a reference signal. The 810 nm source resides approximately at the isosbestic point in the hemoglobin absorption curve where the absorbance of light is nearly equal for oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. Using an autocorrelation based algorithm oxygenation saturation values can be obtained without the need for large sampling data sets allowing for near real-time processing. This technique has been shown to be more reliable than traditional techniques and proven to adequately improve the measurement of oxygenation values in varying perfusion states.

  12. Optimization of Natural Frequencies and Sound Power of Beams Using Functionally Graded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel T. Alshabatat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design method to optimize the material distribution of functionally graded beams with respect to some vibration and acoustic properties. The change of the material distribution through the beam length alters the stiffness and the mass of the beam. This can be used to alter a specific beam natural frequency. It can also be used to reduce the sound power radiated from the vibrating beam. Two novel volume fraction laws are used to describe the material volume distributions through the length of the FGM beam. The proposed method couples the finite element method (for the modal and harmonic analysis, Lumped Parameter Model (for calculating the power of sound radiation, and an optimization technique based on Genetic Algorithm. As a demonstration of this technique, the optimization procedure is applied to maximize the fundamental frequency of FGM cantilever and clamped beams and to minimize the sound radiation from vibrating clamped FGM beam at a specific frequency.

  13. Adaptable Web Modules to Stimulate Active Learning in Engineering Hydrology using Data and Model Simulations of Three Regional Hydrologic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, E. H.; Tarboton, D. G.; Lall, U.; Bodin, M.; Rahill-Marier, B.; Chimmula, S.; Meselhe, E. A.; Ali, A.; Williams, D.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    server-based system. Open source web technologies and community-based tools are used to facilitate wide dissemination and adaptation by diverse, independent institutions. The new hydrologic learning modules are based on recent developments in hydrologic modeling, data, and resources. The modules are embedded in three regional-scale ecosystems, Coastal Louisiana, Florida Everglades, and Utah Great Salt Lake Basin. These sites provide a wealth of hydrologic concepts and scenarios that can be used in most water resource and hydrology curricula. The study develops several learning modules based on the three hydro-systems covering subjects such as: water-budget analysis, effects of human and natural changes, climate-hydrology teleconnections, and water-resource management scenarios. The new developments include an instructional interface to give critical guidance and support to the learner and an instructor's guide containing adaptation and implementation procedures to assist instructors in adopting and integrating the material into courses and provide a consistent experience. The design of the new hydrologic education developments will be transferable to independent institutions and adaptable both instructionally and technically through a server system capable of supporting additional developments by the educational community.

  14. An Adaptive Updating Topic Specific Web Search System Using T-Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main goal of a Web crawler is to collect documents that are relevant to a given topic in which the search engine specializes. These topic specific search systems typically take the whole document's content in predicting the importance of an unvisited link. But current research had proven that the document's content pointed to by an unvisited link is mainly dependent on the anchor text, which is more accurate than predicting it on the contents of the whole page. Approach: Between these two extremes, it was proposed that Treasure Graph, called T-Graph is a more effective way to guide the Web crawler to fetch topic specific documents predicted by identifying the topic boundary around the unvisited link and comparing that text with all the nodes of the T-Graph to obtain the matching node(s and calculating the distance in the form of documents to be downloaded to reach the target documents. Results: Web search systems based on this strategy allowed crawlers and robots to update their experiences more rapidly and intelligently that can also offer speed of access and presentation advantages. Conclusion/Recommendations: The consequences of visiting a link to update a robot's experiences based on the principles and usage of T-Graph can be deployed as intelligent-knowledge Web crawlers as shown by the proposed novel Web search system architecture.

  15. Connecting climate social adaptation and land use change in internationally adjoining protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rodríguez Solórzano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of climate adaptation strategies to address social problems derived from climate change is pressing. Yet, in addition to providing means to minimise the impact of climate variability and change on livelihoods, climate adaptation strategies might exacerbate environmental change and cause negative social impacts. Systematic research has not addressed the impacts of adaptation on environmental change. In this paper, I focus on land use change as a specific type of environmental change and on three adaptation strategies: diversification, pooling and out-migration. I analyse the influence of adaptation strategies on land use change by drawing on interviews with the managers of 56 internationally adjoining protected areas in 18 countries in the Americas. The findings indicate that the impact of adaptation depends on the adaptation strategy people choose. When people out-migrate, land use change increases. Community elite control for decision-making, shorter distances between communities and markets and more communities in and around the protected areas also increase land use change. These findings show that adaptation can be a driver of further environmental change, and thus further study is needed to understand the likely impacts of adaptation on conservation.

  16. Building Energy Efficiency and the Use of Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Luo

    To become a country of energy saving, consumption reduction, low carbon emissions and life has become a national policy background, we need to convert conception of architectural aesthetics and make necessary adjustments and consciousness. Techniques and methods of support, or method of the research are still needed in the construction, building energy conservation, the environmental protection, low carbon and recycling methods are taken measures. Developing, finding and adopingt "native" and "primary" processed materials, or in which inject new technology to form new material is an effective approach to ensure more ways from environmental protection, energy-saving building and building materials in such ideas to implement.

  17. Remediation of AMD using natural and waste material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basir, Nur Athirah Mohamad; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan [Pusat pengajian Sains Sekitaran dan Sumber Alam, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is highly acidic, sulphate rich and frequently carries a high transition metal and heavy metal burden. These AMD's eventually migrate into streams and rivers and impact negatively on the quality of these water bodies. So it is dire necessary to treat this AMD. Various materials such as ladle furnace slag (LFS), bentonite, zeolite, active carbon and kaolinite are currently available to remove heavy metals from contaminated water. All these materials are capable to rise up the pH value and adsorb heavy metals. The process is divided into two stages; screening test and tank experiment. Screening test is conduct by using Batch Equilibrium Test (BET), X-Ray Fluorescene (XRF) identification also Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) characteristic. The results showed that all the concentration of heavy metal are decreasing extremely and pH value rise up except for kaolinite. From screening test only ladle furnace slag, bentonite, zeolite and active carbon are chosen for the tank experiment. Tank experiment design with 18cm (H) X 15cm (L) X 15cm (H) was made by silica glass. All these treatment materials were stirred in the tank for 30 days. Initial pH for all tanks is 2.4 and after 30 days is changing into 6.11, 3.91, 2.98 and 2.71 for LFS, bentonite, active carbon as well as zeolite respectively. LFS is the best material for absorption of Zn, Mn and Cu in the synthetic solution. Meanwhile, bentonite is the best absorbent for Ni, Fe and Cd. The conclusion shows that LFS might have big potentials to control AMD pollution base on neutralize pH resulting in a great improvement in the quality of the water.

  18. Specific heat capacity and emissivity measurements of ribbon-shaped graphite using pulse current heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement method for specific heat capacity and hemispherical total emissivity of electrically conductive materials with pulse current heating is investigated, in which a ribbon-shaped sample is heated up to 3000 K in a subsecond-duration experiment. Specific heat capacity and hemispherical total emissivity of the sample are calculated from the time variations of heat generation and surface temperature of the sample measured during heating and cooling phases. The true surface temperature of the ribbon-shaped sample is obtained with a radiation thermometer, the directional spectral emissivity of the sample surface is measured using a hemispherical mirror centered at the sample surface. Measurements are performed for POCO AXM-5Q1 graphite in the temperature range from 1500 to 3000 K

  19. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Mrinal K.; Sarma, D. K.; B. C. DAS; Deka, P.; Kalita, D.; Dutta, J. B.; Mahato, G.; S Sarma; Roychoudhury, P

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV) vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA) in piglets of vaccinated sows. Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0) and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days af...

  20. Development of three-dimensional hydrodynamical and MHD codes using Adaptive Mesh Refinement scheme with TVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    den, M.; Yamashita, K.; Ogawa, T.

    A three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical (HD) and magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulation codes using an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) scheme are developed. This method places fine grids over areas of interest such as shock waves in order to obtain high resolution and places uniform grids with lower resolution in other area. Thus AMR scheme can provide a combination of high solution accuracy and computational robustness. We demonstrate numerical results for a simplified model of a shock propagation, which strongly indicate that the AMR techniques have the ability to resolve disturbances in an interplanetary space. We also present simulation results for MHD code.

  1. The relative magnitude of transgene-specific adaptive immune responses induced by human and chimpanzee adenovirus vectors differs between laboratory animals and a target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Matthew D J; Guzman, Efrain; Spencer, Alexandra J; Gilbert, Sarah C; Charleston, Bryan; Hill, Adrian V S; Cottingham, Matthew G

    2015-02-25

    Adenovirus vaccine vectors generated from new viral serotypes are routinely screened in pre-clinical laboratory animal models to identify the most immunogenic and efficacious candidates for further evaluation in clinical human and veterinary settings. Here, we show that studies in a laboratory species do not necessarily predict the hierarchy of vector performance in other mammals. In mice, after intramuscular immunization, HAdV-5 (Human adenovirus C) based vectors elicited cellular and humoral adaptive responses of higher magnitudes compared to the chimpanzee adenovirus vectors ChAdOx1 and AdC68 from species Human adenovirus E. After HAdV-5 vaccination, transgene specific IFN-γ(+) CD8(+) T cell responses reached peak magnitude later than after ChAdOx1 and AdC68 vaccination, and exhibited a slower contraction to a memory phenotype. In cattle, cellular and humoral immune responses were at least equivalent, if not higher, in magnitude after ChAdOx1 vaccination compared to HAdV-5. Though we have not tested protective efficacy in a disease model, these findings have important implications for the selection of candidate vectors for further evaluation. We propose that vaccines based on ChAdOx1 or other Human adenovirus E serotypes could be at least as immunogenic as current licensed bovine vaccines based on HAdV-5.

  2. Plasma protein corona modulates the vascular wall interaction of drug carriers in a material and donor specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Sobczynski

    Full Text Available The nanoscale plasma protein interaction with intravenously injected particulate carrier systems is known to modulate their organ distribution and clearance from the bloodstream. However, the role of this plasma protein interaction in prescribing the adhesion of carriers to the vascular wall remains relatively unknown. Here, we show that the adhesion of vascular-targeted poly(lactide-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA spheres to endothelial cells is significantly inhibited in human blood flow, with up to 90% reduction in adhesion observed relative to adhesion in simple buffer flow, depending on the particle size and the magnitude and pattern of blood flow. This reduced PLGA adhesion in blood flow is linked to the adsorption of certain high molecular weight plasma proteins on PLGA and is donor specific, where large reductions in particle adhesion in blood flow (>80% relative to buffer is seen with ∼60% of unique donor bloods while others exhibit moderate to no reductions. The depletion of high molecular weight immunoglobulins from plasma is shown to successfully restore PLGA vascular wall adhesion. The observed plasma protein effect on PLGA is likely due to material characteristics since the effect is not replicated with polystyrene or silica spheres. These particles effectively adhere to the endothelium at a higher level in blood over buffer flow. Overall, understanding how distinct plasma proteins modulate the vascular wall interaction of vascular-targeted carriers of different material characteristics would allow for the design of highly functional delivery vehicles for the treatment of many serious human diseases.

  3. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes

  4. Development and application of a new method for specific and sensitive enumeration of spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum types B, E, and F in foods and food materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael W; Plowman, June; Aldus, Clare F; Wyatt, Gary M; Izurieta, Walter Penaloza; Stringer, Sandra C; Barker, Gary C

    2010-10-01

    The highly potent botulinum neurotoxins are responsible for botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease. Strains of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum form neurotoxins of types B, E, and F and are the main hazard associated with minimally heated refrigerated foods. Recent developments in quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) and food safety objectives (FSO) have made food safety more quantitative and include, as inputs, probability distributions for the contamination of food materials and foods. A new method that combines a selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR has been developed and validated to enumerate specifically the spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum. Key features of this new method include the following: (i) it is specific for nonproteolytic C. botulinum (and does not detect proteolytic C. botulinum), (ii) the detection limit has been determined for each food tested (using carefully structured control samples), and (iii) a low detection limit has been achieved by the use of selective enrichment and large test samples. The method has been used to enumerate spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum in 637 samples of 19 food materials included in pasta-based minimally heated refrigerated foods and in 7 complete foods. A total of 32 samples (5 egg pastas and 27 scallops) contained spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum type B or F. The majority of samples contained <100 spores/kg, but one sample of scallops contained 444 spores/kg. Nonproteolytic C. botulinum type E was not detected. Importantly, for QMRA and FSO, the construction of probability distributions will enable the frequency of packs containing particular levels of contamination to be determined.

  5. Sample preparation and biomass determination of SRF model mixture using cryogenic milling and the adapted balance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnöller, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.schnoeller@chello.at; Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Hahn, Manuel; Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • An alternative sample comminution procedure for SRF is tested. • Proof of principle is shown on a SRF model mixture. • The biogenic content of the SRF is analyzed with the adapted balance method. • The novel method combines combustion analysis and a data reconciliation algorithm. • Factors for the variance of the analysis results are statistically quantified. - Abstract: The biogenic fraction of a simple solid recovered fuel (SRF) mixture (80 wt% printer paper/20 wt% high density polyethylene) is analyzed with the in-house developed adapted balance method (aBM). This fairly new approach is a combination of combustion elemental analysis (CHNS) and a data reconciliation algorithm based on successive linearisation for evaluation of the analysis results. This method shows a great potential as an alternative way to determine the biomass content in SRF. However, the employed analytical technique (CHNS elemental analysis) restricts the probed sample mass to low amounts in the range of a few hundred milligrams. This requires sample comminution to small grain sizes (<200 μm) to generate representative SRF specimen. This is not easily accomplished for certain material mixtures (e.g. SRF with rubber content) by conventional means of sample size reduction. This paper presents a proof of principle investigation of the sample preparation and analysis of an SRF model mixture with the use of cryogenic impact milling (final sample comminution) and the adapted balance method (determination of biomass content). The so derived sample preparation methodology (cutting mills and cryogenic impact milling) shows a better performance in accuracy and precision for the determination of the biomass content than one solely based on cutting mills. The results for the determination of the biogenic fraction are within 1–5% of the data obtained by the reference methods, selective dissolution method (SDM) and {sup 14}C-method ({sup 14}C-M)

  6. Adaptation of a Digitally Predistorted RF Amplifier Using Selective Sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Neil Braithwaite

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a reduced-cost method of measuring residual nonlinearities in an adaptive digitally predistorted amplifier is proposed. Measurements obtained by selective sampling of the amplifier output are integrated over the input envelope range to adapt a fourth-order polynomial predistorter with memory correction. Results for a WCDMA input with a 101 carrier configuration show that a transmitter using the proposed method can meet the adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) specification. Inverse modeling of the nonlinearity is proposed as a future extension that will reduce the cost of the system further.

  7. Compulsive Use of Internet-based Sexually Explicit Media: Adaptation and Validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antebi, Nadav; Schrimshaw, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM) may contribute to greater numbers of sexual partners, sexual risk taking, greater interest in group sex, and lower self-esteem among men who have sex with men (MSM), research has not addressed compulsive use of Internet-based SEM due to the lack of a validated measure for this population. This report investigates the psychometric properties of the 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS; Meerkerk, van den Eijnden, Vermulst, & Garretsen, 2009) adapted to assess the severity of compulsive Internet SEM use. A total of 265 Internet SEM-viewing MSM participated in an online survey about their SEM preferences, viewing habits, and recent sexual behaviors. A principal components analysis revealed a single-component, 13-item scale to adequately assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of this phenomenon, with a high internal consistency (α = .92). Greater compulsive use of Internet SEM was positively correlated with several relevant variables including boredom, sexual frustration, time spent viewing Internet SEM, and number of recent male sexual partners. The results offer preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of using an adapted version of the CIUS to understand compulsive Internet SEM use, and allow for more research into the potential negative consequences of compulsive SEM use. PMID:24679612

  8. Adaptive Evolution of cry Genes in Bacillus thuringiensis:Implications for Their Specificity Determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cry gene family, produced during the late exponential phase of growth in Bacillus thuringiensis, is a large, still-growing family of homologous genes, in which each gene encodes a protein with strong specific activity against only one or a few insect species. Extensive studies are mostly focusing on the structural and functional relationships of Cry proteins, and have revealed several residues or domains that are important for the target recognition and receptor attachment. In this study,we have employed a maximum likelihood method to detect evidence of adaptive evolution in Cry proteins, and have identified 24 positively selected residues, which are all located in Domain Ⅱ or Ⅲ. Combined with known data from mutagenesis studies, the majority of these residues, at the molecular level, contribute much to the insect specificity determination. We postulate that the potential pressures driving the diversification of Cry proteins may be in an attempt to adapt for the "arm race" between δ-endotoxins and the targeted insects, or to enlarge their target spectra, hence result in the functional divergence. The sites identified to be under positive selection would provide targets for further structural and functional analyses on Cry proteins.

  9. Development of Roofing Sheet Material Using Groundnut Shell Particles and Epoxy Resin as Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Olaitan AKINDAPO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work is on the development of roofing sheet material using groundnut shell particles and epoxy resin as composite material. Three different samples of roofing sheets “A”, “B” and “C” were prepared and produced from three different weight particle length sizes of 0.5mm, 1mm and 1.5mm at a weight ratio of 70:30 between epoxy and groundnut shell. The sample roofing sheets were cast manually and the rate of water absorption, tensile strength, impact and flexural strength due to bending and deflection were all experimentally evaluated. The sample specimen A with a particle length of 0.5mm have the lowest rate of water absorptivity value of 8.3% ,with the highest impact value of 29.65KJ/m 2 . Likewise sample B with a particle length of 1mm have the highest ductility and tensile strength of 2.356mm and 8.25N/mm2 respectively. The results revealed that Groundnut shell particles can be used as reinforcement for polymer matrix for the production of roofing sheets. Sample “A” was adopted in this work because of its excellence performance properties

  10. Quantification of biophysical adaptation benefits from Climate-Smart Agriculture using a Bayesian Belief Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Patrick J.; Berry, Nicholas J.; Wells, Geoff J.; Reay, Dave S.

    2014-10-01

    The need for smallholder farmers to adapt their practices to a changing climate is well recognised, particularly in Africa. The cost of adapting to climate change in Africa is estimated to be $20 to $30 billion per year, but the total amount pledged to finance adaptation falls significantly short of this requirement. The difficulty of assessing and monitoring when adaptation is achieved is one of the key barriers to the disbursement of performance-based adaptation finance. To demonstrate the potential of Bayesian Belief Networks for describing the impacts of specific activities on climate change resilience, we developed a simple model that incorporates climate projections, local environmental data, information from peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion to account for the adaptation benefits derived from Climate-Smart Agriculture activities in Malawi. This novel approach allows assessment of vulnerability to climate change under different land use activities and can be used to identify appropriate adaptation strategies and to quantify biophysical adaptation benefits from activities that are implemented. We suggest that multiple-indicator Bayesian Belief Network approaches can provide insights into adaptation planning for a wide range of applications and, if further explored, could be part of a set of important catalysts for the expansion of adaptation finance.

  11. Robust Cell Detection of Histopathological Brain Tumor Images Using Sparse Reconstruction and Adaptive Dictionary Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai; Xing, Fuyong; Yang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Successful diagnostic and prognostic stratification, treatment outcome prediction, and therapy planning depend on reproducible and accurate pathology analysis. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) is a useful tool to help doctors make better decisions in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Accurate cell detection is often an essential prerequisite for subsequent cellular analysis. The major challenge of robust brain tumor nuclei/cell detection is to handle significant variations in cell appearance and to split touching cells. In this paper, we present an automatic cell detection framework using sparse reconstruction and adaptive dictionary learning. The main contributions of our method are: 1) A sparse reconstruction based approach to split touching cells; 2) An adaptive dictionary learning method used to handle cell appearance variations. The proposed method has been extensively tested on a data set with more than 2000 cells extracted from 32 whole slide scanned images. The automatic cell detection results are compared with the manually annotated ground truth and other state-of-the-art cell detection algorithms. The proposed method achieves the best cell detection accuracy with a F1 score = 0.96.

  12. Challenges and limitations of patient-specific vascular phantom fabrication using 3D Polyjet printing

    OpenAIRE

    Ionita, Ciprian N.; Mokin, Maxim; Varble, Nicole; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Xiang, Jianping; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology offers a great opportunity towards development of patient-specific vascular anatomic models, for medical device testing and physiological condition evaluation. However, the development process is not yet well established and there are various limitations depending on the printing materials, the technology and the printer resolution. Patient-specific neuro-vascular anatomy was acquired from computed tomography angiography and rotational digital s...

  13. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2012 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 12) (Stone Mountain, GA, USA, 19-21 September 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelecke, Stefan; Erturk, Alper; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Naguib, Hani; Huber, John; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Philen, Michael; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu

    2013-09-01

    The fifth annual meeting of the ASME/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) was held in beautiful Stone Mountain near Atlanta, GA. It is the conference's objective to provide an up-to-date overview of research trends in the entire field of smart materials systems. This was reflected in keynote speeches by Professor Eduard Arzt (Institute of New Materials and Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany) on 'Micro-patterned artificial 'Gecko' surfaces: a path to switchable adhesive function', by Professor Ray H Baughman (The Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas) on 'The diverse and growing family of carbon nanotube and related artificial muscles', and by Professor Richard James (University of Minnesota) on 'The direct conversion of heat to electricity using multiferroic materials with phase transformations'. SMASIS 2012 was divided into eight symposia which span basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. • SYMP 1. Development and characterization of multifunctional materials. • SYMP 2. Mechanics and behavior of active materials. • SYMP 3. Modeling, simulation and control of adaptive systems. • SYMP 4. Integrated system design and implementation. • SYMP 5. Structural health monitoring/NDE. • SYMP 6. Bio-inspired materials and systems. • SYMP 7. Energy harvesting. • SYMP 8. Structural and materials logic. This year we were particularly excited to introduce a new symposium on energy harvesting, which has quickly matured from a special track in previous years to an independent symposium for the first time. The subject cuts across fields by studying different materials, ranging from piezoelectrics to electroactive polymers, as well as by emphasizing different energy sources from wind to waves and ambient vibrations. Modeling, experimental studies, and technology applications all

  14. Programming of adaptive repair process chains using repair features and function blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Spöcker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current trends of product customization and repair of high value parts with individual defects demand automation and a high degree of flexibility of the involved manufacturing process chains. To determine the corresponding requirements this paper gives an overview of manufacturing process chains by distinguishing between horizontal and vertical process chains. The established way of modeling and programming processes with CAx systems and existing approaches is shown. Furthermore, the different types of possible adaptions of a manufacturing process chain are shown and considered as a cascaded control loop. Following this it is discussed which key requirements of repair process chains are unresolved by existing approaches. To overcome the deficits this paper introduces repair features which comprise the idea of geometric features and defines analytical auxiliary geometries based on the measurement input data. This meets challenges normally caused by working directly on reconstructed geometries in the form of triangulated surfaces which are prone to artifacts. Embedded into function blocks, this allows the use of traditional approaches for manufacturing process chains to be applied to adaptive repair process chains.

  15. Challenges and limitations of patient-specific vascular phantom fabrication using 3D Polyjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Ciprian N.; Mokin, Maxim; Varble, Nicole; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Xiang, Jianping; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology offers a great opportunity towards development of patient-specific vascular anatomic models, for medical device testing and physiological condition evaluation. However, the development process is not yet well established and there are various limitations depending on the printing materials, the technology and the printer resolution. Patient-specific neuro-vascular anatomy was acquired from computed tomography angiography and rotational digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The volumes were imported into a Vitrea 3D workstation (Vital Images Inc.) and the vascular lumen of various vessels and pathologies were segmented using a "marching cubes" algorithm. The results were exported as Stereo Lithographic (STL) files and were further processed by smoothing, trimming, and wall extrusion (to add a custom wall to the model). The models were printed using a Polyjet printer, Eden 260V (Objet-Stratasys). To verify the phantom geometry accuracy, the phantom was reimaged using rotational DSA, and the new data was compared with the initial patient data. The most challenging part of the phantom manufacturing was removal of support material. This aspect could be a serious hurdle in building very tortuous phantoms or small vessels. The accuracy of the printed models was very good: distance analysis showed average differences of 120 μm between the patient and the phantom reconstructed volume dimensions. Most errors were due to residual support material left in the lumen of the phantom. Despite the post-printing challenges experienced during the support cleaning, this technology could be a tremendous benefit to medical research such as in device development and testing.

  16. The non-equilibrium and energetic cost of sensory adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, G.; Sartori, Pablo; Tu, Y.

    2011-03-01

    Biological sensory systems respond to external signals in short time and adapt to permanent environmental changes over a longer timescale to maintain high sensitivity in widely varying environments. In this work we have shown how all adaptation dynamics are intrinsically non-equilibrium and free energy is dissipated. We show that the dissipated energy is utilized to maintain adaptation accuracy. A universal relation between the energy dissipation and the optimum adaptation accuracy is established by both a general continuum model and a discrete model i n the specific case of the well-known E. coli chemo-sensory adaptation. Our study suggests that cellular level adaptations are fueled by hydrolysis of high energy biomolecules, such as ATP. The relevance of this work lies on linking the functionality of a biological system (sensory adaptation) with a concept rooted in statistical physics (energy dissipation), by a mathematical law. This has been made possible by identifying a general sensory system with a non-equilibrium steady state (a stationary state in which the probability current is not zero, but its divergence is, see figure), and then numerically and analytically solving the Fokker-Planck and Master Equations which describe the sensory adaptive system. The application of our general results to the case of E. Coli has shed light on why this system uses the high energy SAM molecule to perform adaptation, since using the more common ATP would not suffice to obtain the required adaptation accuracy.

  17. Adaptive optimal control of unknown constrained-input systems using policy iteration and neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Lewis, Frank L; Naghibi-Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an online policy iteration (PI) algorithm to learn the continuous-time optimal control solution for unknown constrained-input systems. The proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure where two neural networks (NNs) are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. The requirement of complete knowledge of the system dynamics is obviated by employing a novel NN identifier in conjunction with the actor and critic NNs. It is shown how the identifier weights estimation error affects the convergence of the critic NN. A novel learning rule is developed to guarantee that the identifier weights converge to small neighborhoods of their ideal values exponentially fast. To provide an easy-to-check persistence of excitation condition, the experience replay technique is used. That is, recorded past experiences are used simultaneously with current data for the adaptation of the identifier weights. Stability of the whole system consisting of the actor, critic, system state, and system identifier is guaranteed while all three networks undergo adaptation. Convergence to a near-optimal control law is also shown. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated with a simulation example. PMID:24808590

  18. Stability and adaptability analysis of rice cultivars using environment-centered yield in two-way ANOVA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sumith De. Z. Abeysiriwardena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of rice varieties with wider adaptability and stability are the important aspects in varietal recommendation to achieve better economic benefits for farmers. Multi locational trails are conducted in different locations / seasons to test and identify the consistently performing varieties in wider environments and location specific high performing varieties. The interaction aspect of varieties with environment is complex and highly variable across locations. Thus, the identifying varieties under these circumstances are difficult for varietal recommendations. However, several methods have been proposed in the recent past with the complex computation requirements. But, the aid of statistical software and other programs capabilities ease the complexity to a large extent. In this study, we employed one of the established techniques called variance component analysis (VCA to make the varietal recommendation for wider adaptability for many varying environments and the location specific recommendations. In this method variety × environment interaction is portioned into components for individual varieties using yield deviation approach. The average effect of variety (environment centered yield deviation - Dk and the stability measure of each variety (variety interaction variance -Sk2 are used make the recommendations. The rice yield data of cultivars of three month maturity duration, cultivated across diverse environments during the 2002/03 wet–season in Sri Lanka was analyzed for making recommendations. Based on the results the variety At581 gave the highest D2ksk value with wide adaptability selected for general recommendation. Varieties Bg305 and At303 also had relatively higher Dk and thus these two can also be selected for general cultivation purpose.

  19. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified

  20. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerigter, S.T.; Sena, D.J.; Fasel, J.H.

    1998-12-31

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified.

  1. Influence of chance, history, and adaptation on digital evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Adami, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    We evolved multiple clones of populations of digital organisms to study the effects of chance, history, and adaptation in evolution. We show that clones adapted to a specific environment can adapt to new environments quickly and efficiently, although their history remains a significant factor in their fitness. Adaptation is most significant (and the effects of history less so) if the old and new environments are dissimilar. For more similar environments, adaptation is slower while history is ...

  2. Classification of multiple sclerosis lesions using adaptive dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Maurel, Pierre; Barillot, Christian

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a sparse representation and an adaptive dictionary learning based method for automated classification of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Manual delineation of MS lesions is a time-consuming task, requiring neuroradiology experts to analyze huge volume of MR data. This, in addition to the high intra- and inter-observer variability necessitates the requirement of automated MS lesion classification methods. Among many image representation models and classification methods that can be used for such purpose, we investigate the use of sparse modeling. In the recent years, sparse representation has evolved as a tool in modeling data using a few basis elements of an over-complete dictionary and has found applications in many image processing tasks including classification. We propose a supervised classification approach by learning dictionaries specific to the lesions and individual healthy brain tissues, which include white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The size of the dictionaries learned for each class plays a major role in data representation but it is an even more crucial element in the case of competitive classification. Our approach adapts the size of the dictionary for each class, depending on the complexity of the underlying data. The algorithm is validated using 52 multi-sequence MR images acquired from 13 MS patients. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in MS lesion classification.

  3. Classification of multiple sclerosis lesions using adaptive dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Maurel, Pierre; Barillot, Christian

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a sparse representation and an adaptive dictionary learning based method for automated classification of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Manual delineation of MS lesions is a time-consuming task, requiring neuroradiology experts to analyze huge volume of MR data. This, in addition to the high intra- and inter-observer variability necessitates the requirement of automated MS lesion classification methods. Among many image representation models and classification methods that can be used for such purpose, we investigate the use of sparse modeling. In the recent years, sparse representation has evolved as a tool in modeling data using a few basis elements of an over-complete dictionary and has found applications in many image processing tasks including classification. We propose a supervised classification approach by learning dictionaries specific to the lesions and individual healthy brain tissues, which include white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The size of the dictionaries learned for each class plays a major role in data representation but it is an even more crucial element in the case of competitive classification. Our approach adapts the size of the dictionary for each class, depending on the complexity of the underlying data. The algorithm is validated using 52 multi-sequence MR images acquired from 13 MS patients. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in MS lesion classification. PMID:26055435

  4. Quantifying variety-specific heat resistance and the potential for adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Rife, Trevor W; Poland, Jesse A; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2016-08-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yields has become widely measured; however, the linkages for winter wheat are less studied due to dramatic weather changes during the long growing season that are difficult to model. Recent research suggests significant reductions under warming. A potential adaptation strategy involves the development of heat resistant varieties by breeders, combined with alternative variety selection by producers. However, the impact of heat on specific wheat varieties remains relatively unstudied due to limited data and the complex genetic basis of heat tolerance. Here, we provide a novel econometric approach that combines field-trial data with a genetic cluster mapping to group wheat varieties and estimate a separate extreme heat impact (temperatures over 34 °C) across 24 clusters spanning 197 varieties. We find a wide range of heterogeneous heat resistance and a trade-off between average yield and resistance. Results suggest that recently released varieties are less heat resistant than older varieties, a pattern that also holds for on-farm varieties. Currently released - but not yet adopted - varieties do not offer improved resistance relative to varieties currently grown on farm. Our findings suggest that warming impacts could be significantly reduced through advances in wheat breeding and/or adoption decisions by producers. However, current adaptation-through-adoption potential is limited under a 1 °C warming scenario as increased heat resistance cannot be achieved without a reduction in average yields. PMID:26577840

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS USING ION AND PHOTON BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological specimens are often complex materials that require different analytical methods for their characterization. The parameters of interest may include the chemical composition of major, minor and trace elements. The chemical compounds incorporated in the minerals, the crystal structure and isotopic composition need to be considered. Specimens may be highly heterogeneous thus necessitating analytical methods capable of measurements on small sample volumes with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. Much essential information on geological materials can be obtained by using ion or photon beams. In this chapter we describe the principal analytical techniques based on particle accelerators, showing some applications that are hardly possible with conventional methods. In particular, the following techniques will be discussed: (1) Synchrotron radiation (SR) induced X-ray emission (SRIXE) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PEE) and other ion beam techniques for trace element analysis. (2) Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for ultra sensitive analysis of stable nuclides and long-lived radionuclides. In most of the cases also the possibilities of elemental and isotopic analysis with high resolution will be discussed

  6. The lineage-specific evolution of aquaporin gene clusters facilitated tetrapod terrestrial adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Nigel Finn

    Full Text Available A major physiological barrier for aquatic organisms adapting to terrestrial life is dessication in the aerial environment. This barrier was nevertheless overcome by the Devonian ancestors of extant Tetrapoda, but the origin of specific molecular mechanisms that solved this water problem remains largely unknown. Here we show that an ancient aquaporin gene cluster evolved specifically in the sarcopterygian lineage, and subsequently diverged into paralogous forms of AQP2, -5, or -6 to mediate water conservation in extant Tetrapoda. To determine the origin of these apomorphic genomic traits, we combined aquaporin sequencing from jawless and jawed vertebrates with broad taxon assembly of >2,000 transcripts amongst 131 deuterostome genomes and developed a model based upon Bayesian inference that traces their convergent roots to stem subfamilies in basal Metazoa and Prokaryota. This approach uncovered an unexpected diversity of aquaporins in every lineage investigated, and revealed that the vertebrate superfamily consists of 17 classes of aquaporins (Aqp0 - Aqp16. The oldest orthologs associated with water conservation in modern Tetrapoda are traced to a cluster of three aqp2-like genes in Actinistia that likely arose >500 Ma through duplication of an aqp0-like gene present in a jawless ancestor. In sea lamprey, we show that aqp0 first arose in a protocluster comprised of a novel aqp14 paralog and a fused aqp01 gene. To corroborate these findings, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of five syntenic nuclear receptor subfamilies, which, together with observations of extensive genome rearrangements, support the coincident loss of ancestral aqp2-like orthologs in Actinopterygii. We thus conclude that the divergence of sarcopterygian-specific aquaporin gene clusters was permissive for the evolution of water conservation mechanisms that facilitated tetrapod terrestrial adaptation.

  7. Report of the Westside Workshop on Teacher Training and Curriculum Adaptation in the Inner City; An Institute to Help Teachers Develop and Adapt Instructional Materials..., February, 1966 - February, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Daniel U.; And Others

    The purposes of this project were (1) to help teachers prepare "consumable" instructional materials appropriate for students in a desegregated elementary school and a desegregated junior high school in a low-income neighborhood, (2) to encourage the teachers to use these materials and duplicating and audiovisual equipment placed in their schools,…

  8. Virtual stenting workflow with vessel-specific initialization and adaptive expansion for neurovascular stents and flow diverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Nikhil; Yu, Hongyu; Xu, Jinhui; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Yang, Xinjian; Li, Haiyun; Meng, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Endovascular intervention using traditional neurovascular stents and densely braided flow diverters (FDs) have become the preferred treatment strategies for traditionally challenging intracranial aneurysms. Modeling stent and FD deployment in patient-specific aneurysms and its flow modification results prior to the actual intervention can potentially predict the patient outcome and treatment optimization. We present a clinically focused, streamlined virtual stenting workflow that efficiently simulates stent and FD treatment in patient-specific aneurysms based on expanding a simplex mesh structure. The simplex mesh is generated using an innovative vessel-specific initialization technique, which uses the patient's parent artery diameter to identify the initial position of the simplex mesh inside the artery. A novel adaptive expansion algorithm enables the acceleration of deployment process by adjusting the expansion forces based on the distance of the simplex mesh from the parent vessel. The virtual stenting workflow was tested by modeling the treatment of two patient-specific aneurysms using the Enterprise stent and the Pipeline Embolization Device (commercial FD). Both devices were deployed in the aneurysm models in a few seconds. Computational fluid dynamics analyses of pre- and post-treatment aneurysmal hemodynamics show flow reduction in the aneurysmal sac in treated aneurysms, with the FD diverting more flow than the Enterprise stent. The test results show that this workflow can rapidly simulate clinical deployment of stents and FDs, hence paving the way for its future clinical implementation. PMID:26899135

  9. Virtual stenting workflow with vessel-specific initialization and adaptive expansion for neurovascular stents and flow diverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Nikhil; Yu, Hongyu; Xu, Jinhui; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Yang, Xinjian; Li, Haiyun; Meng, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Endovascular intervention using traditional neurovascular stents and densely braided flow diverters (FDs) have become the preferred treatment strategies for traditionally challenging intracranial aneurysms. Modeling stent and FD deployment in patient-specific aneurysms and its flow modification results prior to the actual intervention can potentially predict the patient outcome and treatment optimization. We present a clinically focused, streamlined virtual stenting workflow that efficiently simulates stent and FD treatment in patient-specific aneurysms based on expanding a simplex mesh structure. The simplex mesh is generated using an innovative vessel-specific initialization technique, which uses the patient's parent artery diameter to identify the initial position of the simplex mesh inside the artery. A novel adaptive expansion algorithm enables the acceleration of deployment process by adjusting the expansion forces based on the distance of the simplex mesh from the parent vessel. The virtual stenting workflow was tested by modeling the treatment of two patient-specific aneurysms using the Enterprise stent and the Pipeline Embolization Device (commercial FD). Both devices were deployed in the aneurysm models in a few seconds. Computational fluid dynamics analyses of pre- and post-treatment aneurysmal hemodynamics show flow reduction in the aneurysmal sac in treated aneurysms, with the FD diverting more flow than the Enterprise stent. The test results show that this workflow can rapidly simulate clinical deployment of stents and FDs, hence paving the way for its future clinical implementation.

  10. Low-power operation using self-timed circuits and adaptive scaling of the supply voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Niessen, C.; Sparsø, Jens;

    1994-01-01

    of voltage scaling has been used previously in synchronous circuits, and the contributions of the present paper are: 1) the combination of supply scaling and self-timed circuitry which has some unique advantages, and 2) the thorough analysis of the power savings that are possible using this technique.>......Recent research has demonstrated that for certain types of applications like sampled audio systems, self-timed circuits can achieve very low power consumption, because unused circuit parts automatically turn into a stand-by mode. Additional savings may be obtained by combining the self......-timed circuits with a mechanism that adaptively adjusts the supply voltage to the smallest possible, while maintaining the performance requirements. This paper describes such a mechanism, analyzes the possible power savings, and presents a demonstrator chip that has been fabricated and tested. The idea...

  11. Time course analysis reveals gene-specific transcript and protein kinetics of adaptation to short-term aerobic exercise training in human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Brendan Egan; Paul L O'Connor; Juleen R. Zierath; Donal J O'Gorman

    2013-01-01

    Repeated bouts of episodic myofibrillar contraction associated with exercise training are potent stimuli for physiological adaptation. However, the time course of adaptation and the continuity between alterations in mRNA expression and protein content are not well described in human skeletal muscle. Eight healthy, sedentary males cycled for 60 min at 80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) each day for fourteen consecutive days, resulting in an increase in VO2peak of 17.5±3.8%. Skeletal musc...

  12. Purification and use of limulin: a sialic acid-specific lectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muresan, V.; Iwanij, V.; Smith, Z.D.; Jamieson, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    A simple and rapid method for the isolation of the sialic acid-specific lectin, Limulus polyphemus hemagglutinin (LPA), from the hemolymph of Limulus polyphemus is described. Declotted hemolymph is adsorbed to an affinity chromatographic column consisting of hog gastric mucin glycopeptides coupled to agarose and LPA is eluted in a single step with a Ca2+-free buffer, giving an apparent purification of approximately 25,000-fold. The eluted material is homogeneous by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing and consists of identical subunits each of 29,000 daltons. Hemagglutination inhibition studies with horse red blood cells indicate specificity of LPA for N-acetyl- and N-glycolylneuraminic acid; binding is Ca2+ -dependent and abolished by neuraminidase treatment. LPA was covalently coupled to rhodamine and to horseradish peroxidase for use in detection of sialoglycoconjugates on cells and tissues by light and electron microscopy. Examples of the use of LPA for detection of sialoglycoconjugates in rat renal tubules and glomeruli, blood vessels in rat pancreas, and on horse red blood cells are shown. The procedures described here should prove useful as a cytochemical probe for detection of sialoglycoconjugates in a variety of systems. An accompanying article utilizes these probes for the detection of sialoglycoconjugates on the plasmalemma of adult and differentiating rat pancreatic acinar cells.

  13. SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF INTERACTION OF PLATELETS WITH THE HEPARINIZED MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Nemets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of anticoagulant nature on medical materials testing was done. It was found that change of citrate by heparin is accompanied by significant changes in platelet adhesion and activation. This results allowed us to arrive at a conclusion about reasonability of heparin usage as anticoagulant in in vitro testing. 

  14. A fully general and adaptive inverse analysis method for cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Michael S.; Damkilde, Lars; Lövgren, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    are applied when modeling the fracture mechanisms in cementitious materials, but the vast development of pseudo-strain hardening, fiber reinforced cementitious materials require inverse methods, capable of treating multi-linear σ - w functions. The proposed method is fully general in the sense that it relies......The paper presents an adaptive method for inverse determination of the tensile σ - w relationship, direct tensile strength and Young’s modulus of cementitious materials. The method facilitates an inverse analysis with a multi-linear σ - w function. Usually, simple bi- or tri-linear functions...... number of variables describing the σ - w relationship constitutes the basis for obtaining detailed information of crack propagation in any cementitious material....

  15. Identification and Control of Aircrafts using Multiple Models and Adaptive Critics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Jose C.

    2007-01-01

    We compared two possible implementations of local linear models for control: one approach is based on a self-organizing map (SOM) to cluster the dynamics followed by a set of linear models operating at each cluster. Therefore the gating function is hard (a single local model will represent the regional dynamics). This simplifies the controller design since there is a one to one mapping between controllers and local models. The second approach uses a soft gate using a probabilistic framework based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (also called a dynamic mixture of experts). In this approach several models may be active at a given time, we can expect a smaller number of models, but the controller design is more involved, with potentially better noise rejection characteristics. Our experiments showed that the SOM provides overall best performance in high SNRs, but the performance degrades faster than with the GMM for the same noise conditions. The SOM approach required about an order of magnitude more models than the GMM, so in terms of implementation cost, the GMM is preferable. The design of the SOM is straight forward, while the design of the GMM controllers, although still reasonable, is more involved and needs more care in the selection of the parameters. Either one of these locally linear approaches outperform global nonlinear controllers based on neural networks, such as the time delay neural network (TDNN). Therefore, in essence the local model approach warrants practical implementations. In order to call the attention of the control community for this design methodology we extended successfully the multiple model approach to PID controllers (still today the most widely used control scheme in the industry), and wrote a paper on this subject. The echo state network (ESN) is a recurrent neural network with the special characteristics that only the output parameters are trained. The recurrent connections are preset according to the problem domain and are fixed. In a

  16. Simultaneous expression of regulatory genes associated with specific drought-adaptive traits improves drought adaptation in peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Vemanna S; Swetha, Thavarekere N; Sheela, Shekarappa H; Babitha, Chandrashekar K; Rohini, Sreevathsa; Reddy, Malireddy K; Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Chandrashekar P; Prasad, Trichi Ganesh; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2016-03-01

    Adaptation of crops to drought-prone rain-fed conditions can be achieved by improving plant traits such as efficient water mining (by superior root characters) and cellular-level tolerance mechanisms. Pyramiding these drought-adaptive traits by simultaneous expression of genes regulating drought-adaptive mechanisms has phenomenal relevance in improving stress tolerance. In this study, we provide evidence that peanut transgenic plants expressing Alfalfa zinc finger 1 (Alfin1), a root growth-associated transcription factor gene, Pennisetum glaucum heat-shock factor (PgHSF4) and Pea DNA helicase (PDH45) involved in protein turnover and protection showed improved tolerance, higher growth and productivity under drought stress conditions. Stable integration of all the transgenes was noticed in transgenic lines. The transgenic lines showed higher root growth, cooler crop canopy air temperature difference (less CCATD) and higher relative water content (RWC) under drought stress. Low proline levels in transgenic lines substantiate the maintenance of higher water status. The survival and recovery of transgenic lines was significantly higher under gradual moisture stress conditions with higher biomass. Transgenic lines also showed significant tolerance to ethrel-induced senescence and methyl viologen-induced oxidative stress. Several stress-responsive genes such as heat-shock proteins (HSPs), RING box protein-1 (RBX1), Aldose reductase, late embryogenesis abundant-5 (LEA5) and proline-rich protein-2 (PRP2), a gene involved in root growth, showed enhanced expression under stress in transgenic lines. Thus, the simultaneous expression of regulatory genes contributing for drought-adaptive traits can improve crop adaptation and productivity under water-limited conditions. PMID:26383697

  17. Simulation of Biochemical Pathway Adaptability Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosl, W J

    2005-01-26

    The systems approach to genomics seeks quantitative and predictive descriptions of cells and organisms. However, both the theoretical and experimental methods necessary for such studies still need to be developed. We are far from understanding even the simplest collective behavior of biomolecules, cells or organisms. A key aspect to all biological problems, including environmental microbiology, evolution of infectious diseases, and the adaptation of cancer cells is the evolvability of genomes. This is particularly important for Genomes to Life missions, which tend to focus on the prospect of engineering microorganisms to achieve desired goals in environmental remediation and climate change mitigation, and energy production. All of these will require quantitative tools for understanding the evolvability of organisms. Laboratory biodefense goals will need quantitative tools for predicting complicated host-pathogen interactions and finding counter-measures. In this project, we seek to develop methods to simulate how external and internal signals cause the genetic apparatus to adapt and organize to produce complex biochemical systems to achieve survival. This project is specifically directed toward building a computational methodology for simulating the adaptability of genomes. This project investigated the feasibility of using a novel quantitative approach to studying the adaptability of genomes and biochemical pathways. This effort was intended to be the preliminary part of a larger, long-term effort between key leaders in computational and systems biology at Harvard University and LLNL, with Dr. Bosl as the lead PI. Scientific goals for the long-term project include the development and testing of new hypotheses to explain the observed adaptability of yeast biochemical pathways when the myosin-II gene is deleted and the development of a novel data-driven evolutionary computation as a way to connect exploratory computational simulation with hypothesis

  18. Design and Analysis of Crankshaft Used in Aerospace Applications and Comparision Using Different Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Narayana Gupta,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this project was to evaluate and compare the fatigue performance of two competing manufacturing technologies for aerospace crankshafts, namely forged steel and ductile cast iron. In this project a dynamic simulation was conducted on two crankshafts, forged steel and ductile cast iron, from similar four cylinder four stroke engines. Finite element analysis was performed to obtain the variation of stress magnitude at critical locations. The pressure-volume diagram was used to calculate the load boundary condition in dynamic simulation model, and other simulation inputs were taken from the engine specification chart. The dynamic analysis was done analytically and was verified by simulations in ANSYS. Results achieved from aforementioned analysis were used in optimization of the forged steel crankshaft. Geometry, material, and manufacturing processes were optimized considering different constraints, manufacturing feasibility, and cost. The optimization Process included geometry changes compatible with the current engine, fillet rolling, and the use of micro alloyed steel, resulting in increased fatigue strength and reduced cost of the crankshaft, without changing connecting rod and or engine block.

  19. Estimation, filtering and adaptative control of a waste water processing process; Estimation, filtrage et commande adaptive d`un procede de traitement des eaux usees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Youssef, C.; Dahhou, B.; Roux, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Rols, J.L. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    Controlling the process of a fixed bed bioreactor imply solving filtering and adaptative control problems. Estimation processes have been developed for unmeasurable parameters. An adaptative non linear control has been built, instead of conventional approaches trying to linearize the system and apply a linear control system. (D.L.) 10 refs.

  20. Dynamics and Control of Adaptive Shells with Curvature Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    H.S. Tzou; Bao, Y

    1995-01-01

    Adaptive structures with controllable geometries and shapes are rather useful in many engineering applications, such as adaptive wings, variable focus mirrors, adaptive machines, micro-electromechanical systems, etc. Dynamics and feedback control effectiveness of adaptive shells whose curvatures are actively controlled and continuously changed are evaluated. An adaptive piezoelectric laminated cylindrical shell composite with continuous curvature changes is studied, and its natural frequencie...

  1. A study on nuclear specific material detection technique using nuclear resonance reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Ha, J. H.; Cho, Y. S.; Choi, B. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    The non-destructive nuclear material detection technique is one of the novel methods under somewhat dangerous environments, for example, high level radiation or landmine areas. Specially, the detection of a landmine is a hot issue on the peaceful use of nuclear technology for human welfare. Generally, the explosives contain specific elements such as {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl. The photo-nuclear resonance gamma-rays are produced by nuclear reaction {sup 13}C(p , {gamma}){sup 14}N or {sup 34}S(p, {gamma}){sup 35}Cl in which target is bombarded by about 2MeV proton beam extracted from the proton accelerator. To avoid other neighboring resonant gamma-rays, we selected a higher resonant energy above 5MeV. The resonance gamma rays produced are absorbed or scattered when they react with {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl included in the mines and explosive. We can determine existence and position of mines or explosives by detecting the absorption and scattering gamma-ray signals.

  2. Accelerating the convergence of replica exchange simulations using Gibbs sampling and adaptive temperature sets

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We recently introduced a novel replica-exchange scheme in which an individual replica can sample from states encountered by other replicas at any previous time by way of a global configuration database, enabling the fast propagation of relevant states through the whole ensemble of replicas. This mechanism depends on the knowledge of global thermodynamic functions which are measured during the simulation and not coupled to the heat bath temperatures driving the individual simulations. Therefore, this setup also allows for a continuous adaptation of the temperature set. In this paper, we will review the new scheme and demonstrate its capability. The method is particularly useful for the fast and reliable estimation of the microcanonical temperature T(U) or, equivalently, of the density of states g(U) over a wide range of energies.

  3. Performance Analysis of LMS Adaptive FIR Filter and RLS Adaptive FIR Filter for Noise Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Yadav

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adaptive filters continues to grow as they begin to find practical real-time applications in areassuch as channel equalization, echo cancellation, noise cancellation and many other adaptive signalprocessing applications. The key to successful adaptive signal processing understands the fundamentalproperties of adaptive algorithms such as LMS, RLS etc. Adaptive filter is used for the cancellation of thenoise component which is overlap with undesired signal in the same frequency range. This paper presentsdesign, implementation and performance comparison of adaptive FIR filter using LMS and RMSalgorithms. MATLAB Simulink environment are used for simulations.

  4. Radiation Damage Studies of Materials and Electronic Devices Using Hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellett, David; Baldwin, Andrew; Gallagher, Garratt; Olson, David; Styczinski, Marshall

    2014-05-14

    We have irradiated NdFeB permanent magnet samples from different manufacturers and with differing values of coercivity and remanence using stepped doses of 1 MeV equivalent neutrons up to a fluence of 0:64 1015n=cm2 to evaluate effects on magnetization and B field distributions. The samples with high coercivity, irradiated in open circuit configurations, showed no or minimal effects when compared with unirradiated samples, whereas the lower coercivity magnets suffered significant losses of magnetization and changes in the shapes of their field patterns. One such magnet underwent a fractional magnetization loss of 13.1% after a fluence of 0:59 1015 n=cm2. This demagnetization was not uniform. With increasing fluence, B field scans along the centerlines of the pole faces revealed that the normal component of B decreased more near the midpoint of the scan than near the ends. In addition, a fit to the curve of overall magnetization loss with fluence showed a significant deviation from linearity. The results are discussed in light of other measurements and theory. The high coercivity materials appear suitable for use in accelerator applications subject to irradiation by fast neutrons such as dipoles where the internal demagnetizing field is comparable to or less than that of the open circuit samples tested in this study.

  5. Specificity of Exercise and Specificity of Training: A Subcellular Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, William B.; Horvath, Steven M.

    1977-01-01

    Selection of proper competitive activities for athletes is discussed in relation to the acknowledged fact that cellular adaptation is dependent upon the specific program employed in training for competitive events. (MB)

  6. The coordinated control of SVC and excitation of generators Using Adaptive Fuzzy Control

    OpenAIRE

    Berbaoui Brahim; Bousmaha Bouchiba,; Youssef Mouloudi,; Abdellah Laoufi

    2011-01-01

    Based on the feedback linearized technique and control of differential and algebraic systems, the Indirect Adaptive fuzzy excitation control is presented in this paper for SVC (static var compensator) and generator excitation controllers in power systems with nonlinear loads. It can improve both the power angle stability ofgenerators and the voltage behavior at the SVC location. Simulation results shown that the proposed controller IAFLC, compared with a controller based on tradition lineariz...

  7. Chromosomal mapping of specific DNA gains and losses in solid tumors using comparative genomic hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, E.; Manoir, S. du; Speicher, M. [National Center for Human Genome Research, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a new molecular cytogenetic technique that is based on two color FISH and quantitative digital imaging microscopy. CGH is used to comprehensively survey tumor genomes for copy number changes and to determine the map position of amplification sites on normal reference chromosomes. CGH was used to analyze 107 different solid tumors, including 16 low grade astrocytomas, 15 recurrent astrocytic tumors, 13 high grade astrocytomas, 13 small cell lung cancers (SCLC), 14 breast cancer samples (7 diploid and 7 aneupoid tumors), 18 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and 5 seminomas. Tumor DNA was extracted from frozen tissue, autopic material and formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Our results revealed tumor specific gains and losses of certain chromosomes or chromosomal subregions (e.g., chromosomes 7 and 10 in glioblastomas, chromosomes 3 and 5 in SCLC). Numerous DNA-amplifications were mapped on reference metaphase and prometaphase chromosomes. The frequent amplification of the EGFR gene (malignant gliomas), protooncogenes of the myc family (SCLC) and of c-myc, int-2 and c-erbB2 (breast cancer) was confirmed. Many additional amplification sites, however, were mapped that were not described before. The results of CGH analysis were independently confirmed by means of cytogenetic banding analysis, interphase cytogenetics with region specific DNA-clones, Southern-Blot analysis, DNA-cytometry and studies of loss of heterozygosity.

  8. Translation, Validation, and Adaptation of the Time Use Diary from English into the Malay Language for Use in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuri, Siti Noraini; Brown, Ted; Broom, Lisa J

    2016-07-01

    Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes. PMID:27219119

  9. Opportunities and Constraints for Climate Adaptation in Regional Water and Land Use Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, S.E.; West, J.; Leemans, R.; Tabara, J.D.; Dai, X.; Flachner, Z.; Neufeldt, H.; McEvoy, D.; Cots, F.; Trombi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the literature on adaptation is rich in detail on the impacts of, vulnerability to, and constraints of climate adaptation, less is known about the conditions that facilitate adaptation in practice. We examined the constraints and opportunities for adaptation in water and land use planning in

  10. Modelling and (adaptive) control of greenhouse climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udink ten Cate, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The material presented in this thesis can be grouped around four themes, system concepts, modeling, control and adaptive control. In this summary these themes will be treated separately.System conceptsIn Chapters 1 and 2 an overview of the problem formulation is presented. It is suggested that there

  11. Recognition of human emotion using sensor agent robot for interactive and adaptive living spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Sozo; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    Safer, more comfortable and energy-efficient living spaces are always demanded. However, most buildings are designed based on prescribed scenarios so that they do not act on abrupt changes of environments. We propose "Biofication of Living Spaces" that has functions of learning occupants' lifestyles and taking actions based on collected information. By doing so, we can incorporate the high adaptability to the building. Our goal is to make living spaces more "comfortable". However, human beings have emotion that implies the meaning of "comfortable" depends on each individual. Therefore our study focuses on recognition of human emotion. We suggest using robots as sensor agents. By using robots equipped with various sensors, they can interact with occupants and environment. We use a sensor agent robot called "e-bio". In this research, we construct a human tracking system and identified emotions of residents using their walking information. We focus on the influences of illuminance and sound. We classified emotions by calculating the distance of the mapped points in comfortable and uncomfortable spaces with parametric eigen space method, in which parameters are determined by a mapping of tracks in the space. As a method of pattern recognition, a weighted k-nearest neighbor is used. Experiments considering illuminance and sound environments, illustrates good correlation between emotion and environments.

  12. The environment matters: Comparing individuals and dyads in their adaptive use of decision strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane E. Kaemmer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals have been shown to adaptively select decision strategies depending on the environment structure. Two experiments extended this research to the group level. Subjects (N = 240 worked either individually or in two-person groups, or dyads, on a multi-attribute paired-comparison task. They were randomly assigned to two different environments that favored one of two prototypical decision strategies---weighted additive or take-the-best (between-subjects design in Experiment 1 and within-subject design in Experiment 2. Performance measures revealed that both individuals and dyads learned to adapt over time. A higher starting and overall performance rate in the environment in which weighted additive performed best led to the conclusion that weighted additive served as a default strategy. When this default strategy had to be replaced, because the environmental structure favored take-the-best, the superior adaptive capacity of dyads became observable in the form of a steeper learning rate. Analyses of nominal dyads indicate that real dyads performed at the level of the best individuals. Fine-grained analyses of information-search data are presented. Results thus point to the strong moderating role of the environment structure when comparing individual with group performance and are discussed within the framework of adaptive strategy selection.

  13. On-line identification of hybrid systems using an adaptive growing and pruning RBF neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alizadeh, Tohid

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an adaptive growing and pruning radial basis function (GAP-RBF) neural network for on-line identification of hybrid systems. The main idea is to identify a global nonlinear model that can predict the continuous outputs of hybrid systems. In the proposed approach, GAP-RBF neu...

  14. Curriculum-Dependent and Curriculum-Independent Factors in Preservice Elementary Teachers' Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials for Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.

    2013-01-01

    In this nested mixed methods study I investigate factors influencing preservice elementary teachers' adaptation of science curriculum materials to better support students' engagement in science as inquiry. Analyses focus on two "reflective teaching assignments" completed by 46 preservice elementary teachers in an undergraduate elementary science…

  15. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Diann

    2011-09-01

    The third annual meeting of the AMSE/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in the heart of historic Philadelphia's cultural district, and included a pioneer banquet in the National Constitutional Center. The applications emphasis of the 2010 conference was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Alan Taub, vice president of General Motors global research and development, 'Smart materials in the automotive industry'; Dr Charles R Farrar, engineering institute leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 'Future directions for structural health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructure'; and Professor Christopher S Lynch of the University of California Los Angeles, 'Ferroelectric materials and their applications'. The SMASIS conference was divided into six technical symposia each of which included basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. The six symposia were: SYMP 1 Multifunctional Materials; SYMP 2 Active Materials, Mechanics and Behavior; SYMP 3 Modeling, Simulation and Control; SYMP 4 Enabling Technologies and Integrated System Design; SYMP 5 Structural Health Monitoring/NDE; and SYMP 6 Bio-inspired Smart Materials and Structures. In addition, the conference introduced a new student and young professional development symposium. Authors of papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2 and 6) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart Materials and Structures. This set of papers demonstrates the exceptional quality and originality of the conference presentations. We are appreciative of their efforts in producing this collection of highly relevant articles on smart materials.

  16. Use of indigenous microwave system for dissolution and treatment of waste from nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave heating technique has the unique advantages of low processing time, less consumption of reagents, homogeneous heating and maintenance-free adaptability to glove box. Dissolution of thorium and plutonium containing fuel viz sintered thorium oxide, thorium-uranium oxide and thorium-plutonium oxide pellets is one of the most difficult step for their analysis and characterization. Complete dissolution of the fuel samples is a pre-requisite for the analysis of fuel material in the solution form. Even a trace level of un-dissolved particle may interfere with the accurate and precise determination in the analysis. Large volumes of liquid and solid wastes are generated during the processing and analysis of samples. These wastes being radioactive can't be disposed directly to sea or soil. They have to be segregated and categorised and all possibilities are explored to see the feasibility of retrieving the precious nuclear material. The present paper describes an overview of all the efforts made at AFFF for rapid dissolution of nuclear materials using an indigenous microwave digestion system as well as its use for the treatment of waste being generated. (author)

  17. Experimental relationship between the specific resistance of a HEPA [High Efficiency Particulate Air] filter and particle diameters of different aerosol materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in pressure drop across a HEPA filter has been measured as a function of the particle mass loading using two materials with different particle morphologies. The HEPA filter media chosen, is identical to the filter media used in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) on the Savannah River Reactors. The velocity through the test filter media was the same as the velocity through the AACS media, under normal operating flow conditions. Sodium Chloride challenge particles were generated using an atomizer, resulting in regularly shaped crystalline forms. Ammonium chloride aerosols were formed from the gas phase reaction of HCl and NH4OH vapors resulting in irregular agglomerates. In both cases, the generation conditions were adjusted to provide several different particle size distributions. For each particle size distribution, the mass of material loaded per unit area of filter per unit pressure drop for a given filtration velocity (1/Specific resistance) was measured. Theoretical considerations in the most widely accepted filter cake model predict that the mass per unit area and per unit pressure drop should increase with the particle density times the particle diameter squared. However, these test results indicate that the increase in the mass loaded per unit area per unit pressure drop, for both materials, can be better described by plotting the specific resistance divided by the particle density as an inverse function of the particle density times the particle diameter squared. 9 refs., 7 figs

  18. Steganography using Coefficient Replacement and Adaptive Scaling based on DTCWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sathisha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is an authenticated technique for maintaining secrecy of embedded data. Steganography provides hardness of detecting the hidden data and has a potential capacity to hide the existence of confidential data. In this paper, we propose a novel steganography using coefficient replacement and adaptive scaling based on Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT technique. The DTCWT and LWT 2 is applied on cover image and payload respectively to convert spatial domain into transform domain. The HH sub band coefficients of cover image are replaced by the LL sub band coefficients of payload to generate intermediate stego object and the adaptive scaling factor is used to scale down intermediate stego object coefficient values to generate final stego object. The adaptive scaling factor is determined based on entropy of cover image. The security and the capacity of the proposed method are high compared to the existing algorithms.

  19. Limitations of science and adapting to Nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T N [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, 210 Hearst Memorial Mining Building, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1760 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Historically, science has pursued a premise that Nature can be understood fully, its future predicted precisely, and its behavior controlled at will. However, emerging knowledge indicates that the nature of Earth and biological systems transcends the limits of science, questioning the premise of knowing, prediction, and control. This knowledge has led to the recognition that, for civilized human survival, technological society has to adapt to the constraints of these systems. Simultaneously, spurred by explosive developments in the understanding of materials (non-biological and biological), applied scientific research pursues a contrary goal of controlling the material world, with the promise of spectacular economic growth and human well-being. If adaptation to Nature is so important, why does applied research pursue a contrary course? Adapting to Nature requires a recognition of the limitations of science, and espousal of human values. Although the concept of adapting to Nature is accepted by some, especially conservation ecologists, such an acceptance may not exist in other fields. Also, in a world dominated by democratic ideals of freedom and liberty, the discipline required for adapting to Nature may often be overridden by competition among various segments of society to exercise their respective rights. In extreme cases of catastrophic failure of Earth or biological systems, the imperative for adaptation may fall victim to instinct for survival. In essence, although adequate scientific know-how and technological competence exists to facilitate adaptation to Nature, choosing between that and the pursuit of controlling Nature entails human judgment. What that choice may be when humans have to survive under severe environmental stress cannot be predicted.

  20. Adaptive base-isolation of civil structures using variable amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth K. Walsh; Makola M. Abdullah

    2006-01-01

    Semi-active dampers are used in base-isolation to reduce the seismic response of civil engineering structures.In the present study, a new semi-active damping system using variable amplification will be investigated for adaptive baseisolation. It uses a novel variable amplification device (VAD) connected in series with a passive damper. The VAD is capable of producing multiple amplification factors, each corresponding to a different amplification state. Forces from the damper are amplified to the structure according to the current amplification state, which is selected via a semi-active control algorithm specifically tailored to the system's unique damping characteristics. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the VAD-damper system for adaptive base-isolation, numerical simulations are conducted for three and seven-story base-isolated buildings subject to both far and near-field ground motions. The results indicate that the system can achieve significant reductions in response compared to the base-isolated buildings with no damper. The proposed system is also found to perform well compared to a typical semi-active damper.

  1. The Use of Format Adaptation in Danish Public Service Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates Danish public service broadcasters’ use of format adaptations over a 12-year period in order to examine claims that formats constitute a potential threat to public service broadcasting and the national Danish television industry and culture. The article’s findings, however......, bear little evidence to support these claims. The practice of format adaptation constitutes a comparatively small proportion of the overall production of Danish public service content, and, more importantly, most of the formats adapted by the public broadcasters have a comparatively solid public...... service orientation. Instead the article argues, following German sociologist Ulrich Beck, that format adaptation can represent a form of ‘banal transnationalism’, pointing to the fact that the world is no longer exclusively defined by national boundaries....

  2. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  3. Vibration Control of Flexible Spacecraft Using Adaptive Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to develop vibration control of flexible spacecraft by adaptive controller. A case study will be carried out which simulates planar motion of flexible spacecraft as a coupled hybrid dynamics of rigid body motion and the flexible arm vibration. The notch filter and adaptive vibration controller, which updates filter and controller parameters continuously from the sensor measurement, are implemented in the real time control. The least mean square algorithm using the adaptive notch filter is applied to the flexible spacecraft. This study will show that the adaptive vibration controller successfully stabilizes the uncertain and it will accurately control the vibration of flexible spacecraft. The Least mean square  algorithm is applied in flexible spacecraft to attenuate the vibration. The simulation studies are carried out in a Matlab/Simulink environment.

  4. Cortisol Secretion and Functional Disabilities in Old Age: Importance of Using Adaptive Control Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrosch, Carsten; Miller, Gregory E.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the use of health-related control strategies moderates the association between elevated diurnal cortisol secretion and increases in older adults’ functional disabilities. Methods Functional disabilities of 164 older adults were assessed over 4 years by measuring participants’ problems with performing activities of daily living. The main predictors included baseline levels of diurnal cortisol secretion and control strategies used to manage physical health threats. Results A large increase in functional disabilities was observed among participants who secreted elevated baseline levels of cortisol and did not use health-related control strategies. By contrast, high cortisol level was not associated with increases in functional disabilities among participants who reported using these control strategies. Among participants with low cortisol level, there was a relatively smaller increase in functional disabilities over time, and the use of control strategies was not significantly associated with changes in functional disabilities. Conclusions The findings suggest that high cortisol level is associated with an increase in older adults’ functional disabilities, but only if older adults do not engage in adaptive control strategies. PMID:19875635

  5. Mental Health, Substance Use, and Adaptive Coping among Social Work Students in the Aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Catherine M.; Plummer, Carol A.; Richardson, Roslyn; Simon, Cassandra E.; Ai, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined mental health symptomology, substance use, and adaptive coping among 416 social work students following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Among participants, 47% scored at or above the clinical level for depression, with 6% of students showing clinical PTSD-like symptoms, and 16.9% reporting substance use. Two thirds (66.9%)…

  6. 7 CFR 1717.605 - Design standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... will be financed by RUS. These requirements are set forth in other RUS regulations, especially in 7 CFR..., construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. 1717.605 Section 1717.605 Agriculture Regulations of the... standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. All...

  7. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Assessment Instruments Used in Psychological Research with Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; de Beurs, Edwin; Siebelink, Bart M.; Koudijs, Els

    2005-01-01

    With the increased globalization of psychology and related fields, having reliable and valid measures that can be used in a number of languages and cultures is critical. Few guidelines or standards have been established in psychology for the translation and cultural adaptation of instruments. Usually little is reported in research publications…

  8. Estimating the abundance of clustered animal population by using adaptive cluster sampling and negative binomial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yizhou; Shifa, Naima

    2013-09-01

    An estimator for finding the abundance of a rare, clustered and mobile population has been introduced. This model is based on adaptive cluster sampling (ACS) to identify the location of the population and negative binomial distribution to estimate the total in each site. To identify the location of the population we consider both sampling with replacement (WR) and sampling without replacement (WOR). Some mathematical properties of the model are also developed.

  9. The Use of Nanoscaled Fibers or Tubes to Improve Biocompatibility and Bioactivity of Biomedical Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibers and nanotubes have recently gained substantial interest for potential applications in tissue engineering due to their large ratio of surface area to volume and unique microstructure. It has been well proved that the mechanical property of matrix could be largely enhanced by the addition of nanoscaled fibers or tubes. At present, more and more researches have shown that the biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials could be improved by the addition of nanofibers or nanotubes. In this review, the efforts using nanofibers and nanotubes to improve biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials, including polymeric nanofibers/nanotubes, metallic nanofibers/nanotubes, and inorganic nanofibers/nanotubes, as well as their researches related, are demonstrated in sequence. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of improving biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials by nanofibers or nanotubes has been speculated to be that the specific protein absorption on the nanoscaled fibers or tubes plays important roles.

  10. Stimulus-specific adaptation and deviance detection in the inferior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneri eAguilar Ayala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deviancy detection in the continuous flow of sensory information into the central nervous system is of vital importance for animals. The task requires neuronal mechanisms that allow for an efficient representation of the environment by removing statistically redundant signals. Recently, the neuronal principles of auditory deviance detection have been approached by studying the phenomenon of stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA. SSA is a reduction in the responsiveness of a neuron to a common or repetitive sound while the neuron remains highly sensitive to rare sounds (Ulanovsky et al., 2003. This phenomenon could enhance the saliency of unexpected, deviant stimuli against a background of repetitive signals. SSA shares many similarities with the evoked potential known as the ‘mismatch negativity,’ and it has been linked to cognitive process such as auditory memory and scene analysis (Winkler et al., 2009 as well as to behavioral habituation (Netser et al., 2011. Neurons exhibiting SSA can be found at several levels of the auditory pathway, from the inferior colliculus (IC up to the auditory cortex (AC. In this review, we offer an account of the state-of-the art of SSA studies in the IC with the aim of contributing to the growing interest in the single-neuron electrophysiology of auditory deviance detection. The dependence of neuronal SSA on various stimulus features, e.g., probability of the deviant stimulus and repetition rate, and the roles of the AC and inhibition in shaping SSA at the level of the IC are addressed.

  11. Adaptive recognition and correction of baseline shifts from collocated GPS and accelerometer using two phases Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Wang, Rongjiang; Walter, Thomas R.; Diao, FaQi

    2014-11-01

    The real-time recognition and precise correction of baseline shifts in strong-motion records is a critical issue for GPS and accelerometer combined processing. This paper proposes a method to adaptively recognize and correct baseline shifts in strong-motion records by utilizing GPS measurements using two phases Kalman filter. By defining four kinds of learning statistics and criteria, the time series of estimated baseline shifts can be divided into four time intervals: initialization, static, transient and permanent. During the time interval in which the transient baseline shift is recognized, the dynamic noise of the Kalman filter system and the length of the baseline shifts estimation window are adaptively adjusted to yield a robust integration solution. The validations from an experimental and real datasets show that acceleration baseline shifts can be precisely recognized and corrected, thus, the combined system adaptively adjusted the estimation strategy to get a more robust solution.

  12. ADAPTATION OF CRACK GROWTH DETECTION TECHNIQUES TO US MATERIAL TEST REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Joseph Palmer; Sebastien P. Teysseyre; Kurt L. Davis; Gordon Kohse; Yakov Ostrovsky; David M. Carpenter; Joy L. Rempe

    2015-04-01

    A key component in evaluating the ability of Light Water Reactors to operate beyond 60 years is characterizing the degradation of materials exposed to radiation and various water chemistries. Of particular concern is the response of reactor materials to Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC). Some test reactors outside the United States, such as the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), have developed techniques to measure crack growth propagation during irradiation. The basic approach is to use a custom-designed compact loading mechanism to stress the specimen during irradiation, while the crack in the specimen is monitored in-situ using the Direct Current Potential Drop (DCPD) method. In 2012 the US Department of Energy commissioned the Idaho National Laboratory and the MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (MIT NRL) to take the basic concepts developed at the HBWR and adapt them to a test rig capable of conducting in-pile IASCC tests in US Material Test Reactors. The first two and half years of the project consisted of designing and testing the loader mechanism, testing individual components of the in-pile rig and electronic support equipment, and autoclave testing of the rig design prior to insertion in the MIT Reactor. The load was applied to the specimen by means of a scissor like mechanism, actuated by a miniature metal bellows driven by pneumatic pressure and sized to fit within the small in-core irradiation volume. In addition to the loader design, technical challenges included developing robust connections to the specimen for the applied current and voltage measurements, appropriate ceramic insulating materials that can endure the LWR environment, dealing with the high electromagnetic noise environment of a reactor core at full power, and accommodating material property changes in the specimen, due primarily to fast neutron damage, which change the specimen resistance without additional crack growth. The project culminated with an in

  13. Material properties of commonly-used interface materials and their static coefficients of friction with skin and socks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J E; Greve, J M; Mitchell, S B; Zachariah, S G

    1998-06-01

    Compressive stiffness (CS) of different supporting materials used in prosthetics and orthotics and their static coefficients of friction (COF) with skin and socks were characterized. Materials tested included Spenco, Poron, nylon-reinforced silicone, Soft Pelite, Medium Pelite, Firm Plastazote, Regular Plastazote, and Nickelplast. A displacement-controlled testing device was constructed to assess the CS of 11.1 mm diameter material specimens under cyclic loading (1 Hz) to 220 kPa over 10- and 60-min periods. Results demonstrated local CS ranging from 687 kPa (Poron) to 3,990 kPa (Soft Pelite). To fit the cyclic stress-strain (S-S) data within an error of 4.0 percent full-scale output, the minimum order of fit required for Spenco, Poron, and nylon-reinforced silicone was a third-order polynomial; for Soft Pelite, Medium Pelite, Firm Plastazote, and Regular Plastazote, a second-order polynomial; and for Nickelplast, a linear fit. For all materials, the nonrecovered strains were related to loading time using an exponential fit. A biaxial force-controlled load applicator device was used to assess COF at skin-material, sock-material, and skin-sock interfaces for shear forces of 1 to 4 N applied to a 10.2 x 7.8 mm loading pad. COFs ranged from 0.48 (+/- 0.05) to 0.89 (+/- 0.09). COFs at skin-material interfaces were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those at skin-sock interfaces. There was a trend of a higher COF at sock-material interfaces than at skin-sock interfaces. These data are of potential utility in finite element modeling sensitivity analysis of residual limb-prosthetic socket systems or body-orthosis systems to characterize effects of material features on interface pressure and shear stress distributions. PMID:9651888

  14. Validation of a simplified field-adapted procedure for routine determinations of methyl mercury at trace levels in natural water samples using species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertsson, Lars; Björn, Erik

    2004-12-01

    A field-adapted procedure based on species-specific isotope dilution (SSID) methodology for trace-level determinations of methyl mercury (CH(3)Hg(+)) in mire, fresh and sea water samples was developed, validated and applied in a field study. In the field study, mire water samples were filtered, standardised volumetrically with isotopically enriched CH(3) (200)Hg(+), and frozen on dry ice. The samples were derivatised in the laboratory without further pre-treatment using sodium tetraethyl borate (NaB(C(2)H(5))(4)) and the ethylated methyl mercury was purge-trapped on Tenax columns. The analyte was thermo-desorbed onto a GC-ICP-MS system for analysis. Investigations preceding field application of the method showed that when using SSID, for all tested matrices, identical results were obtained between samples that were freeze-preserved or analysed unpreserved. For DOC-rich samples (mire water) additional experiments showed no difference in CH(3)Hg(+) concentration between samples that were derivatised without pre-treatment or after liquid extraction. Extractions of samples for matrix-analyte separation prior to derivatisation are therefore not necessary. No formation of CH(3)Hg(+) was observed during sample storage and treatment when spiking samples with (198)Hg(2+). Total uncertainty budgets for the field application of the method showed that for analyte concentrations higher than 1.5 pg g(-1) (as Hg) the relative expanded uncertainty (REU) was approximately 5% and dominated by the uncertainty in the isotope standard concentration. Below 0.5 pg g(-1) (as Hg), the REU was >10% and dominated by variations in the field blank. The uncertainty of the method is sufficiently low to accurately determine CH(3)Hg(+) concentrations at trace levels. The detection limit was determined to be 4 fg g(-1) (as Hg) based on replicate analyses of laboratory blanks. The described procedure is reliable, considerably faster and simplified compared to non-SSID methods and thereby very

  15. Predictive Models with Patient Specific Material Properties for the Biomechanical Behavior of Ascending Thoracic Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Olfa; Duprey, Ambroise; Favre, Jean-Pierre; Avril, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the patient-specific material properties of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA) using preoperative dynamic gated computed tomography (CT) scans. The identification is based on the simultaneous minimization of two cost functions, which define the difference between model predictions and gated CT measurements of the aneurysm volume at respectively systole and cardiac mid-cycle. The method is applied on five patients who underwent surgical repair of their ATAA at the University Hospital Center of St. Etienne. For these patients, the aneurysms were collected and tested mechanically using an in vitro bench. For the sake of validation, the mechanical properties found using the in vivo approach and the in vitro bench were compared. We eventually performed finite-element stress analyses based on each set of material properties. Rupture risk indexes were estimated and compared, showing promising results of the patient-specific identification method based on gated CT. PMID:26178871

  16. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of marginal adaptation of composite resines to enamel after using of standard and gradual photopolimerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dačić Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bonding between composite and hard dental tissue is most commonly assessed by measuring bonding strength or absence of marginal gap along the restoration interface. Marginal index (MI is a significant indicator of the efficiency of the bond between material and dental tissue because it also shows the values of width and length of marginal gap. Objective. The aim of this investigation was to estimate quantitative and qualitative features of the bond between composite resin and enamel and to determine the values of MI in enamel after application of two techniques of photopolymerization with two composite systems. Methods. Forty Class V cavities on extracted teeth were prepared and restored for scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis of composite bonding to enamel. Adhesion to enamel was achieved by Adper Single Bond 2 - ASB (3M ESPE, or by Adper Easy One - AEO (3M ESPE. Photopolymerization of Filtek Ultimate - FU (3M ESPE was performed using constant halogen light (HIP or soft start program (SOF. Results. Quantitative and qualitative analysis, showed better mikromorphological bonding with SOF photopolymerization and ASB/FU composite system. Differences in MI between different photopolymerization techniques (HIP: 0.6707; SOF: 0.2395 were statistically significant (p<0.001, as well as differences between the composite systems (ASB/FU: 0.0470; AEO/ FU: 0.8651 (p<0.001 by two-way ANOVA test. Conclusion. Better marginal adaptation of composite to enamel was obtained with SOF photopolymerization in both composite systems.

  17. Evaluation of Turbulence Models in Predicting Hypersonic and Subsonic Base Flows Using Grid Adaptation Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Yancheng; BUANGA Bj(o)rn; HANNEMANN Volker; L(U)DEKE Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    The flows behind the base of a generic rocket,at both hypersonic and subsonic flow conditions,are numerically studied.The main concerns are addressed to the evaluation of turbulence models and the using of grid adaptation techniques.The investigation focuses on two configurations,related to hypersonic and subsonic experiments.The applicability tests of different turbulence models are conducted on the level of two-equation models calculating the steady state solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) equations.All used models,the original Wilcox k-ω,the Menter shear-stress transport (SST) and the explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model(EARSM) formulation,predict an asymmetric base flow in both cases caused by the support of the models.A comparison with preliminary experimental results indicates a preference for the SST and EARSM results over the results from the older k-ω model.Sensitivity studies show no significant influence of the grid topology or the location of the laminar to turbulent transition on the base flow field,but a strong influence of even small angles of attack is reported from the related experiments.

  18. Exploring climate change impacts and adaptation options for maize production in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia using different climate change scenarios and crop models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.; Asseng, S.; Rotter, R.P.; Hengsdijk, H.; Ruane, A.C.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring adaptation strategies for different climate change scenarios to support agricultural production and food security is a major concern to vulnerable regions, including Ethiopia. This study assesses the potential impacts of climate change on maize yield and explores specific adaptation option

  19. Real-time detection of generic objects using objectness estimation and locally adaptive regression kernels matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhihui; Gao, Lei; Xiao, Liping; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Shibo

    2015-12-01

    Our purpose is to develop a detection algorithm capable of searching for generic interest objects in real time without large training sets and long-time training stages. Instead of the classical sliding window object detection paradigm, we employ an objectness measure to produce a small set of candidate windows efficiently using Binarized Normed Gradients and a Laplacian of Gaussian-like filter. We then extract Locally Adaptive Regression Kernels (LARKs) as descriptors both from a model image and the candidate windows which measure the likeness of a pixel to its surroundings. Using a matrix cosine similarity measure, the algorithm yields a scalar resemblance map, indicating the likelihood of similarity between the model and the candidate windows. By employing nonparametric significance tests and non-maxima suppression, we detect the presence of objects similar to the given model. Experiments show that the proposed detection paradigm can automatically detect the presence, the number, as well as location of similar objects to the given model. The high quality and efficiency of our method make it suitable for real time multi-category object detection applications.

  20. On the evaluation of patient specific IMRT QA using EPID, dynalog files and patient anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewayne Lee Defoor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research, investigates the viability of using the Electronic portal imaging device (EPID coupled with the treatment planning system (TPS, to calculate the doses delivered and verify agreement with the treatment plan. The results of QA analysis using the EPID, Delta4 and fluence calculations using the multi-leaf collimator (MLC dynalog files on 10 IMRT patients are presented in this study.Methods: EPID Fluence Images in integrated mode and Dynalog files for each field were acquired for 10 IMRT (6MV patients and processed through an in house MatLab program to create an opening density matrix (ODM which was used as the input fluence for dose calculation with the TPS (Pinnacle3, Philips. The EPID used in this study was the aSi1000 Varian on a Novalis TX linac equipped with high definition MLC. The resulting dose distributions were then exported to VeriSoft (PTW where a 3D gamma was calculated using 3 mm-3% criteria. The Scandidos Delta4 phantom was also used to measure a 2D dose distribution for all 10 patients and a 2D gamma was calculated for each patient using the Delta4 software.Results: The average 3D gamma for all 10 patients using the EPID images was 98.2% ± 2.6%. The average 3D gamma using the dynalog files was 94.6% ± 4.9%. The average 2D gamma from the Delta4 was 98.1% ± 2.5%. The minimum 3D gamma for the EPID and dynalog reconstructed dose distributions was found on the same patient which had a very large PTV, requiring the jaws to open to the maximum field size. Conclusion: Use of the EPID, combined with a TPS is a viable method for QA of IMRT plans. A larger ODM size can be implemented to accommodate larger field sizes. An adaptation of this process to Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT is currently under way.-----------------------------Cite this article as: Defoor D, Mavroidis P, Quino L, Gutierrez A, Papanikolaou N, Stathakis S. On the evaluation of patient specific IMRT QA using EPID, dynalog files and patient anatomy

  1. Using AQUACROP to model the impacts of future climates on crop production and possible adaptation strategies in Sardinia and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    A work package in the FP-7 funded CLIMB Project - Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins Reducing Uncertainty and Quantifying Risk through an Integrated Monitoring and Modeling System had the goal of assessing socioeconomic vulnerability in two super-sites in future climates (2040-2070). The work package had deliverables to describe of agricultural adaptation measures appropriate to each site under future water availability scenarios and assess the risk of income losses due to water shortages in agriculture. The FAO model AQUACROP was used to estimate losses of agricultural productivity and indicate possible adaptation strategies. The presentation will focus on two interesting crops which show extreme vulnerability to expected changes in climate; irrigated lettuce in Sardinia and irrigated tomatoes in Tunisia. Modelling methodology, results and possible adaptation strategies will be presented.

  2. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  3. Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Baykan, U N; Sen, K

    2008-03-01

    A total of 183 samples of 20 different commonly used structural and covering building materials were collected from housing and other building construction sites and from suppliers in Ankara to measure the natural radioactivity due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry with two HPGe detectors. The specific activities of the different building materials studied varied from 0.5 +/- 0.1 to 144.9 +/- 4.9 Bq kg(-1), 0.6 +/- 0.2 to 169.9 +/- 6.6 Bq kg(-1) and 2.0 +/- 0.1 to 1792.3 +/- 60.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The results show that the lowest mean values of the specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 0.8 +/- 0.5, 0.9 +/- 0.4 and 4.1 +/- 1.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, measured in travertine tile while the highest mean values of the specific activity of the same radionuclides are 78.5 +/- 18.1 (ceramic wall tile), 77.4 +/- 53.0 (granite tile) and 923.4 +/- 161.0 (white brick), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the gamma-index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The mean values of the gamma-index and the estimated annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation inside the room for structural building materials ranged from 0.15 to 0.89 and 0.2 to 1.1 mSv, respectively. Applying criteria recently recommended for building materials in the literature, four materials meet the exemption annual dose criterion of 0.3 mSv, five materials meet the annual dose limit of 1 mSv and only one material slightly exceeds this limit. The mean values of the gamma-index for all building materials were lower than the upper limit of 1. PMID:18309197

  4. Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhan, S [Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul Road 30 km, 06983 Saray, Ankara (Turkey); Baykan, U N [Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, General Directorate of Constructive Affairs, Cetin Emec Bulvari, No:5, 06460 Dikmen, Ankara (Turkey); Sen, K [TAEA, Eskisehir Road 9 km, 06800 Lodumlu, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: serefturhan63@gmail.com

    2008-03-01

    A total of 183 samples of 20 different commonly used structural and covering building materials were collected from housing and other building construction sites and from suppliers in Ankara to measure the natural radioactivity due to the presence of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry with two HPGe detectors. The specific activities of the different building materials studied varied from 0.5 {+-} 0.1 to 144.9 {+-} 4.9 Bq kg{sup -1}, 0.6 {+-} 0.2 to 169.9 {+-} 6.6 Bq kg{sup -1} and 2.0 {+-} 0.1 to 1792.3 {+-} 60.8 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The results show that the lowest mean values of the specific activity of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K are 0.8 {+-} 0.5, 0.9 {+-} 0.4 and 4.1 {+-} 1.4 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively, measured in travertine tile while the highest mean values of the specific activity of the same radionuclides are 78.5 {+-} 18.1 (ceramic wall tile), 77.4 {+-} 53.0 (granite tile) and 923.4 {+-} 161.0 (white brick), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the gamma-index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The mean values of the gamma-index and the estimated annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation inside the room for structural building materials ranged from 0.15 to 0.89 and 0.2 to 1.1 mSv, respectively. Applying criteria recently recommended for building materials in the literature, four materials meet the exemption annual dose criterion of 0.3 mSv, five materials meet the annual dose limit of 1 mSv and only one material slightly exceeds this limit. The mean values of the gamma-index for all building materials were lower than the upper limit of 1.

  5. Isotope-specific detection of low density materials with mono-energetic (gamma)-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M J; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J

    2009-03-16

    The first demonstration of isotope-specific detection of a low-Z, low density object, shielded by a high-Z and high density material using mono-energetic gamma-rays is reported. Isotope-specific detection of LiH shielded by Pb and Al is accomplished using the nuclear resonance fluorescence line of {sup 7}Li at 0.478 MeV. Resonant photons are produced via laser-based Compton scattering. The detection techniques are general and the confidence level obtained is shown to be superior to that yielded by conventional x-ray/{gamma}-ray techniques in these situations.

  6. Managing for climate change on federal lands of the western United States: perceived usefulness of climate science, effectiveness of adaptation strategies, and barriers to implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry B. Kemp

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent mandates in the United States require federal agencies to incorporate climate change science into land management planning efforts. These mandates target possible adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, the degree to which climate change is actively being considered in agency planning and management decisions is largely unknown. We explored the usefulness of climate change science for federal resource managers, focusing on the efficacy of potential adaptation strategies and barriers limiting the use of climate change science in adaptation efforts. Our study was conducted in the northern Rocky Mountains region of the western United States, where we interacted with 77 U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management personnel through surveys, semistructured interviews, and four collaborative workshops at locations across Idaho and Montana. We used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate managers' perceptions about adapting to and mitigating for climate change. Although resource managers incorporate general language about climate change in regional and landscape-level planning documents, they are currently not planning on-the-ground adaptation or mitigation projects. However, managers felt that their organizations were most likely to adapt to climate change through use of existing management strategies that are already widely implemented for other non climate-related management goals. These existing strategies, (e.g., thinning and prescribed burning are perceived as more feasible than new climate-specific methods (e.g., assisted migration because they already have public and agency support, accomplish multiple goals, and require less anticipation of the future timing and probability of climate change impacts. Participants reported that the most common barriers to using climate change information included a lack of management-relevant climate change science, inconsistent agency guidance, and insufficient time and resources to access

  7. Thermal Error Modelling of the Spindle Using Data Transformation and Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for predicting spindle deformation based on temperature data. The method introduces the adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS, which is a neurofuzzy modeling approach that integrates the kernel and geometrical transformations. By utilizing data transformation, the number of ANFIS rules can be effectively reduced and the predictive model structure can be simplified. To build the predictive model, we first map the original temperature data to a feature space with Gaussian kernels. We then process the mapped data with the geometrical transformation and make the data gather in the square region. Finally, the transformed data are used as input to train the ANFIS. A verification experiment is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Six Pt100 thermal resistances are used to monitor the spindle temperature, and a laser displacement sensor is used to detect the spindle deformation. Experimental results show that the proposed method can precisely predict the spindle deformation and greatly improve the thermal performance of the spindle. Compared with back propagation (BP networks, the proposed method is more suitable for complex working conditions in practical applications.

  8. Behavioural adaptation and the use of environmental controls in summer for thermal comfort in apartments in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-07-15

    Building energy use in India is rising phenomenally. Indian codes prescribe a very narrow comfort temperature range (23-26 C) for summer. Ventilation controls alone consume 47% of total energy in residences. Thermal comfort field studies in Indian residences were not attempted. The author conducted a field study in apartments in Hyderabad, in summer and monsoon seasons in 2008. This paper presents the occupants' methods of environmental and behavioural adaptation and impediments in using controls. Only about 40% of the occupants were comfortable in summer due to inadequate adaptive opportunities. The comfort range obtained in this study (26.0-32.5 C), was way above the standard. Fanger's PMV always overestimated the actual sensation. The occupants used many adaptation methods: the environmental controls, clothing, metabolism and many behavioural actions. Use of fans, air coolers and A/cs increased with temperature, and was impeded by their poor efficacy and noise, occupant's attitudes and economic affordability. A/c and air cooler usage was higher in top floors. Behavioural adaptation was better in summer and was restricted in higher economic groups always. Thermal tolerance was limited in subjects using A/cs and resulted in ''thermal indulgence''. This study calls for special adaptation methods for top-floor flats. (author)

  9. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs.

  10. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs

  11. Use of smart materials technologies in radiation environments and nuclear industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor; Zagrai, Andrei N.

    2000-06-01

    Application of smart materials technology in nuclear industry offer new opportunities in this industrial sector for safety enhancement, reduced personal exposure, life-cycle cost reduction, and performance improvement. However, the radiation environments associated with nuclear operations represent a unique challenge to the testing, qualification and use of smart materials. The present study assesses the physical limitations of smart materials applications to nuclear industry and identifies areas of where such technologies could be reliably used. In our investigation, we considered a spectrum of smart materials technologies and a variety of irradiation environments. A literature survey to identify prior experimental data related to irradiation effects on smart-materials showed significant irradiation induced alterations in performance. However, the available database was limited and additional tests will be required before smart materials technologies can be introduced in most radiation environments. This paper summarizes a test program that was developed for the Accelerator Production of Tritium project. This program was designed to identify specific irradiation areas where the application of smart materials technologies is practical.

  12. In vivo cellular visualization of the human retina using optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S S; Jones, S M; Chen, D C; Zawadzki, R J; Choi, S S; Laut, S P; Werner, J S

    2006-01-05

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) sees the human retina sharply with adaptive optics. In vivo cellular visualization of the human retina at micrometer-scale resolution is possible by enhancing Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography with adaptive optics, which compensate for the eye's optical aberrations.

  13. 灌封材料与环境适应性%Environmental Adaptability of Potting Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄恩; 刘丽红

    2013-01-01

    本文简述了几种灌封材料的特性,包括环氧树脂灌封胶、聚氨酯灌封胶和有机硅灌封胶。并针对水、辐射、温度/热、氧和臭氧、微生物因素和机械应力等环境因素对灌封料的影响进行分析。%This paper introduces the characteristics of several kinds of potting materials, including epoxy pouring sealant, polyurethane pouring sealant and silicone potting glue. Then it analyzes the influences of the environmental factors, such as water, radiation, temperature/heat, oxygen, ozone, microorganism, and mechanical stress, on the potting materials. Finally, it introduces the necessity of the environmental adaptability research on the potting materials.

  14. 3D segmentation of masses in DCE-MRI images using FCM and adaptive MRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjie; Li, Lihua

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a sensitive imaging modality for the detection of breast cancer. Automated segmentation of breast lesions in DCE-MRI images is challenging due to inherent signal-to-noise ratios and high inter-patient variability. A novel 3D segmentation method based on FCM and MRF is proposed in this study. In this method, a MRI image is segmented by spatial FCM, firstly. And then MRF segmentation is conducted to refine the result. We combined with the 3D information of lesion in the MRF segmentation process by using segmentation result of contiguous slices to constraint the slice segmentation. At the same time, a membership matrix of FCM segmentation result is used for adaptive adjustment of Markov parameters in MRF segmentation process. The proposed method was applied for lesion segmentation on 145 breast DCE-MRI examinations (86 malignant and 59 benign cases). An evaluation of segmentation was taken using the traditional overlap rate method between the segmented region and hand-drawing ground truth. The average overlap rates for benign and malignant lesions are 0.764 and 0.755 respectively. Then we extracted five features based on the segmentation region, and used an artificial neural network (ANN) to classify between malignant and benign cases. The ANN had a classification performance measured by the area under the ROC curve of AUC=0.73. The positive and negative predictive values were 0.86 and 0.58, respectively. The results demonstrate the proposed method not only achieves a better segmentation performance in accuracy also has a reasonable classification performance.

  15. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  16. Dynamic optimization and adaptive controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, S. R.

    2010-10-01

    In this work I present a new type of controller which is an adaptive tracking controller which employs dynamic optimization for optimizing current value of controller action for the temperature control of nonisothermal continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). We begin with a two-state model of nonisothermal CSTR which are mass and heat balance equations and then add cooling system dynamics to eliminate input multiplicity. The initial design value is obtained using local stability of steady states where approach temperature for cooling action is specified as a steady state and a design specification. Later we make a correction in the dynamics where material balance is manipulated to use feed concentration as a system parameter as an adaptive control measure in order to avoid actuator saturation for the main control loop. The analysis leading to design of dynamic optimization based parameter adaptive controller is presented. The important component of this mathematical framework is reference trajectory generation to form an adaptive control measure.

  17. Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebig, Klaus; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. There-fore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and ob-served mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies.

  18. iFish: predicting the pathogenicity of human nonsynonymous variants using gene-specific/family-specific attributes and classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wei, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the pathogenicity of genomic variants, especially nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (nsSNVs), is essential in biomedical research and clinical genetics. Most current prediction methods build a generic classifier for all genes. However, different genes and gene families have different features. We investigated whether gene-specific and family-specific customized classifiers could improve prediction accuracy. Customized gene-specific and family-specific attributes were selected with AIC, BIC, and LASSO, and Support Vector Machine classifiers were generated for 254 genes and 152 gene families, covering a total of 5,985 genes. Our results showed that the customized attributes reflected key features of the genes and gene families, and the customized classifiers achieved higher prediction accuracy than the generic classifier. The customized classifiers and the generic classifier for other genes and families were integrated into a new tool named iFish (integrated Functional inference of SNVs in human, http://ifish.cbi.pku.edu.cn). iFish outperformed other methods on benchmark datasets as well as on prioritization of candidate causal variants from whole exome sequencing. iFish provides a user-friendly web-based interface and supports other functionalities such as integration of genetic evidence. iFish would facilitate high-throughput evaluation and prioritization of nsSNVs in human genetics research. PMID:27527004

  19. iFish: predicting the pathogenicity of human nonsynonymous variants using gene-specific/family-specific attributes and classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wei, Liping

    2016-08-16

    Accurate prediction of the pathogenicity of genomic variants, especially nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (nsSNVs), is essential in biomedical research and clinical genetics. Most current prediction methods build a generic classifier for all genes. However, different genes and gene families have different features. We investigated whether gene-specific and family-specific customized classifiers could improve prediction accuracy. Customized gene-specific and family-specific attributes were selected with AIC, BIC, and LASSO, and Support Vector Machine classifiers were generated for 254 genes and 152 gene families, covering a total of 5,985 genes. Our results showed that the customized attributes reflected key features of the genes and gene families, and the customized classifiers achieved higher prediction accuracy than the generic classifier. The customized classifiers and the generic classifier for other genes and families were integrated into a new tool named iFish (integrated Functional inference of SNVs in human, http://ifish.cbi.pku.edu.cn). iFish outperformed other methods on benchmark datasets as well as on prioritization of candidate causal variants from whole exome sequencing. iFish provides a user-friendly web-based interface and supports other functionalities such as integration of genetic evidence. iFish would facilitate high-throughput evaluation and prioritization of nsSNVs in human genetics research.

  20. RESEARCH ON DIALECT-SPECIFIC LEXICON ADAPTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Linquan

    2008-01-01

    With respect m dialectal-accented speech recognition, dialect-specific lexicon adaptation is an indispensable component to improve the performance. In this paper, a phone-based confusion matrix is adopted to obtain dialect-specific pronunciation variants. A weighting method, improved context-dependent weighting (ICDW) is proposed to characterize the pronunciation probability precisely by taking both the surface form left-context-dependency and the base form left-context-dependency into account. To make a much robust lexicon, a pruning criterion, syllable-dependent pruning (SDP), is also proposed which achieves the most effective result. In summary, the dialect-specific dialect adaptation reduces a 2.9% absolute and a 3.6% absolute in syllable error rate (SER) respectively on read speech and spontaneous speech from Shanghai-accented speakers.

  1. Prediction of GPCR-G Protein Coupling Specificity Using Features of Sequences and Biological Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihide Ono; Haretsugu Hishigaki

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the coupling specificity between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and specific classes of G proteins is important for further elucidation of receptor functions within a cell. Increasing information on GPCR sequences and the G protein family would facilitate prediction of the coupling properties of GPCRs. In this study, we describe a novel approach for predicting the coupling specificity between GPCRs and G proteins. This method uses not only GPCR sequences but also the functional knowledge generated by natural language processing, and can achieve 92.2% prediction accuracy by using the C4.5 algorithm.Furthermore, rules related to GPCR-G protein coupling are generated. The combination of sequence analysis and text mining improves the prediction accuracy for GPCR-G protein coupling specificity, and also provides clues for understanding GPCR signaling.

  2. Timing of ibuprofen use and musculoskeletal adaptations to exercise training in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Jankowski

    2015-01-01

    The difference between groups in the change in BMD was not significant when IP was compared with either PP (hip, −0.5% (−1.4, 0.4; spine, 0.1% (−0.9, 1.2 or PI (hip, 0.3% (−0.6, 1.2; spine, 0.5% (−0.5, 1.5. Ibuprofen use appeared to have more adverse effects on BMD in women than men. The study demonstrated that ibuprofen use did not significantly alter the BMD adaptations to exercise in older adults, but this finding should be interpreted cautiously. It had been expected that the inhibition of bone formation by ibuprofen would be more robust in men than in women, but this did not appear to be the case and may have limited the power to detect the effects of ibuprofen. Further research is needed to understand whether NSAID use counteracts, in part, the beneficial effects of exercise on bone.

  3. Research project grouping and ranking by using adaptive Mahalanobis clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Zeljko Turkalj; Damir Markulak; Slavica Singer; Rudolf Scitovski

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of grouping and ranking of research projects submitted for a call. The projects are grouped into clusters based on the assessment obtained in the review procedure and by using the adaptive Mahalanobis clustering method as a special case of the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The cluster of projects assessed as best is specially analyzed and ranked. The paper outlines several possibilities for the use of data obtained in the review procedure, and the propose...

  4. Control of Chaos in Rate-Dependent Friction-Induced Vibration Using Adaptive Sliding Mode Control and Impulse Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Maani Miandoab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different control methods, namely, adaptive sliding mode control and impulse damper, are used to control the chaotic vibration of a block on a belt system due to the rate-dependent friction. In the first method, using the sliding mode control technique and based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a sliding surface is determined, and an adaptive control law is established which stabilizes the chaotic response of the system. In the second control method, the vibration of this system is controlled by an impulse damper. In this method, an impulsive force is applied to the system by expanding and contracting the PZT stack according to efficient control law. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of both methods in controlling the chaotic vibration of the system. It is shown that the settling time of the controlled system using impulse damper is less than that one controlled by adaptive sliding mode control; however, it needs more control effort.

  5. Isotope specific arbitrary material flow meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.; Post, John C.; Jones, Edwin

    2016-10-25

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  6. Automatic segmentation of canine retinal OCT using adaptive gradient enhancement and region growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yufan; Sun, Yankui; Chen, Min; Zheng, Yuanjie; Liu, Hui; Leon, Cecilia; Beltran, William; Gee, James C.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown that the canine retina model offers important insight for our understanding of human retinal diseases. Several therapies developed to treat blindness in such models have already moved onto human clinical trials, with more currently under development [1]. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers a high resolution imaging modality for performing in-vivo analysis of the retinal layers. However, existing algorithms for automatically segmenting and analyzing such data have been mostly focused on the human retina. As a result, canine retinal images are often still being analyzed using manual segmentations, which is a slow and laborious task. In this work, we propose a method for automatically segmenting 5 boundaries in canine retinal OCT. The algorithm employs the position relationships between different boundaries to adaptively enhance the gradient map. A region growing algorithm is then used on the enhanced gradient maps to find the five boundaries separately. The automatic segmentation was compared against manual segmentations showing an average absolute error of 5.82 +/- 4.02 microns.

  7. Reliability of age estimation using Demirjian′s 8 teeth method and India specific formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Jayanth Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estimation of the age of a person has been an archaic exercise, and since decades even dentists have contributed to this science with several methods through radiography. The tooth with its developmental stages provides us with a non-invasive modality to determine the age of the person. Aim: To evaluate the reliability of age estimation using Demirjian′s 8 teeth method following the French maturity scores and India specific formula. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 121 archived digital orthopantamographs which were predominantly pre-treatment orthodontic radiographs from patients without any obvious developmental anomalies. The radiographs were divided into two gender specific groups and further sub-divided into two smaller groups of 7-16 years and 16.1-23 years. The radiographs were evaluated as per Demirjian′s criteria and age was calculated using the formula developed for the Indian population. Results: The results showed that the mean absolute error for the study sample was 1.18 years; in 57.9% of cases the error rate was within ±1 year. The mean absolute error in males (7-16 years was 1.2 years; in males (16.1-23 years was 1.3 years; in females (7-16 years was 0.95 years and in females (16.1-23 years was 1.16 years. Conclusion: The age estimation using this method narrows down the error rate to just over one year making this method reliable. However the inclusion of third molar increases the error rates in the older individuals within the sample.

  8. Compound specific stable isotopes as probes for distinguishing the sources of biomolecules in terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M. H.; Macko, S. A.

    2003-04-01

    Life on Earth consists of orderly arrangements of several key types of organic compounds (amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, nucleic bases) that are the building blocks of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleotides. Subsequent to death, macromolecules are commonly broken down to their molecular constituents or other similar scale components. Thus, in ancient terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials, it is far more likely to expect the presence of simple compounds such as amino acids rather than the proteins from which they were possibly derived. Given that amino acids, for example, are common components of all extinct and extant organisms, the challenge has been to develop methods for distinguishing their sources. Stable isotopes are powerful probes for determining the origins of organic matter. Amino acid constituents of all organisms on Earth exhibit characteristic stable isotope compositions owing to fractionations associated with their biosynthesis. These fractionations are distinct from those observed for amino acids formed by abiotic processes. Thus it should be possible to use isotopes as probes for determining whether amino acids in ancient rocks on Earth are biotic or abiotic, based on their relative isotopic compositions. Also, owing to differences in the isotope compositions of precursors, amino acids in extraterrestrial materials such as carbonaceous meteorites are moderately to substantially enriched in the heavy isotopes of C, N and H relative to terrestrial amino acids. Assuming that the isotope compositions of the gaseous components of, for example, the Martian atmosphere were distinct from Earth at such time when organic molecules may have formed, it should be possible to distinguish these components from terrestrial contaminants by determining their isotope compositions and/or those of their respective enantiomers. Also, if life as we know it existed on another planet such as Mars, fractionations characteristic of biosynthesis should be

  9. Adapting the Speed of Reproduction of Audio Content and Using Text Reinforcement for Maximizing the Learning Outcome though Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Organero, M.; Munoz-Merino, P. J.; Kloos, Carlos Delgado

    2011-01-01

    The use of technology in learning environments should be targeted at improving the learning outcome of the process. Several technology enhanced techniques can be used for maximizing the learning gain of particular students when having access to learning resources. One of them is content adaptation. Adapting content is especially important when…

  10. Engineering Design of an Adaptive Leg Prosthesis Using Biological Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Dentel, Andy; Invarsdottir, Thorunn;

    2010-01-01

    The biomimetic design process is explored through a design case: An adaptive leg prosthesis. The aim is to investigate if the biomimetic design process can be carried out with a minimum of biological knowledge and without using advanced design methods. In the design case biomimetic design was suc...... was successfully carried out using library search resulting in 14 biological analogies for the design problem 'shape adaption'. It is proposed that search results are handled using special cards describing the biological phenomena and the functional principles....

  11. Comprehensive modeling of special nuclear materials detection using three-dimensional deterministic and Monte Carlo methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Gabriel M.

    Our study aim to design a useful neutron signature characterization device based on 3He detectors, a standard neutron detection methodology used in homeland security applications. Research work involved simulation of the generation, transport, and detection of the leakage radiation from Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). To accomplish research goals, we use a new methodology to fully characterize a standard "1-Ci" Plutonium-Beryllium (Pu-Be) neutron source based on 3-D computational radiation transport methods, employing both deterministic SN and Monte Carlo methodologies. Computational model findings were subsequently validated through experimental measurements. Achieved results allowed us to design, build, and laboratory-test a Nickel composite alloy shield that enables the neutron leakage spectrum from a standard Pu-Be source to be transformed, through neutron scattering interactions in the shield, into a very close approximation of the neutron spectrum leaking from a large, subcritical mass of Weapons Grade Plutonium (WGPu) metal. This source will make possible testing with a nearly exact reproduction of the neutron spectrum from a 6.67 kg WGPu mass equivalent, but without the expense or risk of testing detector components with real materials. Moreover, over thirty moderator materials were studied in order to characterize their neutron energy filtering potential. Specific focus was made to establish the limits of He-3 spectroscopy using ideal filter materials. To demonstrate our methodology, we present the optimally detected spectral differences between SNM materials (Plutonium and Uranium), metal and oxide, using ideal filter materials. Finally, using knowledge gained from previous studies, the design of a He-3 spectroscopy system neutron detector, simulated entirely via computational methods, is proposed to resolve the spectra from SNM neutron sources of high interest. This was accomplished by replacing ideal filters with real materials, and comparing reaction

  12. The legal foundation of the production and use of herd-specific vaccines in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Y; Schmerold, I; Hönel, A

    2013-08-12

    In veterinary medicine, herd-specific vaccines are primarily used in farm animals if traditional vaccines are either unavailable or do not perform as expected. As autogenous products, these vaccines are exempt from Directive 2001/82/EC, and therefore the production and use of herd-specific vaccines are regulated differently in each member state of the European Union (EU). This study is an overview of the diverse legal statuses of herd-specific vaccines among European countries. The study was conducted by analyzing legal documents, tailored questionnaires answered by subject-related authorities from sixteen European countries, and related literature. These analyses revealed that tremendous heterogeneity exists with respect to the legal requirements for the production and use of herd-specific vaccines among the countries that were examined. In particular, certain countries have detailed and precise regulations for these vaccines, whereas the legislation regarding these vaccines is vague or even nonexistent in other nations. The implementation of standardized definitions, guidelines for vaccine use in the field, and regulations for vaccine production are essential prerequisites for achieving legal consistency across Europe. These measures would also help countries enact pertinent national legislation with less divergence regarding the production and use of herd-specific vaccines and ensure the existence of comparable safety and quality standards for these vaccines among European countries.

  13. Multi-wavelengths digital holography: reconstruction, synthesis and display of holograms using adaptive transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmolo, P; Finizio, A; Paturzo, M; Ferraro, P; Javidi, B

    2012-05-01

    A method based on spatial transformations of multiwavelength digital holograms and the correlation matching of their numerical reconstructions is proposed, with the aim to improve superimposition of different color reconstructed images. This method is based on an adaptive affine transform of the hologram that permits management of the physical parameters of numerical reconstruction. In addition, we present a procedure to synthesize a single digital hologram in which three different colors are multiplexed. The optical reconstruction of the synthetic hologram by a spatial light modulator at one wavelength allows us to display all color features of the object, avoiding loss of details.

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS to be used with Brazilian burned patients Adaptación transcultural de la "Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS" para ser aplicada en pacientes quemados brasileños Adaptação transcultural da "Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS" para ser aplicada em pacientes queimados brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Echevarría-Guanilo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at translating and adapting the Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS and the Impact of Event Scale - IES into Portuguese; making available two simple, short and easily applicable instruments and describing the study participants according to their scores on the Visual Analogue Scale and the Trait-State Anxiety Inventory. The cross-cultural adaptation process involved the following steps: translation of the scales; reaching a consensus in Portuguese; evaluation by an expert committee; back-translation; obtaining a consensus in Dutch; comparing the original versions with the consensus in Dutch; semantic analysis and pretest of the Portuguese versions. The results showed that both scales present high values of internal consistency between the scale items. Participants' average pain scores were higher after bathing and wound dressing. Participants' average anxiety scores were low or medium.Los objetivos del estudio fueron traducir y adaptar la "Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - SPAS" y la "Impact Event Scale - IES" para el portugués, poner a disposición dos instrumentos simples, cortos y de fácil aplicación y describir los participantes del estudio, según los scores obtenidos por medio de la aplicación de la Escala Visual Analógica y del Inventario de Ansiedad Trazo-Estado. El proceso de adaptación de las escalas siguió las siguientes etapas: traducción de las escalas; obtención del consenso en portugués; evaluación por un comité de jueces; "back-translation"; obtención del consenso en holandés; comparación de las versiones originales y en holandés; análisis semántica y pretest de las versiones en portugués. Los resultados mostraron índices elevados de consistencia interna de los ítems de la escala. La media de los escores de dolor fueron más altos después del baño y curaciones. Los scores medios de ansiedad fueron clasificados como bajos o medios.Este estudo teve como objetivos traduzir e adaptar a

  15. Adaptive Peak Frequency Estimation Using a Database of PARCOR Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iiguni Youji

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive peak frequency estimation method using a database that stores PARCOR coefficients as key attributes and the corresponding peak frequencies as nonkey attributes. The least-square lattice algorithm is used to recursively estimate the PARCOR coefficients to adapt to changing circumstances. The nearest neighbor to the current PARCOR coefficient is retrieved from the database, and the corresponding peak frequency is regarded as the estimation. A simultaneous execution of database construction and peak estimation with database update is performed to accelerate the processing time and to improve the estimation accuracy.

  16. Removal of blue indigo and cadmium present in aqueous solutions using a modified zeolitic material and an activated carbonaceous material; Remocion de azul indigo y cadmio presentes en soluciones acuosas empleando un material zeolitico modificado y un material carbonoso activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez S, E. E.

    2011-07-01

    In the last years the use of water has been increased substantially, it has been also altered its quality as a result of human activities such as mining, industrial activities and others. Water pollution caused by dyes and heavy metals has adverse effects on the environment, since both pollutants are very persisten even after conventional treatments. Denim blue and cadmium are not biodegradable. There is a growing interest in finding new, efficient and low cost alternative materials to remove such pollutants from the aqueous medium. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a modified zeolitic tuff and an activated carbonaceous material obtained from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the removal of denim blue and cadmium. The zeolitic material was modified with Na{sup +} and Fe{sup 3+} solutions to improve its sorption properties for the removal of cadmium and denim blue, respectively. Carbonaceous material was treated with 10% HCl solution to remove ashes. Both materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis (EDS), specific surface areas (Bet), thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Simultaneously, the denim blue dye was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and its pKa value was determined, these data allowed the determination of its chemical properties and its acid-base behavior in solution. In the content of this work the term indigo blue was changed by denim blue, as it corresponds to the commercial name of the dye. To assess the sorption capacity of sorbents, the sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms in batch system were determined; the results were fitted to mathematical models such as the pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and second order to describe the sorption kinetics and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms to describe sorption processes. The results show that the most efficient material to remove denim blue from aqueous solutions is the carbonaceous

  17. Laser Patterning Pretreatment before Thermal Spraying: A Technique to Adapt and Control the Surface Topography to Thermomechanical Loading and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Robin; Costil, Sophie; Cormier, Jonathan; Berthe, Laurent; Peyre, Patrice; Courapied, Damien

    2016-02-01

    Coating characteristics are highly dependent on substrate preparation and spray parameters. Hence, the surface must be adapted mechanically and physicochemically to favor coating-substrate adhesion. Conventional surface preparation methods such as grit blasting are limited by surface embrittlement and produce large plastic deformations throughout the surface, resulting in compressive stress and potential cracks. Among all such methods, laser patterning is suitable to prepare the surface of sensitive materials. No embedded grit particles can be observed, and high-quality coatings are obtained. Finally, laser surface patterning adapts the impacted surface, creating large anchoring area. Optimized surface topographies can then be elaborated according to the material as well as the application. The objective of this study is to compare the adhesive bond strength between two surface preparation methods, namely grit blasting and laser surface patterning, for two material couples used in aerospace applications: 2017 aluminum alloy and AISI 304L stainless steel coated with NiAl and YSZ, respectively. Laser patterning significantly increases adherence values for similar contact area due to mixed-mode (cohesive and adhesive) failure. The coating is locked in the pattern.

  18. Neuro-Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulator Using RBFN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. D. [Cowell SysNet, Seoul (Korea); Lee, M. J.; Choi, Y. K.; Kim, S. S. [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea)

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the direct adaptive control of nonlinear systems using RBFN(radial basis function networks). The structure of the controller consists of a fixed PD controller and a RBFN controller in parallel. An adaptation law for the parameters of RBFN is developed based on the Lyapunov stability theory to guarantee the stability of the overall control system. The filtered tracking error between the system output and the desired output is shown to be UUB(uniformly ultimately bounded). To evaluate the performance of the controller, the proposed method is applied to the trajectory control of the two-link manipulator. (author). 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2001-01-01

    a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics.......The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can...... communicate information about materials and processes in a very concentrated and effective way. The product examples represent desired material properties but also includes information that can not be associated directly to the material, e.g. functional or perceived attributes. Previous studies suggest...

  20. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2002-01-01

    a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics.......The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can...... communicate information about materials and processes in a very concentrated and effective way. The product examples represent desired material properties but also includes information that can not be associated directly to the material, e.g. functional or perceived attributes. Previous studies suggest...

  1. Digital lock-in detection of site-specific magnetism in magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskel, Daniel; Lang, Jonathan C.; Srajer, George

    2008-07-22

    The polarization and diffraction characteristics of x-rays incident upon a magnetic material are manipulated to provide a desired magnetic sensitivity in the material. The contrast in diffracted intensity of opposite helicities of circularly polarized x-rays is measured to permit separation of magnetic signals by element type and by atomic environment. This allows for the direct probing of magnetic signals from elements of the same species in nonequivalent atomic environments to better understand the behavior and characteristics of permanent magnetic materials. By using known crystallographic information together with manipulation of the polarization of x-rays having energies tuned near element-specific electronic excitations and by detecting and comparing the incident and diffracted photons at the same frequency, more accurate magnetic measurements can be made over shorter observation periods.

  2. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal K. Nath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA in piglets of vaccinated sows. Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0 and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days after vaccination and were analyzed by liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, MDA titre was detected in the serum of piglets at 21 and 42 days of age after farrowing of the vaccinated sows. Results: On 28 days after vaccination, serum samples of 83.33% vaccinated pigs showed the desirable level of antibody titer (log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution, whereas 100% animals showed log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution after 42 days of vaccination. Animals received a booster dose at 28 and 180 days post vaccination showed stable high-level antibody titre till the end of the study period. Further, piglets born from pigs vaccinated 1 month after conception showed the desirable level of MDA up to 42 days of age. Conclusion: CSF causes major losses in pig industry. Lapinised vaccines against CSFV are used routinely in endemic countries. In the present study, a cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine has been evaluated. Based on the level of humoral immune response of vaccinated pigs and MDA titer in piglets born from immunized sows, it may be concluded that the more effective vaccination schedule for prevention of CSF is primary vaccination at 2 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 28 and 180 days post primary vaccination and at 1 month of gestation.

  3. Manual of use and accounting of radioactive material and procedures of radiological protection for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual of use and accounting of material radioactive and procedures of radiological safety tries to facilitate workings of protection of material radioactive in services of medicine nuclear, during diagnosis (examinations with x-rays, or those that are made in nuclear medicine), or during the processing of diseases, mainly of the carcinomas (x-ray)

  4. Structural properties of porous materials and powders used in different fields of science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Volfkovich, Yury Mironovich; Bagotsky, Vladimir Sergeevich

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and concise description of most important aspects of experimental and theoretical investigations of porous materials and powders, with the use and application of these materials in different fields of science, technology, national economy and environment. It allows the reader to understand the basic regularities of heat and mass transfer and adsorption occurring in qualitatively different porous materials and products, and allows the reader to optimize the functional properties of porous and powdered products and materials. Written in an straightforward and transparent manner, this book is accessible to both experts and those without specialist knowledge, and it is further elucidated by drawings, schemes and photographs. Porous materials and powders with different pore sizes are used in many areas of industry, geology, agriculture and science. These areas include (i) a variety of devices and supplies; (ii) thermal insulation and building materials; (iii) oil-bearing geologic...

  5. Function approximation using adaptive and overlapping intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    A problem common to many disciplines is to approximate a function given only the values of the function at various points in input variable space. A method is proposed for approximating a function of several to one variable. The model takes the form of weighted averaging of overlapping basis functions defined over intervals. The number of such basis functions and their parameters (widths and centers) are automatically determined using given training data and a learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be seen as placing a nonuniform multidimensional grid in the input domain with overlapping cells. The non-uniformity and overlap of the cells is achieved by a learning algorithm to optimize a given objective function. This approach is motivated by the fuzzy modeling approach and a learning algorithms used for clustering and classification in pattern recognition. The basics of why and how the approach works are given. Few examples of nonlinear regression and classification are modeled. The relationship between the proposed technique, radial basis neural networks, kernel regression, probabilistic neural networks, and fuzzy modeling is explained. Finally advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  6. Adaptation in E-Learning Content Specifications with Dynamic Sharable Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Gutiérrez; Víctor Álvarez; M. Puerto Paule; Juan Ramón Pérez-Pérez; Sara de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic sophisticated real-time adaptation is not possible with current e-learning technologies. Our proposal is based on changing the approach for the development of e-learning systems using dynamic languages and including them in both platforms and learning content specifications thereby making them adaptive. We propose a Sharable Auto-Adaptive Learning Object (SALO), defined as an object that includes learning content and describes its own behaviour supported by dynamic languages. We descr...

  7. Genome-Wide Scan for Adaptive Divergence and Association with Population-Specific Covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    In population genomics studies, accounting for the neutral covariance structure across population allele frequencies is critical to improve the robustness of genome-wide scan approaches. Elaborating on the BayEnv model, this study investigates several modeling extensions (i) to improve the estimation accuracy of the population covariance matrix and all the related measures, (ii) to identify significantly overly differentiated SNPs based on a calibration procedure of the XtX statistics, and (iii) to consider alternative covariate models for analyses of association with population-specific covariables. In particular, the auxiliary variable model allows one to deal with multiple testing issues and, providing the relative marker positions are available, to capture some linkage disequilibrium information. A comprehensive simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performances of these different models. Also, when compared in terms of power, robustness, and computational efficiency to five other state-of-the-art genome-scan methods (BayEnv2, BayScEnv, BayScan, flk, and lfmm), the proposed approaches proved highly effective. For illustration purposes, genotyping data on 18 French cattle breeds were analyzed, leading to the identification of 13 strong signatures of selection. Among these, four (surrounding the KITLG, KIT, EDN3, and ALB genes) contained SNPs strongly associated with the piebald coloration pattern while a fifth (surrounding PLAG1) could be associated to morphological differences across the populations. Finally, analysis of Pool-Seq data from 12 populations of Littorina saxatilis living in two different ecotypes illustrates how the proposed framework might help in addressing relevant ecological issues in nonmodel species. Overall, the proposed methods define a robust Bayesian framework to characterize adaptive genetic differentiation across populations. The BayPass program implementing the different models is available at http://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/software/baypass/.

  8. Genome-Wide Scan for Adaptive Divergence and Association with Population-Specific Covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    In population genomics studies, accounting for the neutral covariance structure across population allele frequencies is critical to improve the robustness of genome-wide scan approaches. Elaborating on the BayEnv model, this study investigates several modeling extensions (i) to improve the estimation accuracy of the population covariance matrix and all the related measures, (ii) to identify significantly overly differentiated SNPs based on a calibration procedure of the XtX statistics, and (iii) to consider alternative covariate models for analyses of association with population-specific covariables. In particular, the auxiliary variable model allows one to deal with multiple testing issues and, providing the relative marker positions are available, to capture some linkage disequilibrium information. A comprehensive simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performances of these different models. Also, when compared in terms of power, robustness, and computational efficiency to five other state-of-the-art genome-scan methods (BayEnv2, BayScEnv, BayScan, flk, and lfmm), the proposed approaches proved highly effective. For illustration purposes, genotyping data on 18 French cattle breeds were analyzed, leading to the identification of 13 strong signatures of selection. Among these, four (surrounding the KITLG, KIT, EDN3, and ALB genes) contained SNPs strongly associated with the piebald coloration pattern while a fifth (surrounding PLAG1) could be associated to morphological differences across the populations. Finally, analysis of Pool-Seq data from 12 populations of Littorina saxatilis living in two different ecotypes illustrates how the proposed framework might help in addressing relevant ecological issues in nonmodel species. Overall, the proposed methods define a robust Bayesian framework to characterize adaptive genetic differentiation across populations. The BayPass program implementing the different models is available at http://www1.montpellier

  9. Effects of Materials of Cementless Femoral Stem on the Functional Adaptation of Bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Gong; Wei Wu; Juan Fang; Xin Dong; Meisheng Zhao; Tongtong Guo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of materials of cementless femoral stem on the functional adaptive behaviors of bone.The remodeling behaviors of a two-dimensional simplified model of cementless hip prosthesis with stiff stem,flexible 'iso-elastic' stem,one-dimensional Functionally Graded Material (FGM) stem and two-dimensional FGM stem for the period of four years after prosthesis replacement were quantified by incorporating the bone remodeling algorithm with finite element analysis.The distributions of bone density,von Mises stress,and interface shear stress were obtained.The results show that two-dimensional FGM stem may produce more mechanical stimuli and more uniform interface shear stress compared with the stems made of other materials,thus the host bone is well preserved.Accordingly,the two-dimensional FGM stem is an appropriate femoral implant from a biomechanical point of view.The numerical simulation in this paper can provide a quantitative computational paradigm for the changes of bone morphology caused by implants,which can help to improve the design of implant to reduce stress shielding and the risk of bone-prosthesis interface failure.

  10. Using a "time machine" to test for local adaptation of aquatic microbes to temporal and spatial environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy W; Harder, Lawrence D

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation occurs when different environments are dominated by different specialist genotypes, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions and relatively unfit under other conditions. Analogously, ecological species sorting occurs when different environments are dominated by different competing species, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions. The simplest theory predicts that spatial, but not temporal, environmental variation selects for local adaptation (or generates species sorting), but this prediction is difficult to test. Although organisms can be reciprocally transplanted among sites, doing so among times seems implausible. Here, we describe a reciprocal transplant experiment testing for local adaptation or species sorting of lake bacteria in response to both temporal and spatial variation in water chemistry. The experiment used a -80°C freezer as a "time machine." Bacterial isolates and water samples were frozen for later use, allowing transplantation of older isolates "forward in time" and newer isolates "backward in time." Surprisingly, local maladaptation predominated over local adaptation in both space and time. Such local maladaptation may indicate that adaptation, or the analogous species sorting process, fails to keep pace with temporal fluctuations in water chemistry. This hypothesis could be tested with more finely resolved temporal data.

  11. Microscopy and image analysis based approaches for the species-specific identification of bovine and swine bone containing material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ottoboni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of image analysis measurements in combination with the official analytical method for the detection of constituents of animal origin in feedstuffs, in distinguishing between bovine and swine (bone containing material. Authentic samples of controlled origin containing bovine or swine meat and bone meals were analysed by the microscopic method, in accordance with the official analytical method. Sediment fractions of each sample were observed with a compound microscope at X40. A total of 362 bone fragment lacunae images were recorded and processed through image analysis software, deriving 30 geometric variables for each lacuna. Results indicated that not only were most variables significantly (P<0.001 different between bovine and swine samples, but also that two thirds of the same variables were bigger in bovine than in swine. This information, however, does not seem to be so effective in practice since bovine and swine features and measurements overlapped. It can be concluded that the microscopic method even when combined with image analysis does not fit all the requirements for accurately identifying prohibited ingredients of animal origin. A combined approach with other methods is therefore recommended.

  12. Retrospective analysis of prostate cancer patients with implanted gold markers using off-line and adaptive therapy protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of applying adaptive and off-line setup correction models to bony anatomy and gold fiducial markers implanted in the prostate, relative to daily alignment to skin tattoos and daily on-line corrections of the implanted gold markers. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with implanted gold fiducial markers were treated using a daily on-line setup correction protocol. The patients' positions were aligned to skin tattoos and two orthogonal diagnostic digital radiographs were obtained before treatment each day. These radiographs were compared with digitally reconstructed radiographs to obtain the translational setup errors of the bony anatomy and gold markers. The adaptive, no-action-level and shrinking-action-level off-line protocols were retrospectively applied to the bony anatomy to determine the change in the setup errors of the gold markers. The protocols were also applied to the gold markers directly to determine the residual setup errors. Results: The percentage of remaining fractions that the gold markers fell within the adaptive margins constructed with 1.5σ' (estimated random variation) after 5, 10, and 15 measurement fractions was 74%, 88%, and 93% for the prone patients and 55%, 77%, and 93% for the supine patients, respectively. Using 2σ', the percentage after 5, 10, and 15 measurements was 85%, 95%, and 97% for the prone patients and 68%, 87%, and 99% for the supine patients, respectively. The average initial three-dimensional (3D) setup error of the gold markers was 0.92 cm for the prone patients and 0.70 cm for the supine patients. Application of the no-action-level protocol to bony anatomy with Nm = 3 days resulted in significant benefit to 4 of 10 patients, but 3 were significantly worse. The residual average 3D setup error of the gold markers was 1.14 cm and 0.51 cm for the prone and supine patients, respectively. When applied directly to the gold markers with Nm = 3 days, 5 patients benefited and 3

  13. Towards the validation of adaptive educational hypermedia using CAVIAr

    OpenAIRE

    Melia, Mark; Pahl, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Migrating from static courseware to Adaptive Educational Hypermedia presents significant risk to the course creator. In this paper we alleviate some of this risk by outlining how the CAVIAr courseware validation framework can be used to validate some pedagogical aspects in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia. To allow for this we present a novel method for interoperability in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia using Model Driven Engineering methodologies. 1 Introduction

  14. Using plastic instability to validate and test the strength law of a material under pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolis Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In dynamical experiments (pressures higher than 10 GPa, strain rate around 104–106 s−1, metals are classically described using an equation of state and a strength law which is usually set using data from compression or traction tests at low pressure (few MPa and low strain rates (less than 103 s−1. In consequence, it needs to be extrapolated during dynamical experiments. Classical shock experiments do not allow a fine validation of the stress law due to the interaction with the equation of state. To achieve this aim, we propose to use a dedicated experiment. We started from the works of Barnes et al. (1974 and 1980 where plastic instabilities initiated by a sinusoidal perturbation at the surface of the metal develop with the pressure. We adapted this principle to a new shape of initial perturbation and realized several experiments. We will present the setup and its use on a simple material: gold. We will detail how the interpretation of the experiments, coupled with previous characterization experiments helps us to test the strength lax of this material at high pressure and high strain rate.

  15. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites, DSHWPOPermittedUsedOilFacilities-Location in Utah of all Used Oil Facilities: Marketers, Porcessoors, Transfer, Transport and Off-specification Permitted by UDEQ Division of Hazardous Waste (DSHW) - Used Oil Section. Federal Fiscal Year 2006. Dataset Upda, Published in 2006, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information...

  16. The application of SRF vs. RDF classification and specifications to the material flows of two mechanical-biological treatment plants of Rome: Comparison and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lonardo, Maria Chiara; Franzese, Maurizio; Costa, Giulia; Gavasci, Renato; Lombardi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the quality in terms of solid recovered fuel (SRF) definitions of the dry light flow (until now indicated as refuse derived fuel, RDF), heavy rejects and stabilisation rejects, produced by two mechanical biological treatment plants of Rome (Italy). SRF classification and specifications were evaluated first on the basis of RDF historical characterisation methods and data and then applying the sampling and analytical methods laid down by the recently issued SRF standards. The results showed that the dry light flow presented a worst SRF class in terms of net calorific value applying the new methods compared to that obtained from RDF historical data (4 instead of 3). This lead to incompliance with end of waste criteria established by Italian legislation for SRF use as co-fuel in cement kilns and power plants. Furthermore, the metal contents of the dry light flow obtained applying SRF current methods proved to be considerably higher (although still meeting SRF specifications) compared to those resulting from historical data retrieved with RDF standard methods. These differences were not related to a decrease in the quality of the dry light flow produced in the mechanical-biological treatment plants but rather to the different sampling procedures set by the former RDF and current SRF standards. In particular, the shredding of the sample before quartering established by the latter methods ensures that also the finest waste fractions, characterised by higher moisture and metal contents, are included in the sample to be analysed, therefore affecting the composition and net calorific value of the waste. As for the reject flows, on the basis of their SRF classification and specification parameters, it was found that combined with the dry light flow they may present similar if not the same class codes as the latter alone, thus indicating that these material flows could be also treated in combustion plants instead of landfilled. In conclusion, the

  17. The application of SRF vs. RDF classification and specifications to the material flows of two mechanical-biological treatment plants of Rome: Comparison and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lonardo, Maria Chiara; Franzese, Maurizio; Costa, Giulia; Gavasci, Renato; Lombardi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the quality in terms of solid recovered fuel (SRF) definitions of the dry light flow (until now indicated as refuse derived fuel, RDF), heavy rejects and stabilisation rejects, produced by two mechanical biological treatment plants of Rome (Italy). SRF classification and specifications were evaluated first on the basis of RDF historical characterisation methods and data and then applying the sampling and analytical methods laid down by the recently issued SRF standards. The results showed that the dry light flow presented a worst SRF class in terms of net calorific value applying the new methods compared to that obtained from RDF historical data (4 instead of 3). This lead to incompliance with end of waste criteria established by Italian legislation for SRF use as co-fuel in cement kilns and power plants. Furthermore, the metal contents of the dry light flow obtained applying SRF current methods proved to be considerably higher (although still meeting SRF specifications) compared to those resulting from historical data retrieved with RDF standard methods. These differences were not related to a decrease in the quality of the dry light flow produced in the mechanical-biological treatment plants but rather to the different sampling procedures set by the former RDF and current SRF standards. In particular, the shredding of the sample before quartering established by the latter methods ensures that also the finest waste fractions, characterised by higher moisture and metal contents, are included in the sample to be analysed, therefore affecting the composition and net calorific value of the waste. As for the reject flows, on the basis of their SRF classification and specification parameters, it was found that combined with the dry light flow they may present similar if not the same class codes as the latter alone, thus indicating that these material flows could be also treated in combustion plants instead of landfilled. In conclusion, the

  18. Investigations on Incipient Fault Diagnosis of Power Transformer Using Neural Networks and Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandkumar Wagh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuity of power supply is of utmost importance to the consumers and is only possible by coordination and reliable operation of power system components. Power transformer is such a prime equipment of the transmission and distribution system and needs to be continuously monitored for its well-being. Since ratio methods cannot provide correct diagnosis due to the borderline problems and the probability of existence of multiple faults, artificial intelligence could be the best approach. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA interpretation may provide an insight into the developing incipient faults and is adopted as the preliminary diagnosis tool. In the proposed work, a comparison of the diagnosis ability of backpropagation (BP, radial basis function (RBF neural network, and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS has been investigated and the diagnosis results in terms of error measure, accuracy, network training time, and number of iterations are presented.

  19. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  20. General and Specific Strategies Used to Facilitate Locomotor Maneuvers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan Wu

    Full Text Available People make anticipatory changes in gait patterns prior to initiating a rapid change of direction. How they prepare will change based on their knowledge of the maneuver. To investigate specific and general strategies used to facilitate locomotor maneuvers, we manipulated subjects' ability to anticipate the direction of an upcoming lateral "lane-change" maneuver. To examine specific anticipatory adjustments, we observed the four steps immediately preceding a maneuver that subjects were instructed to perform at a known time in a known direction. We hypothesized that to facilitate a specific change of direction, subjects would proactively decrease margin of stability in the future direction of travel. Our results support this hypothesis: subjects significantly decreased lateral margin of stability by 69% on the side ipsilateral to the maneuver during only the step immediately preceding the maneuver. This gait adaptation may have improved energetic efficiency and simplified the control of the maneuver. To examine general anticipatory adjustments, we observed the two steps immediately preceding the instant when subjects received information about the direction of the maneuver. When the maneuver direction was unknown, we hypothesized that subjects would make general anticipatory adjustments that would improve their ability to actively initiate a maneuver in multiple directions. This second hypothesis was partially supported as subjects increased step width and stance phase hip flexion during these anticipatory steps. These modifications may have improved subjects' ability to generate forces in multiple directions and maintain equilibrium during the onset and execution of the rapid maneuver. However, adapting these general anticipatory strategies likely incurred an additional energetic cost.

  1. Leaching of metal(loid)s from a construction material: influence of the particle size, specific surface area and ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmukat, A; Duester, L; Ecker, D; Schmid, H; Heil, C; Heininger, P; Ternes, T A

    2012-08-15

    Construction materials are tested worldwide for a potential release of dangerous substances to prevent adverse effects on humans and biota. It is crucial to identify and understand the processes which are decisive for the release of hazardous substances. The current study compares the results of different test methods. Taking copper slag as model material, the influence of material particle size, eluant composition and ionic strength was tested. Ionic strength and salinity significantly influenced the release of metal(loid)s in the water phase. Furthermore, it was elucidated that colloids can cause methodological artefacts. The available specific surface area exhibited a positive correlation with the release of hazardous substances. The specific surface areas of materials were determined by the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller model (BET) and four other methods. The aluminium foil method showed the best results with regard to the statistical uncertainty, compared to a 3D laser scanning method. With help of the roughness factor λ it is possible to compare the results from surface area measurements with different material particle sizes (0-250 mm). This comparability offers the potential to match the release of metal(loid)s from laboratory studies with field applications and catchment area calculations/modelling, based on the release per m(2). PMID:22683212

  2. Correction of respiratory motion for IMRT using aperture adaptive technique and visual guidance: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) utilizes nonuniform beam profile to deliver precise radiation doses to a tumor while minimizing radiation exposure to surrounding normal tissues. However, the problem of intrafraction organ motion distorts the dose distribution and leads to significant dosimetric errors. In this research, we applied an aperture adaptive technique with a visual guiding system to toggle the problem of respiratory motion. A homemade computer program showing a cyclic moving pattern was projected onto the ceiling to visually help patients adjust their respiratory patterns. Once the respiratory motion becomes regular, the leaf sequence can be synchronized with the target motion. An oscillator was employed to simulate the patient's breathing pattern. Two simple fields and one IMRT field were measured to verify the accuracy. Preliminary results showed that after appropriate training, the amplitude and duration of volunteer's breathing can be well controlled by the visual guiding system. The sharp dose gradient at the edge of the radiation fields was successfully restored. The maximum dosimetric error in the IMRT field was significantly decreased from 63% to 3%. We conclude that the aperture adaptive technique with the visual guiding system can be an inexpensive and feasible alternative without compromising delivery efficiency in clinical practice

  3. Computational Simulation of Hypervelocity Penetration Using Adaptive SPH Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Hongfu; MENG Lijun

    2006-01-01

    The normal hypervelocity impact of an Al-thin plate by an Al-sphere was numerically simulated by using the adaptive smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ASPH) method.In this method,the isotropic smoothing algorithm of standard SPH is replaced with anisotropic smoothing involving ellipsoidal kernels whose axes evolve automatically to follow the mean particle spacing as it varies in time,space,and direction around each particle.Using the ASPH,the anisotropic volume changes under strong shock condition are captured more accurately and clearly.The sophisticated features of meshless and Lagrangian nature inherent in the SPH method are kept for treating large deformations,large inhomogeneities and tracing free surfaces in the extremely transient impact process.A two-dimensional ASPH program is coded with C + +.The developed hydrocode is examined for example problems of hypervelocity impacts of solid materials.The results obtained from the numerical simulation are compared with available experimental ones.Good agreement is observed.

  4. Simple, specific analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediments using column extraction and gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, specific procedure was developed for the analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediment. The wet soil was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate to bind water and the residues were column extracted in acetone:methylene chloride (1:l,v/v). Coextracted water was removed by additional sodium sulfate packed below the sample mixture. The eluate was concentrated and analyzed directly by capillary gas chromatography using phosphorus and nitrogen specific detectors. Recoveries averaged 93 % for sediments extracted shortly after spiking, but decreased significantly as the samples aged.

  5. The prayer companion : openness and specificity, materiality and spirituality

    OpenAIRE

    Gaver, William; Blythe, Mark; Boucher, Andy; Jarvis, Nadine; Bowers, John; Wright, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Prayer Companion, a device we developed as a resource for the spiritual activity of a group of cloistered nuns. The device displays a stream of information sourced from RSS news feeds and social networking sites to suggest possible topics for prayers. The nuns have engaged with the device enthusiastically over the first ten months of an ongoing deployment, and, notwithstanding some initial irritation with the balance of content, report that it plays a significan...

  6. Adaptive evolution of the symbiotic gene NORK is not correlated with shifts of rhizobial specificity in the genus Medicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronfort Joëlle

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NODULATION RECEPTOR KINASE (NORK gene encodes a Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR-containing receptor-like protein and controls the infection by symbiotic rhizobia and endomycorrhizal fungi in Legumes. The occurrence of numerous amino acid changes driven by directional selection has been reported in this gene, using a limited number of messenger RNA sequences, but the functional reason of these changes remains obscure. The Medicago genus, where changes in rhizobial associations have been previously examined, is a good model to test whether the evolution of NORK is influenced by rhizobial interactions. Results We sequenced a region of 3610 nucleotides (encoding a 392 amino acid-long region of the NORK protein in 32 Medicago species. We confirm that positive selection in NORK has occurred within the Medicago genus and find that the amino acid positions targeted by selection occur in sites outside of solvent-exposed regions in LRRs, and other sites in the N-terminal region of the protein. We tested if branches of the Medicago phylogeny where changes of rhizobial symbionts occurred displayed accelerated rates of amino acid substitutions. Only one branch out of five tested, leading to M. noeana, displays such a pattern. Among other branches, the most likely for having undergone positive selection is not associated with documented shift of rhizobial specificity. Conclusion Adaptive changes in the sequence of the NORK receptor have involved the LRRs, but targeted different sites than in most previous studies of LRR proteins evolution. The fact that positive selection in NORK tends not to be associated to changes in rhizobial specificity indicates that this gene was probably not involved in evolving rhizobial preferences. Other explanations (e.g. coevolutionary arms race must be tested to explain the adaptive evolution of NORK.

  7. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenance within the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior is inherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptive management, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science is needed.

  8. An Investigation of Place and Voice Features Using fMRI-Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawyer, Laurel; Corina, David

    2014-01-01

    A widely accepted view of speech perception holds that in order to comprehend language, the variable acoustic signal must be parsed into a set of abstract linguistic representations. However, the neural basis of early phonological processing, including the nature of featural encoding of speech, is still poorly understood. In part, progress in this domain has been constrained by the difficulty inherent in extricating the influence of acoustic modulations from those which can be ascribed to the abstract, featural content of the stimuli. A further concern is that group averaging techniques may obscure subtle individual differences in cortical regions involved in early language processing. In this paper we present the results of an fMRI-adaptation experiment which finds evidence of areas in the superior and medial temporal lobes which respond selectively to changes in the major feature categories of voicing and place of articulation. We present both single-subject and group-averaged analyses. PMID:24187438

  9. Specification of properties and design allowables for copper alloys used in HHF components of ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinin, G.M.; Fabritziev, S.A.; Singh, B.N.;

    2002-01-01

    Two types of copper alloys, precipitation hardened (PH) Cu (CuCrZr-IG) and dispersion strengthened (DS) Cu (CuAl25-IG), are proposed as heat sink materials for the high heat flux (HHF) components of ITER. However, copper alloys are not included in any national codes, and properties of both Cu......CrZr and CuAl25 are not yet fully characterised. The performed R&D gives a basis for the specification of physical and mechanical properties required for the design analysis in accordance with the ITER Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC). For both CuCrZr-IG and CuAl25-IG alloys...

  10. Adaptive control of large space structures using recursive lattice filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, N.; Goglia, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The use of recursive lattice filters for identification and adaptive control of large space structures is studied. Lattice filters were used to identify the structural dynamics model of the flexible structures. This identification model is then used for adaptive control. Before the identified model and control laws are integrated, the identified model is passed through a series of validation procedures and only when the model passes these validation procedures is control engaged. This type of validation scheme prevents instability when the overall loop is closed. Another important area of research, namely that of robust controller synthesis, was investigated using frequency domain multivariable controller synthesis methods. The method uses the Linear Quadratic Guassian/Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) approach to ensure stability against unmodeled higher frequency modes and achieves the desired performance.

  11. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  12. Use of diagnostic self-tests on body materials among Internet users in the Netherlands: prevalence and correlates of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norg Roelf

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A range of self-tests on body materials has become available to the general public, but the extent of their use has hardly been studied. This study examined how many people use diagnostic self-tests on body materials such as blood or urine, as well as the type of tests that are used, and factors associated with their use. Methods Cross-sectional survey. Participants were recruited from an existing Dutch Internet panel of 12,529 persons, and information was collected by means of a structured Internet-based questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess correlates of self-test use. Results Response to the survey was 63%. Sixteen percent of the respondents said they had ever used at least one self-test, with a mean of 2.1 tests per self-tester. The most frequently reported self-tests were those for diabetes and cholesterol. Self-testers generally reported lower health status and had a higher BMI than non-testers. On the other hand, they were more likely to engage in health-related behaviour such as the use of dietary supplements and homeopathic medicine. Conclusion Self-testing proved to be relatively prevalent among Dutch Internet users. We therefore think that it is essential to develop appropriate information for consumers, health care providers and policymakers, about the pros and cons of self-testing and specific self-tests. More test-specific research is needed.

  13. New method for selection of hydrogen peroxide adapted bifidobacteria cells using continuous culture and immobilized cell technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meile Leo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress can severely compromise viability of bifidobacteria. Exposure of Bifidobacterium cells to oxygen causes accumulation of reactive oxygen species, mainly hydrogen peroxide, leading to cell death. In this study, we tested the suitability of continuous culture under increasing selective pressure combined with immobilized cell technology for the selection of hydrogen peroxide adapted Bifidobacterium cells. Cells of B. longum NCC2705 were immobilized in gellan-xanthan gum gel beads and used to continuously ferment MRS medium containing increasing concentration of H2O2 from 0 to 130 ppm. Results At the beginning of the culture, high cell density of 1013 CFU per litre of reactor was tested. The continuous culture gradually adapted to increasing H2O2 concentrations. However, after increasing the H2O2 concentration to 130 ppm the OD of the culture decreased to 0. Full wash out was prevented by the immobilization of the cells in gel matrix. Hence after stopping the stress, it was possible to re-grow the cells that survived the highest lethal dose of H2O2 and to select two adapted colonies (HPR1 and HPR2 after plating of the culture effluent. In contrast to HPR1, HPR2 showed stable characteristics over at least 70 generations and exhibited also higher tolerance to O2 than non adapted wild type cells. Preliminary characterization of HPR2 was carried out by global genome expression profile analysis. Two genes coding for a protein with unknown function and possessing trans-membrane domains and an ABC-type transporter protein were overexpressed in HPR2 cells compared to wild type cells. Conclusions Our study showed that continuous culture with cell immobilization is a valid approach for selecting cells adapted to hydrogen peroxide. Elucidation of H2O2 adaptation mechanisms in HPR2 could be helpful to develop oxygen resistant bifidobacteria.

  14. An ex-vivo comparative study of root-end marginal adaptation using grey mineral trioxide aggregate, white mineral trioxide aggregate, and Portland cement under scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Akash Kumar; Paul, Mohan L.; Mazumdar, Dibyendu; Adhikari, Haridas Das; Vyavahare, Nishant K.; Jhajharia, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    Context: Where nonsurgical endodontic intervention is not possible, or it will not solve the problem, surgical endodontic treatment must be considered. A major cause of surgical endodontic failures is an inadequate apical seal, so the use of the suitable substance as root-end filling material that prevents egress of potential contaminants into periapical tissue is very critical. Aims: The aim of the present ex-vivo study was to compare and evaluate the three root-end filling materials of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) family (white MTA [WMTA], grey MTA [GMTA] and Portland cement [PC]) for their marginal adaptation at the root-end dentinal wall using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Sixty human single-rooted teeth were decoronated, instrumented, and obturated with Gutta-percha. After the root-end resection and apical cavity preparation, the teeth were randomly divided into three-experimental groups (each containing 20 teeth) and each group was filled with their respective experimental materials. After longitudinal sectioning of root, SEM examination was done to determine the overall gap between retrograde materials and cavity walls in terms of length and width of the gap (maximum) at the interface. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to calculate the means with corresponding standard errors, median and ranges along with an analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: The least overall gap was observed in GMTA followed by PC and WMTA. While after statistically analyzing the various data obtained from different groups, there was no significant difference among these three groups in terms of marginal adaptation. Conclusion: GMTA showed the best overall adaptation to root dentinal wall compared to PC and WMTA. Being biocompatible and cheaper, the PC may be an alternative but not a substitute for MTA. PMID:26430305

  15. An ex-vivo comparative study of root-end marginal adaptation using grey mineral trioxide aggregate, white mineral trioxide aggregate, and Portland cement under scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Baranwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Where nonsurgical endodontic intervention is not possible, or it will not solve the problem, surgical endodontic treatment must be considered. A major cause of surgical endodontic failures is an inadequate apical seal, so the use of the suitable substance as root-end filling material that prevents egress of potential contaminants into periapical tissue is very critical. Aims: The aim of the present ex-vivo study was to compare and evaluate the three root-end filling materials of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA family (white MTA [WMTA], grey MTA [GMTA] and Portland cement [PC] for their marginal adaptation at the root-end dentinal wall using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Materials and Methods: Sixty human single-rooted teeth were decoronated, instrumented, and obturated with Gutta-percha. After the root-end resection and apical cavity preparation, the teeth were randomly divided into three-experimental groups (each containing 20 teeth and each group was filled with their respective experimental materials. After longitudinal sectioning of root, SEM examination was done to determine the overall gap between retrograde materials and cavity walls in terms of length and width of the gap (maximum at the interface. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to calculate the means with corresponding standard errors, median and ranges along with an analysis of variance and Tukey′s test. Results: The least overall gap was observed in GMTA followed by PC and WMTA. While after statistically analyzing the various data obtained from different groups, there was no significant difference among these three groups in terms of marginal adaptation. Conclusion: GMTA showed the best overall adaptation to root dentinal wall compared to PC and WMTA. Being biocompatible and cheaper, the PC may be an alternative but not a substitute for MTA.

  16. Use AMMI model to analyze adaptability of rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENXihang; WANGLei; YANGShihua; XIEFuxian

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of rice varieties is one of the most concerned questions to rice breeders. In rice breeding, combined variety test and regional trials which included multiple genotypes and environments were conducted to identify the adaptability of new rice varieties. In most regional trials, interaction between genotype and environment is significant, so it is important to analyze the interaction for estimating the adaptability of rice varieties.

  17. Simultaneous Topology, Shape, and Sizing Optimisation of Plane Trusses with Adaptive Ground Finite Elements Using MOEAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norapat Noilublao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel integrated design strategy to accomplish simultaneous topology shape and sizing optimisation of a two-dimensional (2D truss. An optimisation problem is posed to find a structural topology, shape, and element sizes of the truss such that two objective functions, mass and compliance, are minimised. Design constraints include stress, buckling, and compliance. The procedure for an adaptive ground elements approach is proposed and its encoding/decoding process is detailed. Two sets of design variables defining truss layout, shape, and element sizes at the same time are applied. A number of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs are implemented to solve the design problem. Comparative performance based on a hypervolume indicator shows that multiobjective population-based incremental learning (PBIL is the best performer. Optimising three design variable types simultaneously is more efficient and effective.

  18. The Assessment of Muscular Effort, Fatigue, and Physiological Adaptation Using EMG and Wavelet Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan B Graham

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α is a transcription factor co-activator that helps coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis within skeletal muscle following exercise. While evidence gleaned from submaximal exercise suggests that intracellular pathways associated with the activation of PGC-1α, as well as the expression of PGC-1α itself are activated to a greater extent following higher intensities of exercise, we have recently shown that this effect does not extend to supramaximal exercise, despite corresponding increases in muscle activation amplitude measured with electromyography (EMG. Spectral analyses of EMG data may provide a more in-depth assessment of changes in muscle electrophysiology occurring across different exercise intensities, and therefore the goal of the present study was to apply continuous wavelet transforms (CWTs to our previous data to comprehensively evaluate: 1 differences in muscle electrophysiological properties at different exercise intensities (i.e. 73%, 100%, and 133% of peak aerobic power, and 2 muscular effort and fatigue across a single interval of exercise at each intensity, in an attempt to shed mechanistic insight into our previous observations that the increase in PGC-1α is dissociated from exercise intensity following supramaximal exercise. In general, the CWTs revealed that localized muscle fatigue was only greater than the 73% condition in the 133% exercise intensity condition, which directly matched the work rate results. Specifically, there were greater drop-offs in frequency, larger changes in burst power, as well as greater changes in burst area under this intensity, which were already observable during the first interval. As a whole, the results from the present study suggest that supramaximal exercise causes extreme localized muscular fatigue, and it is possible that the blunted PGC-1α effects observed in our previous study are the result of fatigue

  19. Evolution of niche width and adaptive diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Martin; Doebeli, Michael

    2004-12-01

    Theoretical models suggest that resource competition can lead to the adaptive splitting of consumer populations into diverging lineages, that is, to adaptive diversification. In general, diversification is likely if consumers use only a narrow range of resources and thus have a small niche width. Here we use analytical and numerical methods to study the consequences for diversification if the niche width itself evolves. We found that the evolutionary outcome depends on the inherent costs or benefits of widening the niche. If widening the niche did not have costs in terms of overall resource uptake, then the consumer evolved a niche that was wide enough for disruptive selection on the niche position to vanish; adaptive diversification was no longer observed. However, if widening the niche was costly, then the niche widths remained relatively narrow, allowing for adaptive diversification in niche position. Adaptive diversification and speciation resulting from competition for a broadly distributed resource is thus likely if the niche width is fixed and relatively narrow or free to evolve but subject to costs. These results refine the conditions for adaptive diversification due to competition and formulate them in a way that might be more amenable for experimental investigations. PMID:15696740

  20. Adaptive cancellation of Es layer interference using auxiliary horizontal antennas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Long; Zhang Ning

    2006-01-01

    Based on a dual-polarization high-frequency wave radar system, an adaptive system using horizontal antennas for the suppression of the Es layer interference (ELI) is described. The data received from the horizontal antennas were correlated with the data received from the Vertically Polarized Antennas (VPAs) to estimate and cancel the interference adaptively in the VPAs. Suppressing the interference after each coherent integration time interval, about 25 dB signal-to-interference ratio is expected with the experimentally derived data.

  1. A multi-orbital iterated perturbation theory for model Hamiltonians and real material-specific calculations of correlated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Nagamalleswararao; Mondal, Wasim Raja; Zhang, Peng; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) has emerged as one of the most important frameworks for theoretical investigations of strongly correlated lattice models and real material systems. Within DMFT, a lattice model can be mapped onto the problem of a magnetic impurity embedded in a self-consistently determined bath. The solution of this impurity problem is the most challenging step in this framework. The available numerically exact methods such as quantum Monte Carlo, numerical renormalization group or exact diagonalization are naturally unbiased and accurate, but are computationally expensive. Thus, approximate methods, based e.g. on diagrammatic perturbation theory have gained substantial importance. Although such methods are not always reliable in various parameter regimes such as in the proximity of phase transitions or for strong coupling, the advantages they offer, in terms of being computationally inexpensive, with real frequency output at zero and finite temperatures, compensate for their deficiencies and offer a quick, qualitative analysis of the system behavior. In this work, we have developed such a method, that can be classified as a multi-orbital iterated perturbation theory (MO-IPT) to study N-fold degenerate and non degenerate Anderson impurity models. As applications of the solver, we have embedded the MO-IPT within DMFT and explored lattice models like the single orbital Hubbard model, covalent band insulator and the multi-orbital Hubbard model for density-density type interactions in different parameter regimes. The Hund's coupling effects in case of multiple orbitals is also studied. The limitations and quality of results are gauged through extensive comparison with data from the numerically exact continuous time quantum Monte Carlo method (CTQMC). In the case of the single orbital Hubbard model, covalent band insulators and non degenerate multi-orbital Hubbard models, we obtained an excellent agreement between the Matsubara self-energies of MO

  2. Language Model Combination and Adaptation Using Weighted Finite State Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Gales, M. J. F.; Hieronymus, J. L.; Woodland, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In speech recognition systems language model (LMs) are often constructed by training and combining multiple n-gram models. They can be either used to represent different genres or tasks found in diverse text sources, or capture stochastic properties of different linguistic symbol sequences, for example, syllables and words. Unsupervised LM adaption may also be used to further improve robustness to varying styles or tasks. When using these techniques, extensive software changes are often required. In this paper an alternative and more general approach based on weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) is investigated for LM combination and adaptation. As it is entirely based on well-defined WFST operations, minimum change to decoding tools is needed. A wide range of LM combination configurations can be flexibly supported. An efficient on-the-fly WFST decoding algorithm is also proposed. Significant error rate gains of 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art broadcast audio recognition task using a history dependently adapted multi-level LM modelling both syllable and word sequences

  3. Automatic balancing of AMB systems using plural notch filter and adaptive synchronous compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangbo; Chen, Shao; Zhang, Yanan

    2016-07-01

    To achieve automatic balancing in active magnetic bearing (AMB) system, a control method with notch filters and synchronous compensators is widely employed. However, the control precision is significantly affected by the synchronous compensation error, which is caused by parameter errors and variations of the power amplifiers. Furthermore, the computation effort may become intolerable if a 4-degree-of-freedom (dof) AMB system is studied. To solve these problems, an adaptive automatic balancing control method in the AMB system is presented in this study. Firstly, a 4-dof radial AMB system is described and analyzed. To simplify the controller design, the 4-dof dynamic equations are transferred into two plural functions related to translation and rotation, respectively. Next, to achieve automatic balancing of the AMB system, two synchronous equations are formed. Solution of them leads to a control strategy based on notch filters and feedforward controllers with an inverse function of the power amplifier. The feedforward controllers can be simplified as synchronous phases and amplitudes. Then, a plural phase-shift notch filter which can identify the synchronous components in 2-dof motions is formulated, and an adaptive compensation method that can form two closed-loop systems to tune the synchronous amplitude of the feedforward controller and the phase of the plural notch filter is proposed. Finally, the proposed control strategy is verified by both simulations and experiments on a test rig of magnetically suspended control moment gyro. The results indicate that this method can fulfill the automatic balancing of the AMB system with a light computational load.

  4. Identification of rupture locations in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms using experimental and computational techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Barry J.; Cloonan, Aidan J.; Walsh, Michael T.; Vorp, David A.; McGloughlin, Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed In the event of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture, the outcome is often death. This paper aims to experimentally identify the rupture locations of in vitro AAA models and validate these rupture sites using finite element analysis (FEA). Silicone rubber AAA models were manufactured using two different materials (Sylgard 160 and Sylgard 170, Dow Corning) and imaged using computed tomography (CT). Experimental models were inflated until rupture with high speed photograp...

  5. The Political Economy of Mitigation and Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Habla, Wolfgang; Roeder, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we acknowledge that the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change have differential fiscal impacts. Whereas mitigation typically raises fiscal revenues, adaptation is costly to the taxpayer and to a greater extent the more distortionary the tax system is. In an OLG model with majority voting, we analyze how the choices of mitigation and adaptation are distorted under a lump-sum and a distortionary income tax regime. We find that whenever emissions and adaptation exhibit st...

  6. Energetic and chemical use of waste material and renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, C.; Houmoeller, A.P. [ELSAM, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The paper will begin with a summary of the Danish energy policies from the mid-1970s and until today when the focus is on national self-sufficiency and combined heat and power - including industrial combined heat and power and renewable energies with emphasis on wind turbines and biofuels. The planning conditions of the Danish electricity utilities will be discussed, i.e. 20 per cent CO{sub 2} reduction by 2005, continuous reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, and finally the conversion of 5 per cent of the fuel from coal to straw and wood chips. Afterwards, the status of biofuels in Denmark will be described with emphasis on resources and prices. The main biofuel in Denmark is surplus production from agriculture - straw or other biofuels with straw-like properties. (orig./GL)

  7. Online adaptation and verification of VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crijns, Wouter, E-mail: wouter.crijns@uzleuven.be [KU Leuven Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000, Belgium and KU Leuven Medical Imaging Research Center, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Defraene, Gilles; Depuydt, Tom; Haustermans, Karin [KU Leuven Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Van Herck, Hans [KU Leuven Medical Imaging Research Center, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000, Belgium and KU Leuven Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), PSI, Center for Processing Speech and Images, Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Maes, Frederik [KU Leuven Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), PSI, Center for Processing Speech and Images, Leuven 3000, Belgium and KU Leuven iMinds - Medical IT Department, Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Department of Oncology, MRC-CR-UK Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: This work presents a method for fast volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) adaptation in response to interfraction anatomical variations. Additionally, plan parameters extracted from the adapted plans are used to verify the quality of these plans. The methods were tested as a prostate class solution and compared to replanning and to their current clinical practice. Methods: The proposed VMAT adaptation is an extension of their previous intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) adaptation. It follows a direct (forward) planning approach: the multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures are corrected in the beam’s eye view (BEV) and the monitor units (MUs) are corrected using point dose calculations. All MLC and MU corrections are driven by the positions of four fiducial points only, without need for a full contour set. Quality assurance (QA) of the adapted plans is performed using plan parameters that can be calculated online and that have a relation to the delivered dose or the plan quality. Five potential parameters are studied for this purpose: the number of MU, the equivalent field size (EqFS), the modulation complexity score (MCS), and the components of the MCS: the aperture area variability (AAV) and the leaf sequence variability (LSV). The full adaptation and its separate steps were evaluated in simulation experiments involving a prostate phantom subjected to various interfraction transformations. The efficacy of the current VMAT adaptation was scored by target mean dose (CTV{sub mean}), conformity (CI{sub 95%}), tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The impact of the adaptation on the plan parameters (QA) was assessed by comparison with prediction intervals (PI) derived from a statistical model of the typical variation of these parameters in a population of VMAT prostate plans (n = 63). These prediction intervals are the adaptation equivalent of the tolerance tables for couch shifts in the current clinical

  8. Design for Cataloging Non-Book Materials: Adaptable to Computer Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesee Valley School Development Association, Rochester, NY.

    This design was developed in response to a need for cataloging non-book materials compatible to schools in a nine-county region. Cataloging procedures are outlined for charts, disc recordings, filmloops, filmstrips, flash cards, games, kits, maps and globes, picture slides, audio and video tapes, and transparencies. (AB)

  9. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2013 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 13) (Snowbird, UT, USA, 16-18 September 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy; Naguib, Hani; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin; Daqaq, Mohammed; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu; Sarles, Andy

    2014-10-01

    The sixth annual meeting of the ASME Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) was held in the beautiful mountain encircled Snowbird Resort and Conference Center in Little Cottonwood Canyon near Salt Lake City, Utah. It is the conference's objective to provide an up-to-date overview of research trends in the entire field of smart materials systems in a friendly casual forum conducive to the exchange of ideas and latest results. As each year we strive to grow and offer new experiences, this year we included special focused topic tracks on nanoscale multiferroic materials and origami engineering. The cross-disciplinary emphasis was reflected in keynote speeches by Professor Kaushik Bhattacharya (California Institute of Technology) on 'Cyclic Deformation and the Interplay between Phase Transformation and Plasticity in Shape Memory Alloys', by Professor Alison Flatau (University of Maryland at College Park) on 'Structural Magnetostrictive Alloys: The Other Smart Material', and by Dr Leslie Momoda (Director of the Sensors and Materials Laboratories, HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA) on 'Architecturing New Functional Materials: An Industrial Perspective'. SMASIS 2013 was divided into seven symposia which span basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. SYMP 1. Development and Characterization of Multifunctional Materials. SYMP 2. Mechanics and Behavior of Active Materials. SYMP 3. Modeling, Simulation and Control of Adaptive Systems. SYMP 4. Integrated System Design and Implementation. SYMP 5. Structural Health Monitoring. SYMP 6. Bioinspired Smart Materials and Systems. SYMP 7. Energy Harvesting. Authors of selected papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2, and 6) as well as energy harvesting (symposium 7) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart

  10. 31 CFR 28.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 28.425 Section 28.425 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the....425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall...

  11. 18 CFR 1317.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 1317.425 Section 1317.425 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Activities Prohibited § 1317.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling....

  12. The Adaptive Analysis of Visual Cognition using Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Robert G.; Qadri, Muhammad A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments used a novel, open-ended, and adaptive test procedure to examine visual cognition in animals. Using a genetic algorithm, a pigeon was tested repeatedly from a variety of different initial conditions for its solution to an intermediate brightness search task. On each trial, the animal had to accurately locate and peck a target element of intermediate brightness from among a variable number of surrounding darker and lighter distractor elements. Displays were generated from six p...

  13. Evaluation of flexural strength and color stability of different denture base materials including flexible material after using different denture cleansers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vrinda R.; Shah, Darshana Nilesh; Chauhan, Chirag J.; Doshi, Paras J.; Kumar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Present study aimed at evaluating the colour stability and flexural strength of flexible denture base materials (Valplast) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material (Meliodent) processed by two different methods (Injection moulding and compression moulding) after immersing them in three different denture cleansers with acidic, basic and neutral PH. Methods and Materials: Total 120 specimens (65 × 10 × 3 mm3), 40 specimens of each material (Valplast, Meliodent compression moulding and injection moulding) were immersed in denture cleansers having different PH; Valclean (Acidic), Clinsodent (Basic) and Polident (Neutral) as well as Distilled Water. Color changes were measured with a spectrophotometer after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months of immersion cycle. A flexural 3-point bending test was carried out by using an Instron universal testing machine after 6 months of soaking. Data were analyzed using SPSS software Results: Maximum effect on colour stability was noted with Clinsodent followed by Valclean. Least color changes were observed after immersion in Polident. Colour difference was increased significantly as the immersion time increased. For both Meliodent and Nylon resins, statistically significant change in flexural strength occurred with immersion in all denture cleansers. Clinsodent has greater effect as compared to Valclean and Polident. Conclusions: Polident and Valclean can be safely used as denture cleanser for both nylon and acrylic resin denture base materials as far as colour stability and flexural strength both are concerned. PMID:26929541

  14. Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Contrast adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, James M; Brainard, David H

    2007-08-01

    Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner's hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to sensitivity and examined a family of parametric models of adaptation. Our results show that both appearance and discrimination are consistent with the same mechanism of adaptation.

  15. 24 CFR 3.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 3.425 Section 3.425 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Activities Prohibited § 3.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling....

  16. Simulation of tumor induced angiogenesis using an analytical adaptive modeling including dynamic sprouting and blood flow modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi, Nadia; Hosseini, Farideh S; Sardarabadi, Mohammad; Kalani, Hadi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive model for tumor induced angiogenesis is developed that integrates generation and diffusion of a growth factor originated from hypoxic cells, adaptive sprouting from a parent vessel, blood flow and structural adaptation. The proposed adaptive sprout spacing model (ASS) determines position, time and number of sprouts which are activated from a parent vessel and also the developed vascular network is modified by a novel sprout branching prediction algorithm. This algorithm couples local vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations, stresses due to the blood flow and stochastic branching to the structural reactions of each vessel segment in response to mechanical and biochemical stimuli. The results provide predictions for the time-dependent development of the network structure, including the position and diameters of each segment and the resulting distributions of blood flow and VEGF. Considering time delays between sprout progressions and number of sprouts activated at different time durations provides information about micro-vessel density in the network. Resulting insights could be useful for motivating experimental investigations of vascular pattern in tumor induced angiogenesis and development of therapies targeting angiogenesis. PMID:27179697

  17. Computational predictions of energy materials using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anubhav; Shin, Yongwoo; Persson, Kristin A.

    2016-01-01

    In the search for new functional materials, quantum mechanics is an exciting starting point. The fundamental laws that govern the behaviour of electrons have the possibility, at the other end of the scale, to predict the performance of a material for a targeted application. In some cases, this is achievable using density functional theory (DFT). In this Review, we highlight DFT studies predicting energy-related materials that were subsequently confirmed experimentally. The attributes and limitations of DFT for the computational design of materials for lithium-ion batteries, hydrogen production and storage materials, superconductors, photovoltaics and thermoelectric materials are discussed. In the future, we expect that the accuracy of DFT-based methods will continue to improve and that growth in computing power will enable millions of materials to be virtually screened for specific applications. Thus, these examples represent a first glimpse of what may become a routine and integral step in materials discovery.

  18. Toward Online Adaptive Hyperthermia Treatment Planning: Correlation Between Measured and Simulated Specific Absorption Rate Changes Caused by Phase Steering in Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, H. Petra, E-mail: H.P.Kok@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ciampa, Silvia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne de; Steggerda-Carvalho, Eva J.; Stam, Gerard van; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Geijsen, Elisabeth D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bardati, Fernando [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Bel, Arjan; Crezee, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Hyperthermia is the clinical application of heat, in which tumor temperatures are raised to 40°C to 45°C. This proven radiation and chemosensitizer significantly improves clinical outcome for several tumor sites. Earlier studies of the use of pre-treatment planning for hyperthermia showed good qualitative but disappointing quantitative reliability. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) can be used more reliably for online adaptive treatment planning during locoregional hyperthermia treatments. Methods and Materials: This study included 78 treatment sessions for 15 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. At the start of treatments, temperature rise measurements were performed with 3 different antenna settings optimized for each patient, from which the absorbed power (specific absorption rate [SAR]) was derived. HTP was performed based on a computed tomography (CT) scan in treatment position with the bladder catheter in situ. The SAR along the thermocouple tracks was extracted from the simulated SAR distributions. Correlations between measured and simulated (average) SAR values were determined. To evaluate phase steering, correlations between the changes in simulated and measured SAR values averaged over the thermocouple probe were determined for all 3 combinations of antenna settings. Results: For 42% of the individual treatment sessions, the correlation coefficient between measured and simulated SAR profiles was higher than 0.5, whereas 58% showed a weak correlation (R of <0.5). The overall correlation coefficient between measured and simulated average SAR was weak (R=0.31; P<.001). The measured and simulated changes in average SAR after adapting antenna settings correlated much better (R=0.70; P<.001). The ratio between the measured and simulated quotients of maximum and average SARs was 1.03 ± 0.26 (mean ± SD), indicating that HTP can also correctly predict the relative amplitude of

  19. 14 CFR 1253.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 1253.425 Section 1253.425 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... § 1253.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient...

  20. Adaptive Radiation along a Thermal Gradient: Preliminary Results of Habitat Use and Respiration Rate Divergence among Whitefish Morphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilainen, Kimmo Kalevi; Patterson, William Paul; Sonninen, Eloni; Harrod, Chris; Kiljunen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is considered an important mechanism for the development of new species, but very little is known about the role of thermal adaptation during this process. Such adaptation should be especially important in poikilothermic animals that are often subjected to pronounced seasonal temperature variation that directly affects metabolic function. We conducted a preliminary study of individual lifetime thermal habitat use and respiration rates of four whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) morphs (two pelagic, one littoral and one profundal) using stable carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate. These morphs, two of which utilized pelagic habitats, one littoral and one profundal recently diverged via adaptive radiation to exploit different major niches in a deep and thermally stratified subarctic lake. We found evidence that the morphs used different thermal niches. The profundal morph had the most distinct thermal niche and consistently occupied the coldest thermal habitat of the lake, whereas differences were less pronounced among the shallow water pelagic and littoral morphs. Our results indicated ontogenetic shifts in thermal niches: juveniles of all whitefish morphs inhabited warmer ambient temperatures than adults. According to sampling of the otolith nucleus, hatching temperatures were higher for benthic compared to pelagic morphs. Estimated respiration rate was the lowest for benthivorous profundal morph, contrasting with the higher values estimated for the other morphs that inhabited shallower and warmer water. These preliminary results suggest that physiological adaptation to different thermal habitats shown by the sympatric morphs may play a significant role in maintaining or strengthening niche segregation and divergence in life-history traits, potentially contributing to reproductive isolation and incipient speciation. PMID:25405979

  1. Adaptive radiation along a thermal gradient: preliminary results of habitat use and respiration rate divergence among whitefish morphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Kalevi Kahilainen

    Full Text Available Adaptive radiation is considered an important mechanism for the development of new species, but very little is known about the role of thermal adaptation during this process. Such adaptation should be especially important in poikilothermic animals that are often subjected to pronounced seasonal temperature variation that directly affects metabolic function. We conducted a preliminary study of individual lifetime thermal habitat use and respiration rates of four whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L. morphs (two pelagic, one littoral and one profundal using stable carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate. These morphs, two of which utilized pelagic habitats, one littoral and one profundal recently diverged via adaptive radiation to exploit different major niches in a deep and thermally stratified subarctic lake. We found evidence that the morphs used different thermal niches. The profundal morph had the most distinct thermal niche and consistently occupied the coldest thermal habitat of the lake, whereas differences were less pronounced among the shallow water pelagic and littoral morphs. Our results indicated ontogenetic shifts in thermal niches: juveniles of all whitefish morphs inhabited warmer ambient temperatures than adults. According to sampling of the otolith nucleus, hatching temperatures were higher for benthic compared to pelagic morphs. Estimated respiration rate was the lowest for benthivorous profundal morph, contrasting with the higher values estimated for the other morphs that inhabited shallower and warmer water. These preliminary results suggest that physiological adaptation to different thermal habitats shown by the sympatric morphs may play a significant role in maintaining or strengthening niche segregation and divergence in life-history traits, potentially contributing to reproductive isolation and incipient speciation.

  2. Adaptive radiation along a thermal gradient: preliminary results of habitat use and respiration rate divergence among whitefish morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilainen, Kimmo Kalevi; Patterson, William Paul; Sonninen, Eloni; Harrod, Chris; Kiljunen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is considered an important mechanism for the development of new species, but very little is known about the role of thermal adaptation during this process. Such adaptation should be especially important in poikilothermic animals that are often subjected to pronounced seasonal temperature variation that directly affects metabolic function. We conducted a preliminary study of individual lifetime thermal habitat use and respiration rates of four whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) morphs (two pelagic, one littoral and one profundal) using stable carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate. These morphs, two of which utilized pelagic habitats, one littoral and one profundal recently diverged via adaptive radiation to exploit different major niches in a deep and thermally stratified subarctic lake. We found evidence that the morphs used different thermal niches. The profundal morph had the most distinct thermal niche and consistently occupied the coldest thermal habitat of the lake, whereas differences were less pronounced among the shallow water pelagic and littoral morphs. Our results indicated ontogenetic shifts in thermal niches: juveniles of all whitefish morphs inhabited warmer ambient temperatures than adults. According to sampling of the otolith nucleus, hatching temperatures were higher for benthic compared to pelagic morphs. Estimated respiration rate was the lowest for benthivorous profundal morph, contrasting with the higher values estimated for the other morphs that inhabited shallower and warmer water. These preliminary results suggest that physiological adaptation to different thermal habitats shown by the sympatric morphs may play a significant role in maintaining or strengthening niche segregation and divergence in life-history traits, potentially contributing to reproductive isolation and incipient speciation. PMID:25405979

  3. Yielding and its adaptability of several promising bulk cocoa clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Suhendi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Yielding and its adaptability are considered to be an important criteria for clones recommendation. An experiment to evaluate yield and its adaptability of several promising bulk cocoa clones has been executed during 1996—2003 in three locations having different altitude and type of climate, consisted of Jatirono(450 m asl., B type of climate, Kalisepanjang (275 m asl., C type of climate and Kalitelepak (145 m asl., B type of climate. Randomized completely block design (RCBD was used in each location with 14 promising clones and four replications. Recommended clones of ICS 60 and GC 7 were used as standard. The promising clones were originated from mother trees selection with the main criteria of yield. Observations were conducted on yield and its components as well as bean characteristics. Determination of adaptability of each clone by using yield performance and its stability. Statistical analysis was done by using combined analysis. The results showed that KW 30 and KW 48 perform higher yield (2.3 ton/ha than that of standard clone (1.7 ton/ha as well as consistant yield stability between location and over years. There for, the two clones performed good adaptability. KW 30 and KW 48 also perform good yield components, and high percentage of fat content i.e 55%. So, those clones are potential to be recommended for commercial planting materials. Key words : bulk cocoa, yield, clone, stability, adaptability.

  4. A novel composite material specifically developed for ultrasound bone phantoms: cortical, trabecular and skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydra, A; Maev, R Gr

    2013-11-21

    In the various stages of developing diagnostic and therapeutic equipment, the use of phantoms can play a very important role in improving the process, help in implementation, testing and calibrations. Phantoms are especially useful in developing new applications and training new doctors in medical schools. However, devices that use different physical factors, such as MRI, Ultrasound, CT Scan, etc will require the phantom to be made of different physical properties. In this paper we introduce the properties of recently designed new materials for developing phantoms for ultrasonic human body investigation, which in today's market make up more than 30% in the world of phantoms. We developed a novel composite material which allows fabrication of various kinds of ultrasound bone phantoms to mimic most of the acoustical properties of human bones. In contrast to the ex vivo tissues, the proposed material can maintain the physical and acoustical properties unchanged for long periods of time; moreover, these properties can be custom designed and created to suit specific needs. As a result, we introduce three examples of ultrasound phantoms that we manufactured in our laboratory: cortical, trabecular and skull bone phantoms. The paper also presents the results of a comparison study between the acoustical and physical properties of actual human bones (reported in the referenced literatures) and the phantoms manufactured by us.

  5. Implementation of an Adaptive Learning System Using a Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Hata, Yoko; Kimura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive learning system is proposed that incorporates a Bayesian network to efficiently gauge learners' understanding at the course-unit level. Also, learners receive content that is adapted to their measured level of understanding. The system works on an iPad via the Edmodo platform. A field experiment using the system in an elementary school…

  6. Electronic Quality of Life Assessment Using Computer-Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) questionnaires are desirable for clinical practice but can be time-consuming to administer and interpret, making their widespread adoption difficult. Objective Our aim was to assess the performance of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-100 questionnaire as four item banks to facilitate adaptive testing using simulated computer adaptive tests (CATs) for physical, psychological, social, and environmental QoL. Methods We used data from the UK WHOQOL-100 questionnaire (N=320) to calibrate item banks using item response theory, which included psychometric assessments of differential item functioning, local dependency, unidimensionality, and reliability. We simulated CATs to assess the number of items administered before prespecified levels of reliability was met. Results The item banks (40 items) all displayed good model fit (P>.01) and were unidimensional (fewer than 5% of t tests significant), reliable (Person Separation Index>.70), and free from differential item functioning (no significant analysis of variance interaction) or local dependency (residual correlations banks were between 45% and 75% shorter than paper-based WHOQOL measures. Across the four domains, a high standard of reliability (alpha>.90) could be gained with a median of 9 items. Conclusions Using CAT, simulated assessments were as reliable as paper-based forms of the WHOQOL with a fraction of the number of items. These properties suggest that these item banks are suitable for computerized adaptive assessment. These item banks have the potential for international development using existing alternative language versions of the WHOQOL items. PMID:27694100

  7. Energetic materials separations and specific polymorph preparations via thermal gradient sublimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firsich, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    The principles and methods of thermal gradient sublimation are presented, and experiments showing the application of the technique to energetic materials research are described. Results include the separation of TATB from chlorinated derivatives, the purification of HNAB, and the growth of specific polymorphic forms of HMX and HNAB.

  8. Determination of DQB1 alleles using PCR amplification and allele-specific primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, V; Ivanova, R; Loste, M N; Mallet, C; Douay, C; Naoumova, E; Charron, D

    1995-10-01

    Molecular genotyping of HLA class II genes is commonly carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in combination with sequence-specific oligotyping (PCR-SSO) or a combination of the PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods (PCR-RFLP). However, the identification of the DQB1 type by PCR-SSO and PCR-RFLP is very time-consuming which is disadvantageous for the typing of cadaveric organ donors. We have developed a DQB1 typing method using PCR in combination with allele-specific amplification (PCR-ASA), which allows the identification of the 17 most frequent alleles in one step using seven amplification mixtures. PCR allele-specific amplification HLA-DQB1 typing is easy to perform, and the results are easy to interpret in routine clinical practice. The PCR-ASA method is therefore better suited to DQB1 typing for organ transplantation than other methods.

  9. Specification Requirement for Thermal Stability of Sintered NdFeB Materials for Electrical Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yan; Jiang Daiwei; Chen Lixiang; Chen Hailing; Bi Haitao; Tang Renyuan

    2004-01-01

    Based on IEC standards and Chinese national standards of sintered NdFeB materials, in the paper the hightemperature, room-temperature properties and thermal stability of about one hundred samples of NdFeB materials for electrical machines were measured and analyzed.These materials are produced by ten representative manufactories in China.Combined with the analysis results, the paper points out that the magnetic properties of sintered NdFeB materials for electrical machines should meet not only the specific values in standards, such as Br, (BH)max ,HcJ ,but also the requirement of temperature coefficients a (Br) , a (HcJ).

  10. 13 CFR 113.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 113.425 Section 113.425 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Activities Prohibited § 113.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling....

  11. 38 CFR 23.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 23.425 Section 23.425 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Activities Prohibited § 23.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling....

  12. Adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer using deformable image registration of empty and full bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Caine, H.; Hunt, P.;

    2015-01-01

    mm) for bladder planning target volume (PTV). The goal of this retrospective study is to define, evaluate and optimize new patient-specific anisotropic PTVs (a-PTVs) using deformable image registration (DIR) between empty and full bladder computed tomography (CT) scans. This will provide an ART...... that incorporates the extreme deformations of the bladder, and is applicable from the first day of treatment. Deformation vector fields (DVFs), measured from the deformable image registration between empty and full bladder CTs, were scaled and constrained to construct the a-PTVs. For each patient, four a-PTVs were...... bladder cancer patients and a total of 100 fractions. It was found that the smaller a-PTV, a-PTV4 and a-PTV3, were appropriate in 87% of the fractions, while a-PTV2 and a-PTV1 were required in 12% of the fractions respectively. The use of the a-PTVs reduced the PTV volume by 32% (28-36%) as compared...

  13. Kinetics of the early adaptive response and adaptation threshold dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression kinetics of the adaptive response (RA) in mouse leukocytes in vivo and the minimum dose of gamma radiation that induces it was determined. The mice were exposed 0.005 or 0.02 Gy of 137 Cs like adaptation and 1h later to the challenge dose (1.0 Gy), another group was only exposed at 1.0 Gy and the damage is evaluated in the DNA with the rehearsal it makes. The treatment with 0. 005 Gy didn't induce RA and 0. 02 Gy causes a similar effect to the one obtained with 0.01 Gy. The RA was show from an interval of 0.5 h being obtained the maximum expression with 5.0 h. The threshold dose to induce the RA is 0.01 Gy and in 5.0 h the biggest quantity in molecules is presented presumably that are related with the protection of the DNA. (Author)

  14. Use and mis-use of supplementary material in science publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Mihai; Salzberg, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary material is a ubiquitous feature of scientific articles, particularly in journals that limit the length of the articles. While the judicious use of supplementary material can improve the readability of scientific articles, its excessive use threatens the scientific review process and by extension the integrity of the scientific literature. In many cases supplementary material today is so extensive that it is reviewed superficially or not at all. Furthermore, citations buried within supplementary files rob other scientists of recognition of their contribution to the scientific record. These issues are exacerbated by the lack of guidance on the use of supplementary information from the journals to authors and reviewers. We propose that the removal of artificial length restrictions plus the use of interactive features made possible by modern electronic media can help to alleviate these problems. Many journals, in fact, have already removed article length limitations (as is the case for BMC Bioinformatics and other BioMed Central journals). We hope that the issues raised in our article will encourage publishers and scientists to work together towards a better use of supplementary information in scientific publishing. PMID:26525146

  15. Use and mis-use of supplementary material in science publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Mihai; Salzberg, Steven L

    2015-11-03

    Supplementary material is a ubiquitous feature of scientific articles, particularly in journals that limit the length of the articles. While the judicious use of supplementary material can improve the readability of scientific articles, its excessive use threatens the scientific review process and by extension the integrity of the scientific literature. In many cases supplementary material today is so extensive that it is reviewed superficially or not at all. Furthermore, citations buried within supplementary files rob other scientists of recognition of their contribution to the scientific record. These issues are exacerbated by the lack of guidance on the use of supplementary information from the journals to authors and reviewers. We propose that the removal of artificial length restrictions plus the use of interactive features made possible by modern electronic media can help to alleviate these problems. Many journals, in fact, have already removed article length limitations (as is the case for BMC Bioinformatics and other BioMed Central journals). We hope that the issues raised in our article will encourage publishers and scientists to work together towards a better use of supplementary information in scientific publishing.

  16. Adaptive optimization and control using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, W.C.; Brown, S.K.; Jones, R.D.; Bowling, P.S.; Barnes, C.W.

    1993-10-22

    Recent work has demonstrated the ability of neural-network-based controllers to optimize and control machines with complex, non-linear, relatively unknown control spaces. We present a brief overview of neural networks via a taxonomy illustrating some capabilities of different kinds of neural networks. We present some successful control examples, particularly the optimization and control of a small-angle negative ion source.

  17. Adaptations to endosymbiosis in a cnidarian-dinoflagellate association: differential gene expression and specific gene duplications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Ganot

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion, which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones or aposymbiotic (also called bleached A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm. A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both

  18. 10 CFR 5.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on the basis of sex in...

  19. 10 CFR 1042.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials... on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person...

  20. Mapping the distribution of materials in hyperspectral data using the USGS Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, R.F.; King, T.V.V.; Hoefen, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying materials by measuring and analyzing their reflectance spectra has been an important method in analytical chemistry for decades. Airborne and space-based imaging spectrometers allow scientists to detect materials and map their distributions across the landscape. With new satellite-borne hyperspectral sensors planned for the future, for example, HYSPIRI (HYPerspectral InfraRed Imager), robust methods are needed to fully exploit the information content of hyperspectral remote sensing data. A method of identifying and mapping materials using spectral-feature based analysis of reflectance data in an expert-system framework called MICA (Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm) is described in this paper. The core concepts and calculations of MICA are presented. A MICA command file has been developed and applied to map minerals in the full-country coverage of the 2007 Afghanistan HyMap hyperspectral data. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  1. Dynamic Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Medium Duty Drive Shaft Using Conventional and Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Jain, Rajat; Patil, Pravin P.

    2016-09-01

    The main highlight of this study is structural and modal analysis of single piece drive shaft for selection of material. Drive shaft is used for torque carrying from vehicle transmission to rear wheel differential system. Heavy vehicle medium duty transmission drive shaft was selected as research object. Conventional materials (Steel SM45 C, Stainless Steel) and composite materials (HS carbon epoxy, E Glass Polyester Resin Composite) were selected for the analysis. Single piece composite material drive shaft has advantage over conventional two-piece steel drive shaft. It has higher specific strength, longer life, less weight, high critical speed and higher torque carrying capacity. The main criteria for drive shaft failure are strength and weight. Maximum modal frequency obtained is 919 Hz. Various harmful vibration modes (lateral vibration and torsional vibration) were identified and maximum deflection region was specified. For single-piece drive shaft the natural bending frequency should be higher because it is subjected to torsion and shear stress. Single piece drive shaft was modelled using Solid Edge and Pro-E. Finite Element Analysis was used for structural and modal analysis with actual running boundary condition like frictional support, torque and moment. FEA simulation results were validated with experimental literature results.

  2. Dual adaptive dynamic control of mobile robots using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Marvin K; Fabri, Simon G; Camilleri, Liberato

    2009-02-01

    This paper proposes two novel dual adaptive neural control schemes for the dynamic control of nonholonomic mobile robots. The two schemes are developed in discrete time, and the robot's nonlinear dynamic functions are assumed to be unknown. Gaussian radial basis function and sigmoidal multilayer perceptron neural networks are used for function approximation. In each scheme, the unknown network parameters are estimated stochastically in real time, and no preliminary offline neural network training is used. In contrast to other adaptive techniques hitherto proposed in the literature on mobile robots, the dual control laws presented in this paper do not rely on the heuristic certainty equivalence property but account for the uncertainty in the estimates. This results in a major improvement in tracking performance, despite the plant uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics. Monte Carlo simulation and statistical hypothesis testing are used