WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptation and use of specific materials

  1. Non-specific Adaptive Reactions of Athletes: Evaluation and Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Naumova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studies changes in non-specific adaptive reactions (NSAR of athletes who practice Wushu and Qigong and take Kladorod, a biological product made from plant material. The results of our study demonstrate the effectiveness of Kladorod as a remedy to enhance adaptive capacity with the possibility of application for training of athletes without any restrictions within the criteria of doping control.

  2. Construction and material specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of the : Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform Work are written as commands. For example, ...

  3. Simultaneous Structural Health Monitoring and Vibration Control of Adaptive Structures Using Smart Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Kim

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of actuators and sensors using smart materials enabled various applications including health monitoring and structural vibration control. In this study, a robust control technique is designed and implemented in order to reduce vibration of an active structure. Special attention is given to eliminating the possibility of interaction between the health monitoring system and the control system. Exploiting the disturbance decoupling characteristic of the sliding mode observer, it is demonstrated that the proposed observer can eliminate the possible high frequency excitation from the health monitoring system. At the same time, a damage identification scheme, which tracks the changes of mechanical impedance due to the presence of damage, has been applied to assess the health condition of structures. The main objective of this paper is to examine the potential of combining the two emerging techniques together. Using the collocated piezoelectric sensors/actuators for vibration suppression as well as for health monitoring, this technique enabled to reduce the number of system components, while enhancing the performance of structures. As an initial study, both simulation and experimental investigations were performed for an active beam structure. The results show that this integrated technique can provide substantial vibration reductions, while detecting damage on the structure at the same time.

  4. Verification and operation of adaptive materials in space.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargaville, Tim Richard; Elliott, Julie M.; Jones, Gary D.; Celina, Mathias C.

    2006-12-01

    Piezoelectric polymers based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are of interest as smart materials for novel space-based telescope applications. Dimensional adjustments of adaptive thin polymer films are achieved via controlled charge deposition. Predicting their long-term performance requires a detailed understanding of the piezoelectric property changes that develop during space environmental exposure. The overall materials performance is governed by a combination of chemical and physical degradation processes occurring in low Earth orbit as established by our past laboratory-based materials performance experiments (see report SAND 2005-6846). Molecular changes are primarily induced via radiative damage, and physical damage from temperature and atomic oxygen exposure is evident as depoling, loss of orientation and surface erosion. The current project extension has allowed us to design and fabricate small experimental units to be exposed to low Earth orbit environments as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiments program. The space exposure of these piezoelectric polymers will verify the observed trends and their degradation pathways, and provide feedback on using piezoelectric polymer films in space. This will be the first time that PVDF-based adaptive polymer films will be operated and exposed to combined atomic oxygen, solar UV and temperature variations in an actual space environment. The experiments are designed to be fully autonomous, involving cyclic application of excitation voltages, sensitive film position sensors and remote data logging. This mission will provide critically needed feedback on the long-term performance and degradation of such materials, and ultimately the feasibility of large adaptive and low weight optical systems utilizing these polymers in space.

  5. Enhancing the Ductility of Laser-Welded Copper-Aluminum Connections by using Adapted Filler Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, M.; Albert, F.; Schmidt, M.

    Laser micro welding of direct copper-aluminum connections typically leads to the formation of intermetallic phases and an embrittlement of the metal joints. By means of adapted filler materials it is possible to reduce the brittle phases and thereby enhance the ductility of these dissimilar connections. As the element silicon features quite a well compatibility with copper and aluminum, filler materials based on Al-Si and Cu-Si alloys are used in the current research studies. In contrast to direct Cu-Al welds, the aluminum filler alloy AlSi12 effectuates a more uniform element mixture and a significantly enhanced ductility.

  6. Specification and Generation of Adapters for System Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, A.J.; Voorhoeve, M.

    2013-01-01

    Large systems-of-systems are developed by integrating several smaller systems that have been developed independently. System integration often requires adaptation mechanisms for bridging any technical incompatibilities between the systems. In order to develop adapters in a faster way, we study ways

  7. The Influence of Student Characteristics on the Use of Adaptive E-Learning Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seters, J. R.; Ossevoort, M. A.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive e-learning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics in a heterogeneous student group by collecting…

  8. Controlled aeroelastic response and airfoil shaping using adaptive materials and integrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Jennifer L.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Moses, Robert W.; Scott, Robert C.; Heeg, Jennifer

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of several activities of the Aeroelasticity Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center in the area of applying adaptive materials and integrated systems for controlling both aircraft aeroelastic response and airfoil shape. The experimental results of four programs are discussed: the Piezoelectric Aeroelastic Response Tailoring Investigation (PARTI); the adaptive neural control of aeroelastic response (ANCAR) program; the actively controlled response of buffet affected tails (ACROBAT) program; and the Airfoil THUNDER Testing to ascertain charcteristics (ATTACH) project. The PARTI program demonstrated active flutter control and significant reductions in aeroelastic response at dynamic pressures below flutter using piezoelectric actuators. The ANCAR program seeks to demonstrate the effectiveness of using neural networks to schedule flutter suppression control laws. The ACROBAT program studied the effectiveness of a number of candidate actuators, including a rudder and piezoelectric actuators, to alleviate vertical tail buffeting. In the ATTACH project, the feasibility of using thin-layer composite-unimorph piezoelectric driver and sensor (THUNDER) wafers to control airfoil aerodynamic characteristics was investigated. Plans for future applications are also discussed.

  9. Temporal specificity of the initial adaptive response in motor adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsaan M Joiner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to a novel physical environment eventually leads to a mature adaptive response whereby feedforward changes in motor output mirror both the amplitude and temporal structure of the environmental perturbations. However, adaptive responses at the earliest stages of learning have been found to be not only smaller, but systematically less specific in their temporal structure compared to later stages of learning. This observation has spawned a lively debate as to whether the temporal structure of the initial adaptive response is, in fact, stereotyped and non-specific. To settle this debate, we directly measured the adaptive responses to velocity-dependent and position-dependent force-field perturbations (vFFs and pFFs at the earliest possible stage of motor learning in humans-after just a single-movement exposure. In line with previous work, we found these earliest stage adaptive responses to be more similar than the perturbations that induced them. However, the single-trial adaptive responses for vFF and pFF perturbations were clearly distinct, and the disparity between them reflected the difference between the temporal structure of the perturbations that drove them. Critically, we observed these differences between single-trial adaptive responses when vFF and pFF perturbations were randomly intermingled from one trial to the next within the same block, indicating perturbation response specificity at the single trial level. These findings demonstrate that the initial adaptive responses to physical perturbations are not stereotyped. Instead, the neural plasticity in sensorimotor areas is sensitive to the temporal structure of a movement perturbation even at the earliest stage in learning. This insight has direct implications for the development of computational models of early-stage motor adaptation and the evolution of this adaptive response with continued training.

  10. Effects of culture-sensitive adaptation of patient information material on usefulness in migrants: a multicentre, blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Niebling, Wilhelm; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the usefulness of culture-sensitive patient information material compared with standard translated material. Multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. 37 primary care practices. 435 adult primary care patients with a migration background with unipolar depressive disorder or non-specific chronic low back pain were randomised. Patients who were unable to read in the language of their respective migration background were excluded. Sufficient data were obtained from 203 women and 106 men. The largest group was of Russian origin (202 patients), followed by those of Turkish (52), Polish (30) and Italian (25) origin. Intervention group: provision of culture-sensitive adapted material. provision of standard translated material. Primary outcome: patient-rated usefulness (USE) assessed immediately after patients received the material. patient-rated usefulness after 8 weeks and 6 months, symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), back pain (Back Pain Core Set) and quality of life (WHO-5) assessed at all time points. Usefulness was found to be significantly higher (t=1.708, one-sided p=0.04) in the intervention group (USE-score=65.08, SE=1.43), compared with the control group (61.43, SE=1.63), immediately after patients received the material, in the intention-to-treat analysis, with a mean difference of 3.65 (one-sided 95% lower confidence limit=0.13). No significant differences were found for usefulness at follow-up (p=0.16, p=0.71). No significant effect was found for symptom severity in depression (p=0.95, p=0.66, p=0.58), back pain (p=0.40, p=0.45, p=0.32) or quality of life (p=0.76, p=0.86, p=0.21), either immediately after receiving the material, or at follow-up (8 weeks; 6 months). Patients with a lower level of dominant society immersion benefited substantially and significantly more from the intervention than patients with a high level of immersion (p=0.005). Cultural adaptation of patient information material provides benefits over high quality

  11. Marginal adaptation and color stability of four provisional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Edward J; Neiva, Gisele; Yaman, Peter; Dennison, Joseph B

    2008-02-01

    A number of provisional restorative materials exist on the market. This study tested marginal fit and color stability of three provisional restorative materials and a control. Two auto-cure materials, Protemp Garant and Integrity, and one dual-cure material, Luxatemp Solar, were tested against SNAP, a polyethyl methacrylate control. A maxillary right central incisor ivorine tooth was prepared for a full coverage all-ceramic crown, with a 1.5-mm chamfer margin. Four points were engraved at a point 1 mm below the facial, lingual, mesial, and distal margins, and replicas (n = 40) were produced by the manufacturer. Provisional crowns (n = 10 x 4) were fabricated on the individual replicas using a polyethylene coping template. The crowns were trimmed under magnification using an acrylic bur. The distance from the crown margins to a point tangent to the engraved markings was measured under 10x magnification and recorded. For color stability, 10-mm diameter x 2-mm thick discs (n = 10 x 4) were fabricated and immersed cyclically in tea for 1 week in a Tucillo/Nielson apparatus. Color measurements were recorded for each specimen at baseline and after staining. DeltaE values were calculated to determine the extent of the color change. The means of the four marginal discrepancy measurements for each specimen were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc comparison. Luxatemp Solar had statistically significant marginal discrepancy (319 microm, p provisional materials. A significant color change (DeltaE = 4.33, p Provisional crowns fabricated from SNAP, Protemp Garant, and Integrity exhibited similarly low marginal discrepancy. SNAP, Luxatemp Solar, and Integrity did not demonstrate a clinically detectable change in shade after 1 week in a staining solution.

  12. The geography of sex-specific selection, local adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Material and Social Construction: A Framework for the Adaptation of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M. Keenan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a formulation of a framework for understanding the nature of change, particularly climate change, as it applies to the scale of a building. Through an exploration of various scientific and social scientific literutre, the article positions the concept of adaptation as the appropriate mode for understanding and managing change. Through the classification of a duality of material and social construction in the ontological composition of a building, various lines of thought relating to adaptive capacity and adaptive cycling within systems theory are appropriated within an integrated framework for adaptation. Specifically, it is theorized that as buildings as objects are developing greater capacities for intergrated operations and management through artificial intelligence, they will possess an ex ante capacity to autonomously adapt in dynamic relation to and with the ex post adaptation of owners and operators. It is argued that this top-down and bottom-up confluence of multi-scalar dynamic change is consistent with the prevailing theory of Panarchy applied in social-ecological systems theory. The article concludes with normative perspectives on the limitations of systems theory in architecture, future directions for research and an alternative positioning of professional practices.

  14. Surface roughness and adaptation of different materials to secure implant attachment housings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkir, Serhat Emre; Yilmaz, Burak; Kurkcuoglu, Isin; Culhaoglu, Ahmet; Unal, Server Mutluay

    2017-01-01

    Various materials are available to secure implant attachment housings in overdentures. Surface roughness and the adaptation of these materials to the denture base and the housings may increase the microcracks and bacterial adhesion at the interfaces in the long term. The surface characteristics of the interface between the denture base orientation material and the attachment housing have not been extensively studied. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the surface roughness and the adaptation of 5 different housing orientation materials to the housings and the denture base. Fifty-five poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) specimens (15 mm in diameter and 4 mm in height) were prepared with a clearance inside to allow the insertion of overdenture housings. Five different materials were used for housing orientation (Quick Up, Ufi Gel Hard, Tokuyama Rebase II Fast, Meliodent, and Paladent). The specimens were thermocycled 5000 times between 5°C and 55°C. The surface roughness (Ra values) of the specimens was measured with a noncontact profilometer. Scanning electron images were made in order to inspect the PMMA-orientation material-housing interfaces. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to investigate the differences between the surface roughness values of the orientation materials, and the Iman-Conover test was used for pairwise comparisons (α=.05). The surface roughness values significantly differed between Quick up and Ufi Gel orientation materials only, and Quick up had smaller surface roughness values than Ufi Gel (P=.009). Microcracks were observed among the groups only at the junction of the orientation material and the housing after thermocycling. Ufi Gel Hard showed the roughest surfaces around the overdenture attachment housings. The adaptation between the orientation material and the housing may deteriorate, and increased surface roughness and microcrack formation may be seen around the housings. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the

  15. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  16. Direct estimation of biofilm density on different pipe material coupons using a specific DNA-probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young C; Le Puil, Michael; Biggerstaff, John; Randall, Andrew A; Schulte, Alfons; Taylor, James S

    2003-10-01

    A variety of approaches to quantify biomass in biofilms without disruption due to detachment have been developed over the years. One basic approach is the combination of advanced microscopy with molecular staining. However, many stains (e.g. 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole, acridine orange or live-dead stains) can be non-specific when corrosion products, precipitates, and pipe material are present. In addition, some pipe materials cause high background when using epifluorescent microscopy. The new refinement discussed in this presentation used fluorescence spectroscopy to obtain the spectra from four common distribution system pipe materials: PVC, 'concrete' lined cast iron, cast iron, and galvanized steel. The emission maximum for all four materials was between 500 and 550 nm, but emissions radically decreased around 575-600 nm. A molecular probe, BO-PRO-3 (Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, OR, USA) was identified which has an emission intensity maximum at 599 nm (red), with emission intensity 200 times greater when it is bound to DNA. The BO-PRO-3 has greatly reduced non-specific staining and background problems. In the preliminary experiment, using diluted waste water, a significant exponential relationship was found between stained surface area/total area ratio and fixed biofilm inventory measurements from scraping heterotrophic plate counts (SHPC) on R2A medium. In addition, the biofilm inventory on different pipe material coupons from pilot distribution systems was also correlated to the stained surface area fraction and SHPC.

  17. Specifics of Relationships of Diligence Variables and Socio-Psychological Adaptation in International And Russian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Kameneva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the peculiarities of the relations of the variables of diligence as a personality trait and socio-psychological adaptation of students. The presented results of an empirical study show both general and specific relationships for Russian and international students.

  18. Marginal adaptation and CAD-CAM technology: A systematic review of restorative material and fabrication techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadiochou, Sofia; Pissiotis, Argirios L

    2018-04-01

    The comparative assessment of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and other fabrication techniques pertaining to marginal adaptation should be documented. Limited evidence exists on the effect of restorative material on the performance of a CAD-CAM system relative to marginal adaptation. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate whether the marginal adaptation of CAD-CAM single crowns, fixed dental prostheses, and implant-retained fixed dental prostheses or their infrastructures differs from that obtained by other fabrication techniques using a similar restorative material and whether it depends on the type of restorative material. An electronic search of English-language literature published between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2016, was conducted of the Medline/PubMed database. Of the 55 included comparative studies, 28 compared CAD-CAM technology with conventional fabrication techniques, 12 contrasted CAD-CAM technology and copy milling, 4 compared CAD-CAM milling with direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and 22 investigated the performance of a CAD-CAM system regarding marginal adaptation in restorations/infrastructures produced with different restorative materials. Most of the CAD-CAM restorations/infrastructures were within the clinically acceptable marginal discrepancy (MD) range. The performance of a CAD-CAM system relative to marginal adaptation is influenced by the restorative material. Compared with CAD-CAM, most of the heat-pressed lithium disilicate crowns displayed equal or smaller MD values. Slip-casting crowns exhibited similar or better marginal accuracy than those fabricated with CAD-CAM. Cobalt-chromium and titanium implant infrastructures produced using a CAD-CAM system elicited smaller MD values than zirconia. The majority of cobalt-chromium restorations/infrastructures produced by DMLS displayed better marginal accuracy than those fabricated with the casting technique. Compared with copy

  19. Adaptation of instructional materials: a commentary on the research on adaptations of Who Polluted the Potomac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Alper, Naim

    2009-03-01

    This commentary first summarizes and discusses the analysis of the two translation processes described in the Oliveira, Colak, and Akerson article and the inferences these researchers make based on their research. In the second part of the commentary, we describe procedures and criteria used in adapting tests into different languages and how they may apply to adaptation of instructional materials. The authors provide a good theoretical analysis of what took place in two translation instances and make an important contribution by taking the first step in providing a systematic discussion of adaptation of instructional materials. Our discussion proposes procedures for adapting instructional materials for examining equivalence of source and target versions of adapted instructional materials. We highlight that many of the procedures and criteria used in examining comparability of educational tests is missing in this emerging research of area.

  20. Supplementary material for: The adaptive synchronization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary material for: The adaptive synchronization of fractional-order Liu chaotic system with unknown parameters. ADELEH NOURIAN and SAEED BALOCHIAN. -50. -40. -30. -20. -10. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. -25. -20. -15. -10. -5. 0. 5. 10. 15. 20. 25. Y. Z. -12. -10. -8. -6. -4. -2. 0. 2. 4. 6. 8. -25. -20. -15. -10. -5. 0. 5. 10. 15.

  1. [Brief introduction of research methods of commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua-ye; Yan, Pei-pei; Yang, Wen-hua; Li, Chao-feng; Qi, Shu-ya; Li, Yan-qi; Cao, Jun-ling

    2015-02-01

    The commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials is a measure of the quality of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), which directly impacts on the safety and effectiveness of clinical medicines. It is an urgent problem to establish a set of standards which can both interpret the scientific connotation of the commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials and play a significant role on clinical medicines as well as markets. This paper reviews the research methods of the commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials such as sensory evaluation, chemical assessment, biological evaluation, and cited the applications of various methods for the classification of TCMs. It provides technical support for establishing standards of the commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials, and also constructs scientific basis for clinical rational drug use.

  2. The effect of the purity and of the materials used for adapters on the purification of yttrium by solid state electrotransport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoforova, T.V.; Volkov, V.T.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of tantalum, molybdenum and zirconium adapters on the efficiency of the solid state electrotransport process is investigated with a view to increasing the quality and purity of yttrium. The degree and direction of metallic impurity electromigration in the given metals were studied. The impurities in question were shown to move in different directions depending on the type of adapter. Recommendations for the application of adapters according to their purity are given. The application of high purity tantalum as anode and cathode adapters in three-stage solid state electrotransport enabled us to obtain yttrium single crystals with a ratio of resistance at room temperature to that at helium temperatures of 1200. (orig.)

  3. Preliminary guidelines and recommendations for the development of material and process specifications for carbon fiber-reinforced liquid resin molded materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    This document recommends guidance and criteria for the development of material and process specifications and material acceptance documents for liquid resins and continuous carbon fiber reinforcement materials used in liquid molding processes to manu...

  4. A microcosm test of adaptation and species specific responses to polluted sediments applicable to indigenous chironomids (Diptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrndorff, Simon [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia) and Department of Ecology and Genetics, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, Building 540, DK-8000, Aarhus C (Denmark)]. E-mail: simon.bahrndorff@biology.au.dk; Ward, Jacqueline [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Pettigrove, Vincent [Research and Technology, Melbourne Water Corporation, PO Box 4342, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)]. E-mail: vincent.pettigrove@melbournewater.com.au; Hoffmann, Ary A. [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia) and Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research, Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Bundoora, Victoria 3010 (Australia)]. E-mail: ary@unimelb.edu.au

    2006-02-15

    Chironomids may adapt to pollution stress but data are confined to species that can be reared in the laboratory. A microcosm approach was used to test for adaptation and species differences in heavy metal tolerance. In one experiment, microcosms containing different levels of contaminants were placed in polluted and reference locations. The response of Chironomus februarius to metal contaminants suggested local adaptation: relatively more flies emerged from clean sediment at the reference site and the reverse pattern occurred at the polluted site. However, maternal effects were not specifically ruled out. In another species, Kiefferulus intertinctus, there was no evidence for adaptation. In a second experiment, microcosms with different contaminant levels were placed at two polluted and two unpolluted sites. Species responded differently to contaminants, but there was no evidence for adaptation in the species where this could be tested. Adaptation to heavy metals may be uncommon and species specific, but more sensitive species need to be tested across a range of pollution levels. Factors influencing the likelihood of adaptation are briefly discussed. - A field test for adaptation applicable to indigenous chironomids suggests adaptation to metal contaminants in one species but not in other species.

  5. Comparative genomics and functional analysis of niche-specific adaptation in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Monchy, Sébastien; Taghavi, Safiyh; Zhu, Wei; Ramos, Juan; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a gram-negative rod-shaped gammaproteobacterium that is found throughout various environments. Members of the species P. putida show a diverse spectrum of metabolic activities, which is indicative of their adaptation to various niches, which includes the ability to live in soils and sediments contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Pseudomonas putida strains are also found as plant growth-promoting rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. The genome sequences of several P. putida species have become available and provide a unique tool to study the specific niche adaptation of the various P. putida strains. In this review, we compare the genomes of four P. putida strains: the rhizospheric strain KT2440, the endophytic strain W619, the aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading strain F1 and the manganese-oxidizing strain GB-1. Comparative genomics provided a powerful tool to gain new insights into the adaptation of P. putida to specific lifestyles and environmental niches, and clearly demonstrated that horizontal gene transfer played a key role in this adaptation process, as many of the niche-specific functions were found to be encoded on clearly defined genomic islands. Journal compilation © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  6. Comparative genomics and functional analysis of niche-specific adaptation in Pseudomonas putida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu X.; van der Lelie D.; Monchy, S.; Taghavi, S.; Zhu, W.; Ramos, J.

    2011-03-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a gram-negative rod-shaped gammaproteobacterium that is found throughout various environments. Members of the species P. putida show a diverse spectrum of metabolic activities, which is indicative of their adaptation to various niches, which includes the ability to live in soils and sediments contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Pseudomonas putida strains are also found as plant growth-promoting rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. The genome sequences of several P. putida species have become available and provide a unique tool to study the specific niche adaptation of the various P. putida strains. In this review, we compare the genomes of four P. putida strains: the rhizospheric strain KT2440, the endophytic strain W619, the aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading strain F1 and the manganese-oxidizing strain GB-1. Comparative genomics provided a powerful tool to gain new insights into the adaptation of P. putida to specific lifestyles and environmental niches, and clearly demonstrated that horizontal gene transfer played a key role in this adaptation process, as many of the niche-specific functions were found to be encoded on clearly defined genomic islands.

  7. The materiality of materials and artefacts used in science classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy

    Material objects and artefacts receive limited attention in science education (Roehl, 2012) though they shape emerging interactions. This is surprising given science has material and a social dimensions (Pickering, 1995) whereby new knowledge develops as a consensus explanation of natural phenomena...... that is mediated significantly through materials and instruments used. Here we outline the ways teachers deployed material objects and artefacts by identifying their materiality to provide scenarios and resources (Roth, 2005) for interactions. Theoretical framework We use Ingold's (2011) distinction between...... materials as natural objects in this world and artefacts as manmade objects. We are aware that in a classroom material objects and artefacts shape, and are shaped by classroom practice through the way they selectively present scientific explanations. However, materials and artefacts have no intrinsic...

  8. Behind binge eating: A review of food-specific adaptations of neurocognitive and neuroimaging tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Winter, Samantha R; Matheson, Brittany E; Benson, Leora; Lowe, Michael R

    2017-07-01

    Recurrent binge eating, or overeating accompanied by a sense of loss of control, is a major public health concern. Identifying similarities and differences among individuals with binge eating and those with other psychiatric symptoms and characterizing the deficits that uniquely predispose individuals to eating problems are essential to improving treatment. Research suggests that altered reward and control-related processes may contribute to dysregulated eating and other impulsive behaviors in binge-eating populations, but the best methods for reliably assessing the contributions of these processes to binge eating are unclear. In this review, we summarize standard neurocognitive and neuroimaging tasks that assess reward and control-related processes, describe adaptations of these tasks used to study eating and food-specific responsivity and deficits, and consider the advantages and limitations of these tasks. Future studies integrating both general and food-specific tasks with neuroimaging will improve understanding of the neurocognitive processes and neural circuits that contribute to binge eating and could inform novel interventions that more directly target or prevent this transdiagnostic behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cultural Adaptation and Translation of Outreach Materials on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinker, Roy R.; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Ahmann, Chloe; Beidas, Rinad S.; Lagman, Adrienne; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to connect with families and influence treatment trajectories, outreach materials should address cultural perceptions of the condition, its causes, and post-diagnostic care. This paper describes the cultural adaptation and translation of the Autism Speaks First 100 Days Kit into Korean for the purpose of improving autism spectrum disorder…

  10. Waste management issues and their potential impact on technical specifications of CANDU fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, J.C.; Johnson, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical specifications for the composition of nuclear fuels and materials used in Canada's CANDU reactors have been developed by AECL and materials manufacturers, taking into account considerations specific to their manufacture and the effect of minor impurities on fuel behaviour in reactor. Nitrogen and chlorine are examples of UO 2 impurities, however, where there is no technical specification limit. These impurities are present in the source materials or introduced in the fabrication process and are neutron activated to 14 C and 36 C1, which after 129 I , are the two most significant contributors to dose in safety assessments for the disposal of used fuel. For certain impurities, environmental factors, particularly the safety of the disposal of used fuels, should be taken into consideration when deriving 'allowable' impurity limits for nuclear fuel materials. (author)

  11. Studies on preparation and adaptive thermal control performance of novel PTC (positive temperature coefficient) materials with controllable Curie temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-long; Yuan, Shuai; Song, Jia-liang

    2014-01-01

    PTC (positive temperature coefficient) material is a kind of thermo-sensitive material. In this study, a series of novel PTC materials adapted to thermal control of electron devices are prepared. By adding different low-melting-point blend matrixes into GP (graphite powder)/LDPE (low density polyethylene) composite, the Curie temperatures are adjusted to 9 °C, 25 °C, 34 °C and 41 °C, and the resistance–temperature coefficients are enhanced to 1.57/°C–2.15/°C. These PTC materials remain solid in the temperature region of PTC effect, which makes it possible to be used as heating element to achieve adaptive temperature control. In addition, the adaptive thermal control performances of this kind of materials are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The result shows that the adaptive effect becomes more significant while the resistance–temperature coefficient increases. A critical heating power defined as the initial heating power which makes the equilibrium temperature reach terminal temperature is presented. The adaptive temperature control will be effective only if the initial power is below this value. The critical heating power is determined by the Curie temperature and resistance–temperature coefficient of PTC materials, and a higher Curie temperature or resistance–temperature coefficient will lead to a larger critical heating power. - Highlights: • A series of novel PTC (positive temperature coefficient) materials were prepared. • The Curie point of PTC material can be adjusted by choosing different blend matrixes. • The resistance–temperature coefficient of PTC materials is enhanced to 2.15/°C. • The material has good adaptive temperature control ability with no auxiliary method. • A mathematical model is established to analyze the performance and applicability

  12. Materials and Process Specifications and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    factors involved in setting standards of this type are social (which usually predominates), legal, political, and then, to a lesser extent, economic, and...regulatory agencies. Material and process specifications are obviously affected by these relatively new social forces and, in turn, may...Welding Society Basic Standardization Agreement Conference Internationale des Grands Reseaux Internationale (International Conference on Large High

  13. Styles of Adaptation: The Impact of Frequency and Valence of Adaptation on Preventing Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, William B.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Dusenbury, Linda; Giles, Steven M.; Bishop, Dana C.; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren P.; Strack, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To be effective, evidence-based programs should be delivered as prescribed. This suggests that adaptations that deviate from intervention goals may limit a program's effectiveness. This study aims to examine the impact that number and quality of adaptations have on substance use outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: The authors examined…

  14. Development and use of reference materials and quality control materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    Current knowledge is summarized on correct use of commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) and reference materials (RMs). Acknowledged are also the limitations and restrictions analysts have to face if they want to apply quality control. The concept of in-house RMs or quality control materials (QCMs) is advocated to supplement the use of CRMs for quality control purposes. On hand advice on how to select, prepare, characterize and use these QCMs is given from the experts' perspective. Several scenarios are described to make this concept widely applicable to: advanced laboratories with CRMs with validated analytical techniques available, laboratories with less experience and facilities, as well as cases were labile compounds and unstable matrices are involved. Each scenario considers different approaches to overcome the lack of appropriate CRMs and advise on the preparation of QCMs, which might fit the particular purpose

  15. Simulation and Rapid Prototyping of Adaptive Control Systems using the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge the gap between simulation and prototype controller implement...... design, controller and state variable filter.The use of the Adaptive Blockset is demonstrated using a simple laboratory setup. Both the use of the blockset for simulation and for rapid prototyping of a real-time controller are shown.......The paper describes the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge the gap between simulation and prototype controller...

  16. Adaptation of the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erzar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the Slovenian adaptation of the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF which was developed by Gottman and colleagues (Gottman and Coan, 2007 for the purpose of examining emotional expression. We present a short history and problems of coding emotions, codes of the system, coding procedure, training of coders, and rules of accurate observing. Also presented are the experiences with the new system, arguments for adaptation of codes to therapeutic processes and suggestions for further improvements.

  17. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiac adaptation to hypertension and obesity may be related to many factors such as race, gender and haemodynamic status. Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described among Caucasians. Objectives: To describe the sex specific pattern of left ...

  18. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  19. Compressive loading of the murine tibia reveals site-specific micro-scale differences in adaptation and maturation rates of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, I; Kerns, J G; Törnqvist, A E; Perdikouri, C; Mathavan, N; Koskela, A; Henriksson, H B; Tuukkanen, J; Andersson, G; Isaksson, H; Goodship, A E; Windahl, S H

    2017-03-01

    Loading increases bone mass and strength in a site-specific manner; however, possible effects of loading on bone matrix composition have not been evaluated. Site-specific structural and material properties of mouse bone were analyzed on the macro- and micro/molecular scale in the presence and absence of axial loading. The response of bone to load is heterogeneous, adapting at molecular, micro-, and macro-levels. Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease resulting in reduced bone mineral density, structure, and strength. The overall aim was to explore the hypothesis that changes in loading environment result in site-specific adaptations at molecular/micro- and macro-scale in mouse bone. Right tibiae of adult mice were subjected to well-defined cyclic axial loading for 2 weeks; left tibiae were used as physiologically loaded controls. The bones were analyzed with μCT (structure), reference point indentation (material properties), Raman spectroscopy (chemical), and small-angle X-ray scattering (mineral crystallization and structure). The cranial and caudal sites of tibiae are structurally and biochemically different within control bones. In response to loading, cranial and caudal sites increase in cortical thickness with reduced mineralization (-14 and -3%, p micro-scale to maintain optimal function. Manipulation of this heterogeneity may affect bone strength, relative to specific applied loads.

  20. Graded territories: Towards the design, specification and simulation of materially graded bending active structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    these structures, the property of bending is activated and varied through bespoke material means so as to match a desired form. Within the architectural design process, formal control depends upon design approaches for material specification and simulation that consider behavior at the level of the material...... element as well as the structure. We describe an evolving approach to material specification and simulation, and highlight the digital and material considerations that frame the process.......The ability to make materials with bespoke behavior affords new perspectives on incorporating material properties within the design process not available through natural materials. This paper reports the design and assembly of two bending-active, fibre-reinforced composite structures. Within...

  1. Thermotropic and Thermochromic Polymer Based Materials for Adaptive Solar Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Mühling

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to present the actual status of development in adaptive solar control by use of thermotropic and organic thermochromic materials. Such materials are suitable for application in smart windows. In detail polymer blends, hydrogels, resins, and thermoplastic films with a reversible temperature-dependent switching behavior are described. A comparative evaluation of the concepts for these energy efficient materials is given as well. Furthermore, the change of strategy from ordinary shadow systems to intrinsic solar energy reflection materials based on phase transition components and a first remark about their realization is reported. Own current results concerning extruded films and high thermally stable casting resins with thermotropic properties make a significant contribution to this field.

  2. The Influence of Mechanical, and Material Factors on the Biological Adaptation Processes of the Femoral Bone Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasik A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study covers some aspects of the issue of determination of mutual connections between the mechanical and material factors, as well the biological implant adaptation processes. The main objective of the operation was adopted to develop models of cementless hip prosthesis company Fitmore Zimmer, taking into account the heterogeneity of material properties of bone tissue. These models were loaded in particular stages of the human gate and then they were used for the analysis of stress changes. The identification of the relations between the mechanical properties of osseous tissue required the conducting of computer simulations by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM.

  3. Material Removal and Specific Energy in the Dynamic Scratching of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

    2006-11-01

    Mechanical responses of three gamma titanium aluminides (TiAls) (denoted as Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) subjected to dynamic scratching were studied by using a single-grit pendulum (rotating) scratch tester. The maximum depth of groove was ~ 0.07 mm, and the scratch velocity used was ~ 1.0 m/s. Normal and tangential forces were monitored. The material removal mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scratches were measured by using a laser profilometer. The mechanical properties of the tested TiAls were characterized by the instantaneous specific energy, scratch resistance and scratch hardness as related to the depth of groove. Extensive thermal softening was observed in the dynamic scratch of the tested TiAls, which facilitated both the detachments of developing chips and the pile-ups of materials on side ridges. Sizable fractures were observed in the transverse direction on the tested TiAls; these fractures tended to participate in the chip formation, depending on the microstructure of the TiAl and the size of the scratch groove. Specific energy and scratch hardness are depth-dependent to various degrees for the tested TiAls. The materiel removal might be subjected to different mechanisms, but the overall response of materials can be effectively characterized by the HEM (Hwang, Evans and Malkin) model and the PSR (proportional specimen resistance) model. The obtained depth-independent specific energy and scratch hardness can be used to screen the candidate materials for the specific purpose depending on whether the application is scratch-dominant or impact-dominant. Among the three tested TiAls, the TiAl with larger colony or grain size exhibits a stronger capability of energy dissipation in the material loss or material removal (higher depth-independent specific energy), while the TiAl with smaller colony size show a higher resistance against the indentation (higher depth-independent scratch hardness). The observations and

  4. An Evaluation of Usefulness of Prostate Specific Antigen and Digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE) in the diagnosis of cancer of the prostate (CaP) amongst unscreened patients. Patients, Materials ans Methods: A prospective study168 unscreened men who were referred for evaluation for CaP. They all had a ...

  5. Impact of Adaptive Materials on Teachers and their Students with Visual Impairments in Secondary Science and Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Stefanich, Greg P.; Boody, Robert M.; Peiffer, Belinda

    2011-04-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, important in today's world, are underrepresented by students with disabilities. Students with visual impairments, although cognitively similar to sighted peers, face challenges as STEM subjects are often taught using visuals. They need alternative forms of access such as enlarged or audio-converted text, tactile graphics, and involvement in hands-on science. This project focused on increasing teacher awareness of and providing funds for the purchase of supplemental adaptive resources, supplies, and equipment. We examined attitude and instructional changes across the year of the programme in 15 science and mathematics teachers educating students with visual impairments. Positive changes were noted from pretest to posttest in student and teacher perspectives, and in teacher attitudes towards students with disabilities in STEM classes. Teachers also provided insights into their challenges and successes through a reflective narrative. Several adolescent students resisted accommodations to avoid appearing conspicuous to peers. Teachers implemented three strategies to address this: providing the adaptations to all students in the class; convincing the student of the need for adaptation; and involving the class in understanding and accepting the student's impairment. A variety of teacher-created adaptations for various science and mathematics labs are reported. Another finding was many adaptations provided for the student with visual impairment benefitted the entire class. This study supports the claim that given knowledgeable, supportive teachers, and with appropriate accommodations such as tactile or auditory materials, students with visual impairments can be as successful and engaged as other students in science and mathematics.

  6. Specification of steam generator, condenser and regenerative heat exchanger materials for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovasevic, J.V.; Stefanovic, V.M.; Spasic, Z.LJ.

    1977-01-01

    The basic standards specifications of materials for nuclear applications are selected. Seamless Ni-Cr-Fe alloy Tubes (Inconel-600) for steam generators, condensers and other heat exchangers can be employed instead of austenitic stainless steal or copper alloys tubes; supplementary requirements for these materials are given. Specifications of Ni-Cr-Fe alloy plate, sheet and strip for steam generator lower sub-assembly, U-bend seamless copper-alloy tubes for heat exchanger and condensers are also presented. At the end, steam generator channel head material is proposed in the specification for carbon-steel castings suitable for welding

  7. Material Removal and Specific Energy in the Dynamic Scratching of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Lin, H.-T.; Wereszczak, A.A.

    2006-11-30

    Mechanical responses of three gamma titanium aluminides (TiAls) (denoted as Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) subjected to dynamic scratching were studied by using a single-grit pendulum (rotating) scratch tester. The maximum depth of groove was {approx} 0.07 mm, and the scratch velocity was {approx} 1.0 m/s. Normal and tangential forces were monitored. The material removal mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scratches were measured by using a laser profilometer. The mechanical properties of the tested TiAls were characterized by the instantaneous specific energy, scratch resistance and scratch hardness as related to the groove depth. Extensive thermal softening was observed in the dynamic scratch test of the TiAls, which facilitated both the detachment of developing chips and pile-up of material on side ridges. Sizable fractures were observed in the transverse direction in the tested TiAls; these fractures tended to participate in the chip formation, depending on the microstructure of the TiAl and the size of the scratch groove. Specific energy and scratch hardness are depth-dependent to various degrees for the TiAls tested. The material removal might be subjected to different mechanisms, but the overall material response can be effectively characterized by the HEM (Hwang, Evans and Malkin) model and the PSR (proportional specimen resistance) model. The depth-independent specific energy and scratch hardness can be used to screen candidate materials for the applications that are scratch-dominated versus impact-dominated. Among the three tested TiAls, the TiAl with larger colony or grain size exhibits a stronger capability of energy dissipation during material removal (higher depth-independent specific energy), while the TiAl with smaller colony size shows a higher resistance to indentation (higher depth-independent scratch hardness). The observations and conclusions in this study can serve as a base line for the further

  8. Inlays made from a hybrid material: adaptation and bond strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, M A; Campos, F; Ramos, N C; Rippe, M P; Valandro, L F; Melo, R M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal fit, marginal adaptation, and bond strengths of inlays made of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic and polymer-infiltrated ceramic. Twenty molars were randomly selected and prepared to receive inlays that were milled from both materials. Before cementation, internal fit was achieved using the replica technique by molding the internal surface with addition silicone and measuring the cement thicknesses of the pulpal and axial walls. Marginal adaptation was measured on the occlusal and proximal margins of the replica. The inlays were then cemented using resin cement (Panavia F2.0) and subjected to two million thermomechanical cycles in water (200 N load and 3.8-Hz frequency). The restored teeth were then cut into beams, using a lathe, for microtensile testing. The contact angles, marginal integrity, and surface patterns after etching were also observed. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (p<0.05), the Tukey test for internal fit and marginal adaptation, and the Student t-test for bond strength. The failure types (adhesive or cohesive) were classified on each fractured beam. The results showed that the misfit of the pulpal walls (p=0.0002) and the marginal adaptation (p=0.0001) of the feldspathic ceramic were significantly higher when compared to those of the polymer-infiltrated ceramic, while the bond strength values of the former were higher when compared to those of the latter. The contact angle of the polymer-infiltrated ceramic was also higher. In the present study, the hybrid ceramic presented improved internal and marginal adaptation, but the bond strengths were higher for the feldspathic ceramic.

  9. Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Menopause Specific Questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Menopause Specific. Questionnaire into the Persian Language. Ghazanfarpour M, Kaviani M1, Rezaiee M2, Ghaderi E3, Zandvakili F2. Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, 1Nursing and Midwifery College, Shiraz ...

  10. [New method for analyzing pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines by using specific knockout technology with monoclonal antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Qu, Hui-Hua; Wang, Qing-Guo

    2013-09-01

    Study on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines is one of the key issues for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Having introduced the monoclonal antibody technology into the study on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines, the author prepared the immunoaffinity chromatography column by using monoclonal antibodies in active components of traditional Chinese medicines, so as to selectively knock out the component from herbs or traditional Chinese medicine compounds, while preserving all of the other components and keeping their amount and ratio unchanged. A comparative study on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was made to explicitly reveal the correlation between the component and the main purpose of traditional Chinese medicines and compounds. The analysis on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines by using specific knockout technology with monoclonal antibodies is a new method for study pharmacodynamic material basis in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines. Its results can not only help study material basis from a new perspective, but also help find the modern scientific significance in single herb or among compounds of traditional Chinese medicines.

  11. Software development for specific geometry and safe design of isotropic material multicell beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.M.; Ahmed, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of analytical results with finite element results for analysis of isotropic material multicell beams subjected to free torsion case is the main idea of this paper. Progress in the fundamentals and applications of advanced materials and their processing technologies involves costly experiments and prototype testing for reliability. The software development for design analysis of structures with advanced materials is a low cost but challenging research. Multicell beams have important industrial applications in the aerospace and automotive sectors. This paper explains software development to test different materials in design of a multicell beam. Objective of this paper is to compute the torsional loading of multicell beams of isotropic materials for safe design in both symmetrical and asymmetrical geometries. Software has been developed in Microsoft Visual Basic. Distribution of Saint Venant shear flows, shear stresses, factors of safety, volume, mass, weight, twist, polar moment of inertia and aspect ratio for free torsion in multicell beam have been calculated using this software. The software works on four algorithms, these are, Specific geometry algorithm, material selection algorithm, factor of safety algorithm and global algorithm. User can specify new materials analytically, or choose a pre-defined material from the list, which includes, plain carbon steels, low alloy steels, stainless steels, cast irons, aluminum alloys, copper alloys, magnesium alloys, titanium alloys, precious metals and refractory metals. Although this software is restricted to multicell beam comprising of three cells, however future versions can have ability to address more complicated shapes and cases of multicell beams. Software also describes nomenclature and mathematical formulas applied to help user understand the theoretical background. User can specify geometry of multicell beam for three rectangular cells. Software computes shear flows, shear stresses, safety factors

  12. Specific Methods of Information Security for Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Automate Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Vyacheslavovich Ivanov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to specific methods of information security for nuclear materials control and accounting automate systems which is not required of OS and DBMS certifications and allowed to programs modification for clients specific without defenses modification. System ACCORD-2005 demonstrates the realization of this method.

  13. Adaptive mechanical properties of topologically interlocking material systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, S; Siegmund, T; Cipra, R J; Bolton, J S

    2015-01-01

    Topologically interlocked material systems are two-dimensional granular crystals created as ordered and adhesion-less assemblies of unit elements of the shape of platonic solids. The assembly resists transverse forces due to the interlocking geometric arrangement of the unit elements. Topologically interlocked material systems yet require an external constraint to provide resistance under the action of external load. Past work considered fixed and passive constraints only. The objective of the present study is to consider active and adaptive external constraints with the goal to achieve variable stiffness and energy absorption characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system through an active control of the in-plane constraint conditions. Experiments and corresponding model analysis are used to demonstrate control of system stiffness over a wide range, including negative stiffness, and energy absorption characteristics. The adaptive characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system are shown to solve conflicting requirements of simultaneously providing energy absorption while keeping loads controlled. Potential applications can be envisioned in smart structure enhanced response characteristics as desired in shock absorption, protective packaging and catching mechanisms. (paper)

  14. Modular titanium alloy neck adapter failures in hip replacement - failure mode analysis and influence of implant material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloemer Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modular neck adapters for hip arthroplasty stems allow the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intraoperatively. Fretting or crevice corrosion may lead to failure of such a modular device due to high loads or surface contamination inside the modular coupling. Unfortunately we have experienced such a failure of implants and now report our clinical experience with the failures in order to advance orthopaedic material research and joint replacement surgery. The failed neck adapters were implanted between August 2004 and November 2006 a total of about 5000 devices. After this period, the titanium neck adapters were replaced by adapters out of cobalt-chromium. Until the end of 2008 in total 1.4% (n = 68 of the implanted titanium alloy neck adapters failed with an average time of 2.0 years (0.7 to 4.0 years postoperatively. All, but one, patients were male, their average age being 57.4 years (36 to 75 years and the average weight 102.3 kg (75 to 130 kg. The failures of neck adapters were divided into 66% with small CCD of 130° and 60% with head lengths of L or larger. Assuming an average time to failure of 2.8 years, the cumulative failure rate was calculated with 2.4%. Methods A series of adapter failures of titanium alloy modular neck adapters in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem was investigated. For patients having received this particular implant combination risk factors were identified which were associated with the occurence of implant failure. A Kaplan-Meier survival-failure-analysis was conducted. The retrieved implants were analysed using microscopic and chemical methods. Modes of failure were simulated in biomechanical tests. Comparative tests included modular neck adapters made of titanium alloy and cobalt chrome alloy material. Results Retrieval examinations and biomechanical simulation revealed that primary micromotions initiated fretting within the modular tapered neck

  15. Modular titanium alloy neck adapter failures in hip replacement--failure mode analysis and influence of implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, Thomas M; Weik, Thomas; Bloemer, Wilhelm; Knaebel, Hanns-Peter

    2010-01-04

    Modular neck adapters for hip arthroplasty stems allow the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intraoperatively. Fretting or crevice corrosion may lead to failure of such a modular device due to high loads or surface contamination inside the modular coupling. Unfortunately we have experienced such a failure of implants and now report our clinical experience with the failures in order to advance orthopaedic material research and joint replacement surgery.The failed neck adapters were implanted between August 2004 and November 2006 a total of about 5000 devices. After this period, the titanium neck adapters were replaced by adapters out of cobalt-chromium. Until the end of 2008 in total 1.4% (n = 68) of the implanted titanium alloy neck adapters failed with an average time of 2.0 years (0.7 to 4.0 years) postoperatively. All, but one, patients were male, their average age being 57.4 years (36 to 75 years) and the average weight 102.3 kg (75 to 130 kg). The failures of neck adapters were divided into 66% with small CCD of 130 degrees and 60% with head lengths of L or larger. Assuming an average time to failure of 2.8 years, the cumulative failure rate was calculated with 2.4%. A series of adapter failures of titanium alloy modular neck adapters in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem was investigated. For patients having received this particular implant combination risk factors were identified which were associated with the occurRence of implant failure. A Kaplan-Meier survival-failure-analysis was conducted. The retrieved implants were analysed using microscopic and chemical methods. Modes of failure were simulated in biomechanical tests. Comparative tests included modular neck adapters made of titanium alloy and cobalt chrome alloy material. Retrieval examinations and biomechanical simulation revealed that primary micromotions initiated fretting within the modular tapered neck connection. A continuous abrasion and

  16. Adaptive Robotic Fabrication for Conditions of Material Inconsistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2017-01-01

    and the fabrication process? Here, two adaptive methods are presented that aim to increase forming accuracy with only a minimum increase in fabrication time, and that maintain ongoing input from the results of the fabrication process. The first method is an online sensor-based strategy and the second method...... metal sheet. The paper focuses on the issue of geometric inaccuracies associated with material springback that are experienced in the making of a research demonstrator. It asks how to fabricate in conditions of material inconsistency, and how might adaptive models negotiate between the design model...... is an offline predictive strategy based on machine learning. Rigidisation of thin metal skins...

  17. Propagation law of impact elastic wave based on specific materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmin CHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the propagation law of the impact elastic wave on the platform, the experimental platform is built by using the specific isotropic materials and anisotropic materials. The glass cloth epoxy laminated plate is used for anisotropic material, and an organic glass plate is used for isotropic material. The PVDF sensors adhered on the specific materials are utilized to collect data, and the elastic wave propagation law of different thick plates and laminated plates under impact conditions is analyzed. The Experimental results show that in anisotropic material, transverse wave propagation speed along the fiber arrangement direction is the fastest, while longitudinal wave propagation speed is the slowest. The longitudinal wave propagation speed in anisotropic laminates is much slower than that in the laminated thick plates. In the test channel arranged along a particular angle away from the central region of the material, transverse wave propagation speed is larger. Based on the experimental results, this paper proposes a material combination mode which is advantageous to elastic wave propagation and diffusion in shock-isolating materials. It is proposed to design a composite material with high acoustic velocity by adding regularly arranged fibrous materials. The overall design of the barrier material is a layered structure and a certain number of 90°zigzag structure.

  18. Cognition and Logic: Adaptation and Application of Inclusive Teaching Materials for Hands-On Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Kátia Machinez; Sholl-Franco, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    The use of inclusive teaching materials that motivate and encourage the development of executive functions has been neglected by the mathematic teaching, in which intelligence is valued, but no efforts are made to stimulate it. There are numerous reasons for that, among which are teachers' and students' unawareness that mathematics involves higher…

  19. Urban adaptation planning: the use and limits of climate science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodman, David; Carmin, Joann

    2011-11-15

    Cities face a mounting challenge from climate change. In developed and developing countries alike, rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, higher sea levels, and more frequent and severe extreme events such as droughts and floods threaten to overwhelm urban infrastructure, services and management systems. City officials recognise the need to adapt to climate change, and use scientific evidence to support their plans for doing so. But the precise details of these changes and the local impacts they will have cannot be predicted. Decision makers must learn to draw on scientific data while simultaneously managing the uncertainty inherent in future projections. Across the world, forward-looking city officials are proving themselves to be 'urban adaptation leaders' — mobilising political and public support for and devising flexible approaches to adaptation.

  20. Effect of adaptation and pulp density on bioleaching of mine waste using indigenous acidophilic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K.; Kim, B.; Lee, D.; Choi, N.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    Adaptation to environment is a natural phenomena that takes place in many animals, plants and microorganisms. These adapted organisms achieve stronger applicability than unadapted organisms after habitation in a specific environment for a long time. In the biohydrometallurgical industry, adaptation to special environment conditions by selective culturing is the most popular method for improving bioleaching activity of strains-although that is time consuming. This study investigated the influence of the bioleaching efficiency of mine waste under batch experimental conditions (adaptation and pulp density) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from acid mine drainage in Go-seong and Yeon-hwa, Korea. We conducted the batch experiments at the influences of parameters, such as the adaptation of bacteria and pulp density of the mine waste. In the adaptation case, the value of pH in 1'st adaptation bacteria sample exhibited lower than in 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. And the content of both Cu and Zn at 1'st adaptation bacteria sample appeared lower than at 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. In the SEM analysis, the rod-shaped bacteria with 1μm in length were observed on the filter paper (pore size - 0.45μm). The results of pulp density experiments revealed that the content of both Cu and Zn increased with increasing pulp density, since the increment of pulp density resulted in the enhancement of bioleaching capacity.

  1. Adaptive materials and aerostructures: revolutionizing uninhabited aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ron

    2009-07-01

    This paper is intended to introduce the international adaptive aerostructures community to the tremendous opportunities these structures can bring to uninhabited aerospace systems. The paper starts with an overview of the most critical classes of adaptive aerostructures for uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) and the materials which are used to drive them. The paper describes several classes of UAVs that take advantage of the various kinds of these technologies. Adaptive aerostructures are shown to be integrated into hovering, high speed, low speed and ultra-high performance UAVs. These ultra-high performance UAVs are shown to significantly benefit from newly invented Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP) piezoelectric actuators. These UAVs are capable of hovering for extended periods of time as a helicopter in gusty, windy, dusty environments, then pop up, converting and dashing out like a missile at several hundred km/hr. The paper shows photos of ultra-high performance UAV launches from armored vehicles, a battle-damage assessment exercise and a live fire sequence with 40mm munitions. The paper concludes with a description of the Visual Signature Suppression (VSS) system which was employed on a 2m UAV operating at several hundred meters above ground level. The VSS system was shown to reduce the visual cross section to below 1.8cm2 which is the threshold for human aircraft observation. Accordingly, the VSS equipped aircraft is said to "disappear" in mid flight.

  2. Towards more efficient e-learning, intelligence and adapted teaching material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kalpić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of a research project in which we attempted to determine the relationship between efficient E-learning and teaching materials adapted based on students’ structure of intelligence. The project was conducted on approximately 500 students, 23 classes, nine elementary schools, with ten teachers of history, informatics and several licensed psychologists. E-teaching material was prepared for the subject of History for eight-grade students of elementary school. Students were tested for the structure of intelligence, and based on their most prominent component, they were divided into groups, using teaching materials adapted to their most prominent intelligence component. The results have shown that use of the adapted teaching materials achieved 6-12% better results than E-materials not adapted to students’ structure of intelligence.

  3. Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat Measurements of Candidate Structural Materials for the JWST Optical Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, E. R.; Tuttle, J. G.

    2006-03-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will include an optical bench known as the integrated science instrument module (ISIM). Candidate structural materials for the ISIM must have low density, high stiffness, and low thermal expansion coefficient at the operating temperature of 30 Kelvin. The thermal conductivity and specific heat are important in modeling the on-orbit cooldown. We built two different systems for measuring the thermal conductivity and specific heat of samples between 4 Kelvin and 290 Kelvin. Both experiments were carefully designed to minimize potential errors due to radiative heat transfer. We chose the cooling system and instrumentation to allow long-term unattended operation. Software was developed to automate each experiment. It used an algorithm designed to ensure that each system was in steady state before a measurement was taken. We describe the two experiments and present the data.

  4. Design of a Domain-Specific Language for Material Flow Analysis using Microsoft DSL tools: An Experience Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Material Flow Analysis (MFA) is the procedure of measuring and assessing the mass flows of matter (solid waste, water, food...) and substances (carbon, phosphorus ...) within a process or a system for the period of time. In this paper we propose a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) to model MFA in a ...

  5. The transfer of adaptive immunity to CMV during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is dependent on the specificity and phenotype of CMV-specific T cells in the donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Phillip; Melenhorst, Jan J; Brenchley, Jason M; Hill, Brenna J; Hensel, Nancy F; Chattopadhyay, Pratip K; Roederer, Mario; Picker, Louis J; Price, David A; Barrett, A John; Douek, Daniel C

    2009-12-03

    The successful reconstitution of adaptive immunity to human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients is central to the reduction of viral reactivation-related morbidity and mortality. Here, we characterized the magnitude, specificity, phenotype, function, and clonotypic composition of CMV-specific T-cell responses in 18 donor-recipient pairs both before and after HSCT. The principal findings were: (1) the specificity of CMV-specific T-cell responses in the recipient after HSCT mirrors that in the donor; (2) the maintenance of these targeting patterns reflects the transfer of epitope-specific T-cell clonotypes from donor to recipient; (3) less differentiated CD27(+)CD57(-) CMV-specific memory T cells are more likely to persist in the recipient after HSCT compared with more terminally differentiated CD27(-) CD57(+) CMV-specific memory T cells; (4) the presence of greater numbers of less differentiated CD8(+) CMV-specific T cells in the donor appears to confer protection against viral reactivation in the recipient after HSCT; and (5) CMV-specific T cells acquire a more differentiated phenotype and a restricted functional profile after HSCT. Overall, these findings define the immunologic factors that influence the successful adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T-cell immunity during HSCT, which enables the identification of recipients at particular risk of CMV reactivation after HSCT.

  6. Specific Monoclonal Antibody Overcomes the Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium's Adaptive Mechanisms of Intramacrophage Survival and Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarmistha Devi Aribam

    Full Text Available Salmonella-specific antibodies play an important role in host immunity; however, the mechanisms of Salmonella clearance by pathogen-specific antibodies remain to be completely elucidated since previous studies on antibody-mediated protection have yielded inconsistent results. These inconsistencies are at least partially attributable to the use of polyclonal antibodies against Salmonella antigens. Here, we developed a new monoclonal antibody (mAb-449 and identified its related immunogen that protected BALB/c mice from infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In addition, these data indicate that the mAb-449 immunogen is likely a major protective antigen. Using in vitro infection studies, we also analyzed the mechanism by which mAb-449 conferred host protection. Notably, macrophages infected with mAb-449-treated S. Typhimurium showed enhanced pathogen uptake compared to counterparts infected with control IgG-treated bacteria. Moreover, these macrophages produced elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and nitric oxide, indicating that mAb-449 enhanced macrophage activation. Finally, the number of intracellular bacteria in mAb-449-activated macrophages decreased considerably, while the opposite was found in IgG-treated controls. Based on these findings, we suggest that, although S. Typhimurium has the potential to survive and replicate within macrophages, host production of a specific antibody can effectively mediate macrophage activation for clearance of intracellular bacteria.

  7. Types of architectural structures and the use of smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavşan, Cengiz; Sipahi, Serkan

    2017-07-01

    The developments in technology following the industrial revolution had their share of impact on both construction techniques, and material technologies. The change in the materials used by the construction industry brought along numerous innovations, which, in turn, took on an autonomous trend of development given the rise of nano-tech materials. Today, nano-tech materials are used extensively in numerous construction categories. Nano-tech materials, in general, are characterized by their reactionary nature, with the intent of repeating the reactions again and again under certain conditions. That is why nano-tech materials are often called smart materials. In construction industry, smart materials are categorized under 4 major perspectives: Shape-shifting smart materials, power generating smart materials, self-maintenance smart materials, and smart materials providing a high level of insulation. In architecture, various categories of construction often tend to exhibit their own approaches to design, materials, and construction techniques. This is a direct consequence of the need for different solutions for different functions. In this context, the use of technological materials should lead to the use of a set of smart materials for a given category of structures, while another category utilizes yet another set. In the present study, the smart materials used in specific categories of structures were reviewed with reference to nano-tech practices implemented in Europe, with a view to try and reveal the changes in the use of smart materials with reference to categories of structures. The study entails a discussion to test the hypothesis that nano-tech materials vary with reference to structure categories, on the basis of 18 examples from various structure categories, built by the construction firms with the highest level of potential in terms of doing business in Europe. The study comprises 3 major sections: The first section reiterates what the literature has to say

  8. Adaptive smoothing based on Gaussian processes regression increases the sensitivity and specificity of fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strappini, Francesca; Gilboa, Elad; Pitzalis, Sabrina; Kay, Kendrick; McAvoy, Mark; Nehorai, Arye; Snyder, Abraham Z

    2017-03-01

    Temporal and spatial filtering of fMRI data is often used to improve statistical power. However, conventional methods, such as smoothing with fixed-width Gaussian filters, remove fine-scale structure in the data, necessitating a tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity. Specifically, smoothing may increase sensitivity (reduce noise and increase statistical power) but at the cost loss of specificity in that fine-scale structure in neural activity patterns is lost. Here, we propose an alternative smoothing method based on Gaussian processes (GP) regression for single subjects fMRI experiments. This method adapts the level of smoothing on a voxel by voxel basis according to the characteristics of the local neural activity patterns. GP-based fMRI analysis has been heretofore impractical owing to computational demands. Here, we demonstrate a new implementation of GP that makes it possible to handle the massive data dimensionality of the typical fMRI experiment. We demonstrate how GP can be used as a drop-in replacement to conventional preprocessing steps for temporal and spatial smoothing in a standard fMRI pipeline. We present simulated and experimental results that show the increased sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional smoothing strategies. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1438-1459, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Detecting lineage-specific adaptive evolution of brain-expressed genes in human using rhesus macaque as outgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Wang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Comparative genetic analysis between human and chimpanzee may detect genetic divergences responsible for human-specific characteristics. Previous studies have identified a series of genes that potentially underwent Darwinian positive selection during human evolution. However, without a closely...... related species as outgroup, it is difficult to identify human-lineage-specific changes, which is critical in delineating the biological uniqueness of humans. In this study, we conducted phylogeny-based analyses of 2633 human brain-expressed genes using rhesus macaque as the outgroup. We identified 47...... candidate genes showing strong evidence of positive selection in the human lineage. Genes with maximal expression in the brain showed a higher evolutionary rate in human than in chimpanzee. We observed that many immune-defense-related genes were under strong positive selection, and this trend was more...

  10. Specific adaptations of neuromuscular control and knee joint stiffness following sensorimotor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M; Bruhn, S; Gollhofer, A

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how fixations of the ankle joint during sensorimotor training (SMT) influence adaptations in mechanical stiffness and neuromuscular control of the knee joint. Sixty-three healthy subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups that differed in their degree of ankle joint fixation, which was either barefooted, with an ankle brace or with a ski boot. Mechanical knee joint stiffness and reflex control of m. vastus medialis, m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps femoris, and m. semitendinosus were tested during force controlled anterior tibial displacements. This force was applied as both a fast and a slow stimulus. After the training period the group that trained barefooted showed an increase in mechanical stiffness of the knee joint from 79 +/- 21 (Mean +/- SD) N/mm to 110 +/- 38 N/mm (p boots was able to improve knee joint stiffness from 67 +/- 26 N/mm to 96 +/- 47 N/mm (p knee joint injuries.

  11. Material-Specific Neural Correlates of Recollection: Objects, Words, and Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Giulia; Otten, Leun J.

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear how neural correlates of episodic memory retrieval differ depending on the type of material that is retrieved. Here, we used a source memory task to compare electrical brain activity for the recollection of three types of stimulus material. At study, healthy adults judged how well visually presented objects, words, and faces fitted…

  12. Effectiveness of ProTaper Universal retreatment instruments used with rotary or reciprocating adaptive motion in the removal of root canal filling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capar, I D; Arslan, H; Ertas, H; Gök, T; Saygılı, G

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of ProTaper Universal retreatment instruments with continuous rotation and adaptive motion (AM; a modified reciprocating motion that combines rotational and reciprocating motion) in the removal of filling material. Mesiobuccal root canals in 36 mandibular first molars were instrumented up to size F2 with the ProTaper Universal instrument (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and filled using sealer and ProTaper Universal F2 gutta-percha cones. Gutta-percha was then down-packed and the root canal backfilled using the extruder hand-piece of the Elements Obturation System (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA). The teeth were assigned to two groups (n = 18), and removal of the root fillings was performed using one of the following techniques: group 1) ProTaper Universal retreatment files used with rotational motion (RM) and group 2) ProTaper Universal retreatment files used with adaptive motion (AM) (600° clockwise/0° counter-clockwise to 370° clockwise/50° counter-clockwise). The teeth were sectioned, and both halves were analysed at 8 × magnification. The percentage of remaining filling material was recorded. The data were analysed statistically using the Student's t-test at a 95% confidence level (P Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Specific heat measurements on chevrel phase materials exhibiting coexistence of superconductivity and magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, N R

    2001-01-01

    A probe for measuring the specific heat of superconductors at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields has been built and commissioned. The probe has been tested using the relaxation method on samples of copper and the accuracy of the data is 1.3 % between 5 K and 30 K, data taken using the long range pulse method has a resolution of 10 mK. Specific heat measurements have been performed on members of the series (Pb sub 1 sub - sub x Cu sub 1 sub . sub 8 sub x)Mo sub 6 S sub 8 , (Sn sub 1 sub - sub x Eu sub x)Mo sub 6 S sub 8 and (Pb sub 1 sub - sub x M sub x)Mo sub 6 S sub 8 where M = Gd and Eu, from 3 K up to 30 K and in magnetic fields up to 15 T. Additional results from resistivity, susceptibility, magnetisation, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive X-ray measurements are also presented. These data have been compared to results from other and are analysed in terms of the BCS and GLAG theories of superconductivity and the magnetic properties of these materials

  14. Basis material decomposition in spectral CT using a semi-empirical, polychromatic adaption of the Beer-Lambert model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S.; Sellerer, T.; Mechlem, K.; Fehringer, A.; Epple, M.; Herzen, J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Noël, P. B.

    2017-01-01

    Following the development of energy-sensitive photon-counting detectors using high-Z sensor materials, application of spectral x-ray imaging methods to clinical practice comes into reach. However, these detectors require extensive calibration efforts in order to perform spectral imaging tasks like basis material decomposition. In this paper, we report a novel approach to basis material decomposition that utilizes a semi-empirical estimator for the number of photons registered in distinct energy bins in the presence of beam-hardening effects which can be termed as a polychromatic Beer-Lambert model. A maximum-likelihood estimator is applied to the model in order to obtain estimates of the underlying sample composition. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation of a typical clinical CT acquisition, the performance of the proposed estimator was evaluated. The estimator is shown to be unbiased and efficient according to the Cramér-Rao lower bound. In particular, the estimator is capable of operating with a minimum number of calibration measurements. Good results were obtained after calibration using less than 10 samples of known composition in a two-material attenuation basis. This opens up the possibility for fast re-calibration in the clinical routine which is considered an advantage of the proposed method over other implementations reported in the literature.

  15. Optimal Multitrial Prediction Combination and Subject-Specific Adaptation for Minimal Training Brain Switch Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, L.; Blokland, Y.M.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Bruhn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system.

  16. Optimal multitrial prediction combination and subject-specific adaptation for minimal training brain switch designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, L.; Blokland, Y.M.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Bruhn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A

  17. Apical adaptation, sealing ability and push-out bond strength of five root-end filling materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés AMOROSO-SILVA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the fluid filtration, adaptation to the root canal walls, and the push-out bond strength of two resin-based sealers and three calcium silicate-based retrograde filling materials. Fifty maxillary canines were shaped using manual instruments and the apical portion was sectioned. Retrograde cavities of 3-mm depth were prepared. The specimens were divided into five groups (n = 10: Sealer 26 (S26; MBPc (experimental; MTA; Portland cement with 20% zirconium oxide (PC/ZO, and Portland cement with 20% calcium tungstate (PC/CT. The fluid filtration was measured at 7 and 15 days. To evaluate the interfacial adaptation, sections of the teeth, 1 and 2 mm from the apex, were prepared and the percentage of gaps was calculated. The push-out bond strength at 2 mm from the apex was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA/Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. At 7 and 15 days (p = 0.0048, p = 0.006, the PC/CT group showed higher fluid filtration values when compared to other groups. At 1 mm from the apex, no statistical differences in the adaptation were found among the cements (p = 0.44. At 2 mm from the apex, the PC/ZO group presented statistically lower percentage of gaps than S26, MBPc, and MTA (p = 0.0007. The MBPc group showed higher push-out bond strength than other cements evaluated (p = 0.0008. The fluid filtration and interfacial adaptation of the calcium silicate-based cements were similar to those of the resin-based cements. The resinous cement MBPc showed superior push-out bond strength.

  18. The process of production/adaptation of phonetics and phonology’s didactic material for visual deficient

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Carlos Romualdo; Gabriela de Souza Marques

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the process of production and adaptation of phonetics and phonology teaching material for the visually impaired. The research was motivated by the lack of means to represent phonetic and phonological symbols to a visually impaired undergraduate student of the Language and Literature Course of Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM) [Maringá State University], Brazil, due to the fact that these symbols are elementary for the professional development of future Portuguese t...

  19. Adaptive coupling between damage mechanics and peridynamics: a route for objective simulation of material degradation up to complete failure

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2016-05-17

    The objective (mesh-independent) simulation of evolving discontinuities, such as cracks, remains a challenge. Current techniques are highly complex or involve intractable computational costs, making simulations up to complete failure difficult. We propose a framework as a new route toward solving this problem that adaptively couples local-continuum damage mechanics with peridynamics to objectively simulate all the steps that lead to material failure: damage nucleation, crack formation and propagation. Local-continuum damage mechanics successfully describes the degradation related to dispersed microdefects before the formation of a macrocrack. However, when damage localizes, it suffers spurious mesh dependency, making the simulation of macrocracks challenging. On the other hand, the peridynamic theory is promising for the simulation of fractures, as it naturally allows discontinuities in the displacement field. Here, we present a hybrid local-continuum damage/peridynamic model. Local-continuum damage mechanics is used to describe “volume” damage before localization. Once localization is detected at a point, the remaining part of the energy is dissipated through an adaptive peridynamic model capable of the transition to a “surface” degradation, typically a crack. We believe that this framework, which actually mimics the real physical process of crack formation, is the first bridge between continuum damage theories and peridynamics. Two-dimensional numerical examples are used to illustrate that an objective simulation of material failure can be achieved by this method.

  20. Impact reduction of the uncertain geometrical parameters on magnetic material identification of an EI electromagnetic inductor using an adaptive inverse algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallh, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic characteristics of the electromagnetic devices' core materials can be recovered by solving an inverse problem, where sets of measurements need to be properly interpreted using a forward numerical model of the device. However, the uncertainties of the geometrical parameter values in the forward model lead to appreciable recovery errors in the recovered values of the material parameters. In this paper, we propose an effective inverse approach technique, in which the influences of the uncertainties in the geometrical model parameters are minimized. In this proposed approach, the cost function that needs to be minimized is adapted with respect to the uncertain geometrical model parameters. The proposed methodology is applied onto the identification of the magnetizing B–H curve of the magnetic material of an EI core inductor. The numerical results show a significant reduction of the recovery errors in the identified magnetic material parameter values. Moreover, the proposed methodology is validated by solving an inverse problem starting from real magnetic measurements. - Highlights: ► A new method to minimize the influence of the uncertain parameters in inverse problems is proposed. ► The technique is based on adapting iteratively the objective function that needs to be minimized. ► The objective function is adapted by the model response sensitivity to the uncertain parameters. ► The proposed technique is applied for recovering the B–H curve of an EI core inductor material. ► The error in the inverse problem solution is dramatically reduced using the proposed methodology.

  1. Utilization of specific and non-specific peptide interactions with inorganic nanomaterials on the surface of bacteriophage M13: Methodologies towards phage supported bi-functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Kendra Nicole

    Many types of organisms create a variety of nano and micro scale materials from precursors available in their surrounding environments by a process called biomineralization. As scientists begin to understand how these organisms utilize specific and non-specific interactions with a variety of biopolymers such as chitin, peptides, proteins and nucleic acids with these precursors to create inorganic/organic composite materials, they have begun to wonder about the synthesis of other types of non-biologically templated synthetic techniques that might be possible. Bioengineered organisms and biopolymers have begun to be used for these types of studies. A variety of selection techniques exist for discovering biopolymers with an affinity for a target material, however, one of the most notable is a technique called peptide phage display. This is a technique that utilizes a commercially available randomized peptide library attached at the tip of the filamentous bacteriophage M13. In this dissertation capabilities of bacteriophage M13 are explored in regard to the creation of bi-functional nano materials by exploiting both specific peptide interactions as well as non-specific peptide interactions on the surface of the organism. Chapter 2 focuses on utilizing the specific peptide interactions of the randomized library at pIII in order to discover peptides with high binding affinity for a variety of nanomaterials. Selection studies called biopanning are performed on a variety of nanomaterials such as CaMoO4, allotropes of Ni, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4, and Rh and Pt with the fcc type crystal structure. Similarities and differences between peptides discovered for these materials are discussed. Chapter 3 focuses on utilizing the non-specific peptide interactions on the long axis of M13 called pVIII. The pVIII region consists of 2700 copies of the same 50 amino acid protein which as a negatively charged domain which is exposed to solution. The pVIII region therefore provides the surface of

  2. Efficient Culture Adaptation of Hepatitis C Virus Recombinants with Genotype-Specific Core-NS2 by Using Previously Identified Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Gottwein, Judith M; Carlsen, Thomas H R

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease, and interferon-based therapy cures only 40 to 80% of patients, depending on HCV genotype. Research was accelerated by genotype 2a (strain JFH1) infectious cell culture systems. We previously developed viable JFH1-based...... mutations did not adapt to culture. Universal adaptive effects of mutations in NS3 (Q1247L, I1312V, K1398Q, R1408W, and Q1496L) and NS5A (V2418L) were investigated for JFH1-based genotype 1 to 5 core-NS2 recombinants; several mutations conferred adaptation to H77C (1a), J4 (1b), S52 (3a), and SA13 (5a......-specific patterns in HCV disease and control....

  3. The specific role of gravitational accelerations for arterial adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Herrera, Frankyn; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2013-02-01

    It is mostly agreed that arterial adaptations occur, among others, in response to changes in mechanical stimuli. Models like bed rest, spinal cord injury, or limb suspension have been applied to study vascular adaptations to unloading in humans. However, these models cannot distinguish the role of muscle contractions and the role of gravitational accelerations for arterial adaptation. The HEPHAISTOS orthosis allows normal ambulation, while it significantly reduces force generation in the lower leg muscles. Eleven subjects wore HEPHAISTOS unilaterally for 56 days and were followed up for another 4 wk. Arterial diameters, intima media thickness (IMT), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and resting blood flow (BF(rest)) were measured using high-frequency ultrasonography. Arterial adaptations were investigated in the superficial femoral artery (SFA), the brachial artery (BA), and the carotid artery (CA). Mean SFA resting diameter was decreased from 6.57 mm (SD = 0.74 mm) at baseline to 5.77 mm (SD = 0.87 mm) at the end of the intervention (P acceleration profiles in the lower leg constituting an important stimulus for the maintenance of FMD and wall-to-lumen ratio.

  4. Lineage-specific evolution of bitter taste receptor genes in the giant and red pandas implies dietary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lei; Wu, Qi; Wang, Le; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Fuwen

    2018-03-01

    Taste 2 receptors (TAS2R) mediate bitterness perception in mammals, thus are called bitter taste receptors. It is believed that these genes evolved in response to species-specific diets. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) in the order Carnivora are specialized herbivores with an almost exclusive bamboo diet (>90% bamboo). Because bamboo is full of bitter tasting compounds, we hypothesized that adaptive evolution has occurred at TAS2R genes in giant and red pandas throughout the course of their dietary shift. Here, we characterized 195 TAS2R genes in 9 Carnivora species and examined selective pressures on these genes. We found that both pandas harbor more putative functional TAS2R genes than other carnivores, and pseudogenized TAS2R genes in the giant panda are different from the red panda. The purifying selection on TAS2R1, TAS2R9 and TAS2R38 in the giant panda, and TAS2R62 in the red panda, has been strengthened throughout the course of adaptation to bamboo diet, while selective constraint on TAS2R4 and TAS2R38 in the red panda is relaxed. Remarkably, a few positively selected sites on TAS2R42 have been specifically detected in the giant panda. These results suggest an adaptive response in both pandas to a dietary shift from carnivory to herbivory, and TAS2R genes evolved independently in the 2 pandas. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular basis of mammalian sensory evolution and the process of adaptation to new ecological niches. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Gender-Specific Models of Work-Bound Korean Adolescents' Social Supports and Career Adaptability on Subsequent Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyojung; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    A Korean national database, the High School Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey, was used to examine the influence of perceived social supports (family and school) and career adaptability on the subsequent job satisfaction of work-bound adolescents 4 months after their transition from high school to work. Structural equation modeling analysis…

  6. Materials learning from life: concepts for active, adaptive and autonomous molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merindol, Rémi; Walther, Andreas

    2017-09-18

    Bioinspired out-of-equilibrium systems will set the scene for the next generation of molecular materials with active, adaptive, autonomous, emergent and intelligent behavior. Indeed life provides the best demonstrations of complex and functional out-of-equilibrium systems: cells keep track of time, communicate, move, adapt, evolve and replicate continuously. Stirred by the understanding of biological principles, artificial out-of-equilibrium systems are emerging in many fields of soft matter science. Here we put in perspective the molecular mechanisms driving biological functions with the ones driving synthetic molecular systems. Focusing on principles that enable new levels of functionalities (temporal control, autonomous structures, motion and work generation, information processing) rather than on specific material classes, we outline key cross-disciplinary concepts that emerge in this challenging field. Ultimately, the goal is to inspire and support new generations of autonomous and adaptive molecular devices fueled by self-regulating chemistry.

  7. Integrating climate change adaptation into public health practice: using adaptive management to increase adaptive capacity and build resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jeremy J; McDowell, Julia Z; Luber, George

    2012-02-01

    Climate change is expected to have a range of health impacts, some of which are already apparent. Public health adaptation is imperative, but there has been little discussion of how to increase adaptive capacity and resilience in public health systems. We explored possible explanations for the lack of work on adaptive capacity, outline climate-health challenges that may lie outside public health's coping range, and consider changes in practice that could increase public health's adaptive capacity. We conducted a substantive, interdisciplinary literature review focused on climate change adaptation in public health, social learning, and management of socioeconomic systems exhibiting dynamic complexity. There are two competing views of how public health should engage climate change adaptation. Perspectives differ on whether climate change will primarily amplify existing hazards, requiring enhancement of existing public health functions, or present categorically distinct threats requiring innovative management strategies. In some contexts, distinctly climate-sensitive health threats may overwhelm public health's adaptive capacity. Addressing these threats will require increased emphasis on institutional learning, innovative management strategies, and new and improved tools. Adaptive management, an iterative framework that embraces uncertainty, uses modeling, and integrates learning, may be a useful approach. We illustrate its application to extreme heat in an urban setting. Increasing public health capacity will be necessary for certain climate-health threats. Focusing efforts to increase adaptive capacity in specific areas, promoting institutional learning, embracing adaptive management, and developing tools to facilitate these processes are important priorities and can improve the resilience of local public health systems to climate change.

  8. Robust semi-automatic segmentation of single- and multichannel MRI volumes through adaptable class-specific representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Casper F.; Passmore, Peter J.

    2002-05-01

    Segmentation of MRI volumes is complicated by noise, inhomogeneity and partial volume artefacts. Fully or semi-automatic methods often require time consuming or unintuitive initialization. Adaptable Class-Specific Representation (ACSR) is a semi-automatic segmentation framework implemented by the Path Growing Algorithm (PGA), which reduces artefacts near segment boundaries. The user visually defines the desired segment classes through the selection of class templates and the following segmentation process is fully automatic. Good results have previously been achieved with color cryo section segmentation and ACSR has been developed further for the MRI modality. In this paper we present two optimizations for robust ACSR segmentation of MRI volumes. Automatic template creation based on an initial segmentation step using Learning Vector Quantization is applied for higher robustness to noise. Inhomogeneity correction is added as a pre-processing step, comparing the EQ and N3 algorithms. Results based on simulated T1-weighed and multispectral (T1 and T2) MRI data from the BrainWeb database and real data from the Internet Brain Segmentation Repository are presented. We show that ACSR segmentation compares favorably to previously published results on the same volumes and discuss the pros and cons of using quantitative ground truth evaluation compared to qualitative visual assessment.

  9. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overkamp, Wout; Ercan, Onur; Herber, Martijn; van Maris, Antonius J A; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h(-1) ) are an unexplored research area in Bacillus subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. To this end, a chemostat modified for culturing an asporogenous B. subtilis sigF mutant strain at extremely low growth rates (also named a retentostat) was set up, and biomass accumulation, culture viability, metabolite production and cell morphology were analysed. During retentostat culturing, the specific growth rate decreased to a minimum of 0.00006 h(-1) , corresponding to a doubling time of 470 days. The energy distribution between growth and maintenance-related processes showed that a state of near-zero growth was reached. Remarkably, a filamentous cell morphology emerged, suggesting that cell separation is impaired under near-zero growth conditions. To evaluate the corresponding molecular adaptations to extremely low specific growth, transcriptome changes were analysed. These revealed that cellular responses to near-zero growth conditions share several similarities with those of cells during the stationary phase of batch growth. However, fundamental differences between these two non-growing states are apparent by their high viability and absence of stationary phase mutagenesis under near-zero growth conditions. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Stimuli-Adaptable Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    but the presented work has a new approach to the field by basing itself on the idea of developing a network into which a photo-active polymer is mixed and which function as an adhesive. Upon irradiation with UV-light for a short time a non-adhering inter-penetrating network material would be formed. Two simple......The work presented in this Thesis deals with the development of a stimuli-adaptable polymer material based on the UV-induced dimerisation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. It is in the nature of an adhesive to adhere very well to its substrate and therefore problems can arise upon removal...... of the adhesive. This is also known from skin adhesives where it is very undesirable to cause damage to the skin. The overall idea of this project was to resolve this problem by developing a material which could switch between an adhesive and a non-adhesive state. Switchable adhesion is known in the literature...

  11. Global patterns of materials use. A socioeconomic and geophysical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K.; Krausmann, Fridolin; Eisenmenger, Nina [Institute of Social Ecology Vienna, IFF, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29, A-1070 Wien (Austria)

    2010-03-15

    Human use of materials is a major driver of global environmental change. The links between materials use and economic development are central to the challenge of decoupling of materials use and economic growth (dematerialization). This article presents a new global material flow dataset compiled for the year 2000, covering 175 countries, including both extraction and trade flows, and comprising four major material categories: biomass, construction minerals, fossil energy carriers and ores/industrial minerals. First, we quantify the variability and distributional inequality (Gini coefficients) in international material consumption. We then measure the influence of the drivers population, GDP, land area and climate. This analysis yields international income elasticities of material use. Finally, we examine the coupling between material flows, and between income and material productivity, measured in economic production per tonne material consumed. Material productivity is strongly coupled to income, and may thus not be suitable as an international indicator of environmental progress - a finding which we relate to the economic inelasticity of material consumption. The results demonstrate striking differences between the material groups. Biomass is the most equitably distributed resource, economically the most inelastic, and is not correlated to any of the mineral materials. The three mineral material groups are closely coupled to each other and economic activity, indicating that the challenge of dematerializing industrial economies may require fundamental structural transformation. Our analysis provides a first systematic investigation of international differences in material use and their drivers, and thus serves as the basis for more detailed future work. (author)

  12. Certification of mono-, di-, and tributyltin compounds in marine sediment certified reference material by species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometric analysis using synthesized 118Sn-labeled butyltins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Watanabe, Takuro; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Okamoto, Kensaku

    2004-03-01

    A new marine sediment reference material (NMIJ CRM 7301-a) for butyltins analysis was prepared and certified by the National Metrological Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). The original material of the sediment was collected at a bay near industrial activities in Japan. The sediment material was air-dried, sieved, homogenized, and packaged into 1,000 glass bottles (60 g each). Certification of NMIJ CRM 7301-a was carried out at NMIJ using two different types of species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry: isotope dilution-ethylation-gas chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC/ICPMS) and isotope dilution-ethylation-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A mixture of (118)Sn-enriched monobutyltin, dibutyltin, and tributyltin was synthesized in our laboratory and was used as a spike for both techniques. Certified values are given for tributyltin (0.044+/-0.004 mg kg(-1) as Sn), dibutyltin (0.056+/-0.006 mg kg(-1) as Sn, and monobutyltin (0.058+/-0.013 mg kg(-1) as Sn), being at lower levels than currently available sediment CRMs for the analysis of organotins.

  13. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Bolhari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resect- ing the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20(a total of 8 subgroups. Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P<0.05 as the limit of significance.Results: There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation of the 8 tested groups (P>0.05.Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the mar- ginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate .

  14. Formal specification and analysis of robust adaptive distributed cyber-physical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Talcott (Carolyn); V. Nigam (Vivek); F. Arbab (Farhad); T.W.J. Kappé (Tobias)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe are interested in systems of cyber-physical agents that operate in unpredictable, possibly hostile, environments using locally obtainable information. How can we specify robust agents that are able to operate alone and/or in cooperation with other agents? What properties are

  15. Certification of butyltins and phenyltins in marine sediment certified reference material by species-specific isotope-dilution mass spectrometric analysis using synthesized 118Sn-enriched organotin compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Watanabe, Takuro; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yarita, Takashi; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi

    2007-04-01

    A new marine sediment certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7306-a, for butyltin and phenyltin analysis has been prepared and certified by the National Metrological Institute of Japan at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). Candidate sediment material was collected at a bay near industrial activity in Japan. After air-drying, sieving, and mixing the material was sterilized with gamma-ray irradiation. The material was re-mixed and packaged into 250 glass bottles (15 g each) and these were stored in a freezer at -30 degrees C. Certification was performed by use of three different types of species-specific isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SSID-MS)-SSID-GC-ICP-MS, SSID-GC-MS, and SSID-LC-ICP-MS, with 118Sn-enriched organotin compounds synthesized from 118Sn-enriched metal used as a spike. The 118Sn-enriched mono-butyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT) were synthesized as a mixture whereas the 118Sn-enriched di-phenyltin (DPhT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) were synthesized individually. Four different extraction methods, mechanical shaking, ultrasonic, microwave-assisted, and pressurized liquid extraction, were adopted to avoid possible analytical bias caused by non-quantitative extraction and degradation or inter-conversion of analytes in sample preparations. Tropolone was used as chelating agent in all the extraction methods. Certified values are given for TBT 44+/-3 microg kg(-1) as Sn, DBT 51 +/- 2 microg kg(-1) as Sn, MBT 67 +/- 3 microg kg(-1) as Sn, TPhT 6.9 +/- 1.2 microg kg(-1) as Sn, and DPhT 3.4 +/- 1.2 microg kg(-1) as Sn. These levels are lower than in other sediment CRMs currently available for analysis of organotin compounds.

  16. Qualification of tribological materials and coatings for use in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.N.; Farwick, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes some of the essential performance measures used to qualify materials for tribological applications in liquid sodium environments and summarizes relative properties of some of the newer tribological materials now qualified for use in sodium systems

  17. Adaptation of Instructional Materials: A Commentary on the Research on Adaptations of "Who Polluted the Potomac"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Alper, Naim

    2009-01-01

    This commentary first summarizes and discusses the analysis of the two translation processes described in the Oliveira, Colak, and Akerson article and the inferences these researchers make based on their research. In the second part of the commentary, we describe procedures and criteria used in adapting tests into different languages and how they…

  18. Translation and Adaptation of the Genetic Counselling Outcome Scale (GCOS-24) for Use in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diness, Birgitte Rode; Overbeck, Gritt; Hjortshøj, Tina Duelund; Hammer, Trine Bjørg; Timshel, Susanne; Sørensen, Else; McAllister, Marion

    2017-10-01

    Outcome measurement in clinical genetics is challenging. Robust outcome measures are needed to provide evidence to support service development within genetic counseling. The Genetic Counselling Outcome Scale (GCOS-24), a Patient Reported Outcome Measure (PROM), was developed in English and validated with clinical genetics patients in the British NHS. This study reports the translation and adaptation of the GCOS-24 for use in Denmark. GCOS-24 was translated and back translated, supervised by an expert committee. Feedback on the first version was collected from genetic counseling patients in qualitative interviews focusing on instructions for use, response options and specific items considered semantically difficult. After further adjustment the adapted and translated version was administered to a second sample of patients, with responses analyzed using descriptive statistics. Eighteen interviews were conducted, and led to adjustment of item wording. Sixty-one patients completed the final version GCOS-24dk. Internal consistency is good (Cronbach's α =0.79), with an acceptable number of missing responses and no floor or ceiling effect observed. GCOS-24 has been successfully translated and adapted for use in a Danish setting. The study confirms the feasibility of local adaptation of patient reported outcome measures and stresses the importance of adaptation, even across quite similar populations and health care systems.

  19. Trait-specific consequences of inbreeding on adaptive phenotypic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Loeschcke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes may stress organisms and stimulate an adaptive phenotypic response. Effects of inbreeding often interact with the environment and can decrease fitness of inbred individuals exposed to stress more so than that of outbred individuals. Such an interaction may stem from a reduced...... ability of inbred individuals to respond plastically to environmental stress; however, this hypothesis has rarely been tested. In this study, we mimicked the genetic constitution of natural inbred populations by rearing replicate Drosophila melanogaster populations for 25 generations at a reduced...... shape across temperatures in inbred compared to control populations. Given that the norms of reaction for the noninbred control populations are adaptive, we conclude that a reduced ability to induce an adaptive phenotypic response to temperature changes is not a general consequence of inbreeding...

  20. Characterization of Macrophage Endogenous S-Nitrosoproteome Using a Cysteine-Specific Phosphonate Adaptable Tag in Combination with TiO2Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Vea, María; Huang, Honggang; Martínez de Morentin, Xabier; Pérez, Estela; Gato, Maria; Zuazo, Miren; Arasanz, Hugo; Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquin; Santamaría, Enrique; Fernandez-Hinojal, Gonzalo; Larsen, Martin R; Escors, David; Kochan, Grazyna

    2018-03-02

    Protein S-nitrosylation is a cysteine post-translational modification mediated by nitric oxide. An increasing number of studies highlight S-nitrosylation as an important regulator of signaling involved in numerous cellular processes. Despite the significant progress in the development of redox proteomic methods, identification and quantification of endogeneous S-nitrosylation using high-throughput mass-spectrometry-based methods is a technical challenge because this modification is highly labile. To overcome this drawback, most methods induce S-nitrosylation chemically in proteins using nitrosylating compounds before analysis, with the risk of introducing nonphysiological S-nitrosylation. Here we present a novel method to efficiently identify endogenous S-nitrosopeptides in the macrophage total proteome. Our approach is based on the labeling of S-nitrosopeptides reduced by ascorbate with a cysteine specific phosphonate adaptable tag (CysPAT), followed by titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) chromatography enrichment prior to nLC-MS/MS analysis. To test our procedure, we performed a large-scale analysis of this low-abundant modification in a murine macrophage cell line. We identified 569 endogeneous S-nitrosylated proteins compared with 795 following exogenous chemically induced S-nitrosylation. Importantly, we discovered 579 novel S-nitrosylation sites. The large number of identified endogenous S-nitrosylated peptides allowed the definition of two S-nitrosylation consensus sites, highlighting protein translation and redox processes as key S-nitrosylation targets in macrophages.

  1. Review of Specific Chemical Interactions for Hydrazine Analysis and Proposed Adaptation for Microsensor Chemical Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-30

    conforms to Beer’s Law, and the reported sensitivity is 0.005 pg. Substituted hydrazines, hydrazids and hydrazones as well as aromatic primary and...protonation of the carbonyl, followed by eliminaticn of water to yield the hydrazone or azine -product depending on whether one or both of the...salicyladazine and titration of the more basic hydrazone products 1 0 . 2. p-N,N-Dimethzlaminobenzaldehyde. Based on his observation of the yellow color

  2. Adaptation of global land use and management intensity to changes in climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter; Rabin, Sam; Anthoni, Peter; Henry, Roslyn; Pugh, Thomas A M; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Arneth, Almut

    2018-02-27

    Land use contributes to environmental change, but is also influenced by such changes. Climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels' changes alter agricultural crop productivity, plant water requirements and irrigation water availability. The global food system needs to respond and adapt to these changes, for example, by altering agricultural practices, including the crop types or intensity of management, or shifting cultivated areas within and between countries. As impacts and associated adaptation responses are spatially specific, understanding the land use adaptation to environmental changes requires crop productivity representations that capture spatial variations. The impact of variation in management practices, including fertiliser and irrigation rates, also needs to be considered. To date, models of global land use have selected agricultural expansion or intensification levels using relatively aggregate spatial representations, typically at a regional level, that are not able to characterise the details of these spatially differentiated responses. Here, we show results from a novel global modelling approach using more detailed biophysically derived yield responses to inputs with greater spatial specificity than previously possible. The approach couples a dynamic global vegetative model (LPJ-GUESS) with a new land use and food system model (PLUMv2), with results benchmarked against historical land use change from 1970. Land use outcomes to 2100 were explored, suggesting that increased intensity of climate forcing reduces the inputs required for food production, due to the fertilisation and enhanced water use efficiency effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, but requiring substantial shifts in the global and local patterns of production. The results suggest that adaptation in the global agriculture and food system has substantial capacity to diminish the negative impacts and gain greater benefits from positive outcomes of climate change

  3. Training specific adaptations of H- and stretch reflexes in human soleus muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Markus; Taube, Wolfgang; Gollhofer, Albert; Beck, Sandra; Amtage, Florian; Schubert, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of physical exercise on reflex excitability in a controlled intervention study. Healthy participants (N = 21) performed 4 weeks of either power training (ballistic strength training) or balance training (sensorimotor training [SMT]). Both training regimens enhanced balance control and rate of force development, whereas reductions in peak-to-peak amplitudes of stretch reflexes and in the ratio of the maximum Hoffman reflex to the maximum efferent motor respo...

  4. Initial specifications for nuclear waste package external dimensions and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    Initial specifications of external dimensions and materials for waste package conceptual designs are given for Defense High Level Waste (DHLW), Commercial High Level Waste (CHLW) and Spent Fuel (SF). The designs have been developed for use in a high-level waste repository sited in a tuff media in the unsaturated zone. Drawings for reference and alternative package conceptual designs are presented for each waste form for both vertical and horizontal emplacement configurations. Four metal alloys: 304L SS, 321 SS, 316L SS and Incoloy 825 are considered for the canister or overpack; 1020 carbon steel was selected for horizontal borehole liners, and a preliminary packing material selection is either compressed tuff or compressed tuff containing iron bearing smectite clay as a binder

  5. Developing a Sealing Material: Effect of Epoxy Modification on Specific Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schoberleitner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To develop a matched sealing material for socket rehabilitation of grey cast iron pipes, an epoxy resin is modified by the addition of different components to improve the flexibility. Three different modifications are made by adding ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM rubber powder, reactive liquid polymer (ATBN and epoxidized modifier. In this paper the effect of the modification method as well as the influence of absorption of water on the mechanical and physical properties are analyzed in terms of: tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, adhesion performance, pressure resistance, glass transition temperature and water content. A comparison with neat epoxy shows for all materials that the modulus of elasticity and strength decrease. Unlike other tested modification methods, the modification with rubber powder did not enhance the flexibility. All materials absorb water and a plasticization effect arises with further changes of mechanical and physical properties. The application of the sealant on the grey cast iron leads to a reduction of the strain at break (in comparison to the common tensile test of the pure materials and has to be evaluated. The main requirement of pressure resistance up to 1 MPa was tested on two chosen materials. Both materials fulfill this requirement.

  6. Brazilian cross-cultural translation and adaptation of the "Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mansueto Mourao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To translate and to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the “Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items” (MG-QOL15. Method The original English version of the questionnaire was translated into Portuguese. This version was revised and translated back into English. Later, both English versions were compared and the divergences were corrected in the Portuguese text. At a second stage, ten patients with MG followed at the Neuromuscular Diseases Clinic from the University Hospital, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais answered the questionnaire. The authors analyzed the difficulties and misunderstandings in the application of the questionnaire. Results The questions 8, 13 and 15 were considered difficult to understand and were modified in the final Portuguese version. Most patients (70% had a total score above 25, and the statements 3, 8 and 9 showed the highest scores. Conclusion The Brazilian version of the questionnaire MG-QOL15 seems to be a promising tool for the assessment of Brazilian patients with MG.

  7. Bone Adaptation Around Orthopaedic Implants of Varying Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The bone adaptation around orthopaedic implants is simulated using a three-dimensional finite element model. The remodeling scheme has its origin in optimization methods, and includes anisotropy and time-dependent loading......The bone adaptation around orthopaedic implants is simulated using a three-dimensional finite element model. The remodeling scheme has its origin in optimization methods, and includes anisotropy and time-dependent loading...

  8. The process of production/adaptation of phonetics and phonology’s didactic material for visual deficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Carlos Romualdo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process of production and adaptation of phonetics and phonology teaching material for the visually impaired. The research was motivated by the lack of means to represent phonetic and phonological symbols to a visually impaired undergraduate student of the Language and Literature Course of Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM [Maringá State University], Brazil, due to the fact that these symbols are elementary for the professional development of future Portuguese teachers. Considering this shortcoming and in favor of educational inclusion, the intention was to find the best method to represent these symbols. Half-structured interviews were undertaken with special education professionals who work with the visually impaired, which insisted that the Braille method is the most efficient resource for teaching and learning for these students. The result of this research was the adaptation to the Braille system, by professionals of the Centro de Apoio Pedagógico (CAP [Center for Pedagogical Aid] in Maringá, of a book on phonetics and phonology, including symbols, organized for teachers’ formation.

  9. Adaptive contraction of diet breadth affects sexual maturation and specific nutrient consumption in an extreme generalist omnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K; Schal, C; Silverman, J

    2015-04-01

    Animals balance their intake of specific nutrients, but little is known about how they do so when foraging in an environment with toxic resources and whether toxic foods promote adaptations that affect life history traits. In German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations, glucose aversion has evolved in response to glucose-containing insecticidal baits. We restricted newly eclosed glucose-averse (GA) and wild-type (WT) female cockroaches to nutritionally defined diets varying in protein-to-carbohydrate (P : C) ratio (3 : 1, 1 : 1, or 1 : 3) or gave them free choice of the 3 : 1 and 1 : 3 diets, with either glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source. We measured consumption of each diet over 6 days and then dissected the females to measure the length of basal oocytes in their ovaries. Our results showed significantly lower consumption by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also lower fructose intake by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to high fructose diets or given choice of fructose-containing diets. Protein intake was regulated tightly regardless of carbohydrate intake, except by GA cockroaches restricted to glucose-containing diets. Oocyte growth was completely suppressed in GA females restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also significantly slower in GA than in WT females restricted to fructose-containing diets. Our findings suggest that GA cockroaches have adapted to reduced diet breadth through endocrine adjustments which reduce requirements for energetic fuels. Our study illustrates how an evolutionary change in the chemosensory system may affect the evolution of other traits that govern animal life histories. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Simulation Research on Adaptive Control of a Six-degree-of-freedom Material-testing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive controller equipped with a stiffness estimation method for a novel material-testing machine, in order to alleviate the performance depression caused by the stiffness variance of the tested specimen. The dynamic model of the proposed machine is built using the Kane method, and kinematic model is established with a closed-form solution. The stiffness estimation method is developed based on the recursive least-squares method and the proposed stiffness equivalent matrix. Control performances of the adaptive controller are simulated in detail. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed controller can greatly improve the control performance of the target material-testing machine by online stiffness estimation and adaptive parameter tuning, especially in low-cycle fatigue (LCF and high-cycle fatigue (HCF tests.

  11. Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

    2006-10-01

    This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

  12. 7 CFR 1717.605 - Design standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. 1717.605 Section 1717.605 Agriculture Regulations of the... standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. All borrowers... system design, construction standards, and the use of RUS accepted materials. Borrowers must comply with...

  13. M-Learning: Implications in Learning Domain Specificities, Adaptive Learning, Feedback, Augmented Reality, and the Future of Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the potential and effectiveness of m-learning in the field of Education and Learning domains. The purpose of this research is to illustrate how mobile technology can and is affecting novel change in instruction, from m-learning and the link to adaptive learning, to the uninitiated learner and capacities of…

  14. Adaptive mesh refinement for shocks and material interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There are three kinds of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in structured meshes. Block-based AMR sometimes over refines meshes. Cell-based AMR treats cells cell by cell and thus loses the advantage of the nature of structured meshes. Patch-based AMR is intended to combine advantages of block- and cell-based AMR, i.e., the nature of structured meshes and sharp regions of refinement. But, patch-based AMR has its own difficulties. For example, patch-based AMR typically cannot preserve symmetries of physics problems. In this paper, we will present an approach for a patch-based AMR for hydrodynamics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, management of patches, and load balance. The special features of this patch-based AMR include symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement across shock fronts and material interfaces, special implementation of flux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, we will show both two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement.

  15. Synthesis of material microporous using raw materials alternative as a source of silica and alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.A.; Silva, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic zeolites have important properties of a technological viewpoint. Thus, this work aims at the use of natural raw materials such as kaolin waste and wood ash in order to produce these microporous materials. The starting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF); the phases formed as synthesis products were identified by XRD and gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (DTA/TG). Hydrothermal synthesis took place by mixing the raw materials in stoichiometrically calculated batches with NaOH (3M) at 90 °C and time of 6, 20, 24 and 48 hours. The results show the formation of phases of type zeolite A and sodalite, demonstrating the raw materials be an efficient and low cost alternative to producing microporous materials. (author)

  16. Adaptive and non-adaptive models of depression: A comparison using register data on antidepressant medication during divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenström, Tom; Fawcett, Tim W; Higginson, Andrew D; Metsä-Simola, Niina; Hagen, Edward H; Houston, Alasdair I; Martikainen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Divorce is associated with an increased probability of a depressive episode, but the causation of events remains unclear. Adaptive models of depression propose that depression is a social strategy in part, whereas non-adaptive models tend to propose a diathesis-stress mechanism. We compare an adaptive evolutionary model of depression to three alternative non-adaptive models with respect to their ability to explain the temporal pattern of depression around the time of divorce. Register-based data (304,112 individuals drawn from a random sample of 11% of Finnish people) on antidepressant purchases is used as a proxy for depression. This proxy affords an unprecedented temporal resolution (a 3-monthly prevalence estimates over 10 years) without any bias from non-compliance, and it can be linked with underlying episodes via a statistical model. The evolutionary-adaptation model (all time periods with risk of divorce are depressogenic) was the best quantitative description of the data. The non-adaptive stress-relief model (period before divorce is depressogenic and period afterwards is not) provided the second best quantitative description of the data. The peak-stress model (periods before and after divorce can be depressogenic) fit the data less well, and the stress-induction model (period following divorce is depressogenic and the preceding period is not) did not fit the data at all. The evolutionary model was the most detailed mechanistic description of the divorce-depression link among the models, and the best fit in terms of predicted curvature; thus, it offers most rigorous hypotheses for further study. The stress-relief model also fit very well and was the best model in a sensitivity analysis, encouraging development of more mechanistic models for that hypothesis.

  17. Overall and specific migration from multilayer high barrier food contact materials - kinetic study of cyclic polyester oligomers migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Sara; Aznar, Margarita; Vera, Paula; Nerín, Cristina; Henríquez, Luis; Taborda, Laura; Restrepo, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Most multilayer high barrier materials used in food packaging have a polyurethane adhesive layer in their structures. In order to assess the safety of these materials, it is important to determine the compounds intentionally added to the adhesives (IAS) as well as those non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). During the manufacture of polyurethane adhesives, some by-products can be formed, such as cyclic polyester oligomers coming from the reaction between dicarboxylic acids and glycols. Since these compounds are not listed in the Regulation 10/2011/EU, they should not be found in migration above 0.01 mg/kg of simulant. In this study two flexible multilayer packaging materials were used and migration was evaluated in simulant A (ethanol 10% v/v), simulant B (acetic acid 3% w/v) and simulant ethanol 95% v/v during 10 days at 60ºC. Identification and quantification of non-volatile compounds was carried out by UPLC-MS-QTOF. Most of migrants were oligomers such as cyclic polyesters and caprolactam oligomers. Overall migration and specific migration of adipic acid-diethylene glycol and phthalic acid-diethylene glycol were monitored over time and analysed by UPLC-MS-TQ. In most cases, ethanol 95% v/v was the simulant with the highest concentration values. Overall migration kinetics followed a similar pattern than specific migration kinetics.

  18. Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Provides the tools needed to successfully perform adaptive tests across a broad range of datasets Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS illustrates the power of adaptive tests and showcases their ability to adjust the testing method to suit a particular set of data. The book utilizes state-of-the-art software to demonstrate the practicality and benefits for data analysis in various fields of study. Beginning with an introduction, the book moves on to explore the underlying concepts of adaptive tests, including:Smoothing methods and normalizing transforma

  19. The learning continuum based on student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material on physiological aspects from teachers's opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Ria Fitriyani; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    The scope of learning continuum at the conceptual knowledge is formulated based on the student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material. The purpose of this study is to develop a learning continuum of specific pedagogical material aspects of physiology targeted for students in primary and secondary education. This research was conducted in Province of Yogyakarta Special Region from October 2016 to January 2017. The method used in this study was survey method. The data were collected using questionnaire that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements. Respondents in this study consist of 281 Science/Biology teachers at Public Junior and Senior High Schools in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Region which spread in Yogyakarta city and 4 regencies namely Sleman, Bantul, Kulonprogo, and Gunungkidul. The data were taken using a census. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis technique. The results show the learning continuum of physiology based on teachers's opinion from grade VII, VIII, and IX are taught in grade VII, VIII, IX and X on level of C2 (understanding) and the learning continuum of physiology based on teachers's opinion from grade X, XI and XII are taught in grade X and XI on level of C2 (understanding), C3 (applying), and C4 (analyzing) based on teachers's opinions. The conclusion is that many teachers refer to the existing curriculum rather than their own original idea for developing learning continuum.

  20. ulous and comparative study on the use of specific and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudhanshu

    2014-02-19

    Feb 19, 2014 ... Comparison of genetic diversity indices of heterologous and species-specific microsatellite loci within a species may provide a panel of appropriate markers for genetic studies, but few studies have carried out such comparisons. We examined and compared the genetic characteristics of tiger-specific and.

  1. Development of carbon/carbon composite control rod for HTTR. 2. Concept, specifications and mechanical test of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Motokuni; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Ishihara, Masahiro; Hanawa, Satoshi.

    1998-01-01

    A concept and specifications of carbon/carbon composite (C/C) control rod were proposed, aiming at the application of the material to the HTTR. The outer diameter and length of the control rod were kept as the same as those of the present control rod, i.e., 113 mm and 3094 mm, respectively. According to the concept, the rod consists of ten units which are connected in series using bolts. Then, the stresses generated by dead loads in the control rod elements were estimated and compared with the design strengths which were derived from the results of measurements of tensile, compressive, bending and shear strengths of two candidate materials, AC250 (Across Co.) and CX-270 (Toyo Tanso Co.). Design strength was preliminarily determined as one-third or one-fifth of the mean strength. Ratio of the design strength to generated stress for the AC250 (2D) was : Tensile stress in the outer sleeve tube, 66, tensile and shear stresses in the M16 bolt, 8.8 and 8.5, shear stress in the plug support bolt M8, 2.43. These results are believed to indicate the mechanical integrity of the control rod structure. Data available on the candidate materials were also compiled in the Appendix. (author)

  2. Teachers' opinion about learning continuum based on student's level of competence and specific pedagogical material in classification topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Aldina Eka; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    This research discusses learning continuum development for designing a curriculum. The objective of this study is to gather the opinion of public junior and senior high school teachers about learning continuum based on student's level of competence and specific pedagogical material in classification topics. This research was conducted in Yogyakarta province from October 2016 to January 2017. This research utilizes a descriptive survey method. Respondents in this study consist of 281 science teachers at junior and senior high school in Yogyakarta city and 4 regencies namely Sleman, Bantul, Kulonprogo, and Gunung Kidul. The sample were taken using a census. The collection of data used questionnaire that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis technique. The results of the analysis show that the opinions of teachers regarding specific pedagogical material in classification topics of living things at the junior high school taught in grade VII to the ability level of C2 (Understanding). At senior high school level, it is taught in grade X with the ability level C2 (Understanding). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the opinions of teachers still refer to the current syllabus and curriculum so that the teachers do not have pure opinions about the student's competence level in classification topics that should be taught at the level of the grade in accordance with the level of corresponding competency.

  3. Possibilities for specific utilization of material properties for an optimal part design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, T.; Gerlach, J.; Roettger, R.; Kuhn, P.

    2017-09-01

    High-strength, cold-formable steels offer great potential for meeting cost and safety requirements in the automotive industry. In view of strengths of up to 1200 MPa now attainable, certain aspects need to be analysed and evaluated in advance in the development process using these materials. In addition to early assessment of crash properties, it is also highly important to adapt the forming process to match the material potential. The steel making companies have widened their portfolios of cold-rolled dual-phase steels well beyond the conventional high-strength steels. There are added new grades which offer a customized selection of high energy absorption, deformation resistance or enhanced cold-forming properties. In this article the necessary components for material modelling for finite element simulation are discussed. Additionally the required tests for material model calibration are presented and the potentials of the thyssenkrupp Steel material data base are introduced. Besides classical tensile tests at different angles to rolling direction and the forming limit curve, the hydraulic bulge test is now available for a wide range of modern steel grades. Using the conventional DP-K®60/98 and the DP-K®700Y980T with higher yield strength the method for calibrating yield locus, hardening and formability is given. With reference to the examples of an A-pillar reinforcement and different crash tests the procedure is shown how the customer can evaluate an optimal steel grade for specific requirements. Although the investigated materials have different yield strengths, no large differences in the forming process between the two steel grades can be found. However some advantages of the high-yield grade can be detected in crash performance depending on the specific boundary and loading conditions.

  4. Quantitation of Solifenacin in Human Plasma using a Specific and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specific and Sensitive Liquid Chromatography-Tandem ... Purpose: The current work validated a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass ... for the samples to be used only for drug spiking of anonymous biological matrices without direct enrolment of human subjects. Instrumentation and chromatographic.

  5. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  6. Patient-Specific Surgical Implants Made of 3D Printed PEEK: Material, Technology, and Scope of Surgical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Honigmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM is rapidly gaining acceptance in the healthcare sector. Three-dimensional (3D virtual surgical planning, fabrication of anatomical models, and patient-specific implants (PSI are well-established processes in the surgical fields. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK has been used, mainly in the reconstructive surgeries as a reliable alternative to other alloplastic materials for the fabrication of PSI. Recently, it has become possible to fabricate PEEK PSI with Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF technology. 3D printing of PEEK using FFF allows construction of almost any complex design geometry, which cannot be manufactured using other technologies. In this study, we fabricated various PEEK PSI by FFF 3D printer in an effort to check the feasibility of manufacturing PEEK with 3D printing. Based on these preliminary results, PEEK can be successfully used as an appropriate biomaterial to reconstruct the surgical defects in a “biomimetic” design.

  7. Preparation of plant-specific NDA reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Beetle, T.; Kuhn, E.; Terrey, D.; Turel, S.; Busca, G.; Guardini, S.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of having suitable and well characterized non-destructive assay (NDA) reference materials for the verification activities of the safeguards control authorities is stressed. The Euratom Inspectorate and the IAEA have initiated an extensive programme for the procurement and preparation of Joint Euratom/IAEA safeguards NDA reference materials with the active participation of the Ispra Establishment of the Euratom Joint Research Centre. The different type and nature of materials, condition of measurements, and plant characteristics and provisions had to be taken into account for plant-specific NDA reference materials. The preparation of each reference material was planned case by case and specific criteria such as limitations in different facilities, measurement capabilities, conditions, product availability and population variability are being ascertained. A procurement scheme was prepared describing step-by-step procedures detailing responsibilities, measurement conditions, destructive analysis schemes, desired characteristics and methods of data evaluation. This paper describes the principles and procedures carried out for the preparation of a reference MOX pin, low enriched uranium reference rods, low enriched uranium reference drums, reference MTR assemblies, and THTR reference pebbles. The scheme for each characterization technique is presented. (author)

  8. Population demography of alpine butterflies: Boloria pales and Boloria napaea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and their specific adaptations to high mountain environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehl, Stefan; Ebertshäuser, Marlene; Gros, Patrick; Schmitt, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    High mountain ecosystems are extreme habitats, and adaptation strategies to this ecosystem are still poorly understood in most groups. To unravel such strategies, we performed a MRR study in the Hohe Tauern National Park (Salzburg, Austria) with two nymphalid butterfly species, Boloria pales and B. napaea. We analysed their population structure over one flight period by studying the development of population size and wing wear. B. pales had more individuals and a higher survival probability than B. napaea; the sensitivity to extreme weather conditions or other external influences was higher in B. napaea. We only observed proterandry in B. pales. Imagines of both species survived under snow for at least some days. Additionally, we observed a kind of risk-spreading, in that individuals of both species, and especially B. pales, have regularly emerged throughout the flight period. This emergence pattern divided the population's age structure into three phases: an initial phase with decreasing wing quality (emergence > mortality), followed by an equilibrium phase with mostly constant average wing condition (emergence = mortality) and a final ageing phase with strongly deteriorating wing condition (mortality » emergence). Consequently, neither species would likely become extinct because of particularly unsuitable weather conditions during a single flight period. The observed differences between the two species suggest a better regional adaptation of B. pales, which is restricted to high mountain systems of Europe. In contrast, the arctic-alpine B. napaea might be best adapted to conditions in the Arctic and not the more southern high mountain systems. However, this needs to be examined during future research in the Arctic.

  9. cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 89; Online resources. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using microsatellite markers. S. K. Jaiswal Shree P. Pandey S. Sharma R. Prasad L. C. Prasad R. P. S. Verma Arun K. Joshi. Volume 89 Online ...

  10. [Adapting health services to the specific needs and utilization patterns of the new Spaniards. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Cantarero, David; Pascual, Marta

    2008-04-01

    Because of the progressive increase in the number of immigrants and the uncertainty about the capacity of the Spanish health service to deal with the quantitative and qualitative increases in demand, the possibility of introducing changes to adapt our services to the new situation should be considered. Beginning with an analysis of the factors that influence health status and use of the health service, based on the National Health Survey (NHS), the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), we compare the health profiles and patterns of medical resources utilization between the national and foreign populations. The pattern of demand for health services in the immigrant population corresponds basically to the needs of a young population in good health. According to NHS data, resource utilization among immigrants can even be lower than that among the national population. Assessing the link between health status and demand for healthcare from a dynamic point of view, by identifying variations in patterns of health and patterns of demand for healthcare, is important to identify imbalances in resources and to establish an appropriate hierarchy of preventive and treatment priorities.

  11. Topology optimization of compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Xinxing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach for designing the compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite material is proposed based on the topology optimization. Firstly, an equivalent constitutive relationship of laminated glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite plates has been built based on the symmetric laminated plate theory. Then, an optimization objective function of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was used to minimize the least square error (LSE between deformed curve and desired aerodynamics shape. After that, the topology structures of wing leading edge of different glass fiber ply-orientations were obtained by using the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP model and sensitivity filtering technique. The desired aerodynamics shape of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was obtained based on the proposed approach. The topology structures of wing leading edge depend on the glass fiber ply-orientation. Finally, the corresponding morphing experiment of compliant wing leading edge with composite materials was implemented, which verified the morphing capability of topology structure and illustrated the feasibility for designing compliant wing leading edge. The present paper lays the basis of ply-orientation optimization for compliant adaptive wing leading edge in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV field.

  12. Availability of Books and Other Informational Materials and the Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    standards, other prefer the use of statistics and others operations research and others, user satisfaction. ... As some people recognize the potential value of libraries and make maximum use of them so also some ..... library, the material is not borrowed from the library that has it for the user who wants it. References. Achebe ...

  13. Time-course of venous wall biomechanical adaptation in pressure and flow-overload: assessment by a microstructure-based material model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassani, Sofia G; Theofani, Antonia; Tsangaris, Sokrates; Sokolis, Dimitrios P

    2013-09-27

    Arteriovenous fistulae have been previously created by our group, through implantation of e-PTFE grafts between the carotid artery and jugular vein in healthy pigs, to gather comprehensive data on the time-course of the adapted geometry, composition, and biomechanical properties of the venous wall exposed to chronic increases in pressure and flow. The aim of this study was to mathematically assess the biomechanical adaptation of venous wall, by characterizing our previous in vitro inflation/extension testing data obtained 2, 4, and 12 weeks post-fistula, using a microstructure-based material model. Our choice for such a model considered a quadratic function for elastin with a four-fiber family term for collagen, and permitted realistic data characterization for both overloaded and control veins. As structural validation to the hemodynamically-driven differences in the material response, computerized histology was employed to quantitate the composition and orientation of collagen and elastin-fiber networks. The parameter values optimized showed marked differences among the overloaded and control veins, namely decrease in the quadratic function parameters and increase in the four-fiber family parameters. Differences among the two vein types were highlighted with respect to the underlying microstructure, namely the reduced elastin and increased collagen contents induced by pressure and flow-overload. Explicit correlations were found of the material parameters with the two basic scleroprotein contents, substantiating the material model used and the characterization findings presented. Our results are expected to improve the current understanding of the dynamics of venous adaptation under sustained pressure- and flow-overload conditions, for which data are largely unavailable and contradictory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 2016 Multifunctional Materials and Structures: Science of Autonomic, Adaptive and Self-Sustaining Systems GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    Continuous Damage Repair in Bone" 9:40 am - 10:00 am Discussion 10:00 am - 10:25 am Coffee Break 10:25 am - 11:00 am Thomas Speck (Albert-Ludwigs...am - 10:00 am Discussion 10:00 am - 10:25 am Coffee Break 10:25 am - 11:00 am Nancy Sottos (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA) "Self...Projects Agency-Energy, USA) "Recent Trends in Multifunctional Energy Storage Systems" 12:25 pm - 12:30 pm Discussion 12:30 pm Lunch 1:30 pm - 4:00 pm

  15. Use of energetic ion beams in materials synthesis and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    A brief review of the use energetic ion beams and related techniques for the synthesis, processing, and characterization of materials is presented. Selected opportunity areas are emphasized with examples, and references are provided for more extensive coverage. (author)

  16. Sensitive and specific detection of ligands using engineered riboswitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Daniel P; Nevins, Colin E; Aggrey-Fynn, Joana; Bravo, Rick J; Pfaeffle, Herman O I; Laney, Jess E

    2018-03-05

    Riboswitches are RNA elements found in non-coding regions of messenger RNAs that regulate gene expression through a ligand-triggered conformational change. Riboswitches typically bind tightly and specifically to their ligands, so they have the potential to serve as highly effective sensors in vitro. In B. subtilis and other gram-positive bacteria, purine nucleotide synthesis is regulated by riboswitches that bind to guanine. We modified the xpt-pbuX guanine riboswitch for use in a fluorescence quenching assay that allowed us to specifically detect and quantify guanine in vitro. Using this assay, we reproducibly detected as little as 5 nM guanine. We then produced sensors for 2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclic diguanylate (c-diGMP) by appending the P1 stem of the guanine riboswitch to the ligand-binding domains of a 2'-deoxyguanosine riboswitch and a c-diGMP riboswitch. These hybrid sensors could detect 15 nM 2'-deoxyguanosine and 3 nM c-diGMP, respectively. Each sensor retained the ligand specificity of its corresponding natural riboswitch. In order to extend the utility of our approach, we developed a strategy for the in vitro selection of sensors with novel ligand specificity. Here we report a proof-of-principle experiment that demonstrated the feasibility of our selection strategy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Influence of motivation, library materials and location on use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Positive relationships between motivation, library availability, adequacy, location and use of library were established which implies that proper motivation of undergraduates, high level of availability and adequacy of library materials as well ease of accessing location of library would lead to improvement in use of library ...

  18. Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important goal of managing dredged material is to ensure that the material is used or disposed of in an environmentally sound manner.Most of this dredged material could be used in a beneficial manner instead.

  19. Absence of direction-specific cross-modal visual-auditory adaptation in motion-onset event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeschik, Ramona; Lewald, Jörg; Verhey, Jesko L; Hoffmann, Michael B; Getzmann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to visual or auditory motion affects within-modality motion processing as reflected by visual or auditory free-field motion-onset evoked potentials (VEPs, AEPs). Here, a visual-auditory motion adaptation paradigm was used to investigate the effect of visual motion adaptation on VEPs and AEPs to leftward motion-onset test stimuli. Effects of visual adaptation to (i) scattered light flashes, and motion in the (ii) same or in the (iii) opposite direction of the test stimulus were compared. For the motion-onset VEPs, i.e. the intra-modal adaptation conditions, direction-specific adaptation was observed--the change-N2 (cN2) and change-P2 (cP2) amplitudes were significantly smaller after motion adaptation in the same than in the opposite direction. For the motion-onset AEPs, i.e. the cross-modal adaptation condition, there was an effect of motion history only in the change-P1 (cP1), and this effect was not direction-specific--cP1 was smaller after scatter than after motion adaptation to either direction. No effects were found for later components of motion-onset AEPs. While the VEP results provided clear evidence for the existence of a direction-specific effect of motion adaptation within the visual modality, the AEP findings suggested merely a motion-related, but not a direction-specific effect. In conclusion, the adaptation of veridical auditory motion detectors by visual motion is not reflected by the AEPs of the present study. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Specific of adaptation foreign student with different health and physical preparedness level to employments on physical education in Kharkov National Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukavenko H.G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The specific of adaptation of foreign students is considered to Ukrainian university reality. Researches were conducted with participation 762 students from 62 countries. Possibilities of teaching of all objects are rotined in English language. The results of questionnaire of students of the first course are presented. Attitude of students is exposed toward an object and their level of physical preparedness. Traditions and departmental of other countries teaching are rotined. Methods and facilities of reduction of adaptation period are presented the increase of level of physical and mental capacity.

  1. Adaptive and Parallel Computational Techniques in Materials Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flaherty, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    This Augmentation Award for Science and Engineering Research Training (AASERT) supported research students to work 0 adaptive and parallel computational techniques associated with crystal growth processing...

  2. 25th anniversary article: reversible and adaptive functional supramolecular materials: "noncovalent interaction" matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Kang, Yuetong; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xi

    2013-10-18

    Supramolecular materials held together by noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, host-guest interactions, and electrostatic interactions, have great potential in material science. The unique reversibility and adaptivity of noncovalent intreractions have brought about fascinating new functions that are not available by their covalent counterparts and have greatly enriched the realm of functional materials. This review article aims to highlight the very recent and important progresses in the area of functional supramoleuclar materials, focusing on adaptive mechanical materials, smart sensors with enhanced selectivity, soft luminescent and electronic nanomaterials, and biomimetic and biomedical materials with tailored structures and functions. We cannot write a complete account of all the interesting work in this area in one article, but we hope that it can in a way reflect the current situation and future trends in this prosperously developing area of functional supramolecular materials. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus mucosae LM1 identifies potential niche-specific genes and pathways for gastrointestinal adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, Valerie Diane V; Oh, Ju Kyoung; Bagon, Bernadette B; Kim, Heebal; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2017-12-23

    Lactobacillus mucosae is currently of interest as putative probiotics due to their metabolic capabilities and ability to colonize host mucosal niches. L. mucosae LM1 has been studied in its functions in cell adhesion and pathogen inhibition, etc. It demonstrated unique abilities to use energy from carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate sources. Due to these functions, we report the first complete genome sequence of an L. mucosae strain, L. mucosae LM1. Analysis of the pan-genome in comparison with closely-related Lactobacillus species identified a complete glycogen metabolism pathway, as well as folate biosynthesis, complementing previous proteomic data on the LM1 strain. It also revealed common and unique niche-adaptation genes among the various L. mucosae strains. The aim of this study was to derive genomic information that would reveal the probable mechanisms underlying the probiotic effect of L. mucosae LM1, and provide a better understanding of the nature of L. mucosae sp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of Specific Heat Capacity on Composite Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials and Asphalt Mixtures by Heat Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Ma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that composite shape-stabilized phase change material (CPCM has a remarkable capacity for thermal storage and stabilization, and it can be directly applied to highway construction without leakage. However, recent studies on temperature changing behaviors of CPCM and asphalt mixture cannot intuitively reflect the thermoregulation mechanism and efficiency of CPCM on asphalt mixture. The objective of this paper is to determine the specific heat capacity of CPCM and asphalt mixtures mixed with CPCM using the heat exchange system and the data acquisition system. Studies have shown that the temperature-rise curve of 5 °C CPCM has an obvious temperature plateau, while an asphalt mixture mixed with 5 °C CPCM does not; with increasing temperature, the specific heat capacities of both 5 °C CPCM and asphalt mixture first increase and then decrease, while the variation rate of 5 °C CPCM is larger than that of the asphalt mixture, and the maximum specific heat capacity of 5 °C CPCM appears around the initial phase change temperature. It is concluded that the temperature intervals of 5 °C CPCM are −18 °C–7 °C, 7 °C–25 °C and 25 °C–44 °C, respectively, and that of the asphalt mixture are −18 °C~10 °C, −10 °C~5 °C and 5 °C~28 °C. A low dosage of 5 °C CPCM has little influence on the specific heat capacity of asphalt mixture. Finally, the functions of specific heat capacities and temperature for CPCM and asphalt mixture mixed with CPCM were recommended by the sectional regression method.

  6. Determination of Specific Heat Capacity on Composite Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials and Asphalt Mixtures by Heat Exchange System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Zhou, Xue-Yan; Liu, Jiang; You, Zhanping; Wei, Kun; Huang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-05-19

    Previous research has shown that composite shape-stabilized phase change material (CPCM) has a remarkable capacity for thermal storage and stabilization, and it can be directly applied to highway construction without leakage. However, recent studies on temperature changing behaviors of CPCM and asphalt mixture cannot intuitively reflect the thermoregulation mechanism and efficiency of CPCM on asphalt mixture. The objective of this paper is to determine the specific heat capacity of CPCM and asphalt mixtures mixed with CPCM using the heat exchange system and the data acquisition system. Studies have shown that the temperature-rise curve of 5 °C CPCM has an obvious temperature plateau, while an asphalt mixture mixed with 5 °C CPCM does not; with increasing temperature, the specific heat capacities of both 5 °C CPCM and asphalt mixture first increase and then decrease, while the variation rate of 5 °C CPCM is larger than that of the asphalt mixture, and the maximum specific heat capacity of 5 °C CPCM appears around the initial phase change temperature. It is concluded that the temperature intervals of 5 °C CPCM are -18 °C-7 °C, 7 °C-25 °C and 25 °C-44 °C, respectively, and that of the asphalt mixture are -18 °C~10 °C, -10 °C~5 °C and 5 °C~28 °C. A low dosage of 5 °C CPCM has little influence on the specific heat capacity of asphalt mixture. Finally, the functions of specific heat capacities and temperature for CPCM and asphalt mixture mixed with CPCM were recommended by the sectional regression method.

  7. Importance of material matching in the calibration of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation: material specificity and nanoparticle surface coating effects on retention time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Haiou [U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Office of Regulatory Affairs, Arkansas Regional Laboratory (United States); Quevedo, Ivan R. [Universidad Iberoamericana, Departamento de Ingeniería y Ciencias Químicas (Mexico); Linder, Sean W.; Fong, Andrew; Mudalige, Thilak K., E-mail: Thilak.Mudalige@fda.hhs.gov [U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Office of Regulatory Affairs, Arkansas Regional Laboratory (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with dynamic light scattering or multiangle light scattering detectors is a promising technique for the size-based separation of colloidal particles (nano- and submicron scale) and the online determination of the particle size of the separated fractions in aqueous suspensions. In most cases, the applications of these detectors are problematic due to the material-specific properties of the analyte that results in erroneous calculations, and as an alternative, different nanoparticle size standards are required to properly calibrate the size-based retention in AF4. The availability of nanoparticle size standards in different materials is limited, and this deviation from ideal conditions of retention is mainly due to material-specific and particle coating-specific membrane–particle interactions. Here, we present an experimental method on the applicability of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NP) as standard for AF4 calibration and compare with gold nanoparticle (Au NP) standards having different nominal sizes and surface functionalities.

  8. The Use of Medicinal Plants by Migrant People: Adaptation, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Muniz de Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of studying the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of migrant communities to understand the dynamics of plant resource use, we reviewed the scientific literature concerning the use of medicinal plants by migrant populations engaged in international or long-distance migrations. We considered the importance of two processes: (1 adaptation to the new flora of the host country (i.e., substitution and incorporation of plants in the pharmacopoeia and (2 continued use and acquisition of the original flora from migrants' home countries (i.e., importation, cultivation, and/or continued use of plants that grow in both host and home environments. We suggest that, depending on the specific context and conditions of migration, different processes that determine the use and/or selection of plants as herbal medicines may become predominant.

  9. A comparative study of software adaptation using remote method call and Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFFONSO, F. J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The software development process has been directed, over the years, to various methodologies with specific purposes to attend emerging needs. Besides, it can also be noticed, during this period, that some processes require mechanisms related to software reuse and greater speed in the development stage. An important factor in this context is the mutation (adaptation, which occurs in all the software's life cycle, due to its customers' needs or due to technological changes. Regarding the latter factor, it has been observed a significant increase in developments that use distributed applications through the World Wide Web or remote application. Based on the adaptation idea and on the necessity of software distribution systems, this paper presents a technique to reconfigure software capable of acting in several developmental contexts (local, distributed and/or Web. In order to demonstrate its applicability, a case study, through the use of service orientation and remote calls, was done to show the software adaptation in the development of applications. Besides, comparative results among the approaches used in the development of reconfigurable applications are also presented.

  10. On Automatic Modeling and Use of Domain-specific Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Knappe, Rasmus; Bulskov, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly introduce an approach to the modeling of a domain-specific ontology for use in connection with a given document collection. Secondly, we present a methodology for deriving conceptual similarity from the domain-specific ontology. Adopted for ontology representation is a s...

  11. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the Celiac Disease Quality of Life (CD-QOL survey, a specific questionnaire to measure quality of life in patients with celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Casellas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: celiac disease is a chronic condition that requires continued treatment, with the resultant impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL of people who suffer it. Most studies in this field have used generic questionnaires to measure HRQOL in celiac patients. It was therefore decided to conduct a study to translate into Spanish and validate a specific questionnaire for celiac disease, the Celiac Disease Quality Of Life Survey (CD-QOL. Objectives: to translate and validate in Spanish the specific celiac disease questionnaire CD-QOL. Methods: a multicenter, prospective, observational study was designed consisting of two phases: In the first phase, the questionnaire was translated and adapted into Spanish using the translation/back translation procedure and an understandability study. In the second phase, internal consistency of the translated questionnaire was analyzed. For this, results of the CD-QOL were compared to those of EuroQol and the Daily Fatigue Impact Scale (D-FIS. Understandability of the translated and adapted questionnaire was tested in six patients, and the validation study was done in 298 celiac patients (201 treated with a gluten-free diet and 97 at diagnosis. Results: in both celiac groups, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was high (0.90, feasibility was excellent (99.2 % of patients completed all questions, and there were no ceiling and floor effects. Spearman correlation to EuroQol and D-FIS was statistically significant (p < 0.05. CD-QOL score was different depending on whether state of health was good, fair, or poor based on the EuroQol score. Conclusion: the Spanish version of the CD-QOL is a valid tool for measuring HRQOL in celiac patients.

  12. Adaptive Engineering of an Embedded System, Engineered for use by Search and Rescue Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ribeiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Urban Search and Rescue (US&R operations, canine teams are deployed to find live patients, and save lives. US&R may benefit from increased levels of situational awareness, through information made available through the use of embedded systems attached to the dogs. One of these is the Canine Pose Estimation (CPE system. There are many challenges faced with such embedded systems including the engineering of such devices for use in disaster environments. Durability and wireless connectivity in areas with materials that inhibit wireless communications, the safety of the dog wearing the devices, and form factor must be accommodated. All of these factors must be weighed without compromising the accuracy of the application and the timely delivery of its data. This paper discusses the adaptive engineering process and how each of the unique challenges of emergency response embedded systems can be defined and overcome through effective design methods.

  13. Frequency-specific adaptation and its underlying circuit model in the auditory midbrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eShen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Receptive fields of sensory neurons are considered to be dynamic and depend on the stimulus history. In the auditory system, evidence of dynamic frequency-receptive fields has been found following stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA. However, the underlying mechanism and circuitry of SSA have not been fully elucidated. Here, we studied how frequency-receptive fields of neurons in rat inferior colliculus (IC changed when exposed to a biased tone sequence. Pure tone with one specific frequency (adaptor was presented markedly more often than others. The adapted tuning was compared with the original tuning measured with an unbiased sequence. We found inhomogeneous changes in frequency tuning in IC, exhibiting a center-surround pattern with respect to the neuron’s best frequency. Central adaptors elicited strong suppressive and repulsive changes while flank adaptors induced facilitative and attractive changes. Moreover, we proposed a two-layer model of the underlying network, which not only reproduced the adaptive changes in the receptive fields but also predicted novelty responses to oddball sequences. These results suggest that frequency-specific adaptation in auditory midbrain can be accounted for by an adapted frequency channel and its lateral spreading of adaptation, which shed light on the organization of the underlying circuitry.

  14. Composite perovskite materials, methods of making, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili

    2017-12-14

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide materials, devices and systems including a composite of halide perovskite single crystals and nanotubes, and the like. Embodiments of the composite can be used in devices such as detectors, solar panels, transistors, sensors, and the like.

  15. Evaluation of adaptation of ceramic inlays using optical coherence tomography and replica technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURK Ayse Gozde

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Optical coherence tomography (OCT has generally been used as a nondestructive technique to evaluate integrities of composite restorations. We investigated marginal and internal adaptations of ceramic inlay restorations with OCT and compared them to results with the silicone replica technique. Round-shaped class I cavities were prepared on 16 human maxillary first premolar teeth. Ceramic inlays were fabricated. Silicone replicas from inlays were obtained and sectioned to measure marginal and internal adaptations with a stereomicroscope (Leica Dfc 295, Bensheim, Germany. Inlays were cemented on respective teeth. Marginal and internal adaptations were then measured with the OCT system (Thorlabs, New Jersey, USA in 200- μm intervals. Replica and OCT measurements were compared with independent samples t-tests. A paired t-test was used to evaluate the marginal and internal adaptations of each group (p < 0.05. Marginal and internal adaptations were 100.97 ± 31.36 and 113.94 ± 39.75 μm, respectively, using the replica technique and 28.97 ± 17.86 and 97.87 ± 21.83 μm, respectively, using OCT. The differences between the techniques were significant (p = 0.00 and p = 0.01, respectively. On evaluation within the groups, internal adaptation values were found to be significantly higher than the marginal adaptation values for the replica technique (p = 0.00 and OCT (p = 0.00. Therefore, the replica and OCT techniques showed different results, with higher values of marginal and internal adaptation found with the replica technique. Marginal and internal adaptation values of ceramic inlays, whether measured by replica or OCT techniques, were within clinically acceptable limits.

  16. Teacher's opinions about learning continuum based on the student's level of competence and specific pedagogical materials on anatomical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Laili Dwi; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    This research deals with designing learning continuum for developing a curriculum. The objective of this study is to gather the opinion of public junior and high school teachers about Learning Continuum based on Student's Level of Competence and Specific Pedagogical Material on Anatomical Aspects. This is a survey research. The population of the research is natural science teachers at junior high school and biology teacher at senior high school in Yogyakarta Special Region. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis technique. Based on the results of the survey, the teachers opinion are in accordance with the level of the students they teach. Junior high school teachers argued that anatomical aspects were taught in grade VII,VIII, IX and X on the level of C2 (understanding), the high school teacher argued that anatomical aspects were taught in grade VIII, X and XI on the level of C2 (understanding) and C3 (apply). While according to the opinions of primary school teachers about aspects of anatomy resulted from the research of Subali (2016), anatomy is mostly not taught at the elementary school level, only some of the materials that are taught in this school level. Therefore, the results of the survey can be inferred that the opinions of teachers is still based on the existing curriculum.

  17. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Joseph

    2010-03-26

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  18. Muscle Fiber Specific Antioxidative System Adaptation to Swim Training in Rats: Influence of Intermittent Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchar, Olga

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk). Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min), interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk). Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix) and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius) muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity. Key PointsSingle high-intensity exercise induces a significant increase in TBARS content

  19. Innovative Design and Processing of Multi-Functional Adaptive Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-09

    Franklin Award in Chemistry - Rice University • Best poster award, Aspen Soft Matter conference “Growth and Form: Pattern Formation in Biology...Research Society D. P. Holmes • ASEE Ferdinand P. Beer and E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Outstanding New Mechanics Educator G. M. Whitesides...porous surfaces (SLIPS)  Distinguished Franklin Award in Chemistry - Rice University  Best poster award, Aspen Soft Matter conference “Growth and Form

  20. Magnetic sensor for high temperature using a laminate composite of magnetostrictive material and piezoelectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2005-05-01

    A high sensitive and heat-resistive magnetic sensor using a magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminate composite is investigated. The sensing principle is based on the magnetostrictive- and piezoelectric effect, whereby a detected yoke displacement is transduced into a voltage on the piezoelectric materials. The sensor is intended to detect the displacement of a ferromagnetic object in a high temperature environment, where conventional magnetic sensors are not useful. Such applications include sensors in engine of automobile and machinery used in material processing. The sensor features combination of a laminate composite of magnetostrictive/piezoelectric materials with high Curie temperatures and an appropriate magnetic circuit to convert mechanical displacement to sensor voltages and suppress temperature fluctuation. This paper describes the sensing principle and shows experimental results using a composite of Terfenol-D and Lithium Niobate to assure high sensitivity of 50V/mm at bias gap of 0.1mm and a temperature operating range over 200 °C.

  1. Adaptation to faces and voices: unimodal, cross-modal, and sex-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Feinberg, David R; Debruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2013-11-01

    Exposure, or adaptation, to faces or voices biases perceptions of subsequent stimuli, for example, causing faces to appear more normal than they would be otherwise if they are similar to the previously presented stimuli. Studies also suggest that there may be cross-modal adaptation between sound and vision, although the evidence is inconsistent. We examined adaptation effects within and across voices and faces and also tested whether adaptation crosses between male and female stimuli. We exposed participants to sex-typical or sex-atypical stimuli and measured the perceived normality of subsequent stimuli. Exposure to female faces or voices altered perceptions of subsequent female stimuli, and these adaptation effects crossed modality; exposure to voices influenced judgments of faces, and vice versa. We also found that exposure to female stimuli did not influence perception of subsequent male stimuli. Our data demonstrate that recent experience of faces and voices changes subsequent perception and that mental representations of faces and voices may not be modality dependent. Both unimodal and cross-modal adaptation effects appear to be relatively sex-specific.

  2. Evolution-guided adaptation of an adenylation domain substrate specificity to an unusual amino acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Vobruba

    Full Text Available Adenylation domains CcbC and LmbC control the specific incorporation of amino acid precursors in the biosynthesis of lincosamide antibiotics celesticetin and lincomycin. Both proteins originate from a common L-proline-specific ancestor, but LmbC was evolutionary adapted to use an unusual substrate, (2S,4R-4-propyl-proline (PPL. Using site-directed mutagenesis of the LmbC substrate binding pocket and an ATP-[32P]PPi exchange assay, three residues, G308, A207 and L246, were identified as crucial for the PPL activation, presumably forming together a channel of a proper size, shape and hydrophobicity to accommodate the propyl side chain of PPL. Subsequently, we experimentally simulated the molecular evolution leading from L-proline-specific substrate binding pocket to the PPL-specific LmbC. The mere change of three amino acid residues in originally strictly L-proline-specific CcbC switched its substrate specificity to prefer PPL and even synthetic alkyl-L-proline derivatives with prolonged side chain. This is the first time that such a comparative study provided an evidence of the evolutionary relevant adaptation of the adenylation domain substrate binding pocket to a new sterically different substrate by a few point mutations. The herein experimentally simulated rearrangement of the substrate binding pocket seems to be the general principle of the de novo genesis of adenylation domains' unusual substrate specificities. However, to keep the overall natural catalytic efficiency of the enzyme, a more comprehensive rearrangement of the whole protein would probably be employed within natural evolution process.

  3. Nanostructured Shape Memory Alloys: Adaptive Composite Materials and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    fracture behavior. Similar loading conditions for multilayer material have been reported in the literature for both composite materials and geologic...8 5. Bordeaux F., Yavari, R. Multiple Necking and Deformation Behavior of Multilayer Composites Prepared by Cold Rolling. Zeitschrift f’r Metallkunde...Stiffness Greater Than Diamond. Science 315: 620-622, 2007 13. ASTM D 1238-01, Standard Method for Melt Flow Rates of Thermoplastics by Extrusion Plastometer

  4. Compositions and use of cementitious materials: experience from Onkalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Johanna Hansen of Posiva in Finland summarised experiences of working with cementitious materials in the Finnish disposal programme. Posiva is responsible for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Posiva plans to submit a construction license application in 2012 and, if approved, repository construction will begin in 2014-2015. The geologic disposal facility will be a KBS-3 type repository at a depth of 400 to 500 m in crystalline bedrock. Construction of the repository will require using a large quantity of cementitious materials. A 2007 estimate indicated that approximately 20 million kilograms of cementitious material will be introduced into the repository, although much of this material will be removed, with only approximately 6 million kilograms remaining in the repository after closure, mostly in the form of tunnel plugs. To minimise the potential negative effects of cementitious materials, low-pH cement and colloidal silica both were studied as alternative materials. Based on experience gained in constructing the ONKALO underground characterisation facility, Posiva decided that from the spring 2008 onwards, mainly low-pH cement will be used as grouting material because the grout cannot be removed for repository closure. The low-pH grout is composed of Portland cement, silica fume, and super-plasticizer. Various recipes were tested in the laboratory, and field mixing and grouting tests were conducted at ONKALO. The effects of organics on radionuclide retention and the leaching of organics from the cement also were evaluated. The studies indicated no impediments to the use of low-pH grout at ONKALO and showed that low-pH cementitious grout has better penetration ability and stiffness than regular grout. It was also concluded that the amount of cementitious materials in the repository can be reduced with careful design; for this, cooperation is needed between repository designers and long

  5. Evaluation of adaptation of ceramic inlays using optical coherence tomography and replica technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayse Gozde, Turk; Metin, Sabuncu; Mubin, Ulusoy

    2018-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has generally been used as a nondestructive technique to evaluate integrities of composite restorations. We investigated marginal and internal adaptations of ceramic inlay restorations with OCT and compared them to results with the silicone replica technique. Round-shaped class I cavities were prepared on 16 human maxillary first premolar teeth. Ceramic inlays were fabricated. Silicone replicas from inlays were obtained and sectioned to measure marginal and internal adaptations with a stereomicroscope (Leica Dfc 295, Bensheim, Germany). Inlays were cemented on respective teeth. Marginal and internal adaptations were then measured with the OCT system (Thorlabs, New Jersey, USA) in 200- μm intervals. Replica and OCT measurements were compared with independent samples t-tests. A paired t-test was used to evaluate the marginal and internal adaptations of each group (p inlays, whether measured by replica or OCT techniques, were within clinically acceptable limits.

  6. Organism-adapted specificity of the allosteric regulation of pyruvate kinase in lactic acid bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Veith

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PYK is a critical allosterically regulated enzyme that links glycolysis, the primary energy metabolism, to cellular metabolism. Lactic acid bacteria rely almost exclusively on glycolysis for their energy production under anaerobic conditions, which reinforces the key role of PYK in their metabolism. These organisms are closely related, but have adapted to a huge variety of native environments. They include food-fermenting organisms, important symbionts in the human gut, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In contrast to the rather conserved inhibition of PYK by inorganic phosphate, the activation of PYK shows high variability in the type of activating compound between different lactic acid bacteria. System-wide comparative studies of the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria are required to understand the reasons for the diversity of these closely related microorganisms. These require knowledge of the identities of the enzyme modifiers. Here, we predict potential allosteric activators of PYKs from three lactic acid bacteria which are adapted to different native environments. We used protein structure-based molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic modeling to predict and validate potential activators of PYK. Specifically, we compared the electrostatic potential and the binding of phosphate moieties at the allosteric binding sites, and predicted potential allosteric activators by docking. We then made a kinetic model of Lactococcus lactis PYK to relate the activator predictions to the intracellular sugar-phosphate conditions in lactic acid bacteria. This strategy enabled us to predict fructose 1,6-bisphosphate as the sole activator of the Enterococcus faecalis PYK, and to predict that the PYKs from Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show weaker specificity for their allosteric activators, while still having fructose 1,6-bisphosphate play the main activator role in vivo. These differences in the specificity of allosteric

  7. Dosimetric- and Geometric Evaluation of Adaptive H&N IMRT Using Deformable Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiland, R.B.; Behrens, C. F.; Sjöström, D.

    2012-01-01

    the performance of a DIR algorithm, using geometric and dosimetric measures. Materials and Methods: Seven patients treated with IMRT were included in this study, each with a planning- and midterm CT (pCT, ReCT) as well as a CBCT, acquired on the same day as the ReCT. ReCT served as the ground truth for evaluation...... of the DIR. A deformed CT (dCT) with contours was created by deforming the pCT and associated manually drawn contours to the CBCT. A commercially software using the Demons DIR algorithm (SmartAdapt, Varian Medical Systems, v.11.0) was utilized. A geometrical comparison was based on the estimated volumes from......CT with a median of 4.4% (range -4.0; 69.3). In four of seven patients, the volume difference was deviation from Re...

  8. Thorium and Uranium in the Rock Raw Materials Used For the Production of Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pękala, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    Thorium and uranium are constant components of all soils and most minerals thereby rock raw materials. They belong to the particularly dangerous elements because of their natural radioactivity. Evaluation of the content of the radioactive elements in the rock raw materials seems to be necessary in the early stage of the raw material evaluation. The rock formations operated from deposits often are accumulated in landfills and slag heaps where the concentration of the radioactive elements can be many times higher than under natural conditions. In addition, this phenomenon may refer to buildings where rock raw materials are often the main components of the construction materials. The global control system of construction products draws particular attention to the elimination of used construction products containing excessive quantities of the natural radioactive elements. In the presented study were determined the content of thorium and uranium in rock raw materials coming from the Bełachatów lignite deposit. The Bełchatów lignite deposit extracts mainly lignite and secondary numerous accompanying minerals with the raw material importance. In the course of the field works within the framework of the carried out work has been tested 92 samples of rocks of varied petrographic composition. There were carried out analyses of the content of the radioactive elements for 50 samples of limestone of the Jurassic age, 18 samples of kaolinite clays, and 24 samples of siliceous raw materials, represented by opoka-rocks, diatomites, gaizes and clastic rocks. The measurement of content of the natural radioactive elements thorium and uranium based on measuring the frequency counts of gamma quantum, recorded separately in measuring channels. At the same time performed measurements on volume patterns radioactive: thorium and uranium. The studies were carried out in Mazar spectrometer on the powdered material. Standardly performed ten measuring cycles, after which were calculated

  9. The cultural adaptation and validation of the "Burn Specific Health Scale-Revised" (BSHS-R): version for Brazilian burn victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Eneas; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Rossi, Lidia Aparecida; Ciol, Marcia Aparecida

    2008-11-01

    The Burns Specific Health Scale-Revised (BSHS-R) is of easy application, can be self-administered, and it is considered a good scale to evaluate various important life aspects of burn victims. To translate and culturally adapt the BSHS-R into the Brazilian-Portuguese language and to evaluate the internal consistency and convergent validity of the translated BSHS-R. The cultural adaptation of the BSHS-R included translation and back-translation, discussions with professionals and patients to ensure conceptual equivalence, semantic evaluation, and pre-test of the instrument. The Final Brazilian-Portuguese Version (FBPV) of the BSHS-R was tested on a group of 115 burn patients for internal consistency and validity of construct (using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)). All values of Cronbach's alpha were greater than .8, demonstrating that the internal consistency of the FBPV was very high. Self-esteem was highly correlated with affect and body image (r=.59, pvalidity and reliability criteria required from an instrument of health status assessment for burn patients.

  10. The learning continuum of ecology based on teachers' opinion about student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramesti, Indah Cahaya; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    This study aims at designing learning continuum for developing a curriculum based on teachers' opinion about student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material on ecological aspect targeted for students of Primary and Secondary Education. This research is a descriptive research using survey methods. The researchers conducted a census by distributing questionnaires that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements to 147 natural science teachers at junior high school and 134 Biology teachers at senior high school as a population throughout 4 regencies and 1 city in Yogyakarta Special Region.. Data analysis techniques used descriptive analysis. In conclusion, teacher's opinion is influenced by curriculum that exist today. According to the opinions of Natural Science teachers at Junior High School, most of the ecological aspects such as characteristics of biomes, characteristics of ecosystems, characteristics of communities, characteristics of populations, etc. should be taught in grade VII with the level of competence: to understand (C2), while Biology teachers at Senior High School state that the ecological aspect should be taught in class X with the level of competence: to understand (C2), apply (C3) and analyze (C4). Teachers should be a privy in the formulation of the curriculum, so they're not only accept and apply the existing curriculum but also give opinions to improve the curriculum, especially in terms of ecology.

  11. Exclusions, exemptions and low specific activity material in the 1996 edition of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baekelandt, L.

    1997-01-01

    Exclusions and exemptions, total as well as partial, have always been part of the IAEA transport regulations, but these provisions were dispersed over various sections. In the 1996 edition of these regulations, some of these exclusions and exemptions have been kept unchanged, others have been changed and also, new ones have been added. This paper gives an overview of the exclusions and exemptions in the 1996 edition, the most important change with respect to the previous edition being the departure from the single exemption value of 70 Bq/g for all radionuclides to the radionuclide specific exemption values as specified in the IAEA Basic Safety Standards. As a consequence of this change, a new category of Low Specific Activity (LSA) material has been introduced. This paper also discusses the rationale of these changes to the regulations. (author)

  12. Adaptive Mean and Trend Removal of Heart Rate Variability Using Kalman Filtering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schloegl, A

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of heart rate van ability requires the calculation of the mean heart rate, Adaptive methods are important for online and real-time parameter estimation, In this paper we demonstrate the use...

  13. Inactivation of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on tomatoes using sodium dodecyl sulphate, levulinic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin Ademola Ijabadeniyi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, sodium hypochlorite solution and levulinic acid in reducing the survival of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was evaluated. The results against heat adapted L. monocytognes revealed that sodium hypochlorite solution was the least effective, achieving log reduction of 2.75, 2.94 and 3.97 log colony forming unit (CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. SDS was able to achieve 8 log reduction for both heat adapted and chlorine adapted bacteria. When used against chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes sodium hypochlorite solution achieved log reduction of 2.76, 2.93 and 3.65 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.07, 2.78 and 4.97 log CFU/mL for 1, 3, 5 minutes, respectively. On chlorine adapted bacteria levulinic acid achieved log reduction of 2.77, 3.07 and 5.21 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using a mixture of 0.05% SDS and 0.5% levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.13, 3.32 and 4.79 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes while on chlorine adapted bacteria it achieved 3.20, 3.33 and 5.66 log CFU/mL, respectively. Increasing contact time also increased log reduction for both test pathogens. A storage period of up to 72 hours resulted in progressive log reduction for both test pathogens. Results also revealed that there was a significant difference (P≤0.05 among contact times, storage times and sanitizers. Findings from this study can be used to select suitable sanitizers and contact times for heat and chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes in the fresh produce industry.

  14. Inactivation of Heat Adapted and Chlorine AdaptedListeria MonocytogenesATCC 7644 on Tomatoes Using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate, Levulinic Acid and Sodium Hypochlorite Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin Ademola; Mnyandu, Elizabeth

    2017-04-13

    The effectiveness of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), sodium hypochlorite solution and levulinic acid in reducing the survival of heat adapted and chlorine adapted Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was evaluated. The results against heat adapted L. monocytognes revealed that sodium hypochlorite solution was the least effective, achieving log reduction of 2.75, 2.94 and 3.97 log colony forming unit (CFU)/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. SDS was able to achieve 8 log reduction for both heat adapted and chlorine adapted bacteria. When used against chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes sodium hypochlorite solution achieved log reduction of 2.76, 2.93 and 3.65 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.07, 2.78 and 4.97 log CFU/mL for 1, 3, 5 minutes, respectively. On chlorine adapted bacteria levulinic acid achieved log reduction of 2.77, 3.07 and 5.21 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. Using a mixture of 0.05% SDS and 0.5% levulinic acid on heat adapted bacteria achieved log reduction of 3.13, 3.32 and 4.79 log CFU/mL for 1, 3 and 5 minutes while on chlorine adapted bacteria it achieved 3.20, 3.33 and 5.66 log CFU/mL, respectively. Increasing contact time also increased log reduction for both test pathogens. A storage period of up to 72 hours resulted in progressive log reduction for both test pathogens. Results also revealed that there was a significant difference (P≤0.05) among contact times, storage times and sanitizers. Findings from this study can be used to select suitable sanitizers and contact times for heat and chlorine adapted L. monocytogenes in the fresh produce industry.

  15. Electromagnetic Processing of Materials Materials Processing by Using Electric and Magnetic Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    This book is both a course book and a monograph. In fact, it has developed from notes given to graduate course students on materials processing in the years 1989 to 2006. Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (EPM), originates from a branch of materials science and engineering developed in the 1980s as a field aiming to create new materials and/or design processes by making use of various functions which appear when applying the electric and magnetic fields to materials. It is based on transport phenomena, materials processing and magnetohydrodynamics. The first chapter briefly introduces the history, background and technology of EPM. In the second chapter, the concept of transport phenomena is concisely introduced and in the third chapter the essential part of magnetohydrodynamics is transcribed and readers are shown that the concept of transport phenomena does not only apply to heat, mass and momentum, but also magnetic field. The fourth chapter describes electromagnetic processing of electrica...

  16. Adaptation Criteria for the Personalised Delivery of Learning Materials: A Multi-Stage Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Personalised e-Learning represents a major step-change from the one-size-fits-all approach of traditional learning platforms to a more customised and interactive provision of learning materials. Adaptive learning can support the learning process by tailoring learning materials to individual needs. However, this requires the initial preparation of…

  17. Validation of a Cross-cultural Adaptation of the Hair Specific Skindex-29 Scale to Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Buendía-Eisman, A; Ferrando, J

    2018-03-13

    Female androgenetic alopecia (FAA) has considerable impact on quality of life. Our analysis of the clinical scales available in the literature to measure the impact of FAA led us to choose the Hair Specific Skindex 29 (HSS29) as the most appropriate for adaptation to Spanish as a tool for following patients in treatment for FAA. This tool assesses disease impact on quality of life over time so that treatments can be tailored to patients' needs. The HSS29 score reflects impact in 3 domains (emotions, symptoms, and functioning) on a scale of 0 (no effect) to 100 (maximum effect). The scale is useful in routine clinical practice, and patients can respond to all items in 5minutes. We followed recommended procedures to produce a cross-cultural adaptation of the scale. The process involved forward translation of the questionnaire to Spanish followed by back translation by 2 native speakers of the original language (English) and revision as needed after discussion and consensus by a committee of 3 expert dermatologists. The comprehensibility of the resulting translation was assessed in a test-retest step. Next, the psychometric properties, reliability, and construct validity were assessed. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, reliability with Cronbach's α, and construct validity by factor analysis using a Varimax rotation. Face validity was also assessed during the process. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated in the test-retest step. A total of 170 women with FAA and 30 control subjects completed the cross-culturally adapted Spanish questionnaire. A subgroup of 15 subjects responded a second time between 1 and 2 days after their first session (test-retest). Sensitivity and specificity were excellent according to the area under the ROC curve (0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99), and high reliability was reflected by a Cronbach's α of 0.96. Factor analysis showed that the items were

  18. Cross cultural adaptation of the menopause specific questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The menopause‑specific quality‑of‑life (MENQOL) was developed as a specific tool to measure the health‑related quality‑of‑life in menopausal women. Recently, it has been translated into about 15 languages. Aim: This study was performed to develop the Persian version of the MENQOL questionnaire from ...

  19. Design of Responsive and Active (Soft) Materials Using Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Bedolla Pantoja, Marco; Mushenheim, Peter C; Wang, Xiaoguang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2016-06-07

    Liquid crystals (LCs) are widely known for their use in liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Indeed, LCDs represent one of the most successful technologies developed to date using a responsive soft material: An electric field is used to induce a change in ordering of the LC and thus a change in optical appearance. Over the past decade, however, research has revealed the fundamental underpinnings of potentially far broader and more pervasive uses of LCs for the design of responsive soft material systems. These systems involve a delicate interplay of the effects of surface-induced ordering, elastic strain of LCs, and formation of topological defects and are characterized by a chemical complexity and diversity of nano- and micrometer-scale geometry that goes well beyond that previously investigated. As a reflection of this evolution, the community investigating LC-based materials now relies heavily on concepts from colloid and interface science. In this context, this review describes recent advances in colloidal and interfacial phenomena involving LCs that are enabling the design of new classes of soft matter that respond to stimuli as broad as light, airborne pollutants, bacterial toxins in water, mechanical interactions with living cells, molecular chirality, and more. Ongoing efforts hint also that the collective properties of LCs (e.g., LC-dispersed colloids) will, over the coming decade, yield exciting new classes of driven or active soft material systems in which organization (and useful properties) emerges during the dissipation of energy.

  20. Attitude and Altitude Control of Trirotor UAV by Using Adaptive Hybrid Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Zain Anwar Ali; Daobo Wang; Suhaib Masroor; M. Shafiq Loya

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an adaptive hybrid scheme which is based on fuzzy regulation, pole-placement, and tracking (RST) control algorithm for controlling the attitude and altitude of trirotor UAV. The dynamic and kinematic model of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is unstable and nonlinear in nature with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF); that is why the stabilization of aerial vehicle is a difficult task. To stabilize the nonlinear behavior of our UAV, an adaptive hybrid controller algorithm is used, in w...

  1. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  2. Guidance For The Proper Characterization And Classification Of Low Specific Activity Materials And Surface Contaminated Objects For Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Blackford, L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory concerns over the proper characterization of certain waste streams led CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to develop written guidance for personnel involved in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities, facility management and Waste Management Representatives (WMRs) involved in the designation of wastes for disposal on and off the Hanford Site. It is essential that these waste streams regularly encountered in D and D operations are properly designated, characterized and classified prior to shipment to a Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility (TSDF). Shipments of waste determined by the classification process as Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) must also be compliant with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOE) regulations as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The compliant shipment of these waste commodities is critical to the Hanford Central Plateau cleanup mission. Due to previous problems and concerns from DOE assessments, CHPRC internal critiques as well as DOT, a management decision was made to develop written guidance and procedures to assist CHPRC shippers and facility personnel in the proper classification of D and D waste materials as either LSA or SCO. The guidance provides a uniform methodology for the collection and documentation required to effectively characterize, classify and identify candidate materials for shipping operations. A primary focus is to ensure that waste materials generated from D and D and facility operations are compliant with the DOT regulations when packaged for shipment. At times this can be difficult as the current DOT regulations relative to the shipment of LSA and SCO materials are often not clear to waste generators. Guidance is often sought from NUREG 1608/RAMREG-003 (3): a guidance document that was jointly developed by the DOT and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and published in 1998. However, NUREG 1608 (3) is now thirteen

  3. Investigation of cold extrusion process using coupled thermo-mechanical FEM analysis and adaptive friction modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtan, Mehmet Okan

    2017-10-01

    Cold extrusion processes are known for their excellent material usage as well as high efficiency in the production of large batches. Although the process starts at room temperature, workpiece temperatures may rise above 200°C. Moreover, contact normal stresses can exceed 2500 MPa, whereas surface enlargement values can reach up to 30. These changes affects friction coefficients in cold extrusion processes. In the current study, friction coefficients between a plain carbon steel C4C (1.0303) and a tool steel (1.2379) are determined dependent on temperature and contact pressure using the sliding compression test (SCT). In order to represent contact normal stress and temperature effects on friction coefficients, an empirical adaptive friction model has been proposed. The validity of the model has been tested with experiments and finite element simulations for a cold forward extrusion process. By using the proposed adaptive friction model together with thermo-mechanical analysis, the deviation in the process loads between numerical simulations and model experiments could be reduced from 18.6% to 3.3%.

  4. The evaluation of adaptive study material - The automatic feedback for content creators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostolányová, Kateřina

    2017-07-01

    In the area of ICT in education is often written about the adaptation of learning environment tailored to the learner. The control systems based on the personalization of teaching are created for this purpose. The paper deals with the creation of semantic network above the adaptive study material and the intelligent personalized teaching as a result of it. The study describes both the theoretical design of evaluation and its verification in practice.

  5. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Clinical Competence Questionnaire for use in Brazil 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkoski, Danielle Ritter; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima; Pereira, Evani Marques; Bortolato-Major, Carina; Mattei, Ângela Taís; Peres, Aida Maris

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: translating and transculturally adapting the Clinical Competence Questionnaire to Brazilian senior undergraduate Nursing students, as well as measuring psychometric properties of the questionnaire. Method: a methodological study carried out in six steps: translation of the Clinical Competence Questionnaire instrument, consensus of the translations, back-translation, analysis by an expert committee, pre-testing and then presentation of the cross-cultural adaptation process to the developers. Psychometric properties were measured using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient and content validity index. Results: the instrument was translated, transculturally adapted and its final version consisted of 48 items. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90, and the agreement index of the items was 99% for students and 98% for evaluators. Conclusion: the Clinical Competence Questionnaire was translated and adapted to Brazilian students, and the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the questionnaire presented satisfactory internal consistency regarding the studied sample. PMID:28591303

  6. The use of graphene based materials for fuel cell, photovoltaics, and supercapacitor electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Alpha C. H.; Kwok, Holly Y. H.; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2017-05-01

    This manuscript presents the methodology of the production of 2D and 3D graphene based material, and their applications in fuel cell, supercapacitor, and photovoltic in recent years. Due to the uniqueness and attractive properties of graphene nanosheets, a large number of techniques have been developed for raw graphene preparation, from a chemical method to a physical deposition of carbon vapor under extreme conditions. A variety of graphene based materials were also prepared from raw graphene or graphene oxide, including the metal loaded, metal oxides loaded, to the foreign elements doped graphene. Both two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) structured graphene were covered. These materials included the bulk or template hybrid composite, containing graphene hydrogel, graphene aerogel, or graphene foam and its derived products. They were widely used in green energy device research, which exhibited strong activity, and developed some special usage in recent research.

  7. A pilot survey of impression materials and techniques used by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the choice of impression material and impression technique used by Nigerian dentists for the fabrication of cast restoration. Method: A self administered questionnaire was distributed to dentists present at two national dental meeting held at Abuja and Lagos in 2011. The questionnaire assessed their ...

  8. Removal of blue indigo and cadmium present in aqueous solutions using a modified zeolitic material and an activated carbonaceous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez S, E. E.

    2011-01-01

    In the last years the use of water has been increased substantially, it has been also altered its quality as a result of human activities such as mining, industrial activities and others. Water pollution caused by dyes and heavy metals has adverse effects on the environment, since both pollutants are very persisten even after conventional treatments. Denim blue and cadmium are not biodegradable. There is a growing interest in finding new, efficient and low cost alternative materials to remove such pollutants from the aqueous medium. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a modified zeolitic tuff and an activated carbonaceous material obtained from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the removal of denim blue and cadmium. The zeolitic material was modified with Na + and Fe 3+ solutions to improve its sorption properties for the removal of cadmium and denim blue, respectively. Carbonaceous material was treated with 10% HCl solution to remove ashes. Both materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis (EDS), specific surface areas (Bet), thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Simultaneously, the denim blue dye was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and its pKa value was determined, these data allowed the determination of its chemical properties and its acid-base behavior in solution. In the content of this work the term indigo blue was changed by denim blue, as it corresponds to the commercial name of the dye. To assess the sorption capacity of sorbents, the sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms in batch system were determined; the results were fitted to mathematical models such as the pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and second order to describe the sorption kinetics and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms to describe sorption processes. The results show that the most efficient material to remove denim blue from aqueous solutions is the carbonaceous material

  9. Specific Modulus and Density Profile as Characterization Criteria of Prefabricated Wood Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Král

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood based product industry has developed and modified a wide range of products to cater changing demands of construction industry. Development of a product necessitates characterization to ensure compliance to established standards. Traditionally a product was characterized by properties like bending properties, density and swelling factor etc. Whereas, advances in technology has introduced more sophisticated parameters which represent a combination of various classical factors and provide more practical and detailed information. In this study, we procured four different types of commercial products, viz. Gypsum board, cement board, oriented strand board and gypsum fiber board and tried to characterized them using density profile ratio and stiffness ratio. We observed some interesting empirical relations between various parameters as represented in various plots.

  10. The status of human and material resources used in teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the status of human and material resources used in teaching biology in public schools in Ilorin. A descriptive survey method was adopted. All senior school students in Ilorin constituted the population, out of which 20 secondary schools were randomly selected. A checklist tagged Inventory of Resources ...

  11. The use of and obstacles to social learning in climate change adaptation initiatives in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakespear Mudombi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change will have major impacts on ecosystems and human livelihoods while challenging the adaptive capacity of individuals and communities. Social learning, an ongoing adaptive process of knowledge generation, reflection and synthesis, may enhance people’s awareness about climate change and its impacts, with positive outcomes for their adaptive capacity. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of factors promoting social learning in climate change adaptation initiatives in South Africa. An online survey was used to obtain the views of decision makers in government and non-governmental organisations about the presence of personal factors and organisational factors that promote social learning. Descriptive analysis was used to assess these issues. The findings provide some evidence of social learning in climate change adaptation projects in South Africa, with the majority of respondents indicating that personal social learning indicators were present. Mechanisms for improved conflict resolution were, however, less prevalent. The organisational and governance-related barriers to implementation also presented significant challenges. Some of the main organisational barriers were short timeframes for implementing projects, inadequate financial resources, political interference, shortcomings in governance systems and lack of knowledge and expertise in organisations. There is a need for organisations to promote social learning by ensuring that their organisational environment and governance structures are conducive for their employees to embrace social learning. This will help contribute to the overall success of climate change adaptation initiatives.

  12. Simultaneous enrichment of cysteine-containing peptides and phosphopeptides using a cysteine-specific phosphonate adaptable tag (CysPAT) in combination with titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Pedersen, Martin Haar; Ibañez-Vea, Maria

    2016-01-01

    to selectively label cysteine-containing peptides (Cys peptides) followed by their enrichment with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. The CysPAT strategy was developed using a synthetic peptide, a standard protein and subsequently the strategy was applied to protein lysates from...

  13. Safety requirements and feedback of commonly used material handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cranes, hoists, chain pulley blocks are the most commonly used material handling equipment in industry along with attachments like chains, wire rope slings, d-shackles, etc. These equipment are used at work for transferring loads from one place to another and attachments are used for anchoring, fixing or supporting the load. Selection of the correct equipment, identification of the equipment planning of material handling operation, examination/testing of the equipment, education and training of the persons engaged in operation of the material handling equipment can reduce the risks to safety of people in workplace. Different safety systems like boom angle indicator, overload tripping device, limit switches, etc. should be available in the cranes for their safe use. Safety requirement for safe operation of material handling equipment with emphasis on different cranes and attachments particularly wire rope slings and chain slings have been brought out in this paper. An attempt has also been made to bring out common nature of deficiencies observed during regulatory inspection carried out by AERB. (author)

  14. Proper use of reference materials for trace element analysis and updates on their availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: As different spectroscopic methods are used to certify reference materials (RMs) for element content, there is close interrelation between development of new methods and availability of new certified reference materials (CRMs). The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) monitors changing scientific and regulatory interests, and adapts materials to current and predicted needs. This includes the development of CRMs with new matrices, or changing analytes and concentration levels for existing types of CRMs. Recent examples are CRMs to support the EC Directives on air quality and water, for nanoparticle characterization, and progressing international standards for biofuel measurements. User guidance including appropriate CRM selection, and use of uncertainties in comparing results will be highlighted. (author)

  15. Development of delineator material/impact testing specific to managed lane use for optimization of service life : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The durability of delineators should be considered when selecting a product. Looking at the data : gathered in this project, there was a considerable gap between the quality of the top three delineators tested : and the other four. This led the resea...

  16. Modeling adaptation of carbon use efficiency in microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Allison

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In new microbial-biogeochemical models, microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE is often assumed to decline with increasing temperature. Under this assumption, soil carbon losses under warming are small because microbial biomass declines. Yet there is also empirical evidence that CUE may adapt (i.e. become less sensitive to warming, thereby mitigating negative effects on microbial biomass. To analyze potential mechanisms of CUE adaptation, I used two theoretical models to implement a tradeoff between microbial uptake rate and CUE. This rate-yield tradeoff is based on thermodynamic principles and suggests that microbes with greater investment in resource acquisition should have lower CUE. Microbial communities or individuals could adapt to warming by reducing investment in enzymes and uptake machinery. Consistent with this idea, a simple analytical model predicted that adaptation can offset 50% of the warming-induced decline in CUE. To assess the ecosystem implications of the rate-yield tradeoff, I quantified CUE adaptation in a spatially-structured simulation model with 100 microbial taxa and 12 soil carbon substrates. This model predicted much lower CUE adaptation, likely due to additional physiological and ecological constraints on microbes. In particular, specific resource acquisition traits are needed to maintain stoichiometric balance, and taxa with high CUE and low enzyme investment rely on low-yield, high-enzyme neighbors to catalyze substrate degradation. In contrast to published microbial models, simulations with greater CUE adaptation also showed greater carbon storage under warming. This pattern occurred because microbial communities with stronger CUE adaptation produced fewer degradative enzymes, despite increases in biomass. Thus the rate-yield tradeoff prevents CUE adaptation from driving ecosystem carbon loss under climate warming.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and linguistic validation of age-group-specific haemophilia patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for patients and parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Mackensen, S; Campos, I G; Acquadro, C

    2013-01-01

    by the patient and their family can be different, so it is important to assess how parents perceive the impact on their children. A series of PRO instruments have been developed, adapted to different age groups and parents of patients with haemophilia. To allow the instruments to be used internationally...

  18. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity

  19. Adaptation and security validation of an irradiator suitable for use of cesium-137 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.M.V.; Santos, W.S.; Junot, D.O.; Souza, L.F.; Souza, D.N.; Belinato, W.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of offering a new application for 137 Cs sources that were previously used in brachytherapy, we developed an irradiator by adapting a shielded storage container; this irradiator was named SOPHIA. It was assembled from a cubic iron casing, filled with lead, with external dimensions of 25*25*25 cm 3 . It has 3 different drawers with two sample holders suitable for samples or dosimeters with dimensions of up to 2 cm. Dose distribution of the surface of sample holder was obtained with EBT-3 radiochromic film and detectors thermoluminescent CaSO 4 : Dy. Regarding the security conditions of irradiation, the whole routine procedure for placement and removal of samples was simulated using Monte Carlo code. The equipment presented proper security conditions and the doses received by users during procedures for placement and extraction of the samples are in accordance with international standards. This irradiator delivering a monoenergetic photon beams of known dose rates could be used by research centers, such as university laboratories, in assessing the behavior of materials in the presence of gamma radiation and for the development of new dosimeters

  20. Translation and cultural adaptation of the CLEFT-Q for use in Colombia, Chile, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Elena; Riff, Karen W Y Wong; Vargas, Federico; Aguilera, Mirta Palomares; Alarcón, Macarena Miranda; Cazalla, Asteria Albert; Thabane, Lehana; Thoma, Achilleas; Klassen, Anne F

    2017-11-28

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is a common congenital craniofacial anomaly that may negatively affect an individual's appearance, health-related quality of life, or speech. In Spain, Colombia, and Chile the overall prevalence of CL/P ranges from 0.53 to 1.59 cases per 1000 live births. Currently, there is no patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument that is specific for patients with CL/P. The CLEFT-Q is a new PRO instrument developed to measure outcomes of treatment in patients 8 to 29 years of age with CL/P. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the CLEFT-Q for use in Colombia, Chile, and Spain. The CLEFT-Q was translated from English to 3 Spanish language varieties (Colombian, Chilean, and Spanish (Spain)) and Catalan. Translation and cultural adaptation guidelines set forth by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research were followed. The field- test version of the CLEFT-Q consisted of 13 scales (total 154 items) measuring appearance, health-related quality of life, and facial function. Forward translations revealed 10 (7%) items that were difficult to translate into Chilean, and back translations identified 34 (22%) and 21 (13%) items whose meaning differed from the English version in at least 1 of the 3 Spanish varieties and Catalan respectively. Twenty-one participants took part in cognitive debriefing interviews. Participants were recruited from plastic surgery centres in Bogotá, Colombia (n = 4), Santiago, Chile (n = 7), and Barcelona, Spain (n = 10). Most participants were males (n = 14, 67%) and were diagnosed with CL/P (n = 17, 81%). Participants reported difficulty understanding 1 item in the Colombian, 1 item in the Spanish (Spain), and 11 items from the Catalan version. Comparison of the 3 Spanish varieties revealed 61 (40%) of the 154 items whose wording differed across the 3 Spanish versions. Translation and cultural adaptation processes provided evidence of transferability of

  1. Physical Disability and Substance Use Disorders: A Convergence of Adaptation and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebener, Deborah J.; Smedema, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores issues related to substance use disorders in persons with physical disabilities and the commonalities of the parallel research in recovery and adaptation to disability. An approach for converging these areas of research is presented. Parallel research in substance abuse counseling and rehabilitation counseling reveals that…

  2. Development and fabrication of patient-specific knee implant using additive manufacturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Robert; Rochman, Arif

    2017-10-01

    Total knee replacement is the most effective treatment to relief pain and restore normal function in a diseased knee joint. The aim of this research was to develop a patient-specific knee implant which can be fabricated using additive manufacturing techniques and has reduced wear rates using a highly wear resistant materials. The proposed design was chosen based on implant requirements, such as reduction in wear rates as well as strong fixation. The patient-specific knee implant improves on conventional knee implants by modifying the articulating surfaces and bone-implant interfaces. Moreover, tribological tests of different polymeric wear couples were carried out to determine the optimal materials to use for the articulating surfaces. Finite element analysis was utilized to evaluate the stresses sustained by the proposed design. Finally, the patient-specific knee implant was successfully built using additive manufacturing techniques.

  3. Adaptive image contrast enhancement using generalizations of histogram equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J A

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for adaptive image-contrast enhancement based on a generalization of histogram equalization (HE). HE is a useful technique for improving image contrast, but its effect is too severe for many purposes. However, dramatically different results can be obtained with relatively minor modifications. A concise description of adaptive HE is set out, and this framework is used in a discussion of past suggestions for variations on HE. A key feature of this formalism is a "cumulation function," which is used to generate a grey level mapping from the local histogram. By choosing alternative forms of cumulation function one can achieve a wide variety of effects. A specific form is proposed. Through the variation of one or two parameters, the resulting process can produce a range of degrees of contrast enhancement, at one extreme leaving the image unchanged, at another yielding full adaptive equalization.

  4. Evaluation of effectiveness of raw materials and materials use in a blast furnace department of a steelworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kardas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the quality of raw materials used in the production of blast furnace pig iron. The ferruginous sinter and pellets are the basic raw materials used in the process. The paper presents the impact of those raw materials quality on the effectiveness of the blast furnace process. The process effectiveness will be specified by means of selected process parameters.

  5. Modeling of heterogeneous elastic materials by the multiscale hp-adaptive finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimczak, Marek; Cecot, Witold

    2018-01-01

    We present an enhancement of the multiscale finite element method (MsFEM) by combining it with the hp-adaptive FEM. Such a discretization-based homogenization technique is a versatile tool for modeling heterogeneous materials with fast oscillating elasticity coefficients. No assumption on periodicity of the domain is required. In order to avoid direct, so-called overkill mesh computations, a coarse mesh with effective stiffness matrices is used and special shape functions are constructed to account for the local heterogeneities at the micro resolution. The automatic adaptivity (hp-type at the macro resolution and h-type at the micro resolution) increases efficiency of computation. In this paper details of the modified MsFEM are presented and a numerical test performed on a Fichera corner domain is presented in order to validate the proposed approach.

  6. Design and Hardware Verification of Canard Based Sounding Rocket Attitude Controller Using Adaptive Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Shujiro; Matsuda, Seiji

    Canard based controller using an adaptive notch filter is proposed to control the attitude of launch vehicles including the ISAS's sounding rocket `S-520'. As the characteristics of launch vehicles are time variant in nature, conventional time invariant controller is not suitable for this purpose. Here, adaptive notch filter is proposed to treat the time variant nature. This adaptive filter acts to null out the structural bending mode, which often causes the instability of the attitude controller. The proposed adaptation law requires only limited calculation cost. It means that it is easy to install to the real flight system. The hardware module which aims to control the attitude of the sounding rocket `S-520' is designed and verified not only by the numerical simulations, but also by the hardware tests.

  7. Comparative study of adaptive controller using MIT rules and Lyapunov method for MPPT standalone PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariba, N.; Bouknadel, A.; Haddou, A.; Ikken, N.; Omari, Hafsa El; Omari, Hamid El

    2017-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Generator have a nonlinear characteristic function relating the intensity at the voltage I = f (U) and depend on the variation of solar irradiation and temperature, In addition, its point of operation depends directly on the load that it supplies. To fix this drawback, and to extract the maximum power available to the terminal of the generator, an adaptation stage is introduced between the generator and the load to couple the two elements as perfectly as possible. The adaptation stage is associated with a command called MPPT MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) whose is used to force the PVG to operate at the MPP (Maximum Power Point) under variation of climatic conditions and load variation. This paper presents a comparative study between the adaptive controller for PV Systems using MIT rules and Lyapunov method to regulate the PV voltage. The Incremental Conductance (IC) algorithm is used to extract the maximum power from the PVG by calculating the voltage Vref, and the adaptive controller is used to regulate and track quickly the PV voltage. The two methods of the adaptive controller will be compared to prove their performance by using the PSIM tools and experimental test, and the mathematical model of step-up with PVG model will be presented.

  8. Selective visual working memory in fear of spiders: The role of automaticity and material-specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinecke, A.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2009-01-01

    Following cognitive models of anxiety, biases occur if threat processing is automatic versus strategic. Therefore, most of these models predict attentional bias, but not explicit memory bias. We suggest dividing memory into the highly automatic working memory (WM) component versus long-term memory

  9. [Use of new materials results in improved prostheses. Metals, polymers, ceramics and composite materials extend durability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, L; Johansson, C

    1999-10-18

    Advances in our knowledge of multifactorial host-biomaterial interactions have improved the outcome of joint replacement surgery. Fixation and aseptic loosening are the principal foci of research. Wear debris from articulating parts is a major cause of prosthetic loosening. Tri-biological analysis, and the development of new materials and surface finishes have reduced wear particle production. The use of modular implants increases flexibility and facilitates surgical fit, but also introduces new problems such as dissociation of components, corrosion and wear. In the future, as design, biomaterials and surgical technique become further optimized, arthroplasty may also become an alternative for use in younger patients.

  10. Adaptation and Validation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) for Use in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Camacho, Aldo; Stepanous, Jessica; Blanco-Donoso, Luis M; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Wilburn, Jeanette; González-Saiz, Laura; McKenna, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is a patient-reported outcome measure of health-related quality of life and quality of life specific to individuals with pulmonary hypertension (PH). This questionnaire has demonstrated superiority over other instruments assessing similar domains. The objective of the present study was to adapt and validate the Spanish version of the questionnaire. The adaptation consisted of 3 stages: translation from English to Spanish using bilingual and lay panels, cognitive debriefing interviews with patients, and assessment of psychometric properties by means of a postal validation survey. The translation panels produced a version of the CAMPHOR that was considered suitable for use by Spanish PH patients. The relevance, comprehensiveness, and acceptability of this version were confirmed in interviews with PH patients. Finally, the validation survey (n = 70) revealed that the 3 CAMPHOR scales (Symptoms, Activities, and Quality of life) showed strong psychometric properties. The internal consistency (Cronbach α) coefficients of the scales were above 0.89, and the test-retest reliability was above 0.87. The convergent and known group validity of the CAMPHOR scales was also demonstrated. The Spanish version of the CAMPHOR is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of health-related quality of life and quality of life in Spanish PH patients. Therefore, it is recommended for use in future research and clinical practice in the Spanish population of PH patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Methodology for Simulation and Analysis of Complex Adaptive Supply Network Structure and Dynamics Using Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Rodewald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Supply networks existing today in many industries can behave as complex adaptive systems making them more difficult to analyze and assess. Being able to fully understand both the complex static and dynamic structures of a complex adaptive supply network (CASN are key to being able to make more informed management decisions and prioritize resources and production throughout the network. Previous efforts to model and analyze CASN have been impeded by the complex, dynamic nature of the systems. However, drawing from other complex adaptive systems sciences, information theory provides a model-free methodology removing many of those barriers, especially concerning complex network structure and dynamics. With minimal information about the network nodes, transfer entropy can be used to reverse engineer the network structure while local transfer entropy can be used to analyze the network structure’s dynamics. Both simulated and real-world networks were analyzed using this methodology. Applying the methodology to CASNs allows the practitioner to capitalize on observations from the highly multidisciplinary field of information theory which provides insights into CASN’s self-organization, emergence, stability/instability, and distributed computation. This not only provides managers with a more thorough understanding of a system’s structure and dynamics for management purposes, but also opens up research opportunities into eventual strategies to monitor and manage emergence and adaption within the environment.

  12. On Automatic Modeling and Use of Domain-specific Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Knappe, Rasmus; Bulskov, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    collection the general ontology is restricted to a domain specific ontology encompassing concepts instantiated in the collection. The resulting domain specific ontology and similarity can be applied for surveying the collection through key concepts and conceptual relations and provides a means for topic...

  13. An eHealth Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Social Network of Single, Chronically Impaired Older Adults: Adaptation of an Existing Intervention Using Intervention Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, Janet M; Peels, Denise A; Berendsen, Brenda Aj; Bolman, Catherine Aw; Lechner, Lilian

    2017-11-23

    Especially for single older adults with chronic diseases, physical inactivity and a poor social network are regarded as serious threats to their health and independence. The Active Plus intervention is an automated computer-tailored eHealth intervention that has been proven effective to promote physical activity (PA) in the general population of adults older than 50 years. The aim of this study was to report on the methods and results of the systematic adaptation of Active Plus to the wishes and needs of the subgroup of single people older than 65 years who have one or more chronic diseases, as this specific target population may encounter specific challenges regarding PA and social network. The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was used to systematically adapt the existing intervention to optimally suit this specific target population. A literature study was performed, and quantitative as well as qualitative data were derived from health care professionals (by questionnaires, n=10) and the target population (by focus group interviews, n=14), which were then systematically integrated into the adapted intervention. As the health problems and the targeted behavior are largely the same in the original and adapted intervention, the outcome of the needs assessment was that the performance objectives remained the same. As found in the literature study and in data derived from health professionals and focus groups, the relative importance and operationalization of the relevant psychosocial determinants related to these objectives are different from the original intervention, resulting in a refinement of the change objectives to optimally fit the specific target population. This refinement also resulted in changes in the practical applications, program components, intervention materials, and the evaluation and implementation strategy for the subgroup of single, chronically impaired older adults. This study demonstrates that the adaptation of an existing intervention is an

  14. Development and validation of the Psychological Adaptation Scale (PAS): use in six studies of adaptation to a health condition or risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, Barbara B; Erby, Lori H; Woolford, Samuel; Adcock, Jessica Young; Cohen, Julie S; Lamb, Amanda; Lewis, Katie V; Truitt, Megan; Turriff, Amy; Reeve, Bryce B

    2013-11-01

    We introduce The Psychological Adaptation Scale (PAS) for assessing adaptation to a chronic condition or risk and present validity data from six studies of genetic conditions. Informed by theory, we identified four domains of adaptation: effective coping, self-esteem, social integration, and spiritual/existential meaning. Items were selected from the PROMIS "positive illness impact" item bank and adapted from the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to create a 20-item scale. Each domain included five items, with four sub-scale scores. Data from studies of six populations: adults affected with or at risk for genetic conditions (N=3) and caregivers of children with genetic conditions (N=3) were analyzed using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). CFA suggested that all but five posited items converge on the domains as designed. Invariance of the PAS amongst the studies further suggested it is a valid and reliable tool to facilitate comparisons of adaptation across conditions. Use of the PAS will standardize assessments of adaptation and foster understanding of the relationships among related health outcomes, such as quality of life and psychological well-being. Clinical interventions can be designed based on PAS data to enhance dimensions of psychological adaptation to a chronic health condition or risk. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Comparison Of Internal Adaptation Of Fixed Restorations Fabricated From Four Different Materials By A Three Axis Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-26

    greater than 70µ reduced crown fracture resistance.1 Similarly, May et al demonstrated cement thicknesses ranging from 50-100 µm withstood twice the...caries, cement washout, and ultimate failure. 17 Methodologies to measure crown adaptation varied between the studies. Investigators have used...polyvinylsiloxane impression material to " lute" the crown to the die and then measure the thickness of the material. 1 Other studies favor cementation of

  16. Fault Adaptive Control of Overactuated Systems Using Prognostic Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most fault adaptive control research addresses the preservation of system stability or functionality in the presence of a specific failure (fault). This paper...

  17. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives.

  18. Adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate to dentine walls compared with other root-end filling materials: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükkaya Eren, Selen; Parashos, Peter

    2018-02-16

    This systematic review analysed the literature comparing marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with other filling materials in root-end cavities. The PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and Cochrane library databases were searched using appropriate keywords related to root-end filling materials and adaptation. Of 38 articles assessed, 20 met the inclusion criteria. No in vivo study was identified. In 10 studies, MTA gave the best marginal adaptation results, but no significant differences were found between MTA and any of the tested filling materials in seven studies. There was great variability in the study designs including analysed surface, unit of gap measurement and magnification amount during analysis. On the basis of available evidence, MTA presented good marginal adaptation to dentine walls. This review identified the need for the development of standardised methods to evaluate the adaptation property of root-end filling materials in ex vivo studies as well as in clinical studies evaluating outcome. © 2018 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  19. The Patriarchal Scenes and Narratives of Orson Welles'"Othello" and the Pedagogical Uses of Adapted Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-eun

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the patriarchal aspect of Welles'"Othello" and the pedagogical uses of adapted films. Focuses on differences between the narratives of Othello and those of Desdemona. Studies pedagogical uses and effects of adapted films and discusses "Shakespeare in Love" as an effective tool for instruction. (Author/VWL)

  20. Social Networking Sites Use and Cross Cultural Adaptation of Muslim Indonesian Students in Australian Universities: Valuing Cultural Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nuraryo, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Muslim Asian students have diverse specific needs when undertaking education in western country universities. Many international students use social networking sites as media for distance communication and helping in their adjustment.This study attempts to investigate the impact of using new social networking sites on the cross cultural adaptation process. Qualitative methodology was used for the study. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted for data collection. The study investigates ...

  1. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  2. ICAN Computer Code Adapted for Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in developing composite micromechanics and macromechanics theories over the last three decades. These activities have resulted in several composite mechanics theories and structural analysis codes whose applications range from material behavior design and analysis to structural component response. One of these computer codes, the Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN), is designed primarily to address issues related to designing polymer matrix composites and predicting their properties - including hygral, thermal, and mechanical load effects. Recently, under a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with a Fortune 500 corporation, Master Builders Inc., ICAN was adapted to analyze building materials. The high costs and technical difficulties involved with the fabrication of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites sometimes limit their use. Particulate-reinforced composites can be thought of as a viable alternative. They are as easily processed to near-net shape as monolithic materials, yet have the improved stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness that is characteristic of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. For example, particlereinforced metal-matrix composites show great potential for a variety of automotive applications, such as disk brake rotors, connecting rods, cylinder liners, and other hightemperature applications. Building materials, such as concrete, can be thought of as one of the oldest materials in this category of multiphase, particle-reinforced materials. The adaptation of ICAN to analyze particle-reinforced composite materials involved the development of new micromechanics-based theories. A derivative of the ICAN code, ICAN/PART, was developed and delivered to Master Builders Inc. as a part of the cooperative activity.

  3. Quality Assessment of Adaptive Bitrate Videos using Image Metrics and Machine Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Brunnström, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive bitrate (ABR) streaming is widely used for distribution of videos over the internet. In this work, we investigate how well we can predict the quality of such videos using well-known image metrics, information about the bitrate levels, and a relatively simple machine learning method...

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation and linguistic validation of age-group-specific haemophilia patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for patients and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mackensen, S; Campos, I G; Acquadro, C; Strandberg-Larsen, M

    2013-03-01

    Currently, haemophilia care aims to provide the best possible quality of life for individuals living with this chronic disease. Many factors are known to influence treatment adherence, including treatment satisfaction. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and treatment satisfaction are, therefore, important outcomes in clinical trials and clinical practice. As individuals' perception of their well-being often differs from that of their physician, it is recommended that self-report instruments are used to assess patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The way that the impact of haemophilia is perceived by the patient and their family can be different, so it is important to assess how parents perceive the impact on their children. A series of PRO instruments have been developed, adapted to different age groups and parents of patients with haemophilia. To allow the instruments to be used internationally, culturally adapted and linguistically validated translations have been developed; some instruments have been translated into 61 languages. Here, we report the process used for cultural adaptation of the Haemo-QoL, Haem-A-QoL and Hemo-Sat into 28 languages. Equivalent concepts for 22 items that were difficult to adapt culturally for particular languages were identified and classed as semantic/conceptual (17 items), cultural (three items), idiomatic (one item), and grammatical (one item) problems. This has resulted in linguistically validated versions of these instruments, which can be used to assess HRQoL and treatment satisfaction in clinical trials and clinical practice. They will provide new insights into areas of haemophilia that remain poorly understood today. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Glucocorticoids, metabolic adaptations and recovery : studies in specific mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auvinen, Hanna Elina

    2013-01-01

    Today’s Western society and work promotes a sedentary lifestyle. This, coupled with high caloric food availability has increased obesity followed by an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological data show a clear

  6. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles : Task 4B : material & construction specifications : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 4B, Materials and Construction Specifications. : This technical report...

  7. Effect of indocyanine green angiography using infrared fundus camera on subsequent dark adaptation and electroretinogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Yu, Minzhong; Wu, Dezheng; Ma, Juanmei; Wu, Lezheng

    2002-07-01

    To observe the effect of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) with infrared fundus camera on subsequent dark adaptation and the Ganzfeld electroretinogram (ERG), the ERGs of 38 eyes with different retinal diseases were recorded before and after ICGA during a 40-min dark adaptation period. ICGA was performed with Topcon 50IA retina camera. Ganzfeld ERG was recorded with Neuropack II evoked response recorder. The results showed that ICGA did not affect the latencies and the amplitudes in ERG of rod response, cone response and mixed maximum response (p>0.05). It suggests that ICGA using infrared fundus camera could be performed prior to the recording of the Ganzfeld ERG.

  8. GMFM in Infancy : Age-Specific Limitations and Adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hielkema, Tjitske; Hamer, Elisa G.; Ebbers-Dekkers, Ilse; Dirks, Tineke; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate longitudinal applicability of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) in infants younger than 2 years. Methods: Twelve infants at very high risk for cerebral palsy were enrolled between 1 and 9 months corrected age. The children were assessed 4 times during 1 year with the

  9. Adaptive behaviour in children and adolescents with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a comparison with specific learning disability and typical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Kalland, Mirjam; Santtila, Pekka; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Mattson, Sarah N.; Korkman, Marit

    2013-01-01

    Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a leading cause of intellectual disability in the western world. Children and adolescents with FASD are often exposed to a double burden in life, as their neurological sequelae are accompanied by adverse living surroundings exposing them to further environmental risk. In the present study, the adaptive abilities of a group of children and adolescents with FASD were examined using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and compared to those of a group of IQ-matched children with specific learning disorder (SLD) as well as with typically developing controls (CON). The results showed significantly different adaptive abilities among the groups: Children with FASD performed worse than IQ-matched children with SLD, who in turn performed worse than typically developing children on all domains (communication, daily living skills and socialization) on the VABS. Compared to the other groups, social skills declined with age in the FASD group. These results support previous studies of adaptive behaviour deficits in children with FASD and provide further evidence of the specificity of these deficits. On a societal level, more efforts and resources should be focused on recognizing and diagnosing FASD and supporting communication skills, daily living skills and most of all social skills across diagnostic groups within FASD. Without adequate intervention, adolescents and young adults with FASD run a great risk of marginalization and social maladjustment, costly not only to society but also to the lives of the many young people with FASD. PMID:22358422

  10. Attitude and Altitude Control of Trirotor UAV by Using Adaptive Hybrid Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Anwar Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an adaptive hybrid scheme which is based on fuzzy regulation, pole-placement, and tracking (RST control algorithm for controlling the attitude and altitude of trirotor UAV. The dynamic and kinematic model of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is unstable and nonlinear in nature with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF; that is why the stabilization of aerial vehicle is a difficult task. To stabilize the nonlinear behavior of our UAV, an adaptive hybrid controller algorithm is used, in which RST controller tuning is performed by adaptive gains of fuzzy logic controller. Simulated results show that fuzzy based RST controller gives better robustness as compared to the classical RST controller.

  11. Poverty, Dependence, Optimizing, and Adapting : Material and Spiritual Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarot, Marcel; Speelman, Willem Marie

    2017-01-01

    In the preparations of this project, there have been some serious objections against the approach of poverty as a spiritual path. Sarot argues that Christians should listen carefully to these criticisms, for ideals may easily cover up realities of evil, and, in response, contemplates the use of the

  12. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Monteiro, Othon R.

    2003-01-01

    A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes

  13. Variability of the Time Course of Stimulus-Specific Adaptation in the Inferior Colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePérez-González

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA is the ability of some neurons to respond better to rare than to frequent, repetitive stimuli. In the auditory system, it has been found at the level of the midbrain, thalamus and cortex. While previous studies have used the whole overall neuronal response to characterize SSA, here we present a detailed analysis on the variations within the time course of the evoked responses. The extracellular activity of well isolated single neurons from the inferior colliculus (IC was recorded during stimulation using an oddball paradigm, which is able to elicit SSA. At the same time, these responses were evaluated before, during and after the microiontophoretic application of gabazine, a specific antagonist of GABA-A receptors, to study the contribution of inhibition to the responses of these neurons. We then analyzed the difference signal (DS, which is the difference in the PSTH in response to rare and frequent stimuli. We found that, even in a sample of neurons showing strong SSA (i.e., showing larger preference for rare stimuli, the DS was variable and one third of the neurons contained portions that responded significantly better to the frequent stimuli than to the rare. This variability is not observed when averaging the responses of multiple cells. Furthermore, the blockade of GABA-A receptors increased the number of neurons showing portions that responded better to the frequent stimuli, indicating that inhibition in the IC refines and sharpens SSA in the neural responses. 

  14. Assessing farmer use of climate change adaptation practices and impacts on food security and poverty in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is set to be particularly disruptive in poor agricultural communities. We assess the factors influencing farmers’ choice of climate change adaptation practices and associated impacts on household food security and poverty in Pakistan using comprehensive data from 950 farmers from its major provinces. A probit model was used to investigate the factors influencing the use of climate-change adaptation practices; the censored least absolute deviation (CLAD was used to analyze the determinants of the number of adaptation practices used; and a propensity score matching (PSM approach was employed to evaluate the impact of adaptation practices on food security and poverty levels. Adjustment in sowing time (22% households, use of drought tolerant varieties (15% and shifting to new crops (25% were the three major adaptation practices used by farmers in the study area. Results show that younger farmers and farmers with higher levels of education are more likely to use these adaptation practices, as do farmers that are wealthier, farm more land and have joint families. The number of adaptation practices used was found to be positively associated with education, male household heads, land size, household size, extension services, access to credit and wealth. Farmers adopting more adaptation practices had higher food security levels (8–13% than those who did not, and experienced lower levels of poverty (3–6%. Climate change adaptation practices at farm level can thereby have significant development outcomes in addition to reducing exposure to weather risks.

  15. Ultrafast control and monitoring of material properties using terahertz pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowlan, Pamela Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Lab. for Ultrafast Materials Optical Science (LUMOS)

    2016-05-02

    These are a set of slides on ultrafast control and monitoring of material properties using terahertz pulses. A few of the topics covered in these slides are: How fast is a femtosecond (fs), Different frequencies probe different properties of molecules or solids, What can a THz pulse do to a material, Ultrafast spectroscopy, Generating and measuring ultrashort THz pulses, Tracking ultrafast spin dynamics in antiferromagnets through spin wave resonances, Coherent two-dimensional THz spectroscopy, and Probing vibrational dynamics at a surface. Conclusions are: Coherent two-dimensional THz spectroscopy: a powerful approach for studying coherence and dynamics of low energy resonances. Applying this to graphene we investigated the very strong THz light mater interaction which dominates over scattering. Useful for studying coupled excitations in multiferroics and monitoring chemical reactions. Also, THz-pump, SHG-probe spectoscopy: an ultrafast, surface sensitive probe of atomic-scale symmetry changes and nonlinear phonon dymanics. We are using this in Bi2Se3 to investigate the nonlinear surface phonon dynamics. This is potentially very useful for studying catalysis.

  16. Design optimization and analysis of selected thermal devices using self-adaptive Jaya algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.V.; More, K.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-adaptive Jaya algorithm is proposed for optimal design of thermal devices. • Optimization of heat pipe, cooling tower, heat sink and thermo-acoustic prime mover is presented. • Results of the proposed algorithm are better than the other optimization techniques. • The proposed algorithm may be conveniently used for the optimization of other devices. - Abstract: The present study explores the use of an improved Jaya algorithm called self-adaptive Jaya algorithm for optimal design of selected thermal devices viz; heat pipe, cooling tower, honeycomb heat sink and thermo-acoustic prime mover. Four different optimization case studies of the selected thermal devices are presented. The researchers had attempted the same design problems in the past using niched pareto genetic algorithm (NPGA), response surface method (RSM), leap-frog optimization program with constraints (LFOPC) algorithm, teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm, grenade explosion method (GEM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The results achieved by using self-adaptive Jaya algorithm are compared with those achieved by using the NPGA, RSM, LFOPC, TLBO, GEM and MOGA algorithms. The self-adaptive Jaya algorithm is proved superior as compared to the other optimization methods in terms of the results, computational effort and function evalutions.

  17. Adaptation and validation of the athletic identity questionnaire-adolescent for use with children

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article describes the adaptation of the Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) for Adolescents for use with children and evaluates its construct validity. Based on a theoretical model supported in adults and adolescents, the AIQ-Child measures the general attribute of athletic, which encompasses...

  18. Using the adaptive blockset for simulation and rapid prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole

    1999-01-01

    is outlined. The block types are, identification, controller design, controller and state variable filter.The use of the Adaptive Blockset is demonstrated using a simple laboratory setup. Both the use of the blockset for simulation and for rapid prototyping of a real-time controller are shown.......The paper presents the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The basics of indirect adaptive controllers are summarized. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge...... the gap between simulation and prototype controller implementation. This is done using the code generation capabilities of Real Time Workshop in combination with C s-function blocks for adaptive control in Simulink. In the paper the design of each group of blocks normally fund in adaptive controllers...

  19. Plasma protein corona modulates the vascular wall interaction of drug carriers in a material and donor specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Sobczynski

    Full Text Available The nanoscale plasma protein interaction with intravenously injected particulate carrier systems is known to modulate their organ distribution and clearance from the bloodstream. However, the role of this plasma protein interaction in prescribing the adhesion of carriers to the vascular wall remains relatively unknown. Here, we show that the adhesion of vascular-targeted poly(lactide-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA spheres to endothelial cells is significantly inhibited in human blood flow, with up to 90% reduction in adhesion observed relative to adhesion in simple buffer flow, depending on the particle size and the magnitude and pattern of blood flow. This reduced PLGA adhesion in blood flow is linked to the adsorption of certain high molecular weight plasma proteins on PLGA and is donor specific, where large reductions in particle adhesion in blood flow (>80% relative to buffer is seen with ∼60% of unique donor bloods while others exhibit moderate to no reductions. The depletion of high molecular weight immunoglobulins from plasma is shown to successfully restore PLGA vascular wall adhesion. The observed plasma protein effect on PLGA is likely due to material characteristics since the effect is not replicated with polystyrene or silica spheres. These particles effectively adhere to the endothelium at a higher level in blood over buffer flow. Overall, understanding how distinct plasma proteins modulate the vascular wall interaction of vascular-targeted carriers of different material characteristics would allow for the design of highly functional delivery vehicles for the treatment of many serious human diseases.

  20. Optimization of Natural Frequencies and Sound Power of Beams Using Functionally Graded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel T. Alshabatat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design method to optimize the material distribution of functionally graded beams with respect to some vibration and acoustic properties. The change of the material distribution through the beam length alters the stiffness and the mass of the beam. This can be used to alter a specific beam natural frequency. It can also be used to reduce the sound power radiated from the vibrating beam. Two novel volume fraction laws are used to describe the material volume distributions through the length of the FGM beam. The proposed method couples the finite element method (for the modal and harmonic analysis, Lumped Parameter Model (for calculating the power of sound radiation, and an optimization technique based on Genetic Algorithm. As a demonstration of this technique, the optimization procedure is applied to maximize the fundamental frequency of FGM cantilever and clamped beams and to minimize the sound radiation from vibrating clamped FGM beam at a specific frequency.

  1. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  2. Using the U.S. "Test of Financial Literacy" in Germany--Adaptation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Manuel; Happ, Roland; Molerov, Dimitar

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the adaptation and validation processes conducted to render the American "Test of Financial Literacy" (TFL) suitable for use in Germany (TFL-G). First, they outline the translation procedure followed and the various cultural adjustments made in line with international standards. Next, they present…

  3. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Assessments for Use in Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Gómez Soler, Inmaculada; Dell'Aquilla, Julia; Uribe, Patricia Martinez

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a 6-step process for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of counseling assessments from source document into a target language. An illustrative example is provided using the Brief Resilience Scale (Smith et al., 2008) and considerations for counseling researchers are discussed.

  4. Measuring yield performance of upland cotton varieties using adaptability, stability and principal component analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Nine upland cotton varieties/strains were tested over 36 environments in Pakistan so as to determine their stability in yield performance. The regression coefficient (b) was used as a measure of adaptability, whereas parameters such as coefficient of determination (r2) and sum of squared deviations from regression (s/sup 2/d) were used as measure of stability. Although the regression coefficients (b) of all varieties did not deviate significantly from the unit slope, the varieties CRIS-5A. BII-89, DNH-40 and Rehmani gave b value closer to unity implying their better adaptation. Lower s/sub 2/d and higher r/sub 2/ of CRIS- 121 and DNH-40 suggest that both of these are fairly stable. The results indicate that, generally, adaptability and stability parameters are independent of each in as much as not all of the parameters simultaneously favoured one variety over the other excepting the variety DNH-40, which was stable based on majority of the parameters. Principal component analysis revealed that the first two components (latent roots) account for about 91.4% of the total variation. The latent vectors of first principal component (PCA1) were smaller and positive which also suggest that most of the varieties were quite adaptive to all of the test environments. (author)

  5. Using the Concepts of Resilience, Vulnerability and Adaptability for the Assessment and Analysis of Agricultural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callo-Concha Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilience, vulnerability and adaptability have emerged as dominant concepts in the study of disturbance and change of social-ecological systems. We analyze the conceptual, methodological and operational aspects in using these concepts for the assessment and analysis of agricultural systems and try to identify differences and possible overlaps between them. The analysis is performed considering a number of published studies on agricultural systems over a wide geographical range where these concepts have been applied. Our results show a clear conceptual overlap and often the exchangeable use of the concepts. Furthermore, the driving methodological and operational criteria for their application could not be separated unambiguously. It was, thus, difficult to identify guiding principles for the operational application of the individual concepts. We stress that the operationalization of these concepts requires consistency in the approaches and protocols to ensure their coherent use. We also argue that the conceptual and operational integration of resilience, vulnerability and adaptability would perhaps lead to a more complete portrayal of the behavior of agricultural systems in changing situations. But this requires more research including the development of operational protocols for which the premises of complexity, participation and functionality seem key.

  6. Exploring climate change impacts and adaptation options for maize production in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia using different climate change scenarios and crop models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.; Asseng, S.; Rotter, R.P.; Hengsdijk, H.; Ruane, A.C.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring adaptation strategies for different climate change scenarios to support agricultural production and food security is a major concern to vulnerable regions, including Ethiopia. This study assesses the potential impacts of climate change on maize yield and explores specific adaptation

  7. Cross cultural adaptation of the menopause specific questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Adapting school-based substance use prevention curriculum through cultural grounding: a review and exemplar of adaptation processes for rural schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Margaret; Hecht, Michael L; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L; Syvertsen, Amy K; Graham, John W; Pettigrew, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    A central challenge facing twenty-first century community-based researchers and prevention scientists is curriculum adaptation processes. While early prevention efforts sought to develop effective programs, taking programs to scale implies that they will be adapted, especially as programs are implemented with populations other than those with whom they were developed or tested. The principle of cultural grounding, which argues that health message adaptation should be informed by knowledge of the target population and by cultural insiders, provides a theoretical rational for cultural regrounding and presents an illustrative case of methods used to reground the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention curriculum for a rural adolescent population. We argue that adaptation processes like those presented should be incorporated into the design and dissemination of prevention interventions.

  9. Peer attachment, specific patterns of internet use and problematic internet use in male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Iris; Tibubos, Ana N; Hardt, Jochen; Müller, Kai; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E

    2017-10-01

    Problematic internet use may lead to serious psychosocial dysfunction. Recent studies have found comparable prevalence in both male and female adolescents. We pursue the neglected questions how male and female adolescents differ regarding their patterns of internet use and how gender, peer attachment and patterns of use are related to pathological internet use. In 2410 adolescents (1307 girls and 1103 boys) aged 12-18 years from different types of school we assessed peer attachment, frequency and use of eight specific applications and indicators of pathological internet use. Three patterns of internet use, 'social'; 'sex and games" and 'functional' were identified and connections between variables were modeled by ordered sequences of regression. We found that problematic internet use-sex and games as well as social usage-was more prevalent in boys. Insecure peer attachment predicted problematic internet use in both sexes. Also, excessive usage of internet games and sex mediated the influence of peer attachment insecurity on problematic internet use, but only for boys. Our study identified that adolescents with insecure peer attachment are at higher risk for problematic internet use. With regard to specific types of internet use, the consumption of online games and sex was identified as risk factor in boys with increasing age. Further studies are needed to understand and possibly subgroup problematic internet use behavior in girls. Our findings suggest that increasing the quality of peer relationships may be promising approach in the prevention and treatment of problematic internet use.

  10. Models and Methods for Adaptive Management of Individual and Team-Based Training Using a Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitsyna, L. S.; Smetyuh, N. P.; Golikov, S. P.

    2017-05-01

    Research of adaptive individual and team-based training has been analyzed and helped find out that both in Russia and abroad, individual and team-based training and retraining of AASTM operators usually includes: production training, training of general computer and office equipment skills, simulator training including virtual simulators which use computers to simulate real-world manufacturing situation, and, as a rule, the evaluation of AASTM operators’ knowledge determined by completeness and adequacy of their actions under the simulated conditions. Such approach to training and re-training of AASTM operators stipulates only technical training of operators and testing their knowledge based on assessing their actions in a simulated environment.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS USING ION AND PHOTON BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOROK, SZ.B.; JONES, K.W.; TUNIZ, C.

    1998-01-01

    Geological specimens are often complex materials that require different analytical methods for their characterization. The parameters of interest may include the chemical composition of major, minor and trace elements. The chemical compounds incorporated in the minerals, the crystal structure and isotopic composition need to be considered. Specimens may be highly heterogeneous thus necessitating analytical methods capable of measurements on small sample volumes with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. Much essential information on geological materials can be obtained by using ion or photon beams. In this chapter we describe the principal analytical techniques based on particle accelerators, showing some applications that are hardly possible with conventional methods. In particular, the following techniques will be discussed: (1) Synchrotron radiation (SR) induced X-ray emission (SRIXE) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PEE) and other ion beam techniques for trace element analysis. (2) Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for ultra sensitive analysis of stable nuclides and long-lived radionuclides. In most of the cases also the possibilities of elemental and isotopic analysis with high resolution will be discussed

  12. Parallel simulation of multiphase flows using octree adaptivity and the volume-of-fluid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaglah, Gilou; Delaux, Sébastien; Fuster, Daniel; Hoepffner, Jérôme; Josserand, Christophe; Popinet, Stéphane; Ray, Pascal; Scardovelli, Ruben; Zaleski, Stéphane

    2011-02-01

    We describe computations performed using the Gerris code, an open-source software implementing finite volume solvers on an octree adaptive grid together with a piecewise linear volume of fluid interface tracking method. The parallelisation of Gerris is achieved by domain decomposition. We show examples of the capabilities of Gerris on several types of problems. The impact of a droplet on a layer of the same liquid results in the formation of a thin air layer trapped between the droplet and the liquid layer that the adaptive refinement allows to capture. It is followed by the jetting of a thin corolla emerging from below the impacting droplet. The jet atomisation problem is another extremely challenging computational problem, in which a large number of small scales are generated. Finally we show an example of a turbulent jet computation in an equivalent resolution of 6×1024 cells. The jet simulation is based on the configuration of the Deepwater Horizon oil leak.

  13. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerigter, S.T.; Sena, D.J.; Fasel, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified

  14. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerigter, S.T.; Sena, D.J.; Fasel, J.H.

    1998-12-31

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified.

  15. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela C Stotz

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo. In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó, and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  16. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Gisela C; Suárez, Lorena H; Gonzáles, Wilfredo L; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó) and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo). In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó), and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  17. Cultural adaptation and validation of an instrument on barriers for the use of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Guimarães Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to culturally adapt The Barriers to Research Utilization Scale and to analyze the metric validity and reliability properties of its Brazilian Portuguese version. Method: methodological research conducted by means of the cultural adaptation process (translation and back-translation, face and content validity, construct validity (dimensionality and known groups and reliability analysis (internal consistency and test-retest. The sample consisted of 335 nurses, of whom 43 participated in the retest phase. Results: the validity of the adapted version of the instrument was confirmed. The scale investigates the barriers for the use of the research results in clinical practice. Confirmatory factorial analysis demonstrated that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument is adequately adjusted to the dimensional structure the scale authors originally proposed. Statistically significant differences were observed among the nurses holding a Master's or Doctoral degree, with characteristics favorable to Evidence-Based Practice, and working at an institution with an organizational cultural that targets this approach. The reliability showed a strong correlation (r ranging between 0.77 and 0.84, p<0.001 and the internal consistency was adequate (Cronbach's alpha ranging between 0.77 and 0.82. Conclusion: the Brazilian Portuguese version of The Barriers Scale was valid and reliable in the group studied.

  18. Flight control design using a blend of modern nonlinear adaptive and robust techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong

    In this dissertation, the modern control techniques of feedback linearization, mu synthesis, and neural network based adaptation are used to design novel control laws for two specific applications: F/A-18 flight control and reusable launch vehicle (an X-33 derivative) entry guidance. For both applications, the performance of the controllers is assessed. As a part of a NASA Dryden program to develop and flight test experimental controllers for an F/A-18 aircraft, a novel method of combining mu synthesis and feedback linearization is developed to design longitudinal and lateral-directional controllers. First of all, the open-loop and closed-loop dynamics of F/A-18 are investigated. The production F/A-18 controller as well as the control distribution mechanism are studied. The open-loop and closed-loop handling qualities of the F/A-18 are evaluated using low order transfer functions. Based on this information, a blend of robust mu synthesis and feedback linearization is used to design controllers for a low dynamic pressure envelope of flight conditions. For both the longitudinal and the lateral-directional axes, a robust linear controller is designed for a trim point in the center of the envelope. Then by including terms to cancel kinematic nonlinearities and variations in the aerodynamic forces and moments over the flight envelope, a complete nonlinear controller is developed. In addition, to compensate for the model uncertainty, linearization error and variations between operating points, neural network based adaptation is added to the designed longitudinal controller. The nonlinear simulations, robustness and handling qualities analysis indicate that the performance is similar to or better than that for the production F/A-18 controllers. When the dynamic pressure is very low, the performance of both the experimental and the production flight controllers is degraded, but Level I handling qualities are still achieved. A new generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles

  19. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2012 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 12) (Stone Mountain, GA, USA, 19-21 September 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelecke, Stefan; Erturk, Alper; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Naguib, Hani; Huber, John; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Philen, Michael; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu

    2013-09-01

    The fifth annual meeting of the ASME/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) was held in beautiful Stone Mountain near Atlanta, GA. It is the conference's objective to provide an up-to-date overview of research trends in the entire field of smart materials systems. This was reflected in keynote speeches by Professor Eduard Arzt (Institute of New Materials and Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany) on 'Micro-patterned artificial 'Gecko' surfaces: a path to switchable adhesive function', by Professor Ray H Baughman (The Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas) on 'The diverse and growing family of carbon nanotube and related artificial muscles', and by Professor Richard James (University of Minnesota) on 'The direct conversion of heat to electricity using multiferroic materials with phase transformations'. SMASIS 2012 was divided into eight symposia which span basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. • SYMP 1. Development and characterization of multifunctional materials. • SYMP 2. Mechanics and behavior of active materials. • SYMP 3. Modeling, simulation and control of adaptive systems. • SYMP 4. Integrated system design and implementation. • SYMP 5. Structural health monitoring/NDE. • SYMP 6. Bio-inspired materials and systems. • SYMP 7. Energy harvesting. • SYMP 8. Structural and materials logic. This year we were particularly excited to introduce a new symposium on energy harvesting, which has quickly matured from a special track in previous years to an independent symposium for the first time. The subject cuts across fields by studying different materials, ranging from piezoelectrics to electroactive polymers, as well as by emphasizing different energy sources from wind to waves and ambient vibrations. Modeling, experimental studies, and technology applications all

  20. Synthesis and structural and thermodynamical characterization of hollandite type material intended for the specific containment of cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinekugel-Le-Cocq-Errien, A.Y.

    2005-09-01

    This thesis deals with the characterization of the Ba 1 Cs 0.28 Fe 0.82 Al 1.46 Ti 5.72 O 16 hollandite envisaged for Cs containment. Techniques used are essentially classical powder XRD or synchrotron radiation at the absorption threshold of Ba and Cs, TEM and high-temperature calorimetry. Two syntheses have been studied: an alcoxide route and a dry route. After sintering, both routes lead to an incommensurate modulated tetragonal hollandite structure (space group: I4/m(00γ)00) with a modulation vector distribution. Before sintering, the material obtained by the alcoxide route is composed of three phases: a tetragonal hollandite like above, a monoclinic Ba-free hollandite and a weak-coherence-length phase containing only Ba. On contrary, the dry route already leads to the tetragonal hollandite at this step of the synthesis. High temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry was used to derive standard enthalpy of formation of hollandite to deduce its free enthalpy of formation. (author)

  1. Real time monitoring of electronic materials and devices using microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredotti, C.

    2002-01-01

    IBIC and IBIL techniques with proton microbeams of diameter of the order of 1 μm and of energy in the interval 2 MeV-6 MeV have been used in different configurations and geometries in order to characterize frontier semiconducting or insulating materials like GaAs and CVD diamond, or more traditional materials like Si, by looking at space distribution of important transport parameters like drift and diffusion lengths. By applying lateral IBIC in GaAs Schottky diodes it had been possible to follow directly the widening of depletion region as a function of bias voltage, while for Si drift/diffusion structures a particular code has been developed in order to measure directly the diffusion length and lifetime of minority carriers. In CVD diamond both IBIC and IBIL measurements have been performed in frontal and lateral geometries. The main results are represented by the correlation between IBIC maps and morphology of the grains, with the conclusion that collection length is limited by the grain dimensions, by the proof of the validity of the linear model, by the clarification of the spatial behaviour of the 'primed' or irradiated state in terms of homogenization and improvement of charge collection length and, finally, by the observation of a quasi-complementarity in space between IBIC and IBIL maps, with the conclusion that in CVD diamond the recombination is mainly radiative. Moreover, concerning nitrogen content, a method has been proposed in order to forecast the detector quality of CVD diamond from IBIL spectra. (author)

  2. Prediction of Corrosion Resistance of Some Dental Metallic Materials with an Adaptive Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelariu, Romeu; Suditu, Gabriel Dan; Mareci, Daniel; Bolat, Georgiana; Cimpoesu, Nicanor; Leon, Florin; Curteanu, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the electrochemical behavior of some dental metallic materials in artificial saliva for different pH (5.6 and 3.4), NaF content (500 ppm, 1000 ppm, and 2000 ppm), and with albumin protein addition (0.6 wt.%) for pH 3.4. The corrosion resistance of the alloys was quantitatively evaluated by polarization resistance, estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method. An adaptive k-nearest-neighbor regression method was applied for evaluating the corrosion resistance of the alloys by simulation, depending on the operation conditions. The predictions provided by the model are useful for experimental practice, as they can replace or, at least, help to plan the experiments. The accurate results obtained prove that the developed model is reliable and efficient.

  3. Adapting and applying a multiple domain model of condom use to Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Palmgreen, Philip; Zimmerman, Rick; Noar, Seth

    2010-03-01

    This study adapts a multiple domain model (MDM) to explain condom use among a sample of sexually active Chinese college students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model. Preparatory behaviors, theory of reasoned action (TRA)/theory of planned behavior variables, impulsivity, length of relationship, and alcohol use were significant direct predictors of condom use. The results suggest that MDM can provide a better understanding of heterosexual condom use among Chinese youth, and help in the design of HIV-preventive and safer sex interventions in China.

  4. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Eccentric hypertrophy was defined as increased left ventricular mass with normal relative wall thickness.3,14 Study subjects were divided into four subgroups: normal subjects (not hypertensive and not overweight), obese subjects (having elevated. BMI but not hypertensive), hypertensive subjects.

  5. Effect of Metformin on Potassium-adapted and Non- adapted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the effects of potassium adaptation on some biochemical parameters in diabetic rats treated with metformin. Methods: Diabetes was induced via intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin in potassium- adapted and non-adapted rats and, then metformin (350 mg/kg) was administered orally.

  6. Dynamically Resolved Simulation of Atmospheric Features and Turbulence Using Advanced Models and Adaptive Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McRae, D. S; Xiao, Xudong; Hassan, Hassan A

    2005-01-01

    Development of the North Carolina State University (NCSU) adaptive high-resolution atmospheric model and the atmospheric version of the NCSU k-zeta turbulence model continued during this contract period...

  7. THE USE OF SPECIFIC AND NON-SPECIFIC QUESTIONNAIRES TO ASSESS QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF INTESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Shklyaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative assessment of the quality of life of IBS patients in the treatment process with the use of specific and non-specific questionnaires.Materials and methods: a dynamic study of quality of life in 40 patients of IBS with the use of questionnaires GSRS and SF-36.Results: marked decrease in the severity of syndromes on all 6 scales of the questionnaire GSRS, and after 1 to 3 weeks of treatment dynamics was gained statistically significant, and total score improved significantly already after 1 week of therapy. Positive dynamics was obtained on the two scales of the questionnaire SF-36 (social functioning, and emotional functioning, as well as physical and psychological components of health.Conclusions: the high sensitivity of specific questionnaire GSRS and diagnostic significance of nonspecific SF-36 questionnaire in patients with IBS, the necessity to combine them.

  8. Potential of Technogenic Mineral Raw Materials in Russia and the Issues of its Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Ivanovna Goncharova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing negative impact of mining waste on natural ecosystems often leads to their irreversible destruction, a trend that is gradually becoming global. The particular relevance of the research is explained, on the one hand, by the possibilities of minimization of specific volumes of formation of mining waste in all types of industries; on the other hand, by the possibilities of maximization of comp rehensive use of their valuable components as secondary material resources on an economically rational basis and the possibilities of restoring the disturbed natural environment. The rational use of natural and technogenic mineral raw materials is greatly facilitated by the geological exploration and geological-economic evaluation of the resources, which requires the development of specific methodological approaches to the economic justification of resource estimation parameters for outlining and calculating the multicomponent commercial reserves of raw materials and separate valuable components in them. Analysis shows that researchers’ opinions on a number of methodological principles of sustainable mining, complex processing of multicomponent materials are often contradictory. Scientific publications do not consider the issue of the price valuation of mining waste as secondary material resources. Mining waste processing should be considered as an important part of the overall socio-ecological-economic system for rational nature management. The analysis of the existing practice of using the mining waste should be based on the system approach and take into consideration geological, technological, economic, environmental and social characteristics throughout the cycle of production, combined processing and treatment of secondary waste according to the principle “from the earth to the earth”. The article identifies the main barriers to the recycling of mining wastes, proposes several methodological guidelines for the sustainable mining and

  9. Precision position control of servo systems using adaptive back-stepping and recurrent fuzzy neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Me; Kim, Jong Shik; Han, Seong Ik

    2009-01-01

    To improve position tracking performance of servo systems, a position tracking control using adaptive back-stepping control(ABSC) scheme and recurrent fuzzy neural networks(RFNN) is proposed. An adaptive rule of the ABSC based on system dynamics and dynamic friction model is also suggested to compensate nonlinear dynamic friction characteristics. However, it is difficult to reduce the position tracking error of servo systems by using only the ABSC scheme because of the system uncertainties which cannot be exactly identified during the modeling of servo systems. Therefore, in order to overcome system uncertainties and then to improve position tracking performance of servo systems, the RFNN technique is additionally applied to the servo system. The feasibility of the proposed control scheme for a servo system is validated through experiments. Experimental results show that the servo system with ABS controller based on the dual friction observer and RFNN including the reconstruction error estimator can achieve desired tracking performance and robustness

  10. Improvisation, Adaptability, and Collaboration: Using AUMI in Community Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Finch; Susan LeMessurier Quinn; Ellen Waterman

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive Use Musical Instrument (AUMI) is a digital instrument that facilitates independent music making for people with diverse ranges of mobility. Employing the camera tracking capabilities available on most digital devices, users with even very little voluntary mobility are able to create and perform music by controlling a visual cursor within adaptable parameters to trigger sounds. Instead of requiring players to conform to an instrument, AUMI’s flexibility enables it to adapt to divergen...

  11. Adaptive Response, Evidence of Cross-Resistance and Its Potential Clinical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Šuput

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Organisms and their cells are constantly exposed to environmental fluctuations. Among them are stressors, which can induce macromolecular damage that exceeds a set threshold, independent of the underlying cause. Stress responses are mechanisms used by organisms to adapt to and overcome stress stimuli. Different stressors or different intensities of stress trigger different cellular responses, namely induce cell repair mechanisms, induce cell responses that result in temporary adaptation to some stressors, induce autophagy or trigger cell death. Studies have reported life-prolonging effects of a wide variety of so-called stressors, such as oxidants, heat shock, some phytochemicals, ischemia, exercise and dietary energy restriction, hypergravity, etc. These stress responses, which result in enhanced defense and repair and even cross-resistance against multiple stressors, may have clinical use and will be discussed, while the emphasis will be on the effects/cross-effects of oxidants.

  12. Engineering grouts - materials and applications with specific examples from Ra asthan Atomic Power Pro ect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha Roy, P.K.; Sachchidanand; Sukhthankar, K.D.

    1978-01-01

    Grouting, though not very significant costwise, is an important aspect6 of construction in most of the major projects. According to modern construction technology, grouts have very stringent and diverse uses. The materials and practices generally found in India for grouting, mainly for structural grouts upto the middle of this decade are outlined along with details of specific grouts used in the construction of the twin reactor (440 MWe) of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, one reactor of which is already operational. Some guidance and tables for selection of grout for a specific use have also been given. (auth.)

  13. Reliability and consistency of plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle function using an adapted force sledge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, Laura-Anne M; Harrison, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    There are various limitations to existing methods of studying plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanics, predominantly related to measurement validity and reliability. This study utilizes an innovative adaptation to a force sledge which isolates the plantarflexors and ankle for analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the sledge loading protocol to be used, most appropriate method of data analysis and measurement reliability in a group of healthy, non-injured subjects. Twenty subjects (11 males, 9 females; age: 23.5 ±2.3 years; height: 1.73 ±0.08 m; mass: 74.2 ±11.3 kg) completed 11 impacts at five different loadings rated on a scale of perceived exertion from 1 to 5, where 5 is a loading that the subject could only complete the 11 impacts using the adapted sledge. Analysis of impacts 4–8 or 5–7 using loading 2 provided consistent results that were highly reliable (single intra-class correlation, ICC > 0.85, average ICC > 0.95) and replicated kinematics found in hopping and running. Results support use of an adapted force sledge apparatus as an ecologically valid, reliable method of investigating plantarflexor SSC function and MTU mechanics in a dynamic controlled environment. (paper)

  14. Adaptive control of lasers and their interactions with matter using femtosecond pulse shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, Anatoly

    Coherent control of chemical reactions, atomic and molecular systems, lattice dynamics, and electronic motion rely on femtosecond laser sources capable of producing programmable arbitrarily shaped waveforms. To enter the time scale of natural dynamic processes in many systems, femtosecond pulse shaping techniques must be extended to the ultrashort pulse domain (ISRS). We chose this material as a candidate for possible nonlinear oscillations regime for its wide band gap and superior optical properties allowing for high-energy excitation. To enter a nonlinear regime, however, complex asymmetric multiple-pulse excitation is required. Therefore, we make a detailed proposal of the experimental adaptive feedback implementation for optimization of phonon amplitude based on the coherent probe scattering and a novel phase mask calculation algorithm for the real-time asymmetric pulse train generation.

  15. Infrared Emissivity Measurements for Mineral Materials and Materials Used for Infrastructure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves; Ausset, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings, civil engineering structures and soils studies is useful for two specific approaches. Firstly, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures using infrared thermography requires the emissivity value of materials in the spectral bandwidth of the camera. For instance emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors like micro-bolometers arrays. The knowledge of emissivity is in that case needed for computation of surface temperature fields. Secondly, accurate thermal balance requires the emissivity value in a large wavelength domain. This is for instance the case for computing roads surface temperature to predict ice forming. A measurement of emissivity just after construction and a regular survey of its variations due to ageing or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations like thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. For mineral materials, a lot of studies exist, but often in situ value of emissivity could be different. Mineral materials are not pure, and could be soiled. Real value obtained with a field device is required. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. Thus, two devices using the indirect measurement method were developed. The emissivity value is deduced from the measurement of the reflectivity of the material under study after calibration with a highly reflective surface. The first device uses a slow modulation frequency well adapted to laboratory measurements whereas the second one is a portable system using a faster modulation frequency authorizing outdoor measurements. Both devices allow measurements in broad band (1 to 40μm) and band III (8 to 14μm). Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. For instance at that time 180 samples of different pavement wearing course

  16. Genetic specificity and potential for local adaptation between dengue viruses and mosquito vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Jason H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several observations support the hypothesis that vector-driven selection plays an important role in shaping dengue virus (DENV genetic diversity. Clustering of DENV genetic diversity at a particular location may reflect underlying genetic structure of vector populations, which combined with specific vector genotype × virus genotype (G × G interactions may promote adaptation of viral lineages to local mosquito vector genotypes. Although spatial structure of vector polymorphism at neutral genetic loci is well-documented, existence of G × G interactions between mosquito and virus genotypes has not been formally demonstrated in natural populations. Here we measure G × G interactions in a system representative of a natural situation in Thailand by challenging three isofemale families from field-derived Aedes aegypti with three contemporaneous low-passage isolates of DENV-1. Results Among indices of vector competence examined, the proportion of mosquitoes with a midgut infection, viral RNA concentration in the body, and quantity of virus disseminated to the head/legs (but not the proportion of infected mosquitoes with a disseminated infection strongly depended on the specific combinations of isofemale families and viral isolates, demonstrating significant G × G interactions. Conclusion Evidence for genetic specificity of interactions in our simple experimental design indicates that vector competence of Ae. aegypti for DENV is likely governed to a large extent by G × G interactions in genetically diverse, natural populations. This result challenges the general relevance of conclusions from laboratory systems that consist of a single combination of mosquito and DENV genotypes. Combined with earlier evidence for fine-scale genetic structure of natural Ae. aegypti populations, our finding indicates that the necessary conditions for local DENV adaptation to mosquito vectors are met.

  17. Radiation Damage Studies of Materials and Electronic Devices Using Hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellett, David; Baldwin, Andrew; Gallagher, Garratt; Olson, David; Styczinski, Marshall

    2014-05-14

    We have irradiated NdFeB permanent magnet samples from different manufacturers and with differing values of coercivity and remanence using stepped doses of 1 MeV equivalent neutrons up to a fluence of 0:64 1015n=cm2 to evaluate effects on magnetization and B field distributions. The samples with high coercivity, irradiated in open circuit configurations, showed no or minimal effects when compared with unirradiated samples, whereas the lower coercivity magnets suffered significant losses of magnetization and changes in the shapes of their field patterns. One such magnet underwent a fractional magnetization loss of 13.1% after a fluence of 0:59 1015 n=cm2. This demagnetization was not uniform. With increasing fluence, B field scans along the centerlines of the pole faces revealed that the normal component of B decreased more near the midpoint of the scan than near the ends. In addition, a fit to the curve of overall magnetization loss with fluence showed a significant deviation from linearity. The results are discussed in light of other measurements and theory. The high coercivity materials appear suitable for use in accelerator applications subject to irradiation by fast neutrons such as dipoles where the internal demagnetizing field is comparable to or less than that of the open circuit samples tested in this study.

  18. Learning an EMG Controlled Game: Task-Specific Adaptations and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Ludger; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Dijk, Hylke W; Bongers, Raoul M

    2016-01-01

    Video games that aim to improve myoelectric control (myogames) are gaining popularity and are often part of the rehabilitation process following an upper limb amputation. However, direct evidence for their effect on prosthetic skill is limited. This study aimed to determine whether and how myogaming improves EMG control and whether performance improvements transfer to a prosthesis-simulator task. Able-bodied right-handed participants (N = 28) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The intervention group was trained to control a video game (Breakout-EMG) using the myosignals of wrist flexors and extensors. Controls played a regular Mario computer game. Both groups trained 20 minutes a day for 4 consecutive days. Before and after training, two tests were conducted: one level of the Breakout-EMG game, and grasping objects with a prosthesis-simulator. Results showed a larger increase of in-game accuracy for the Breakout-EMG group than for controls. The Breakout-EMG group moreover showed increased adaptation of the EMG signal to the game. No differences were found in using a prosthesis-simulator. This study demonstrated that myogames lead to task-specific myocontrol skills. Transfer to a prosthesis task is therefore far from easy. We discuss several implications for future myogame designs.

  19. IMPLEMENTING A STUDENT-CENTERED PEDAGOGY THROUGH THE USE OF INTERESTING AND CULTURALLY CONTEXTUALIZED AUTHENTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha Kidwell

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The selection and use of appropriate materials is one of the most critical challenges facing English teachers today. In this article, we tell the stories (vignettes of some of the major challenges we have faced as educators in this regard, and we offer a research base and practical suggestions related to each vignette. Selection of interesting and culturally contextualized authentic materials can go a long way towards creating a student-centered peddagogy. This will help to increase student motivation, achievemnt, and retention. Our first recommendation is to cultivate interst in the classroom. Interest can be elicited by selecting materials that lead to individual interest, students‘ personal interests, situational interest, the inherant interest in a specific situation like amystery or a puzzle, or topic interest, interest in the subject of the activity. An excellent way to elicit student interest is through the use of authentic materials. Teachers should endeavor to create interst in their classrooms by choosing interesting topics and texts, editing those texts, and using suspense and surprise. Our second suggestion is to use culturally contextualized authentic materials. These can come from two directions: either they can be situated in the culture of the students (the ―home‖ culture, or they can be situated in the culture of native speakers (the ―target‖ culture. Use of both types of cultural materials is important, and both can be termed ―authentic.‖ The most important point is that the materials are authentic, and therefore more meaningful to students.

  20. Self-adaptive strain-relaxation optimization for high-energy lithium storage material through crumpling of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunlong; Feng, Jiangang; Liu, Xue; Wang, Fengchao; Wang, Lifen; Shi, Changwei; Huang, Lei; Feng, Xi; Chen, Xiyuan; Xu, Lin; Yan, Mengyu; Zhang, Qingjie; Bai, Xuedong; Wu, Hengan; Mai, Liqiang

    2014-08-01

    High-energy lithium battery materials based on conversion/alloying reactions have tremendous potential applications in new generation energy storage devices. However, these applications are limited by inherent large volume variations and sluggish kinetics. Here we report a self-adaptive strain-relaxed electrode through crumpling of graphene to serve as high-stretchy protective shells on metal framework, to overcome these limitations. The graphene sheets are self-assembled and deeply crumpled into pinecone-like structure through a contraction-strain-driven crumpling method. The as-prepared electrode exhibits high specific capacity (2,165 mAh g-1), fast charge-discharge rate (20 A g-1) with no capacity fading in 1,000 cycles. This kind of crumpled graphene has self-adaptive behaviour of spontaneous unfolding-folding synchronized with cyclic expansion-contraction volumetric variation of core materials, which can release strain and maintain good electric contact simultaneously. It is expected that such findings will facilitate the applications of crumpled graphene and the self-adaptive materials.

  1. Examining the Domain-Specificity of Metacognition Using Academic Domains and Task-Specific Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brianna M.; Berman, Ashleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition refers to students' knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as their accuracy in predicting their academic performance. This study addressed two major questions: 1) how do metacognitive knowledge, regulation and accuracy differ across domains?, and 2) how do students' individual differences relate to their reported…

  2. Training-specific functional, neural, and hypertrophic adaptations to explosive- vs. sustained-contraction strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshaw, Thomas G; Massey, Garry J; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Tillin, Neale A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Training specificity is considered important for strength training, although the functional and underpinning physiological adaptations to different types of training, including brief explosive contractions, are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of 12 wk of explosive-contraction (ECT, n = 13) vs. sustained-contraction (SCT, n = 16) strength training vs. control (n = 14) on the functional, neural, hypertrophic, and intrinsic contractile characteristics of healthy young men. Training involved 40 isometric knee extension repetitions (3 times/wk): contracting as fast and hard as possible for ∼1 s (ECT) or gradually increasing to 75% of maximum voluntary torque (MVT) before holding for 3 s (SCT). Torque and electromyography during maximum and explosive contractions, torque during evoked octet contractions, and total quadriceps muscle volume (QUADSVOL) were quantified pre and post training. MVT increased more after SCT than ECT [23 vs. 17%; effect size (ES) = 0.69], with similar increases in neural drive, but greater QUADSVOL changes after SCT (8.1 vs. 2.6%; ES = 0.74). ECT improved explosive torque at all time points (17-34%; 0.54 ≤ ES ≤ 0.76) because of increased neural drive (17-28%), whereas only late-phase explosive torque (150 ms, 12%; ES = 1.48) and corresponding neural drive (18%) increased after SCT. Changes in evoked torque indicated slowing of the contractile properties of the muscle-tendon unit after both training interventions. These results showed training-specific functional changes that appeared to be due to distinct neural and hypertrophic adaptations. ECT produced a wider range of functional adaptations than SCT, and given the lesser demands of ECT, this type of training provides a highly efficient means of increasing function. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Adaptive Estimation of Active Contour Parameters Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Texture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogi, Assaf; Subramaniam, Arjun; Veerapaneni, Rishi; Rubin, Daniel L

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a generalization of the level set segmentation approach by supplying a novel method for adaptive estimation of active contour parameters. The presented segmentation method is fully automatic once the lesion has been detected. First, the location of the level set contour relative to the lesion is estimated using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The CNN has two convolutional layers for feature extraction, which lead into dense layers for classification. Second, the output CNN probabilities are then used to adaptively calculate the parameters of the active contour functional during the segmentation process. Finally, the adaptive window size surrounding each contour point is re-estimated by an iterative process that considers lesion size and spatial texture. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method on a dataset of 164 MRI and 112 CT images of liver lesions that includes low contrast and heterogeneous lesions as well as noisy images. To illustrate the strength of our method, we evaluated it against state of the art CNN-based and active contour techniques. For all cases, our method, as assessed by Dice similarity coefficients, performed significantly better than currently available methods. An average Dice improvement of 0.27 was found across the entire dataset over all comparisons. We also analyzed two challenging subsets of lesions and obtained a significant Dice improvement of 0.24 with our method (p <;0.001, Wilcoxon).

  4. Systematic review of cross-cultural adaptations of hip-specific patient-reported outcome measures in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Valero, Sara; García-Pérez, Fernando; Flórez-García, Mariano Tomás; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-16

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the quality of the transcultural adaptation procedure and the clinimetric properties of the self-administered hip-disability functional assessment questionnaires adapted for the Spanish population. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Web of Science databases (from inception until June 2016) to locate all the scales adapted to Spanish and to analyze the different phases of the adaptation process and its psychometric properties. Eight scales were identified, and were grouped into three sections, according to the type of diseases in which they can be used: a) lower limb: Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI), Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Arthrosis of Membres Inférieurs et Qualité de vie (AMICAL); b) knee and/or hip: Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index, Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life (OAKHQOL) and Hip and Knee Questionnaire (HKQ); and c) specific for hip: Hip Outcome Score (HOS) and International Hip Outcome Tool-33 (iHOT-33). The transcultural adaptation procedure was satisfactory in all cases, albeit somewhat less rigorous for the HKQ and LLFI than for the remaining questionnaires. No study evaluated all the psychometric properties. We currently have 8 hip-disability functional assessment questionnaires adapted to Spanish with satisfactory psychometric properties. We can measure the patient's perceived impact of his or her hip disease by selecting, among the different options, those alternatives that best fit our clinical or research objectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  5. Contributions of weather variables for specific adaptation of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.- Arg clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshan P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific adaptation of 15 rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones was assessed by analyzing yield during a normal year (1997-98 and a year (1998-99 in which the yield was exceptional. Differences in yield in response to changes in weather conditions over the years were evident with clones RRII 203, RRIM 703, PB 5/51 and PB 235 which all exhibited a negative trend with increasing wind velocity during 1997-98, these clones also exhibited a negative correlation with minimum temperature during 1998-99. The prominent yield differences across the years made selection based on both yield and stability inevitable through computing weather variables and environmental index as covariant. To determine the contribution of variable(s to genotype-environment (GE interactions, the GE interaction was partitioned into heterogeneity and residual GE interaction. Heterogeneity only for environmental index was highly significant (p = 0.01, meaning that stability or instability of clones was due to a linear effect of the environmental index. The non-significant values of heterogeneity for the weather variables revealed that none of these factors individually was sufficient to explain heterogeneity. A QBASIC computer program called STABLE was used to select simultaneously for yield and stability. Clones PB 235, RRII 118, RRII 203, RRIM 703 and RRIM 600 were stable over the years investigated.

  6. Fourth Graders Make Inventions Using SCAMPER and Animal Adaptation Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mahjabeen; Carignan, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This study explores to what extent the SCAMPER (Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify, Put to another use, Eliminate, and Rearrange) technique combined with animal adaptation ideas learned through form and function analogy activities can help fourth graders generate creative ideas while augmenting their inventiveness. The sample consisted of 24…

  7. Sustainable groundwater use, the capture principle, and adaptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications for using the capture principle in the implementation of the NWA are discussed, and adaptive management is proposed as an appropriate management approach. Implications for groundwater monitoring are also discussed. Case studies are described that support the need for adaptive management and the ...

  8. Relationships among adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology during the treatment of comorbid anxiety and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Laren R; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Barlow, David H

    2015-10-01

    Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptive management of watersheds and related resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of learning about natural resources through the practice of management has been around for several decades and by now is associated with the term adaptive management. The objectives of this paper are to offer a framework for adaptive management that includes an operational definition, a description of conditions in which it can be usefully applied, and a systematic approach to its application. Adaptive decisionmaking is described as iterative, learning-based management in two phases, each with its own mechanisms for feedback and adaptation. The linkages between traditional experimental science and adaptive management are discussed.

  10. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Diann

    2011-09-01

    The third annual meeting of the AMSE/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in the heart of historic Philadelphia's cultural district, and included a pioneer banquet in the National Constitutional Center. The applications emphasis of the 2010 conference was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Alan Taub, vice president of General Motors global research and development, 'Smart materials in the automotive industry'; Dr Charles R Farrar, engineering institute leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 'Future directions for structural health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructure'; and Professor Christopher S Lynch of the University of California Los Angeles, 'Ferroelectric materials and their applications'. The SMASIS conference was divided into six technical symposia each of which included basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. The six symposia were: SYMP 1 Multifunctional Materials; SYMP 2 Active Materials, Mechanics and Behavior; SYMP 3 Modeling, Simulation and Control; SYMP 4 Enabling Technologies and Integrated System Design; SYMP 5 Structural Health Monitoring/NDE; and SYMP 6 Bio-inspired Smart Materials and Structures. In addition, the conference introduced a new student and young professional development symposium. Authors of papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2 and 6) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart Materials and Structures. This set of papers demonstrates the exceptional quality and originality of the conference presentations. We are appreciative of their efforts in producing this collection of highly relevant articles on smart materials.

  11. Nanostructured materials detect epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase and carcinoembryonic antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Surdu-Bob, Carmen Cristina; Badulescu, Marius

    2015-09-01

    New nanostructured materials based on thin films of Cu and Ni deposited on textile material (veil), as well as gold nanostructured microspheres were used for the design of new stochastic sensors. The stochastic sensors were able to detect simultaneously a panel of biomarkers comprising epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase, and carcinoembryonic antigen from whole blood samples with high reliabilities - recovery tests higher than 97.00%, with a RSD (%) lower than 0.1%. The stochastic sensors had shown high sensitivities and low determination levels for the detection of the proposed panel of biomarkers making early detection of lung cancer possible by fast screening of whole blood.

  12. Applications and Degradation of Proteins Used as Tissue Engineering Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Jie Wang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an up-to-date review on the applications of natural polymers, i.e., proteins, as materials for tissue engineering. Proteins are one of the important candidates for tissue engineering materials based on their superior biocompatibility, biodegradation, bioresorbability, and so on. However, their inferior mechanical properties limit their broad application. Currently-available proteins for application in tissue engineering or drug delivery systems, such as fibrin, collagen, zein, silk fibroin, keratin, casein and albumin, and the biodegradation of tissue-engineered substitutes based on proteins are presented. Techniques of scaffold fabrication are also mentioned. Problems and future possibilities for development of protein-based tissue-engineered substitutes are also introduced in this review.

  13. Experimental relationship between the specific resistance of a HEPA [High Efficiency Particulate Air] filter and particle diameters of different aerosol materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novick, V.J.; Monson, P.R.; Ellison, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The increase in pressure drop across a HEPA filter has been measured as a function of the particle mass loading using two materials with different particle morphologies. The HEPA filter media chosen, is identical to the filter media used in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) on the Savannah River Reactors. The velocity through the test filter media was the same as the velocity through the AACS media, under normal operating flow conditions. Sodium Chloride challenge particles were generated using an atomizer, resulting in regularly shaped crystalline forms. Ammonium chloride aerosols were formed from the gas phase reaction of HCl and NH 4 OH vapors resulting in irregular agglomerates. In both cases, the generation conditions were adjusted to provide several different particle size distributions. For each particle size distribution, the mass of material loaded per unit area of filter per unit pressure drop for a given filtration velocity (1/Specific resistance) was measured. Theoretical considerations in the most widely accepted filter cake model predict that the mass per unit area and per unit pressure drop should increase with the particle density times the particle diameter squared. However, these test results indicate that the increase in the mass loaded per unit area per unit pressure drop, for both materials, can be better described by plotting the specific resistance divided by the particle density as an inverse function of the particle density times the particle diameter squared. 9 refs., 7 figs

  14. Translation, Validation, and Adaptation of the Time Use Diary from English into the Malay Language for Use in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuri, Siti Noraini; Brown, Ted; Broom, Lisa J

    2016-07-01

    Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes.

  15. Costs, Substitution, and Material Use: The Case of Rare Earth Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Braeton J; Eggert, Roderick G

    2018-03-20

    Environmental technologies depend on raw materials, some of which are subject to volatile costs and availability concerns. One way to address these concerns is through substitution, of which there are many types. An important form of substitution in the short term is adopting an alternative production process, yielding a material with the same functional properties with less material input. In effect, technology substitutes for material. This study elucidates the role increased and uncertain material costs play in inducing different substitution types in the short to medium term. Specifically, this paper uses an expert survey to determine the relative importance of eight specific industry responses taken by magnet and wind turbine manufacturers in response to the 2010/2011 rare-earth price spike through 2016. Statistical tests show adopting an existing production process for magnets was the most important response, followed by cost passthrough, using an alternate magnet grade in a redesigned generator system, and using alternate systems altogether. The paper also provides specific findings for the magnet and wind turbine industries with respect to each substitution type.

  16. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SCIENTIFIC AND METHODICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF RESTORATION AND ADAPTATION OF BELARUSSIAN HISTORICAL MANORS FOR CULTURAL AND TOURIST USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Ulasiuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The executed researches of studying historical manors of Belarus, the analysis of domestic and foreign experience of restoration and modem use of manors have allowed to formulate purposes, principles, conceptual approaches and methods of restoration and adaptation of historical manors for cultural and tourist use.

  18. Site-Specific Modification Using the 2′-Methoxyethyl Group Improves the Specificity and Activity of siRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyun Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid progress has been made toward small interfering RNA (siRNA-based therapy for human disorders, but rationally optimizing siRNAs for high specificity and potent silencing remains a challenge. In this study, we explored the effect of chemical modification at the cleavage site of siRNAs. We found that modifications at positions 9 and 10 markedly reduced the silencing potency of the unmodified strand of siRNAs but were well tolerated by the modified strand. Intriguingly, addition of the 2′-methoxyethyl (MOE group at the cleavage site improved both the specificity and silencing activity of siRNAs by facilitating the oriented RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC loading of the modified strand. Furthermore, we combined MOE modifications at positions 9 and 10 of one strand together with 2′-O-methylation (OMe at position 14 of the other strand and found a synergistic effect that improved the specificity of siRNAs. The surprisingly beneficial effect of the combined modification was validated using siRNA-targeting endogenous gene intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1. We found that the combined modifications eliminated its off-target effects. In conclusion, we established effective strategies to optimize siRNAs using site-specific MOE modifications. The findings may allow the creation of superior siRNAs for therapy in terms of activity and specificity.

  19. Site-Specific Modification Using the 2'-Methoxyethyl Group Improves the Specificity and Activity of siRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinyun; Wang, Xiaoxia; Ma, Yuan; Liang, Zicai; Yang, Zhenjun; Cao, Huiqing

    2017-12-15

    Rapid progress has been made toward small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapy for human disorders, but rationally optimizing siRNAs for high specificity and potent silencing remains a challenge. In this study, we explored the effect of chemical modification at the cleavage site of siRNAs. We found that modifications at positions 9 and 10 markedly reduced the silencing potency of the unmodified strand of siRNAs but were well tolerated by the modified strand. Intriguingly, addition of the 2'-methoxyethyl (MOE) group at the cleavage site improved both the specificity and silencing activity of siRNAs by facilitating the oriented RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) loading of the modified strand. Furthermore, we combined MOE modifications at positions 9 and 10 of one strand together with 2'-O-methylation (OMe) at position 14 of the other strand and found a synergistic effect that improved the specificity of siRNAs. The surprisingly beneficial effect of the combined modification was validated using siRNA-targeting endogenous gene intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1). We found that the combined modifications eliminated its off-target effects. In conclusion, we established effective strategies to optimize siRNAs using site-specific MOE modifications. The findings may allow the creation of superior siRNAs for therapy in terms of activity and specificity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stimulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity by Using Filamentous Bacteriophage fd Targeted to DEC-205.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apice, Luciana; Costa, Valerio; Sartorius, Rossella; Trovato, Maria; Aprile, Marianna; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous bacteriophage fd, codisplaying antigenic determinants and a single chain antibody fragment directed against the dendritic cell receptor DEC-205, is a promising vaccine candidate for its safety and its ability to elicit innate and adaptive immune response in absence of adjuvants. By using a system vaccinology approach based on RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis, we describe a relevant gene modulation in dendritic cells pulsed with anti-DEC-205 bacteriophages fd. RNA-Seq data analysis indicates that the bacteriophage fd virions are sensed as a pathogen by dendritic cells; they activate the danger receptors that trigger an innate immune response and thus confer a strong adjuvanticity that is needed to obtain a long-lasting adaptive immune response.

  1. Maximizing effectiveness of adaptation action in Pacific Island communities using coastal wave attenuation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Carruthers, T.; Allison, M. A.; Weathers, D.; Moss, L.; Timmermans, H.

    2017-12-01

    Pacific Island communities are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, specifically accelerating rates of sea level rise, changes to storm intensity and associated rainfall patterns resulting in flooding and shoreline erosion. Nature-based adaptation is being planned not only to reduce the risk from shoreline erosion, but also to support benefits of a healthy ecosystem (e.g., supporting fisheries or coral reefs). In order to assess potential effectiveness of the nature-based actions to dissipate wave energy, two-dimensional X-Beach models were developed to predict the wave attenuation effect of coastal adaptation actions at the pilot sites—the villages of Naselesele and Somosomo on Taveuni island, Fiji. Both sites are experiencing serious shoreline erosion due to sea level rise and storm wave. The water depth (single-beam bathymetry), land elevation (truck-based LiDAR), and vegetation data including stem density and height were collected in both locations in a June 2017 field experiment. Wave height and water velocity were also measured for the model setup and calibration using a series of bottom-mounted instruments deployed in the 0-15 m water depth portions of the study grid. The calibrated model will be used to evaluate a range of possible adaptation actions identified by the community members of Naselesele and Somosomo. Particularly, multiple storm scenario runs with management-relevant shoreline restoration/adaptation options will be implemented to evaluate efficiencies of each adaptation action (e.g., no action, with additional planted trees, with sand mining, with seawalls constructed with natural materials, etc.). These model results will help to better understand how proposed adaption actions may influence future shoreline change and maximize benefits to communities in island nations across the SW Pacific.

  2. Comparisons of node-based and element-based approaches of assigning bone material properties onto subject-specific finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Wu, F Y; Liu, Z C; Yang, K; Cui, F

    2015-08-01

    Subject-specific finite element (FE) models can be generated from computed tomography (CT) datasets of a bone. A key step is assigning material properties automatically onto finite element models, which remains a great challenge. This paper proposes a node-based assignment approach and also compares it with the element-based approach in the literature. Both approaches were implemented using ABAQUS. The assignment procedure is divided into two steps: generating the data file of the image intensity of a bone in a MATLAB program and reading the data file into ABAQUS via user subroutines. The node-based approach assigns the material properties to each node of the finite element mesh, while the element-based approach assigns the material properties directly to each integration point of an element. Both approaches are independent from the type of elements. A number of FE meshes are tested and both give accurate solutions; comparatively the node-based approach involves less programming effort. The node-based approach is also independent from the type of analyses; it has been tested on the nonlinear analysis of a Sawbone femur. The node-based approach substantially improves the level of automation of the assignment procedure of bone material properties. It is the simplest and most powerful approach that is applicable to many types of analyses and elements. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Methodological Report: Adapting the 505 Change-of-Direction Speed Test Specific to American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Farzad, Jalilvand; Orjalo, Ashley J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Moreno, Matthew R; Wright, Glenn A

    2017-02-01

    Lockie, RG, Jalilvand, F, Orjalo, AJ, Giuliano, DV, Moreno, MR, and Wright, GA. A methodological report: Adapting the 505 change-of-direction speed test specific to American football. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 539-547, 2017-The 505 involves a 10-m sprint past a timing gate, followed by a 180° change-of-direction (COD) performed over 5 m. This methodological report investigated an adapted 505 (A505) designed to be football-specific by changing the distances to 10 and 5 yd. Twenty-five high school football players (6 linemen [LM]; 8 quarterbacks, running backs, and linebackers [QB/RB/LB]; 11 receivers and defensive backs [R/DB]) completed the A505 and 40-yd sprint. The difference between A505 and 0 to 10-yd time determined the COD deficit for each leg. In a follow-up session, 10 subjects completed the A505 again and 10 subjects completed the 505. Reliability was analyzed by t-tests to determine between-session differences, typical error (TE), and coefficient of variation. Test usefulness was examined via TE and smallest worthwhile change (SWC) differences. Pearson's correlations calculated relationships between the A505 and 505, and A505 and COD deficit with the 40-yd sprint. A 1-way analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) derived between-position differences in the A505 and COD deficit. There were no between-session differences for the A505 (p = 0.45-0.76; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84-0.95; TE = 2.03-4.13%). Additionally, the A505 was capable of detecting moderate performance changes (SWC0.5 > TE). The A505 correlated with the 505 and 40-yard sprint (r = 0.58-0.92), suggesting the modified version assessed similar qualities. Receivers and defensive backs were faster than LM in the A505 for both legs, and right-leg COD deficit. Quarterbacks, running backs, and linebackers were faster than LM in the right-leg A505. The A505 is reliable, can detect moderate performance changes, and can discriminate between football position groups.

  4. Quantitation of Solifenacin in Human Plasma using a Specific and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The MS/MS employed turbo-ion spray ionization in the positive ion mode. Solifenacin and IS were monitored at a mass to charge ratio (m/z) of 363.4 and 368.4, respectively. Bioassay validation followed International Bioanalytical Method Validation Guidelines. Results: The validated calibration curves were linear over a ...

  5. Virtual materials design using databases of calculated materials properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munter, T R; Landis, D D; Abild-Pedersen, F; Jones, G; Wang, S; Bligaard, T

    2009-01-01

    Materials design is most commonly carried out by experimental trial and error techniques. Current trends indicate that the increased complexity of newly developed materials, the exponential growth of the available computational power, and the constantly improving algorithms for solving the electronic structure problem, will continue to increase the relative importance of computational methods in the design of new materials. One possibility for utilizing electronic structure theory in the design of new materials is to create large databases of materials properties, and subsequently screen these for new potential candidates satisfying given design criteria. We utilize a database of more than 81 000 electronic structure calculations. This alloy database is combined with other published materials properties to form the foundation of a virtual materials design framework (VMDF). The VMDF offers a flexible collection of materials databases, filters, analysis tools and visualization methods, which are particularly useful in the design of new functional materials and surface structures. The applicability of the VMDF is illustrated by two examples. One is the determination of the Pareto-optimal set of binary alloy methanation catalysts with respect to catalytic activity and alloy stability; the other is the search for new alloy mercury absorbers.

  6. Flight envelope protection of aircraft using adaptive neural network and online linearisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hohyun; Kim, Youdan

    2016-03-01

    Flight envelope protection algorithm is proposed to improve the safety of an aircraft. Flight envelope protection systems find the control inputs to prevent an aircraft from exceeding structure/aerodynamic limits and maximum control surface deflections. The future values of state variables are predicted using the current states and control inputs based on linearised aircraft model. To apply the envelope protection algorithm for the wide envelope of the aircraft, online linearisation is adopted. Finally, the flight envelope protection system is designed using adaptive neural network and least-squares method. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed scheme.

  7. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can...... communicate information about materials and processes in a very concentrated and effective way. The product examples represent desired material properties but also includes information that can not be associated directly to the material, e.g. functional or perceived attributes. Previous studies suggest...... that designers often limit their selection of materials and processes to a few well-known ones. Designers need to expand the solution space by considering more materials and processes. But they have to be convinced that the materials and processes are likely candidates that are worth investing time in exploring...

  8. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can...... communicate information about materials and processes in a very concentrated and effective way. The product examples represent desired material properties but also includes information that can not be associated directly to the material, e.g. functional or perceived attributes. Previous studies suggest...... that designers often limit their selection of materials and processes to a few well-known ones. Designers need to expand the solution space by considering more materials and processes. But they have to be convinced that the materials and processes are likely candidates that are worth investing time in exploring...

  9. Sorting of pistachio nuts using image processing techniques and an adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Abdollahnejad Barough

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most important agricultural products of Iran and it is priced due to the quality and type. One of the significant factors of pistachio cost is its type in terms of shell. Filled split pistachio nut has the most quality and is utilized as nuts, while the closed shell type has lower cost, at the same time is economically efficient in food industry such as confectionery. Now, pistachio sorting is performed usually by human and sometimes using electromechanical apparatuses. Classification of pistachio by human is time consuming and is done with an unacceptable accuracy, on the other hand, electromechanical and electro optical apparatuses damages pistachio because the mechanism used in them while separating. So, the need to develop automated systems that could be implemented by intelligent ways is evident to increase the speed and accuracy of classification. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 samples of pistachios contains 100 Filled split, 100 Filled non-split and 100 split blank nuts ones are used. The training set consisted of 60 samples of each type of opened nuts, closed and empty opened shell nuts a total of 180 samples and the evaluation set consisted of 40 samples of each type of opened shell, closed shell and empty opened shell nuts a total of 120 samples. The principle of this study is implemented in two steps: 1 sample imaging and image processing to extract features 2 fuzzy network design based on the characteristics of data and training. To select useful features from the hypothesis, C4.5 decision tree is used. C4.5 algorithm makes a greedy top to bottom search on the hypothesis, and is made by the question what feature must be at the root of the tree. By the help of statistical methods, extracted features from the images were prioritized and the most appropriate features for classification of training set were selected. The algorithm chooses the best features as their number is minimum

  10. Performance assessment of electric power generations using an adaptive neural network algorithm and fuzzy DEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javaheri, Zahra

    2010-09-15

    Modeling, evaluating and analyzing performance of Iranian thermal power plants is the main goal of this study which is based on multi variant methods analysis. These methods include fuzzy DEA and adaptive neural network algorithm. At first, we determine indicators, then data is collected, next we obtained values of ranking and efficiency by Fuzzy DEA, Case study is thermal power plants In view of the fact that investment to establish on power plant is very high, and maintenance of power plant causes an expensive expenditure, moreover using fossil fuel effected environment hence optimum produce of current power plants is important.

  11. Cross‐cultural adaptation and validation of the Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale of maternal confidence assessment for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia W. Pereira

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: The transcultural adaptation and validation of the confidence maternal questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese language and culture showed good reliability for this sample. The results of its use demonstrated that maternal confidence was associated with schooling, age and parity.

  12. Adaptive finite element analysis of incompressible viscous flow using posteriori error estimation and control of node density distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiki, Taturou; Yagawa, Genki; Okuda, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    The adaptive finite element method based on an 'a posteriori error estimation' is known to be a powerful technique for analyzing the engineering practical problems, since it excludes the instinctive aspect of the mesh subdivision and gives high accuracy with relatively low computational cost. In the adaptive procedure, both the error estimation and the mesh generation according to the error estimator are essential. In this paper, the adaptive procedure is realized by the automatic mesh generation based on the control of node density distribution, which is decided according to the error estimator. The global percentage error, CPU time, the degrees of freedom and the accuracy of the solution of the adaptive procedure are compared with those of the conventional method using regular meshes. Such numerical examples as the driven cavity flows of various Reynolds numbers and the flows around a cylinder have shown the very high performance of the proposed adaptive procedure. (author)

  13. Adaptable Web Modules to Stimulate Active Learning in Engineering Hydrology using Data and Model Simulations of Three Regional Hydrologic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, E. H.; Tarboton, D. G.; Lall, U.; Bodin, M.; Rahill-Marier, B.; Chimmula, S.; Meselhe, E. A.; Ali, A.; Williams, D.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    server-based system. Open source web technologies and community-based tools are used to facilitate wide dissemination and adaptation by diverse, independent institutions. The new hydrologic learning modules are based on recent developments in hydrologic modeling, data, and resources. The modules are embedded in three regional-scale ecosystems, Coastal Louisiana, Florida Everglades, and Utah Great Salt Lake Basin. These sites provide a wealth of hydrologic concepts and scenarios that can be used in most water resource and hydrology curricula. The study develops several learning modules based on the three hydro-systems covering subjects such as: water-budget analysis, effects of human and natural changes, climate-hydrology teleconnections, and water-resource management scenarios. The new developments include an instructional interface to give critical guidance and support to the learner and an instructor's guide containing adaptation and implementation procedures to assist instructors in adopting and integrating the material into courses and provide a consistent experience. The design of the new hydrologic education developments will be transferable to independent institutions and adaptable both instructionally and technically through a server system capable of supporting additional developments by the educational community.

  14. Removal of blue indigo and cadmium present in aqueous solutions using a modified zeolitic material and an activated carbonaceous material; Remocion de azul indigo y cadmio presentes en soluciones acuosas empleando un material zeolitico modificado y un material carbonoso activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez S, E. E.

    2011-07-01

    In the last years the use of water has been increased substantially, it has been also altered its quality as a result of human activities such as mining, industrial activities and others. Water pollution caused by dyes and heavy metals has adverse effects on the environment, since both pollutants are very persisten even after conventional treatments. Denim blue and cadmium are not biodegradable. There is a growing interest in finding new, efficient and low cost alternative materials to remove such pollutants from the aqueous medium. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a modified zeolitic tuff and an activated carbonaceous material obtained from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the removal of denim blue and cadmium. The zeolitic material was modified with Na{sup +} and Fe{sup 3+} solutions to improve its sorption properties for the removal of cadmium and denim blue, respectively. Carbonaceous material was treated with 10% HCl solution to remove ashes. Both materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis (EDS), specific surface areas (Bet), thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Simultaneously, the denim blue dye was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and its pKa value was determined, these data allowed the determination of its chemical properties and its acid-base behavior in solution. In the content of this work the term indigo blue was changed by denim blue, as it corresponds to the commercial name of the dye. To assess the sorption capacity of sorbents, the sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms in batch system were determined; the results were fitted to mathematical models such as the pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and second order to describe the sorption kinetics and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms to describe sorption processes. The results show that the most efficient material to remove denim blue from aqueous solutions is the carbonaceous

  15. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  16. Processing of pulse oximeter signals using adaptive filtering and autocorrelation to isolate perfusion and oxygenation components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibey, Bennett; Subramanian, Hariharan; Ericson, Nance; Xu, Weijian; Wilson, Mark; Cote, Gerard L.

    2005-03-01

    A blood perfusion and oxygenation sensor has been developed for in situ monitoring of transplanted organs. In processing in situ data, motion artifacts due to increased perfusion can create invalid oxygenation saturation values. In order to remove the unwanted artifacts from the pulsatile signal, adaptive filtering was employed using a third wavelength source centered at 810nm as a reference signal. The 810 nm source resides approximately at the isosbestic point in the hemoglobin absorption curve where the absorbance of light is nearly equal for oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. Using an autocorrelation based algorithm oxygenation saturation values can be obtained without the need for large sampling data sets allowing for near real-time processing. This technique has been shown to be more reliable than traditional techniques and proven to adequately improve the measurement of oxygenation values in varying perfusion states.

  17. Non-destructive magnetic adaptive testing of ferromagnetic materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomáš, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 268, - (2003), s. 178-185 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/02/0236; GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : non-destructive testing * ferromagnetic material * construction steel * differencial permeability * Preisach evolution Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.910, year: 2003

  18. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs

  19. Prognostication and Risk-Adapted Therapy of Hodgkin's Lymphoma Using Positron Emission Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette L. Kasamon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET for response assessment in lymphoma is now widespread. Prognostic information obtained from PET performed after two to three cycles of chemotherapy may guide more individualized, risk-adapted therapeutic strategies. Progress in the risk stratification of Hodgkin's lymphoma through midtreatment PET is reviewed, with a focus on management implications in newly diagnosed and relapsed disease. How to tailor treatment on the basis of the interim PET result is not yet defined but is the subject of ongoing trials.

  20. On-line identification of hybrid systems using an adaptive growing and pruning RBF neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alizadeh, Tohid

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an adaptive growing and pruning radial basis function (GAP-RBF) neural network for on-line identification of hybrid systems. The main idea is to identify a global nonlinear model that can predict the continuous outputs of hybrid systems. In the proposed approach, GAP......-RBF neural network uses a modified unscented kalman filter (UKF) with forgetting factor scheme as the required on-line learning algorithm. The effectiveness of the resulting identification approach is tested and evaluated on a simulated benchmark hybrid system....

  1. Some aspects of the analysis of raw material losses and use of the woodworking industries waste

    OpenAIRE

    Stetsyuk, Nadiуa Yevhenivna

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problem of the elimination of losses and the mostefficient use of wood waste. In particular, the author pays special attention to the issues of reducingcosts of raw wood materials and more efficient use of secondary materials. The influence ofmethods of waste while wood processing on increasing the use of forestry return waste is described.A sample of classification factors affecting the losses of wood and waste use is set. The scheme ofmovement of raw-material resou...

  2. Adaptation of herders to droughts and privatization of rangeland-use rights in the arid Alxa Left Banner of Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Wenjun; Fan, Mingming

    2013-09-15

    Residents of arid areas have developed their own adaptive strategies and adaptive capability to cope with an unstable environment that experiences frequent droughts. These strategies and this capability are based on traditional practices that developed from a profound understanding of their environment, but both the strategies and the capability have been affected by institutional change. Specifically, rangeland-use rights in the Alxa Left Banner were privatized in 1996, and the implementation of this policy decreased the ability of local herders to use traditional solutions. In this paper, we describe the change in their adaptive capability after implementation of this policy. Traditionally, local knowledge of the heterogeneity of resources and of key resources based on a deep understanding of the local environment, combined with tight social relationships, let herders use three traditional grazing strategies (seasonal migration, long-distance migration, and raising a diversity of livestock species) to mitigate the impacts of drought. But privatization has nearly eliminated their ability to rely on these traditional strategies and has weakened the forms of social and other capital that supported these strategies and provided a high adaptive capability. We argue that this institutional change has adversely affected traditional practices and undermined the adaptive capability of herders. Consequently, managers of the Alxa Left Banner must find ways to restore the various forms of capital to restore the herders' adaptive capability, particularly given the growing need to account for future climate change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental impact assessment: use of literature data versus use of specific local and regional data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radiological impact assessment methodology includes a large number of parameters to simulate the environmental transfer and population exposure. Local and regional data are often not available, particularly for tropical regions, which leads to the use of literature data, mostly determined at temperate climate countries. Since 1993, IRD has been developing radioecological studies aiming the determination soil-plant transfer factors, which showed the possibility of finding values up to one order of magnitude higher than those found at temperate climate countries literature. This paper compares dose results for several scenarios, using regional and literature data, assessing the relevance of using site specific data for radiological impact assessments, for both practices and intervention situations. (author)

  4. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  5. Quantifying variety-specific heat resistance and the potential for adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Rife, Trevor W; Poland, Jesse A; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2016-08-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yields has become widely measured; however, the linkages for winter wheat are less studied due to dramatic weather changes during the long growing season that are difficult to model. Recent research suggests significant reductions under warming. A potential adaptation strategy involves the development of heat resistant varieties by breeders, combined with alternative variety selection by producers. However, the impact of heat on specific wheat varieties remains relatively unstudied due to limited data and the complex genetic basis of heat tolerance. Here, we provide a novel econometric approach that combines field-trial data with a genetic cluster mapping to group wheat varieties and estimate a separate extreme heat impact (temperatures over 34 °C) across 24 clusters spanning 197 varieties. We find a wide range of heterogeneous heat resistance and a trade-off between average yield and resistance. Results suggest that recently released varieties are less heat resistant than older varieties, a pattern that also holds for on-farm varieties. Currently released - but not yet adopted - varieties do not offer improved resistance relative to varieties currently grown on farm. Our findings suggest that warming impacts could be significantly reduced through advances in wheat breeding and/or adoption decisions by producers. However, current adaptation-through-adoption potential is limited under a 1 °C warming scenario as increased heat resistance cannot be achieved without a reduction in average yields. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Compound specific stable isotopes as probes for distinguishing the sources of biomolecules in terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M. H.; Macko, S. A.

    2003-04-01

    Life on Earth consists of orderly arrangements of several key types of organic compounds (amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, nucleic bases) that are the building blocks of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleotides. Subsequent to death, macromolecules are commonly broken down to their molecular constituents or other similar scale components. Thus, in ancient terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials, it is far more likely to expect the presence of simple compounds such as amino acids rather than the proteins from which they were possibly derived. Given that amino acids, for example, are common components of all extinct and extant organisms, the challenge has been to develop methods for distinguishing their sources. Stable isotopes are powerful probes for determining the origins of organic matter. Amino acid constituents of all organisms on Earth exhibit characteristic stable isotope compositions owing to fractionations associated with their biosynthesis. These fractionations are distinct from those observed for amino acids formed by abiotic processes. Thus it should be possible to use isotopes as probes for determining whether amino acids in ancient rocks on Earth are biotic or abiotic, based on their relative isotopic compositions. Also, owing to differences in the isotope compositions of precursors, amino acids in extraterrestrial materials such as carbonaceous meteorites are moderately to substantially enriched in the heavy isotopes of C, N and H relative to terrestrial amino acids. Assuming that the isotope compositions of the gaseous components of, for example, the Martian atmosphere were distinct from Earth at such time when organic molecules may have formed, it should be possible to distinguish these components from terrestrial contaminants by determining their isotope compositions and/or those of their respective enantiomers. Also, if life as we know it existed on another planet such as Mars, fractionations characteristic of biosynthesis should be

  7. A fully general and adaptive inverse analysis method for cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Michael S.; Damkilde, Lars; Lövgren, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    are applied when modeling the fracture mechanisms in cementitious materials, but the vast development of pseudo-strain hardening, fiber reinforced cementitious materials require inverse methods, capable of treating multi-linear σ - w functions. The proposed method is fully general in the sense that it relies...... on least square fitting between test data obtained from various kinds of test setup, three-point bending or wedge splitting test, and simulated data obtained by either FEA or analytical models. In the current paper adaptive inverse analysis is conducted on test data obtained from three-point bending...... of notched specimens and simulated data from a nonlinear hinge model. The paper shows that the results obtained by means of the proposed method is independent on the initial shape of the σ - w function and the initial guess of the tensile strength. The method provides very accurate fits, and the increased...

  8. Simultaneous expression of regulatory genes associated with specific drought-adaptive traits improves drought adaptation in peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Vemanna S; Swetha, Thavarekere N; Sheela, Shekarappa H; Babitha, Chandrashekar K; Rohini, Sreevathsa; Reddy, Malireddy K; Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Chandrashekar P; Prasad, Trichi Ganesh; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2016-03-01

    Adaptation of crops to drought-prone rain-fed conditions can be achieved by improving plant traits such as efficient water mining (by superior root characters) and cellular-level tolerance mechanisms. Pyramiding these drought-adaptive traits by simultaneous expression of genes regulating drought-adaptive mechanisms has phenomenal relevance in improving stress tolerance. In this study, we provide evidence that peanut transgenic plants expressing Alfalfa zinc finger 1 (Alfin1), a root growth-associated transcription factor gene, Pennisetum glaucum heat-shock factor (PgHSF4) and Pea DNA helicase (PDH45) involved in protein turnover and protection showed improved tolerance, higher growth and productivity under drought stress conditions. Stable integration of all the transgenes was noticed in transgenic lines. The transgenic lines showed higher root growth, cooler crop canopy air temperature difference (less CCATD) and higher relative water content (RWC) under drought stress. Low proline levels in transgenic lines substantiate the maintenance of higher water status. The survival and recovery of transgenic lines was significantly higher under gradual moisture stress conditions with higher biomass. Transgenic lines also showed significant tolerance to ethrel-induced senescence and methyl viologen-induced oxidative stress. Several stress-responsive genes such as heat-shock proteins (HSPs), RING box protein-1 (RBX1), Aldose reductase, late embryogenesis abundant-5 (LEA5) and proline-rich protein-2 (PRP2), a gene involved in root growth, showed enhanced expression under stress in transgenic lines. Thus, the simultaneous expression of regulatory genes contributing for drought-adaptive traits can improve crop adaptation and productivity under water-limited conditions. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Translation and Adaptation of the Genetic Counselling Outcome Scale (GCOS-24) for Use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Birgitte Rode; Overbeck, Gritt; Hjortshøj, Tina Duelund

    2017-01-01

    Outcome measurement in clinical genetics is challenging. Robust outcome measures are needed to provide evidence to support service development within genetic counseling. The Genetic Counselling Outcome Scale (GCOS-24), a Patient Reported Outcome Measure (PROM), was developed in English...... and validated with clinical genetics patients in the British NHS. This study reports the translation and adaptation of the GCOS-24 for use in Denmark. GCOS-24 was translated and back translated, supervised by an expert committee. Feedback on the first version was collected from genetic counseling patients...

  10. Nanostructured Shape Memory Alloys: Adaptive Composite Materials and Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crone, Wendy C; Ellis, Arthur B; Perepezko, John H

    2007-01-01

    .... Both SMA-polymer and SMA-metal composites were created, as well as new fabrication strategies for producing NiTi and CuAlNi shape memory alloy particles with refined size which still display shape...

  11. Research of fetal ECG extraction using wavelet analysis and adaptive filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuicai; Shen, Yanni; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Lin, Lan; Zeng, Yanjun; Gao, Xiaofeng

    2013-10-01

    Extracting clean fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) signals is very important in fetal monitoring. In this paper, we proposed a new method for fetal ECG extraction based on wavelet analysis, the least mean square (LMS) adaptive filtering algorithm, and the spatially selective noise filtration (SSNF) algorithm. First, abdominal signals and thoracic signals were processed by stationary wavelet transform (SWT), and the wavelet coefficients at each scale were obtained. For each scale, the detail coefficients were processed by the LMS algorithm. The coefficient of the abdominal signal was taken as the original input of the LMS adaptive filtering system, and the coefficient of the thoracic signal as the reference input. Then, correlations of the processed wavelet coefficients were computed. The threshold was set and noise components were removed with the SSNF algorithm. Finally, the processed wavelet coefficients were reconstructed by inverse SWT to obtain fetal ECG. Twenty cases of simulated data and 12 cases of clinical data were used. Experimental results showed that the proposed method outperforms the LMS algorithm: (1) it shows improvement in case of superposition R-peaks of fetal ECG and maternal ECG; (2) noise disturbance is eliminated by incorporating the SSNF algorithm and the extracted waveform is more stable; and (3) the performance is proven quantitatively by SNR calculation. The results indicated that the proposed algorithm can be used for extracting fetal ECG from abdominal signals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant-inspired adaptive structures and materials for morphing and actuation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyi; Wang, K W

    2016-12-20

    Plants exhibit a variety of reversible motions, from the slow opening of pine cones to the impulsive closing of Venus flytrap leaves. These motions are achieved without muscles and they have inspired a wide spectrum of engineered materials and structures. This review summarizes the recent developments of plant-inspired adaptive structures and materials for morphing and actuation. We begin with a brief overview of the actuation strategies and physiological features associated to these plant movements, showing that different combinations of these strategies and features can lead to motions with different deformation characteristics and response speeds. Then we offer a comprehensive survey of the plant-inspired morphing and actuation systems, including pressurized cellular structures, osmotic actuation, anisotropic hygroscopic materials, and bistable systems for rapid movements. Although these engineered systems are vastly different in terms of their size scales and intended applications, their working principles are all related to the actuation strategies and physiological features in plants. This review is to promote future cross-disciplinary studies between plant biology and engineering, which can foster new solutions for many applications such as morphing airframes, soft robotics and kinetic architectures.

  13. Isotope specific arbitrary material flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.; Post, John C.; Jones, Edwin

    2016-10-25

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  14. Quantification of biophysical adaptation benefits from Climate-Smart Agriculture using a Bayesian Belief Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Patrick J.; Berry, Nicholas J.; Wells, Geoff J.; Reay, Dave S.

    2014-10-01

    The need for smallholder farmers to adapt their practices to a changing climate is well recognised, particularly in Africa. The cost of adapting to climate change in Africa is estimated to be $20 to $30 billion per year, but the total amount pledged to finance adaptation falls significantly short of this requirement. The difficulty of assessing and monitoring when adaptation is achieved is one of the key barriers to the disbursement of performance-based adaptation finance. To demonstrate the potential of Bayesian Belief Networks for describing the impacts of specific activities on climate change resilience, we developed a simple model that incorporates climate projections, local environmental data, information from peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion to account for the adaptation benefits derived from Climate-Smart Agriculture activities in Malawi. This novel approach allows assessment of vulnerability to climate change under different land use activities and can be used to identify appropriate adaptation strategies and to quantify biophysical adaptation benefits from activities that are implemented. We suggest that multiple-indicator Bayesian Belief Network approaches can provide insights into adaptation planning for a wide range of applications and, if further explored, could be part of a set of important catalysts for the expansion of adaptation finance.

  15. Adaptive enhancement of optical fringe patterns by selective reconstruction using FABEMD algorithm and Hilbert spiral transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Patorski, Krzysztof; Wielgus, Maciej

    2012-10-08

    Presented method for fringe pattern enhancement has been designed for processing and analyzing low quality fringe patterns. It uses a modified fast and adaptive bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (FABEMD) for the extraction of bidimensional intrinsic mode functions (BIMFs) from an interferogram. Fringe pattern is then selectively reconstructed (SR) taking the regions of selected BIMFs with high modulation values only. Amplitude demodulation and normalization of the reconstructed image is conducted using the spiral phase Hilbert transform (HS). It has been tested using computer generated interferograms and real data. The performance of the presented SR-FABEMD-HS method is compared with other normalization techniques. Its superiority, potential and robustness to high fringe density variations and the presence of noise, modulation and background illumination defects in analyzed fringe patterns has been corroborated.

  16. Multisensory and Modality-Specific Influences on Adaptation to Optical Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Calzolari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation to optical prisms displacing the visual scene (prism adaptation, PA is a method used for investigating visuo-motor plasticity in healthy individuals and, in clinical settings, for the rehabilitation of unilateral spatial neglect. In the standard paradigm, the adaptation phase involves repeated pointings to visual targets, while wearing optical prisms displacing the visual scene laterally. Here we explored differences in PA, and its aftereffects (AEs, as related to the sensory modality of the target. Visual, auditory, and multisensory – audio-visual – targets in the adaptation phase were used, while participants wore prisms displacing the visual field rightward by 10°. Proprioceptive, visual, visual-proprioceptive, auditory-proprioceptive straight-ahead shifts were measured. Pointing to auditory and to audio-visual targets in the adaptation phase produces proprioceptive, visual-proprioceptive, and auditory-proprioceptive AEs, as the typical visual targets did. This finding reveals that cross-modal plasticity effects involve both the auditory and the visual modality, and their interactions (Experiment 1. Even a shortened PA phase, requiring only 24 pointings to visual and audio-visual targets (Experiment 2, is sufficient to bring about AEs, as compared to the standard 92-pointings procedure. Finally, pointings to auditory targets cause AEs, although PA with a reduced number of pointings (24 to auditory targets brings about smaller AEs, as compared to the 92-pointings procedure (Experiment 3. Together, results from the three experiments extend to the auditory modality the sensorimotor plasticity underlying the typical AEs produced by PA to visual targets. Importantly, PA to auditory targets appears characterized by less accurate pointings and error correction, suggesting that the auditory component of the PA process may be less central to the building up of the AEs, than the sensorimotor pointing activity per se. These

  17. The Specifics and Non-Specifics of using Small Interfering RNAs for Targeting of Viral Genes in a Fish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall

    2007-01-01

    , and to a lesser degree naked siRNAs, primarily entered free intraperitoneal cells including macrophage-like cells. Furthermore uptake correlated with antiviral activity seen as reduced mortality of fish challenged with VHSV. Protection at the disease level was not dependent upon which one of three tested si......RNAs was used and protection correlated with up-regulation of an interferon-related gene in the liver indicating a systemic interferon response. The results show the validity of the fish model for testing delivery and non-specific effects of siRNAs in a high throughput vertebrate model. The purchase......A novel in vivo-model composed of small juvenile rainbow trout and a fish-pathogenic virus is suggested to analyze delivery and antiviral effect of formulated siRNAs. This model was used for testing delivery of intraperitoneally injected siRNAs formulated in polycationic liposomes. These...

  18. Use of gamma spectrometry for analysis of three reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinova, L.

    2004-01-01

    All reference materials (Reference material A: weight = 49.23 g; Reference material B: weight = 36.08 g; Reference material C: weight = 26.18 g) were packed in 50 cm 3 polypropylene vials, sealed and measured consecutively three times at intervals of the average of 25 days. Low background gamma spectrometry system: HPGe detector with high energy resolution (FWHM for 1332 KeV of Co-60 is 1.9 KeV, Relative counting efficiency for the same energy is 21 %) was used. Results: All materials are of low activity and must be measured for a long time.The highest specific activity of a man-made radionuclides Cs-137 and Am-241 is in the material A. An instrumentally measurable activity of Pb-210 also can be observed in this material. Medium values are in the material B. The reference material C according to the specific activity seems to be a low natural radioactivity material with highest activity of natural nuclides Th-232 and Pa-234 (progeny of U-238). Conclusions: Gamma spectrometry is an useful tool for initial measurement of materials with low radioactivity. Such measurements give an orientation for the nuclides content and approximate activity in the material for the following radiochemical determinations

  19. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can...... communicate information about materials and processes in a very concentrated and effective way. The product examples represent desired material properties but also includes information that can not be associated directly to the material, e.g. functional or perceived attributes. Previous studies suggest....... A database that support the selection procedure has been compiled. It contains uniform descriptions of a wide range of materials and processes. For each of those, good product examples have been identified, described and associated with keywords. Product examples matching the requirements can be found using...

  20. Programming of adaptive repair process chains using repair features and function blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Spöcker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current trends of product customization and repair of high value parts with individual defects demand automation and a high degree of flexibility of the involved manufacturing process chains. To determine the corresponding requirements this paper gives an overview of manufacturing process chains by distinguishing between horizontal and vertical process chains. The established way of modeling and programming processes with CAx systems and existing approaches is shown. Furthermore, the different types of possible adaptions of a manufacturing process chain are shown and considered as a cascaded control loop. Following this it is discussed which key requirements of repair process chains are unresolved by existing approaches. To overcome the deficits this paper introduces repair features which comprise the idea of geometric features and defines analytical auxiliary geometries based on the measurement input data. This meets challenges normally caused by working directly on reconstructed geometries in the form of triangulated surfaces which are prone to artifacts. Embedded into function blocks, this allows the use of traditional approaches for manufacturing process chains to be applied to adaptive repair process chains.

  1. The detection and specifity of class specific antibodies to whole bacteria cells using a solid phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerkinsky, C.; Rees, A.S.; Bergimeier, L.A.; Challacombe, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay has been developed which can be used for the detection of isotype specific antibodies to whole bacteria and other particulate antigens, and is applicable to a variety of species. Bacteria are bound to the solid phase by the use either of antibodies, or of methyl glyoxal. Both methods result in a sensitive and reproducible assay, and bacteria do not appear to desorb from the solid phase. The specificity of antibodies to whole bacteria was examined by absorption of antisera with various species of bacteria and retesting, or by determining the binding of antisera to various bacteria bound to the solid phase. Both methods revealed specificity for the bacteria examined. Inhibition studies showed that antibodies to Streptococcus mutans whole cells could be inhibited by purified cell surface antigens glucosyltransferase and antigen I/II, but only minimally by lipoteichoic acid, c polysaccharide or dextran. In murine antisera antibodies of the IgG, IgM, and IgA classes could be detected at amounts of less than 1 ng/ml. (author)

  2. Digital lock-in detection of site-specific magnetism in magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskel, Daniel [Naperville, IL; Lang, Jonathan C [Naperville, IL; Srajer, George [Oak Park, IL

    2008-07-22

    The polarization and diffraction characteristics of x-rays incident upon a magnetic material are manipulated to provide a desired magnetic sensitivity in the material. The contrast in diffracted intensity of opposite helicities of circularly polarized x-rays is measured to permit separation of magnetic signals by element type and by atomic environment. This allows for the direct probing of magnetic signals from elements of the same species in nonequivalent atomic environments to better understand the behavior and characteristics of permanent magnetic materials. By using known crystallographic information together with manipulation of the polarization of x-rays having energies tuned near element-specific electronic excitations and by detecting and comparing the incident and diffracted photons at the same frequency, more accurate magnetic measurements can be made over shorter observation periods.

  3. Adaptive Robotic Fabrication for Conditions of Material Inconsistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes research that addresses the variable behaviour of industrial quality metals and the extension of computational techniques into the fabrication process. It describes the context of robotic incremental sheet metal forming, a freeform method for imparting 3D form onto a 2D thin ...... is an offline predictive strategy based on machine learning. Rigidisation of thin metal skins......This paper describes research that addresses the variable behaviour of industrial quality metals and the extension of computational techniques into the fabrication process. It describes the context of robotic incremental sheet metal forming, a freeform method for imparting 3D form onto a 2D thin...

  4. Materials Analysis and Modeling of Underfill Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, Nicholas B [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chambers, Robert S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The thermal-mechanical properties of three potential underfill candidate materials for PBGA applications are characterized and reported. Two of the materials are a formulations developed at Sandia for underfill applications while the third is a commercial product that utilizes a snap-cure chemistry to drastically reduce cure time. Viscoelastic models were calibrated and fit using the property data collected for one of the Sandia formulated materials. Along with the thermal-mechanical analyses performed, a series of simple bi-material strip tests were conducted to comparatively analyze the relative effects of cure and thermal shrinkage amongst the materials under consideration. Finally, current knowledge gaps as well as questions arising from the present study are identified and a path forward presented.

  5. Structural properties of porous materials and powders used in different fields of science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Volfkovich, Yury Mironovich; Bagotsky, Vladimir Sergeevich

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and concise description of most important aspects of experimental and theoretical investigations of porous materials and powders, with the use and application of these materials in different fields of science, technology, national economy and environment. It allows the reader to understand the basic regularities of heat and mass transfer and adsorption occurring in qualitatively different porous materials and products, and allows the reader to optimize the functional properties of porous and powdered products and materials. Written in an straightforward and transparent manner, this book is accessible to both experts and those without specialist knowledge, and it is further elucidated by drawings, schemes and photographs. Porous materials and powders with different pore sizes are used in many areas of industry, geology, agriculture and science. These areas include (i) a variety of devices and supplies; (ii) thermal insulation and building materials; (iii) oil-bearing geologic...

  6. Manual of use and accounting of radioactive material and procedures of radiological protection for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Miguel

    1997-03-01

    This manual of use and accounting of material radioactive and procedures of radiological safety tries to facilitate workings of protection of material radioactive in services of medicine nuclear, during diagnosis (examinations with x-rays, or those that are made in nuclear medicine), or during the processing of diseases, mainly of the carcinomas (x-ray)

  7. Durability testing of basic crystalline rocks and specification for use as road base aggregate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available . This has usually resulted in the use of more expensive materials being transported further to the road project. Twelve such materials were collected from various parts of southern Africa and tested for their durability using the standard specified tests...

  8. Sensitivity of corneal biomechanical and optical behavior to material parameters using design of experiments method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengchen; Lerner, Amy L; Funkenbusch, Paul D; Richhariya, Ashutosh; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2018-02-01

    The optical performance of the human cornea under intraocular pressure (IOP) is the result of complex material properties and their interactions. The measurement of the numerous material parameters that define this material behavior may be key in the refinement of patient-specific models. The goal of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of these parameters to the biomechanical and optical responses of human cornea predicted by a widely accepted anisotropic hyperelastic finite element model, with regional variations in the alignment of fibers. Design of experiments methods were used to quantify the relative importance of material properties including matrix stiffness, fiber stiffness, fiber nonlinearity and fiber dispersion under physiological IOP. Our sensitivity results showed that corneal apical displacement was influenced nearly evenly by matrix stiffness, fiber stiffness and nonlinearity. However, the variations in corneal optical aberrations (refractive power and spherical aberration) were primarily dependent on the value of the matrix stiffness. The optical aberrations predicted by variations in this material parameter were sufficiently large to predict clinically important changes in retinal image quality. Therefore, well-characterized individual variations in matrix stiffness could be critical in cornea modeling in order to reliably predict optical behavior under different IOPs or after corneal surgery.

  9. Taxonomy-driven adaptation of multi-layer applications using templates

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Razvan; Staikopoulos, Athanasios; Liu, Peng; Brogi, Antonio; Clarke, Siobh??n

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed Current adaptation approaches mainly work in isolation and cannot be easily integrated to tackle complex adaptation scenarios. The few existing cross-layer adaptation techniques are somewhat inflexible because the adaptation process is predefined and static. In this paper we propose a methodology for the dynamic and flexible adaptation of multi-layer applications. We use events to trigger the process of matching adaptation templates, which expose adaptation logic as BPEL pro...

  10. Classification of multiple sclerosis lesions using adaptive dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Maurel, Pierre; Barillot, Christian

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a sparse representation and an adaptive dictionary learning based method for automated classification of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Manual delineation of MS lesions is a time-consuming task, requiring neuroradiology experts to analyze huge volume of MR data. This, in addition to the high intra- and inter-observer variability necessitates the requirement of automated MS lesion classification methods. Among many image representation models and classification methods that can be used for such purpose, we investigate the use of sparse modeling. In the recent years, sparse representation has evolved as a tool in modeling data using a few basis elements of an over-complete dictionary and has found applications in many image processing tasks including classification. We propose a supervised classification approach by learning dictionaries specific to the lesions and individual healthy brain tissues, which include white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The size of the dictionaries learned for each class plays a major role in data representation but it is an even more crucial element in the case of competitive classification. Our approach adapts the size of the dictionary for each class, depending on the complexity of the underlying data. The algorithm is validated using 52 multi-sequence MR images acquired from 13 MS patients. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in MS lesion classification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Specific detection of proteins using Nanomechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Wright, V.A.; Guthy, C.

    2008-01-01

    of probes onto their surfaces in order to enable the specificity of the detection. Such nanoresonator-based specific detection of proteins is here reported using streptavidin as target system, and immobilized biotin as probe. Nanomechanical resonators resistant to stiction were first realized from silicon...... carbonitride using a novel fabrication method. Vapor-phase deposition of mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane was performed, and an added mass of 2.22 +/- 0.07 fg/mu m(2) was measured. This linker molecule was used to attach biotin onto the devices, enabling the specific detection of streptavidin. A mass of 3.6 fg....../mu m(2) was attributed to the added streptavidin, corresponding to one molecule per 27 nm(2). The specificity of this recognition was confirmed by exposing the devices to a solution of streptavidin that was already saturated with biotin. An additional negative control was also performed by also...

  12. Modular adaptive implant based on smart materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bîzdoacă, N; Tarniţă, Daniela; Tarniţă, D N

    2008-01-01

    Applications of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology are defined as Bionics. The present paper describes a bionics application of shape memory alloy in construction of orthopedic implant. The main idea of this paper is related to design modular adaptive implants for fractured bones. In order to target the efficiency of medical treatment, the implant has to protect the fractured bone, for the healing period, undertaking much as is possible from the daily usual load of the healthy bones. After a particular stage of healing period is passed, using implant modularity, the load is gradually transferred to bone, assuring in this manner a gradually recover of bone function. The adaptability of this design is related to medical possibility of the physician to made the implant to correspond to patient specifically anatomy. Using a CT realistic numerical bone models, the mechanical simulation of different types of loading of the fractured bones treated with conventional method are presented. The results are commented and conclusions are formulated.

  13. Cognitive Abilities, Social Adaptation, and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Specific Cascade Effects Across Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H

    2017-08-01

    Children's and adolescents' cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors are broadly associated with each other at the bivariate level; however, the direction, ordering, and uniqueness of these associations have yet to be identified. Developmental cascade models are particularly well-suited to (1) discern unique pathways among psychological domains and (2) model stability in and covariation among constructs, allowing for conservative tests of longitudinal associations. The current study aimed to identify specific cascade effects among children's cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors, beginning in preschool and extending through adolescence. Children (46.2 % female) and mothers (N = 351 families) provided data when children were 4, 10, and 14 years old. Cascade effects highlighted significant stability in these domains. Unique longitudinal associations were identified between (1) age-10 cognitive abilities and age-14 social adaptation, (2) age-4 social adaptation and age-10 externalizing behavior, and (3) age-10 externalizing behavior and age-14 social adaptation. These findings suggest that children's social adaptation in preschool and externalizing behavior in middle childhood may be ideal intervention targets to enhance adolescent well-being.

  14. Considering the Specific Impact of Harsh Conditions and Oil Weathering on Diversity, Adaptation, and Activity of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Strategies of Bioremediation of Harsh Oily-Polluted Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Disi, Zulfa; Jaoua, Samir; Al-Thani, Dhabia; Al-Meer, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Weathering processes change properties and composition of spilled oil, representing the main reason of failure of bioaugmentation strategies. Our purpose was to investigate the metabolic adaptation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at harsh conditions to be considered to overcome the limitations of bioaugmentation strategies at harsh conditions. Polluted soils, exposed for prolonged periods to weathered oil in harsh soils and weather conditions, were used. Two types of enrichment cultures were employed using 5% and 10% oil or diesel as sole carbon sources with varying the mineral nitrogen sources and C/N ratios. The most effective isolates were obtained based on growth, tolerance to toxicity, and removal efficiency of diesel hydrocarbons. Activities of the newly isolated bacteria, in relation to the microenvironment from where they were isoalted and their interaction with the weathered oil, showed individual specific ability to adapt when exposed to such factors, to acquire metabolic potentialities. Among 39 isolates, ten identified ones by 16S rDNA genes similarities, including special two Pseudomonas isolates and one Citrobacter isolate, showed particularity of shifting hydrocarbon-degrading ability from short chain n-alkanes (n-C12–n-C16) to longer chain n-alkanes (n-C21–n-C25) and vice versa by alternating nitrogen source compositions and C/N ratios. This is shown for the first time. PMID:28243605

  15. Helicobacter pylori Evolution: Lineage- Specific Adaptations in Homologs of Eukaryotic Sel1-Like Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, Masako; Perez, J. Christian; Mittl, Peer R. E; Lee, Hae-Kyung; Dailide, Geidrius; Tan, Shumin; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Secka, Ousman; Dailidiene, Daiva; Putty, Kalyani; Berg, Douglas E; Kalia, Awdhesh

    2007-01-01

    Geographic partitioning is postulated to foster divergence of Helicobacter pylori populations as an adaptive response to local differences in predominant host physiology. H. pylori's ability to establish persistent infection despite host inflammatory responses likely involves active management of host defenses using bacterial proteins that may themselves be targets for adaptive evolution. Sequenced H. pylori genomes encode a family of eight or nine secreted proteins containing repeat motifs t...

  16. Derivation of Accident-Specific Material-at-Risk Equivalency Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason P. Andrus; Dr. Chad L. Pope

    2012-05-01

    A novel method for calculating material at risk (MAR) dose equivalency developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) now allows for increased utilization of dose equivalency for facility MAR control. This method involves near-real time accounting for the use of accident and material specific release and transport. It utilizes all information from the committed effective dose equation and the five factor source term equation to derive dose equivalency factors which can be used to establish an overall facility or process MAR limit. The equivalency factors allow different nuclide spectrums to be compared for their respective dose consequences by relating them to a specific quantity of an identified reference nuclide. The ability to compare spectrums to a reference limit ensures that MAR limits are in fact bounding instead of attempting to establish a representative or bounding spectrum which may lead to unintended or unanalyzed configurations. This methodology is then coupled with a near real time material tracking system which allows for accurate and timely material composition information and corresponding MAR equivalency values. The development of this approach was driven by the complex nature of processing operations in some INL facilities. This type of approach is ideally suited for facilities and processes where the composition of the MAR and possible release mechanisms change frequently but in well defined fashions and in a batch-type nature.

  17. Spaceflight adaptation requires organ specific alterations in the proteomes of Arabidopsis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Life in spaceflight demonstrates remarkable adaptive processes within the specialized environments of space vehicles which are subject to the myriad of attending and...

  18. Identification and Control of Aircrafts using Multiple Models and Adaptive Critics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Jose C.

    2007-01-01

    We compared two possible implementations of local linear models for control: one approach is based on a self-organizing map (SOM) to cluster the dynamics followed by a set of linear models operating at each cluster. Therefore the gating function is hard (a single local model will represent the regional dynamics). This simplifies the controller design since there is a one to one mapping between controllers and local models. The second approach uses a soft gate using a probabilistic framework based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (also called a dynamic mixture of experts). In this approach several models may be active at a given time, we can expect a smaller number of models, but the controller design is more involved, with potentially better noise rejection characteristics. Our experiments showed that the SOM provides overall best performance in high SNRs, but the performance degrades faster than with the GMM for the same noise conditions. The SOM approach required about an order of magnitude more models than the GMM, so in terms of implementation cost, the GMM is preferable. The design of the SOM is straight forward, while the design of the GMM controllers, although still reasonable, is more involved and needs more care in the selection of the parameters. Either one of these locally linear approaches outperform global nonlinear controllers based on neural networks, such as the time delay neural network (TDNN). Therefore, in essence the local model approach warrants practical implementations. In order to call the attention of the control community for this design methodology we extended successfully the multiple model approach to PID controllers (still today the most widely used control scheme in the industry), and wrote a paper on this subject. The echo state network (ESN) is a recurrent neural network with the special characteristics that only the output parameters are trained. The recurrent connections are preset according to the problem domain and are fixed. In a

  19. Usability trade-offs for adaptive user interfaces : ease of use and learnability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paymans, T.F.; Lindenberg, J.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of context-aware user interfaces shows that adaptation mechanisms have a cost-benefit trade-off for usability. Unpredictable autonomous interface adaptations can easily reduce a system's usability. To reduce this negative effect of adaptive behaviour, we have attempted to help users

  20. MO-DE-207A-12: Toward Patient-Specific 4DCT Reconstruction Using Adaptive Velocity Binning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.D.; Glide-Hurst, C. [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Klahr, P. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: While 4DCT provides organ/tumor motion information, it often samples data over 10–20 breathing cycles. For patients presenting with compromised pulmonary function, breathing patterns can change over the acquisition time, potentially leading to tumor delineation discrepancies. This work introduces a novel adaptive velocity-modulated binning (AVB) 4DCT algorithm that modulates the reconstruction based on the respiratory waveform, yielding a patient-specific 4DCT solution. Methods: AVB was implemented in a research reconstruction configuration. After filtering the respiratory waveform, the algorithm examines neighboring data to a phase reconstruction point and the temporal gate is widened until the difference between the reconstruction point and waveform exceeds a threshold value—defined as percent difference between maximum/minimum waveform amplitude. The algorithm only impacts reconstruction if the gate width exceeds a set minimum temporal width required for accurate reconstruction. A sensitivity experiment of threshold values (0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 12%) was conducted to examine the interplay between threshold, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and image sharpness for phantom and several patient 4DCT cases using ten-phase reconstructions. Individual phase reconstructions were examined. Subtraction images and regions of interest were compared to quantify changes in SNR. Results: AVB increased signal in reconstructed 4DCT slices for respiratory waveforms that met the prescribed criteria. For the end-exhale phases, where the respiratory velocity is low, patient data revealed a threshold of 0.5% demonstrated increased SNR in the AVB reconstructions. For intermediate breathing phases, threshold values were required to be >10% to notice appreciable changes in CT intensity with AVB. AVB reconstructions exhibited appreciably higher SNR and reduced noise in regions of interest that were photon deprived such as the liver. Conclusion: We demonstrated that patient-specific

  1. Analysis and design of greenhouse temperature control using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. Atia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse is a complicated nonlinear system, which provides the plants with appropriate environmental conditions for growing. This paper presents a design of a control system for a greenhouse using geothermal energy as a power source for heating system. The greenhouse climate control problem is to create a favourable environment for the crop in order to reach predetermined results for high yield, high quality and low costs. Four controller techniques; PI control, fuzzy logic control, artificial neural network control and adaptive neuro-fuzzy control are used to adjust the greenhouse indoor temperature at the required value. MATLAB/SIMULINK is used to simulate the different types of controller techniques. Finally a comparative study between different control strategies is carried out.

  2. Modeling of various heat adapter plate 4 and 6 array for optimization of thermoelectric generator element using modified diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrianto; Tambunan, W.; Lazuardi

    2017-07-01

    The use of waste heat from exhaust gas and converting it to electricity is now an alternative to harvest a cheap and clean energy. Thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the ability to directly recover such waste heat and generate electricity. The aim of this study is to simulate the heat transfer on the aluminum adapter plate for homogeneity temperature distribution coupled with hot side of TEG type 40-40-10/100 from Firma Eureka and adjust their high temperatures to the TEG operating temperature to avoid the element damage. Modelling was carried out using MATLAB modified diffusion equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions at defined temperature which has been set at the ends of the heat source at 463K and 373K ± 10% on the hot side of the TEG element. The use of nylon insulated material is modeled after Neumann boundary condition in which the temperature gradient is ∂T/∂n = 0 out of boundary. Realization of the modelling is done by designing a heat conductive plate using software ACAD 2015 and converted into a binary file format of Mathlab to form a finite element mesh with geometry variations of solid model. The solid cubic model of aluminum adapter plate has a dimension of 40mm length, 40mm width and also 20mm, 30mm and 40mm thickness arranged in two arrays of 2×2 and 2×3 of TEG elements. Results showed a temperature decrease about 40.95% and 50.02% respectively from the initial source and appropriate with TEG temperature tolerance.

  3. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  4. Model and Adaptive Operations of an Adaptive Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Le; Zhao, Qiuyun; Shu, Hongping

    In order to keep up with the dynamical and open internet environment and in terms of component, an adaptive component model which is based on event mechanism and policy binding is proposed. Components of the model can sense external changes and give the explicit description of the external environment. According to preset policy, component also can take adaptive operations such as adding, deleting, replacing and updating when necessary, and adjust the behavior and structure of the internetware to provide better services.

  5. Comparing Computerized Adaptive and Self-Adapted Tests: The Influence of Examinee Achievement Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Steven L.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between examinee achievement-specific locus of control and the differences between self-adapted testing (SAT) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) in terms of mean estimated proficiency and posttest state anxiety. Subjects were 379 college students. A disordinal interaction was found between test type…

  6. Computational identification of adaptive mutants using the VERT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler James

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Evolutionary dynamics of microbial organisms can now be visualized using the Visualizing Evolution in Real Time (VERT system, in which several isogenic strains expressing different fluorescent proteins compete during adaptive evolution and are tracked using fluorescent cell sorting to construct a population history over time. Mutations conferring enhanced growth rates can be detected by observing changes in the fluorescent population proportions. Results Using data obtained from several VERT experiments, we construct a hidden Markov-derived model to detect these adaptive events in VERT experiments without external intervention beyond initial training. Analysis of annotated data revealed that the model achieves consensus with human annotation for 85-93% of the data points when detecting adaptive events. A method to determine the optimal time point to isolate adaptive mutants is also introduced. Conclusions The developed model offers a new way to monitor adaptive evolution experiments without the need for external intervention, thereby simplifying adaptive evolution efforts relying on population tracking. Future efforts to construct a fully automated system to isolate adaptive mutants may find the algorithm a useful tool.

  7. Limitations of science and adapting to Nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, T N

    2007-01-01

    Historically, science has pursued a premise that Nature can be understood fully, its future predicted precisely, and its behavior controlled at will. However, emerging knowledge indicates that the nature of Earth and biological systems transcends the limits of science, questioning the premise of knowing, prediction, and control. This knowledge has led to the recognition that, for civilized human survival, technological society has to adapt to the constraints of these systems. Simultaneously, spurred by explosive developments in the understanding of materials (non-biological and biological), applied scientific research pursues a contrary goal of controlling the material world, with the promise of spectacular economic growth and human well-being. If adaptation to Nature is so important, why does applied research pursue a contrary course? Adapting to Nature requires a recognition of the limitations of science, and espousal of human values. Although the concept of adapting to Nature is accepted by some, especially conservation ecologists, such an acceptance may not exist in other fields. Also, in a world dominated by democratic ideals of freedom and liberty, the discipline required for adapting to Nature may often be overridden by competition among various segments of society to exercise their respective rights. In extreme cases of catastrophic failure of Earth or biological systems, the imperative for adaptation may fall victim to instinct for survival. In essence, although adequate scientific know-how and technological competence exists to facilitate adaptation to Nature, choosing between that and the pursuit of controlling Nature entails human judgment. What that choice may be when humans have to survive under severe environmental stress cannot be predicted

  8. Event-Specific Cannabis Use and Cannabis Use Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Walukevich, Katherine A; Henslee, Amber M

    2017-11-21

    Specific events such as Mardi Gras (MG) and St. Patrick's Day (SPD) have been identified as high-risk events for cannabis use. Further, some campuses may have traditions that are associated with more event-specific cannabis use. Campus A has specific traditions regarding MG whereas Campus B has specific traditions regarding SPD and these campuses are differentially related to event-specific cannabis use (Buckner, Henslee, & Jeffries, 2015 ). Yet, little work has identified individual difference variables related to high-risk cannabis use events. Current cannabis using undergraduates (N = 154) at two campuses completed an online survey of event-specific cannabis use motives, cannabis use, and cannabis-related problems. Campus A endorsed more MG-specific social and enhancement motives than Campus B. Campus A reported more socially, enhancement, coping, conformity, and expansion motivated cannabis use on MG than on SPD, whereas Campus B reported more socially and enhancement motivated cannabis use on SPD than on MG. Campus A was indirectly related to more MG-specific cannabis use through MG-specific social and enhancement motives. Conclusions/Importance: Event-specific cannabis motives are differentially related to specific high-risk cannabis use events and may be important therapeutic targets.

  9. Cross-cultural evidence for multimodal motherese: Asian Indian mothers' adaptive use of synchronous words and gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Lakshmi; Maganti, Madhavilatha; Bahrick, Lorraine E

    2015-01-01

    In a quasi-experimental study, 24 Asian Indian mothers were asked to teach novel (target) names for two objects and two actions to their children of three different levels of lexical mapping development: prelexical (5-8 months), early lexical (9-17 months), and advanced lexical (20-43 months). Target naming (n=1482) and non-target naming (other, n=2411) were coded for synchronous spoken words and object motion (multimodal motherese) and other naming styles. Indian mothers abundantly used multimodal motherese with target words to highlight novel word-referent relations, paralleling earlier findings from American mothers. They used it with target words more often for prelexical infants than for advanced lexical children and to name target actions later in children's development. Unlike American mothers, Indian mothers also abundantly used multimodal motherese to name target objects later in children's development. Finally, monolingual mothers who spoke a verb-dominant Indian language used multimodal motherese more often than bilingual mothers who also spoke noun-dominant English to their children. The findings suggest that within a dynamic and reciprocal mother-infant communication system, multimodal motherese adapts to unify novel words and referents across cultures. It adapts to children's level of lexical development and to ambient language-specific lexical dominance hierarchies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physicochemical properties and interfacial adaptation of root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, Piedad S; Berástegui, Ester; Gaton-Hernández, Patrícia; Silva, Léa A B; Leite, Giselle A; Silva, Roberto S

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the physicochemical properties and interfacial adaptation to canal walls of Endo-CPM-Sealer, Sealapex and Activ GP with the well-established AH Plus sealer. The following analyses were performed: radiopacity, pH variation and solubility using samples of each material and scanning electron microscopy of root-filled bovine incisors to evaluate the interfacial adaptation. Data were analyzed by the parametric and no-parametric tests (α=0.05). All materials were in accordance with the ANSI/ADA requirements for radiopacity. Endo-CPM-Sealer presented the lowest radiopacity values and AH Plus was the most radiopaque sealer (p=0.0001). Except for ActiV GP, which was acidic, all other sealers had basic chemical nature and released hydroxyl ions. Regarding solubility, all materials met the ANSI/ADA recommendations, with no statistically significant difference between the sealers (p=0.0834). AH Plus presented the best adaptation to canal walls in the middle (p=0.0023) and apical (p=0.0012) thirds, while the sealers Activ GP and Endo-CPM-Sealer had poor adaptation to the canal walls. All sealers, except for ActiV GP, were alkaline and all of them fulfilled the ANSI/ADA requirements for radiopacity and solubility. Regarding the interfacial adaptation, AH Plus was superior to the others considering the adaptation to the bovine root canal walls.

  11. Comparison of material property specifications of austenitic steels in fast breeder reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderborck, Y.; Van Mulders, E.

    1985-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are very widely used in components for European Fast Breeder Reactors. The Activity Group Nr.3 ''Materials'', within Working Group ''Codes and Standards'' of the Fast Reactor Co-Ordination Committee of the European Communities, has decided to initiate a study to compare the material property specifications of the austenitic stainless steel used in the European Fast Breeder Technology. Hence, this study would allow one to view rapidly the designation of a particular steel grade in different European countries and to compare given property values for a same grade. There were dissimilarities, differences or voids appear, it could lead to an attempt to complete and/or to uniformize the nationally given values, so that on a practical level interchangeability, availability and use ease design and construction work. A selection of the materials and of their properties has been made by the Working Group. Materials examined are Stainless Steel AISI 304, 304 L, 304 LN, 316, 316 L, 316 LN, 316''Ti stab.'', 316''Nb stab''., 321, 347

  12. The limit of irrigation adaption due to the inter-crop conflict of water use under changing climate and landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M.; Iizumi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Kotoku, M.; Sakurai, G.; Nishimori, M.

    2017-12-01

    Replacing rainfed cropping system by irrigated one is assumed to be an effective measure for climate change adaptation in agriculture. However, in many agricultural impact assessments, future irrigation scenarios are externally given and do not consider variations in the availability of irrigation water under changing climate and land use. Therefore, we assess the potential effects of adaption measure expanding irrigated area under climate change by using a large-scale crop-river coupled model, CROVER [Okada et al. 2015, JAMES]. The CROVER model simulates the large-scale terrestrial hydrological cycle and crop growth depending on climate, soil properties, landuse, crop cultivation management, socio-economic water demand, and reservoir operation management. The bias-corrected GCMs outputs under the RCP 8.5 scenario were used. The future expansion of irrigation area was estimated by using the extrapolation method based on the historical change in irrigated and rainfed areas. As the results, the irrigation adaptation has only a limited effect on the rice production in East Asia due to the conflict of water use for irrigation with the other crops, whose farmlands require unsustainable water extraction with the excessively expanding irrigated area. In contrast, the irrigation adaptation benefits maize production in Europe due to the little conflict of water use for irrigation. Our findings suggest the importance of simulating the river water availability and crop production in a single model for the more realistic assessment in the irrigation adaptation potential effects of crop production under changing climate and land use.

  13. Development of highly effective neutron shields and neutron absorbing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, K.; Matsuda, F.; Taniuchi, H.; Yuhara, T.; Iida, T.

    1993-01-01

    A wide range of materials, including polymers and hydrogen-occluded alloys that might be usable as the neutron shielding material were examined. And a wide range of materials, including aluminum alloys that might be usable as the neutron-absorbing material were examined. After screening, the candidate material was determined on the basis of evaluation regarding its adaptabilities as a high-performance neutron-shielding and neutron-absorbing material. This candidate material was manufactured for trial, after which material properties tests, neutron-shielding tests and neutron-absorbing tests were carried out on it. The specifications of this material were thus determined. This research has resulted in materials of good performance; a neutron-shielding material based on ethylene propylene rubber and titanium hydride, and a neutron-absorbing material based on aluminum and titanium hydride. (author)

  14. 48 CFR 9904.407 - Use of standard costs for direct material and direct labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... direct material and direct labor. 9904.407 Section 9904.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST... PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407 Use of standard costs for direct material and direct labor. ...

  15. Study of registration threshold for minimal specific weight of particles when investigating shock-wave ejection from material surface using laser heterodyne-interferometer. Recording of multiple doppler frequency shift effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexey; Mikhailov, Anatoly; Finyushin, Stanislav; Chudakov, Ev'geniy; Kalashnikov, Denis; Butusov, Ev'geniy; Gnutov, Ivan

    2017-06-01

    When the shock wave reaches the free metal surface, the particle ejection occurs. Particle flow parameters are recorded by different methods. This paper contains the results of experimental series on determination of minimal specific weight of the particle flow, when particle velocities can be recorded using laser heterodyne-interferometer (PDV method). The registration threshold is determined by measuring the velocity of ejected particles after coating a test surface with a layer of particles having the certain specific weight. The effect of laser emission interaction with a thin layer of particles is recorded in experiments, and it causes the multiple Doppler frequency shift. This effect plays a vital role in interpretation of data obtained in experiments with recording of parameters of shock loaded ejection of materials.

  16. 18 CFR 1317.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 1317.425 Section 1317.425 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Activities Prohibited § 1317.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A...

  17. 31 CFR 28.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 28.425 Section 28.425 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the....425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not...

  18. Energetic and chemical use of waste material and renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, C.; Houmoeller, A.P. [ELSAM, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The paper will begin with a summary of the Danish energy policies from the mid-1970s and until today when the focus is on national self-sufficiency and combined heat and power - including industrial combined heat and power and renewable energies with emphasis on wind turbines and biofuels. The planning conditions of the Danish electricity utilities will be discussed, i.e. 20 per cent CO{sub 2} reduction by 2005, continuous reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, and finally the conversion of 5 per cent of the fuel from coal to straw and wood chips. Afterwards, the status of biofuels in Denmark will be described with emphasis on resources and prices. The main biofuel in Denmark is surplus production from agriculture - straw or other biofuels with straw-like properties. (orig./GL)

  19. [Scientific ethics and the use of human material or data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2012-03-01

    A scientific article censured by superposing obstacles to its reading remembers the censure of Galileo made by the Inquisition. The censure followed the failure to obtain the informed consent (IC) to disclose results of old samples. At present, the use of collected data or samples for a new research needs a new IC, in most ethical protocols. The Helsinki Code allows the research ethics committees the authorization for the use of that information. This norm is founded rather in commercial, legal or protective arguments than in ethical bases. This article criticizes this norm from the Scientific Ethics viewpoint because: i) the ownership of the genome and environment that originate a person is not of such person but of the human society and Homo sapiens species, ii) a person is not the unique owner of that information; laboratories, institutions, health services and research teams add constituents to it, iii) several violations to this norm occurring in medical, labor, legal and social practice show it as biased against science, iv) if this stored information and its use are beneficial for humankind (its proper owner) it is ethically obligatory to use it. It is proposed to create an anonymous World Bank for Human Information with open access and universal transparency. This universal collection of data handled under universal accepted ethical norms should prevent exclusive private use of public information, non-publication of negative results, illicit and unethical use of human data.

  20. Subject-specific finite element modelling of the human foot complex during walking: sensitivity analysis of material properties, boundary and loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Mohammad; Qian, Zhihui; Zou, Zhemin; Howard, David; Nester, Chris J; Ren, Lei

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a subject-specific framework for modelling the human foot. This was achieved by integrating medical image-based finite element modelling, individualised multi-body musculoskeletal modelling and 3D gait measurements. A 3D ankle-foot finite element model comprising all major foot structures was constructed based on MRI of one individual. A multi-body musculoskeletal model and 3D gait measurements for the same subject were used to define loading and boundary conditions. Sensitivity analyses were used to investigate the effects of key modelling parameters on model predictions. Prediction errors of average and peak plantar pressures were below 10% in all ten plantar regions at five key gait events with only one exception (lateral heel, in early stance, error of 14.44%). The sensitivity analyses results suggest that predictions of peak plantar pressures are moderately sensitive to material properties, ground reaction forces and muscle forces, and significantly sensitive to foot orientation. The maximum region-specific percentage change ratios (peak stress percentage change over parameter percentage change) were 1.935-2.258 for ground reaction forces, 1.528-2.727 for plantar flexor muscles and 4.84-11.37 for foot orientations. This strongly suggests that loading and boundary conditions need to be very carefully defined based on personalised measurement data.

  1. Opportunities and Constraints for Climate Adaptation in Regional Water and Land Use Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, S.E.; West, J.; Leemans, R.; Tabara, J.D.; Dai, X.; Flachner, Z.; Neufeldt, H.; McEvoy, D.; Cots, F.; Trombi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the literature on adaptation is rich in detail on the impacts of, vulnerability to, and constraints of climate adaptation, less is known about the conditions that facilitate adaptation in practice. We examined the constraints and opportunities for adaptation in water and land use planning in

  2. The Use of Format Adaptation in Danish Public Service Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates Danish public service broadcasters’ use of format adaptations over a 12-year period in order to examine claims that formats constitute a potential threat to public service broadcasting and the national Danish television industry and culture. The article’s findings, however...... service orientation. Instead the article argues, following German sociologist Ulrich Beck, that format adaptation can represent a form of ‘banal transnationalism’, pointing to the fact that the world is no longer exclusively defined by national boundaries....

  3. Legal and Institutional Foundations of Adaptive Environmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legal and institutional structures fundamentally shape opportunities for adaptive governance of environmental resources at multiple ecological and societal scales. Properties of adaptive governance are widely studied. However, these studies have not resulted in consolidated frameworks for legal and institutional design, limiting our ability to promote adaptation and social-ecological resilience. We develop an overarching framework that describes the current and potential role of law in enabling adaptation. We apply this framework to different social-ecological settings, centers of activity, and scales, illustrating the multidimensional and polycentric nature of water governance. Adaptation typically emerges organically among multiple centers of agency and authority in society as a relatively self-organized or autonomous process marked by innovation, social learning, and political deliberation. This self-directed and emergent process is difficult to create in an exogenous, top-down fashion. However, traditional centers of authority may establish enabling conditions for adaptation using a suite of legal, economic, and democratic tools to legitimize and facilitate self-organization, coordination, and collaboration across scales. The principles outlined here provide preliminary legal and institutional foundations for adaptive environmental governance, which may inform institutional design and guide future scholarship. Adaptation typically emerges organically among m

  4. Vineland-II adaptive behavior profile of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or specific learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Giulia; Incognito, Oriana; Belacchi, Carmen; Bonichini, Sabrina; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    The evaluation of adaptive behavior is informative in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or specific learning disorders (SLD). However, the few investigations available have focused only on the gross level of domains of adaptive behavior. To investigate which item subsets of the Vineland-II can discriminate children with ADHD or SLD from peers with typical development. Student's t-tests, ROC analysis, logistic regression, and linear discriminant function analysis were used to compare 24 children with ADHD, 61 elementary students with SLD, and controls matched on age, sex, school level attended, and both parents' education level. Several item subsets that address not only ADHD core symptoms, but also understanding in social context and development of interpersonal relationships, allowed discrimination of children with ADHD from controls. The combination of four item subsets (Listening and attending, Expressing complex ideas, Social communication, and Following instructions) classified children with ADHD with both sensitivity and specificity of 87.5%. Only Reading skills, Writing skills, and Time and dates discriminated children with SLD from controls. Evaluation of Vineland-II scores at the level of item content categories is a useful procedure for an efficient clinical description. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptive, Active and Multifunctional Composite and Hybrid Materials Program: Composite and Hybrid Materials ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    consisted of training and support to get the entire system components acquired and placed in an acceptable laboratory environmental footprint with support... ABAQUS (Reference 7) as a subroutine for Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Public Domain Publications (Peer Reviewed) and Presentations: K. Yu, A. J... ABAQUS showed that, under the cylindrical flat punch, the nanotube cells collapsed plastically immediately beneath the indenter, a region of the

  6. Theta-specific susceptibility in a model of adaptive synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Christian; Schmiedt, Joscha T; Pawelzik, Klaus R

    2013-01-01

    Learning and memory formation are processes which are still not fully understood. It is widely believed that synaptic plasticity is the most important neural substrate for both. However, it has been observed that large-scale theta band oscillations in the mammalian brain are beneficial for learning, and it is not clear if and how this is linked to synaptic plasticity. Also, the underlying dynamics of synaptic plasticity itself have not been completely uncovered yet, especially for non-linear interactions between multiple spikes. Here, we present a new and simple dynamical model of synaptic plasticity. It incorporates novel contributions to synaptic plasticity including adaptation processes. We test its ability to reproduce non-linear effects on four different data sets of complex spike patterns, and show that the model can be tuned to reproduce the observed synaptic changes in great detail. When subjected to periodically varying firing rates, already linear pair based spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) predicts a specific susceptibility of synaptic plasticity to pre- and postsynaptic firing rate oscillations in the theta-band. Our model retains this band-pass property, while for high firing rates in the non-linear regime it modifies the specific phase relation required for depression and potentiation. For realistic parameters, maximal synaptic potentiation occurs when the postsynaptic is trailing the presynaptic activity slightly. Anti-phase oscillations tend to depress it. Our results are well in line with experimental findings, providing a straightforward and mechanistic explanation for the importance of theta oscillations for learning.

  7. Safety of Contrast Material Use During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puac, Paulo; Rodríguez, Andrés; Vallejo, Carina; Zamora, Carlos A; Castillo, Mauricio

    2017-11-01

    The use of contrast media to image patients who are pregnant has increased during the past decades worldwide. Their use in pregnancy and in patients who are lactating remains a challenging issue for radiologists and other physicians. This article addresses the different types of contrast media that may be used in such patients according to the imaging modality (iodinated contrast media, barium, gadolinium-based, and ultrasound contrast agents), focusing on their adverse effects, potential teratogenic effects, strategies to minimize risks, and current clinical recommendation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 24 CFR 3.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 3.425 Section 3.425 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Activities Prohibited § 3.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A...

  9. SEM investigation of composite restoration adaptation to enamel after use of total etch and self etch adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dačić Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Quality and durability of enamel/composite interface essentially depend on an adhesive restorative system. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of marginal adaptation of composite adhesive systems to enamel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and to analyze the morphology of the enamel surface along margins of composite restorations, following exposure to cariogenic solution. Methods The study material included 56 extracted human third molars. Class V cavities were prepared with margins at enamel. Cavities were restored with Single Bond/Z250 and Single Bond/Filtek flow, using the total etch adhesive system, and Prompt-L-Pop/Z250 and Prompt-L-Pop/Filtek flow, using the self etch adhesive system. After the restorative procedure, the restorations were submitted to demineralization during 7 and 28 days. Samples were stored in a cariogenic solution (lactic acid, pH 4.5; 0.1 M at 37°C or in deionized water (the control group. The margins of restorations and perimarginal enamel were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The gap formations around restoration were measured on cervical, occlusal and approximate margins. Results The usage of the total etch adhesive system showed statistically significant lower marginal gap width around composite restoration, compared with the self etch system (p<0.01. The SEM examination also showed perimarginal enamel zones presenting several signs of demineralization and erosion (alteration of rods, porosities after acting of a cariogenic solution, in both adhesive methods. Less alteration was found on the enamel surfaces not included in the perimarginal zone. Conclusion Treating the cavity with 35% phosphoric acid in the total etch system significantly improved the adaptation of the composite resins to enamel, compared with the self etch treatment. Stronger demineralization of the perimarginal enamel in a cariogenic solution was observed around all restorations in both

  10. Determination of specific capacitance of modified candlenut shell based carbon as electrode material for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakir, M.; Budi, P.; Raya, I.; Karim, A.; Wulandari, R.; Sobrido, A. B. J.

    2018-03-01

    Surface modification of candlenut shell carbon (CSC) using three chemicals: nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) has been carried out. Activation of CSC was performed using H3PO4 solution with different ratio between CSC and activator. Carbon surface area was determined by methylene blue adsorption method. Surface characterization was performed using FTIR spectroscopy and Boehm titration method. Specific capacitance of electrode prepared from CSAC (candlenuts shell activated carbon) materials was quantified by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) measurement. The surface area before and after activation are 105,127 m2/g, 112,488 m2/g, 124,190 m2/g, and 135,167 m2/g, respectively. Surface modification of CSAC showed the improvement in the chemical functionality of CSAC surface. Analyses using FTIR spectroscopy and Boehm titration showed that modifications with HNO3, H2SO4 and H2O2 on the surface of the CSAC increased the number of oxygen functional groups. As a consequence, the specific capacitance of CSAC modified with 65% HNO3 attained the highest value (127 μF/g). There is an incredible increase by a factor of 298% from electrode which was constructed with un-modified CSAC material. This increase correlates to the largest number of oxygen functional groups of CSAC modified with nitric acid (HNO3).

  11. Availability of Books and Other Informational Materials and the Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scheme of things, may not be 100% correct as there are some minute and local information that may be so necessary to the researcher that may not be the internet. Serials/periodical should be given proper place in the acquisition policy in any academic library in such a ration of 70:30 for books and periodicals respectively.

  12. Feasibility of online IMPT adaptation using fast, automatic and robust dose restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatowicz, Kinga; Geets, Xavier; Barragan, Ana; Janssens, Guillaume; Souris, Kevin; Sterpin, Edmond

    2018-04-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) offers excellent dose conformity and healthy tissue sparing, but it can be substantially compromised in the presence of anatomical changes. A major dosimetric effect is caused by density changes, which alter the planned proton range in the patient. Three different methods, which automatically restore an IMPT plan dose on a daily CT image were implemented and compared: (1) simple dose restoration (DR) using optimization objectives of the initial plan, (2) voxel-wise dose restoration (vDR), and (3) isodose volume dose restoration (iDR). Dose restorations were calculated for three different clinical cases, selected to test different capabilities of the restoration methods: large range adaptation, complex dose distributions and robust re-optimization. All dose restorations were obtained in less than 5 min, without manual adjustments of the optimization settings. The evaluation of initial plans on repeated CTs showed large dose distortions, which were substantially reduced after restoration. In general, all dose restoration methods improved DVH-based scores in propagated target volumes and OARs. Analysis of local dose differences showed that, although all dose restorations performed similarly in high dose regions, iDR restored the initial dose with higher precision and accuracy in the whole patient anatomy. Median dose errors decreased from 13.55 Gy in distorted plan to 9.75 Gy (vDR), 6.2 Gy (DR) and 4.3 Gy (iDR). High quality dose restoration is essential to minimize or eventually by-pass the physician approval of the restored plan, as long as dose stability can be assumed. Motion (as well as setup and range uncertainties) can be taken into account by including robust optimization in the dose restoration. Restoring clinically-approved dose distribution on repeated CTs does not require new ROI segmentation and is compatible with an online adaptive workflow.

  13. 14 CFR 1253.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 1253.425 Section 1253.425 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... § 1253.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall...

  14. Adaptation to the Spanish population of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calderón, Fermín; Díaz-Batanero, Carmen; Rojas-Tejada, Antonio J; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Lozano-Rojas, Óscar M

    2017-07-14

    The identification of different personality risk profiles for substance misuse is useful in preventing substance-related problems. This study aims to test the psychometric properties of a new version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) for Spanish college students. Cross-sectional study with 455 undergraduate students from four Spanish universities. A new version of the SURPS, adapted to the Spanish population, was administered with the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Internal consistency reliability ranged between 0.652 and 0.806 for the four SURPS subscales, while reliability estimated by split-half coefficients varied from 0.686 to 0.829. The estimated test-retest reliability ranged between 0.733 and 0.868. The expected four-factor structure of the original scale was replicated. As evidence of convergent validity, we found that the SURPS subscales were significantly associated with other conceptually-relevant personality scales and significantly associated with alcohol use measures in theoretically-expected ways. This SURPS version may be a useful instrument for measuring personality traits related to vulnerability to substance use and misuse when targeting personality with preventive interventions.

  15. Improvement of isopropanol tolerance of Escherichia coli using adaptive laboratory evolution and omics technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinouchi, Takaaki; Sakai, Aki; Kotani, Hazuki; Tanabe, Kumi; Furusawa, Chikara

    2017-08-10

    Isopropanol (IPA) is the secondary alcohol that can be dehydrated to yield propylene. To produce IPA using microorganisms, a significant issue is that the toxicity of IPA causes retardation or inhibition of cell growth, decreasing the yield. One possible strategy to overcome this problem is to improve IPA tolerance of production organisms. For the understanding of tolerance to IPA, we performed parallel adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) of Escherichia coli under IPA stress. To identify the genotypic change during ALE, we performed genome re-sequencing analyses of obtained tolerant strains. To verify which mutations were contributed to IPA tolerance, we constructed the mutant strains and quantify the IPA tolerance of the constructed mutants. From these analyses, we found that five mutations (relA, marC, proQ, yfgO, and rraA) provided the increase of IPA tolerance. To understand the phenotypic change during ALE, we performed transcriptome analysis of tolerant strains. From transcriptome analysis, we found that expression levels of genes related to biosynthetic pathways of amino acids, iron ion homeostasis, and energy metabolisms were changed in the tolerant strains. Results from these experiments provide fundamental bases for designing IPA tolerant strains for industrial purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of porous materials using combined small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Naiping; Borkar, Neha; Kohls, Doug; Schaefer, Dale W. (UCIN)

    2014-09-24

    A combination of ultra small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) and ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) is used to characterize porous materials. The analysis methods yield quantitative information, including the mean skeletal chord length, mean pore chord length, skeletal density, and composition. A mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane with a manufacturer-labeled pore size of 0.1 {mu}m was used as a model to elucidate the specifics of the method. Four approaches describing four specific scenarios (different known parameters and form of the scattering data) are compared. Pore chords determined using all four approaches are in good agreement with the scanning electron microscopy estimates but are larger than the manufacturer's nominal pore size. Our approach also gives the average chord of the skeletal solid (struts) of the membrane, which is also consistent for all four approaches. Combined data from USAXS and USANS gives the skeletal density and the strut composition.

  17. Characterization of porous materials using combined small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Naiping; Borkar, Neha; Kohls, Doug; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2012-01-01

    A combination of ultra small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) and ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) is used to characterize porous materials. The analysis methods yield quantitative information, including the mean skeletal chord length, mean pore chord length, skeletal density, and composition. A mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane with a manufacturer-labeled pore size of 0.1 μm was used as a model to elucidate the specifics of the method. Four approaches describing four specific scenarios (different known parameters and form of the scattering data) are compared. Pore chords determined using all four approaches are in good agreement with the scanning electron microscopy estimates but are larger than the manufacturer's nominal pore size. Our approach also gives the average chord of the skeletal solid (struts) of the membrane, which is also consistent for all four approaches. Combined data from USAXS and USANS gives the skeletal density and the strut composition.

  18. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2013 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 13) (Snowbird, UT, USA, 16-18 September 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy; Naguib, Hani; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin; Daqaq, Mohammed; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu; Sarles, Andy

    2014-10-01

    The sixth annual meeting of the ASME Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) was held in the beautiful mountain encircled Snowbird Resort and Conference Center in Little Cottonwood Canyon near Salt Lake City, Utah. It is the conference's objective to provide an up-to-date overview of research trends in the entire field of smart materials systems in a friendly casual forum conducive to the exchange of ideas and latest results. As each year we strive to grow and offer new experiences, this year we included special focused topic tracks on nanoscale multiferroic materials and origami engineering. The cross-disciplinary emphasis was reflected in keynote speeches by Professor Kaushik Bhattacharya (California Institute of Technology) on 'Cyclic Deformation and the Interplay between Phase Transformation and Plasticity in Shape Memory Alloys', by Professor Alison Flatau (University of Maryland at College Park) on 'Structural Magnetostrictive Alloys: The Other Smart Material', and by Dr Leslie Momoda (Director of the Sensors and Materials Laboratories, HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA) on 'Architecturing New Functional Materials: An Industrial Perspective'. SMASIS 2013 was divided into seven symposia which span basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. SYMP 1. Development and Characterization of Multifunctional Materials. SYMP 2. Mechanics and Behavior of Active Materials. SYMP 3. Modeling, Simulation and Control of Adaptive Systems. SYMP 4. Integrated System Design and Implementation. SYMP 5. Structural Health Monitoring. SYMP 6. Bioinspired Smart Materials and Systems. SYMP 7. Energy Harvesting. Authors of selected papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2, and 6) as well as energy harvesting (symposium 7) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart

  19. Teenage Dropouts and Drug Use: Does the Specification of Peer Group Structure Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Darrell J.

    2009-01-01

    Four alternative structures of peer groups are compared in an empirical analysis of teenage dropouts and recent drug use. In general, individual-specific covariates remain robust regardless of group structure specification in dropout models, but lose significance in models of drug-use. Estimates of correlated school effects depend on the…

  20. 13 CFR 113.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 113.425 Section 113.425 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Activities Prohibited § 113.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A...

  1. 38 CFR 23.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 23.425 Section 23.425 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Activities Prohibited § 23.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A...

  2. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  3. Method of determining elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramic materials using spherical indenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Thomas A.

    1996-01-01

    The invention pertains a method of determining elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramics, intermetallics, metals, plastics and other hard, brittle materials which fracture prior to plastically deforming when loads are applied. Elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramic materials are determined using spherical indenters. The method is most useful for measuring and calculating the plastic and elastic deformation of hard, brittle materials with low values of elastic modulus to hardness.

  4. Study on energy consumption of adapters and battery chargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, J.K.; Couvee, J.D.J.

    2001-04-01

    Under the authority of the Dutch Energy Agency 'Novem' industrial design and engineering office NewProducts has performed an inventory study on the energy consumption of adapters and battery chargers. Besides the energy aspects, various aspects of the adapters and chargers have been discussed: The products are classified in categories based on type of the appliance and function of the adapter; The proportions of the Dutch market of adapters and chargers and the players on this market are discussed in brief; The relevant technical background, especially with respect to the energy consumption is discussed. In general there are two types of adapters, linear and switch mode; Product specifications collected from several manufacturers are presented; To fill up the lack of data some measurements have been made of which the results are presented. Together with the product specifications this gives an overview of the performances of adapters and chargers; During the study several ideas and new developments have been found for reducing energy consumption. A remarkable conclusion is that there is no or not much attention from manufacturers or consumers for energy consumption of adapters or no-load power consumption, although there are some initiatives for reduction, e.g. the Code of Conduct on Efficiency of External Power Supplies of the European Union. Lots of linear adapters are still sold and in use, although the efficiency of the switch mode adapters is a lot better. The problem is the higher price. The switch mode adapters are being sold together with sophisticated electronic appliances. Most of the other initiatives and solutions to reduce the no-load energy consumption and improve the efficiency are also technical

  5. Nondestructive detection of local material thinning in ferromagnetic materials by Magnetic Adaptive Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vértesy, G.; Uchimoto, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagi, T.; Tomáš, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2013), 7-14 ISSN 1883-9894 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : wall thinning * magnetic nondestructive testing * Magnetic Adaptive Testing * magnetic hysteresis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  6. Cry-Based Classification of Healthy and Sick Infants Using Adapted Boosting Mixture Learning Method for Gaussian Mixture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Farsaie Alaie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We make use of information inside infant’s cry signal in order to identify the infant’s psychological condition. Gaussian mixture models (GMMs are applied to distinguish between healthy full-term and premature infants, and those with specific medical problems available in our cry database. Cry pattern for each pathological condition is created by using adapted boosting mixture learning (BML method to estimate mixture model parameters. In the first experiment, test results demonstrate that the introduced adapted BML method for learning of GMMs has a better performance than conventional EM-based reestimation algorithm as a reference system in multipathological classification task. This newborn cry-based diagnostic system (NCDS extracted Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs as a feature vector for cry patterns of newborn infants. In binary classification experiment, the system discriminated a test infant’s cry signal into one of two groups, namely, healthy and pathological based on MFCCs. The binary classifier achieved a true positive rate of 80.77% and a true negative rate of 86.96% which show the ability of the system to correctly identify healthy and diseased infants, respectively.

  7. Cork and Sustainability : Discussing the Sustainable Use of the Material from a Design Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, A.C.; Brezet, H.; Pereira, H.; Vogtländer, J.

    2012-01-01

    There is the challenge to use materials in a more sustainable way. Even though cork has an interesting eco-profile as a material, other aspects contributing to an enhanced sustainable use of the resource are discussed:addressing the life-span of products, materials substitution, and the trend of

  8. Measuring working memory capacity in children using adaptive tasks: Example validation of an adaptive complex span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Corentin; Aubry, Alexandre; Bourdin, Béatrice

    2017-06-22

    Working memory tasks designed for children usually present trials in order of ascending difficulty, with testing discontinued when the child fails a particular level. Unfortunately, this procedure comes with a number of issues, such as decreased engagement from high-ability children, vulnerability of the scores to temporary mind-wandering, and large between-subjects variations in number of trials, testing time, and proactive interference. To circumvent these problems, the goal of the present study was to demonstrate the feasibility of assessing working memory using an adaptive testing procedure. The principle of adaptive testing is to dynamically adjust the level of difficulty as the task progresses to match the participant's ability. We used this method to develop an adaptive complex span task (the ACCES) comprising verbal and visuo-spatial subtests. The task presents a fixed number of trials to all participants, allows for partial credit scoring, and can be used with children regardless of ability level. The ACCES demonstrated satisfying psychometric properties in a sample of 268 children aged 8-13 years, confirming the feasibility of using adaptive tasks to measure working memory capacity in children. A free-to-use implementation of the ACCES is provided.

  9. Economics of production of biogas from specifically-grown plant material. [New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D.J.

    1977-10-15

    The production of biogas from plant materials is technologically very simple, and is the only process currently available (other than direct burning) for conversion of cellulose materials into energy or fuels that is feasible at a farm-scale, or even a home-scale, as well as a large industrial plant scale. For this reason the economics of biogas production can be considered at the farm-scale as well as the industrial scale. An accurate assessment of the economics at the farm-scale is possible, because commercially produced units are now available in New Zealand and in operation. However, although large-scale plants have been proposed and costed in the USA for the conversion of the cellulose component of garbage into biogas, operational data are not yet available, and the costing has not been applied to the use of specifically-grown plant material. Nevertheless, the large-scale plants envisaged use a large number of digesters each of 100,000 gallons capacity and can thus be regarded as a combination of farm-size units, although with some economics in digester size, number of pumps required, etc. For these reasons, this review of the economics of biogas production is based on the operation of commercial 20,000 gallon digesters available in NZ for farm-scale use. Factors governing the economics of farm-scale and industrial-scale production of biogas will be discussed in section 6.

  10. 10 CFR 1042.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials... on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on...

  11. 29 CFR 36.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 36... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on the basis of...

  12. 10 CFR 5.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on the basis of sex in the...

  13. Use of diagnostic self-tests on body materials among Internet users in the Netherlands: prevalence and correlates of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Gaby; Portegijs, Piet; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Buntinx, Frank; Norg, Roelf; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2009-04-09

    A range of self-tests on body materials has become available to the general public, but the extent of their use has hardly been studied. This study examined how many people use diagnostic self-tests on body materials such as blood or urine, as well as the type of tests that are used, and factors associated with their use. Cross-sectional survey. Participants were recruited from an existing Dutch Internet panel of 12,529 persons, and information was collected by means of a structured Internet-based questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess correlates of self-test use. Response to the survey was 63%. Sixteen percent of the respondents said they had ever used at least one self-test, with a mean of 2.1 tests per self-tester. The most frequently reported self-tests were those for diabetes and cholesterol. Self-testers generally reported lower health status and had a higher BMI than non-testers. On the other hand, they were more likely to engage in health-related behaviour such as the use of dietary supplements and homeopathic medicine. Self-testing proved to be relatively prevalent among Dutch Internet users. We therefore think that it is essential to develop appropriate information for consumers, health care providers and policymakers, about the pros and cons of self-testing and specific self-tests. More test-specific research is needed.

  14. Use of diagnostic self-tests on body materials among Internet users in the Netherlands: prevalence and correlates of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norg Roelf

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A range of self-tests on body materials has become available to the general public, but the extent of their use has hardly been studied. This study examined how many people use diagnostic self-tests on body materials such as blood or urine, as well as the type of tests that are used, and factors associated with their use. Methods Cross-sectional survey. Participants were recruited from an existing Dutch Internet panel of 12,529 persons, and information was collected by means of a structured Internet-based questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess correlates of self-test use. Results Response to the survey was 63%. Sixteen percent of the respondents said they had ever used at least one self-test, with a mean of 2.1 tests per self-tester. The most frequently reported self-tests were those for diabetes and cholesterol. Self-testers generally reported lower health status and had a higher BMI than non-testers. On the other hand, they were more likely to engage in health-related behaviour such as the use of dietary supplements and homeopathic medicine. Conclusion Self-testing proved to be relatively prevalent among Dutch Internet users. We therefore think that it is essential to develop appropriate information for consumers, health care providers and policymakers, about the pros and cons of self-testing and specific self-tests. More test-specific research is needed.

  15. Kinase activity and specificity assay using synthetic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu Na; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of substrate proteins by protein kinases can lead to activation or inactivation of signaling pathways or metabolic processes. Precise understanding of activity and specificity of protein kinases are important questions in characterization of kinase functions. Here, we describe a procedure to study kinase activity and specificity using kinase-GFP complexes purified from plant material and synthetic peptides as substrates. Magnetic GFP beads allow purifying receptor-like kinase-GFP complexes from microsomal fractions. Kinase-GFP complexes are then incubated with ATP and the synthetic peptides for kinase reaction. Phosphorylation of substrate peptides is then identified and quantified by mass spectrometry.

  16. Adaptive fractionated stereotactic Gamma Knife radiotherapy of meningioma using integrated stereotactic cone-beam-CT and adaptive re-planning (a-gkFSRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieler, F.; Wenz, F.; Abo-Madyan, Y.; Schweizer, B.; Polednik, M.; Herskind, C.; Giordano, F.A.; Mai, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Gamma Knife Icon (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) allows frameless stereotactic treatment using a combination of cone beam computer tomography (CBCT), a thermoplastic mask system, and an infrared-based high-definition motion management (HDMM) camera system for patient tracking during treatment. We report on the first patient with meningioma at the left petrous bone treated with adaptive fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (a-gkFSRT). The first patient treated with Gamma Knife Icon at our institute received MR imaging for preplanning before treatment. For each treatment fraction, a daily CBCT was performed to verify the actual scull/tumor position. The system automatically adapted the planned shot positions to the daily position and recalculated the dose distribution (online adaptive planning). During treatment, the HDMM system recorded the intrafractional patient motion. Furthermore, the required times were recorded to define a clinical treatment slot. Total treatment time was around 20 min. Patient positioning needed 0.8 min, CBCT positioning plus acquisition 1.65 min, CT data processing and adaptive planning 2.66 min, and treatment 15.6 min. The differences for the five daily CBCTs compared to the reference are for rotation: -0.59 ± 0.49 /0.18 ± 0.20 /0.05 ± 0.36 and for translation: 0.94 ± 0.52 mm/-0.08 ± 0.08 mm/-1.13 ± 0.89 mm. Over all fractions, an intrafractional movement of 0.13 ± 0.04 mm was observed. The Gamma Knife Icon allows combining the accuracy of the stereotactic Gamma Knife system with the flexibility of fractionated treatment with the mask system and CBCT. Furthermore, the Icon system introduces a new online patient tracking system to the clinical routine. The interfractional accuracy of patient positioning was controlled with a thermoplastic mask and CBCT. (orig.) [de

  17. Teaching English Using Video Materials: Design and Delivery of a Practical Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alvarado, Julio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a practical course for listening, speaking, reading and writing was designed using authentic video material. The aim of this paper is to offer tools to the TEFL teacher in order to design new course materials using video material. The development procedure is explained in detail, and the underpinning main theories are also…

  18. Dynamic Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Medium Duty Drive Shaft Using Conventional and Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Jain, Rajat; Patil, Pravin P.

    2016-09-01

    The main highlight of this study is structural and modal analysis of single piece drive shaft for selection of material. Drive shaft is used for torque carrying from vehicle transmission to rear wheel differential system. Heavy vehicle medium duty transmission drive shaft was selected as research object. Conventional materials (Steel SM45 C, Stainless Steel) and composite materials (HS carbon epoxy, E Glass Polyester Resin Composite) were selected for the analysis. Single piece composite material drive shaft has advantage over conventional two-piece steel drive shaft. It has higher specific strength, longer life, less weight, high critical speed and higher torque carrying capacity. The main criteria for drive shaft failure are strength and weight. Maximum modal frequency obtained is 919 Hz. Various harmful vibration modes (lateral vibration and torsional vibration) were identified and maximum deflection region was specified. For single-piece drive shaft the natural bending frequency should be higher because it is subjected to torsion and shear stress. Single piece drive shaft was modelled using Solid Edge and Pro-E. Finite Element Analysis was used for structural and modal analysis with actual running boundary condition like frictional support, torque and moment. FEA simulation results were validated with experimental literature results.

  19. Mental Health, Substance Use, and Adaptive Coping among Social Work Students in the Aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Catherine M.; Plummer, Carol A.; Richardson, Roslyn; Simon, Cassandra E.; Ai, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined mental health symptomology, substance use, and adaptive coping among 416 social work students following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Among participants, 47% scored at or above the clinical level for depression, with 6% of students showing clinical PTSD-like symptoms, and 16.9% reporting substance use. Two thirds (66.9%)…

  20. Cultural adaptation and validation of an instrument on barriers for the use of research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Guimarães; Haas, Vanderlei José; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Felix, Márcia Marques Dos Santos; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2017-03-02

    to culturally adapt The Barriers to Research Utilization Scale and to analyze the metric validity and reliability properties of its Brazilian Portuguese version. methodological research conducted by means of the cultural adaptation process (translation and back-translation), face and content validity, construct validity (dimensionality and known groups) and reliability analysis (internal consistency and test-retest). The sample consisted of 335 nurses, of whom 43 participated in the retest phase. the validity of the adapted version of the instrument was confirmed. The scale investigates the barriers for the use of the research results in clinical practice. Confirmatory factorial analysis demonstrated that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument is adequately adjusted to the dimensional structure the scale authors originally proposed. Statistically significant differences were observed among the nurses holding a Master's or Doctoral degree, with characteristics favorable to Evidence-Based Practice, and working at an institution with an organizational cultural that targets this approach. The reliability showed a strong correlation (r ranging between 0.77 and 0.84, pescala investiga las barreras para la utilización de resultados de investigación en la práctica clínica. El análisis factorial confirmatorio demostró que la versión del instrumento para el portugués brasileño está adecuadamente ajustado a la estructura dimensional originalmente propuesta por los autores de la escala. Fueron observadas diferencias estadísticamente significantes entre los enfermeros con título de maestría o doctorado, con características favorables a la Práctica Basada en Evidencias, y actuantes en institución con cultura organizacional dirigida hacia tal aproximación. La fiabilidad presentó correlación fuerte (r variando entre 0,77 y 0,84, pescala investiga as barreiras para a utilização de resultados de pesquisa na prática clínica. A análise fatorial

  1. Modification of material properties and coating deposition using plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnjak, A.D.; Rusimov, Sh.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Using X-ray structure analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with micro-analysis, measurements of friction wear and micro-hardness, we studied surface melting effects of powder coatings AN-35, which appeared as a result of action of concentrated energy flows (pulsed plasma flows). Plasma detonation deposition of a powder on a stainless steel substrate were accompanied by formation of an alloyed surface structure, which basic element was α(hcp) and β(fcc) cobalt. A temperature diapason chosen for coating formation (according to the XRD analysis) provided the formation of intermetallic compounds of cobalt and chromium of Co x Cr y type. Pulsed-plasma surface melting of powder coatings also induced doping of the near surface layer by molybdenum atoms. We found that chosen methods of analysis and surface treatment regimes provided essentially decreased wear, as well as increased microhardness and nano hardness of the irradiated surfaces. It was demonstrated that a resulting increase in servicing characteristics was related to the processes of phase transformations occurring in the powder when it had been in a high temperature plasma-detonation flow as a result of pulsed plasma surface doping by molybdenum atoms, redistribution of the coating elements, appearance of micro- and nano-grain structure, as well as decreased coating porosity induced by thermal annealing by concentrated energy flows. New experimental results on the structure and the elemental and phase composition of hybrid coatings, which were deposited on a substrate of AISI 321 stainless steel using a combination of plasma detonation, vacuum arc and subsequent High-Current Electron Beam (HCEB) treatment, are presented. We found that an increase in energy density intensified mass-transfer processes and resulted in changes in aluminum oxide phase composition (γ→α and β→α). Also we observed the formation of a nano-crystalline structure in Al 2 O 3 coatings. Electron beam

  2. 0-6772 : development of new delineator material and impact testing standard to prevent premature failures specific to installation application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The use of delineators has become popular across : Texas. They are being used in several different : applications with unique impact conditions and/or : impact frequency. There is not a federally mandated : national standard for testing and evaluatio...

  3. Reproducible and Verifiable Equations of State Using Microfabricated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. F.; Pigott, J. S.; Panero, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate interpretation of observable geophysical data, relevant to the structure, composition, and evolution of planetary interiors, requires precise determination of appropriate equations of state. We present the synthesis of controlled-geometry nanofabricated samples and insulation layers for the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. We present electron-gun evaporation, sputter deposition, and photolithography methods to mass-produce Pt/SiO2/Fe/SiO2 stacks and MgO insulating disks to be used in LHDAC experiments to reduce uncertainties in equation of state measurements due to large temperature gradients. We present a reanalysis of published iron PVT data to establish a statistically-valid extrapolation of the equation of state to inner core conditions with quantified uncertainties, addressing the complication of covariance in equation of state parameters. We use this reanalysis, together with the synthesized samples, to propose a scheme for measurement and validation of high-precision equations of state relevant to the Earth and super-Earth exoplanets.

  4. On the evaluation of patient specific IMRT QA using EPID, dynalog files and patient anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewayne Lee Defoor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research, investigates the viability of using the Electronic portal imaging device (EPID coupled with the treatment planning system (TPS, to calculate the doses delivered and verify agreement with the treatment plan. The results of QA analysis using the EPID, Delta4 and fluence calculations using the multi-leaf collimator (MLC dynalog files on 10 IMRT patients are presented in this study.Methods: EPID Fluence Images in integrated mode and Dynalog files for each field were acquired for 10 IMRT (6MV patients and processed through an in house MatLab program to create an opening density matrix (ODM which was used as the input fluence for dose calculation with the TPS (Pinnacle3, Philips. The EPID used in this study was the aSi1000 Varian on a Novalis TX linac equipped with high definition MLC. The resulting dose distributions were then exported to VeriSoft (PTW where a 3D gamma was calculated using 3 mm-3% criteria. The Scandidos Delta4 phantom was also used to measure a 2D dose distribution for all 10 patients and a 2D gamma was calculated for each patient using the Delta4 software.Results: The average 3D gamma for all 10 patients using the EPID images was 98.2% ± 2.6%. The average 3D gamma using the dynalog files was 94.6% ± 4.9%. The average 2D gamma from the Delta4 was 98.1% ± 2.5%. The minimum 3D gamma for the EPID and dynalog reconstructed dose distributions was found on the same patient which had a very large PTV, requiring the jaws to open to the maximum field size. Conclusion: Use of the EPID, combined with a TPS is a viable method for QA of IMRT plans. A larger ODM size can be implemented to accommodate larger field sizes. An adaptation of this process to Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT is currently under way.-----------------------------Cite this article as: Defoor D, Mavroidis P, Quino L, Gutierrez A, Papanikolaou N, Stathakis S. On the evaluation of patient specific IMRT QA using EPID, dynalog files and patient anatomy

  5. Use of time and materials and cost reimbursement subcontracts for remedial actions under the alternative remedial contracting strategy contracts. Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The directive is intended to establish agency guidance on the use of time and materials and cost reimbursement contracts for remedial actions in general and to provide specific instruction regarding the use of these approaches in subcontracting under the Alternative Remedial Contracting Strategy (ARCS) contracts

  6. Classification of Roof Materials Using Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisense, C.

    2012-07-01

    Mapping of surface materials in urban areas using aerial imagery is a challenging task. This is because there are numerous materials present in relatively small regions. Hyperspectral data features a fine spectral resolution and thus has a significant capability for automatic identification and mapping of urban surface materials. In this study an approach for identification of roof surface materials using hyperspectral data is presented. The study is based on an urban area in Ludwigsburg, Germany, using a HyMap data set recorded during the HyMap campaign in August, 2010. Automatisierte Liegenschaftskarte (ALK) vector data with a building layer is combined with the HyMap data to limit the analysis to roofs. A spectral library for roofs is compiled based on field and image measurements. In the roof material identification process, supervised classification methods, namely spectral angle mapper and spectral information divergence and the object oriented ECHO (extraction and classification of homogeneous objects) approach are compared. In addition to the overall shape of spectral curves, position and strength of absorptions features are used to enhance material identification. The discriminant analysis feature extraction method is applied to the HyMap data in order to identify features (band combinations) suitable for discriminating between the target classes. The identified optimal features are used to create a new data set which is later classified using the ECHO classifier. The classification results with respect to material types of roofs are presented in this study. The most important results are evaluated using orthophotos, probability maps and field visits.

  7. Detection and Characterization of Defects in Composite Materials Using Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Antonio Jose Ramos

    The work described in this PhD Thesis focuses on the post-processing of optical fibers and their enhancement as sensing element. Since the majority of sensors presented are based in Fabry-Perot interferometers, an historical overview of this category of optical fiber sensors is firstly presented. This review considers the works published since the early years, in the beginning of the 1980s, until the middle of 2015. The incorporation of microcavities at the tip of a single mode fiber was extensively studied, particularly for the measurement of nitrogen and methane gas pressure. These cavities were fabricated using hollow core silica tubes and a hollow core photonic crystal fiber. Following a different approach, the microcavities were incorporated between two sections of single mode fiber. In this case, the low sensitivity to temperature makes these microcavities highly desirable for the measurement of strain at high temperatures. Competences in post-processing techniques such as the chemical etching and the writing of periodical structures in the fiber core by means of an excimer or a femtosecond laser were also acquired in the course of the PhD programme. One of the works consisted in the design and manufacturing of a double clad optical fiber. The refractive index of the inner cladding was higher than the one of the outer cladding and the core. Thus, light was guided in the inner cladding instead of propagating in the core. This situation was overcome by applying chemical etching, thus removing the inner cladding. The core, surrounded by air, was then able to guide light. Two different applications were found for this fiber, as a temperature sensor and as an optical refractometer. In the last, the optical phase changes with the liquid refractive index. Two different types of fiber Bragg gratings were characterized in strain and temperature. Sensing structures obtained through the phase mask technique at the tip of an optical fiber were subjected to chemical

  8. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Clinical Competence Questionnaire for use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkoski, Danielle Ritter; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima; Pereira, Evani Marques; Bortolato-Major, Carina; Mattei, Ângela Taís; Peres, Aida Maris

    2017-06-05

    translating and transculturally adapting the Clinical Competence Questionnaire to Brazilian senior undergraduate Nursing students, as well as measuring psychometric properties of the questionnaire. a methodological study carried out in six steps: translation of the Clinical Competence Questionnaire instrument, consensus of the translations, back-translation, analysis by an expert committee, pre-testing and then presentation of the cross-cultural adaptation process to the developers. Psychometric properties were measured using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient and content validity index. the instrument was translated, transculturally adapted and its final version consisted of 48 items. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90, and the agreement index of the items was 99% for students and 98% for evaluators. the Clinical Competence Questionnaire was translated and adapted to Brazilian students, and the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the questionnaire presented satisfactory internal consistency regarding the studied sample. traduzir e adaptar transculturalmente o Clinical Competence Questionnaire aos estudantes brasileiros concluintes da graduação em enfermagem, bem como mensurar as propriedades psicométricas do questionário. estudo metodológico realizado em seis etapas: tradução do instrumento Clinical Competence Questionnaire, consenso das traduções, retrotradução, análise pelo comitê de especialistas, pré-teste e apresentação do processo de adaptação transcultural para os desenvolvedores. As propriedades psicométricas foram mensuradas utilizando-se o alfa de Cronbach, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e índice de validade de conteúdo. o instrumento foi traduzido, adaptado transculturalmente e sua versão final foi constituída de 48 itens. O coeficiente alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,90, e o índice de concordância dos itens foi de 99% para os estudantes e de 98% para os avaliadores. o Clinical Competence

  9. Federal Standard: Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide national guidance that explains the role of the Federal Standard in implementing beneficial uses of dredged material from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ new and maintenance navigation projects.

  10. Integrated impact assessment of climate change, land use, and adaptation policies on water quality in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautvetter, Helen; Schoenhart, Martin; Parajaka, Juraj; Schmid, Erwin; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is one of the major challenges of our time and adds considerable stress to the human society and environment. A change in climate will not only shift general weather patterns, but might also increase the recurrence of extreme weather events such as drought and heavy rainfall. These changes in climatic conditions will affect the quality and quantity of water resources both directly as well as indirectly through autonomous adaptation by farmers (e.g. cultivar choices, fertilization intensity or soil management). This will influence the compliance with the good ecological and chemical status according to the EU Water Framework Directive. We present results from an integrated impact modelling framework (IIMF) to tackle those direct and indirect impacts and analyze policy options for planned adaptation in agricultural land use and sustainable management of land and water resources until 2040. The IIMF is the result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among economists, agronomists, and hydrologists. It consists of the bio-physical process model EPIC, the regional land use optimization model PASMA[grid], the quantitative precipitation/runoff TUWmodel and the surface water emission model MONERIS. Scenarios have been developed and parameterized in collaboration with stakeholders in order to facilitate multi-actor knowledge transfer. The set of climate change scenarios until 2040 includes three scenarios with equal temperature changes but varying precipitation patterns. They are combined with potential socio-economic and policy development. The latter include water protection measures on fertilization management, soil management, or crop rotation choices. We will presented the development of interfaces among the research, the definition of scenarios and major scenario results for Austria. We will focus on nutrient emissions to surface waters, which are the major link between the different models. The results, available at watershed level indicate the

  11. Changes and Trends in the Pallet Industry: The Use of New Wood Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    Wood has dominated the pallet industry as its principal raw material since palletized material handling began. Pallet production and use grew dramatically after World War II and wood remained the material of choice. Throughout this period the pallet industry has been an important market for lower grades of hardwood lumber and cants. Today, the demand for pallet grade...

  12. 3D printing technology using high viscous materials - Synthesis of functional materials and fabrication of 3D metal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongik

    In the 3D printing technology, the research for using various materials has been performing. In this research work, 3D printable high viscous materials are suggested as one of the solutions for problems in the traditional 3D printing technology. First, Cu-Ag coreshell was synthesized as a functional material. In terms of the reaction rate, reaction rate limiting step was defined as a fundamental research, and then prepared Cu-Ag coreshell was printed and analyzed. Second, the high viscous Cu paste was prepared and then metal 3D printed structure was fabricated by using new printing method. In the synthesis of Cu-Ag coreshell, different sizes of Cu particle, 2μm and 100nm were used, and when 2μm Cu was applied, the reaction rate was limited by film diffusion control. However, when 100nm Cu was applied, reaction rate was controlled by CuO film and the rate of the reaction, which includes removing CuO film in the solution, is limited by chemical reaction control. The shape of Cu-Ag particle is spherical in the 2μm Cu condition and dendrite shape in the 100nm Cu condition respectively. The conductivity of Cu-Ag coreshell paste increased as increasing content of coreshell particle in the paste and sintering temperature. In order to print high viscous metal paste, the high viscous Cu paste was printed by using screw extruder, and the viscosity of Cu paste was measured as a fundamental research. As increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste, the viscosity also increased. In addition, the shrinkage factor was reduced by increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste. An optimized printing condition for the high viscous material was obtained, and by using this condition, 3D metal structure was fabricated. The final product was heat treated and polished. Through these processes, a fine quality of metal 3D structure was printed.

  13. Characterization of the material produced using marble waste and reagents aiminig production of rock wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Girley Ferreira; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Alves, Joner Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize materials produced from the mixture of marble waste and chemical reagents. The materials were homogenized, melted and cooled in order to obtain materials with similar characteristics of rock wools. The batch was poured in a water-filled recipient and also in a Herty viscometer at three temperatures. Samples of produced materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis. Results of this study indicate that it is possible the incorporation of marble waste in the production process of rock wool, replacing approximately 15% of the raw material used to fabricate this material. This process represents a technological breakthrough since it allows the reuse of marble waste, and also represents a possible decrease in rock wool production cost, which is a material with a growing market as thermo acoustic insulator. (author)

  14. Developing Modular and Adaptable Courseware Using TeachML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Frank; Lorz, Alexander

    This paper presents the use of an XML grammar for two complementary projects--CHAMELEON (Cooperative Hypermedia Adaptive MultimEdia Learning Objects) and EIT (Enabling Informal Teamwork). Areas of applications are modular courseware documents and the collaborative authoring process of didactical units. A number of requirements for a suitable…

  15. COMPOSITE MATERIALS' CONDITION CLASSIFIER BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK OF ADAPTIVE RESONANCE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Єременко

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article proposed to use a modified neural network Fuzzy-ART for classification of thetechnical condition of composite materials. This neural network is used as a part of nondestructivetesting system to perform diagnosis of composite materials and provides cluster analysis andclassification of units under test. The advantage of the described neural network and the system ingeneral is its flexible architecture, high performance and high reliability of data processing

  16. Detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Its Common Adulterates Using Species-Specific Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiao-yue; Gao, Zi-tong; Han, Jian-ping; Xiang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that infects Hepialidae caterpillars, mummifying the larvae and producing characteristic fruiting bodies (stromata) that are processed into one of the most valued traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). The product commands a very high price due to a high demand but a very limited supply. Adulteration with other fungi is a common problem and there is a need to test preparation for the presence of the correct fungus. In the current study, a PCR-based approach for the identification of O. sinensis based on a segment of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was developed. The segments is 146-bp in size and is likely to be amplified even in materials where processing led to DNA fragmentation. Primer development was based on the alignment of sequence data generated from a total of 89 samples of O. sinensis and potential adulterants as well as sequences date from 41 Ophiocordyceps species and 26 Cordyceps species available in GenBank. Tests with primer pair, DCF4/DCR4, demonstrated generation of an amplicon from DNA extracted from O. sinensis stromata, but not from extracts derived from adulterants. Species-specific primer pairs were also developed and tested for detection of the common adulterants, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps cicadae, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Ophiocordyceps nutans. The collection of primers developed in the present study will be useful for the authentication of preparation claiming to only contain O. sinensis and for the detection of fungi used as adulterants in these preparations. PMID:286804