WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptation and use of specific materials

  1. Supporting Preservice Elementary Teachers' Critique and Adaptation of Science Lesson Plans Using Educative Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Carrie; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Critiquing and adapting curriculum materials are essential teaching practices but challenging for many preservice teachers. This study explores the use of educative curriculum materials--materials intended to support both teacher and student learning--to help preservice elementary teachers develop their pedagogical design capacity for critiquing…

  2. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  3. A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koniges, A E; Masters, N D; Fisher, A C; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Benson, D; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B T; Wang, P; Maddox, B R; Hansen, J F; Kalantar, D H; Dixit, P; Jarmakani, H; Meyers, M A

    2009-03-03

    Fragmentation is a fundamental material process that naturally spans spatial scales from microscopic to macroscopic. We developed a mathematical framework using an innovative combination of hierarchical material modeling (HMM) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. This framework has been implemented in a new multi-physics, multi-scale, 3D simulation code, NIF ALE-AMR. New multi-material volume fraction and interface reconstruction algorithms were developed for this new code, which is leading the world effort in hydrodynamic simulations that combine AMR with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) techniques. The interface reconstruction algorithm is also used to produce fragments following material failure. In general, the material strength and failure models have history vector components that must be advected along with other properties of the mesh during remap stage of the ALE hydrodynamics. The fragmentation models are validated against an electromagnetically driven expanding ring experiment and dedicated laser-based fragmentation experiments conducted at the Jupiter Laser Facility. As part of the exit plan, the NIF ALE-AMR code was applied to a number of fragmentation problems of interest to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One example shows the added benefit of multi-material ALE-AMR that relaxes the requirement that material boundaries must be along mesh boundaries.

  4. Non-specific Adaptive Reactions of Athletes: Evaluation and Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Naumova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studies changes in non-specific adaptive reactions (NSAR of athletes who practice Wushu and Qigong and take Kladorod, a biological product made from plant material. The results of our study demonstrate the effectiveness of Kladorod as a remedy to enhance adaptive capacity with the possibility of application for training of athletes without any restrictions within the criteria of doping control.

  5. Shear Bond Strength of Ormocer-Based Restorative Material Using Specific and Nonspecific Adhesive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M.; Shehata, Salah H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of ormocer-based restorative material bonded to tooth structure using specific ormocer and nonspecific resin-based adhesives. Human molars were prepared to obtain flat buccal enamel surfaces and flat occlusal dentin surfaces. Admira bond, and Prime & Bond NT, Excite, AdheSE, and Prompt-L-Pop were applied to the prepared enamel and dentin surfaces. Ormocer restorative material was inserted into a mold fixed onto the prepared tooth s...

  6. Adaptation of College English Classroom Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余跃

    2015-01-01

    Materials adaptation involves changing existing materials so that they become more suitable for specific learners, teach⁃ers or situations. This paper reviews the current state of this field, and makes suggestions for and gives example of innovative and principled approaches to college English classroom materials adaptation.

  7. Evaluation of marginal adaptation of root-end filling materials using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Helder Fernandes; Gonçalves Alencar, Ana Helena; Poli Figueiredo, José Antônio; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; de Almeida Decurcio, Daniel; Estrela, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The importance of perfect apical seal in endodontics, more specifically in periradicular surgery, is the motivation/reason for development of root-end filling materials with favorable physical, chemical and biological characteristics. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of root-end filling materials using scanning electron microscopy. Twenty five human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared using a K-File #50 to 1 mm short of the apical foramen and filled with gutta-percha and Sealapex using the lateral compaction technique. The apical 3 mm of the roots were sectioned perpendicularly to the long axis of the teeth. A 3-mm-deep root-end cavity was prepared using ultrasonic tips powered by an Enac ultrasonic unit. The teeth were randomly assigned to five groups according to the materials tested including IRM, amalgam, ProRoot MTA, Super-EBA and Epiphany/Resilon. Root-end cavities were filled with the materials prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions. The root apices were carefully prepared for sputter coating and later evaluation using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The images of root-end fillings were divided into four quadrants and distributed into five categories according to the level of marginal adaptation between the root-end material and the root canal walls. The Fisher exact test with Bonferroni correction was used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at P = 0.005. SEM images showed the presence of gaps in the root-end filling materials. No significant difference was observed between the tested materials (P > 0.005). ProRoot MTA, IRM, amalgam, Super-EBA and Epiphany/Resilon showed similar marginal adaptation as root-end filling materials.

  8. Simultaneous Structural Health Monitoring and Vibration Control of Adaptive Structures Using Smart Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Kim

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of actuators and sensors using smart materials enabled various applications including health monitoring and structural vibration control. In this study, a robust control technique is designed and implemented in order to reduce vibration of an active structure. Special attention is given to eliminating the possibility of interaction between the health monitoring system and the control system. Exploiting the disturbance decoupling characteristic of the sliding mode observer, it is demonstrated that the proposed observer can eliminate the possible high frequency excitation from the health monitoring system. At the same time, a damage identification scheme, which tracks the changes of mechanical impedance due to the presence of damage, has been applied to assess the health condition of structures. The main objective of this paper is to examine the potential of combining the two emerging techniques together. Using the collocated piezoelectric sensors/actuators for vibration suppression as well as for health monitoring, this technique enabled to reduce the number of system components, while enhancing the performance of structures. As an initial study, both simulation and experimental investigations were performed for an active beam structure. The results show that this integrated technique can provide substantial vibration reductions, while detecting damage on the structure at the same time.

  9. Adaptive Strategies for Materials Design using Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    We compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.

  10. Teaching Materials Evaluation and Adaptation of a Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈化

    2014-01-01

    Teaching materials are quite important for teachers and students. Students only pay attention to interesting materials which can be counted good. Teachers should adapt the materials if they want to make the learning really take place and make their teaching more effective. The teaching materials in Unit 7 Weather in 21st Century Practical College English Viewing, Listen-ing&Speaking I can be counted good. But it is not good enough and needs adapting to make it better.

  11. Environmental assessment and specification of green building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeschle, L. M.

    1998-12-01

    The central thesis of this paper is that building with environmentally friendly and `green` materials can lead to significant benefits in terms of improved indoor air quality and a healthy and more productive indoor environment. Recycled content and recyclable products can also help minimize the negative impact on the natural environment by keeping construction materials out of the waste stream, not to mention the cost savings that can be generated when specifying materials with recycled content. Savings in embodied energy is generally less when using recycled content as opposed to raw materials in the manufacture of building materials. The gradual depletion of raw materials will generate increased demand for `greener` products and may, in due course, replace traditional building products. Criteria for the assessment of environmental materials, the `greening` of project specifications, and a process for the environmental specification of building products is also described. 8 refs.

  12. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  13. Micro-Computed Tomography Study of Filling Material Removal from Oval-shaped Canals by Using Rotary, Reciprocating, and Adaptive Motion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozeta, Bruno Monguilhott; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Fantinato, Thais; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated filling material removal from distal oval-shaped canals of mandibular molars with rotary, reciprocating, and adaptive motion systems by using micro-computed tomography. After cone-beam computed tomography scanning, 21 teeth were selected, prepared up to a size 40 file, root filled, and divided into 3 groups (n = 7) according to the filling material removal technique: group PTUR, ProTaper Universal Retreatment combined with ProTaper Universal F2, F3, F4, and F5 files; group RP, Reciproc R50 file; and group TFA: TF Adaptive 50.04 files. The specimens were scanned preoperatively and postoperatively to assess filling material removal by using micro-computed tomography imaging, and the percent volume of residual filling material was calculated. The statistical analysis showed the lowest percent volume of residual filling material at the coronal third in all groups (P  .05). In the middle third, group TFA (31.2 ± 10.1) showed lower volume of residual filling material than group RP (52.4 ± 14.1) (P material than group RP (70.6 ± 7.2) (P material from the canals. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of the Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, S.

    1995-01-01

    A travel cane was adapted for use by a 10-year-old boy with cortical blindness, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy affecting his left arm and leg. The Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane utilizes the affected arm to hold the cane while leaving the other hand free for trailing walls, opening doors, carrying objects, and holding handrails.…

  15. The influence of student characteristics on the use of adaptive e-learning material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Seters, J. R.; Ossevoort, M. A.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive e-learning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics

  16. The influence of student characteristics on the use of adaptive e-learning material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Seters, J. R.; Ossevoort, M. A.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive e-learning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics

  17. Adaptability of Alfalfa and Ryegrass to New Reclamation Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZHAO-FENG; ZHANG Lei-na; FENG Yong-jun; KANG Jing-tao

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the adaptability of the alfalfa and ryegrass to the new artificial soil that was composed of fly ash and furfural residue. The potted experiments were taken to compare the growth conditions, yields, and qualities of both grasses. Some pots were covered with wheat stalks and others without. The medium Fluvo-aquic soil was taken as control. The results indicated that the growth of two grasses in the mixture were inferior to their growth in the control in initial period. With the leaching of rain and irrigation, the two grasses improved gradually. The alfalfa and ryegrass both could grow in the new mixture, and the ryegrass would be better to plant in no covered material and the alfalfa in covered. This will be a new way to reclaim subsided land and to improve the environment in mining area.

  18. Specification and Generation of Adapters for System Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, A.J.; Voorhoeve, M.

    2013-01-01

    Large systems-of-systems are developed by integrating several smaller systems that have been developed independently. System integration often requires adaptation mechanisms for bridging any technical incompatibilities between the systems. In order to develop adapters in a faster way, we study ways

  19. Adaptation of the osteoarthritis-specific quality of life scale (the OAQoL) for use in Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Jeanette; McKenna, Stephen P; Kutlay, Şehim; Bender, Tamas; Braun, Jürgen; Castillo-Gallego, Concepcion; Favero, Marta; Geher, Pal; Kiltz, Uta; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Ramonda, Roberta; Rouse, Matthew; Tennant, Alan; Küçükdeveci, Ayşe A

    2017-02-15

    The Osteoarthritis Quality of Life scale (OAQoL) is specific to individuals with osteoarthritis. The present study describes the adaptation of the OAQoL for use in the following five European languages: German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish and Turkish. The study involved three stages in each language; translation, cognitive debriefing (face and content validity) and validation. The validation stage assessed internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), reproducibility (test-retest reliability using Spearman's rank correlations), convergent and divergent validity (correlations with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of osteoarthritis and Nottingham Health Profile) and known group validity. The OAQoL was successfully translated into the target languages with minimal problems. Cognitive debriefing interviewees found the measures easy to complete and identified few problems with content. Internal consistency ranged from 0.94 to 0.97 and test-retest reliability (reproducibility) from 0.87 to 0.98. These values indicate that the new language versions produce very low levels of measurement error. Median OAQoL scores were higher for patients reporting a current flare of osteoarthritis in all countries. Scores were also related, as expected, to perceived severity of osteoarthritis. The OAQoL was successfully adapted for use in Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Turkey. The addition of these new language versions will prove valuable to multinational clinical trials and to clinical practice in the respective countries.

  20. Comparison of marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and intermediate restorative material as root-end filling materials, using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundam, Sirisha; Patil, Jayaprakash; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Yadanaparti, Sravanthi; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

    2014-11-01

    The present study compares the marginal adaption of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) as root-end filling materials in extracted human teeth using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Thirty single rooted human teeth were obturated with Gutta-percha after cleaning and shaping. Apical 3 mm of roots were resected and retrofilled with MTA, GIC and IRM. One millimeter transverse section of the retrofilled area was used to study the marginal adaptation of the restorative material with the dentin. Mounted specimens were examined using SEM at approximately 15 Kv and 10(-6) Torr under high vacuum condition. At 2000 X magnification, the gap size at the material-tooth interface was recorded at 2 points in microns. One way ANOVA Analysis of the data from the experimental group was carried out with gap size as the dependent variable, and material as independent variable. The lowest mean value of gap size was recorded in MTA group (0.722 ± 0.438 μm) and the largest mean gap in GIC group (1.778 ± 0.697 μm). MTA showed least gap size when compared to IRM and GIC suggesting a better marginal adaptation.

  1. Effects of culture-sensitive adaptation of patient information material on usefulness in migrants: a multicentre, blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Niebling, Wilhelm; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the usefulness of culture-sensitive patient information material compared with standard translated material. Multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. 37 primary care practices. 435 adult primary care patients with a migration background with unipolar depressive disorder or non-specific chronic low back pain were randomised. Patients who were unable to read in the language of their respective migration background were excluded. Sufficient data were obtained from 203 women and 106 men. The largest group was of Russian origin (202 patients), followed by those of Turkish (52), Polish (30) and Italian (25) origin. Intervention group: provision of culture-sensitive adapted material. provision of standard translated material. Primary outcome: patient-rated usefulness (USE) assessed immediately after patients received the material. patient-rated usefulness after 8 weeks and 6 months, symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), back pain (Back Pain Core Set) and quality of life (WHO-5) assessed at all time points. Usefulness was found to be significantly higher (t=1.708, one-sided p=0.04) in the intervention group (USE-score=65.08, SE=1.43), compared with the control group (61.43, SE=1.63), immediately after patients received the material, in the intention-to-treat analysis, with a mean difference of 3.65 (one-sided 95% lower confidence limit=0.13). No significant differences were found for usefulness at follow-up (p=0.16, p=0.71). No significant effect was found for symptom severity in depression (p=0.95, p=0.66, p=0.58), back pain (p=0.40, p=0.45, p=0.32) or quality of life (p=0.76, p=0.86, p=0.21), either immediately after receiving the material, or at follow-up (8 weeks; 6 months). Patients with a lower level of dominant society immersion benefited substantially and significantly more from the intervention than patients with a high level of immersion (p=0.005). Cultural adaptation of patient information material provides benefits over high quality

  2. The geography of sex-specific selection, local adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification.

  3. The specificity of stimulus-specific adaptation in human auditory cortex increases with repeated exposure to the adapting stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Paul M; Krumbholz, Katrin

    2013-12-01

    The neural response to a sensory stimulus tends to be more strongly reduced when the stimulus is preceded by the same, rather than a different, stimulus. This stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is ubiquitous across the senses. In hearing, SSA has been suggested to play a role in change detection as indexed by the mismatch negativity. This study sought to test whether SSA, measured in human auditory cortex, is caused by neural fatigue (reduction in neural responsiveness) or by sharpening of neural tuning to the adapting stimulus. For that, we measured event-related cortical potentials to pairs of pure tones with varying frequency separation and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). This enabled us to examine the relationship between the degree of specificity of adaptation as a function of frequency separation and the rate of decay of adaptation with increasing SOA. Using simulations of tonotopic neuron populations, we demonstrate that the fatigue model predicts independence of adaptation specificity and decay rate, whereas the sharpening model predicts interdependence. The data showed independence and thus supported the fatigue model. In a second experiment, we measured adaptation specificity after multiple presentations of the adapting stimulus. The multiple adapters produced more adaptation overall, but the effect was more specific to the adapting frequency. Within the context of the fatigue model, the observed increase in adaptation specificity could be explained by assuming a 2.5-fold increase in neural frequency selectivity. We discuss possible bottom-up and top-down mechanisms of this effect.

  4. Using Adapted Material and its Impact on University Students' Motivation* Uso de material adaptado y su impacto en la motivación de estudiantes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Alberto Escobar; Sergio Antonio Duarte

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the development of research that sought to increase the motivation of a group of students of English at Universidad Nacional de Colombia, in Bogotá, by means of the design and implementation of adapted material that responds to the necessities and profile of the students. The project started through the application of questionnaires completed by students and teachers regarding their perception towards the material they were currently using. Based on the results we obta...

  5. Manufacturing of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with high specific surface using urban waste and materials from uranium extractive metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual Cosp, J.; Ramirez del Valle, A.J. [Dpto. Ingenieria Civil de Materiales y Fabricacion. E. T. S. I. I. Campus de El Ejido, s/n, Univ. de Malaga (Spain); Galiano Serrano, J.C. [Dpto. Ingenieria Civil de Materiales y Fabricacion. E. T. S. I. I. Campus de El Ejido, s/n, Univ. de Malaga (Spain); Unidad Asociada ' ' Lab. de Materiales y Superficies' ' Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales, UNSE-SCIC-Univ. de Malaga (Spain); Cordero Alcantara, T. [Dpto. Ingenieria Civil de Materiales y Fabricacion. E. T. S. I. I. Campus de El Ejido, s/n, Univ. de Malaga (Spain); Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica. E. T. S. I. I. Campus de El Ejido, s/n, Univ. de Malaga (Spain); Balek, V.; Cerny, Z.; Casensky, B. [Dpto. Ingenieria Civil de Materiales y Fabricacion. E. T. S. I. I. Campus de El Ejido, s/n, Univ. de Malaga (Spain); Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2004-07-01

    This work shows a comparative study of different methods to obtain {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with high specific surface by chemical way using different precipitation methods. The efficacy of each method is studied with regard to material surface, establishing a correlation with the type of initial waste. If we can obtain supports with high crystallographical and dimensional stability and high specific surface, it's a very important contribution to catalytic process who need elevated temperatures. The use of waste supposes the capacity of manufacturing materials with a low cost and a option to give solutions for various environmental problems. (orig.)

  6. Material and Social Construction: A Framework for the Adaptation of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M. Keenan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a formulation of a framework for understanding the nature of change, particularly climate change, as it applies to the scale of a building. Through an exploration of various scientific and social scientific literutre, the article positions the concept of adaptation as the appropriate mode for understanding and managing change. Through the classification of a duality of material and social construction in the ontological composition of a building, various lines of thought relating to adaptive capacity and adaptive cycling within systems theory are appropriated within an integrated framework for adaptation. Specifically, it is theorized that as buildings as objects are developing greater capacities for intergrated operations and management through artificial intelligence, they will possess an ex ante capacity to autonomously adapt in dynamic relation to and with the ex post adaptation of owners and operators. It is argued that this top-down and bottom-up confluence of multi-scalar dynamic change is consistent with the prevailing theory of Panarchy applied in social-ecological systems theory. The article concludes with normative perspectives on the limitations of systems theory in architecture, future directions for research and an alternative positioning of professional practices.

  7. Smart Materials For The Realization Of An Adaptive Building Component

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, C.M.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This research focusses on the realization of adaptive architecture with the use of advanced material technology. Current material research has shown significant advances with the development of “smart” materials. Smart materials are “capable of automatically and inherently sensing or detecting chang

  8. Smart Materials For The Realization Of An Adaptive Building Component

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, C.M.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This research focusses on the realization of adaptive architecture with the use of advanced material technology. Current material research has shown significant advances with the development of “smart” materials. Smart materials are “capable of automatically and inherently sensing or detecting

  9. Discrimination of Terrestrial Source Materials to the Northern North Atlantic Using Particle Size Specific Magnetic Measurements and Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, R. G.; Stoner, J. S.; Tepley, F. J., III

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of different terrestrial sediment fractions (sand, silt, and clay) from Iceland and Greenland as major sediment sources to the northern North Atlantic (NNA). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) and hysteresis data have previously shown to be strongly particle size dependent with silt (3-63μm) important for hosting the ferrimagnetic fraction and discriminating source. Here we expand upon these data with more fundamental observations including low temperature remanence, low and high temperature MS, and electron microscopy. All Iceland fractions lack a Verwey transition (Tv) and MS decreases gradually on heating between 100-500°C, consistent with (TM60) titanomagnetite. Frequency dependent MS (fd%; 1-998 Hz) of ~8% across all Iceland fractions implies significant SP grain populations within the average Day plot determined PSD grain size. Homogeneity in magnetic grain size across all Icelandic fractions implies a disconnect with physical grain size that is visualized in electron backscatter images as fine Fe-rich fragments are included within larger host grains. In contrast Greenlandic silt and sand possess a strong Tv and MS values that fall steeply between 560-580°C on heating, consistent with magnetite. Greenlandic ferrimagnetic fragments within the silt and sand size fractions exist as discrete particles and average magnetic grain size scales with physical grain size; the sand fraction is dominated by MD grains and silts are coarse PSD in size. While finer PSD clays are indistinguishable from all Iceland fractions on a Day plot SP contributions are lower and the Tv is more pronounced in Greenland clay. These new magnetic mineralogy, magnetic grain size, and electron microscopy measurements expand the differentiation of source and grain size of NNA source materials, and further highlight the necessity for grain-size specific magnetic measurements to isolate source from physical grain size variation in bulk marine sediment cores.

  10. Heat storage system adapted for incongruently melting heat storage materials and congruently melting heat storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, J.L.

    1980-12-30

    A heat storage article adapted for prevention of stratification of incongruently melting heat storage materials, such as eutectic salts, and adapted for use with congruently melting heat storage materials, such as paraffins. The article is comprised of a concrete stone composition, a certain portion of which is comprised of metallic heat transfer materials in order to increase heat transfer through the concrete structure. The concrete structure has an internal cavity which is filled with either the eutectic salt material or the paraffin material.

  11. Surface roughness and adaptation of different materials to secure implant attachment housings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkir, Serhat Emre; Yilmaz, Burak; Kurkcuoglu, Isin; Culhaoglu, Ahmet; Unal, Server Mutluay

    2017-01-01

    Various materials are available to secure implant attachment housings in overdentures. Surface roughness and the adaptation of these materials to the denture base and the housings may increase the microcracks and bacterial adhesion at the interfaces in the long term. The surface characteristics of the interface between the denture base orientation material and the attachment housing have not been extensively studied. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the surface roughness and the adaptation of 5 different housing orientation materials to the housings and the denture base. Fifty-five poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) specimens (15 mm in diameter and 4 mm in height) were prepared with a clearance inside to allow the insertion of overdenture housings. Five different materials were used for housing orientation (Quick Up, Ufi Gel Hard, Tokuyama Rebase II Fast, Meliodent, and Paladent). The specimens were thermocycled 5000 times between 5°C and 55°C. The surface roughness (Ra values) of the specimens was measured with a noncontact profilometer. Scanning electron images were made in order to inspect the PMMA-orientation material-housing interfaces. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to investigate the differences between the surface roughness values of the orientation materials, and the Iman-Conover test was used for pairwise comparisons (α=.05). The surface roughness values significantly differed between Quick up and Ufi Gel orientation materials only, and Quick up had smaller surface roughness values than Ufi Gel (P=.009). Microcracks were observed among the groups only at the junction of the orientation material and the housing after thermocycling. Ufi Gel Hard showed the roughest surfaces around the overdenture attachment housings. The adaptation between the orientation material and the housing may deteriorate, and increased surface roughness and microcrack formation may be seen around the housings. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the

  12. An adaptive patient specific deformable registration for breast images of positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging using finite element approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cheng; Tang, Fuk-Hay

    2014-03-01

    A patient specific registration model based on finite element method was investigated in this study. Image registration of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) has been studied a lot. Surface-based registration is extensively applied in medical imaging. We develop and evaluate a registration method combine surface-based registration with biomechanical modeling. .Four sample cases of patients with PET and MRI breast scans performed within 30 days were collected from hospital. K-means clustering algorithm was used to segment images into two parts, which is fat tissue and neoplasm [2]. Instead of placing extrinsic landmarks on patients' body which may be invasive, we proposed a new boundary condition to simulate breast deformation during two screening. Then a three dimensional model with meshes was built. Material properties were assigned to this model according to previous studies. The whole registration was based on a biomechanical finite element model, which could simulate deformation of breast under pressure.

  13. Specificity and timescales of cortical adaptation as inferences about natural movie statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Michoel; Coen-Cagli, Ruben; Schwartz, Odelia

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is a phenomenological umbrella term under which a variety of temporal contextual effects are grouped. Previous models have shown that some aspects of visual adaptation reflect optimal processing of dynamic visual inputs, suggesting that adaptation should be tuned to the properties of natural visual inputs. However, the link between natural dynamic inputs and adaptation is poorly understood. Here, we extend a previously developed Bayesian modeling framework for spatial contextual effects to the temporal domain. The model learns temporal statistical regularities of natural movies and links these statistics to adaptation in primary visual cortex via divisive normalization, a ubiquitous neural computation. In particular, the model divisively normalizes the present visual input by the past visual inputs only to the degree that these are inferred to be statistically dependent. We show that this flexible form of normalization reproduces classical findings on how brief adaptation affects neuronal selectivity. Furthermore, prior knowledge acquired by the Bayesian model from natural movies can be modified by prolonged exposure to novel visual stimuli. We show that this updating can explain classical results on contrast adaptation. We also simulate the recent finding that adaptation maintains population homeostasis, namely, a balanced level of activity across a population of neurons with different orientation preferences. Consistent with previous disparate observations, our work further clarifies the influence of stimulus-specific and neuronal-specific normalization signals in adaptation. PMID:27699416

  14. Specificity and timescales of cortical adaptation as inferences about natural movie statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Michoel; Coen-Cagli, Ruben; Schwartz, Odelia

    2016-10-01

    Adaptation is a phenomenological umbrella term under which a variety of temporal contextual effects are grouped. Previous models have shown that some aspects of visual adaptation reflect optimal processing of dynamic visual inputs, suggesting that adaptation should be tuned to the properties of natural visual inputs. However, the link between natural dynamic inputs and adaptation is poorly understood. Here, we extend a previously developed Bayesian modeling framework for spatial contextual effects to the temporal domain. The model learns temporal statistical regularities of natural movies and links these statistics to adaptation in primary visual cortex via divisive normalization, a ubiquitous neural computation. In particular, the model divisively normalizes the present visual input by the past visual inputs only to the degree that these are inferred to be statistically dependent. We show that this flexible form of normalization reproduces classical findings on how brief adaptation affects neuronal selectivity. Furthermore, prior knowledge acquired by the Bayesian model from natural movies can be modified by prolonged exposure to novel visual stimuli. We show that this updating can explain classical results on contrast adaptation. We also simulate the recent finding that adaptation maintains population homeostasis, namely, a balanced level of activity across a population of neurons with different orientation preferences. Consistent with previous disparate observations, our work further clarifies the influence of stimulus-specific and neuronal-specific normalization signals in adaptation.

  15. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  16. Prospective evaluation of patient satisfaction after the use of brachytherapy specific educational materials for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Dominique; Hess, Clayton; Lentz, Susan; Tait, Lauren; Michaud, Anthony; Mayadev, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer patients are faced with an enormous amount of medical information in a complex oncology field with sophisticated treatments including brachytherapy. We investigated the use of enhanced vs. standard brachytherapy-specific educational materials on patient-reported satisfaction during the informed consent process for intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy. A single-institution, prospective, randomized trial was performed to study patient-reported satisfaction with novel educational materials for high-dose-rate brachytherapy in women undergoing definitive radiation for cervical cancer. Fourteen women receiving informed consent with a customized educational booklet were randomized between no further intervention and take-home educational materials. The weighted average for 10 of 11 survey questions was higher in the intervention arm but ranged between 4 (agree) and 5 (strongly agree) for all questions in both arms. The mean weighted patient satisfaction scores ± standard deviations in the control arm and the intervention arms were 54.3 ± 6.4 and 57.5 ± 2.7, respectively (p = 0.26). Knowledge acquisition is presumed to be part of the coping process for women facing increased stress during a cancer diagnosis. A brachytherapy-specific, visual, patient-educational booklet and take-home materials used to supplement the informed consent process for high-dose-rate brachytherapy resulted in high levels of patient-reported satisfaction among women treated with cervical cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Marginal adaptation and CAD-CAM technology: A systematic review of restorative material and fabrication techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadiochou, Sofia; Pissiotis, Argirios L

    2017-09-27

    The comparative assessment of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and other fabrication techniques pertaining to marginal adaptation should be documented. Limited evidence exists on the effect of restorative material on the performance of a CAD-CAM system relative to marginal adaptation. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate whether the marginal adaptation of CAD-CAM single crowns, fixed dental prostheses, and implant-retained fixed dental prostheses or their infrastructures differs from that obtained by other fabrication techniques using a similar restorative material and whether it depends on the type of restorative material. An electronic search of English-language literature published between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2016, was conducted of the Medline/PubMed database. Of the 55 included comparative studies, 28 compared CAD-CAM technology with conventional fabrication techniques, 12 contrasted CAD-CAM technology and copy milling, 4 compared CAD-CAM milling with direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and 22 investigated the performance of a CAD-CAM system regarding marginal adaptation in restorations/infrastructures produced with different restorative materials. Most of the CAD-CAM restorations/infrastructures were within the clinically acceptable marginal discrepancy (MD) range. The performance of a CAD-CAM system relative to marginal adaptation is influenced by the restorative material. Compared with CAD-CAM, most of the heat-pressed lithium disilicate crowns displayed equal or smaller MD values. Slip-casting crowns exhibited similar or better marginal accuracy than those fabricated with CAD-CAM. Cobalt-chromium and titanium implant infrastructures produced using a CAD-CAM system elicited smaller MD values than zirconia. The majority of cobalt-chromium restorations/infrastructures produced by DMLS displayed better marginal accuracy than those fabricated with the casting technique. Compared with copy

  18. Synthesis and characterization of large specific surface area nanostructured amorphous silica materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Linares, Francisco; Roque-Malherbe, Rolando M A

    2006-04-01

    Large specific surface area materials attract wide attention because of their applications in adsorption, catalysis, and nanotechnology. In the present study, we describe the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured amorphous silica materials. These materials were obtained by means of a modification of the Stobe-Fink-Bohn (SFB) method. The morphology and essential features of the synthesized materials have been studied using an automated surface area and pore size analyzer and scanning electron microscopy. The existence of a micro/mesoporous structure in the obtained materials has been established. It was also found that the obtained particle packing materials show large specific surface area up to 1,600 m2/g. (To our best knowledge, there is no any reported amorphous silica material with such a higher specific surface area.) The obtained materials could be useful in the manufacture of adsorbents, catalyst supports, and other nanotechnological applications.

  19. The Implication and Application of Communicative Approach to Designing and Adapting ELT Materials for Chinese College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靓

    2009-01-01

    The Communicative approach is a main stream in current ELT classroom.This approach mainly aims at developing leamers'communicative competences to equip them to be,proficient in real life communication in English.The communicative approach influences the belief of language learning,teaching,methodology and inevitably the syllabus and also ELT materials.However.communicative materials are not quite suitable for Chinese learners all the time,cause it can not meet the some specific expectations and competences of Chinese learners and teachers.Thus,adaptation is needed to make materials more.workable and help learners to develop their language proficiency.This essay will first introduce the communicative approach and materials briefly and then analyses the reasons of adaptation according to the specific context of Chinese college learners.

  20. The Implication and Application of Communicative Approach to Designing and Adapting ELT Materials for Chinese College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靓

    2009-01-01

    The Communicative approach is a main stream in current ELT classroom.This approach mainly aims at developing learners'communicative competences to equip them to be proficient in real life communication in English.The communicative approach influences the belief of language learning,teaching,methodology and inevitably the syllabus and also ELT materials.However,communicative materials are not quite suitable for Chinese learners all the time,cause it can not meet the some specific expectations and competences of Chinese learners and teachers.Thus,adaptation is needed to make materials more workable and help learners to develop their language proficiency.This essay will first introduce the communicative approach and materials briefly and then analyses the reasons of adaptation according to the specific context of Chinese college learners.

  1. [Brief introduction of research methods of commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua-ye; Yan, Pei-pei; Yang, Wen-hua; Li, Chao-feng; Qi, Shu-ya; Li, Yan-qi; Cao, Jun-ling

    2015-02-01

    The commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials is a measure of the quality of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), which directly impacts on the safety and effectiveness of clinical medicines. It is an urgent problem to establish a set of standards which can both interpret the scientific connotation of the commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials and play a significant role on clinical medicines as well as markets. This paper reviews the research methods of the commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials such as sensory evaluation, chemical assessment, biological evaluation, and cited the applications of various methods for the classification of TCMs. It provides technical support for establishing standards of the commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials, and also constructs scientific basis for clinical rational drug use.

  2. Marginal adaptation and performance of bioactive dental restorative materials in deciduous and young permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Gjorgievska

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptation of different types of restorations towards deciduous and young permanent teeth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Class V cavities were prepared in deciduous and young permanent teeth and filled with different materials (a conventional glass-ionomer, a resin-modified glass-ionomer, a poly-acid-modified composite resin and a conventional composite resin. Specimens were aged in artificial saliva for 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, then examined by SEM. RESULTS: The composite resin and the polyacid-modified composite had better marginal adaptation than the glass-ionomers, though microcracks developed in the enamel of the tooth. The glass-ionomers showed inferior marginal quality and durability, but no microcracking of the enamel. The margins of the resin-modified glass-ionomer were slightly superior to the conventional glass-ionomer. Conditioning improved the adaptation of the composite resin, but the type of tooth made little or no difference to the performance of the restorative material. All materials were associated with the formation of crystals in the gaps between the filling and the tooth; the quantity and shape of these crystals varied with the material. CONCLUSIONS: Resin-based materials are generally better at forming sound, durable margins in deciduous and young permanent teeth than cements, but are associated with microcracks in the enamel. All fluoride-releasing materials give rise to crystalline deposits.

  3. The materiality of materials and artefacts used in science classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy

    and ends of artefacts/ materials. They explored artefacts/materials and how they could be used and through this exemplified materiality in the objects. More deliberate and focused attention to what constitutes materiality can support collaboration and communication to support and enhance learning...... materials as natural objects in this world and artefacts as manmade objects. We are aware that in a classroom material objects and artefacts shape, and are shaped by classroom practice through the way they selectively present scientific explanations. However, materials and artefacts have no intrinsic...... and constrain forms of action and insights that are likely to “emerge” (Wells, 2003). Methods The study's teachers considered that students enjoy and benefit from “hands–on” learning activities and many commented that tasks and interactions incorporated the use of materials. These included material objects...

  4. Most substrates suitable if you adapt the watering and fertiliser : take note of specific plants needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity in substrates keeps growing. You can't say that one is better than the other if you take into account their characteristics and adapt the watering and fertilisation. But you also need take into account the specific requirements of the plant which we'll discuss in this article.

  5. Marginal adaptation and performance of bioactive dental restorative materials in deciduous and young permanent teeth.

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeta Gjorgievska; John W. Nicholson; Snezana Iljovska; Slipper, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptation of different types of restorations towards deciduous and young permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared in deciduous and young permanent teeth and filled with different materials (a conventional glass-ionomer, a resin-modified glass-ionomer, a poly-acid-modified composite resin and a conventional composite resin). Specimens were aged in artificial saliva for 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, then examined b...

  6. Specific neural correlates of successful learning and adaptation during social exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Collins, Adam P R; Fiorentini, Chiara; Kessler, Esther; Boyd, Harriet; Roberts, Fiona; Skuse, David H

    2013-12-01

    Cooperation and betrayal are universal features of social interactions, and knowing who to trust is vital in human society. Previous studies have identified brain regions engaged by decision making during social encounters, but the mechanisms supporting modification of future behaviour by utilizing social experience are not well characterized. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show that cooperation and betrayal during social exchanges elicit specific patterns of neural activity associated with future behaviour. Unanticipated cooperation leads to greater behavioural adaptation than unexpected betrayal, and is signalled by specific neural responses in the striatum and midbrain. Neural responses to betrayal and willingness to trust novel partners both decrease as the number of individuals encountered during repeated social encounters increases. We propose that, as social groups increase in size, uncooperative or untrustworthy behaviour becomes progressively less surprising, with cooperation becoming increasingly important as a stimulus for social learning. Effects on reputation of non-trusting decisions may also act to drive pro-social behaviour. Our findings characterize the dynamic neural processes underlying social adaptation, and suggest that the brain is optimized to cooperate with trustworthy partners, rather than avoiding those who might betray us.

  7. Use of Adaptive Study Material in Education in E-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostolányová, Katerina; Šarmanová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Personalised education is a topical matter today and the impact of ICT on education has been covered extensively. The adaptation of education to various types of student is an issue of a vast number of papers presented at diverse conferences. The topic incorporates the fields of information technologies and eLearning, but in no small part also the…

  8. The marine isolate Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y shows specific adaptation to use the aromatic fraction of fuels as the sole carbon and energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notomista, Eugenio; Pennacchio, Francesca; Cafaro, Valeria; Smaldone, Giovanni; Izzo, Viviana; Troncone, Luca; Varcamonti, Mario; Di Donato, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y, isolated from a surface seawater sample collected from a closed bay in the harbour of Pozzuoli (Naples, Italy), uses fuels as its sole carbon and energy source. Like some other Sphingomonads, this strain can grow as either planktonic free cells or sessile-aggregated flocks. In addition, this strain was found to grow as biofilm on several types of solid and liquid hydrophobic surfaces including polystyrene, polypropylene and diesel oil. Strain PP1Y is not able to grow on pure alkanes or alkane mixtures but is able to grow on a surprisingly wide range of aromatic compounds including mono, bi, tri and tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. During growth on diesel oil, the organic layer is emulsified resulting in the formation of small biofilm-coated drops, whereas during growth on aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in paraffin the oil layer is emulsified but the drops are coated only if the mixtures contain selected aromatic compounds, like pyrene, propylbenzene, tetrahydronaphthalene and heterocyclic compounds. These peculiar characteristics suggest strain PP1Y has adapted to efficiently grow at the water/fuel interface using the aromatic fraction of fuels as the sole carbon and energy source.

  9. Using Theory and Simulation to Design Active Materials with Sensory and Adaptive Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-17

    devising these systems, we took advantage of the unique properties offered by polymer gels undergoing the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction [1-10...exploit the unique properties of these active materials, we established a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of heterogeneous BZ gels and...that illustrate the remarkable properties of these BZ gel systems. Notably, we enjoyed successful collaborations with three Fig. I. Propagation of

  10. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  11. Cultural Adaptation and Translation of Outreach Materials on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinker, Roy R.; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Ahmann, Chloe; Beidas, Rinad S.; Lagman, Adrienne; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to connect with families and influence treatment trajectories, outreach materials should address cultural perceptions of the condition, its causes, and post-diagnostic care. This paper describes the cultural adaptation and translation of the Autism Speaks First 100 Days Kit into Korean for the purpose of improving autism spectrum disorder…

  12. Adaptation Effects to Attractiveness of Face Photographs and Art Portraits are Domain-Specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor U. Hayn-Leichsenring

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the neural coding of facial attractiveness by investigating effects of adaptation to attractive and unattractive human faces on the perceived attractiveness of veridical human face pictures (Experiment 1 and art portraits (Experiment 2. Experiment 1 revealed a clear pattern of contrastive aftereffects. Relative to a pre-adaptation baseline, the perceived attractiveness of faces was increased after adaptation to unattractive faces, and was decreased after adaptation to attractive faces. Experiment 2 revealed similar aftereffects when art portraits rather than face photographs were used as adaptors and test stimuli, suggesting that effects of adaptation to attractiveness are not restricted to facial photographs. Additionally, we found similar aftereffects in art portraits for beauty, another aesthetic feature that, unlike attractiveness, relates to the properties of the image (rather than to the face displayed. Importantly, Experiment 3 showed that aftereffects were abolished when adaptors were art portraits and face photographs were test stimuli. These results suggest that adaptation to facial attractiveness elicits aftereffects in the perception of subsequently presented faces, for both face photographs and art portraits, and that these effects do not cross image domains.

  13. Solar adaptive optics: specificities, lessons learned, and open alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, I.; Marino, J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Collados, M.; Montoya, L.; Tallon, M.

    2016-07-01

    First on sky adaptive optics experiments were performed on the Dunn Solar Telescope on 1979, with a shearing interferometer and limited success. Those early solar adaptive optics efforts forced to custom-develop many components, such as Deformable Mirrors and WaveFront Sensors, which were not available at that time. Later on, the development of the correlation Shack-Hartmann marked a breakthrough in solar adaptive optics. Since then, successful Single Conjugate Adaptive Optics instruments have been developed for many solar telescopes, i.e. the National Solar Observatory, the Vacuum Tower Telescope and the Swedish Solar Telescope. Success with the Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems for GREGOR and the New Solar Telescope has proved to be more difficult to attain. Such systems have a complexity not only related to the number of degrees of freedom, but also related to the specificities of the Sun, used as reference, and the sensing method. The wavefront sensing is performed using correlations on images with a field of view of 10", averaging wavefront information from different sky directions, affecting the sensing and sampling of high altitude turbulence. Also due to the low elevation at which solar observations are performed we have to include generalized fitting error and anisoplanatism, as described by Ragazzoni and Rigaut, as non-negligible error sources in the Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics error budget. For the development of the next generation Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope and the European Solar Telescope we still need to study and understand these issues, to predict realistically the quality of the achievable reconstruction. To improve their designs other open issues have to be assessed, i.e. possible alternative sensing methods to avoid the intrinsic anisoplanatism of the wide field correlation Shack-Hartmann, new parameters to estimate the performance of an adaptive optics solar system, alternatives to

  14. Exploring Preservice Elementary Teachers' Critique and Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials in Respect to Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here represents a preliminary effort undertaken to address the role of teachers in supporting students' learning and decision-making about socioscientific issues (SSI) by characterizing preservice elementary teachers' critique and adaptation of SSI-based science curriculum materials and identifying factors that serve to mediate…

  15. Specific yield: compilation of specific yields for various materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.I.

    1967-01-01

    Specific yield is defined as the ratio of (1) the volume of water that a saturated rock or soil will yield by gravity to (2) the total volume of the rock or soft. Specific yield is usually expressed as a percentage. The value is not definitive, because the quantity of water that will drain by gravity depends on variables such as duration of drainage, temperature, mineral composition of the water, and various physical characteristics of the rock or soil under consideration. Values of specific yields nevertheless offer a convenient means by which hydrologists can estimate the water-yielding capacities of earth materials and, as such, are very useful in hydrologic studies. The present report consists mostly of direct or modified quotations from many selected reports that present and evaluate methods for determining specific yield, limitations of those methods, and results of the determinations made on a wide variety of rock and soil materials. Although no particular values are recommended in this report, a table summarizes values of specific yield, and their averages, determined for 10 rock textures. The following is an abstract of the table. [Table

  16. The effects of varying resistance-training loads on intermediate- and high-velocity-specific adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Bishop, P; Hunter, G; Fleisig, G

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in velocity-specific adaptations in moderately resistance-trained athletes who trained with either low or high resistances. The study used tests of sport-specific skills across an intermediate- to high-velocity spectrum. Thirty NCAA Division I baseball players were randomly assigned to either a low-resistance (40-60% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) training group or a high-resistance (70-90% 1RM) training group. Both of the training groups intended to maximallv accelerate each repetition during the concentric phase (IMCA). The 10 weeks of training consisted of 4 training sessions a week using basic core exercises. Peak force, velocity, and power were evaluated during set angle and depth jumps as well as weighted jumps using 30 and 50% 1RM. Squat 1RMs were also tested. Although no interactions for any of the jump tests were found, trends supported the hypothesis of velocity-specific training. Percentage gains suggest that the combined use of heavier training loads (70-90% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak force in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. Trends also show that the combined use of lighter training loads (40-60% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak power and peak velocity in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. The high-resistance group improved squats more than the low-resistance group (p IMCA to increase 1RM strength in the lower bodies of resistance-trained athletes.

  17. Waste management issues and their potential impact on technical specifications of CANDU fuel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.C.; Johnson, L.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The technical specifications for the composition of nuclear fuels and materials used in Canada's CANDU reactors have been developed by AECL and materials manufacturers, taking into account considerations specific to their manufacture and the effect of minor impurities on fuel behaviour in reactor. Nitrogen and chlorine are examples of UO{sub 2} impurities, however, where there is no technical specification limit. These impurities are present in the source materials or introduced in the fabrication process and are neutron activated to {sup 14}C and {sup 36}C1, which after {sup 129}I , are the two most significant contributors to dose in safety assessments for the disposal of used fuel. For certain impurities, environmental factors, particularly the safety of the disposal of used fuels, should be taken into consideration when deriving 'allowable' impurity limits for nuclear fuel materials. (author)

  18. Simulation and Rapid Prototyping of Adaptive Control Systems using the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge the gap between simulation and prototype controller...... implementation. This is done using the code generation capabilities of Real Time Workshop in combination with C s-function blocks for adaptive control in Simulink. In the paper the design of each group of blocks normally found in adaptive controllers is outlined. The block types are, identification, controller...

  19. Simulation and Rapid Prototyping of Adaptive Control Systems using the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge the gap between simulation and prototype controller...... implementation. This is done using the code generation capabilities of Real Time Workshop in combination with C s-function blocks for adaptive control in Simulink. In the paper the design of each group of blocks normally found in adaptive controllers is outlined. The block types are, identification, controller...... design, controller and state variable filter.The use of the Adaptive Blockset is demonstrated using a simple laboratory setup. Both the use of the blockset for simulation and for rapid prototyping of a real-time controller are shown....

  20. The Specificity of Adaptation to Real-Time Formant Shifting

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Ewen; Pile, Elizabeth; Dajani, Hilmi; Munhall, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the specificity of adaptation to real-time formant shifting. During the experiments, talkers were adapted to altered auditory feedback for one vowel (trained vowel) and received unaltered feedback for a different vowel (untrained vowel). In the first experiment, production of the untrained vowel was measured while the talker was in the process of adapting to the altered feedback for the trained vowel. In the second experiment, produ...

  1. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Analysis of the Hindi-Translated Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Falls are very common in older adults. The activities-specific balance confidence (ABC scale is an instrument used to measure confidence in balance, hitherto available only in the English language. There is a need for a Hindi version of the ABC scale for subjects whose primary language is Hindi, as the availability of a self-administered scale in subjects’ native language will make clinical management and research more effective. Objectives The aim of this study was to translate the activities-specific balance confidence scale into a Hindi version (ABC-H, cross-culturally adapt it, assess its psychometric properties, and establish the normative value of self-perceived balance confidence scores of Indian older adults. Materials and Methods One hundred community-dwelling, Indian older adults participated in the study. ABC-H was developed through a standard cross-cultural adaptation procedure. Eight items from the original ABC scale were modified. A subsample of 50 subjects was re-assessed for test-retest reliability, standard error of measurement (SEM, minimum detectable change (MDC, and concurrent validity, using the fall efficacy scale (FES-I to analyze the psychometric properties. Results The normative value of ABC-H total score observed in the Indian older population (n = 100 was 71%, ranging from 41.25 to 95.63. In the subsample of 50 subjects, test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC = 0.97. All 16 items had excellent to good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.97 - 0.88; SEM was 2.45, MDC95 was 6.9%, with excellent concurrent validity (r = -0.85, P < 0.0001. Conclusions The Hindi version of the ABC scale demonstrated acceptable measurement properties, showing that ABC-H can be used for assessing balance confidence in Hindi-speaking, community-dwelling Indian older adults. It can be an assessment tool either for clinical management or research.

  2. Adapting Formal Education Materials for Out-of-School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise A.; Gibbons, H.

    2006-12-01

    Out-of-school programs present significant opportunities to reinforce and extend classroom learning. How can we work effectively with these programs to engage youth in science and technology? What types of materials can be easily integrated into out-of-school learning experiences? How can existing formal education materials be adapted for use in out-of-school settings? To address these questions, the Space Telescope Science Institute and the Pacific Science Center have engaged in a project that builds on a network of informal science education centers and community-based organizations developed for a national outreach program associated with the NOVA/PBS Origins series. As part of this effort, the Pacific Science Center has held a focus group with local community-based organizations serving underserved and underrepresented youth, and engaged 20 sites in Washington, California, and Tennessee in testing formal education materials adapted for use in out-of-school settings. We report preliminary focus group and field-test results, including emerging best practices for adapting formal education materials for use in out-of-time settings. Results from this project will enable a variety of education and public outreach programs to extend the reach of their materials to new audiences in a way that bridges the formal and informal science education realms.

  3. The materiality of materials and artefacts used in science classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy

    materials as natural objects in this world and artefacts as manmade objects. We are aware that in a classroom material objects and artefacts shape, and are shaped by classroom practice through the way they selectively present scientific explanations. However, materials and artefacts have no intrinsic...... such as fossils, plant samples and artefacts like test tubes, worksheets and digital tools along with written inscriptions produced during interactions and that served as artefacts in subsequent interactions (Roehl, 2012). Data sources Data were generated via classroom observation using video, student work sample....... d) Artefacts as an adjunct to talk. The use of sets of cards or actual objects. Students changed the position of the cards/ objects as a dynamic visual representation of consensus thinking. Significance The teachers in our study did not view materials as being neutral objects but thought about means...

  4. Simultaneous Enrichment of Cysteine-containing Peptides and Phosphopeptides Using a Cysteine-specific Phosphonate Adaptable Tag (CysPAT) in Combination with titanium dioxide (TiO2) Chromatography*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Honggang; Haar Petersen, Martin; Ibañez-Vea, Maria; Lassen, Pernille S.; Larsen, Martin R.; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine is a rare and conserved amino acid involved in most cellular functions. The thiol group of cysteine can be subjected to diverse oxidative modifications that regulate many physio-pathological states. In the present work, a Cysteine-specific Phosphonate Adaptable Tag (CysPAT) was synthesized to selectively label cysteine-containing peptides (Cys peptides) followed by their enrichment with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. The CysPAT strategy was developed using a synthetic peptide, a standard protein and subsequently the strategy was applied to protein lysates from Hela cells, achieving high specificity and enrichment efficiency. In particular, for Cys proteome analysis, the method led to the identification of 7509 unique Cys peptides from 500 μg of HeLa cell lysate starting material. Furthermore, the method was developed to simultaneously enrich Cys peptides and phosphorylated peptides. This strategy was applied to SILAC labeled Hela cells subjected to 5 min epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. In total, 10440 unique reversibly modified Cys peptides (3855 proteins) and 7339 unique phosphopeptides (2234 proteins) were simultaneously identified from 250 μg starting material. Significant regulation was observed in both phosphorylation and reversible Cys modification of proteins involved in EGFR signaling. Our data indicates that EGF stimulation can activate the well-known phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream signaling molecules, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK1 and MAPK3), however, it also leads to substantial modulation of reversible cysteine modifications in numerous proteins. Several protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) showed a reduction of the catalytic Cys site in the conserved putative phosphatase HC(X)5R motif indicating an activation and subsequent de-phosphorylation of proteins involved in the EGF signaling pathway. Overall, the CysPAT strategy is a straight forward, easy and promising

  5. DIRECT AND ADAPTIVE SLICING ON CAD MODEL OF IDEAL FUNCTIONAL MATERIAL COMPONENTS (IFMC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Daoming; Jia Zhenyuan; Guo Dongming

    2005-01-01

    A brand new direct and adaptive slicing approach is proposed, which can apparently improve the part accuracy and reduce the building time. At least two stages are included in this operation: getting the crossing contour of the cutting plane with the solid part and determining the layer thickness. Apart from usual SPI algorithm, slicing of the solid model has its special requirements.Enabling the contour line segments of the cross-section as long as possible is one of them, which is for improving manufacturing efficiency and is reached by adaptively adjusting the step direction and the step size at every crossing point to obtain optimized secant height. The layer thickness determination can be divided into two phases: the geometry-based thickness estimation and the material-based thickness verifying. During the former phase, the geometry tolerance is divided into two parts: a variety of curves are approximated by a circular arc, which introduces the first part, and the deviation error between the contour line in LM process and the circular arc generates the second part. The latter phase is mainly verifying the layer thickness estimated in the former stage and determining a new one if necessary. In addition, an example using this slicing algorithm is also illustrated.

  6. Measurement of the Specific Heat of Plastic Waste/Fly Ash Composite Material Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, J.; Honda, T.

    2009-06-01

    Plastic waste/fly ash composite, which is made mostly from plastic waste and fly ash, is one of the materials developed for the purpose of recycling. Currently, the composite is used for cable troughs shielding underground lines. However, there exists little information concerning the thermophysical properties of the composite. Thermophysical properties and the structure of the composite must be determined to estimate the heat transfer in the composite and create the different proportions of the composite material. This article deals with measurements of the specific heat of the plastic waste/fly ash composite and its components using a differential scanning calorimeter. The composite sample, which ranged from 10 mg to 19 mg in mass, was cut from a cable trough. The standard reference material is synthetic sapphire disks of 19.6 mg and 29.6 mg in mass. The specific heat of the plastic waste/fly ash composite increases from 1.25 kJ · kg-1 · K-1 to 1.59 kJ · kg-1 · K-1 at temperatures from 305 K to 360 K. The uncertainty for the specific heat data of the composite is estimated to be about 4 %. In addition, the specific heat value depends heavily on the content of the plastic waste.

  7. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  8. Compressive loading of the murine tibia reveals site-specific micro-scale differences in adaptation and maturation rates of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, I; Kerns, J G; Törnqvist, A E; Perdikouri, C; Mathavan, N; Koskela, A; Henriksson, H B; Tuukkanen, J; Andersson, G; Isaksson, H; Goodship, A E; Windahl, S H

    2017-03-01

    Loading increases bone mass and strength in a site-specific manner; however, possible effects of loading on bone matrix composition have not been evaluated. Site-specific structural and material properties of mouse bone were analyzed on the macro- and micro/molecular scale in the presence and absence of axial loading. The response of bone to load is heterogeneous, adapting at molecular, micro-, and macro-levels. Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease resulting in reduced bone mineral density, structure, and strength. The overall aim was to explore the hypothesis that changes in loading environment result in site-specific adaptations at molecular/micro- and macro-scale in mouse bone. Right tibiae of adult mice were subjected to well-defined cyclic axial loading for 2 weeks; left tibiae were used as physiologically loaded controls. The bones were analyzed with μCT (structure), reference point indentation (material properties), Raman spectroscopy (chemical), and small-angle X-ray scattering (mineral crystallization and structure). The cranial and caudal sites of tibiae are structurally and biochemically different within control bones. In response to loading, cranial and caudal sites increase in cortical thickness with reduced mineralization (-14 and -3%, p micro-scale to maintain optimal function. Manipulation of this heterogeneity may affect bone strength, relative to specific applied loads.

  9. Specificity, cross-talk and adaptation in Interferon signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilman, Anton

    Innate immune system is the first line of defense of higher organisms against pathogens. It coordinates the behavior of millions of cells of multiple types, achieved through numerous signaling molecules. This talk focuses on the signaling specificity of a major class of signaling molecules - Type I Interferons - which are also used therapeutically in the treatment of a number of diseases, such as Hepatitis C, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. Puzzlingly, different Interferons act through the same cell surface receptor but have different effects on the target cells. They also exhibit a strange pattern of temporal cross-talk resulting in a serious clinical problem - loss of response to Interferon therapy. We combined mathematical modeling with quantitative experiments to develop a quantitative model of specificity and adaptation in the Interferon signaling pathway. The model resolves several outstanding experimental puzzles and directly affects the clinical use of Type I Interferons in treatment of viral hepatitis and other diseases.

  10. Simultaneous enrichment of cysteine-containing peptides and phosphopeptides using a cysteine-specific phosphonate adaptable tag (CysPAT) in combination with titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Pedersen, Martin Haar; Ibañez-Vea, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine is a rare and conserved amino acid involved in most cellular functions. The thiol group of cysteine can be subjected to diverse oxidative modifications that regulate many physio-pathological states. In the present work, a Cysteine-specific Phosphonate Adaptable Tag (CysPAT) was synthesized...

  11. The Transformation of Adaptation Specificity to Whisker Identity from Brainstem to Thalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubran, Muna; Mohar, Boaz; Lampl, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    Stimulus specific adaptation has been studied extensively in different modalities. High specificity implies that deviant stimulus induces a stronger response compared to a common stimulus. The thalamus gates sensory information to the cortex, therefore, the specificity of adaptation in the thalamus must have a great impact on cortical processing of sensory inputs. We studied the specificity of adaptation to whisker identity in the ventral posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus (VPM) in rats using extracellular and intracellular recordings. We found that subsequent to repetitive stimulation that induced strong adaptation, the response to stimulation of the same, or any other responsive whisker was equally adapted, indicating that thalamic adaptation is non-specific. In contrast, adaptation of single units in the upstream brainstem principal trigeminal nucleus (PrV) was significantly more specific. Depolarization of intracellularly recorded VPM cells demonstrated that adaptation is not due to buildup of inhibition. In addition, adaptation increased the probability of observing complete synaptic failures to tactile stimulation. In accordance with short-term synaptic depression models, the evoked synaptic potentials in response to whisker stimulation, subsequent to a response failure, were facilitated. In summary, we show that local short-term synaptic plasticity is involved in the transformation of adaptation in the trigemino-thalamic synapse and that the low specificity of adaptation in the VPM emerges locally rather than cascades from earlier stages. Taken together we suggest that during sustained stimulation, local thalamic mechanisms equally suppress inputs arriving from different whiskers before being gated to the cortex. PMID:27445716

  12. Thermotropic and Thermochromic Polymer Based Materials for Adaptive Solar Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Mühling

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to present the actual status of development in adaptive solar control by use of thermotropic and organic thermochromic materials. Such materials are suitable for application in smart windows. In detail polymer blends, hydrogels, resins, and thermoplastic films with a reversible temperature-dependent switching behavior are described. A comparative evaluation of the concepts for these energy efficient materials is given as well. Furthermore, the change of strategy from ordinary shadow systems to intrinsic solar energy reflection materials based on phase transition components and a first remark about their realization is reported. Own current results concerning extruded films and high thermally stable casting resins with thermotropic properties make a significant contribution to this field.

  13. DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STERN, E.A.; LODGE, J.; JONES, K.W.; CLESCERI, N.L.; FENG, H.; DOUGLAS, W.S.

    2000-12-03

    Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

  14. Adaptation of Instructional Materials Motivation Survey to Turkish: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Kutu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to adapt “Instructional Materials Motivation Survey [IMMS]”, developed by J. M. Keller, to Turkish and investigate validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the survey. The original version of the survey was composed of 36 items gathered under four factors (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction. The survey was translated into Turkish. Views of 15 faculty members who were expert in Turkish and foreign language were sought in terms of correctness of meaning in Turkish and integrity of items into culture of Turkish education system. Turkish version of the survey was administered to total of 262 university students from Education Faculties of Ataturk and Erzincan Universities. The item-total correlations were calculated, and items which had negative or low correlation with the total survey score (r<.30 were excluded from the survey. The construct validity of the survey was examined by exploratory factor analysis. Varimax rotation technique was used due to the separation into irrelevant factors. Finally the survey was constructed from 24 item gathered under two factors. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach Alpha for the whole survey was calculated as 0.83, and 0.79 and 0.69 for the two sub-factors respectively.

  15. Material Removal and Specific Energy in the Dynamic Scratching of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

    2006-11-01

    Mechanical responses of three gamma titanium aluminides (TiAls) (denoted as Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) subjected to dynamic scratching were studied by using a single-grit pendulum (rotating) scratch tester. The maximum depth of groove was ~ 0.07 mm, and the scratch velocity used was ~ 1.0 m/s. Normal and tangential forces were monitored. The material removal mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scratches were measured by using a laser profilometer. The mechanical properties of the tested TiAls were characterized by the instantaneous specific energy, scratch resistance and scratch hardness as related to the depth of groove. Extensive thermal softening was observed in the dynamic scratch of the tested TiAls, which facilitated both the detachments of developing chips and the pile-ups of materials on side ridges. Sizable fractures were observed in the transverse direction on the tested TiAls; these fractures tended to participate in the chip formation, depending on the microstructure of the TiAl and the size of the scratch groove. Specific energy and scratch hardness are depth-dependent to various degrees for the tested TiAls. The materiel removal might be subjected to different mechanisms, but the overall response of materials can be effectively characterized by the HEM (Hwang, Evans and Malkin) model and the PSR (proportional specimen resistance) model. The obtained depth-independent specific energy and scratch hardness can be used to screen the candidate materials for the specific purpose depending on whether the application is scratch-dominant or impact-dominant. Among the three tested TiAls, the TiAl with larger colony or grain size exhibits a stronger capability of energy dissipation in the material loss or material removal (higher depth-independent specific energy), while the TiAl with smaller colony size show a higher resistance against the indentation (higher depth-independent scratch hardness). The observations and

  16. Adaptive Remodeling of the Bacterial Proteome by Specific Ribosomal Modification Regulates Pseudomonas Infection and Niche Colonisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Little

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional control of protein abundance is a highly important, underexplored regulatory process by which organisms respond to their environments. Here we describe an important and previously unidentified regulatory pathway involving the ribosomal modification protein RimK, its regulator proteins RimA and RimB, and the widespread bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP (cdG. Disruption of rimK affects motility and surface attachment in pathogenic and commensal Pseudomonas species, with rimK deletion significantly compromising rhizosphere colonisation by the commensal soil bacterium P. fluorescens, and plant infection by the pathogens P. syringae and P. aeruginosa. RimK functions as an ATP-dependent glutamyl ligase, adding glutamate residues to the C-terminus of ribosomal protein RpsF and inducing specific effects on both ribosome protein complement and function. Deletion of rimK in P. fluorescens leads to markedly reduced levels of multiple ribosomal proteins, and also of the key translational regulator Hfq. In turn, reduced Hfq levels induce specific downstream proteomic changes, with significant increases in multiple ABC transporters, stress response proteins and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases seen for both ΔrimK and Δhfq mutants. The activity of RimK is itself controlled by interactions with RimA, RimB and cdG. We propose that control of RimK activity represents a novel regulatory mechanism that dynamically influences interactions between bacteria and their hosts; translating environmental pressures into dynamic ribosomal changes, and consequently to an adaptive remodeling of the bacterial proteome.

  17. Adaptive Remodeling of the Bacterial Proteome by Specific Ribosomal Modification Regulates Pseudomonas Infection and Niche Colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Richard H; Grenga, Lucia; Saalbach, Gerhard; Howat, Alexandra M; Pfeilmeier, Sebastian; Trampari, Eleftheria; Malone, Jacob G

    2016-02-01

    Post-transcriptional control of protein abundance is a highly important, underexplored regulatory process by which organisms respond to their environments. Here we describe an important and previously unidentified regulatory pathway involving the ribosomal modification protein RimK, its regulator proteins RimA and RimB, and the widespread bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP (cdG). Disruption of rimK affects motility and surface attachment in pathogenic and commensal Pseudomonas species, with rimK deletion significantly compromising rhizosphere colonisation by the commensal soil bacterium P. fluorescens, and plant infection by the pathogens P. syringae and P. aeruginosa. RimK functions as an ATP-dependent glutamyl ligase, adding glutamate residues to the C-terminus of ribosomal protein RpsF and inducing specific effects on both ribosome protein complement and function. Deletion of rimK in P. fluorescens leads to markedly reduced levels of multiple ribosomal proteins, and also of the key translational regulator Hfq. In turn, reduced Hfq levels induce specific downstream proteomic changes, with significant increases in multiple ABC transporters, stress response proteins and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases seen for both ΔrimK and Δhfq mutants. The activity of RimK is itself controlled by interactions with RimA, RimB and cdG. We propose that control of RimK activity represents a novel regulatory mechanism that dynamically influences interactions between bacteria and their hosts; translating environmental pressures into dynamic ribosomal changes, and consequently to an adaptive remodeling of the bacterial proteome.

  18. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain in parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Roberts, Dale C.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gains) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. Our earlier work demonstrated this phenomenon of context-specific adaptation for saccadic eye movements: we asked for gain decrease in one context state and gain increase in another context state, and then determined if a change in the context state would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal and vertical eye position and head orientation could serve, to varying degrees, as cues for switching between two different saccade gains. In the present study, we asked whether gravity magnitude could serve as a context cue: saccade adaptation was performed during parabolic flight, which provides alternating levels of gravitoinertial force (0 g and 1.8 g). Results were less robust than those from ground experiments, but established that different saccade magnitudes could be associated with different gravity levels.

  19. Material Removal and Specific Energy in the Dynamic Scratching of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Lin, H.-T.; Wereszczak, A.A.

    2006-11-30

    Mechanical responses of three gamma titanium aluminides (TiAls) (denoted as Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) subjected to dynamic scratching were studied by using a single-grit pendulum (rotating) scratch tester. The maximum depth of groove was {approx} 0.07 mm, and the scratch velocity was {approx} 1.0 m/s. Normal and tangential forces were monitored. The material removal mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scratches were measured by using a laser profilometer. The mechanical properties of the tested TiAls were characterized by the instantaneous specific energy, scratch resistance and scratch hardness as related to the groove depth. Extensive thermal softening was observed in the dynamic scratch test of the TiAls, which facilitated both the detachment of developing chips and pile-up of material on side ridges. Sizable fractures were observed in the transverse direction in the tested TiAls; these fractures tended to participate in the chip formation, depending on the microstructure of the TiAl and the size of the scratch groove. Specific energy and scratch hardness are depth-dependent to various degrees for the TiAls tested. The material removal might be subjected to different mechanisms, but the overall material response can be effectively characterized by the HEM (Hwang, Evans and Malkin) model and the PSR (proportional specimen resistance) model. The depth-independent specific energy and scratch hardness can be used to screen candidate materials for the applications that are scratch-dominated versus impact-dominated. Among the three tested TiAls, the TiAl with larger colony or grain size exhibits a stronger capability of energy dissipation during material removal (higher depth-independent specific energy), while the TiAl with smaller colony size shows a higher resistance to indentation (higher depth-independent scratch hardness). The observations and conclusions in this study can serve as a base line for the further

  20. Social Backup and Sharing of Video using HTTP Adaptive Streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Klos, V.B.; Jiang, J.; Casetti, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is on social backup, sharing and remote access of video using HTTP Adaptive Streaming. A social backup is a backup at the location, and thus on the equipment, of (close) friends and family. Backups are created at friends’ locations, matching the hosting user’s interest with the content an

  1. Social Backup and Sharing of Video using HTTP Adaptive Streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Klos, V.B.; Jiang, J.; Casetti, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is on social backup, sharing and remote access of video using HTTP Adaptive Streaming. A social backup is a backup at the location, and thus on the equipment, of (close) friends and family. Backups are created at friends’ locations, matching the hosting user’s interest with the content

  2. SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS TiO2 MATERIALS WITH HIGH SPECIFIC AREA USING INORGANIC ACIDS AS CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Huang; Guangsheng Luo; Liming Yang; Yujun Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis process for preparing mesoporous titanium dioxide materials in the absence of any templates and using inorganic acids as catalysts. Tetrabutyl titanate was used as the precursor at ambient temperature, and four different inorganic acids, i.e., hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric, were used as catalysts.The as-prepared mesoporous TiO2 materials were characterized by SEM, XRD and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. The influences of different inorganic acids on the properties of TiO2 were discussed and compared in details. Experiments showed that the inorganic acids have significant effects on the surface area, pore volume, pore size,and pore size distribution of the products. The mesoporous TiO2 materials catalyzed by phosphoric acid exhibited the largest specific surface area and largest pore volume with narrow pore size distribution. Vacuum and infrared drying methods tested in the process were found to have subtle impact on the structure of the TiO2 materials prepared.

  3. Urban adaptation planning: the use and limits of climate science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodman, David; Carmin, Joann

    2011-11-15

    Cities face a mounting challenge from climate change. In developed and developing countries alike, rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, higher sea levels, and more frequent and severe extreme events such as droughts and floods threaten to overwhelm urban infrastructure, services and management systems. City officials recognise the need to adapt to climate change, and use scientific evidence to support their plans for doing so. But the precise details of these changes and the local impacts they will have cannot be predicted. Decision makers must learn to draw on scientific data while simultaneously managing the uncertainty inherent in future projections. Across the world, forward-looking city officials are proving themselves to be 'urban adaptation leaders' — mobilising political and public support for and devising flexible approaches to adaptation.

  4. Curriculum Design for Inquiry: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Mobilization and Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Curriculum materials are crucial tools with which teachers engage students in science as inquiry. In order to use curriculum materials effectively, however, teachers must develop a robust capacity for pedagogical design, or the ability to mobilize a variety of personal and curricular resources to promote student learning. The purpose of this study…

  5. Modular titanium alloy neck adapter failures in hip replacement - failure mode analysis and influence of implant material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloemer Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modular neck adapters for hip arthroplasty stems allow the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intraoperatively. Fretting or crevice corrosion may lead to failure of such a modular device due to high loads or surface contamination inside the modular coupling. Unfortunately we have experienced such a failure of implants and now report our clinical experience with the failures in order to advance orthopaedic material research and joint replacement surgery. The failed neck adapters were implanted between August 2004 and November 2006 a total of about 5000 devices. After this period, the titanium neck adapters were replaced by adapters out of cobalt-chromium. Until the end of 2008 in total 1.4% (n = 68 of the implanted titanium alloy neck adapters failed with an average time of 2.0 years (0.7 to 4.0 years postoperatively. All, but one, patients were male, their average age being 57.4 years (36 to 75 years and the average weight 102.3 kg (75 to 130 kg. The failures of neck adapters were divided into 66% with small CCD of 130° and 60% with head lengths of L or larger. Assuming an average time to failure of 2.8 years, the cumulative failure rate was calculated with 2.4%. Methods A series of adapter failures of titanium alloy modular neck adapters in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem was investigated. For patients having received this particular implant combination risk factors were identified which were associated with the occurence of implant failure. A Kaplan-Meier survival-failure-analysis was conducted. The retrieved implants were analysed using microscopic and chemical methods. Modes of failure were simulated in biomechanical tests. Comparative tests included modular neck adapters made of titanium alloy and cobalt chrome alloy material. Results Retrieval examinations and biomechanical simulation revealed that primary micromotions initiated fretting within the modular tapered neck

  6. How protein materials balance strength, robustness, and adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Markus J.; Yung, Yu Ching

    2010-01-01

    Proteins form the basis of a wide range of biological materials such as hair, skin, bone, spider silk, or cells, which play an important role in providing key functions to biological systems. The focus of this article is to discuss how protein materials are capable of balancing multiple, seemingly incompatible properties such as strength, robustness, and adaptability. To illustrate this, we review bottom-up materiomics studies focused on the mechanical behavior of protein materials at multiple scales, from nano to macro. We focus on alpha-helix based intermediate filament proteins as a model system to explain why the utilization of hierarchical structural features is vital to their ability to combine strength, robustness, and adaptability. Experimental studies demonstrating the activation of angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, are presented as an example of how adaptability of structure in biological tissue is achieved through changes in gene expression that result in an altered material structure. We analyze the concepts in light of the universality and diversity of the structural makeup of protein materials and discuss the findings in the context of potential fundamental evolutionary principles that control their nanoscale structure. We conclude with a discussion of multiscale science in biology and de novo materials design. PMID:20676305

  7. Universality and Specificity of Fractal Dimension of Fractured Surfaces in Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    After calculation on the fracture angles under various conditions of specific surface energies with different symmetry operations of rotation, the complicated behavior of dependence of fractal dimension on the structure of crystal is shown. It is found that the crack propagates along the weakest crystal plane no matter what the direction of the maximum stress is if the anisotropy is sufficiently strong; and then, the fractal dimension of the fractured surfaces might be determined by the approximate fractal structure already existed in the material. Specificity of the fractal dimension of fractured surfaces would be easy to appear in this case. Reversely, the crack propagates along the direction of the maximum stress no matter what direction of the weakest crystal plane is if the anisotropy is sufficiently weak. Universality of the fractal dimension of fractured surfaces would be possible to appear in this case. In many real materials, universality and specificity of the materials are associated. The fractal dimension measured may more or less be influenced by the structure of materials and it shows its universality through the specificity of materials.

  8. Towards more efficient e-learning, intelligence and adapted teaching material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kalpić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of a research project in which we attempted to determine the relationship between efficient E-learning and teaching materials adapted based on students’ structure of intelligence. The project was conducted on approximately 500 students, 23 classes, nine elementary schools, with ten teachers of history, informatics and several licensed psychologists. E-teaching material was prepared for the subject of History for eight-grade students of elementary school. Students were tested for the structure of intelligence, and based on their most prominent component, they were divided into groups, using teaching materials adapted to their most prominent intelligence component. The results have shown that use of the adapted teaching materials achieved 6-12% better results than E-materials not adapted to students’ structure of intelligence.

  9. Cognition and Logic: Adaptation and Application of Inclusive Teaching Materials for Hands-On Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Kátia Machinez; Sholl-Franco, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    The use of inclusive teaching materials that motivate and encourage the development of executive functions has been neglected by the mathematic teaching, in which intelligence is valued, but no efforts are made to stimulate it. There are numerous reasons for that, among which are teachers' and students' unawareness that mathematics involves higher…

  10. Cognition and Logic: Adaptation and Application of Inclusive Teaching Materials for Hands-On Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Kátia Machinez; Sholl-Franco, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    The use of inclusive teaching materials that motivate and encourage the development of executive functions has been neglected by the mathematic teaching, in which intelligence is valued, but no efforts are made to stimulate it. There are numerous reasons for that, among which are teachers' and students' unawareness that mathematics involves higher…

  11. Propagation law of impact elastic wave based on specific materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmin CHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the propagation law of the impact elastic wave on the platform, the experimental platform is built by using the specific isotropic materials and anisotropic materials. The glass cloth epoxy laminated plate is used for anisotropic material, and an organic glass plate is used for isotropic material. The PVDF sensors adhered on the specific materials are utilized to collect data, and the elastic wave propagation law of different thick plates and laminated plates under impact conditions is analyzed. The Experimental results show that in anisotropic material, transverse wave propagation speed along the fiber arrangement direction is the fastest, while longitudinal wave propagation speed is the slowest. The longitudinal wave propagation speed in anisotropic laminates is much slower than that in the laminated thick plates. In the test channel arranged along a particular angle away from the central region of the material, transverse wave propagation speed is larger. Based on the experimental results, this paper proposes a material combination mode which is advantageous to elastic wave propagation and diffusion in shock-isolating materials. It is proposed to design a composite material with high acoustic velocity by adding regularly arranged fibrous materials. The overall design of the barrier material is a layered structure and a certain number of 90°zigzag structure.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and initial validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Odetunde, Marufat O; Odole, Adesola C

    2012-12-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted to Yoruba language by including Yoruba culture-specific examples in items SC4, UE2 and UE6. The adapted English version (AEV) was independently translated into Yoruba by two language experts who later agreed on a consensus translation, which was then back translated, subjected to an expert committee review and pretested; a cognitive debriefing interview was also carried out to generate the Yoruba translated version (YTV). Thirty-five stroke survivors completed the AEV and Yoruba version (YV) in English and Yoruba. The order of administration was randomized. Data were analysed using Spearman's rank order correlation and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test at a P value less than 0.05. The mean age of the participants (23 men, 12 women) was 58.5±11.3 years. The domain scores of the participants on AEV and YV did not differ significantly, except in the work/productivity domain. In both versions, the mean domain score of the participants was the highest in the language domain [22.6±3.8 (AEV) and 22.7±3.4 (YV)] and the lowest in the work domain [9.0±3.7 (AEV) and 8.0±3.3 (YTV)]. Domain scores on both versions correlated significantly (P<0.05). Participants' ratings of their current state and prestroke state correlated significantly (P<0.01) in all the general areas, except energy and mood. The YTV of SS-QoL 2.0 fulfilled the initial criteria for validity.

  13. Design of a Domain-Specific Language for Material Flow Analysis using Microsoft DSL tools: An Experience Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Material Flow Analysis (MFA) is the procedure of measuring and assessing the mass flows of matter (solid waste, water, food...) and substances (carbon, phosphorus ...) within a process or a system for the period of time. In this paper we propose a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) to model MFA in a ...

  14. Types of architectural structures and the use of smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavşan, Cengiz; Sipahi, Serkan

    2017-07-01

    The developments in technology following the industrial revolution had their share of impact on both construction techniques, and material technologies. The change in the materials used by the construction industry brought along numerous innovations, which, in turn, took on an autonomous trend of development given the rise of nano-tech materials. Today, nano-tech materials are used extensively in numerous construction categories. Nano-tech materials, in general, are characterized by their reactionary nature, with the intent of repeating the reactions again and again under certain conditions. That is why nano-tech materials are often called smart materials. In construction industry, smart materials are categorized under 4 major perspectives: Shape-shifting smart materials, power generating smart materials, self-maintenance smart materials, and smart materials providing a high level of insulation. In architecture, various categories of construction often tend to exhibit their own approaches to design, materials, and construction techniques. This is a direct consequence of the need for different solutions for different functions. In this context, the use of technological materials should lead to the use of a set of smart materials for a given category of structures, while another category utilizes yet another set. In the present study, the smart materials used in specific categories of structures were reviewed with reference to nano-tech practices implemented in Europe, with a view to try and reveal the changes in the use of smart materials with reference to categories of structures. The study entails a discussion to test the hypothesis that nano-tech materials vary with reference to structure categories, on the basis of 18 examples from various structure categories, built by the construction firms with the highest level of potential in terms of doing business in Europe. The study comprises 3 major sections: The first section reiterates what the literature has to say

  15. Specific Monoclonal Antibody Overcomes the Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium's Adaptive Mechanisms of Intramacrophage Survival and Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarmistha Devi Aribam

    Full Text Available Salmonella-specific antibodies play an important role in host immunity; however, the mechanisms of Salmonella clearance by pathogen-specific antibodies remain to be completely elucidated since previous studies on antibody-mediated protection have yielded inconsistent results. These inconsistencies are at least partially attributable to the use of polyclonal antibodies against Salmonella antigens. Here, we developed a new monoclonal antibody (mAb-449 and identified its related immunogen that protected BALB/c mice from infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In addition, these data indicate that the mAb-449 immunogen is likely a major protective antigen. Using in vitro infection studies, we also analyzed the mechanism by which mAb-449 conferred host protection. Notably, macrophages infected with mAb-449-treated S. Typhimurium showed enhanced pathogen uptake compared to counterparts infected with control IgG-treated bacteria. Moreover, these macrophages produced elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and nitric oxide, indicating that mAb-449 enhanced macrophage activation. Finally, the number of intracellular bacteria in mAb-449-activated macrophages decreased considerably, while the opposite was found in IgG-treated controls. Based on these findings, we suggest that, although S. Typhimurium has the potential to survive and replicate within macrophages, host production of a specific antibody can effectively mediate macrophage activation for clearance of intracellular bacteria.

  16. Adaptation of adhesive post and cores to dentin after in vitro occlusal loading: evaluation of post material influence

    OpenAIRE

    Dietschi, Didier; Ardu, Stefano; Rossier-Gerber, Anne; Krejci, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Fatigue resistance of post and cores is critical to the long term behavior of restored nonvital teeth. The purpose of this in vitro trial was to evaluate the influence of the post material's physical properties on the adaptation of adhesive post and core restorations after cyclic mechanical loading.

  17. Detecting lineage-specific adaptive evolution of brain-expressed genes in human using rhesus macaque as outgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Wang, Jun;

    2006-01-01

    Comparative genetic analysis between human and chimpanzee may detect genetic divergences responsible for human-specific characteristics. Previous studies have identified a series of genes that potentially underwent Darwinian positive selection during human evolution. However, without a closely...... related species as outgroup, it is difficult to identify human-lineage-specific changes, which is critical in delineating the biological uniqueness of humans. In this study, we conducted phylogeny-based analyses of 2633 human brain-expressed genes using rhesus macaque as the outgroup. We identified 47...... candidate genes showing strong evidence of positive selection in the human lineage. Genes with maximal expression in the brain showed a higher evolutionary rate in human than in chimpanzee. We observed that many immune-defense-related genes were under strong positive selection, and this trend was more...

  18. Material specific effects and limitations during ps-laser generation of micro structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenhagen, J.; Engelhardt, U.; Smarra, M.; Dickmann, K.

    2012-01-01

    The use of picosecond lasers for microstructuring, especially in the combination with scanner optics, leads to undesired effects with increasing ablation depths. The cavity edges slope to a degree ranging between 50° and 85°, depending on the material. With highly reflective substrates, ditches of up to 20% of their total depth can be formed on its ground structure. In certain materials also diverse substructures such as holes, canals, or grooves can be developed. These could impact the precision of the ablation geometry partially. A systematic study of the specific ablation characteristics is needed to achieve a defined depth of the structure. Considering a huge number of influential parameters, an automation of such measurements would be meaningful. For a study of eight different materials (high-alloy steels, copper, titanium, aluminum, PMMA, Al2O3 ceramics, silicon and fused quartz), an industrial ps-laser coupled with a chromatic sensor for distance measurement was used. Hence a direct acquisition of the generated structures as well as an automatic evaluation of the parameters is possible. Furthermore an online quality control and a local post processing can be implemented. In this way the generation of complex structures with a higher precision is possible.

  19. Teaching Audience Adaptation Using Connected Presentations and Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opt, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to Communication, Public Speaking, Persuasion, Business Communication. Objective: This activity increases students' understanding of audience adaptation and improves their ability to adapt presentations to specific audiences.

  20. Teaching Audience Adaptation Using Connected Presentations and Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opt, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to Communication, Public Speaking, Persuasion, Business Communication. Objective: This activity increases students' understanding of audience adaptation and improves their ability to adapt presentations to specific audiences.

  1. Birth and rapid subcellular adaptation of a hominoid-specific CDC14 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Rosso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication was prevalent during hominoid evolution, yet little is known about the functional fate of new ape gene copies. We characterized the CDC14B cell cycle gene and the functional evolution of its hominoid-specific daughter gene, CDC14Bretro. We found that CDC14B encodes four different splice isoforms that show different subcellular localizations (nucleus or microtubule-associated and functional properties. A microtubular CDC14B variant spawned CDC14Bretro through retroposition in the hominoid ancestor 18-25 million years ago (Mya. CDC14Bretro evolved brain-/testis-specific expression after the duplication event and experienced a short period of intense positive selection in the African ape ancestor 7-12 Mya. Using resurrected ancestral protein variants, we demonstrate that by virtue of amino acid substitutions in distinct protein regions during this time, the subcellular localization of CDC14Bretro progressively shifted from the association with microtubules (stabilizing them to an association with the endoplasmic reticulum. CDC14Bretro evolution represents a paradigm example of rapid, selectively driven subcellular relocalization, thus revealing a novel mode for the emergence of new gene function.

  2. Basis material decomposition in spectral CT using a semi-empirical, polychromatic adaption of the Beer-Lambert model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S.; Sellerer, T.; Mechlem, K.; Fehringer, A.; Epple, M.; Herzen, J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Noël, P. B.

    2017-01-01

    Following the development of energy-sensitive photon-counting detectors using high-Z sensor materials, application of spectral x-ray imaging methods to clinical practice comes into reach. However, these detectors require extensive calibration efforts in order to perform spectral imaging tasks like basis material decomposition. In this paper, we report a novel approach to basis material decomposition that utilizes a semi-empirical estimator for the number of photons registered in distinct energy bins in the presence of beam-hardening effects which can be termed as a polychromatic Beer-Lambert model. A maximum-likelihood estimator is applied to the model in order to obtain estimates of the underlying sample composition. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation of a typical clinical CT acquisition, the performance of the proposed estimator was evaluated. The estimator is shown to be unbiased and efficient according to the Cramér-Rao lower bound. In particular, the estimator is capable of operating with a minimum number of calibration measurements. Good results were obtained after calibration using less than 10 samples of known composition in a two-material attenuation basis. This opens up the possibility for fast re-calibration in the clinical routine which is considered an advantage of the proposed method over other implementations reported in the literature.

  3. Optimal multitrial prediction combination and subject-specific adaptation for minimal training brain switch designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, L.; Blokland, Y.M.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Bruhn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A brai

  4. Investigation of Specificity of Mechanical Properties of Hard Materials on Nanoscale with Use of SPM- Nanohardness Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvova, N. A.; Blank, V. D.; Gogolinskiy, K. V.; Kulibaba, V. F.

    2007-04-01

    Specifisities of deformation on nanoscale of hard brittle materials with the hardness exceeding 10 GP by means of scanning probe microscope - nanohardness tester "NanoScan" are investigated. It is found, that pile-up is forming at scratching of sample surface with use of diamond indenter. Heigh of this pile-up depends on hardness and elastic modulus of the material. Definition of the contact area without taking into account height of pile-up leads to an overestimation of hardness values. At scratching of silicon carbide surface a transition from plastic flow to fracture is found out. The results received allowed to estimate fracture toughness KIC for silicon carbide.

  5. The specific role of gravitational accelerations for arterial adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Herrera, Frankyn; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2013-02-01

    It is mostly agreed that arterial adaptations occur, among others, in response to changes in mechanical stimuli. Models like bed rest, spinal cord injury, or limb suspension have been applied to study vascular adaptations to unloading in humans. However, these models cannot distinguish the role of muscle contractions and the role of gravitational accelerations for arterial adaptation. The HEPHAISTOS orthosis allows normal ambulation, while it significantly reduces force generation in the lower leg muscles. Eleven subjects wore HEPHAISTOS unilaterally for 56 days and were followed up for another 4 wk. Arterial diameters, intima media thickness (IMT), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and resting blood flow (BF(rest)) were measured using high-frequency ultrasonography. Arterial adaptations were investigated in the superficial femoral artery (SFA), the brachial artery (BA), and the carotid artery (CA). Mean SFA resting diameter was decreased from 6.57 mm (SD = 0.74 mm) at baseline to 5.77 mm (SD = 0.87 mm) at the end of the intervention (P muscular contractions for arterial diameter adaptations. Moreover, we propose that FMD and wall-to-lumen ratio are unaffected by ambulating with the HEPHAISTOS orthosis, which is suggestive of habitual acceleration profiles in the lower leg constituting an important stimulus for the maintenance of FMD and wall-to-lumen ratio.

  6. A Multiscale Adaptive Mesh Refinement Approach to Architectured Steel Specification in the Design of a Frameless Stressed Skin Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Stasiuk, David; Nørgaard, Esben

    2015-01-01

    and material. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to support localised variance in resolution and information flow across these scales. The adaptation of mesh resolution is linked to structural analysis, panelisation, local geometric formation, connectivity, and the calculation of forming strains and material...

  7. Pan-genome analyses identify lineage- and niche-specific markers of evolution and adaptation in Epsilonproteobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eZhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing availability of complete bacterial genomes has created new opportunities for reconstructing bacterial evolution, but it has also highlighted the difficulty to fully understand the genomic and functional variations occurring among different lineages. Using the class Epsilonproteobacteria as a case study, we investigated the composition, flexibility, and function of its pan-genomes. Models were constructed to extrapolate the expansion of pan-genomes at three different taxonomic levels. The results show that, for Epsilonproteobacteria the seemingly large genome variations among strains of the same species are less noticeable when compared with groups at higher taxonomic ranks, indicating that genome stability is imposed by the potential existence of taxonomic boundaries. The analyses of pan-genomes has also defined a set of universally conserved core genes, based on which a phylogenetic tree was constructed to confirm that thermophilic species from deep-sea hydrothermal vents represent the most ancient lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria. Moreover, by comparing the flexible genome of a chemoautotrophic deep-sea vent species to 1 genomes of species belonging to the same genus, but inhabiting different environments, and 2 genomes of other vent species, but belonging to different genera, we were able to delineate the relative importance of lineage-specific versus niche-specific genes. This result not only emphasizes the overall importance of phylogenetic proximity in shaping the variable part of the genome, but also highlights the adaptive functions of niche-specific genes. Overall, by modeling the expansion of pan-genomes and analyzing core and flexible genes, this study provides snapshots on how the complex processes of gene acquisition, conservation, and removal affect the evolution of different species, and contribute to the metabolic diversity and versatility of Epsilonproteobacteria.

  8. Curriculum-Dependent and Curriculum-Independent Factors in Preservice Elementary Teachers' Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials for Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.

    2013-02-01

    In this nested mixed methods study I investigate factors influencing preservice elementary teachers' adaptation of science curriculum materials to better support students' engagement in science as inquiry. Analyses focus on two `reflective teaching assignments' completed by 46 preservice elementary teachers in an undergraduate elementary science methods course in which they were asked to adapt existing science curriculum materials to plan and enact inquiry-based science lessons in elementary classrooms. Data analysis involved regression modeling of artifacts associated with these lessons, as well as in-depth, semester-long case studies of six of these preservice teachers. Results suggest that features of the existing science curriculum materials, including measures of how inquiry-based they were, have a relatively small influence on the preservice teachers' curricular adaptations, while teacher-specific variables account for a much greater percentage of the variance. Evidence from the case studies illustrates the critical impact of the preservice teachers' field placement contexts as an explanatory, teacher-specific factor in their curricular adaptations. These findings have important implications for science teacher educators and science curriculum developers, in terms of not only better understanding how preservice teachers engage with curriculum materials, but also how programmatic features of teacher education programs influence their ability to do so.

  9. Subject-specific finite element analysis to characterize the influence of geometry and material properties in Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Vickie B; Fernandez, Justin W; Gamage, Prasad B; Regnery, Camille; Smith, David W; Gardiner, Bruce S; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F

    2014-11-28

    Achilles tendon injuries including rupture are one of the most frequent musculoskeletal injuries, but the mechanisms for these injuries are still not fully understood. Previous in vivo and experimental studies suggest that tendon rupture mainly occurs in the tendon mid-section and predominantly more in men than women due to reasons yet to be identified. Therefore we aimed to investigate possible mechanisms for tendon rupture using finite element (FE) analysis. Specifically, we have developed a framework for generating subject-specific FE models of human Achilles tendon. A total of ten 3D FE models of human Achilles tendon were generated. Subject-specific geometries were obtained using ultrasound images and a mesh morphing technique called Free Form Deformation. Tendon material properties were obtained by performing material optimization that compared and minimized difference in uniaxial tension experimental results with model predictions. Our results showed that both tendon geometry and material properties are highly subject-specific. This subject-specificity was also evident in our rupture predictions as the locations and loads of tendon ruptures were different in all specimens tested. A parametric study was performed to characterize the influence of geometries and material properties on tendon rupture. Our results showed that tendon rupture locations were dependent largely on geometry while rupture loads were more influenced by tendon material properties. Future work will investigate the role of microstructural properties of the tissue on tendon rupture and degeneration by using advanced material descriptions.

  10. Learning to Critique and Adapt Science Curriculum Materials: Examining the Development of Preservice Elementary Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Carrie J.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers often engage in curricular planning by critiquing and adapting existing curriculum materials to contextualize lessons and compensate for their deficiencies. Designing instruction for students is shaped by teachers' ability to apply a variety of personal resources, including their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study…

  11. Identification and Quantification of the Temporal and Spatial Scales of Variability in Particulate and Dissolved Material Associated with Specific Land-use Activities in the Penobscot River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    response to release of phosphate by the mill. We observed a troublesome relationship between the calibrated in situ chlorophyll fluorometer...Time Series In order to determine high-resolution carbon component time series we apply the conversion equations (proxy relationship) derived from...discharge rate converted to (m3/h) with proper unit conversion . Similarly, the total particulate organic carbon load is computed from the time series

  12. The specificity of neural responses to music and their relation to voice processing: an fMRI-adaptation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armony, Jorge L; Aubé, William; Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Peretz, Isabelle; Concha, Luis

    2015-04-23

    Several studies have identified, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a region within the superior temporal gyrus that preferentially responds to musical stimuli. However, in most cases, significant responses to other complex stimuli, particularly human voice, were also observed. Thus, it remains unknown if the same neurons respond to both stimulus types, albeit with different strengths, or whether the responses observed with fMRI are generated by distinct, overlapping neural populations. To address this question, we conducted an fMRI experiment in which short music excerpts and human vocalizations were presented in a pseudo-random order. Critically, we performed an adaptation-based analysis in which responses to the stimuli were analyzed taking into account the category of the preceding stimulus. Our results confirm the presence of a region in the anterior STG that responds more strongly to music than voice. Moreover, we found a music-specific adaptation effect in this area, consistent with the existence of music-preferred neurons. Lack of differences between musicians and non-musicians argues against an expertise effect. These findings provide further support for neural separability between music and speech within the temporal lobe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Context-specific adaptation of pursuit initiation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, M.; Abe, H.; Hasegawa, S.; Usui, T.; Hasebe, H.; Miki, A.; Zee, D. S.; Shelhauser, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if multiple states for the initiation of pursuit, as assessed by acceleration in the "open-loop" period, can be learned and gated by context. METHODS: Four normal subjects were studied. A modified step-ramp paradigm for horizontal pursuit was used to induce adaptation. In an increasing paradigm, target velocity doubled 230 msec after onset; in a decreasing paradigm, it was halved. In the first experiment, vertical eye position (+/-5 degrees ) was used as the context cue, and the training paradigm (increasing or decreasing) changed with vertical eye position. In the second experiment, with vertical position constant, when the target was red, training was decreasing, and when green, increasing. The average eye acceleration in the first 100 msec of tracking was the index of open-loop pursuit performance. RESULTS: With vertical position as the cue, pursuit adaptation differed between up and down gaze. In some cases, the direction of adaptation was in exact accord with the training stimuli. In others, acceleration increased or decreased for both up and down gaze but always in correct relative proportion to the training stimuli. In contrast, multiple adaptive states were not induced with color as the cue. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple values for the relationship between the average eye acceleration during the initiation of pursuit and target velocity could be learned and gated by context. Vertical position was an effective contextual cue but not target color, implying that useful contextual cues must be similar to those occurring naturally, for example, orbital position with eye muscle weakness.

  14. Apical adaptation, sealing ability and push-out bond strength of five root-end filling materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés AMOROSO-SILVA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the fluid filtration, adaptation to the root canal walls, and the push-out bond strength of two resin-based sealers and three calcium silicate-based retrograde filling materials. Fifty maxillary canines were shaped using manual instruments and the apical portion was sectioned. Retrograde cavities of 3-mm depth were prepared. The specimens were divided into five groups (n = 10: Sealer 26 (S26; MBPc (experimental; MTA; Portland cement with 20% zirconium oxide (PC/ZO, and Portland cement with 20% calcium tungstate (PC/CT. The fluid filtration was measured at 7 and 15 days. To evaluate the interfacial adaptation, sections of the teeth, 1 and 2 mm from the apex, were prepared and the percentage of gaps was calculated. The push-out bond strength at 2 mm from the apex was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA/Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. At 7 and 15 days (p = 0.0048, p = 0.006, the PC/CT group showed higher fluid filtration values when compared to other groups. At 1 mm from the apex, no statistical differences in the adaptation were found among the cements (p = 0.44. At 2 mm from the apex, the PC/ZO group presented statistically lower percentage of gaps than S26, MBPc, and MTA (p = 0.0007. The MBPc group showed higher push-out bond strength than other cements evaluated (p = 0.0008. The fluid filtration and interfacial adaptation of the calcium silicate-based cements were similar to those of the resin-based cements. The resinous cement MBPc showed superior push-out bond strength.

  15. Adaptability and stability of strawberry cultivars using a mixed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Ferreira Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although strawberry crops have a strong socio-economic impact on the agricultural sector of Espírito Santo State, there are few studies on the performance of strawberry cultivars in different locations and years under a low tunnel management system (LT. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the parameters of adaptability and stability of strawberry cultivars under LT-protected cultivation using the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetically predicted values. Seven strawberry cultivars were assessed (‘Dover’, ‘Camino Real’, ‘Ventana’, ‘Camarosa’, ‘Seascape’, ‘Diamante’ and ‘Aromas’ in the agricultural years 2006/7, 2007/8 and 2008/9 in three locations in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo State. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with 3 replications and 15 plants per plot. The analysis of deviance for the yield (ton. ha-1 demonstrated that only the effects of genotype and the triple interaction genotype x location x year were significant, which indicates the presence of genetic variability among the cultivars and the inconsistency of the position among the genotypes for combinations of year and location. Considering the selection for yield, adaptability and stability, in LT-protected cultivation, cultivars Camarosa and Aromas are highlighted for expressing average values that were 22% higher than the overall mean of the cultivars (24.55 ton. há-1 in the environments assessed.

  16. Adaptive coupling between damage mechanics and peridynamics: A route for objective simulation of material degradation up to complete failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles; Azdoud, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The objective (mesh-independent) simulation of evolving discontinuities, such as cracks, remains a challenge. Current techniques are highly complex or involve intractable computational costs, making simulations up to complete failure difficult. We propose a framework as a new route toward solving this problem that adaptively couples local-continuum damage mechanics with peridynamics to objectively simulate all the steps that lead to material failure: damage nucleation, crack formation and propagation. Local-continuum damage mechanics successfully describes the degradation related to dispersed microdefects before the formation of a macrocrack. However, when damage localizes, it suffers spurious mesh dependency, making the simulation of macrocracks challenging. On the other hand, the peridynamic theory is promising for the simulation of fractures, as it naturally allows discontinuities in the displacement field. Here, we present a hybrid local-continuum damage/peridynamic model. Local-continuum damage mechanics is used to describe "volume" damage before localization. Once localization is detected at a point, the remaining part of the energy is dissipated through an adaptive peridynamic model capable of the transition to a "surface" degradation, typically a crack. We believe that this framework, which actually mimics the real physical process of crack formation, is the first bridge between continuum damage theories and peridynamics. Two-dimensional numerical examples are used to illustrate that an objective simulation of material failure can be achieved by this method.

  17. Adaptive coupling between damage mechanics and peridynamics: a route for objective simulation of material degradation up to complete failure

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2016-05-17

    The objective (mesh-independent) simulation of evolving discontinuities, such as cracks, remains a challenge. Current techniques are highly complex or involve intractable computational costs, making simulations up to complete failure difficult. We propose a framework as a new route toward solving this problem that adaptively couples local-continuum damage mechanics with peridynamics to objectively simulate all the steps that lead to material failure: damage nucleation, crack formation and propagation. Local-continuum damage mechanics successfully describes the degradation related to dispersed microdefects before the formation of a macrocrack. However, when damage localizes, it suffers spurious mesh dependency, making the simulation of macrocracks challenging. On the other hand, the peridynamic theory is promising for the simulation of fractures, as it naturally allows discontinuities in the displacement field. Here, we present a hybrid local-continuum damage/peridynamic model. Local-continuum damage mechanics is used to describe “volume” damage before localization. Once localization is detected at a point, the remaining part of the energy is dissipated through an adaptive peridynamic model capable of the transition to a “surface” degradation, typically a crack. We believe that this framework, which actually mimics the real physical process of crack formation, is the first bridge between continuum damage theories and peridynamics. Two-dimensional numerical examples are used to illustrate that an objective simulation of material failure can be achieved by this method.

  18. LOAD: Local Orientation Adaptive Descriptor for Texture and Material Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Xianbiao; Zhao, Guoying; Shen, Linlin; Li, Qingquan; Pietikainen, Matti

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel local feature, called Local Orientation Adaptive Descriptor (LOAD), to capture regional texture in an image. In LOAD, we proposed to define point description on an Adaptive Coordinate System (ACS), adopt a binary sequence descriptor to capture relationships between one point and its neighbors and use multi-scale strategy to enhance the discriminative power of the descriptor. The proposed LOAD enjoys not only discriminative power to capture the texture informa...

  19. Species-Specific Adaptations of Trypanosome Morphology and Motility to the Mammalian Host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel L Bargul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomes thrive in the bloodstream and tissue spaces of a wide range of mammalian hosts. Infections of cattle cause an enormous socio-economic burden in sub-Saharan Africa. A hallmark of the trypanosome lifestyle is the flagellate's incessant motion. This work details the cell motility behavior of the four livestock-parasites Trypanosoma vivax, T. brucei, T. evansi and T. congolense. The trypanosomes feature distinct swimming patterns, speeds and flagellar wave frequencies, although the basic mechanism of flagellar propulsion is conserved, as is shown by extended single flagellar beat analyses. Three-dimensional analyses of the trypanosomes expose a high degree of dynamic pleomorphism, typified by the 'cellular waveform'. This is a product of the flagellar oscillation, the chirality of the flagellum attachment and the stiffness of the trypanosome cell body. The waveforms are characteristic for each trypanosome species and are influenced by changes of the microenvironment, such as differences in viscosity and the presence of confining obstacles. The distinct cellular waveforms may be reflective of the actual anatomical niches the parasites populate within their mammalian host. T. vivax displays waveforms optimally aligned to the topology of the bloodstream, while the two subspecies T. brucei and T. evansi feature distinct cellular waveforms, both additionally adapted to motion in more confined environments such as tissue spaces. T. congolense reveals a small and stiff waveform, which makes these parasites weak swimmers and destined for cell adherence in low flow areas of the circulation. Thus, our experiments show that the differential dissemination and annidation of trypanosomes in their mammalian hosts may depend on the distinct swimming capabilities of the parasites.

  20. Imaging and suppression of Lamb modes using adaptive beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engholm, Marcus; Stepinski, Tadeusz; Olofsson, Tomas

    2011-08-01

    Lamb waves have proven to be very useful for plate inspection because large areas of a plate can be covered from a fixed position. This capability makes them suitable for both inspection and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. During the last decade, research on the use of active arrays in combination with beamforming techniques has shown that a fixed array can be used to perform omni-directional monitoring of a plate structure. The dispersion and multiple propagating modes are issues that need to be addressed when working with Lamb waves. Previous work has mainly focused on conventional, delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming, while reducing the effects of multiple modes through frequency selectivity and transducer design. The paper describes an adaptive beamforming technique using a minimum variance distortionless response beamforming (MVBF) approach for spatial Lamb wave filtering with multiple-transmitter-multiple-receiver arrays. Dispersion is compensated for by using theoretically calculated dispersion curves. Simulations are used for evaluating the performance of the technique for suppression of interfering Lamb modes, both with and without the presence of mode conversion using different array configurations. A simple simulation model of the plate is used to compare the performance of different sizes of active arrays. An aluminum plate with artificial defects is used for the experimental evaluation. The results show that the MVBF approach performs a lot better in terms of resolution and suppression of interfering modes than the widely used standard beamformer.

  1. Approximation of NURBS Curves and Surfaces Using Adaptive Equidistant Parameterizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aziguli Wulamu; GOETTING Marc; ZECKZER Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) curves and surfaces are very important tools for modelling curves and surfaces. Several important details, such as the choice of the sample points, of the parameterization, and of the termination condition, are however not well described. These details have a great influence on the performance of the approximation algorithm, both in terms of quality as well as time and space usage. This paper described how to sample points, examining two standard parameterizations: equidistant and chordal. A new and local parameterization, namely an adaptive equidistant model, was proposed, which enhances the equidistant model. Localization can also be used to enhance the chordal parameterization. For NURBS surfaces, one must choose which direction will be approximated first and must pay special attention to surfaces of degree 1 which have to be handled as a special case.

  2. Adapting Authentic Materials for Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darian, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the process of adapting authentic materials for use in the English-as-a-Second-language classroom. Focuses on four areas: semantic elements, lexical elements, syntactic elements, and discourse elements.(Author/VWL)

  3. Adapting Authentic Materials for Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darian, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the process of adapting authentic materials for use in the English-as-a-Second-language classroom. Focuses on four areas: semantic elements, lexical elements, syntactic elements, and discourse elements.(Author/VWL)

  4. Insect chymotrypsins: chloromethyl ketone inactivation and substrate specificity relative to possible coevolutional adaptation of insects and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Adriana R; Sato, Paloma M; Terra, Walter R

    2009-03-01

    Insect digestive chymotrypsins are present in a large variety of insect orders but their substrate specificity still remains unclear. Four insect chymotrypsins from 3 different insect orders (Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, and two Lepidoptera) were isolated using affinity chromatography. Enzymes presented molecular masses in the range of 20 to 31 kDa and pH optima in the range of 7.5 to 10.0. Kinetic characterization using different colorimetric and fluorescent substrates indicated that insect chymotrypsins differ from bovine chymotrypsin in their primary specificity toward small substrates (like N-benzoyl-L-Tyr p-nitroanilide) rather than on their preference for large substrates (exemplified by Succynil-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide). Chloromethyl ketones (TPCK, N- alpha-tosyl-L-Phe chloromethyl ketone and Z-GGF-CK, N- carbobenzoxy-Gly-Gly-Phe-CK) inactivated all chymotrypsins tested. Inactivation rates follow apparent first-order kinetics with variable second order rates (TPCK, 42 to 130 M(-1) s(-1); Z-GGF-CK, 150 to 450 M(-1) s(-1)) that may be remarkably low for S. frugiperda chymotrypsin (TPCK, 6 M(-1) s(-1); Z-GGF-CK, 6.1 M(-1) s(-1)). Homology modelling and sequence alignment showed that in lepidopteran chymotrypsins, differences in the amino acid residues in the neighborhood of the catalytic His 57 may affect its pKa value. This is proposed as the cause of the decrease in His 57 reactivity toward chloromethyl ketones. Such amino acid replacement in the active site is proposed to be an adaptation to the presence of dietary ketones.

  5. Influence of motivation, library materials and location on use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of motivation, library materials and location on use of library by ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... availability and adequacy of library materials as well as location of library on the ...

  6. Gender-Specific Models of Work-Bound Korean Adolescents' Social Supports and Career Adaptability on Subsequent Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyojung; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    A Korean national database, the High School Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey, was used to examine the influence of perceived social supports (family and school) and career adaptability on the subsequent job satisfaction of work-bound adolescents 4 months after their transition from high school to work. Structural equation modeling analysis…

  7. Gender-Specific Models of Work-Bound Korean Adolescents' Social Supports and Career Adaptability on Subsequent Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyojung; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    A Korean national database, the High School Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey, was used to examine the influence of perceived social supports (family and school) and career adaptability on the subsequent job satisfaction of work-bound adolescents 4 months after their transition from high school to work. Structural equation modeling analysis…

  8. Materials learning from life: concepts for active, adaptive and autonomous molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merindol, Rémi; Walther, Andreas

    2017-01-30

    Bioinspired out-of-equilibrium systems will set the scene for the next generation of molecular materials with active, adaptive, autonomous, emergent and intelligent behavior. Indeed life provides the best demonstrations of complex and functional out-of-equilibrium systems: cells keep track of time, communicate, move, adapt, evolve and replicate continuously. Stirred by the understanding of biological principles, artificial out-of-equilibrium systems are emerging in many fields of soft matter science. Here we put in perspective the molecular mechanisms driving biological functions with the ones driving synthetic molecular systems. Focusing on principles that enable new levels of functionalities (temporal control, autonomous structures, motion and work generation, information processing) rather than on specific material classes, we outline key cross-disciplinary concepts that emerge in this challenging field. Ultimately, the goal is to inspire and support new generations of autonomous and adaptive molecular devices fueled by self-regulating chemistry.

  9. User-Centered Evaluation of Adaptive and Adaptable Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van Lex; Geest, van der Thea M.; Klaassen, Rob F.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive and adaptable systems provide tailored output to various users in various contexts. While adaptive systems base their output on implicit inferences, adaptable systems use explicitly provided information. Since the presentation or output of these systems is adapted, standard user-centered ev

  10. Genomics-Based Exploration of Virulence Determinants and Host-Specific Adaptations of Pseudomonas syringae Strains Isolated from Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, Alexey; Dudler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae species complex has recently been named the number one plant pathogen, due to its economic and environmental impacts, as well as for its role in scientific research. The bacterium has been repeatedly reported to cause outbreaks on bean, cucumber, stone fruit, kiwi and olive tree, as well as on other crop and non-crop plants. It also serves as a model organism for research on the Type III secretion system (T3SS) and plant-pathogen interactions. While most of the current work on this pathogen is either carried out on one of three model strains found on dicot plants with completely sequenced genomes or on isolates obtained from recent outbreaks, not much is known about strains isolated from grasses (Poaceae). Here, we use comparative genomics in order to identify putative virulence-associated genes and other Poaceae-specific adaptations in several newly available genome sequences of strains isolated from grass species. All strains possess only a small number of known Type III effectors, therefore pointing to the importance of non-Type III secreted virulence factors. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:25437611

  11. Evaluation of cervical marginal and internal adaptation using newer bulk fill composites: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolly Shrivastav Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the cervical marginal and internal adaptation of posterior bulk fill resin composites of different viscosities, before and after thermo-cycling (TMC. Materials and Methods: Eighty box-only class II cavities were prepared in 40 extracted human premolars with the distal proximal box beneath the enamel-cementum junction (CEJ. The teeth in the experimental groups were restored with bulk fill resin composite restorations (Gr. I- Sonic Fill, Gr. II- SDR, Gr. III- Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill or a conventional composite designed for 2-mm increments (Gr. IV- Tetric N Flow along with Tetric N Ceram. Before and after thermal cycling, the gap-free marginal length was analyzed using SEM of epoxy resin replicas. After thermal cycling, specimens were cut longitudinally in order to investigate internal dentine adaptation by epoxy replicas under SEM (500 × magnification. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Tukey Post Hoc tests (P 0.05. In dentine, bulk fill groups performed at par with the incremental placement; for both marginal and internal adaptation (P < 0.05, for all materials except Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill. Conclusions: Viscosity of the bulk fill restorative material influenced the proportion of gap-free marginal interface and the internal adaptation in dentin.

  12. The determination of values of the specific heat capacity of the selected thermal insulation materials used in track bed structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobeš Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The report concentrates on the determination of the specific heat capacity of the selected thermal insulation materials (liapor, styrodur, foam concrete. The aim of the report is to gain the necessary input parameters for the numerical modelling of the temperature changes of various track bed structures of the railway line where a part or, if appropriate, the whole protective layer is replaced by the material with better thermal insulation properties. There are described the methods for stating the specific heat capacity as well as the calibration of the calorimeter for stating of the calorimetric constant in the introduction of the report. The parameters needed for calculation of the specific heat capacity of the selected thermal insulation materials are characterized in the second part of the report. There are also introduced the laboratory stated values of the parameter in question. The comparison of the values stated by the laboratory measurements with the values introduced in the technical data sheets from their producers (or if appropriate gained from the foreign sources is made in the conclusion of the report.

  13. Generalization of Hindi OCR Using Adaptive Segmentation and Font Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mudit; Ma, Huanfeng; Doermann, David

    In this chapter, we describe an adaptive Indic OCR system implemented as part of a rapidly retargetable language tool effort and extend work found in [20, 2]. The system includes script identification, character segmentation, training sample creation, and character recognition. For script identification, Hindi words are identified in bilingual or multilingual document images using features of the Devanagari script and support vector machine (SVM). Identified words are then segmented into individual characters, using a font-model-based intelligent character segmentation and recognition system. Using characteristics of structurally similar TrueType fonts, our system automatically builds a model to be used for the segmentation and recognition of the new script, independent of glyph composition. The key is a reliance on known font attributes. In our recognition system three feature extraction methods are used to demonstrate the importance of appropriate features for classification. The methods are tested on both Latin and non-Latin scripts. Results show that the character-level recognition accuracy exceeds 92% for non-Latin and 96% for Latin text on degraded documents. This work is a step toward the recognition of scripts of low-density languages which typically do not warrant the development of commercial OCR, yet often have complete TrueType font descriptions.

  14. Comparative proteome profiling of bovine and human Staphylococcus epidermidis strains for screening specifically expressed virulence and adaptation proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljamäki, Pia; Varmanen, Pekka; Kankainen, Matti; Pyörälä, Satu; Karonen, Taru; Iivanainen, Antti; Auvinen, Petri; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K; Taponen, Suvi; Simojoki, Heli; Sukura, Antti; Nyman, Tuula A; Savijoki, Kirsi

    2014-08-01

    The present study reports a comparative proteome cataloging of a bovine mastitis and a human-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis strain with a specific focus on surfome (cell-wall bound and extracellular) proteins. Protein identification by 1DE coupled with LC-MS/MS analyses resulted in 1400 and 1287 proteins from the bovine (PM221) and human (ATCC12228) strains, respectively, covering over 50% of all predicted and more than 30% of all predicted surfome proteins in both strains. Comparison of the identification results suggests elevated levels of proteins involved in adherence, biofilm formation, signal transduction, house-keeping functions, and immune evasion in PM221, whereas ATCC12228 was more effective in expressing host defense evasion proteases, skin adaptation lipases, hemagglutination, and heavy-metal resistance proteins. Phenotypic analyses showed that only PM221 displays protein- and DNA-mediated adherent growth, and that PM221 was more efficient in cleaving tributyrin, a natural compound of milk fat under low CO2 conditions. These findings are in line with the identification data and suggest that distinct expression of lipases and adhesive surfome proteins could lead to the observed phenotypes. This study is the first extensive survey of S. epidermidis proteomes to date, providing several protein candidates to be examined for their roles in adaptation and virulence in vivo. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000404 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000404).

  15. Controllability and reliability issues related to electrorheological material adaptive structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiang, A.; Coulter, J. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics--Packard Lab.

    1994-12-31

    The present investigation focused on the controllability and reliability of an electrorheological (ER) material filled adaptive beam. An AC ER material-filled composite beam was constructed and tested over a period of 500 hours. Attention was focused on changes in fundamental vibration frequencies and modal loss factor over the test period. Controllability in terms of beam vibration response time to both increasing and decreasing field strengths was also studied. Response times at the first two fundamental frequencies of 15 and 35 Hertz were focused on. The results indicated that at 35 Hertz, the structural response time was faster for both switching on and switching off of the electric field. In switching off the electric field, the structure returned to zero-field behavior within three seconds on all occasions. The duration of the electric field application did not affect beam response time.

  16. Tissue-specific defense and thermo-adaptive mechanisms of soybean seedlings under heat stress revealed by proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Nagib; Donnart, Tifenn; Nouri, Mohammad-Zaman; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2010-08-06

    A comparative proteomic approach was employed to explore tissue-specific protein expression patterns in soybean seedlings under heat stress. The changes in the protein expression profiles of soybean seedling leaves, stems, and roots were analyzed after exposure to high temperatures. A total of 54, 35, and 61 differentially expressed proteins were identified from heat-treated leaves, stems, and roots, respectively. Differentially expressed heat shock proteins (HSPs) and proteins involved in antioxidant defense were mostly up-regulated, whereas proteins associated with photosynthesis, secondary metabolism, and amino acid and protein biosynthesis were down-regulated in response to heat stress. A group of proteins, specifically low molecular weight HSPs and HSP70, were up-regulated and expressed in a similar manner in all tissues. Proteomic analysis indicated that the responses of HSP70, CPN-60 beta, and ChsHSP were tissue specific, and this observation was validated by immunoblot analysis. The heat-responsive sHSPs were not induced by other stresses such as cold and hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results suggest that to cope with heat stress soybean seedlings operate tissue-specific defenses and adaptive mechanisms, whereas a common defense mechanism associated with the induction of several HSPs was employed in all three tissues. In addition, tissue-specific proteins may play a crucial role in defending each type of tissues against thermal stress.

  17. Automatic tuning and adaptation for specific growth rate control of fed-batch cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, Z.I.T.A.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2006-01-01

    To ensure consistency between fed-batch cultivations for the production of vaccines or other bio-pharmaceuticals it is desirable to control the specific growth rate to a pre-set constant value. This is a challenge because the dynamics of the process is considerably changing due to the increase in

  18. Synthesis and Applications of Boronate Affinity Materials: From Class Selectivity to Biomimetic Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; He, Hui

    2017-08-29

    Due to the complexity of biological systems and samples, specific capture and targeting of certain biomolecules is critical in much biological research and many applications. cis-Diol-containing biomolecules, a large family of important compounds including glycoproteins, saccharides, nucleosides, nucleotides, and so on, play essential roles in biological systems. As boronic acids can reversibly bind with cis-diols, boronate affinity materials (BAMs) have gained increasing attention in recent years. However, real-world applications of BAMs are often severely hampered by three bottleneck issues, including nonbiocompatible binding pH, weak affinity, and difficulty in selectivity manipulation. Therefore, solutions to these issues and knowledge about the factors that influence the binding properties are of significant importance. These issues have been well solved by our group in past years. Our solutions started from the synthesis and screening of boronic acid ligands with chemical moieties favorable for binding at neutral and acidic pH. To avoid tedious synthesis routes, we proposed a straightforward strategy called teamed boronate affinity, which permitted facile preparation of BAMs with strong binding at neutral pH. To enhance the affinity, we confirmed that multivalent binding could significantly enhance the affinity toward glycoproteins. More interestingly, we observed that molecular interactions could be significantly enhanced by confinement within nanoscale spaces. To improve the selectivity, we investigated interactions that govern the selectivity and their interplays. We then proposed a set of strategies for selectivity manipulation, which proved to be useful guidelines for not only the design of new BAMs but also the selection of binding conditions. Applications in metabolomic analysis, glycoproteomic analysis, and aptamer selection well demonstrated the great potential of the prepared BAMs. Molecular imprinting is an important methodology for creating

  19. Genus-Wide Comparative Genome Analyses of Colletotrichum Species Reveal Specific Gene Family Losses and Gains during Adaptation to Specific Infection Lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Pamela; Narusaka, Mari; Kumakura, Naoyoshi; Tsushima, Ayako; Takano, Yoshitaka; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Shirasu, Ken

    2016-05-22

    Members from Colletotrichum genus adopt a diverse range of lifestyles during infection of plants and represent a group of agriculturally devastating pathogens. In this study, we present the draft genome of Colletotrichum incanum from the spaethianum clade of Colletotrichum and the comparative analyses with five other Colletotrichum species from distinct lineages. We show that the C. incanum strain, originally isolated from Japanese daikon radish, is able to infect both eudicot plants, such as certain ecotypes of the eudicot Arabidopsis, and monocot plants, such as lily. Being closely related to Colletotrichum species both in the graminicola clade, whose members are restricted strictly to monocot hosts, and to the destructivum clade, whose members are mostly associated with dicot infections, C. incanum provides an interesting model system for comparative genomics to study how fungal pathogens adapt to monocot and dicot hosts. Genus-wide comparative genome analyses reveal that Colletotrichum species have tailored profiles of their carbohydrate-degrading enzymes according to their infection lifestyles. In addition, we show evidence that positive selection acting on secreted and nuclear localized proteins that are highly conserved may be important in adaptation to specific hosts or ecological niches. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overkamp, Wout; Ercan, Onur; Herber, Martijn; van Maris, Antonius J A; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h(-1) ) are an unexplored research area in Bacillus subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. To this end, a chemostat modified for culturing an asporogenous B. subtilis sigF mutant strain at extremely low growth rates (also named a retentostat) was set up, and biomass accumulation, culture viability, metabolite production and cell morphology were analysed. During retentostat culturing, the specific growth rate decreased to a minimum of 0.00006 h(-1) , corresponding to a doubling time of 470 days. The energy distribution between growth and maintenance-related processes showed that a state of near-zero growth was reached. Remarkably, a filamentous cell morphology emerged, suggesting that cell separation is impaired under near-zero growth conditions. To evaluate the corresponding molecular adaptations to extremely low specific growth, transcriptome changes were analysed. These revealed that cellular responses to near-zero growth conditions share several similarities with those of cells during the stationary phase of batch growth. However, fundamental differences between these two non-growing states are apparent by their high viability and absence of stationary phase mutagenesis under near-zero growth conditions.

  1. Comparative Study of Acceptance and Adaptation to New Complete Dentures, Using Two Construction Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakidis, Savvas N; Anastassiadou, Vassiliki; Sofou, Afrodite; Pissiotis, Argirios L

    2016-10-01

    To validate patients' acceptance and adaptation to new complete dentures, fabricated using two construction protocols. Evaluation was achieved by means of two psychometric questionnaires and registration of total number of sore spots. Twenty complete denture wearers, who sought replacement dentures because of complaints (material degradation or unsatisfactory repaired fracture) associated with them, were selected according to specific inclusion criteria. The denture construction protocols were randomly assigned to the study participants. Ten participants received complete dentures using a duplication construction protocol with a bilateral balanced occlusal (BBO) scheme (duplicate complete denture group); ten participants received complete dentures using a traditional construction protocol with BBO (traditional complete denture group). All study participants completed the Complete Denture Satisfaction and the Oral Health Impact Profile-20 (OHIP-20) questionnaires before they received the new complete dentures (pretreatment) and at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. At the initial adaptation/adjustment visits, the location and number of sore spots were identified. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences between groups and within each group pre- and post-treatment. Denture satisfaction and oral health related quality of life scores were independent of the complete denture construction protocol. Within the traditional complete denture group there was a statistically significant increase in denture satisfaction and equivalent decrease (improvement) in OHIP-20 scores between pre- and post-treatment (both at 3-month and 6-month visits). This finding was consistent for OHIP-20 scores within the duplicate complete denture group, but not for denture satisfaction, which was not statistically significant. The total number of recorded sore spots was approximately double for the traditional complete denture group compared to the duplicate complete denture group

  2. Multi-Plane High Speed Balancing Techniques and the Use of a High Specific Stiffness Ti-Borsic Material for Vibration Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    cruise * missile rotor through four critical speeds, thereby reducing unbalance related vibration. A rotordynamics analysis of the LP rotor was...Design included structural and rotordynamics analysis (undamped critical speed analysis and unbalance response analysis) of a metal matrix LP shaft for the... Rotordynamics analyses resulted in predicted rotor critical speeds at *approximately 5,000, 8,000, 14,000 and 30,000 RPM. Based on calculated moade

  3. Evaluation of total effective dose due to certain environmentally placed naturally occurring radioactive materials using a procedural adaptation of RESRAD code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Z S; Thompson, K H; Kearfott, K J

    2009-07-01

    Due to a recent upward trend in the price of uranium and subsequent increased interest in uranium mining, accurate modeling of baseline dose from environmental sources of radioactivity is of increasing interest. Residual radioactivity model and code (RESRAD) is a program used to model environmental movement and calculate the dose due to the inhalation, ingestion, and exposure to radioactive materials following a placement. This paper presents a novel use of RESRAD for the calculation of dose from non-enhanced, or ancient, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). In order to use RESRAD to calculate the total effective dose (TED) due to ancient NORM, a procedural adaptation was developed to negate the effects of time progressive distribution of radioactive materials. A dose due to United States' average concentrations of uranium, actinium, and thorium series radionuclides was then calculated. For adults exposed in a residential setting and assumed to eat significant amounts of food grown in NORM concentrated areas, the annual dose due to national average NORM concentrations was 0.935 mSv y(-1). A set of environmental dose factors were calculated for simple estimation of dose from uranium, thorium, and actinium series radionuclides for various age groups and exposure scenarios as a function of elemental uranium and thorium activity concentrations in groundwater and soil. The values of these factors for uranium were lowest for an adult exposed in an industrial setting: 0.00476 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) for soil and 0.00596 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) for water (assuming a 1:1 234U:238U activity ratio in water). The uranium factors were highest for infants exposed in a residential setting and assumed to ingest food grown onsite: 34.8 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) in soil and 13.0 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) in water.

  4. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Bolhari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resect- ing the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20(a total of 8 subgroups. Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P<0.05 as the limit of significance.Results: There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation of the 8 tested groups (P>0.05.Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the mar- ginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate .

  5. SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF HEAT STORAGE MATERIALS BASED ON PARAFFIN, BROWN-COAL WAX AND POLYETHYLENE WAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhkin Yu.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper overviews heat storage materials (HSM with phase change based on organic compounds. They consist of paraffin, brown-coal wax and polyethylene wax. These materials are produced on an industrial scale for the foundry work. It is shown that heat capacity of HSM in the solid and liquid states can be used for heat storage in addition to the heat of phase change. The results of investigations of phase change during heating and cooling HSM are presented. The studies are carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The measurement techniques of the specific heat capacity and the coefficient of thermal conductivity are shown. Temperature dependences of the specific heat capacity of HSM in the solid and liquid states are researched by DSC. Values of the coefficient of thermal conductivity are determined by contact stationary technique of the flat plate over the entire temperature range of the operation of heat storage system.

  6. A pilot survey of impression materials and techniques used by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot survey of impression materials and techniques used by dentists in the fabrication ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Objective: To assess the choice of impression material and impression ...

  7. Studying the neural bases of prism adaptation using fMRI: A technical and design challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultitude, Janet H; Farnè, Alessandro; Salemme, Romeo; Ibarrola, Danielle; Urquizar, Christian; O'Shea, Jacinta; Luauté, Jacques

    2016-12-30

    Prism adaptation induces rapid recalibration of visuomotor coordination. The neural mechanisms of prism adaptation have come under scrutiny since the observations that the technique can alleviate hemispatial neglect following stroke, and can alter spatial cognition in healthy controls. Relative to non-imaging behavioral studies, fMRI investigations of prism adaptation face several challenges arising from the confined physical environment of the scanner and the supine position of the participants. Any researcher who wishes to administer prism adaptation in an fMRI environment must adjust their procedures enough to enable the experiment to be performed, but not so much that the behavioral task departs too much from true prism adaptation. Furthermore, the specific temporal dynamics of behavioral components of prism adaptation present additional challenges for measuring their neural correlates. We developed a system for measuring the key features of prism adaptation behavior within an fMRI environment. To validate our configuration, we present behavioral (pointing) and head movement data from 11 right-hemisphere lesioned patients and 17 older controls who underwent sham and real prism adaptation in an MRI scanner. Most participants could adapt to prismatic displacement with minimal head movements, and the procedure was well tolerated. We propose recommendations for fMRI studies of prism adaptation based on the design-specific constraints and our results.

  8. Graded territories: Towards the design, specification and simulation of materially graded bending active structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The ability to make materials with bespoke behavior affords new perspectives on incorporating material properties within the design process not available through natural materials. This paper reports the design and assembly of two bending-active, fibre-reinforced composite structures. Within...

  9. Classification of osteosarcoma T-ray responses using adaptive and rational wavelets for feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Desmond; Wong, Fu Tian; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Findlay, David; Ferguson, Bradley; Abbott, Derek

    2007-12-01

    In this work we investigate new feature extraction algorithms on the T-ray response of normal human bone cells and human osteosarcoma cells. One of the most promising feature extraction methods is the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). However, the classification accuracy is dependant on the specific wavelet base chosen. Adaptive wavelets circumvent this problem by gradually adapting to the signal to retain optimum discriminatory information, while removing redundant information. Using adaptive wavelets, classification accuracy, using a quadratic Bayesian classifier, of 96.88% is obtained based on 25 features. In addition, the potential of using rational wavelets rather than the standard dyadic wavelets in classification is explored. The advantage it has over dyadic wavelets is that it allows a better adaptation of the scale factor according to the signal. An accuracy of 91.15% is obtained through rational wavelets with 12 coefficients using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) as the classifier. These results highlight adaptive and rational wavelets as an efficient feature extraction method and the enormous potential of T-rays in cancer detection.

  10. Assessment Of The Extension Materials Produced And Used In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment Of The Extension Materials Produced And Used In ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... The most important considerations in extension materials preparation all the time by ...

  11. Caste- and sex-specific adaptations within the olfactory pathway in the brain of the ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zube, Christina; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Olfaction plays a key role in mediating ant behavior, and ant societies are characterized by caste- and sex-specific division of labor. We propose that caste- and sex-specific adaptations in the olfactory pathway promote differences in olfactory behavior. This study compares olfactory centers in the brain of large (major) workers, small (minor) workers, virgin queens, and males of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. The number of glomeruli in the antennal lobe was similar in the female castes, although the glomerular volumes differed. Males had approximately 45% fewer glomeruli compared to females (approximately 258 and approximately 434) and one antennal sensory tract was absent. A dual output pathway to the mushroom bodies was present in males. In contrast to females, however, the number of glomeruli connected to the medial antennocerebral tract was substantially smaller than those associated with the lateral tract. All glomeruli in the male antennal lobe contained serotonergic processes, whereas in the female castes glomeruli in the large tract six cluster lacked serotonergic innervations. We conclude that differences in general glomerular organization are subtle among the female castes, but sex-specific differences in the number, connectivity and neuromodulatory innervation of glomeruli are substantial and likely to underlie differences in olfactory processing and learning.

  12. Specificity of reflex adaptation for task-relevant variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, David W; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2008-12-24

    The motor system responds to perturbations with reflexes, such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex or stretch reflex, whose gains adapt in response to novel and fixed changes in the environment, such as magnifying spectacles or standing on a tilting platform. Here we demonstrate a reflex response to shifts in the hand's visual location during reaching, which occurs before the onset of voluntary reaction time, and investigate how its magnitude depends on statistical properties of the environment. We examine the change in reflex response to two different distributions of visuomotor discrepancies, both of which have zero mean and equal variance across trials. Critically one distribution is task relevant and the other task irrelevant. The task-relevant discrepancies are maintained to the end of the movement, whereas the task-irrelevant discrepancies are transient such that no discrepancy exists at the end of the movement. The reflex magnitude was assessed using identical probe trials under both distributions. We find opposite directions of adaptation of the reflex response under these two distributions, with increased reflex magnitudes for task-relevant variability and decreased reflex magnitudes for task-irrelevant variability. This demonstrates modulation of reflex magnitudes in the absence of a fixed change in the environment, and shows that reflexes are sensitive to the statistics of tasks with modulation depending on whether the variability is task relevant or task irrelevant.

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the disease specific questionnaire OQLQ in Serbian patients with malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vucic Ljiljana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentofacial disorders may potentially significantly affect the quality of life. Objectives of this study were to validate translated and culturally adapted Orthognatic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ on a cohort of Serbian patients with malocclusions.

  14. Material-specific Conversion Factors for Different Solid Phantoms Used in the Dosimetry of Different Brachytherapy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Sina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Based on Task Group No. 43 (TG-43U1 recommendations, water phantom is proposed as a reference phantom for the dosimetry of brachytherapy sources. The experimental determination of TG-43 parameters is usually performed in water-equivalent solid phantoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the conversion factors for equalizing solid phantoms to water. Materials and Methods TG-43 parameters of low- and high-energy brachytherapy sources (i.e., Pd-103, I-125 and Cs-137 were obtained in different phantoms, using Monte Carlo simulations. The brachytherapy sources were simulated at the center of different phantoms including water, solid water, poly(methyl methacrylate, polystyrene and polyethylene. Dosimetric parameters such as dose rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function of each source were compared in different phantoms. Then, conversion factors were obtained to make phantom parameters equivalent to those of water. Results Polynomial coefficients of conversion factors were obtained for all sources to quantitatively compare g(r values in different phantom materials and the radial dose function in water. Conclusion Polynomial coefficients of conversion factors were obtained for all sources to quantitatively compare g(r values in different phantom materials and the radial dose function in water.

  15. ulous and comparative study on the use of specific and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudhanshu

    2014-02-19

    Feb 19, 2014 ... heterologous microsatellite markers for population ... and PIC values of 0.668 and 0.575, respectively, compared with the .... use of these markers is the development of species- ..... Table 2. Comparison of genetic diversity parameters of species-specific .... Population size estimation in Yellowstone wolves.

  16. Material selection,hardness after heat treatment and use specification of steel extrusion toolings%钢挤压工模具材质选择、热处理硬度及使用规范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包进平; 赵云路; 薛荣敬

    2012-01-01

    For the high temperature strength and toughness of the traditional hot working die steel materials can not meet the requirement of the steel extrusion toolings, and their comprehensive costs are high, so the hot working die steel material 1. 2367 suiting for steel extrusion toolings was proposed. And the differences between them and the traditional hot working die steel materials were compared. The material selection, suitable hardness after heat treatment and use specification of each steel extrusion toolings were described in detail. The frequently water cooling usually resulted in the die steel thermal fatigue, so the viewpoint of water cooling replaced by several toolings cycle use and natural cooling was proposed.%由于传统热作模具钢的高温强韧性不能满足钢挤压工模具的要求以及综合成本较高等原因,提出了适合用于钢挤压工模具的热作模具钢材质1.2367,并将其与传统热作模具钢进行对比;对各种钢挤压工模具材质选择、适宜的热处理硬度及使用规范进行了较为详细的叙述;对频繁水冷容易造成模具钢热疲劳的问题,提出了利用多件工模具循环使用并采取自然冷却的方法代替水冷的观点.

  17. Controlled synthesis of organic nanophotonic materials with specific structures and compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qiu Hong; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-10-29

    Organic nanomaterials have drawn great interest for their potential applications in high-speed miniaturized photonic integration due to their high photoluminescence quantum efficiency, structural processability, ultrafast photoresponse, and excellent property engineering. Based on the rational design on morphological and componential levels, a series of organic nanomaterials have been controllably synthesized in recent years, and their excitonic/photonic behaviors has been fine-tuned to steer the light flow for specific optical applications. This review presents a comprehensive summary of recent breakthroughs in the controlled synthesis of organic nanomaterials with specific structures and compositions, whose tunable photonic properties would provide a novel platform for multifunctional applications. First, we give a general overview of the tailored construction of novel nanostructures with various photonic properties. Then, we summarize the design and controllable synthesis of composite materials for the modulation of their functionalities. Subsequently, special emphasis is put on the fabrication of complex nanostructures towards wide applications in isolated photonic devices. We conclude with our personal viewpoints on the development directions in the novel design and controllable construction of organic nanomaterials for future applications in highly integrated photonic devices and chips.

  18. Parallel and lineage-specific molecular adaptation to climate in boreal black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, Julien; Gérardi, Sébastien; Laroche, Jérôme; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-09-01

    In response to selective pressure, adaptation may follow different genetic pathways throughout the natural range of a species due to historical differentiation in standing genetic variation. Using 41 populations of black spruce (Picea mariana), the objectives of this study were to identify adaptive genetic polymorphisms related to temperature and precipitation variation across the transcontinental range of the species, and to evaluate the potential influence of historical events on their geographic distribution. Population structure was first inferred using 50 control nuclear markers. Then, 47 candidate gene SNPs identified in previous genome scans were tested for relationship with climatic factors using an F(ST) -based outlier method and regressions between allele frequencies and climatic variations. Two main intraspecific lineages related to glacial vicariance were detected at the transcontinental scale. Within-lineage analyses of allele frequencies allowed the identification of 23 candidate SNPs significantly related to precipitation and/or temperature variation, among which seven were common to both lineages, eight were specific to the eastern lineage and eight were specific to the western lineage. The implication of these candidate SNPs in adaptive processes was further supported by gene functional annotations. Multiple evidences indicated that the occurrence of lineage-specific adaptive SNPs was better explained by selection acting on historically differentiated gene pools rather than differential selection due to heterogeneity of interacting environmental factors and pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that standing genetic variation of potentially adaptive nature has been modified by historical events, hence affecting the outcome of recent selection and leading to different adaptive routes between intraspecific lineages. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Feasibility study for the development of certified reference materials for specific migration testing. Part 1: Initial migrant concentration and specific migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, N.H.; Störmer, A.; Bradley, E.L.; Brandsch, R.; Cooper, I.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Franz, R.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a project with the main objective of developing the know how to produce certified reference materials (CRMs) for specific migration testing. Certification parameters discussed are the initial concentration of the migrant in the polymer (C-P,C- 0) and the specific migration into a

  20. Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

    2006-10-01

    This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

  1. Materials and Process Specifications and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    Laboratories Murray Hill, New Jersey Dr. Frederick T. Moore Economist Advisor Industrial Project World Bank Washington, D.C. Dr. Arthur C. Damask...custodians and 172 DEPSOs, This procedure for coordination of a draft provides successive opportunities for reconciliation of unresolved conanents at

  2. Trait-specific consequences of inbreeding on adaptive phenotypic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Loeschcke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes may stress organisms and stimulate an adaptive phenotypic response. Effects of inbreeding often interact with the environment and can decrease fitness of inbred individuals exposed to stress more so than that of outbred individuals. Such an interaction may stem from a reduce...

  3. Discovery and Optimization of Materials Using Evolutionary Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tu C; Winkler, David A

    2016-05-25

    Materials science is undergoing a revolution, generating valuable new materials such as flexible solar panels, biomaterials and printable tissues, new catalysts, polymers, and porous materials with unprecedented properties. However, the number of potentially accessible materials is immense. Artificial evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms, which explore large, complex search spaces very efficiently, can be applied to the identification and optimization of novel materials more rapidly than by physical experiments alone. Machine learning models can augment experimental measurements of materials fitness to accelerate identification of useful and novel materials in vast materials composition or property spaces. This review discusses the problems of large materials spaces, the types of evolutionary algorithms employed to identify or optimize materials, and how materials can be represented mathematically as genomes, describes fitness landscapes and mutation operators commonly employed in materials evolution, and provides a comprehensive summary of published research on the use of evolutionary methods to generate new catalysts, phosphors, and a range of other materials. The review identifies the potential for evolutionary methods to revolutionize a wide range of manufacturing, medical, and materials based industries.

  4. Adaptation of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium dimerum to the specific aquatic environment provided by the water systems of hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Christian; Laurent, Julie; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Barbezant, Marie; Sixt, Nathalie; Dalle, Frédéric; Aho, Serge; Bonnin, Alain; Hartemann, Philippe; Sautour, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Members of the Fusarium group were recently detected in water distribution systems of several hospitals in the world. An epidemiological investigation was conducted over 2 years in hospital buildings in Dijon and Nancy (France) and in non-hospital buildings in Dijon. The fungi were detected only within the water distribution systems of the hospital buildings and also, but at very low concentrations, in the urban water network of Nancy. All fungi were identified as Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC) by sequencing part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene. Very low diversity was found in each complex, suggesting the existence of a clonal population for each. Density and heterogeneous distributions according to buildings and variability over time were explained by episodic detachments of parts of the colony from biofilms in the pipes. Isolates of these waterborne populations as well as soilborne isolates were tested for their ability to grow in liquid medium in the presence of increasing concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, copper sulfate, anti-corrosion pipe coating, at various temperatures (4°-42 °C) and on agar medium with amphotericin B and voriconazole. The waterborne isolates tolerated higher sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate concentrations and temperatures than did soilborne isolates but did not show any specific resistance to fungicides. In addition, unlike waterborne isolates, soilborne isolates did not survive in water even supplemented with glucose, while the former developed in the soil as well as soilborne isolates. We concluded the existence of homogeneous populations of FOSC and FDSC common to all contaminated hospital sites. These populations are present at very low densities in natural waters, making them difficult to detect, but they are adapted to the specific conditions offered by the complex water systems of public hospitals in Dijon and Nancy and probably other

  5. Prostate cancer stem cells are targets of both innate and adaptive immunity and elicit tumor-specific immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachetti, Elena; Mazzoleni, Stefania; Grioni, Matteo; Ricupito, Alessia; Brambillasca, Chiara; Generoso, Luca; Calcinotto, Arianna; Freschi, Massimo; Mondino, Anna; Galli, Rossella; Bellone, Matteo

    2013-05-01

    According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory, therapies that do not target the CSC compartment have limited, if any, chances to eradicate established tumors. While cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have the potential to recognize and kill single neoplastic cells within a tissue, whether CSCs can be targeted by the immune system during spontaneous or vaccination-elicited responses is poorly defined. Here, we provide experimental evidence showing that CSC lines established from the prostate of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice expressed prostate cancer-associated antigens, MHC Class I and II molecules as well as ligands for natural killer (NK) cell receptors. Indeed, CSC were targets for both NK cell- and CTL-mediated cytotoxicity, both in vitro and in vivo. The administration of dendritic cells pulsed with irradiated CSCs induced a tumor-specific immune response that was more robust than that induced by dendritic cells pulsed with differentiated tumor cells, delayed tumor growth in mice challenged with prostate CSCs and caused tumor regression in TRAMP mice. Thus, CSC are targeted by both innate and adaptive immune responses and might be exploited for the design of novel immunotherapeutic approaches against cancer.

  6. Incidence of Deformation and Fracture of Twisted File Adaptive Instruments after Repeated Clinical Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Piasecki, Lucila; Miccoli, Gabriele; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Carneiro, Everdan; Al-Sudani, Dina; Testarelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of deformation and fracture of twisted file adaptive nickel-titanium instruments after repeated clinical use and to identify and check whether the three instruments within the small/medium sequence showed similar or different visible signs of metal fatigue. Material and Methods One-hundred twenty twisted file adaptive (TFA) packs were collected after clinically used to prepare three molars and were inspected for deformations and fracture. Results The overall incidence of deformation was 22.2%, which was not evenly distributed within the instruments: 15% for small/medium (SM)1 (n = 18), 38.33% for SM2 (n = 46) and 13.33% for the SM3 instruments (n = 16). The defect rate of SM2 instruments was statistically higher than the other two (P < 0.001). The fracture rate was 0.83% (n = 3), being two SM2 instruments and one SM3. Conclusions It was observed a very low defect rate after clinical use of twisted file adaptive rotary instruments. The untwisting of flutes was significantly more frequent than fracture, which might act as prevention for breakage. The results highlight the fact that clinicians should be aware that instruments within a sequence might be differently subjected to intracanal stress. PMID:28154749

  7. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhari, Behnam; Ashofteh Yazdi, Kazem; Sharifi, Farnood; Pirmoazen, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resecting the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20)(a total of 8 subgroups). Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the marginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate. PMID:26622276

  8. Brazilian cross-cultural translation and adaptation of the "Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mansueto Mourao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To translate and to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the “Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items” (MG-QOL15. Method The original English version of the questionnaire was translated into Portuguese. This version was revised and translated back into English. Later, both English versions were compared and the divergences were corrected in the Portuguese text. At a second stage, ten patients with MG followed at the Neuromuscular Diseases Clinic from the University Hospital, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais answered the questionnaire. The authors analyzed the difficulties and misunderstandings in the application of the questionnaire. Results The questions 8, 13 and 15 were considered difficult to understand and were modified in the final Portuguese version. Most patients (70% had a total score above 25, and the statements 3, 8 and 9 showed the highest scores. Conclusion The Brazilian version of the questionnaire MG-QOL15 seems to be a promising tool for the assessment of Brazilian patients with MG.

  9. Use of Candida-specific chicken egg yolk antibodies to inhibit the adhering of Candida to denture base materials: prevention of denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Yoshiaki; Fujisaki, Junichi; Nagayama, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kiyotsugu; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Hamada, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Ryoich; Mukai, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Kazumasa

    2016-09-01

    Polyclonal anti-Candida chicken egg yolk antibodies (anti-IgY) were used to investigate the prevention of adherence of Candida species to denture base material in vitro. Candida is a potential virulence factor that can cause systemic infection and even death in immunocompromised individuals. Because long-term antifungal treatment may lead to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, it is necessary to develop novel preventive measures and treatments for candidiasis. Three types of chicken egg yolk antibodies were used in this study: non-specific antibody (control IgY), Candida albicans-specific antibody (anti-C.a.IgY) and Candida glabrata-specific antibody (anti-C.g.IgY). A mixture of different dilutions of each antibody with a suspension of Candida species and denture base material was incubated for 3 h, and then the colony-forming units of Candida on the denture base material were counted. Compared with control IgY, anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY significantly inhibited the adherence of C. albicans, but anti-C.a.IgY tended to be more potent than anti-C.g.IgY. The adherence of C. glabrata was also inhibited significantly by anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY with almost equivalent potency, indicating that their actions against C. glabrata were comparable. This study revealed the inhibitory effects of anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY against the adherence of C. albicans and C. glabrata to denture base material. This finding indicates the possibility of a beneficial effect of IgYs for the prevention of denture stomatitis and candidiasis in clinical settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Provides the tools needed to successfully perform adaptive tests across a broad range of datasets Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS illustrates the power of adaptive tests and showcases their ability to adjust the testing method to suit a particular set of data. The book utilizes state-of-the-art software to demonstrate the practicality and benefits for data analysis in various fields of study. Beginning with an introduction, the book moves on to explore the underlying concepts of adaptive tests, including:Smoothing methods and normalizing transforma

  11. Bone Adaptation Around Orthopaedic Implants of Varying Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The bone adaptation around orthopaedic implants is simulated using a three-dimensional finite element model. The remodeling scheme has its origin in optimization methods, and includes anisotropy and time-dependent loading......The bone adaptation around orthopaedic implants is simulated using a three-dimensional finite element model. The remodeling scheme has its origin in optimization methods, and includes anisotropy and time-dependent loading...

  12. Bone Adaptation Around Orthopaedic Implants of Varying Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The bone adaptation around orthopaedic implants is simulated using a three-dimensional finite element model. The remodeling scheme has its origin in optimization methods, and includes anisotropy and time-dependent loading......The bone adaptation around orthopaedic implants is simulated using a three-dimensional finite element model. The remodeling scheme has its origin in optimization methods, and includes anisotropy and time-dependent loading...

  13. The process of production/adaptation of phonetics and phonology’s didactic material for visual deficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Carlos Romualdo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process of production and adaptation of phonetics and phonology teaching material for the visually impaired. The research was motivated by the lack of means to represent phonetic and phonological symbols to a visually impaired undergraduate student of the Language and Literature Course of Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM [Maringá State University], Brazil, due to the fact that these symbols are elementary for the professional development of future Portuguese teachers. Considering this shortcoming and in favor of educational inclusion, the intention was to find the best method to represent these symbols. Half-structured interviews were undertaken with special education professionals who work with the visually impaired, which insisted that the Braille method is the most efficient resource for teaching and learning for these students. The result of this research was the adaptation to the Braille system, by professionals of the Centro de Apoio Pedagógico (CAP [Center for Pedagogical Aid] in Maringá, of a book on phonetics and phonology, including symbols, organized for teachers’ formation.

  14. Developing a Sealing Material: Effect of Epoxy Modification on Specific Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schoberleitner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To develop a matched sealing material for socket rehabilitation of grey cast iron pipes, an epoxy resin is modified by the addition of different components to improve the flexibility. Three different modifications are made by adding ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM rubber powder, reactive liquid polymer (ATBN and epoxidized modifier. In this paper the effect of the modification method as well as the influence of absorption of water on the mechanical and physical properties are analyzed in terms of: tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, adhesion performance, pressure resistance, glass transition temperature and water content. A comparison with neat epoxy shows for all materials that the modulus of elasticity and strength decrease. Unlike other tested modification methods, the modification with rubber powder did not enhance the flexibility. All materials absorb water and a plasticization effect arises with further changes of mechanical and physical properties. The application of the sealant on the grey cast iron leads to a reduction of the strain at break (in comparison to the common tensile test of the pure materials and has to be evaluated. The main requirement of pressure resistance up to 1 MPa was tested on two chosen materials. Both materials fulfill this requirement.

  15. Coding of hyperspectral imagery using adaptive classification and trellis-coded quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousleman, Glen P.

    1997-08-01

    A system is presented for compression of hyperspectral imagery. Specifically, DPCM is used for spectral decorrelation, while an adaptive 2D discrete cosine transform coding scheme is used for spatial decorrelation. Trellis coded quantization is used to encode the transform coefficients. Side information and rate allocation strategies are discussed. Entropy-constrained codebooks are designed using a modified version of the generalized Lloyd algorithm. This entropy constrained system achieves a compression ratio of greater than 70:1 with an average PSNR of the coded hyperspectral sequence approaching 41 dB.

  16. M-Learning: Implications in Learning Domain Specificities, Adaptive Learning, Feedback, Augmented Reality, and the Future of Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the potential and effectiveness of m-learning in the field of Education and Learning domains. The purpose of this research is to illustrate how mobile technology can and is affecting novel change in instruction, from m-learning and the link to adaptive learning, to the uninitiated learner and capacities of…

  17. Investigation of material specifications changes during laser tube bending and its influence on the modification and optimization of analytical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhan, Khalil Ibraheem; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Zakaria, Azmi; Ismail, Mohd Idris Shah B.; Alsabti, Nasseer Mahdi Hadi; Ahmad, Ahmad Kamal

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, laser tube bending process has become commonly used in laser material processing and fabrication fields because of its ability to produce such forms and shapes that cannot be achieved by normal mechanical bending tools. The process can avoid and overcome most of bending defects like wall thinning, wrinkling, spring back and ovalization. This investigation focused on the experimental, analytical modeling, and numerical simulation to give more understanding of the process. In this work a high power pulsed Nd-Yag laser of maximum average power laser 300 (W) emitting at 1064 nm and fiber coupled has been used to irradiate stainless steel 304 tubes of diameter 12.7 mm, 0.6 mm thickness and 60 mm in length. An analytical model has been used to determine the bending angle by using Matlab program software. The changes of material specification during the laser tube bending process due to the temperature rise has been studied and the analytical model has been modified and enhanced. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used to optimize the analytical and experimental results and reduce the mean absolute error.

  18. Adaptive mesh refinement for shocks and material interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There are three kinds of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in structured meshes. Block-based AMR sometimes over refines meshes. Cell-based AMR treats cells cell by cell and thus loses the advantage of the nature of structured meshes. Patch-based AMR is intended to combine advantages of block- and cell-based AMR, i.e., the nature of structured meshes and sharp regions of refinement. But, patch-based AMR has its own difficulties. For example, patch-based AMR typically cannot preserve symmetries of physics problems. In this paper, we will present an approach for a patch-based AMR for hydrodynamics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, management of patches, and load balance. The special features of this patch-based AMR include symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement across shock fronts and material interfaces, special implementation of flux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, we will show both two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement.

  19. Adaptive increases in expression and vasodilator activity of estrogen receptor subtypes in a blood vessel-specific pattern during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Karina M; Li, Wei; Reslan, Ossama M; Siddiqui, Waleed T; Opsasnick, Lauren A; Khalil, Raouf A

    2015-11-15

    Normal pregnancy is associated with adaptive hemodynamic, hormonal, and vascular changes, and estrogen (E2) may promote vasodilation during pregnancy; however, the specific E2 receptor (ER) subtype, post-ER signaling mechanism, and vascular bed involved are unclear. We tested whether pregnancy-associated vascular adaptations involve changes in the expression/distribution/activity of distinct ER subtypes in a blood vessel-specific manner. Blood pressure (BP) and plasma E2 were measured in virgin and pregnant (day 19) rats, and the thoracic aorta, carotid artery, mesenteric artery, and renal artery were isolated for measurements of ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [G protein-coupled ER (GPER)] expression and tissue distribution in parallel with relaxation responses to E2 (all ERs) and the specific ER agonist 4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)-tris-phenol (PPT; ERα), diarylpropionitrile (DPN; ERβ), and G1 (GPER). BP was slightly lower and plasma E2 was higher in pregnant versus virgin rats. Western blots revealed increased ERα and ERβ in the aorta and mesenteric artery and GPER in the aorta of pregnant versus virgin rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the increases in ERs were mainly in the intima and media. In phenylephrine-precontracted vessels, E2 and PPT caused relaxation that was greater in the aorta and mesenteric artery but similar in the carotid and renal artery of pregnant versus virgin rats. DPN- and G1-induced relaxation was greater in the mesenteric and renal artery than in the aorta and carotid artery, and aortic relaxation to G1 was greater in pregnant versus virgin rats. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester with or without the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin with or without the EDHF blocker tetraethylammonium or endothelium removal reduced E2, PPT, and G1-induced relaxation in the aorta of pregnant rats, suggesting an endothelium-dependent mechanism, but did not affect E2-, PPT

  20. Adaptive increases in expression and vasodilator activity of estrogen receptor subtypes in a blood vessel-specific pattern during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Karina M.; Li, Wei; Reslan, Ossama M.; Siddiqui, Waleed T.; Opsasnick, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with adaptive hemodynamic, hormonal, and vascular changes, and estrogen (E2) may promote vasodilation during pregnancy; however, the specific E2 receptor (ER) subtype, post-ER signaling mechanism, and vascular bed involved are unclear. We tested whether pregnancy-associated vascular adaptations involve changes in the expression/distribution/activity of distinct ER subtypes in a blood vessel-specific manner. Blood pressure (BP) and plasma E2 were measured in virgin and pregnant (day 19) rats, and the thoracic aorta, carotid artery, mesenteric artery, and renal artery were isolated for measurements of ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [G protein-coupled ER (GPER)] expression and tissue distribution in parallel with relaxation responses to E2 (all ERs) and the specific ER agonist 4,4′,4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)-tris-phenol (PPT; ERα), diarylpropionitrile (DPN; ERβ), and G1 (GPER). BP was slightly lower and plasma E2 was higher in pregnant versus virgin rats. Western blots revealed increased ERα and ERβ in the aorta and mesenteric artery and GPER in the aorta of pregnant versus virgin rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the increases in ERs were mainly in the intima and media. In phenylephrine-precontracted vessels, E2 and PPT caused relaxation that was greater in the aorta and mesenteric artery but similar in the carotid and renal artery of pregnant versus virgin rats. DPN- and G1-induced relaxation was greater in the mesenteric and renal artery than in the aorta and carotid artery, and aortic relaxation to G1 was greater in pregnant versus virgin rats. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester with or without the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin with or without the EDHF blocker tetraethylammonium or endothelium removal reduced E2, PPT, and G1-induced relaxation in the aorta of pregnant rats, suggesting an endothelium-dependent mechanism, but did not affect E2-, PPT

  1. Using patient-specific phantoms to evaluate deformable image registration algorithms for adaptive radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nick; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Kim, Jinkoo; Adams, Jeffrey; Li, Shunshan; Wen, Ning; Chetty, Indrin J; Zhong, Hualiang

    2013-11-04

    The quality of adaptive treatment planning depends on the accuracy of its underlying deformable image registration (DIR). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of two DIR algorithms, B-spline-based deformable multipass (DMP) and deformable demons (Demons), implemented in a commercial software package. Evaluations were conducted using both computational and physical deformable phantoms. Based on a finite element method (FEM), a total of 11 computational models were developed from a set of CT images acquired from four lung and one prostate cancer patients. FEM generated displacement vector fields (DVF) were used to construct the lung and prostate image phantoms. Based on a fast-Fourier transform technique, image noise power spectrum was incorporated into the prostate image phantoms to create simulated CBCT images. The FEM-DVF served as a gold standard for verification of the two registration algorithms performed on these phantoms. The registration algorithms were also evaluated at the homologous points quantified in the CT images of a physical lung phantom. The results indicated that the mean errors of the DMP algorithm were in the range of 1.0 ~ 3.1 mm for the computational phantoms and 1.9 mm for the physical lung phantom. For the computational prostate phantoms, the corresponding mean error was 1.0-1.9 mm in the prostate, 1.9-2.4mm in the rectum, and 1.8-2.1 mm over the entire patient body. Sinusoidal errors induced by B-spline interpolations were observed in all the displacement profiles of the DMP registrations. Regions of large displacements were observed to have more registration errors. Patient-specific FEM models have been developed to evaluate the DIR algorithms implemented in the commercial software package. It has been found that the accuracy of these algorithms is patient dependent and related to various factors including tissue deformation magnitudes and image intensity gradients across the regions of interest. This may suggest that

  2. Assessing equivalence of two assays using sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge; Burdick, Richard K

    2007-01-01

    The equivalence of two assays is determined using the sensitivity and specificity relative to a gold standard. The equivalence-testing criterion is based on a misclassification rate proposed by Burdick et al. (2005) and the intersection-union test (IUT) method proposed by Berger (1982). Using a variance components model and IUT methods, we construct bounds for the sensitivity and specificity relative to the gold standard assay based on generalized confidence intervals. We conduct a simulation study to assess whether the bounds maintain the stated test size. We present a computational example to demonstrate the method described in the paper.

  3. Adaptive translation as a mechanism of stress response and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The composition of the cellular proteome is commonly thought to strictly adhere to the genetic code. However, accumulating evidence indicates that cells also regulate the synthesis of mutant protein molecules that deviate from the genetic code. Production of mutant proteins varies in amounts and specificity and generally occurs when cells are stressed or undergo environmental adaptation. The deliberate synthesis of protein mutants suggests that some of these proteins can be useful in cellular...

  4. Overall and specific migration from multilayer high barrier food contact materials - kinetic study of cyclic polyester oligomers migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Sara; Aznar, Margarita; Vera, Paula; Nerín, Cristina; Henríquez, Luis; Taborda, Laura; Restrepo, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Most multilayer high barrier materials used in food packaging have a polyurethane adhesive layer in their structures. In order to assess the safety of these materials, it is important to determine the compounds intentionally added to the adhesives (IAS) as well as those non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). During the manufacture of polyurethane adhesives, some by-products can be formed, such as cyclic polyester oligomers coming from the reaction between dicarboxylic acids and glycols. Since these compounds are not listed in the Regulation 10/2011/EU, they should not be found in migration above 0.01 mg/kg of simulant. In this study two flexible multilayer packaging materials were used and migration was evaluated in simulant A (ethanol 10% v/v), simulant B (acetic acid 3% w/v) and simulant ethanol 95% v/v during 10 days at 60ºC. Identification and quantification of non-volatile compounds was carried out by UPLC-MS-QTOF. Most of migrants were oligomers such as cyclic polyesters and caprolactam oligomers. Overall migration and specific migration of adipic acid-diethylene glycol and phthalic acid-diethylene glycol were monitored over time and analysed by UPLC-MS-TQ. In most cases, ethanol 95% v/v was the simulant with the highest concentration values. Overall migration kinetics followed a similar pattern than specific migration kinetics.

  5. The learning continuum based on student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material on physiological aspects from teachers's opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Ria Fitriyani; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    The scope of learning continuum at the conceptual knowledge is formulated based on the student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material. The purpose of this study is to develop a learning continuum of specific pedagogical material aspects of physiology targeted for students in primary and secondary education. This research was conducted in Province of Yogyakarta Special Region from October 2016 to January 2017. The method used in this study was survey method. The data were collected using questionnaire that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements. Respondents in this study consist of 281 Science/Biology teachers at Public Junior and Senior High Schools in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Region which spread in Yogyakarta city and 4 regencies namely Sleman, Bantul, Kulonprogo, and Gunungkidul. The data were taken using a census. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis technique. The results show the learning continuum of physiology based on teachers's opinion from grade VII, VIII, and IX are taught in grade VII, VIII, IX and X on level of C2 (understanding) and the learning continuum of physiology based on teachers's opinion from grade X, XI and XII are taught in grade X and XI on level of C2 (understanding), C3 (applying), and C4 (analyzing) based on teachers's opinions. The conclusion is that many teachers refer to the existing curriculum rather than their own original idea for developing learning continuum.

  6. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Abstract. Background: Cardiac adaptation to hypertension and obesity may be related to many factors such as race, gender and haemodynamic status. ... had history taking, physical examination and echocardiography done.

  7. The guide to PAMIR theory and use of Parameterized Adaptive Multidimensional Integration Routines

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen L

    2013-01-01

    PAMIR (Parameterized Adaptive Multidimensional Integration Routines) is a suite of Fortran programs for multidimensional numerical integration over hypercubes, simplexes, and hyper-rectangles in general dimension p, intended for use by physicists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and engineers. The programs, which are available on the internet at website and are free for non-profit research use, are capable of following localized peaks and valleys of the integrand. Each program comes with a Message-Passing Interface (MPI) parallel version for cluster use as well as serial versions. The first chapter presents introductory material, similar to that on the PAMIR website, and the next is a "manual" giving much more detail on the use of the programs than is on the website. They are followed by many examples of performance benchmarks and comparisons with other programs, and a discussion of the computational integration aspects of PAMIR, in comparison with other methods in the literature. The final chapt...

  8. An Analysis of Specific Cognizance Symbol Material in the Advanced Traceability and Control (ATAC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    McMasters and Kang. If additional or more current data tapes of the ATAC system are required, Mr. Paul Barraco at NAVMTO should be contacted. 73 APPENDIX A...6043 4. Mr. David Estep, Code 431A 1 Naval Supply Systems Command Washington, D.C. 20376-5000 5. Mr. Paul Barraco , Code 033B 1 Navy Material...1 Naval Supply Systems Command Washington, D.C. 20376-5000 5. Mr. Paul Barraco , Code 033B 1 Navy Material Transportation Office Naval Station Bldg. Z

  9. Science of adaptation to climate change and science for adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob eSwart

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to climate change has gained a prominent place next to mitigation on global, national and local policy agendas. However, while an abundance of adaptation strategies, plans and programmes have been developed, progress in turning these into action has been slow. The development of a sound knowledge basis to support adaptation globally is suggested to accelerate progress, but has lagged behind. The emphasis in both current and newly proposed programmes is very much on practice-oriented research with strong stakeholder participation. This paper supports such practice-oriented research, but argues that this is insufficient to support adaptation policy and practice in a productive manner. We argue that there is not only a need for science for adaptation, but also a science of adaptation. The paper argues that participatory, practice-oriented research is indeed essential, but has to be complemented by and connected to more fundamental inquiry and concept development, which takes into account knowledge that has been developed in disciplinary sciences and on issues other than climate change adaptation. At the same time, the level and method of participation in science for adaptation should be determined on the basis of the specific project context and goals. More emphasis on science of adaptation can lead to improved understanding of the conditions for successful science for adaptation.

  10. Quantify patient-specific coronary material property and its impact on stress/strain calculations using in vivo IVUS data and 3D FSI models: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoya; Zhu, Jian; Maehara, Akiko; Monoly, David; Samady, Habib; Wang, Liang; Billiar, Kristen L; Zheng, Jie; Yang, Chun; Mintz, Gary S; Giddens, Don P; Tang, Dalin

    2017-02-01

    Computational models have been used to calculate plaque stress and strain for plaque progression and rupture investigations. An intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based modeling approach is proposed to quantify in vivo vessel material properties for more accurate stress/strain calculations. In vivo Cine IVUS and VH-IVUS coronary plaque data were acquired from one patient with informed consent obtained. Cine IVUS data and 3D thin-slice models with axial stretch were used to determine patient-specific vessel material properties. Twenty full 3D fluid-structure interaction models with ex vivo and in vivo material properties and various axial and circumferential shrink combinations were constructed to investigate the material stiffness impact on stress/strain calculations. The approximate circumferential Young's modulus over stretch ratio interval [1.0, 1.1] for an ex vivo human plaque sample and two slices (S6 and S18) from our IVUS data were 1631, 641, and 346 kPa, respectively. Average lumen stress/strain values from models using ex vivo, S6 and S18 materials with 5 % axial shrink and proper circumferential shrink were 72.76, 81.37, 101.84 kPa and 0.0668, 0.1046, and 0.1489, respectively. The average cap strain values from S18 material models were 150-180 % higher than those from the ex vivo material models. The corresponding percentages for the average cap stress values were 50-75 %. Dropping axial and circumferential shrink consideration led to stress and strain over-estimations. In vivo vessel material properties may be considerably softer than those from ex vivo data. Material stiffness variations may cause 50-75 % stress and 150-180 % strain variations.

  11. Teachers' opinion about learning continuum based on student's level of competence and specific pedagogical material in classification topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Aldina Eka; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    This research discusses learning continuum development for designing a curriculum. The objective of this study is to gather the opinion of public junior and senior high school teachers about learning continuum based on student's level of competence and specific pedagogical material in classification topics. This research was conducted in Yogyakarta province from October 2016 to January 2017. This research utilizes a descriptive survey method. Respondents in this study consist of 281 science teachers at junior and senior high school in Yogyakarta city and 4 regencies namely Sleman, Bantul, Kulonprogo, and Gunung Kidul. The sample were taken using a census. The collection of data used questionnaire that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis technique. The results of the analysis show that the opinions of teachers regarding specific pedagogical material in classification topics of living things at the junior high school taught in grade VII to the ability level of C2 (Understanding). At senior high school level, it is taught in grade X with the ability level C2 (Understanding). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the opinions of teachers still refer to the current syllabus and curriculum so that the teachers do not have pure opinions about the student's competence level in classification topics that should be taught at the level of the grade in accordance with the level of corresponding competency.

  12. Detection and specifity of class specific antibodies to whole bacteria cells using a solid phase radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerkinsky, C.; Rees, A.S.; Bergimeier, L.A.; Challacombe, S.J. (Guy' s Hospital Medical and Dental Schools, London (UK))

    1983-07-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay has been developed which can be used for the detection of isotype specific antibodies to whole bacteria and other particulate antigens, and is applicable to a variety of species. Bacteria are bound to the solid phase by the use either of antibodies, or of methyl glyoxal. Both methods result in a sensitive and reproducible assay, and bacteria do not appear to desorb from the solid phase. The specificity of antibodies to whole bacteria was examined by absorption of antisera with various species of bacteria and retesting, or by determining the binding of antisera to various bacteria bound to the solid phase. Both methods revealed specificity for the bacteria examined. Inhibition studies showed that antibodies to Streptococcus mutans whole cells could be inhibited by purified cell surface antigens glucosyltransferase and antigen I/II, but only minimally by lipoteichoic acid, c polysaccharide or dextran. In murine antisera antibodies of the IgG, IgM, and IgA classes could be detected at amounts of less than 1 ng/ml.

  13. The Use of Medicinal Plants by Migrant People: Adaptation, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Muniz de Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of studying the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of migrant communities to understand the dynamics of plant resource use, we reviewed the scientific literature concerning the use of medicinal plants by migrant populations engaged in international or long-distance migrations. We considered the importance of two processes: (1 adaptation to the new flora of the host country (i.e., substitution and incorporation of plants in the pharmacopoeia and (2 continued use and acquisition of the original flora from migrants' home countries (i.e., importation, cultivation, and/or continued use of plants that grow in both host and home environments. We suggest that, depending on the specific context and conditions of migration, different processes that determine the use and/or selection of plants as herbal medicines may become predominant.

  14. Topology optimization of compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Xinxing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach for designing the compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite material is proposed based on the topology optimization. Firstly, an equivalent constitutive relationship of laminated glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite plates has been built based on the symmetric laminated plate theory. Then, an optimization objective function of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was used to minimize the least square error (LSE between deformed curve and desired aerodynamics shape. After that, the topology structures of wing leading edge of different glass fiber ply-orientations were obtained by using the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP model and sensitivity filtering technique. The desired aerodynamics shape of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was obtained based on the proposed approach. The topology structures of wing leading edge depend on the glass fiber ply-orientation. Finally, the corresponding morphing experiment of compliant wing leading edge with composite materials was implemented, which verified the morphing capability of topology structure and illustrated the feasibility for designing compliant wing leading edge. The present paper lays the basis of ply-orientation optimization for compliant adaptive wing leading edge in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV field.

  15. A comparative study of software adaptation using remote method call and Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFFONSO, F. J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The software development process has been directed, over the years, to various methodologies with specific purposes to attend emerging needs. Besides, it can also be noticed, during this period, that some processes require mechanisms related to software reuse and greater speed in the development stage. An important factor in this context is the mutation (adaptation, which occurs in all the software's life cycle, due to its customers' needs or due to technological changes. Regarding the latter factor, it has been observed a significant increase in developments that use distributed applications through the World Wide Web or remote application. Based on the adaptation idea and on the necessity of software distribution systems, this paper presents a technique to reconfigure software capable of acting in several developmental contexts (local, distributed and/or Web. In order to demonstrate its applicability, a case study, through the use of service orientation and remote calls, was done to show the software adaptation in the development of applications. Besides, comparative results among the approaches used in the development of reconfigurable applications are also presented.

  16. The Use of Library Materials and Services by Gifted Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Kathleen W.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of responses of gifted students (N=220) at a university laboratory high school to a questionnaire about the school library indicated that students frequently used the library for informational and recreational materials; were generally satisfied with library materials; and were avid readers tending to view less television than nongifted…

  17. Time-course of venous wall biomechanical adaptation in pressure and flow-overload: assessment by a microstructure-based material model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassani, Sofia G; Theofani, Antonia; Tsangaris, Sokrates; Sokolis, Dimitrios P

    2013-09-27

    Arteriovenous fistulae have been previously created by our group, through implantation of e-PTFE grafts between the carotid artery and jugular vein in healthy pigs, to gather comprehensive data on the time-course of the adapted geometry, composition, and biomechanical properties of the venous wall exposed to chronic increases in pressure and flow. The aim of this study was to mathematically assess the biomechanical adaptation of venous wall, by characterizing our previous in vitro inflation/extension testing data obtained 2, 4, and 12 weeks post-fistula, using a microstructure-based material model. Our choice for such a model considered a quadratic function for elastin with a four-fiber family term for collagen, and permitted realistic data characterization for both overloaded and control veins. As structural validation to the hemodynamically-driven differences in the material response, computerized histology was employed to quantitate the composition and orientation of collagen and elastin-fiber networks. The parameter values optimized showed marked differences among the overloaded and control veins, namely decrease in the quadratic function parameters and increase in the four-fiber family parameters. Differences among the two vein types were highlighted with respect to the underlying microstructure, namely the reduced elastin and increased collagen contents induced by pressure and flow-overload. Explicit correlations were found of the material parameters with the two basic scleroprotein contents, substantiating the material model used and the characterization findings presented. Our results are expected to improve the current understanding of the dynamics of venous adaptation under sustained pressure- and flow-overload conditions, for which data are largely unavailable and contradictory.

  18. Moving HAIRS: Towards adaptive, homeostatic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna

    Dynamic structures that respond reversibly to changes in their environment are central to self-regulating thermal and lighting systems, targeted drug delivery, sensors, and self-propelled locomotion. Since an adaptive change requires energy input, an ideal strategy would be to design materials that harvest energy directly from the environment and use it to drive an appropriate response. This lecture will present the design of a novel class of reconfigurable materials that use surfaces bearing arrays of nanostructures put in motion by environment-responsive gels. Their unique hybrid architecture, and chemical and mechanical properties can be optimized to confer a wide range of adaptive behaviors. Using both experimental and modeling approaches, we are developing these hydrogel-actuated integrated responsive systems (HAIRS) as new materials with reversible optical and wetting properties, as a multifunctional platform for controlling cell differentiation and function, and as a first homeostatic system with autonomous self-regulation.

  19. Specific of adaptation foreign student with different health and physical preparedness level to employments on physical education in Kharkov National Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukavenko H.G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The specific of adaptation of foreign students is considered to Ukrainian university reality. Researches were conducted with participation 762 students from 62 countries. Possibilities of teaching of all objects are rotined in English language. The results of questionnaire of students of the first course are presented. Attitude of students is exposed toward an object and their level of physical preparedness. Traditions and departmental of other countries teaching are rotined. Methods and facilities of reduction of adaptation period are presented the increase of level of physical and mental capacity.

  20. Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important goal of managing dredged material is to ensure that the material is used or disposed of in an environmentally sound manner.Most of this dredged material could be used in a beneficial manner instead.

  1. Innovative Design and Processing of Multi-Functional Adaptive Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-09

    conceptually different from the lotus effect, because we use nano /microstructured substrates to lock in place the infused lubricating fluid (Fig. 18). We...Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Energy Storage, ACS Nano , (03 2010): 1587. doi: 10.1021/nn901819n Nicolas Zalachas, Shengqiang Cai, Zhigang Suo...Electrode, Nano Letters, (11 2011): 0. doi: 10.1021/nl203332e Zhigang Suo. Mechanics of stretchable electronics and soft machines, MRS Bulletin

  2. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  3. Northern range expansion of European populations of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi is associated with global warming-correlated genetic admixture and population-specific temperature adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Tautz, Diethard

    2013-04-01

    Poleward range expansions are observed for an increasing number of species, which may be an effect of global warming during the past decades. However, it is still not clear in how far these expansions reflect simple geographical shifts of species ranges, or whether new genetic adaptations play a role as well. Here, we analyse the expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi into Northern Europe during the last century. We have used a range-wide sampling of contemporary populations and historical specimens from museums to trace the phylogeography and genetic changes associated with the range shift. Based on the analysis of mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP markers, we observe a higher level of genetic diversity in the expanding populations, apparently due to admixture of formerly isolated lineages. Using reciprocal transplant experiments for testing overwintering tolerance, as well as temperature preference and tolerance tests in the laboratory, we find that the invading spiders have possibly shifted their temperature niche. This may be a key adaptation for survival in Northern latitudes. The museum samples allow a reconstruction of the invasion's genetic history. A first, small-scale range shift started around 1930, in parallel with the onset of global warming. A more massive invasion of Northern Europe associated with genetic admixture and morphological changes occurred in later decades. We suggest that the latter range expansion into far Northern latitudes may be a consequence of the admixture that provided the genetic material for adaptations to new environmental regimes. Hence, global warming could have facilitated the initial admixture of populations and this resulted in genetic lineages with new habitat preferences.

  4. 2016 Multifunctional Materials and Structures: Science of Autonomic, Adaptive and Self-Sustaining Systems GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    Registered Reitz, Thomas L Air Force Research Laboratory Poster Presenter Registered Rivera , Jesus University of California, Riverside Poster Presenter...Windsor, Shane P University of Bristol Poster Presenter Registered Xu, Sheng University of California, San Diego Attendee Registered Yanagisawa, Yu The

  5. On Automatic Modeling and Use of Domain-specific Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Knappe, Rasmus; Bulskov, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    is a specific lattice-based concept algebraic language by which ontologies are inherently generative. The modeling of a domain specific ontology is based on a general ontology built upon common knowledge resources as dictionaries and thesauri. Based on analysis of concept occurrences in the object document......-based navigation. Finally, a measure of concept similarity is derived from the domain specific ontology based on occurrences, commonalities, and distances in the ontology....

  6. Adaptation of the application of good clinical practice depending on the features of specific research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Courcier-Duplantier, Soizic; Best, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    The conduct of clinical trials falls within a strict regulatory framework. The objective of the round table was to develop reasonable recommendations for the implementation of GCP according to the type of research and taking in account the risks and challenges related to this research. Two types of risks have been identified: those related to the characteristics of the research and those related to the impact of the study results. The group designed an evaluation table of these risks. The round table focused its investigations on 3 main themes: monitoring, the investigational medicinal product and undesirable effects. Three methods of monitoring adaptation were analysed in terms of advantages and disadvantages: the gradual approach, the central monitoring, monitoring on the basis of sampling. Examination of the investigational medicinal product focused on the medicinal product circuit. The group recommends using the following 'basic' decision-making tree, which takes three elements into account: 1) is it an investigational medicinal product?, 2) do the trial objectives and design require packaging specific to the research?, 3) is the risk of use higher than that in standard practice? Finally, adaptation of the implementation of GCP in terms of pharmacovigilance appeared very limited and could possibly be considered for the medicinal product, the subject of the research, which already holds a marketing authorisation, and for which the safety profile is well known; in this case, only simplified collection of non-serious adverse events may be envisaged, which may be implemented by designing and using a standard collection listing. The adaptation of the implementation of GCP is possible. This firstly takes into account the characteristics of the research: which objectives/which risks/which challenges. The options in terms of adaptation must be pre-defined, documented and justified; if necessary, they will also be re-assessed in the course of analysis.

  7. Microassembly of Heterogeneous Materials using Transfer Printing and Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Hohyun; Yang, Zining; Han, Kewen; Handler, Drew E; Nguyen, Thong Nhu; Schutt-Aine, Jose; Bahl, Gaurav; Kim, Seok

    2016-07-18

    Enabling unique architectures and functionalities of microsystems for numerous applications in electronics, photonics and other areas often requires microassembly of separately prepared heterogeneous materials instead of monolithic microfabrication. However, microassembly of dissimilar materials while ensuring high structural integrity has been challenging in the context of deterministic transferring and joining of materials at the microscale where surface adhesion is far more dominant than body weight. Here we present an approach to assembling microsystems with microscale building blocks of four disparate classes of device-grade materials including semiconductors, metals, dielectrics, and polymers. This approach uniquely utilizes reversible adhesion-based transfer printing for material transferring and thermal processing for material joining at the microscale. The interfacial joining characteristics between materials assembled by this approach are systematically investigated upon different joining mechanisms using blister tests. The device level capabilities of this approach are further demonstrated through assembling and testing of a microtoroid resonator and a radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch that involve optical and electrical functionalities with mechanical motion. This work opens up a unique route towards 3D heterogeneous material integration to fabricate microsystems.

  8. Microassembly of Heterogeneous Materials using Transfer Printing and Thermal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Hohyun; Yang, Zining; Han, Kewen; Handler, Drew E.; Nguyen, Thong Nhu; Schutt-Aine, Jose; Bahl, Gaurav; Kim, Seok

    2016-07-01

    Enabling unique architectures and functionalities of microsystems for numerous applications in electronics, photonics and other areas often requires microassembly of separately prepared heterogeneous materials instead of monolithic microfabrication. However, microassembly of dissimilar materials while ensuring high structural integrity has been challenging in the context of deterministic transferring and joining of materials at the microscale where surface adhesion is far more dominant than body weight. Here we present an approach to assembling microsystems with microscale building blocks of four disparate classes of device-grade materials including semiconductors, metals, dielectrics, and polymers. This approach uniquely utilizes reversible adhesion-based transfer printing for material transferring and thermal processing for material joining at the microscale. The interfacial joining characteristics between materials assembled by this approach are systematically investigated upon different joining mechanisms using blister tests. The device level capabilities of this approach are further demonstrated through assembling and testing of a microtoroid resonator and a radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch that involve optical and electrical functionalities with mechanical motion. This work opens up a unique route towards 3D heterogeneous material integration to fabricate microsystems.

  9. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the Celiac Disease Quality of Life (CD-QOL survey, a specific questionnaire to measure quality of life in patients with celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Casellas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: celiac disease is a chronic condition that requires continued treatment, with the resultant impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL of people who suffer it. Most studies in this field have used generic questionnaires to measure HRQOL in celiac patients. It was therefore decided to conduct a study to translate into Spanish and validate a specific questionnaire for celiac disease, the Celiac Disease Quality Of Life Survey (CD-QOL. Objectives: to translate and validate in Spanish the specific celiac disease questionnaire CD-QOL. Methods: a multicenter, prospective, observational study was designed consisting of two phases: In the first phase, the questionnaire was translated and adapted into Spanish using the translation/back translation procedure and an understandability study. In the second phase, internal consistency of the translated questionnaire was analyzed. For this, results of the CD-QOL were compared to those of EuroQol and the Daily Fatigue Impact Scale (D-FIS. Understandability of the translated and adapted questionnaire was tested in six patients, and the validation study was done in 298 celiac patients (201 treated with a gluten-free diet and 97 at diagnosis. Results: in both celiac groups, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was high (0.90, feasibility was excellent (99.2 % of patients completed all questions, and there were no ceiling and floor effects. Spearman correlation to EuroQol and D-FIS was statistically significant (p < 0.05. CD-QOL score was different depending on whether state of health was good, fair, or poor based on the EuroQol score. Conclusion: the Spanish version of the CD-QOL is a valid tool for measuring HRQOL in celiac patients.

  10. Chemically specific multiscale modeling of clay-polymer nanocomposites reveals intercalation dynamics, tactoid self-assembly and emergent materials properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, James L; Groen, Derek; Coveney, Peter V

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative description is presented of the dynamical process of polymer intercalation into clay tactoids and the ensuing aggregation of polymer-entangled tactoids into larger structures, obtaining various characteristics of these nanocomposites, including clay-layer spacings, out-of-plane clay-sheet bending energies, X-ray diffractograms, and materials properties. This model of clay-polymer interactions is based on a three-level approach, which uses quantum mechanical and atomistic descriptions to derive a coarse-grained yet chemically specific representation that can resolve processes on hitherto inaccessible length and time scales. The approach is applied to study collections of clay mineral tactoids interacting with two synthetic polymers, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(vinyl alcohol). The controlled behavior of layered materials in a polymer matrix is centrally important for many engineering and manufacturing applications. This approach opens up a route to computing the properties of complex soft materials based on knowledge of their chemical composition, molecular structure, and processing conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Importance of material matching in the calibration of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation: material specificity and nanoparticle surface coating effects on retention time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haiou; Quevedo, Ivan R.; Linder, Sean W.; Fong, Andrew; Mudalige, Thilak K.

    2016-10-01

    Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with dynamic light scattering or multiangle light scattering detectors is a promising technique for the size-based separation of colloidal particles (nano- and submicron scale) and the online determination of the particle size of the separated fractions in aqueous suspensions. In most cases, the applications of these detectors are problematic due to the material-specific properties of the analyte that results in erroneous calculations, and as an alternative, different nanoparticle size standards are required to properly calibrate the size-based retention in AF4. The availability of nanoparticle size standards in different materials is limited, and this deviation from ideal conditions of retention is mainly due to material-specific and particle coating-specific membrane-particle interactions. Here, we present an experimental method on the applicability of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NP) as standard for AF4 calibration and compare with gold nanoparticle (Au NP) standards having different nominal sizes and surface functionalities.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the disease specific questionnaire OQLQ in Serbian patients with malocclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Ljiljana; Glisic, Branislav; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Vucic, Uros; Drulovic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Dentofacial disorders may potentially significantly affect the quality of life. Objectives of this study were to validate translated and culturally adapted Orthognatic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ) on a cohort of Serbian patients with malocclusions. Methods The questionnaire was validated in 111 consecutive patients with malocclusions, seen between December 2014 and February 2015 at the Clinic of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Belgrade. Clinical validity was assessed comparing the mean scores for the four subscales of the OQLQ and mean PAR pre-treatment score. In order to assess whether the allocation of items in the subscales corresponds to their distribution in the original questionnaire, an exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis with varimax rotation) was conducted. Results The results of the internal consistency analysis demonstrated good relationships between the items; Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the four subscales were highly significant (p<0.001) (0.88-0.91). All items were significantly correlated between baseline and the retest (6 weeks after). The correlations between the PAR and all four domains of the OQLQ were all significant (p<0.01). The loading weights obtained in the exploratory factor analysis showed that this model revealed four factors with eigenvalue greater than 1, explaining the 64.0% of the cumulative variance. The majority of the items (86.4%) in the Serbian version of the OQLQ presented the highest loading weight in the subscales assigned by the OQLQ developer. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the OQLQ (Serbian version) have exceptional internal consistency and reproducibility as an instrument for evaluation of dental malocclusions. Additionally, this questionnaire may be useful as a supplementary outcome measure in persons with malocclusions. PMID:27703535

  13. Modeling Spin Testing Using Location Specific Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Three stages of creep. 37 2.4.1 Creep Testing A virtual creep test begins with an elastoplastic coupon, and an initial prescribed...and maximum single crystal Schmid factor. This then models the worst case of a potent damaged inclusion cluster located in a group of grains of high...is the maximum plastic shear strain amplitude, while the coefficient K’ takes into account the damaging effect of the local maximum normal stress

  14. Specific and quantitative labeling of biomolecules using click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horisawa, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Specific and highly efficient fluorescent labeling techniques for biomolecules, especially for proteins, are required for the quantitative analyses of bio-phenomena and for subsequent systems biology. Although expression of exogenous proteins fused with fluorescent tags, such as green fluorescent protein, is the most widely used method for quantitative bio-analysis, the following problems need to be considered carefully: (1) precise stoichiometric control in living cells is difficult, and (2) the bulkiness of the fluorescent tags restricts analysis of the inherent physical and biological properties of the proteins. Therefore, novel techniques to specifically and stoichiometrically label intrinsic proteins or other biomolecules in living cells should be developed. Click chemistry reactions (e.g., Huisgen cycloaddition and Staudinger ligation) are the most promising approaches for this purpose, because these chemical reactions have following advantages: (1) bioorthogonal reactions; (2) mild reaction conditions suitable for fragile biomolecules, cells, and tissues; (3) extremely high reaction ratio; (4) small size of the functional groups for the cross-coupling reactions; (5) stable covalent bonding; and (6) simple metabolic labeling procedures in living cells, using various biomolecular analogs. Diverse quantitative biological studies have been carried out using this technology (e.g., quantification of novel synthesized proteins and observation of post-translational modifications). In this review, I explain the basics of chemical probing with click chemistry, and discuss its recent applications in the field of quantitative biology. Furthermore, I discuss the capability, significance, and future of the chemical probing of proteins, with an emphasis on the use of click chemistry in the field of the quantitative biology.

  15. Specific and quantitative labeling of biomolecules using click chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi eHorisawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Specific and highly efficient fluorescent labeling techniques for biomolecules, especially for proteins, are required for the quantitative analyses of bio-phenomena and for subsequent systems biology. Although expression of exogenous proteins fused with fluorescent tags, such as green fluorescent protein, is the most widely used method for quantitative bio-analysis, the following problems need to be considered carefully: 1 precise stoichiometric control in living cells is difficult, and 2 the bulkiness of the fluorescent tags restricts analysis of the inherent physical and biological properties of the proteins. Therefore, novel techniques to specifically and stoichiometrically label intrinsic proteins or other biomolecules in living cells should be developed. Click chemistry reactions (e.g., Huisgen cycloaddition and Staudinger ligation are the most promising approaches for this purpose, because these chemical reactions have following advantages: 1 bioorthogonal reactions; 2 mild reaction conditions suitable for fragile biomolecules, cells, and tissues; 3 extremely high reaction ratio; 4 small size of the functional groups for the cross-coupling reactions; 5 stable covalent bonding; and 6 simple metabolic labeling procedures in living cells, using various biomolecular analogs. Diverse quantitative biological studies have been carried out using this technology (e.g., quantification of novel synthesized proteins and observation of post-translational modifications. In this review, I explain the basics of chemical probing with click chemistry, and discuss its recent applications in the field of quantitative biology. Furthermore, I discuss the capability, significance, and future of the chemical probing of proteins, with an emphasis on the use of click chemistry in the field of the quantitative biology.

  16. Estimating patient specific uncertainty parameters for adaptive treatment re-planning in proton therapy using in vivo range measurements and Bayesian inference: application to setup and stopping power errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarbe, Rudi; Janssens, Guillaume; Sterpin, Edmond

    2016-09-01

    In proton therapy, quantification of the proton range uncertainty is important to achieve dose distribution compliance. The promising accuracy of prompt gamma imaging (PGI) suggests the development of a mathematical framework using the range measurements to convert population based estimates of uncertainties into patient specific estimates with the purpose of plan adaptation. We present here such framework using Bayesian inference. The sources of uncertainty were modeled by three parameters: setup bias m, random setup precision r and water equivalent path length bias u. The evolution of the expectation values E(m), E(r) and E(u) during the treatment was simulated. The expectation values converged towards the true simulation parameters after 5 and 10 fractions, for E(m) and E(u), respectively. E(r) settle on a constant value slightly lower than the true value after 10 fractions. In conclusion, the simulation showed that there is enough information in the frequency distribution of the range errors measured by PGI to estimate the expectation values and the confidence interval of the model parameters by Bayesian inference. The updated model parameters were used to compute patient specific lateral and local distal margins for adaptive re-planning.

  17. Metallic Functionally Graded Materials: A Specific Class of Advanced Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerzy J.Sobczak; Ludmil Drenchev

    2013-01-01

    Functionally graded materials,including their characterization,properties and production methods are a new rapidly developing field of materials science.The aims of this review are to systematize the basic production techniques for manufacturing functionally graded materials.Attention is paid to the principles for obtaining graded structure mainly in the metal based functionally graded materials.Several unpublished results obtained by the authors have been discussed briefly.Experimental methods and theoretical analysis for qualitative and quantitative estimation of graded properties have also been presented.The article can be useful for people who work in the field of functionally graded structures and materials,and who need a compact informative review of recent experimental and theoretical activity in this area.

  18. Informing material specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Karmon, Ayelet

    2012-01-01

    programmable architectural design tools and advanced computer numerically controlled (CNC) knitting machines we understand the practice of textile design as a particular class of material design that enables variegation across both material and structure. Our aim for the experiments is firstly: the design......Architecture is entering a radical rethinking of its material practice. Advancements in material science and more complex models of material simulation as well as the interfaces between design and fabrication are fundamentally changing the way we conceive and design our built environment. This new...... technological platform allows an unprecedented control over the material. Creating direct links between the space of design and the space of fabrication, the idea of the hyper specified material developed in direct response to defined design criteria calls upon a new material practice in which designers...

  19. Adaptive radiation therapy for bladder cancer: a review of adaptive techniques used in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibrom, Awet Z; Knight, Kellie A

    2015-12-01

    Significant changes in the shape, size and position of the bladder during radiotherapy (RT) treatment for bladder cancer have been correlated with high local failure rates; typically due to geographical misses. To account for this, large margins are added around the target volumes in conventional RT; however, this increases the volume of healthy tissue irradiation. The availability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has not only allowed in-room volumetric imaging of the bladder, but also the development of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for modification of plans to patient-specific changes. The aim of this review is to: (1) identify and explain the different ART techniques being used in clinical practice and (2) compare and contrast these different ART techniques to conventional RT in terms of target coverage and dose to healthy tissue: A literature search was conducted using EMBASE, MEDLINE and Scopus with the key words 'bladder, adaptive, radiotherapy/radiation therapy'. 11 studies were obtained that compared different adaptive RT techniques to conventional RT in terms of target volume coverage and healthy tissue sparing. All studies showed superior target volume coverage and/or healthy tissue sparing in adaptive RT compared to conventional RT. Cross-study comparison between different adaptive techniques could not be made due to the difference in protocols used in different studies. However, one study found daily re-optimisation of plans to be superior to plan of the day technique. The use of adaptive RT for bladder cancer is promising. Further study is required to assess adaptive RT versus conventional RT in terms of local control and long-term toxicity.

  20. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  1. Teacher's opinions about learning continuum based on the student's level of competence and specific pedagogical materials on anatomical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Laili Dwi; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    This research deals with designing learning continuum for developing a curriculum. The objective of this study is to gather the opinion of public junior and high school teachers about Learning Continuum based on Student's Level of Competence and Specific Pedagogical Material on Anatomical Aspects. This is a survey research. The population of the research is natural science teachers at junior high school and biology teacher at senior high school in Yogyakarta Special Region. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis technique. Based on the results of the survey, the teachers opinion are in accordance with the level of the students they teach. Junior high school teachers argued that anatomical aspects were taught in grade VII,VIII, IX and X on the level of C2 (understanding), the high school teacher argued that anatomical aspects were taught in grade VIII, X and XI on the level of C2 (understanding) and C3 (apply). While according to the opinions of primary school teachers about aspects of anatomy resulted from the research of Subali (2016), anatomy is mostly not taught at the elementary school level, only some of the materials that are taught in this school level. Therefore, the results of the survey can be inferred that the opinions of teachers is still based on the existing curriculum.

  2. Organism-adapted specificity of the allosteric regulation of pyruvate kinase in lactic acid bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Veith

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PYK is a critical allosterically regulated enzyme that links glycolysis, the primary energy metabolism, to cellular metabolism. Lactic acid bacteria rely almost exclusively on glycolysis for their energy production under anaerobic conditions, which reinforces the key role of PYK in their metabolism. These organisms are closely related, but have adapted to a huge variety of native environments. They include food-fermenting organisms, important symbionts in the human gut, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In contrast to the rather conserved inhibition of PYK by inorganic phosphate, the activation of PYK shows high variability in the type of activating compound between different lactic acid bacteria. System-wide comparative studies of the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria are required to understand the reasons for the diversity of these closely related microorganisms. These require knowledge of the identities of the enzyme modifiers. Here, we predict potential allosteric activators of PYKs from three lactic acid bacteria which are adapted to different native environments. We used protein structure-based molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic modeling to predict and validate potential activators of PYK. Specifically, we compared the electrostatic potential and the binding of phosphate moieties at the allosteric binding sites, and predicted potential allosteric activators by docking. We then made a kinetic model of Lactococcus lactis PYK to relate the activator predictions to the intracellular sugar-phosphate conditions in lactic acid bacteria. This strategy enabled us to predict fructose 1,6-bisphosphate as the sole activator of the Enterococcus faecalis PYK, and to predict that the PYKs from Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show weaker specificity for their allosteric activators, while still having fructose 1,6-bisphosphate play the main activator role in vivo. These differences in the specificity of allosteric

  3. Use of UHPC in Bridge Structures: Material Modeling and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Gunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC is a promising new class of concrete material that is likely to make a significant contribution to addressing the challenges associated with the load capacity, durability, sustainability, economy, and environmental impact of concrete bridge infrastructures. This paper focuses on the material modeling of UHPC and design of bridge girders made of UHPC. A two-phase model used for modeling the behavior of UHPC was briefly discussed, and the model was implemented in a preliminary design case study. Based on the implemented design and the reported use of UHPC in bridge applications, the advantages, limitations, and future prospects of UHPC bridges were discussed, highlighting the need for innovative research and design to make optimum use of the favorable properties of the material in bridge structures.

  4. Layer- and Direction-Specific Material Properties, Extreme Extensibility and Ultimate Material Strength of Human Abdominal Aorta and Aneurysm: A Uniaxial Extension Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Huang, Yuan; Sutcliffe, Michael P F; Brown, Adam J; Jing, Zaiping; Gillard, Jonathan H; Lu, Qingsheng

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical analysis has the potential to provide complementary information to aneurysm morphology in assessing its vulnerability. Reliable calculations require accurate material properties of individual aneurysmal components. Quantification of extreme extensibility and ultimate material strength of the tissue are important if rupture is to be modelled. Tissue pieces from 11 abdomen aortic aneurysm (AAA) from patients scheduled for elective surgery and from 8 normal aortic artery (NAA) from patients who scheduled for kidney/liver transplant were collected at surgery and banked in liquid nitrogen with the use of Cryoprotectant solution to minimize frozen damage. Prior to testing, specimen were thawed and longitudinal and circumferential tissue strips were cut from each piece and adventitia, media and thrombus if presented were isolated for the material test. The incremental Young's modulus of adventitia of NAA was direction-dependent at low stretch levels, but not the media. Both adventitia and media had a similar extreme extensibility in the circumferential direction, but the adventitia was much stronger. For aneurysmal tissues, no significant differences were found when the incremental moduli of adventitia, media or thrombus in both directions were compared. Adventitia and media from AAA had similar extreme extensibility and ultimate strength in both directions and thrombus was the weakest material. Adventitia and media from AAA were less extensible compared with those of NAA, but the ultimate strength remained similar. The material properties, including extreme extensibility and ultimate strength, of both healthy aortic and aneurysmal tissues were layer-dependent, but not direction-dependent.

  5. Thermal comfort in apartments in India: Adaptive use of environmental controls and hindrances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2011-04-15

    Energy used in buildings in India is ever-increasing. About 47% of total energy in Indian residential buildings is used for ventilation controls alone. Comfort temperatures defined in Indian codes are inappropriate (23-26 C). There are no thermal comfort field studies in residences reported from India. The author conducted a field study in apartments in Hyderabad, in summer and monsoon seasons in 2008. The present paper discusses the occupants' methods of environmental control, behavioural adaptation and impediments. Due to poor adaptive opportunities, about 60% of occupants were uncomfortable in summer. The comfort range obtained in this study (26.0-32.5 C), was way above the standard. Fanger's PMV always overestimated the actual sensation. The occupants adapted through the use of personal environmental controls, clothing, metabolism and many behavioural control actions. Use of fans, air coolers and A/c s increased with temperature, and was impeded by their poor efficacy and noise, occupant's attitudes and economic affordability. Air-coolers and A/c s were mostly used in top- floors, as the available adaptive opportunities were insufficient. Behavioural adaptation was higher in summer and was limited in higher economic groups always. Subjects frequently exposed to A/c environments, tolerated thermal extremes little, and desired ''thermal indulgence''. This study calls for special adaptation methods for top-floor flats. (author)

  6. Functional annotation of novel lineage-specific genes using co-expression and promoter analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loor Juan J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diversity of placental architectures within and among mammalian orders is believed to be the result of adaptive evolution. Although, the genetic basis for these differences is unknown, some may arise from rapidly diverging and lineage-specific genes. Previously, we identified 91 novel lineage-specific transcripts (LSTs from a cow term-placenta cDNA library, which are excellent candidates for adaptive placental functions acquired by the ruminant lineage. The aim of the present study was to infer functions of previously uncharacterized lineage-specific genes (LSGs using co-expression, promoter, pathway and network analysis. Results Clusters of co-expressed genes preferentially expressed in liver, placenta and thymus were found using 49 previously uncharacterized LSTs as seeds. Over-represented composite transcription factor binding sites (TFBS in promoters of clustered LSGs and known genes were then identified computationally. Functions were inferred for nine previously uncharacterized LSGs using co-expression analysis and pathway analysis tools. Our results predict that these LSGs may function in cell signaling, glycerophospholipid/fatty acid metabolism, protein trafficking, regulatory processes in the nucleus, and processes that initiate parturition and immune system development. Conclusions The placenta is a rich source of lineage-specific genes that function in the adaptive evolution of placental architecture and functions. We have shown that co-expression, promoter, and gene network analyses are useful methods to infer functions of LSGs with heretofore unknown functions. Our results indicate that many LSGs are involved in cellular recognition and developmental processes. Furthermore, they provide guidance for experimental approaches to validate the functions of LSGs and to study their evolution.

  7. Functional annotation of novel lineage-specific genes using co-expression and promoter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Charu G; Everts, Robin E; Loor, Juan J; Lewin, Harris A

    2010-03-09

    The diversity of placental architectures within and among mammalian orders is believed to be the result of adaptive evolution. Although, the genetic basis for these differences is unknown, some may arise from rapidly diverging and lineage-specific genes. Previously, we identified 91 novel lineage-specific transcripts (LSTs) from a cow term-placenta cDNA library, which are excellent candidates for adaptive placental functions acquired by the ruminant lineage. The aim of the present study was to infer functions of previously uncharacterized lineage-specific genes (LSGs) using co-expression, promoter, pathway and network analysis. Clusters of co-expressed genes preferentially expressed in liver, placenta and thymus were found using 49 previously uncharacterized LSTs as seeds. Over-represented composite transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in promoters of clustered LSGs and known genes were then identified computationally. Functions were inferred for nine previously uncharacterized LSGs using co-expression analysis and pathway analysis tools. Our results predict that these LSGs may function in cell signaling, glycerophospholipid/fatty acid metabolism, protein trafficking, regulatory processes in the nucleus, and processes that initiate parturition and immune system development. The placenta is a rich source of lineage-specific genes that function in the adaptive evolution of placental architecture and functions. We have shown that co-expression, promoter, and gene network analyses are useful methods to infer functions of LSGs with heretofore unknown functions. Our results indicate that many LSGs are involved in cellular recognition and developmental processes. Furthermore, they provide guidance for experimental approaches to validate the functions of LSGs and to study their evolution.

  8. Comparative proteome analysis reveals conserved and specific adaptation patterns of Staphylococcus aureus after internalization by different types of human non-professional phagocytic host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmann, Kristin; Michalik, Stephan; Hildebrandt, Petra; Gierok, Philipp; Depke, Maren; Brinkmann, Lars; Bernhardt, Jörg; Salazar, Manuela G; Sun, Zhi; Shteynberg, David; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Moritz, Robert L; Wollscheid, Bernd; Lalk, Michael; Völker, Uwe; Schmidt, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide range of diseases. Although formerly regarded as extracellular pathogen, it has been shown that S. aureus can also be internalized by host cells and persist within these cells. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed survival and physiological adaptation of S. aureus HG001 after internalization by two human lung epithelial cell lines (S9 and A549), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293). Combining enrichment of bacteria from host-pathogen assays by cell sorting and quantitation of the pathogen's proteome by mass spectrometry we characterized S. aureus adaptation during the initial phase between 2.5 h and 6.5 h post-infection. Starting with about 2 × 10(6) bacteria, roughly 1450 S. aureus proteins, including virulence factors and metabolic enzymes were identified by spectral comparison and classical database searches. Most of the bacterial adaptation reactions, such as decreased levels of ribosomal proteins and metabolic enzymes or increased amounts of proteins involved in arginine and lysine biosynthesis, enzymes coding for terminal oxidases and stress responsive proteins or activation of the sigma factor SigB were observed after internalization into any of the three cell lines studied. However, differences were noted in central carbon metabolism including regulation of fermentation and threonine degradation. Since these differences coincided with different intracellular growth behavior, complementary profiling of the metabolome of the different non-infected host cell types was performed. This revealed similar levels of intracellular glucose but host cell specific differences in the amounts of amino acids such as glycine, threonine or glutamate. With this comparative study we provide an impression of the common and specific features of the adaptation of S. aureus HG001 to specific host cell environments as a starting point for follow-up studies with different strain isolates and regulatory

  9. Comparative proteome analysis reveals conserved and specific adaptation patterns of Staphylococcus aureus after internalization by different types of human non-professional phagocytic host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin eSurmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide range of diseases. Although formerly regarded as extracellular pathogen, it has been shown that S. aureus can also be internalized by host cells and persist within these cells. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed survival and physiological adaptation of S. aureus HG001 after internalization by two human lung epithelial cell lines (S9 and A549, and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293. Combining enrichment of bacteria from host-pathogen assays by cell sorting and quantitation of the pathogen´s proteome by mass spectrometry we characterized S. aureus adaptation during the initial phase between 2.5 h and 6.5 h post-infection. Starting with about 2x106 bacteria, roughly 1,450 S. aureus proteins, including virulence factors and metabolic enzymes were identified by spectral comparison and classical database searches. Most of the bacterial adaptation reactions, such as decreases in levels of ribosomal proteins and metabolic enzymes or increases in amounts of proteins involved in arginine and lysine biosynthesis, coding for terminal oxidases and stress responsive genes or activation of the sigma factor SigB were observed after internalization into any of the three cell lines studied. However, differences were noted in central carbon metabolism including regulation of fermentation and threonine degradation. Since these differences coincided with different intracellular growth behavior, complementary profiling of the metabolome of the different non-infected host cell types was performed. This revealed similar levels of intracellular glucose but host cell specific differences in the amounts of amino acids such as glycine, threonine or glutamate. With this comparative study we provide an impression of the common and specific features of the adaptation of S. aureus HG001 to specific host cell environments as a starting point for follow-up studies with different strain isolates and

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and linguistic validation of age-group-specific haemophilia patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for patients and parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Mackensen, S; Campos, I G; Acquadro, C

    2013-01-01

    , important outcomes in clinical trials and clinical practice. As individuals' perception of their well-being often differs from that of their physician, it is recommended that self-report instruments are used to assess patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The way that the impact of haemophilia is perceived...... by the patient and their family can be different, so it is important to assess how parents perceive the impact on their children. A series of PRO instruments have been developed, adapted to different age groups and parents of patients with haemophilia. To allow the instruments to be used internationally......, culturally adapted and linguistically validated translations have been developed; some instruments have been translated into 61 languages. Here, we report the process used for cultural adaptation of the Haemo-QoL, Haem-A-QoL and Hemo-Sat into 28 languages. Equivalent concepts for 22 items that were difficult...

  11. Prediction of the vertebral strength using a finite element model derived from low-dose biplanar imaging: benefits of subject-specific material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapin-de Brosses, Emilie; Jolivet, Erwan; Travert, Christophe; Mitton, David; Skalli, Wafa

    2012-02-01

    A finite element analysis on osteoporotic vertebrae. This study aims to validate subject-specific finite element models (FEMs) derived from a low-dose imaging system (EOS, Biospace Med, France) for the prediction of vertebral strength. The vertebrae are submitted to an eccentric compression force leading to compression and anterior bending. Given the aging population, osteoporosis and vertebral fractures are a major public health issue. A low bone mineral density (BMD) does not always explain incident fractures, and multifactorial analyses are required. In this context, FEMs based on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) have been proposed to predict vertebral strength in vitro or quantify effects of treatments. However, the clinical use of such a model for the in vivo follow-up of the whole spine is limited by the high-radiation dose induced by QCT and the lying position, which does not allow postural assessment with the same modality. Fourteen vertebrae were modeled using a parametric meshing method. The mesh was subject-specific using geometric parameters computed on the 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions obtained from the EOS biplanar radiographs. The contribution of cortical bone was taken into account by modeling a cortico-cancellous shell whose properties were derived from experimental data. The effect of subject-specific bone Young's moduli derived from EOS vertebral areal BMD was quantified. The 3D position of the point-of-load application and the 3D orientation of the force was faithfully reproduced in the model to compare the predicted strength and experimental strength under the same loading conditions. The relative error of prediction decreased from 43% to 16% (2.5 times) when subject-specific mechanical properties, derived from EOS areal BMD, were implemented in the FEM compared with averaged material properties. The resulting subject-specific FEMs predicted vertebral strength with a level of significance close to the QCT-based models (r adjusted = 0

  12. Adaptation Criteria for the Personalised Delivery of Learning Materials: A Multi-Stage Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Personalised e-Learning represents a major step-change from the one-size-fits-all approach of traditional learning platforms to a more customised and interactive provision of learning materials. Adaptive learning can support the learning process by tailoring learning materials to individual needs. However, this requires the initial preparation of…

  13. Method for decreasing CT simulation time of complex phantoms and systems through separation of material specific projection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divel, Sarah E.; Christensen, Soren; Wintermark, Max; Lansberg, Maarten G.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2017-03-01

    Computer simulation is a powerful tool in CT; however, long simulation times of complex phantoms and systems, especially when modeling many physical aspects (e.g., spectrum, finite detector and source size), hinder the ability to realistically and efficiently evaluate and optimize CT techniques. Long simulation times primarily result from the tracing of hundreds of line integrals through each of the hundreds of geometrical shapes defined within the phantom. However, when the goal is to perform dynamic simulations or test many scan protocols using a particular phantom, traditional simulation methods inefficiently and repeatedly calculate line integrals through the same set of structures although only a few parameters change in each new case. In this work, we have developed a new simulation framework that overcomes such inefficiencies by dividing the phantom into material specific regions with the same time attenuation profiles, acquiring and storing monoenergetic projections of the regions, and subsequently scaling and combining the projections to create equivalent polyenergetic sinograms. The simulation framework is especially efficient for the validation and optimization of CT perfusion which requires analysis of many stroke cases and testing hundreds of scan protocols on a realistic and complex numerical brain phantom. Using this updated framework to conduct a 31-time point simulation with 80 mm of z-coverage of a brain phantom on two 16-core Linux serves, we have reduced the simulation time from 62 hours to under 2.6 hours, a 95% reduction.

  14. The use of and obstacles to social learning in climate change adaptation initiatives in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakespear Mudombi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change will have major impacts on ecosystems and human livelihoods while challenging the adaptive capacity of individuals and communities. Social learning, an ongoing adaptive process of knowledge generation, reflection and synthesis, may enhance people’s awareness about climate change and its impacts, with positive outcomes for their adaptive capacity. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of factors promoting social learning in climate change adaptation initiatives in South Africa. An online survey was used to obtain the views of decision makers in government and non-governmental organisations about the presence of personal factors and organisational factors that promote social learning. Descriptive analysis was used to assess these issues. The findings provide some evidence of social learning in climate change adaptation projects in South Africa, with the majority of respondents indicating that personal social learning indicators were present. Mechanisms for improved conflict resolution were, however, less prevalent. The organisational and governance-related barriers to implementation also presented significant challenges. Some of the main organisational barriers were short timeframes for implementing projects, inadequate financial resources, political interference, shortcomings in governance systems and lack of knowledge and expertise in organisations. There is a need for organisations to promote social learning by ensuring that their organisational environment and governance structures are conducive for their employees to embrace social learning. This will help contribute to the overall success of climate change adaptation initiatives.

  15. Modeling adaptation of carbon use efficiency in microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Allison

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In new microbial-biogeochemical models, microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE is often assumed to decline with increasing temperature. Under this assumption, soil carbon losses under warming are small because microbial biomass declines. Yet there is also empirical evidence that CUE may adapt (i.e. become less sensitive to warming, thereby mitigating negative effects on microbial biomass. To analyze potential mechanisms of CUE adaptation, I used two theoretical models to implement a tradeoff between microbial uptake rate and CUE. This rate-yield tradeoff is based on thermodynamic principles and suggests that microbes with greater investment in resource acquisition should have lower CUE. Microbial communities or individuals could adapt to warming by reducing investment in enzymes and uptake machinery. Consistent with this idea, a simple analytical model predicted that adaptation can offset 50% of the warming-induced decline in CUE. To assess the ecosystem implications of the rate-yield tradeoff, I quantified CUE adaptation in a spatially-structured simulation model with 100 microbial taxa and 12 soil carbon substrates. This model predicted much lower CUE adaptation, likely due to additional physiological and ecological constraints on microbes. In particular, specific resource acquisition traits are needed to maintain stoichiometric balance, and taxa with high CUE and low enzyme investment rely on low-yield, high-enzyme neighbors to catalyze substrate degradation. In contrast to published microbial models, simulations with greater CUE adaptation also showed greater carbon storage under warming. This pattern occurred because microbial communities with stronger CUE adaptation produced fewer degradative enzymes, despite increases in biomass. Thus the rate-yield tradeoff prevents CUE adaptation from driving ecosystem carbon loss under climate warming.

  16. Adaptive facade systems: Climate regulation utilizing kinetics and smart materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doulkari, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written for the TIDO-course AR0532 Smart & Bioclimatic Design Theory. The paper focuses on climate responsive facades, using kinetics and smart materials. Principles are studied and cases are analyzed, taking the thermal comfort for the occupants into account.

  17. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  18. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  19. Psychometric validity and clinical usefulness of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale for an autistic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, A; Factor, D C

    1989-03-01

    Two prominent assessment measures of adaptive behavior were compared and evaluated in terms of their psychometric properties and their clinical usefulness for autistic children and adolescents. The AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale-School Edition (Lambert & Windmiller, 1981) and the Vineland Adapative Behavior Scales (Sparrow, Balla, & Cicchetti, 1984) were compared in 15 autistic persons aged 8 to 18. Correlations between the two instruments revealed good concurrent validity. The psychometric properties of the tests were similar to those found in samples of mentally retarded persons. The use of adaptive behavior measures for autistic children and adolescents is encouraged. Clinical advantages and disadvantages of the two tests are discussed.

  20. The learning continuum of ecology based on teachers' opinion about student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramesti, Indah Cahaya; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    This study aims at designing learning continuum for developing a curriculum based on teachers' opinion about student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material on ecological aspect targeted for students of Primary and Secondary Education. This research is a descriptive research using survey methods. The researchers conducted a census by distributing questionnaires that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements to 147 natural science teachers at junior high school and 134 Biology teachers at senior high school as a population throughout 4 regencies and 1 city in Yogyakarta Special Region.. Data analysis techniques used descriptive analysis. In conclusion, teacher's opinion is influenced by curriculum that exist today. According to the opinions of Natural Science teachers at Junior High School, most of the ecological aspects such as characteristics of biomes, characteristics of ecosystems, characteristics of communities, characteristics of populations, etc. should be taught in grade VII with the level of competence: to understand (C2), while Biology teachers at Senior High School state that the ecological aspect should be taught in class X with the level of competence: to understand (C2), apply (C3) and analyze (C4). Teachers should be a privy in the formulation of the curriculum, so they're not only accept and apply the existing curriculum but also give opinions to improve the curriculum, especially in terms of ecology.

  1. The specificity and polymorphism of the MHC class I prevents the global adaptation of HIV-1 to the monomorphic proteasome and TAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V Schmid

    Full Text Available The large diversity in MHC class I molecules in a population lowers the chance that a virus infects a host to which it is pre-adapted to escape the MHC binding of CTL epitopes. However, viruses can also lose CTL epitopes by escaping the monomorphic antigen processing components of the pathway (proteasome and TAP that create the epitope precursors. If viruses were to accumulate escape mutations affecting these monomorphic components, they would become pre-adapted to all hosts regardless of the MHC polymorphism. To assess whether viruses exploit this apparent vulnerability, we study the evolution of HIV-1 with bioinformatic tools that allow us to predict CTL epitopes, and quantify the frequency and accumulation of antigen processing escapes. We found that within hosts, proteasome and TAP escape mutations occur frequently. However, on the population level these escapes do not accumulate: the total number of predicted epitopes and epitope precursors in HIV-1 clade B has remained relatively constant over the last 30 years. We argue that this lack of adaptation can be explained by the combined effect of the MHC polymorphism and the high specificity of individual MHC molecules. Because of these two properties, only a subset of the epitope precursors in a host are potential epitopes, and that subset differs between hosts. We estimate that upon transmission of a virus to a new host 39%-66% of the mutations that caused epitope precursor escapes are released from immune selection pressure.

  2. Assessing the spatial dependence of adaptive loci in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds using AFLP markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Colli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the past decades, neutral DNA markers have been extensively employed to study demography, population genetics and structure in livestock, but less interest has been devoted to the evaluation of livestock adaptive potential through the identification of genomic regions likely to be under natural selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landscape genomics can greatly benefit the entire livestock system through the identification of genotypes better adapted to specific or extreme environmental conditions. Therefore we analyzed 101 AFLP markers in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds both with Matsam software, based on a correlative approach (SAM, and with Mcheza and Bayescan, two FST based software able to detect markers carrying signatures of natural selection. Matsam identified four loci possibly under natural selection--also confirmed by FST-outlier methods--and significantly associated with environmental variables such as diurnal temperature range, frequency of precipitation, relative humidity and solar radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that landscape genomics can provide useful information on the environmental factors affecting the adaptive potential of livestock living in specific climatic conditions. Besides adding conservation value to livestock genetic resources, this knowledge may lead to the development of novel molecular tools useful to preserve the adaptive potential of local breeds during genetic improvement programs, and to increase the adaptability of industrial breeds to changing environments.

  3. Investigation on Adaptive Re-use of Heritage Building in George Town, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhamah Abdul Hadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive re-use of heritage buildings in George Town has gained attention from their owners. Their owners either private owners or government, want to adapt their respective buildings to new usage for instance to become a gallery, museum, restaurant, boutique hotel and many more. Every heritage building that is being adapted to paper main objective is to identify the changes made in terms of structure, space and material when adapting the heritage buildings to a new usage specifically into a gallery. Two heritage buildings are chosen as case studies for this paper which are Rumah Teh Bunga and Fort Cornwallis; both buildings located in Penang, Malaysia. The changes made to these two buildings were analyzed using the guidelines provided which are Guideline for Conservation areas and Heritage Buildings and National Heritage Acts 2005. Both buildings will be analyzed using National Heritage Acts, while only Fort Cornwallis will be analyzed using Guideline for Conservation areas and Heritage Buildings. Adaptation of these two heritage buildings requires changes in structure, space and material. The changes in Rumah Teh Bunga focuses more on materials and space while changes in Fort Cornwallis emphasize more to space and addition of other structures. Analysis on the changes are made by using the guideline provided, most of the changes made to both of these heritage buildings comply the rules and regulations stated in the guideline. It was found from the data that some of the reasons on why the owner change Rumah Teh Bunga to gallery are because of its complicated procedure that involves in privatization of this building to other owner and the need to promote the heritage significance of this building to the public. As for Fort Cornwallis, the adaptation is more on strengthening its value as a fort and becoming a tourist attraction.

  4. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overkamp, W.; Ercan, O.; Herber, M.; Maris, van A.J.; Kleerebezem, M.; Kuipers, O.P.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h-1) are an unexplored research area in B. subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. T

  5. Face adaptation effects: Reviewing the impact of adapting information, time, and transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to adapt is essential to live and survive in an ever-changing environment such as the human ecosystem. Here we review the literature on adaptation effects of face stimuli to give an overview of existing findings in this area, highlight gaps in its research literature, initiate new directions in face adaptation research and help to design future adaptation studies. Furthermore, this review should lead to better understanding of the processing characteristics as well as the mental representations of face-relevant information. The review systematises studies at a behavioral level in respect of a framework which includes 3 dimensions representing the major characteristics of studies in this field of research. These dimensions comprise (1 the specificity of adapting face information, e.g. identity, gender or age aspects of the material to be adapted to, (2 aspects of timing (e.g., the sustainability of adaptation effects, and (3 transfer relations between face images presented during adaptation and adaptation tests (e.g., images of the same or different identities. The review concludes with options for how to combine findings across different dimensions to demonstrate the relevance of our framework for future studies.

  6. Face adaptation effects: reviewing the impact of adapting information, time, and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    The ability to adapt is essential to live and survive in an ever-changing environment such as the human ecosystem. Here we review the literature on adaptation effects of face stimuli to give an overview of existing findings in this area, highlight gaps in its research literature, initiate new directions in face adaptation research, and help to design future adaptation studies. Furthermore, this review should lead to better understanding of the processing characteristics as well as the mental representations of face-relevant information. The review systematizes studies at a behavioral level in respect of a framework which includes three dimensions representing the major characteristics of studies in this field of research. These dimensions comprise (1) the specificity of adapting face information, e.g., identity, gender, or age aspects of the material to be adapted to (2) aspects of timing (e.g., the sustainability of adaptation effects) and (3) transfer relations between face images presented during adaptation and adaptation tests (e.g., images of the same or different identities). The review concludes with options for how to combine findings across different dimensions to demonstrate the relevance of our framework for future studies.

  7. The evaluation of adaptive study material - The automatic feedback for content creators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostolányová, Kateřina

    2017-07-01

    In the area of ICT in education is often written about the adaptation of learning environment tailored to the learner. The control systems based on the personalization of teaching are created for this purpose. The paper deals with the creation of semantic network above the adaptive study material and the intelligent personalized teaching as a result of it. The study describes both the theoretical design of evaluation and its verification in practice.

  8. On draft of intergovernmental agreement for development and use of reference materials of composition and properties of substances and materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Osintseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with information of development of a draft of Agreement for development and use of reference materials of composition and properties of substances and materials which was developed within Interstate Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification

  9. Adaptation to stroke using a model of successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, C; Hevey, D; Hickey, A; O'Neill, D

    2012-01-01

    The process of adaptation to the physical and psychosocial consequences after stroke is a major challenge for many individuals affected. The aim of this study was to examine if stroke patients within 1 month of admission (n = 153) and followed up at 1 year (n = 107) engage in selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) adaptive strategies and the relationship of these strategies with functional ability, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and depression 1 year later. Adaptive strategies were measured using a 15-item SOC questionnaire. Internal and external resources were assessed including recovery locus of control, stroke severity, and socio-demographics. Outcome measures were the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (SS-QoL), the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale and the Depression Subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Findings indicated that stroke patients engaged in the use of SOC strategies but the use of these strategies were not predictive of HRQOL, functional ability or depression 1 year after stroke. The use of SOC strategies were not age specific and were consistent over time, with the exception of the compensation subscale. Results indicate that SOC strategies may potentially be used in response to loss regulation after stroke and that an individual's initial HRQOL functional ability, levels of depression and socio-economic status that are important factors in determining outcome 1 year after stroke. A stroke-specific measure of SOC may be warranted in order to detect significant differences in determining outcomes for a stroke population.

  10. Cell type-specific adaptation of cellular and nuclear volume in micro-engineered 3D environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Alexandra M; Klein, Franziska; Gudzenko, Tetyana; Richter, Benjamin; Striebel, Thomas; Wundari, Bayu G; Autenrieth, Tatjana J; Wegener, Martin; Franz, Clemens M; Bastmeyer, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Bio-functionalized three-dimensional (3D) structures fabricated by direct laser writing (DLW) are structurally and mechanically well-defined and ideal for systematically investigating the influence of three-dimensionality and substrate stiffness on cell behavior. Here, we show that different fibroblast-like and epithelial cell lines maintain normal proliferation rates and form functional cell-matrix contacts in DLW-fabricated 3D scaffolds of different mechanics and geometry. Furthermore, the molecular composition of cell-matrix contacts forming in these 3D micro-environments and under conventional 2D culture conditions is identical, based on the analysis of several marker proteins (paxillin, phospho-paxillin, phospho-focal adhesion kinase, vinculin, β1-integrin). However, fibroblast-like and epithelial cells differ markedly in the way they adapt their total cell and nuclear volumes in 3D environments. While fibroblast-like cell lines display significantly increased cell and nuclear volumes in 3D substrates compared to 2D substrates, epithelial cells retain similar cell and nuclear volumes in 2D and 3D environments. Despite differential cell volume regulation between fibroblasts and epithelial cells in 3D environments, the nucleus-to-cell (N/C) volume ratios remain constant for all cell types and culture conditions. Thus, changes in cell and nuclear volume during the transition from 2D to 3D environments are strongly cell type-dependent, but independent of scaffold stiffness, while cells maintain the N/C ratio regardless of culture conditions.

  11. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 13. Applicability, transferability and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO, like many other organisations around the world, has recognised the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that health care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the thirteenth of a series of 16 reviews that have been prepared as background for advice from the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research to WHO on how to achieve this. Objectives We reviewed the literature on applicability, transferability, and adaptation of guidelines. Methods We searched five databases for existing systematic reviews and relevant primary methodological research. We reviewed the titles of all citations and retrieved abstracts and full text articles if the citations appeared relevant to the topic. We checked the reference lists of articles relevant to the questions and used snowballing as a technique to obtain additional information. We used the definition "coming from, concerning or belonging to at least two or all nations" for the term international. Our conclusions are based on the available evidence, consideration of what WHO and other organisations are doing and logical arguments. Key questions and answers We did not identify systematic reviews addressing the key questions. We found individual studies and projects published in the peer reviewed literature and on the Internet. Should WHO develop international recommendations? • Resources for developing high quality recommendations are limited. Internationally developed recommendations can facilitate access to and pooling of resources, reduce unnecessary duplication, and involve international scientists. • Priority should be given to international health problems and problems that are important in low and middle-income countries, where these advantages are likely to be greatest. • Factors that influence the transferability of recommendations across different settings should be considered systematically and

  12. Stimuli-Adaptable Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    was observed upon dissolution of the irradiated compound. The irradiated polymers formed threads or fibres when exposed to water while the unexposed polymers dissolved as a hygroscopic powder. Cinnamic acid derivatised poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was studied in detail and three different polymers were......-penetrating network materials with the star-shaped cinnamic acid derivatised PEG as switching segment were prepared and irradiated with UV-light for 72 hours. The network with r = 0.75 in the permanent matrix proved the expectations by clearly showing a solvent effect when the photo-active polymer was introduced......-stars into a poly(propylene oxide) network. However exposure to UV-light did not result in any changes of the material properties. It was also tested if the photo-active PEG could be incorporated into a poly(dimethyl siloxane) network, but the addition of the photo-active PEG resulted in complete hindrance...

  13. Cost of riparian buffer zones: A comparison of hydrologically adapted site-specific riparian buffers with traditional fixed widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, T.; Lundström, J.; Kuglerová, L.; Laudon, H.; Öhman, K.; Ågren, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Traditional approaches aiming at protecting surface waters from the negative impacts of forestry often focus on retaining fixed width buffer zones around waterways. While this method is relatively simple to design and implement, it has been criticized for ignoring the spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemical processes and biodiversity in the riparian zone. Alternatively, a variable width buffer zone adapted to site-specific hydrological conditions has been suggested to improve the protection of biogeochemical and ecological functions of the riparian zone. However, little is known about the monetary value of maintaining hydrologically adapted buffer zones compared to the traditionally used fixed width ones. In this study, we created a hydrologically adapted buffer zone by identifying wet areas and groundwater discharge hotspots in the riparian zone. The opportunity cost of the hydrologically adapted riparian buffer zones was then compared to that of the fixed width zones in a meso-scale boreal catchment to determine the most economical option of designing riparian buffers. The results show that hydrologically adapted buffer zones were cheaper per hectare than the fixed width ones when comparing the total cost. This was because the hydrologically adapted buffers included more wetlands and low productive forest areas than the fixed widths. As such, the hydrologically adapted buffer zones allows more effective protection of the parts of the riparian zones that are ecologically and biogeochemically important and more sensitive to disturbances without forest landowners incurring any additional cost than fixed width buffers.

  14. Adaptation and Validation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) for Use in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Camacho, Aldo; Stepanous, Jessica; Blanco-Donoso, Luis M; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Wilburn, Jeanette; González-Saiz, Laura; McKenna, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is a patient-reported outcome measure of health-related quality of life and quality of life specific to individuals with pulmonary hypertension (PH). This questionnaire has demonstrated superiority over other instruments assessing similar domains. The objective of the present study was to adapt and validate the Spanish version of the questionnaire. The adaptation consisted of 3 stages: translation from English to Spanish using bilingual and lay panels, cognitive debriefing interviews with patients, and assessment of psychometric properties by means of a postal validation survey. The translation panels produced a version of the CAMPHOR that was considered suitable for use by Spanish PH patients. The relevance, comprehensiveness, and acceptability of this version were confirmed in interviews with PH patients. Finally, the validation survey (n = 70) revealed that the 3 CAMPHOR scales (Symptoms, Activities, and Quality of life) showed strong psychometric properties. The internal consistency (Cronbach α) coefficients of the scales were above 0.89, and the test-retest reliability was above 0.87. The convergent and known group validity of the CAMPHOR scales was also demonstrated. The Spanish version of the CAMPHOR is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of health-related quality of life and quality of life in Spanish PH patients. Therefore, it is recommended for use in future research and clinical practice in the Spanish population of PH patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity

  16. Determination of electrical properties of materials used in microwaveheating of foundry moulds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Opyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The environment-friendly and cost efficient microwave heating of moulding and core sands opens possibilities to use plastics and wood for structures of foundry instrumentation, where transparency to microwaves is the main requirement. Presented are results of a preliminary research on determining possibilities to use selected materials in microwave field. From the viewpoint of specificity of this process, the basic parameter is ability to absorb or transmit microwave radiation. Determined were the following electrical properties: tangent of dielectric loss angle and permittivity of selected materials. The materials were classified according to their transparency to electromagnetic radiation in order to choose the ones suitable for tooling applied in foundry processes.

  17. Methodology for Simulation and Analysis of Complex Adaptive Supply Network Structure and Dynamics Using Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Rodewald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Supply networks existing today in many industries can behave as complex adaptive systems making them more difficult to analyze and assess. Being able to fully understand both the complex static and dynamic structures of a complex adaptive supply network (CASN are key to being able to make more informed management decisions and prioritize resources and production throughout the network. Previous efforts to model and analyze CASN have been impeded by the complex, dynamic nature of the systems. However, drawing from other complex adaptive systems sciences, information theory provides a model-free methodology removing many of those barriers, especially concerning complex network structure and dynamics. With minimal information about the network nodes, transfer entropy can be used to reverse engineer the network structure while local transfer entropy can be used to analyze the network structure’s dynamics. Both simulated and real-world networks were analyzed using this methodology. Applying the methodology to CASNs allows the practitioner to capitalize on observations from the highly multidisciplinary field of information theory which provides insights into CASN’s self-organization, emergence, stability/instability, and distributed computation. This not only provides managers with a more thorough understanding of a system’s structure and dynamics for management purposes, but also opens up research opportunities into eventual strategies to monitor and manage emergence and adaption within the environment.

  18. Specification of Learning Content Using Feature Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaševičius, Robertas

    The main idea of a learning object (LO) is to break educational content down into small chunks that can be reused in various learning environments. When reused, such small chunks of educational content are combined in various ways leading to a great variability of the learning content. We propose using feature diagrams (FDs) for the specification of learning content at different layers of abstraction starting from the organization of teaching material in a lecture down to the specification and demonstration of particular software/hardware components. FDs can be used by (1) designers, teachers, and learners for graphical representation of domain knowledge in LOs; (2) programmers to specify and express variability-commonality relationships of LOs at a higher abstraction level to allow the development and implementation of generative LOs; and (3) researchers as a vehicle for analysis and better understanding of the e-Learning domain itself.

  19. Local genetic adaptation generates latitude-specific effects of warming on predator-prey interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Block, Marjan; Pauwels, Kevin; Van Den Broeck, Maarten; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby

    2013-03-01

    Temperature effects on predator-prey interactions are fundamental to better understand the effects of global warming. Previous studies never considered local adaptation of both predators and prey at different latitudes, and ignored the novel population combinations of the same predator-prey species system that may arise because of northward dispersal. We set up a common garden warming experiment to study predator-prey interactions between Ischnura elegans damselfly predators and Daphnia magna zooplankton prey from three source latitudes spanning >1500 km. Damselfly foraging rates showed thermal plasticity and strong latitudinal differences consistent with adaptation to local time constraints. Relative survival was higher at 24 °C than at 20 °C in southern Daphnia and higher at 20 °C than at 24 °C, in northern Daphnia indicating local thermal adaptation of the Daphnia prey. Yet, this thermal advantage disappeared when they were confronted with the damselfly predators of the same latitude, reflecting also a signal of local thermal adaptation in the damselfly predators. Our results further suggest the invasion success of northward moving predators as well as prey to be latitude-specific. We advocate the novel common garden experimental approach using predators and prey obtained from natural temperature gradients spanning the predicted temperature increase in the northern populations as a powerful approach to gain mechanistic insights into how community modules will be affected by global warming. It can be used as a space-for-time substitution to inform how predator-prey interaction may gradually evolve to long-term warming.

  20. GUIDANCE FOR THE PROPER CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MATERIALS AND SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS FOR DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PORTSMOUTH JH; BLACKFORD LT

    2012-02-13

    Regulatory concerns over the proper characterization of certain waste streams led CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to develop written guidance for personnel involved in Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) activities, facility management and Waste Management Representatives (WMRs) involved in the designation of wastes for disposal on and off the Hanford Site. It is essential that these waste streams regularly encountered in D&D operations are properly designated, characterized and classified prior to shipment to a Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility (TSDF). Shipments of waste determined by the classification process as Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) must also be compliant with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOE) regulations as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The compliant shipment of these waste commodities is critical to the Hanford Central Plateau cleanup mission. Due to previous problems and concerns from DOE assessments, CHPRC internal critiques as well as DOT, a management decision was made to develop written guidance and procedures to assist CHPRC shippers and facility personnel in the proper classification of D&D waste materials as either LSA or SCO. The guidance provides a uniform methodology for the collection and documentation required to effectively characterize, classify and identify candidate materials for shipping operations. A primary focus is to ensure that waste materials generated from D&D and facility operations are compliant with the DOT regulations when packaged for shipment. At times this can be difficult as the current DOT regulations relative to the shipment of LSA and SCO materials are often not clear to waste generators. Guidance is often sought from NUREG 1608/RAMREG-003 [3]: a guidance document that was jointly developed by the DOT and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and published in 1998. However, NUREG 1608 [3] is now thirteen years old and

  1. Large-stroke and high-strength actuator materials for adaptive structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullakko, Kari

    1996-04-01

    The most important actuator materials in adaptive structures are shape memory alloys, piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials and electrorheological fluids. However, no such material is available which would produce rapid and large strokes with high forces. Shape memory alloys exhibit large strokes and forces but their response is slow. Piezoelectric materials and magnetostrictive intermetallics are rapid, but the strokes are small. In the present study, employment of magnetic control of shape memory effect as a principle for rapid large stroke actuator materials is discussed. In such materials, detwinning is controlled by an external magnetic field. Twins in favorable orientation to the magnetic field grow at the expense of other twins and cause a shape change of the actuator. Strokes can be as high as those in shape memory alloys, but response times are short due to magnetic control. Another method which may be applied in actuators is inducing the martensitic transformation and controlling the growth of the martensite plates by magnetostrictive distortions of giant magnetostrictive particles embedded in the shape memory alloy matrix. Magnetostrictive inclusions can also be used as stress sensors in shape memory materials. In pre-stressing and fastening applications, materials which exhibit large strokes and high recovery stresses are required. Nitrogen alloyed shape memory steels, developed for actuators for those applications, is the second topic of this study. In nitrogen alloyed shape memory steels, yield strengths over 1100 MPa and tensile strengths even 1600 MPa were attained. Recoverable strains can be over 4% and recovery stresses 330 MPa. Stresses over 700 MPa were achieved in fasteners at room temperature. Nitrogen alloyed shape memory steels possess good corrosion properties, machinability and weldability (even the welds exhibit shape memory effect). They are economical to manufacture and use and they are expected to have applications in many

  2. Molecular specificity, convergence and constraint shape adaptive evolution in nutrient-poor environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungeui Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the central goals of evolutionary biology is to explain and predict the molecular basis of adaptive evolution. We studied the evolution of genetic networks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast populations propagated for more than 200 generations in different nitrogen-limiting conditions. We find that rapid adaptive evolution in nitrogen-poor environments is dominated by the de novo generation and selection of copy number variants (CNVs, a large fraction of which contain genes encoding specific nitrogen transporters including PUT4, DUR3 and DAL4. The large fitness increases associated with these alleles limits the genetic heterogeneity of adapting populations even in environments with multiple nitrogen sources. Complete identification of acquired point mutations, in individual lineages and entire populations, identified heterogeneity at the level of genetic loci but common themes at the level of functional modules, including genes controlling phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate metabolism and vacuole biogenesis. Adaptive strategies shared with other nutrient-limited environments point to selection of genetic variation in the TORC1 and Ras/PKA signaling pathways as a general mechanism underlying improved growth in nutrient-limited environments. Within a single population we observed the repeated independent selection of a multi-locus genotype, comprised of the functionally related genes GAT1, MEP2 and LST4. By studying the fitness of individual alleles, and their combination, as well as the evolutionary history of the evolving population, we find that the order in which these mutations are acquired is constrained by epistasis. The identification of repeatedly selected variation at functionally related loci that interact epistatically suggests that gene network polymorphisms (GNPs may be a frequent outcome of adaptive evolution. Our results provide insight into the mechanistic basis by which cells adapt to nutrient-limited environments

  3. Sliding mode control of wind-induced vibrations using fuzzy sliding surface and gain adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenozhi, Suresh; Yu, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Although fuzzy/adaptive sliding mode control can reduce the chattering problem in structural vibration control applications, they require the equivalent control and the upper bounds of the system uncertainties. In this paper, we used fuzzy logic to approximate the standard sliding surface and designed a dead-zone adaptive law for tuning the switching gain of the sliding mode control. The stability of the proposed controller is established using Lyapunov stability theory. A six-storey building prototype equipped with an active mass damper has been used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller towards the wind-induced vibrations.

  4. Combined use of leaf size and economics traits allows direct comparison of hydrophyte and terrestrial herbaceous adaptive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Simon; Brusa, Guido; Sartori, Matteo; Cerabolini, Bruno E. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Hydrophytes generally exhibit highly acquisitive leaf economics. However, a range of growth forms is evident, from small, free-floating and rapidly growing Lemniden to large, broad-leaved Nymphaeiden, denoting variability in adaptive strategies. Traits used to classify adaptive strategies in terrestrial species, such as canopy height, are not applicable to hydrophytes. We hypothesize that hydrophyte leaf size traits and economics exhibit sufficient overlap with terrestrial species to allow a common classification of plant functional types, sensu Grime's CSR theory. Methods Leaf morpho-functional traits were measured for 61 species from 47 water bodies in lowland continental, sub-alpine and alpine bioclimatic zones in southern Europe and compared against the full leaf economics spectrum and leaf size range of terrestrial herbs, and between hydrophyte growth forms. Key Results Hydrophytes differed in the ranges and mean values of traits compared with herbs, but principal components analysis (PCA) demonstrated that both groups shared axes of trait variability: PCA1 encompassed size variation (area and mass), and PCA2 ranged from relatively dense, carbon-rich leaves to nitrogen-rich leaves of high specific leaf area (SLA). Most growth forms exhibited trait syndromes directly equivalent to herbs classified as R adapted, although Nymphaeiden ranged between C and SR adaptation. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that hydrophyte adaptive strategy variation reflects fundamental trade-offs in economics and size that govern all plants, and that hydrophyte adaptive strategies can be directly compared with terrestrial species by combining leaf economics and size traits. PMID:22337079

  5. Fault Adaptive Control of Overactuated Systems Using Prognostic Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most fault adaptive control research addresses the preservation of system stability or functionality in the presence of a specific failure (fault). This paper...

  6. Adaptation and risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  7. Evaluation of effectiveness of raw materials and materials use in a blast furnace department of a steelworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kardas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the quality of raw materials used in the production of blast furnace pig iron. The ferruginous sinter and pellets are the basic raw materials used in the process. The paper presents the impact of those raw materials quality on the effectiveness of the blast furnace process. The process effectiveness will be specified by means of selected process parameters.

  8. Tracking the Emergence of Host-Specific Simian Immunodeficiency Virus env and nef Populations Reveals nef Early Adaptation and Convergent Evolution in Brain of Naturally Progressing Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Susanna L; Nolan, David J; Rife, Brittany D; Fogel, Gary B; McGrath, Michael S; Burdo, Tricia H; Autissier, Patrick; Williams, Kenneth C; Goodenow, Maureen M; Salemi, Marco

    2015-08-01

    While a clear understanding of the events leading to successful establishment of host-specific viral populations and productive infection in the central nervous system (CNS) has not yet been reached, the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque provides a powerful model for the study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intrahost evolution and neuropathogenesis. The evolution of the gp120 and nef genes, which encode two key proteins required for the establishment and maintenance of infection, was assessed in macaques that were intravenously inoculated with the same viral swarm and allowed to naturally progress to simian AIDS and potential SIV-associated encephalitis (SIVE). Longitudinal plasma samples and immune markers were monitored until terminal illness. Single-genome sequencing was employed to amplify full-length env through nef transcripts from plasma over time and from brain tissues at necropsy. nef sequences diverged from the founder virus faster than gp120 diverged. Host-specific sequence populations were detected in nef (~92 days) before they were detected in gp120 (~182 days). At necropsy, similar brain nef sequences were found in different macaques, indicating convergent evolution, while gp120 brain sequences remained largely host specific. Molecular clock and selection analyses showed weaker clock-like behavior and stronger selection pressure in nef than in gp120, with the strongest nef selection in the macaque with SIVE. Rapid nef diversification, occurring prior to gp120 diversification, indicates that early adaptation of nef in the new host is essential for successful infection. Moreover, the convergent evolution of nef sequences in the CNS suggests a significant role for nef in establishing neurotropic strains. The SIV-infected rhesus macaque model closely resembles HIV-1 immunopathogenesis, neuropathogenesis, and disease progression in humans. Macaques were intravenously infected with identical viral swarms to investigate

  9. Invited review: Adaptive numerical modelling and hybrid physically based ANM approaches in materials engineering - a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, P.A.S; Starink, M.J.; Gunn, S.R.; Sinclair, I.

    2009-01-01

    Many adaptive numerical modelling (ANM) techniques such as artificial neural networks, (including multi-layer perceptrons) support vector machines and Gaussian processes have now been applied to a wide range of regression and classification problems in materials science. Materials science offers a wide range of industrial applications and hence problem complexity levels from well physically characterised systems (e.g. high value, low volume products) to high volume low cost applications with ...

  10. Tackling health literacy: adaptation of public hypertension educational materials for an Indo-Asian population in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Sailesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indo-Asians in Canada are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for cultural and language specific educational materials relating to this risk. During this project we developed and field tested the acceptability of a hypertension public education pamphlet tailored to fit the needs of an at risk local Indo-Asian population, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Methods A community health board representing Calgary's Indo-Asian communities identified the culturally specific educational needs and language preferences of the local population. An adaptation of an existing English language Canadian Public Hypertension Recommendations pamphlet was created considering the literacy and translation challenges. The adapted pamphlet was translated into four Indo-Asian languages. The adapted pamphlets were disseminated as part of the initial educational component of a community-based culturally and language-sensitive cardiovascular risk factor screening and management program. Field testing of the materials was undertaken when participants returned for program follow-up seven to 12 months later. Results Fifty-nine English-speaking participants evaluated and confirmed the concept validity of the English adapted version. 28 non-English speaking participants evaluated the Gujarati (N = 13 and Punjabi (N = 15 translated versions of the adapted pamphlets. All participants found the pamphlets acceptable and felt they had improved their understanding of hypertension. Conclusions Involving the target community to identify health issues as well as help to create culturally, language and literacy sensitive health education materials ensures resources are highly acceptable to that community. Minor changes to the materials will be needed prior to formal testing of hypertension knowledge and health decision-making on a larger scale within this at risk community.

  11. Shape memory actuators - potentials and specifics of their technical use and electrical activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Strittmatter a,b

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to a martensitic phase change shape memory alloys can revert to their original shape by heating when they undergo an appropriate treatment. Actuator elements with this shape memory effect can show a significant design change combined with a considerable force. Therefore they can be used to solve many technical tasks in the field of actuating elements and mechatronics. These intelligent materials will play an increasing role in the next years, especially within the automotive technology, energy management, power and mechanical engineering as well as medical technology. In order to use the potential of these materials in an optimal way it is necessary to know and understand the extraordinary and unconventional properties of shape memory alloys.This paper will present the commonly used systems of shape memory alloys of today including their performance characteristics and will explain the basics of the shape memory effect in a vivid way. A multitude of application possibilities of shape memory actuators will be presented, in particular the research and development projects that have been carried out at the Konstanz University of Applied Sciences during the last years. In this way a solid state heat engine and an intramedullary nail for bone elongation will be presented as well as various adaptive systems for automotive safety and comfort systems, driven by shape memory elements. Regarding the applications in the automotive field a special focus will be given to different electrical activations to enable very fast contraction times of the shape memory components.

  12. Quality Assessment of Adaptive Bitrate Videos using Image Metrics and Machine Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Brunnström, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive bitrate (ABR) streaming is widely used for distribution of videos over the internet. In this work, we investigate how well we can predict the quality of such videos using well-known image metrics, information about the bitrate levels, and a relatively simple machine learning method...

  13. Use and effectiveness of pharmacy continuing-education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Vittorio; Belazi, Dea; Goldfarb, Neil I; Phillips, Amy L; Crawford, Albert G

    2003-08-15

    The use and effectiveness of pharmacy continuing-education (CE) materials were studied. A 31-item survey was administered to pharmacists via an Internet portal. A recruitment letter, which included a description of the study and the Internet address to access the survey, was mailed to 2000 pharmacists. Only pharmacists who were currently practicing pharmacy in a community pharmacy or in a health care setting were included in the analysis. Pharmacists were asked to indicate the format of CE they generally used, formats used in the six months prior to the survey, and the format of their most recent CE. They were also asked to assess the effectiveness of CE programs and their ability to enhance pharmacists' knowledge and clinical practice behavior. Descriptive statistics were computed for all variables. Chi-square analyses were performed to compare subgroup responses. Of the 373 pharmacists completing the survey, 365 met the inclusion criteria. Of these respondents, 31% worked in a chain pharmacy, 25% in an inpatient pharmacy, and 23% in an independent pharmacy. Pharmacists most commonly obtained CE from printed materials (92%), lectures and seminars (75%), Internet-based materials (53%), and symposia (44%). Respondents found all types of CE programs effective in improving their knowledge, but less effective in enhancing their clinical practice behavior. Pharmacists perceived different types of CE programs as valuable resources for their educational needs. Printed materials, lectures, and seminars were the most commonly used CE formats. Pharmacists considered CE programs very effective in enhancing their knowledge and less valuable in improving their pharmacy practice activities.

  14. [Study on status of criteria for formulating specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials based on filed survey in medicine market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Nuo; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Wang, Hai-Yang; Jin, Yan

    2016-03-01

    The commodity specification and grade is an important factor affecting the price of Chinese medicinal materials. Specification and grade standard play an important role in transferring quality information in Chinese medicinal market, which is characterized by highly information asymmetry. This paper analyses and expounds six classification methods of commodity specification and grade of Chinese medicinal materials based on the market investigation carried out in the medicine markets in Anguo, Bozhou, Yulin, Chengdu and so on. This study proposes that to formulate the commodity specification and grade standard of Chinese medicinal materials, their efficacy, inspection, purity and beauty should be taken into account orderly. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Development of Material Characterization Techniques using Novel Nanoindendation Approaches on Hard and Soft Materials used in MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Eyup

    Investigating and modeling the mechanical properties of materials is important for many applications. The most common technique used for mechanical characterization of materials is called nanoindentation. The currently available tools utilized in order to perform nanoindentation have their limitations in terms of sensitivities in force and displacement for a broad range of material properties. When it comes to investigation of soft materials, these limitations might be more detrimental. In this dissertation work, novel nanoindentation techniques have been developed with a multi-probe scanning force microscopy (SPM) system in order to ease the major problems encountered with standard Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) or nanoindentation systems. Tuning forks are used as probes during nanoindentation. By using the newly developed nanoindentation techniques for quasi-static nanoindentation experiments, the force information is extracted through the displacement of the indenter probe measured by a second probe with ultraresolution. For dynamic nanoindentation, frequency modulation techniques have been used to extract force information from a single indenter tuningfork probe. Thanks to the high quality of resonance (Q factor) of tuning fork probes, force measurements can be performed with an ultra high resolution. The accurate measurements of material properties on soft materials is used in characterization of microfabricated pillar sensors which can be used in measuring nN level of cell traction forces in a biomedical application. The techniques developed in this research also enable the system as an ultra-sensitive force sensor to apply nN scale lateral and vertical loads on microfabricated structures or biological specimens.

  16. Self-assembled selenium monolayers: from nanotechnology to materials science and adaptive catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romashov, Leonid V; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2013-12-23

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of selenium have emerged into a rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several promising opportunities in materials chemistry and catalysis. Comparison between sulfur-based self-assembled monolayers and newly developed selenium-based monolayers reveal outstanding complimentary features on surface chemistry and highlighted the key role of the headgroup element. Diverse structural properties and reactivity of organosulfur and organoselenium groups on the surface provide flexible frameworks to create new generations of materials and adaptive catalysts with unprecedented selectivity. Important practical utility of adaptive catalytic systems deals with development of sustainable technologies and industrial processes based on natural resources. Independent development of nanotechnology, materials science and catalysis has led to the discovery of common fundamental principles of the surface chemistry of chalcogen compounds.

  17. Motor adaptation and generalization of reaching movements using motor primitives based on spatial coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-02-15

    The brain processes sensory and motor information in a wide range of coordinate systems, ranging from retinal coordinates in vision to body-centered coordinates in areas that control musculature. Here we focus on the coordinate system used in the motor cortex to guide actions and examine physiological and psychophysical evidence for an allocentric reference frame based on spatial coordinates. When the equations of motion governing reaching dynamics are expressed as spatial vectors, each term is a vector cross product between a limb-segment position and a velocity or acceleration. We extend this computational framework to motor adaptation, in which the cross-product terms form adaptive bases for canceling imposed perturbations. Coefficients of the velocity- and acceleration-dependent cross products are assumed to undergo plastic changes to compensate the force-field or visuomotor perturbations. Consistent with experimental findings, each of the cross products had a distinct reference frame, which predicted how an acquired remapping generalized to untrained location in the workspace. In response to force field or visual rotation, mainly the coefficients of the velocity- or acceleration-dependent cross products adapted, leading to transfer in an intrinsic or extrinsic reference frame, respectively. The model further predicted that remapping of visuomotor rotation should under- or overgeneralize in a distal or proximal workspace. The cross-product bases can explain the distinct patterns of generalization in visuomotor and force-field adaptation in a unified way, showing that kinematic and dynamic motor adaptation need not arise through separate neural substrates.

  18. Comparison of Two Xenograft Materials Used in Sinus Lift Procedures: Material Characterization and In Vivo Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Piedad Ramírez Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information about graft material characteristic is crucial to evaluate their clinical outcomes. The present study evaluates the physico-chemical characteristics of two xenografts manufactured on an industrial scale deproteinized at different temperatures (non-sintered and sintered in accordance with a protocol previously used in sinus lift procedures. It compares how the physico-chemical properties influence the material’s performance in vivo by a histomorphometric study in retrieved bone biopsies following maxillary sinus augmentation in 10 clinical cases. An X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the typical structure of hydroxyapatite (HA for both materials. Both xenografts were porous and exhibited intraparticle pores. Strong differences were observed in terms of porosity, crystallinity, and calcium/phosphate. Histomorphometric measurements on the bone biopsies showed statistically significant differences. The physic-chemical assessment of both xenografts, made in accordance with the protocol developed on an industrial scale, confirmed that these products present excellent biocompatibilitity, with similar characteristics to natural bone. The sintered HA xenografts exhibited greater osteoconductivity, but were not completely resorbable (30.80 ± 0.88% residual material. The non-sintered HA xenografts induced about 25.92 ± 1.61% of new bone and a high level of degradation after six months of implantation. Differences in the physico-chemical characteristics found between the two HA xenografts determined a different behavior for this material.

  19. Efficient Culture Adaptation of Hepatitis C Virus Recombinants with Genotype-Specific Core-NS2 by Using Previously Identified Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Gottwein, Judith M; Carlsen, Thomas H R

    2011-01-01

    ) but not to ED43 (4a). The mutations permitting robust virus production in Huh7.5 cells had no apparent effect on viral replication but allowed efficient assembly of intracellular infectious HCV for adapted novel or previously developed recombinants. In conclusion, previously identified mutations permitted...

  20. Supervised Online Adaptive Control of Inverted Pendulum System Using ADALINE Artificial Neural Network with Varying System Parameters and External Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Sharma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalized Adaptive Linear Element (GADALINE Artificial Neural Network (ANN as an Artificial Intelligence (AI technique is used in this paper to online adaptive control of a Non-linear Inverted Pendulum (IP system. The ANN controller is designed with specifications as: network type is three (Input, Hidden and Output layered Feed-Forward Network (FFN, training is done by Widrow-Hoffs delta rule or Least Mean Square algorithm (LMS, that updates weight and bias states to minimize the error function. The research is focused on how to adapt the control actions to solve the problem of “parameter variations”. The method is applied to the Nonlinear IP model with the application of some uncertainties, and the experimental results show that the system responds very well to handle those uncertainties.

  1. Occurrence of fastidious Campylobacter spp. in fresh meat and poultry using an adapted cultural protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Orla A; Cagney, Claire; McDowell, David A; Duffy, Geraldine

    2011-11-01

    This study used an adapted cultural protocol for the recovery of fastidious species of Campylobacter, to gain a more accurate understanding of the diversity of Campylobacter populations in fresh meats. Chicken (n=185), pork (n=179) and beef (n=186) were collected from supermarkets and butchers throughout the Republic of Ireland. Samples were enriched in Campylobacter enrichment broth for 24h under an atmosphere of 2.5% O(2), 7% H(2), 10% CO(2), and 80.5% N(2). The enriched samples were then filtered onto non-selective Anaerobe Basal Agar supplemented with lysed horse blood using mixed ester filter membranes. Isolates were identified by both genus and species-specific PCR assays and biochemical testing. The incidence of campylobacters on beef (36%) was significantly higher than on pork (22%) or chicken (16%), and far exceeds previously reported prevalence levels. The method was successful in recovering 7 species of Campylobacter, including the fastidious spp. C. concisus and C. mucosalis, from chicken meat, and 10 species, including C. concisus, C. curvus, C. mucosalis, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis, from minced beef. The isolation of C. concisus and C. upsaliensis from meat in this study is of particular significance, due to their emerging clinical relevance. The results of this study confirm that the diversity of Campylobacter species on fresh meats is greater than previously reported and highlights the bias of cultural methods towards the recovery of C. jejuni.

  2. Assessing farmer use of climate change adaptation practices and impacts on food security and poverty in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is set to be particularly disruptive in poor agricultural communities. We assess the factors influencing farmers’ choice of climate change adaptation practices and associated impacts on household food security and poverty in Pakistan using comprehensive data from 950 farmers from its major provinces. A probit model was used to investigate the factors influencing the use of climate-change adaptation practices; the censored least absolute deviation (CLAD was used to analyze the determinants of the number of adaptation practices used; and a propensity score matching (PSM approach was employed to evaluate the impact of adaptation practices on food security and poverty levels. Adjustment in sowing time (22% households, use of drought tolerant varieties (15% and shifting to new crops (25% were the three major adaptation practices used by farmers in the study area. Results show that younger farmers and farmers with higher levels of education are more likely to use these adaptation practices, as do farmers that are wealthier, farm more land and have joint families. The number of adaptation practices used was found to be positively associated with education, male household heads, land size, household size, extension services, access to credit and wealth. Farmers adopting more adaptation practices had higher food security levels (8–13% than those who did not, and experienced lower levels of poverty (3–6%. Climate change adaptation practices at farm level can thereby have significant development outcomes in addition to reducing exposure to weather risks.

  3. Using the adaptive blockset for simulation and rapid prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The basics of indirect adaptive controllers are summarized. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge...... the gap between simulation and prototype controller implementation. This is done using the code generation capabilities of Real Time Workshop in combination with C s-function blocks for adaptive control in Simulink. In the paper the design of each group of blocks normally fund in adaptive controllers...... is outlined. The block types are, identification, controller design, controller and state variable filter.The use of the Adaptive Blockset is demonstrated using a simple laboratory setup. Both the use of the blockset for simulation and for rapid prototyping of a real-time controller are shown....

  4. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  5. Adaptive control of lasers and their interactions with matter using femtosecond pulse shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, Anatoly

    Coherent control of chemical reactions, atomic and molecular systems, lattice dynamics, and electronic motion rely on femtosecond laser sources capable of producing programmable arbitrarily shaped waveforms. To enter the time scale of natural dynamic processes in many systems, femtosecond pulse shaping techniques must be extended to the ultrashort pulse domain (teach our laser to control its own phase by using spectral blueshifting in a rapidly created plasma as a feedback to the algorithm. Control of lattice vibrations has long been sought as a means of studying phonon-related processes in solids. In addition, generation and control of large-amplitude optical phonon modes may open a path to femtosecond time- resolved studies of structural phase transitions and production of ultrashort shaped X-ray pulses. We perform pump-probe phase-resolved measurements and control of optical A1g mode in sapphire through shaped-pulse impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS). We chose this material as a candidate for possible nonlinear oscillations regime for its wide band gap and superior optical properties allowing for high-energy excitation. To enter a nonlinear regime, however, complex asymmetric multiple-pulse excitation is required. Therefore, we make a detailed proposal of the experimental adaptive feedback implementation for optimization of phonon amplitude based on the coherent probe scattering and a novel phase mask calculation algorithm for the real-time asymmetric pulse train generation.

  6. Considering the Use of General and Modified Assessment Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Adam E.; Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    This article used several data sets from a large-scale state testing program to examine the feasibility of combining general and modified assessment items in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for different groups of students. Results suggested that several of the assumptions made when employing this type of mixed-item CAT may not be met for…

  7. Effect of Surfactant/Silica and Hydrothermal Time on the Specific Surface Area of Mesoporous Materials from Coal-Measure Kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qisheng; LI Shuiping

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous materials with the highest surface area were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment from coal-measure kaolin using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as template. The effect of several factors on surface area of products also had been discussed. The products were characterized by FTIR, HRTEM and N2 adsorption and desorption isotherm plot methods. There was typical structure as Si-O, Si-OH and Si-O-Si of mesoporous materials in the framework of synthesized materials; the pore size distributions of the products showed a sharp peak at 3.82 nm. The effect of hydrothermal treatment time and the amount of template on the specific surface area of mesoporous materials was important, when the Surf/Si = 0.135, and hydrothermal time = 12 h, and the surface area of the product reached up to 1 070 m2/g, which was higher than other products.

  8. Improving the precision of CBIR systems by color and texture feature adaptation using GSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rashedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Content-based image retrieval, CBIR, is an interesting problem of pattern recognition. This paper is devoted to the presentation an approach to reduce the semantic gap between low level visual features and high level semantics by parameter adaptation in feature extraction sub-block. In the proposed method, GSA is used. In texture feature extraction, the parameters of a 6-tap parametrized orthogonal mother wavelet and in color feature extraction, the quantization levels are adapted to reach maximum precision of the image retrieval system. Experimental results and comparison with the conventional CBIR system are reported on a database of 1000 images. Results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adapted image retrieval system.

  9. A Model of Stimulus-Specific Adaptation in Neuromorphic Analog VLSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, R; Sheik, S; Indiveri, G; Denham, S L

    2011-10-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is a phenomenon observed in neural systems which occurs when the spike count elicited in a single neuron decreases with repetitions of the same stimulus, and recovers when a different stimulus is presented. SSA therefore effectively highlights rare events in stimulus sequences, and suppresses responses to repetitive ones. In this paper we present a model of SSA based on synaptic depression and describe its implementation in neuromorphic analog very-large-scale integration (VLSI). The hardware system is evaluated using biologically realistic spike trains with parameters chosen to reflect those of the stimuli used in physiological experiments. We examine the effect of input parameters and stimulus history upon SSA and show that the trends apparent in the results obtained in silico compare favorably with those observed in biological neurons.

  10. CLAss-Specific Subspace Kernel Representations and Adaptive Margin Slack Minimization for Large Scale Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinan; Diamantaras, Konstantinos I; McKelvey, Tomas; Kung, Sun-Yuan

    2016-12-07

    In kernel-based classification models, given limited computational power and storage capacity, operations over the full kernel matrix becomes prohibitive. In this paper, we propose a new supervised learning framework using kernel models for sequential data processing. The framework is based on two components that both aim at enhancing the classification capability with a subset selection scheme. The first part is a subspace projection technique in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space using a CLAss-specific Subspace Kernel representation for kernel approximation. In the second part, we propose a novel structural risk minimization algorithm called the adaptive margin slack minimization to iteratively improve the classification accuracy by an adaptive data selection. We motivate each part separately, and then integrate them into learning frameworks for large scale data. We propose two such frameworks: the memory efficient sequential processing for sequential data processing and the parallelized sequential processing for distributed computing with sequential data acquisition. We test our methods on several benchmark data sets and compared with the state-of-the-art techniques to verify the validity of the proposed techniques.

  11. Characterization of geological materials using ion and photon beams.

    CERN Document Server

    Torok, S B; Tuniz, C

    1998-01-01

    Geological specimens are often complex materials that require different analytical methods for their characterization. The parameters of interest may include the chemical composition of major, minor and trace elements. The chemical compounds incorporated in the minerals, the crystal structure and isotopic composition need to be considered. Specimens may be highly heterogeneous thus necessitating analytical methods capable of measurements on small sample volumes with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. Much essential information on geological materials can be obtained by using ion or photon beams. In this chapter we describe the principal analytical techniques based on particle accelerators, showing some applications that are hardly possible with conventional methods. In particular, the following techniques will be discussed: (1) Synchrotron radiation (SR) induced X-ray emission (SRIXE) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PEE) and other ion beam techniques for trace element analysis. (2) Accelerator mass...

  12. Assessing the adaptation of arable farmers to climate change using DEA and bio-economic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanellopoulos, A.; Wolf, J.; Mandryk, M.; Reidsma, P.; Schaap, B.F.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the impact of climate change on arable farming systems in Flevoland (the Netherlands) and to explore the adoption of different adaptation strategies. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is applied that uses empirical data from individual farms to identify “best

  13. Culturally specific adaptation of a prevention intervention: an international collaborative research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouk, Tatiana; Thompson, Elaine A; Herting, Jerald R; Walsh, Elaine; Randell, Brooke

    2007-08-01

    This study adapted a U.S. drug use prevention program for use with Russian at-risk adolescents, and explored directions for further development of programs addressing prevention of substance abuse and other health risk behaviors including risk of HIV infection. The adaptation process was conducted in phases, initially carried out in Seattle with 23 bilingual (English-Russian) youth and then further adapted in two Moscow schools with 44 "typical" youth. In the final phase, program adaptation for the Russian at-risk adolescents was achieved by conducting a pilot test of the adapted program lessons with Moscow at-risk adolescents (n=10), who met criteria of poor school performance and/or truancy. Observations and experience were used throughout to adapt and refine the program for at-risk youth. Modifications were made to represent more accurately colloquial Russian and to capture teen experiences common to Russian culture. Both U.S. and Russian youth characterized the lessons as engaging and valuable. They also expressed a need to learn about sexuality, drug use, and health; peer and romantic relationships; and problem-solving strategies.

  14. Improvisation, Adaptability, and Collaboration: Using AUMI in Community Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Finch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive Use Musical Instrument (AUMI is a digital instrument that facilitates independent music making for people with diverse ranges of mobility. Employing the camera tracking capabilities available on most digital devices, users with even very little voluntary mobility are able to create and perform music by controlling a visual cursor within adaptable parameters to trigger sounds. Instead of requiring players to conform to an instrument, AUMI’s flexibility enables it to adapt to divergent artistic impulses and individual bodies. Building on previous studies that examined AUMI in an educational setting (Oliveros et al. 2011 this article presents three case studies that explore AUMI’s use in a community music therapy context. In addition to assessing the instrument’s effectiveness in achieving specific music therapy goals, ethnographic research methods illuminated various socio-cultural implications of integrating digital instruments into a music therapy setting that challenge conventional notions of youth culture, independence, and collaboration. We conclude with a discussion of the notions of adaptability and universal design as they apply not only to AUMI’s functionality in the music therapy sessions, but also in view of the instrument's ongoing development.

  15. Time course analysis reveals gene-specific transcript and protein kinetics of adaptation to short-term aerobic exercise training in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brendan; O'Connor, Paul L; Zierath, Juleen R; O'Gorman, Donal J

    2013-01-01

    Repeated bouts of episodic myofibrillar contraction associated with exercise training are potent stimuli for physiological adaptation. However, the time course of adaptation and the continuity between alterations in mRNA expression and protein content are not well described in human skeletal muscle. Eight healthy, sedentary males cycled for 60 min at 80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) each day for fourteen consecutive days, resulting in an increase in VO2peak of 17.5±3.8%. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, and on the morning following (+16 h after exercise) the first, third, seventh, tenth and fourteenth training sessions. Markers of mitochondrial adaptation (Cyt c and COXIV expression, and citrate synthase activity) were increased within the first week of training, but the mtDNA/nDNA ratio was unchanged by two weeks of training. Accumulation of PGC-1α and ERRα protein during training suggests a regulatory role for these factors in adaptations of mitochondrial and metabolic gene expression. A subset of genes were transiently increased after one training session, but returned to baseline levels thereafter, which is supportive of the concept of transcriptional capacity being particularly sensitive to the onset of a new level of contractile activity. Thus, gene-specific temporal patterns of induction of mRNA expression and protein content are described. Our results illustrate the phenomenology of skeletal muscle plasticity and support the notion that transcript level adjustments, coupled to accumulation of encoded protein, underlie the modulation of skeletal muscle metabolism and phenotype by regular exercise.

  16. Time course analysis reveals gene-specific transcript and protein kinetics of adaptation to short-term aerobic exercise training in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Egan

    Full Text Available Repeated bouts of episodic myofibrillar contraction associated with exercise training are potent stimuli for physiological adaptation. However, the time course of adaptation and the continuity between alterations in mRNA expression and protein content are not well described in human skeletal muscle. Eight healthy, sedentary males cycled for 60 min at 80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak each day for fourteen consecutive days, resulting in an increase in VO2peak of 17.5±3.8%. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, and on the morning following (+16 h after exercise the first, third, seventh, tenth and fourteenth training sessions. Markers of mitochondrial adaptation (Cyt c and COXIV expression, and citrate synthase activity were increased within the first week of training, but the mtDNA/nDNA ratio was unchanged by two weeks of training. Accumulation of PGC-1α and ERRα protein during training suggests a regulatory role for these factors in adaptations of mitochondrial and metabolic gene expression. A subset of genes were transiently increased after one training session, but returned to baseline levels thereafter, which is supportive of the concept of transcriptional capacity being particularly sensitive to the onset of a new level of contractile activity. Thus, gene-specific temporal patterns of induction of mRNA expression and protein content are described. Our results illustrate the phenomenology of skeletal muscle plasticity and support the notion that transcript level adjustments, coupled to accumulation of encoded protein, underlie the modulation of skeletal muscle metabolism and phenotype by regular exercise.

  17. Generic rules of mechano-regulation combined with subject specific loading conditions can explain bone adaptation after THA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz D Szwedowski

    Full Text Available Bone adaptation after total hip arthroplasty is associated with the change in internal load environment, and can result in compromised bone stock, which presents a considerable challenge should a revision procedure be required. Under the assumption of a generic mechano-regulatory algorithm for governing bone adaptation, the aim of this study was to understand the contribution of subject specific loading conditions towards explaining the local periprosthetic remodelling variations in patients. CT scans of 3 consecutive THA patients were obtained and used for the construction of subject specific finite element models using verified musculoskeletal loading and physiological boundary conditions. Using either strain energy density or equivalent strain as mechano-transduction signals, predictions of bone adaptation were compared to DEXA derived BMD changes from 7 days to 12 months post-implantation. Individual changes in BMD of up to 33.6% were observed within the 12 month follow-up period, together with considerable inter-patient variability of up to 26%. Estimates of bone adaptation using equivalent strain and balanced loading conditions led to the best agreement with in vivo measured BMD, with RMS errors of only 3.9%, 7.3% and 7.3% for the individual subjects, compared to errors of over 10% when the loading conditions were simplified.This study provides evidence that subject specific loading conditions and physiological boundary constraints are essential for explaining inter-patient variations in bone adaptation patterns. This improved knowledge of the rules governing the adaptation of bone following THA helps towards understanding the interplay between mechanics and biology for better identifying patients at risk of excessive or problematic periprosthetic bone atrophy.

  18. Adaptive behaviour in children and adolescents with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a comparison with specific learning disability and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Åse; Åse, Fagerlund; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Ilona, Autti-Rämö; Kalland, Mirjam; Mirjam, Kalland; Santtila, Pekka; Pekka, Santtila; Hoyme, H Eugene; Eugene, Hoyme H; Mattson, Sarah N; Sarah, Mattson N; Korkman, Marit; Marit, Korkman

    2012-04-01

    Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a leading cause of intellectual disability in the western world. Children and adolescents with FASD are often exposed to a double burden in life, as their neurological sequelae are accompanied by adverse living surroundings exposing them to further environmental risk. In the present study, the adaptive abilities of a group of children and adolescents with FASD were examined using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and compared to those of a group of IQ-matched children with specific learning disorder (SLD) as well as with typically developing controls (CON). The results showed significantly different adaptive abilities among the groups: Children with FASD performed worse than IQ-matched children with SLD, who in turn performed worse than typically developing children on all domains (communication, daily living skills and socialization) on the VABS. Compared to the other groups, social skills declined with age in the FASD group. These results support previous studies of adaptive behaviour deficits in children with FASD and provide further evidence of the specificity of these deficits. On a societal level, more efforts and resources should be focused on recognizing and diagnosing FASD and supporting communication skills, daily living skills and most of all social skills across diagnostic groups within FASD. Without adequate intervention, adolescents and young adults with FASD run a great risk of marginalization and social maladjustment, costly not only to society but also to the lives of the many young people with FASD. © Springer-Verlag 2012

  19. ICAN Computer Code Adapted for Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in developing composite micromechanics and macromechanics theories over the last three decades. These activities have resulted in several composite mechanics theories and structural analysis codes whose applications range from material behavior design and analysis to structural component response. One of these computer codes, the Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN), is designed primarily to address issues related to designing polymer matrix composites and predicting their properties - including hygral, thermal, and mechanical load effects. Recently, under a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with a Fortune 500 corporation, Master Builders Inc., ICAN was adapted to analyze building materials. The high costs and technical difficulties involved with the fabrication of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites sometimes limit their use. Particulate-reinforced composites can be thought of as a viable alternative. They are as easily processed to near-net shape as monolithic materials, yet have the improved stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness that is characteristic of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. For example, particlereinforced metal-matrix composites show great potential for a variety of automotive applications, such as disk brake rotors, connecting rods, cylinder liners, and other hightemperature applications. Building materials, such as concrete, can be thought of as one of the oldest materials in this category of multiphase, particle-reinforced materials. The adaptation of ICAN to analyze particle-reinforced composite materials involved the development of new micromechanics-based theories. A derivative of the ICAN code, ICAN/PART, was developed and delivered to Master Builders Inc. as a part of the cooperative activity.

  20. Peripheral adaptive filtering in human olfaction? Three studies on prevalence and effects of olfactory training in specific anosmia in more than 1600 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Mueller, Laura; Schmidt, Anna; Muench, Marcus; Hummel, Cornelia; Gisselmann, Guenter; Hatt, Hanns; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Selective processing of environmental stimuli improves processing capacity and allows adaptive modulation of behavior. The thalamus provides an effective filter of central sensory information processing. As olfactory projections, however, largely bypass the thalamus, other filter mechanisms must consequently have evolved for the sense of smell. We investigated whether specific anosmia - the inability to perceive a specific odor whereas detection of other substances is unaffected - represents an effective peripheral filter of olfactory information processing. In contrast to previous studies, we showed in a sample of 1600 normosmic subjects, that specific anosmia is by no means a rare phenomenon. Instead, while the affected odor is highly individual, the general probability of occurrence of specific anosmia is close to 1. In addition, 25 subjects performed daily olfactory training sessions with enhanced exposure to their particular "missing" smells for the duration of three months. This resulted in a significant improvement of sensitivity towards the respective specific odors. We propose specific anosmia to occur as a rule, rather than an exception, in the sense of smell. The lack of perception of certain odors may constitute a flexible peripheral filter mechanism, which can be altered by exposure.

  1. Building Energy Efficiency and the Use of Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Luo

    To become a country of energy saving, consumption reduction, low carbon emissions and life has become a national policy background, we need to convert conception of architectural aesthetics and make necessary adjustments and consciousness. Techniques and methods of support, or method of the research are still needed in the construction, building energy conservation, the environmental protection, low carbon and recycling methods are taken measures. Developing, finding and adopingt "native" and "primary" processed materials, or in which inject new technology to form new material is an effective approach to ensure more ways from environmental protection, energy-saving building and building materials in such ideas to implement.

  2. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  3. On the Use of Windcatchers in Schools: Climate Change, Occupancy Patterns, and Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumovic, D.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced naturally ventilated systems based on integration of basic natural ventilation strategies such as cross-ventilation and stack effect have been considered to be a key element of sustainable design. In this respect, there is a pressing need to explore the potential of such systems to achieve the recommended occupant comfort targets throughout their lifetime without relying on mechanical means. This study focuses on use of a windcatcher system in typical classrooms which are usually characterized by high and intermittent internal heat gains. The aims of this paper are 3-fold. First, to describe a series of field measurements that investigated the ventilation rates, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort in a newly constructed school located at an urban site in London. Secondly, to investigate the effect of changing climate and occupancy patterns on thermal comfort in selected classrooms, while taking into account adaptive potential of this specific ventilation strategy. Thirdly, to assess performance of the ventilation system using the newly introduced performance-based ventilation standards for school buildings. The results suggest that satisfactory occupant comfort levels could be achieved until the 2050s by a combination of advanced ventilation control settings and informed occupant behavior. PMID:27110216

  4. Remediation of AMD using natural and waste material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basir, Nur Athirah Mohamad; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan [Pusat pengajian Sains Sekitaran dan Sumber Alam, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is highly acidic, sulphate rich and frequently carries a high transition metal and heavy metal burden. These AMD's eventually migrate into streams and rivers and impact negatively on the quality of these water bodies. So it is dire necessary to treat this AMD. Various materials such as ladle furnace slag (LFS), bentonite, zeolite, active carbon and kaolinite are currently available to remove heavy metals from contaminated water. All these materials are capable to rise up the pH value and adsorb heavy metals. The process is divided into two stages; screening test and tank experiment. Screening test is conduct by using Batch Equilibrium Test (BET), X-Ray Fluorescene (XRF) identification also Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) characteristic. The results showed that all the concentration of heavy metal are decreasing extremely and pH value rise up except for kaolinite. From screening test only ladle furnace slag, bentonite, zeolite and active carbon are chosen for the tank experiment. Tank experiment design with 18cm (H) X 15cm (L) X 15cm (H) was made by silica glass. All these treatment materials were stirred in the tank for 30 days. Initial pH for all tanks is 2.4 and after 30 days is changing into 6.11, 3.91, 2.98 and 2.71 for LFS, bentonite, active carbon as well as zeolite respectively. LFS is the best material for absorption of Zn, Mn and Cu in the synthetic solution. Meanwhile, bentonite is the best absorbent for Ni, Fe and Cd. The conclusion shows that LFS might have big potentials to control AMD pollution base on neutralize pH resulting in a great improvement in the quality of the water.

  5. Biofunctionalization of materials for implants using engineered peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatayevich, Dmitriy; Gungormus, Mustafa; Yazici, Hilal; So, Christopher; Cetinel, Sibel; Ma, Hong; Jen, Alex; Tamerler, Candan; Sarikaya, Mehmet

    2010-12-01

    Uncontrolled interactions between synthetic materials and human tissues are a major concern for implants and tissue engineering. The most successful approaches to circumvent this issue involve the modification of the implant or scaffold surfaces with various functional molecules, such as anti-fouling polymers or cell growth factors. To date, such techniques have relied on surface immobilization methods that are often applicable only to a limited range of materials and require the presence of specific functional groups, synthetic pathways or biologically hostile environments. In this study we have used peptide motifs that have been selected to bind to gold, platinum, glass and titanium to modify surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) anti-fouling polymer and the integrin-binding RGD sequence. The peptides have several advantages over conventional molecular immobilization techniques; they require no biologically hostile environments to bind, are specific to their substrates and could be adapted to carry various active entities. We successfully imparted cell-resistant properties to gold and platinum surfaces using gold- and platinum-binding peptides, respectively, in conjunction with PEG. We also induced a several-fold increase in the number and spreading of fibroblast cells on glass and titanium surfaces using quartz and titanium-binding peptides in conjunction with the integrin ligand RGD. The results presented here indicate that control over the extent of cell-material interactions can be achieved by relatively simple and biocompatible surface modification procedures using inorganic binding peptides as linker molecules.

  6. Supervised and Unsupervised Speaker Adaptation Using Confidence Measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJia; LIHusheng; LIUJing; LIURunsheng

    2003-01-01

    The speaker adaptation is an effective means of improving the performance of a speech recognition system,and it can be divided into supervised or unsupervised speaker adaptation.In this paper a kind of confidence measure based on the word lattice structure is proposed and is used for the supervised and unsupervised speaker adaptation.The reliability of the recognition results can be evaluated by the confidence measure,and the uncertain parts in the recognition results can be removed or be given smaller weights in the speaker adaptation process.The experiments show that the confidence can effectively eliminate the suspicious speech and improve the performance of the supervised and unsupervised adaptation considerably.The performance difference between the supervised and unsupervised adaptation is reduced by using the confidence measure based on the word lattice structure.

  7. Recent Visual Experience Shapes Visual Processing in Rats through Stimulus-Specific Adaptation and Response Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vogels, Rufin; Op de Beeck, Hans

    2017-03-20

    From an ecological point of view, it is generally suggested that the main goal of vision in rats and mice is navigation and (aerial) predator evasion [1-3]. The latter requires fast and accurate detection of a change in the visual environment. An outstanding question is whether there are mechanisms in the rodent visual system that would support and facilitate visual change detection. An experimental protocol frequently used to investigate change detection in humans is the oddball paradigm, in which a rare, unexpected stimulus is presented in a train of stimulus repetitions [4]. A popular "predictive coding" theory of cortical responses states that neural responses should decrease for expected sensory input and increase for unexpected input [5, 6]. Despite evidence for response suppression and enhancement in noninvasive scalp recordings in humans with this paradigm [7, 8], it has proven challenging to observe both phenomena in invasive action potential recordings in other animals [9-11]. During a visual oddball experiment, we recorded multi-unit spiking activity in rat primary visual cortex (V1) and latero-intermediate area (LI), which is a higher area of the rodent ventral visual stream. In rat V1, there was only evidence for response suppression related to stimulus-specific adaptation, and not for response enhancement. However, higher up in area LI, spiking activity showed clear surprise-based response enhancement in addition to stimulus-specific adaptation. These results show that neural responses along the rat ventral visual stream become increasingly sensitive to changes in the visual environment, suggesting a system specialized in the detection of unexpected events.

  8. Glucocorticoids, metabolic adaptations and recovery : studies in specific mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auvinen, Hanna Elina

    2013-01-01

    Today’s Western society and work promotes a sedentary lifestyle. This, coupled with high caloric food availability has increased obesity followed by an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological data show a clear as

  9. Glucocorticoids, metabolic adaptations and recovery : studies in specific mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auvinen, Hanna Elina

    2013-01-01

    Today’s Western society and work promotes a sedentary lifestyle. This, coupled with high caloric food availability has increased obesity followed by an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological data show a clear

  10. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 2. Test Methods, Specifications and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Research and Development Center Budd Corporation 356 Executive Drive Troy, Ml 48084 Dr. Larry L. Hench Professor and Head Ceramics Division...data at frequent intervals over a 15 minute period ( Alpert et al., 1975)) and detailed analysis of the data aimed at developing a theoretical...in the characteristics scale length of the experiment over the atmospheric pressure prototype ( Alpert , 1975). Not all aspects of the fire are modeled

  11. Adaptive feature-specific imaging: a face recognition example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, Pawan K; Neifeld, Mark A

    2008-04-01

    We present an adaptive feature-specific imaging (AFSI) system and consider its application to a face recognition task. The proposed system makes use of previous measurements to adapt the projection basis at each step. Using sequential hypothesis testing, we compare AFSI with static-FSI (SFSI) and static or adaptive conventional imaging in terms of the number of measurements required to achieve a specified probability of misclassification (Pe). The AFSI system exhibits significant improvement compared to SFSI and conventional imaging at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). It is shown that for M=4 hypotheses and desired Pe=10(-2), AFSI requires 100 times fewer measurements than the adaptive conventional imager at SNR= -20 dB. We also show a trade-off, in terms of average detection time, between measurement SNR and adaptation advantage, resulting in an optimal value of integration time (equivalent to SNR) per measurement.

  12. Optimization of Natural Frequencies and Sound Power of Beams Using Functionally Graded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel T. Alshabatat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design method to optimize the material distribution of functionally graded beams with respect to some vibration and acoustic properties. The change of the material distribution through the beam length alters the stiffness and the mass of the beam. This can be used to alter a specific beam natural frequency. It can also be used to reduce the sound power radiated from the vibrating beam. Two novel volume fraction laws are used to describe the material volume distributions through the length of the FGM beam. The proposed method couples the finite element method (for the modal and harmonic analysis, Lumped Parameter Model (for calculating the power of sound radiation, and an optimization technique based on Genetic Algorithm. As a demonstration of this technique, the optimization procedure is applied to maximize the fundamental frequency of FGM cantilever and clamped beams and to minimize the sound radiation from vibrating clamped FGM beam at a specific frequency.

  13. Adapting school-based substance use prevention curriculum through cultural grounding: a review and exemplar of adaptation processes for rural schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Margaret; Hecht, Michael L; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L; Syvertsen, Amy K; Graham, John W; Pettigrew, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    A central challenge facing twenty-first century community-based researchers and prevention scientists is curriculum adaptation processes. While early prevention efforts sought to develop effective programs, taking programs to scale implies that they will be adapted, especially as programs are implemented with populations other than those with whom they were developed or tested. The principle of cultural grounding, which argues that health message adaptation should be informed by knowledge of the target population and by cultural insiders, provides a theoretical rational for cultural regrounding and presents an illustrative case of methods used to reground the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention curriculum for a rural adolescent population. We argue that adaptation processes like those presented should be incorporated into the design and dissemination of prevention interventions.

  14. Ultrafast control and monitoring of material properties using terahertz pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowlan, Pamela Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Lab. for Ultrafast Materials Optical Science (LUMOS)

    2016-05-02

    These are a set of slides on ultrafast control and monitoring of material properties using terahertz pulses. A few of the topics covered in these slides are: How fast is a femtosecond (fs), Different frequencies probe different properties of molecules or solids, What can a THz pulse do to a material, Ultrafast spectroscopy, Generating and measuring ultrashort THz pulses, Tracking ultrafast spin dynamics in antiferromagnets through spin wave resonances, Coherent two-dimensional THz spectroscopy, and Probing vibrational dynamics at a surface. Conclusions are: Coherent two-dimensional THz spectroscopy: a powerful approach for studying coherence and dynamics of low energy resonances. Applying this to graphene we investigated the very strong THz light mater interaction which dominates over scattering. Useful for studying coupled excitations in multiferroics and monitoring chemical reactions. Also, THz-pump, SHG-probe spectoscopy: an ultrafast, surface sensitive probe of atomic-scale symmetry changes and nonlinear phonon dymanics. We are using this in Bi2Se3 to investigate the nonlinear surface phonon dynamics. This is potentially very useful for studying catalysis.

  15. A Novel Broadband MIMO/OFDM System Using Adaptive Modulation and Adaptive Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANYahan; KhaledBenLetaief; CAOZhigang; QIUYonghong

    2005-01-01

    OFDM (Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) has been widely regarded as an effective modulation technique for mitigating the effects of ISI in a frequency selective fading channel and for providing reliable high-data transmission over wireless links. Adaptive modulation combined with adaptive transmit and receive diversity can achieve further increases in system's capacity and bandwidth efficiency, as well as in QoS improvement in conventional OFDM systems. In this paper, we propose a novel broadband MIMO/OFDM system using adaptive modulation and adaptive transmit and receive diversity. By applying an EVD on each sub-carrier channel matrix, joint optimal transmit and receive antenna weights as well as maximal SNR on each sub-carrier are obtained. Then, by employing adaptive modulation on each sub-carrier, the maximal SNR on each sub-carrier obtained by adaptive transmit and receive diversity is further maximized through adaptive bit assignment and power assignment on each sub-carrier under the constraint of power and overall bit rate. Simulation results show that the proposed system can achieve better performance than an adaptive antenna array based OFDM system without adaptive modulation over multipath fading channels.

  16. Modeling and adaptive control of a camless engine using neural networks and estimation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, S. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-08-09

    A system to control the cylinder air charge (CAC) in a camless internal combustion (IC) engine was recently developed. The performance of an IC engine connected to an adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) based feedback controller was then investigated. A control oriented model for the engine intake process was created based on thermodynamics laws and was validated against engine experimental data. Input-output data at a speed of 1500 RPM was generated and used to train an ANN model for the engine. The inputs were the intake valve lift (IVL) and closing timing (IVC). The output was the CAC. The controller consisted of a feedforward controller, CAC estimator, and on-line ANN parameter estimator. The feedforward controller provided IVL and IVC that satisfied the driver's torque demand and was the inverse of the engine ANN model. The on-line ANN used the error between the CAC measurement from the CAC estimator and its predicted value from the ANN to update the network's parameters. The feedforward controller was therefore adapted since its operation depended on the ANN model. The adaptation scheme improved the ANN prediction accuracy when the engine parts degraded, the speed changed or when modeling errors occurred. The engine controller exhibited good CAC tracking performance. Computer simulation demonstrated the capability of the camless engine controller. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and Parkinson's disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important CNS functions have yet to be clarified. Here we review murine evidence about the effects of exercise on discrete brain regions involved in important CNS functions. Exercise effects on circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, stress responses in the brain stem and hypothalamic pituitary axis, and movement are examined. The databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for articles investigating regional brain adaptations to exercise. Brain regions examined included the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. We found evidence of multiple regional adaptations to both forced and voluntary exercise. Exercise can induce molecular adaptations in neuronal function in many instances. Taken together, these findings suggest that the regional physiological adaptations that occur with exercise could constitute a promising field for elucidating molecular and cellular mechanisms of recovery in psychiatric and neurological health conditions.

  18. Models and Methods for Adaptive Management of Individual and Team-Based Training Using a Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitsyna, L. S.; Smetyuh, N. P.; Golikov, S. P.

    2017-05-01

    Research of adaptive individual and team-based training has been analyzed and helped find out that both in Russia and abroad, individual and team-based training and retraining of AASTM operators usually includes: production training, training of general computer and office equipment skills, simulator training including virtual simulators which use computers to simulate real-world manufacturing situation, and, as a rule, the evaluation of AASTM operators’ knowledge determined by completeness and adequacy of their actions under the simulated conditions. Such approach to training and re-training of AASTM operators stipulates only technical training of operators and testing their knowledge based on assessing their actions in a simulated environment.

  19. The vulnerability of threatened species: adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Pam; Ogawa-Onishi, Yuko; McVey, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Global targets to halt the loss of biodiversity have not been met, and there is now an additional Aichi target for preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status. Climate change increasingly needs to be factored in to these, and thus there is a need to identify the extent to which it could increase species vulnerability. This paper uses the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity framework to assess the vulnerability of a selection of WWF global priority large mammals and marine species to climate change. However, it divides adaptive capacity into adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity, in order to identify whether adaptation is more constrained by the biology of the species or by its environmental setting. Lack of evidence makes it difficult to apply the framework consistently across the species, but it was found that, particularly for the terrestrial mammals, adaptation opportunities seems to be the greater constraint. This framework and analysis could be used by conservationists and those wishing to enhance the resilience of species to climate change.

  20. The Vulnerability of Threatened Species: Adaptive Capability and Adaptation Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McVey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global targets to halt the loss of biodiversity have not been met, and there is now an additional Aichi target for preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status. Climate change increasingly needs to be factored in to these, and thus there is a need to identify the extent to which it could increase species vulnerability. This paper uses the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity framework to assess the vulnerability of a selection of WWF global priority large mammals and marine species to climate change. However, it divides adaptive capacity into adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity, in order to identify whether adaptation is more constrained by the biology of the species or by its environmental setting. Lack of evidence makes it difficult to apply the framework consistently across the species, but it was found that, particularly for the terrestrial mammals, adaptation opportunities seems to be the greater constraint. This framework and analysis could be used by conservationists and those wishing to enhance the resilience of species to climate change.

  1. Subfamily-specific adaptations in the structures of two penicillin-binding proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil M Prigozhin

    Full Text Available Beta-lactam antibiotics target penicillin-binding proteins including several enzyme classes essential for bacterial cell-wall homeostasis. To better understand the functional and inhibitor-binding specificities of penicillin-binding proteins from the pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we carried out structural and phylogenetic analysis of two predicted D,D-carboxypeptidases, Rv2911 and Rv3330. Optimization of Rv2911 for crystallization using directed evolution and the GFP folding reporter method yielded a soluble quadruple mutant. Structures of optimized Rv2911 bound to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and Rv3330 bound to meropenem show that, in contrast to the nonspecific inhibitor, meropenem forms an extended interaction with the enzyme along a conserved surface. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Rv2911 and Rv3330 belong to different clades that emerged in Actinobacteria and are not represented in model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Clade-specific adaptations allow these enzymes to fulfill distinct physiological roles despite strict conservation of core catalytic residues. The characteristic differences include potential protein-protein interaction surfaces and specificity-determining residues surrounding the catalytic site. Overall, these structural insights lay the groundwork to develop improved beta-lactam therapeutics for tuberculosis.

  2. Comparison between hobbed and precision forged helical gears for automobile manual transaxle - on the prospect of form, precision, material specification and production cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, M.; Kawasaki, Y.; Hoguchi, T.; Tsujimoto, H.; Yamazaki, S.; Yoshinaga, M. [O-oka Co., Toyota (Japan); Moriwaki, I. [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Kagaya, C. [Chubu Univ., Kasugai (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the comparison between hobbed and forged helical gears in terms of precision, deformation of heat-treatment, material specification and production cost. With the results the forged ones are superior to hobbed ones. (orig.)

  3. Reading Materials Adaption for English Language Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to the observance of ELT (English Language Training)classes in China, the selection of reading materials becomes a big problem. Most teachers there are in a traditional way of following the textbooks, and regard texts given in those books as the sole resource of teaching materials. However, those texts are not ideal for all situations, and when there are problems, we need to make improvements instead of sticking to the authority of textbooks. In this paper the author will illustrate the necessity of adapting reading textbooks mainly in a Chinese ELT context and set forth some corresponding suggestions about adaption in differ- ent cases.

  4. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela C Stotz

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo. In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó, and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  5. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Gisela C; Suárez, Lorena H; Gonzáles, Wilfredo L; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó) and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo). In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó), and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  6. Flight control design using a blend of modern nonlinear adaptive and robust techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong

    In this dissertation, the modern control techniques of feedback linearization, mu synthesis, and neural network based adaptation are used to design novel control laws for two specific applications: F/A-18 flight control and reusable launch vehicle (an X-33 derivative) entry guidance. For both applications, the performance of the controllers is assessed. As a part of a NASA Dryden program to develop and flight test experimental controllers for an F/A-18 aircraft, a novel method of combining mu synthesis and feedback linearization is developed to design longitudinal and lateral-directional controllers. First of all, the open-loop and closed-loop dynamics of F/A-18 are investigated. The production F/A-18 controller as well as the control distribution mechanism are studied. The open-loop and closed-loop handling qualities of the F/A-18 are evaluated using low order transfer functions. Based on this information, a blend of robust mu synthesis and feedback linearization is used to design controllers for a low dynamic pressure envelope of flight conditions. For both the longitudinal and the lateral-directional axes, a robust linear controller is designed for a trim point in the center of the envelope. Then by including terms to cancel kinematic nonlinearities and variations in the aerodynamic forces and moments over the flight envelope, a complete nonlinear controller is developed. In addition, to compensate for the model uncertainty, linearization error and variations between operating points, neural network based adaptation is added to the designed longitudinal controller. The nonlinear simulations, robustness and handling qualities analysis indicate that the performance is similar to or better than that for the production F/A-18 controllers. When the dynamic pressure is very low, the performance of both the experimental and the production flight controllers is degraded, but Level I handling qualities are still achieved. A new generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles

  7. Evaluation of Generalized Performance across Materials When Using Video Technology by Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Foster, Ashley L.; Bryant, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of four high school-aged students with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and moderate intellectual disability to generalize performance of skills when using materials different from those presented through video models. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to evaluate student…

  8. Adaptive, Active and Multifunctional Composite and Hybrid Materials Program: Composite and Hybrid Materials ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    16 4.2.4.3 Fabrication and Modeling of Rubber Muscle Actuators ..........17 4.2.4.4 Modeling of Power Response of SMP/SMA...Processing of BMI/Preceramic Polymer Blends .................................28 4.9 Task 9.0 Hybrid Material Processing and Fabrication...electrical stimulus, similar in action to the natural response of the conformation of a bird wing during flight vs. takeoff or landing, a muscle pair

  9. Development of a Microcomputer-Based Adaptive Testing System. Phase I. Specification of Requirements and Preliminary Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    number within the area. Previous banking systems have used content identifiers based on mnemonic codes, Dewey decimal codes, and simple descriptive...ALBING, L FOnTE-LFNNOX NOOO𔃾-2-C-n132 UbiLLASSIFIEO ONR-ASC-82-01 NL -"III2III CC) SX2~ I 1 I I ’%ECuAITY . CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Wa en Dote...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (aInm Data SEIm 20. microcomputer systems were considered in search of hardware on which to implement the design

  10. Evolution of stability in a cold-active enzyme elicits specificity relaxation and highlights substrate-related effects on temperature adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti-Lafranconi, Pietro; Natalello, Antonino; Rehm, Sascha; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Pleiss, Jürgen; Lotti, Marina

    2010-01-08

    Molecular aspects of thermal adaptation of proteins were studied by following the co-evolution of temperature dependence, conformational stability, and substrate specificity in a cold-active lipase modified via directed evolution. We found that the evolution of kinetic stability was accompanied by a relaxation in substrate specificity. Moreover, temperature dependence and selectivity turned out to be mutually dependent. While the wild-type protein was strictly specific for short-chain triglycerides (C4) in the temperature range 10-50 degrees C and displayed highest activity in the cold, its stabilized variant was able to accept C8 and C12 molecules and its selectivity was temperature dependent. We could not detect any improvement in the overall structural robustness of the mutant when the structure was challenged by temperature or chemical denaturants. There is, however, strong evidence for local stabilization effects in the active-site region provided by two independent approaches. Differential scanning fluorimetry revealed that the exposure of hydrophobic patches (as the active site is) precedes denaturation, and molecular dynamics simulations confirmed that stability was obtained by restriction of the mobility of the lid, a flexible structure that regulates the access to the enzyme active site and influences its stability. This reduction of lid movements is suggested to be accompanied by a concomitant increase in the mobility of other protein regions, thus accounting for the observed broadening of substrate specificity.

  11. Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Menopause Specific Questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | May-Jun 2014 | Vol 4 | Issue 3 |. 325. Address for ... level as well as in individuals with hypertension and diabetes. Keywords: ..... research on Chinese medicine: Early experience and outlook.

  12. Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Menopause Specific Questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menopause is a stage of life, which every woman passes ... responsible to the children and husbands,[6] but menopausal .... Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of each subscale of MENQOL questionnaire by demographic characteristics.

  13. Adaptive Flow Simulation of Turbulence in Subject-Specific Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm on Massively Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Onkar; Jansen, Kenneth; Shephard, Mark; Taylor, Charles

    2007-11-01

    Flow within the healthy human vascular system is typically laminar but diseased conditions can alter the geometry sufficiently to produce transitional/turbulent flows in regions focal (and immediately downstream) of the diseased section. The mean unsteadiness (pulsatile or respiratory cycle) further complicates the situation making traditional turbulence simulation techniques (e.g., Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (RANSS)) suspect. At the other extreme, direct numerical simulation (DNS) while fully appropriate can lead to large computational expense, particularly when the simulations must be done quickly since they are intended to affect the outcome of a medical treatment (e.g., virtual surgical planning). To produce simulations in a clinically relevant time frame requires; 1) adaptive meshing technique that closely matches the desired local mesh resolution in all three directions to the highly anisotropic physical length scales in the flow, 2) efficient solution algorithms, and 3) excellent scaling on massively parallel computers. In this presentation we will demonstrate results for a subject-specific simulation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using stabilized finite element method on anisotropically adapted meshes consisting of O(10^8) elements over O(10^4) processors.

  14. Plasma protein corona modulates the vascular wall interaction of drug carriers in a material and donor specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Sobczynski

    Full Text Available The nanoscale plasma protein interaction with intravenously injected particulate carrier systems is known to modulate their organ distribution and clearance from the bloodstream. However, the role of this plasma protein interaction in prescribing the adhesion of carriers to the vascular wall remains relatively unknown. Here, we show that the adhesion of vascular-targeted poly(lactide-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA spheres to endothelial cells is significantly inhibited in human blood flow, with up to 90% reduction in adhesion observed relative to adhesion in simple buffer flow, depending on the particle size and the magnitude and pattern of blood flow. This reduced PLGA adhesion in blood flow is linked to the adsorption of certain high molecular weight plasma proteins on PLGA and is donor specific, where large reductions in particle adhesion in blood flow (>80% relative to buffer is seen with ∼60% of unique donor bloods while others exhibit moderate to no reductions. The depletion of high molecular weight immunoglobulins from plasma is shown to successfully restore PLGA vascular wall adhesion. The observed plasma protein effect on PLGA is likely due to material characteristics since the effect is not replicated with polystyrene or silica spheres. These particles effectively adhere to the endothelium at a higher level in blood over buffer flow. Overall, understanding how distinct plasma proteins modulate the vascular wall interaction of vascular-targeted carriers of different material characteristics would allow for the design of highly functional delivery vehicles for the treatment of many serious human diseases.

  15. Benefits and challenges of controlling a LED AFS (Adaptive Front-lighting System) using fuzzy logic

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p.579−588 The vehicular illumination system has undergone considerable technological advances in recent decades such as the use of a Light Emitting Diode (LED) Adaptive Front-lighting System (AFS), which represents an industry breakthrough in lighting technology and is rapidly becoming one of the most important innovative technologies around the world in the lighting community. This paper presents AFS control alternatives using fuzzy logic (types 1...

  16. Improved material specifications for unsealed roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available into account so that the specifications can be effectively applied. A revised material selection guide and performance prediction chart have been developed for use when the materials are tested using the British Standard test methods....

  17. SOCIAL ADAPTABILITY OF YOUNG PEOPLE WITH MENTAL DISABILITIES FOR INDEPENDENT LIFE IN SOCIETY: ESSENCE, SPECIFICITY, LEVELS OF EXISTENCE, CRITERIA AND INDICATORS FOR THEIR EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Grebennikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was prepared within the framework of the state assignment of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation No. 3307 In the article the authors explain the nature and content of social adaptability of graduates psycho-neurological boarding schools (young people with disabilities from 24 to 27 years old with mild mental retardation to independent life in society; note that this adaptability is characterized by the level of proficiency of graduate boarding norms of social behavior, professional orientation and socio-moral experience of self in different situations. Reveal the content of main components (motivational, cognitive, activity that determine the social adaptability of the graduate psycho-neurological boarding school; lead characteristics of the levels of formation of social adaptability of graduates of psycho-neurological boarding schools for independent living (minimal-basic level; socially stable level; social perspective level. Also, the authors consider the principles of implementation of socio-pedagogical support of adaptation of graduates of the boarding school to independent life in society (in particular, the principle of the humanistic nature of the relationship specialists of psycho-neurological boarding schools with young people with disabilities; the principle of individual approach; the principle of variability and complexity of forms, methods, means of support; the principle of the priority of the interests of professional and personal development of a young disabled person in the implementation of socio-pedagogical support of its adaptation to independent life in society, etc..

  18. Locomotor Experience and Use of Social Information Are Posture Specific

    OpenAIRE

    Adolph, Karen E.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Ishak, Shaziela; Karasik, Lana B.; Lobo, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of locomotor experience on infants’ perceptual judgments in a potentially risky situation—descending steep and shallow slopes—while manipulating social incentives to determine where perceptual judgments are most malleable. Twelve-month-old experienced crawlers and novice walkers were tested on an adjustable sloping walkway as their mothers encouraged and discouraged descent. A psychophysical procedure was used to estimate infants’ ability to crawl/walk down sl...

  19. Small-Scale Habitat-Specific Variation and Adaptive Divergence of Photosynthetic Pigments in Different Alkali Soils in Reed Identified by Common Garden and Genetic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Jiang, LiLi; Li, ShanZhi; Yang, YunFei

    2017-01-01

    Flexibility of photosynthetic pigment traits is an important adaptive mechanism through which plants can increase mean fitness in a variable environment. Unlike morphological traits in plants, photosythesis has been shown to exhibit phenotypic plasticity, responding rapidly to environmental conditions. Meanwhile, local adaptation at small scales is considered to be rare. Thus, detecting the small-scale adaptive divergence of photosynthetic pigments presents a challenge. Leaf concentrations of photosynthetic pigments under stressful conditions may be reduced or maintained. Concentrations of some pigments and/or ratio of Chlorophyll a (Chla) to Chlorophyll b (Chlb) do not change markedly in some species, such as the common reed, Phragmites australis, a cosmopolitan grass and common invader. Little is known about photosynthetic responses of this plant to varying levels of alkali salt. Few studies have attempted to account for the relationship between pigment accumulation and leaf position in wild plant populations in grasslands. In this study, photosynthetic pigment concentrations and the total Chl(a+b)/Car ratio decreased as the growing season progressed and were shown to be significantly lower in the habitat with a higher soil pH value and less moisture when compared between habitats. The Chla/Chlb ratio did not differ significantly between habitats, although it increased significantly over time. Leaves in the middle position may be functionally important in the response to soil conditions because only pigment concentrations and the Chl(a+b)/Car ratio of those leaves varied between habitats significantly. The outlier loci, used to evaluate molecular signatures of selection, were detected by Arlequin, Bayescan, and Bayenv analyses. In the simulated habitats of common garden, the local genotypes had higher values of Chla, Chlb, Chl(a+b), Car in their home habitat than did genotypes originating from the other habitat. QST–FST comparisons provided evidence of

  20. Comparative genomics of rhizobia nodulating soybean suggests extensive recruitment of lineage-specific genes in adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang Fu; Zhou, Yuan Jie; Zhang, Yan Ming; Li, Qin Qin; Zhang, Yun Zeng; Li, Dong Fang; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Jun; Gilbert, Luz B; Li, Ying Rui; Chen, Wen Xin

    2012-05-29

    The rhizobium-legume symbiosis has been widely studied as the model of mutualistic evolution and the essential component of sustainable agriculture. Extensive genetic and recent genomic studies have led to the hypothesis that many distinct strategies, regardless of rhizobial phylogeny, contributed to the varied rhizobium-legume symbiosis. We sequenced 26 genomes of Sinorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium nodulating soybean to test this hypothesis. The Bradyrhizobium core genome is disproportionally enriched in lipid and secondary metabolism, whereas several gene clusters known to be involved in osmoprotection and adaptation to alkaline pH are specific to the Sinorhizobium core genome. These features are consistent with biogeographic patterns of these bacteria. Surprisingly, no genes are specifically shared by these soybean microsymbionts compared with other legume microsymbionts. On the other hand, phyletic patterns of 561 known symbiosis genes of rhizobia reflected the species phylogeny of these soybean microsymbionts and other rhizobia. Similar analyses with 887 known functional genes or the whole pan genome of rhizobia revealed that only the phyletic distribution of functional genes was consistent with the species tree of rhizobia. Further evolutionary genetics revealed that recombination dominated the evolution of core genome. Taken together, our results suggested that faithfully vertical genes were rare compared with those with history of recombination including lateral gene transfer, although rhizobial adaptations to symbiotic interactions and other environmental conditions extensively recruited lineage-specific shell genes under direct or indirect control through the speciation process.

  1. THE USE OF SPECIFIC AND NON-SPECIFIC QUESTIONNAIRES TO ASSESS QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF INTESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Shklyaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative assessment of the quality of life of IBS patients in the treatment process with the use of specific and non-specific questionnaires.Materials and methods: a dynamic study of quality of life in 40 patients of IBS with the use of questionnaires GSRS and SF-36.Results: marked decrease in the severity of syndromes on all 6 scales of the questionnaire GSRS, and after 1 to 3 weeks of treatment dynamics was gained statistically significant, and total score improved significantly already after 1 week of therapy. Positive dynamics was obtained on the two scales of the questionnaire SF-36 (social functioning, and emotional functioning, as well as physical and psychological components of health.Conclusions: the high sensitivity of specific questionnaire GSRS and diagnostic significance of nonspecific SF-36 questionnaire in patients with IBS, the necessity to combine them.

  2. Nonlinear waves in lattice materials: Adaptively augmented directivity and functionality enhancement by modal mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, R.; Gonella, S.

    2017-02-01

    The motive of this work is to understand the complex spatial characteristics of finite-amplitude elastic wave propagation in periodic structures and leverage the unique opportunities offered by nonlinearity to activate complementary functionalities and design adaptive spatial wave manipulators. The underlying assumption is that the magnitude of wave propagation is small with respect to the length scale of the structure under consideration, albeit large enough to elicit the effects of finite deformation. We demonstrate that the interplay of dispersion, nonlinearity and modal complexity involved in the generation and propagation of higher harmonics gives rise to secondary wave packets that feature multiple characteristics, one of which conforms to the dispersion relation of the corresponding linear structure. This provides an opportunity to engineer desired wave characteristics through a geometric and topological design of the unit cell, and results in the ability to activate complementary functionalities, typical of high frequency regimes, while operating at low frequencies of excitation - an effect seldom observed in linear periodic structures. The ability to design adaptive switches is demonstrated here using lattice configurations whose response is characterized by geometric and/or material nonlinearities.

  3. Biodiversity and cold adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Xin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-adapted bacteria and archaea are widely distributed in cold environments on Earth, such as permafrost, cold soils and deserts, glaciers, lakes, sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic and high mountains, as well as the deep sea, ice caves and the atmospheric stratosphere etc. Cold-adapted organisms inhabiting these environments exhibit rich diversity. Studies on the biogeography of psychrophiles will enable us to understand their biodiversity, distribution and origins. Due to long-term living in cold regions, cold-adapted bacteria and archeae have developed specific physiological mechanisms of adaptation to cold environments. These mechanisms include: regulating the fluidity of the cytoplasmic membrane through adjusting the composition of membrane lipids; achieving low-temperature protection through compatibility solute, antifreeze proteins, ice-binding proteins, ice-nucleation proteins and anti-nucleating proteins; production of heat-shock and coldshock proteins, cold acclimation protein and DEAD-box RNA helicase at low temperatures; production of cold-active enzymes; increasing energy generation and conservation. With the rapid development of sequencing technology, various omics-based approaches have been used to reveal cold-adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles at the genomic level.

  4. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2012 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 12) (Stone Mountain, GA, USA, 19-21 September 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelecke, Stefan; Erturk, Alper; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Naguib, Hani; Huber, John; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Philen, Michael; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu

    2013-09-01

    The fifth annual meeting of the ASME/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) was held in beautiful Stone Mountain near Atlanta, GA. It is the conference's objective to provide an up-to-date overview of research trends in the entire field of smart materials systems. This was reflected in keynote speeches by Professor Eduard Arzt (Institute of New Materials and Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany) on 'Micro-patterned artificial 'Gecko' surfaces: a path to switchable adhesive function', by Professor Ray H Baughman (The Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas) on 'The diverse and growing family of carbon nanotube and related artificial muscles', and by Professor Richard James (University of Minnesota) on 'The direct conversion of heat to electricity using multiferroic materials with phase transformations'. SMASIS 2012 was divided into eight symposia which span basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. • SYMP 1. Development and characterization of multifunctional materials. • SYMP 2. Mechanics and behavior of active materials. • SYMP 3. Modeling, simulation and control of adaptive systems. • SYMP 4. Integrated system design and implementation. • SYMP 5. Structural health monitoring/NDE. • SYMP 6. Bio-inspired materials and systems. • SYMP 7. Energy harvesting. • SYMP 8. Structural and materials logic. This year we were particularly excited to introduce a new symposium on energy harvesting, which has quickly matured from a special track in previous years to an independent symposium for the first time. The subject cuts across fields by studying different materials, ranging from piezoelectrics to electroactive polymers, as well as by emphasizing different energy sources from wind to waves and ambient vibrations. Modeling, experimental studies, and technology applications all

  5. A dynamic Fourier series for the compression of ECG using FFT and adaptive coefficient estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Nashash, H A

    1995-04-01

    In this article, a new ECG data compression technique is proposed. The method relies on modelling quasi-periodic ECG signals as a dynamic Fourier series. Fourier coefficients are continuously estimated using either an FFT algorithm or the adaptive least mean square algorithm. Results from simulated normal and pathological ECGs are presented and discussed. The merits of each of the above two methods are also illustrated. Furthermore, a comparison with other compression techniques is also discussed.

  6. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerigter, S.T.; Sena, D.J.; Fasel, J.H.

    1998-12-31

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified.

  7. Potential of Technogenic Mineral Raw Materials in Russia and the Issues of its Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Ivanovna Goncharova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing negative impact of mining waste on natural ecosystems often leads to their irreversible destruction, a trend that is gradually becoming global. The particular relevance of the research is explained, on the one hand, by the possibilities of minimization of specific volumes of formation of mining waste in all types of industries; on the other hand, by the possibilities of maximization of comp rehensive use of their valuable components as secondary material resources on an economically rational basis and the possibilities of restoring the disturbed natural environment. The rational use of natural and technogenic mineral raw materials is greatly facilitated by the geological exploration and geological-economic evaluation of the resources, which requires the development of specific methodological approaches to the economic justification of resource estimation parameters for outlining and calculating the multicomponent commercial reserves of raw materials and separate valuable components in them. Analysis shows that researchers’ opinions on a number of methodological principles of sustainable mining, complex processing of multicomponent materials are often contradictory. Scientific publications do not consider the issue of the price valuation of mining waste as secondary material resources. Mining waste processing should be considered as an important part of the overall socio-ecological-economic system for rational nature management. The analysis of the existing practice of using the mining waste should be based on the system approach and take into consideration geological, technological, economic, environmental and social characteristics throughout the cycle of production, combined processing and treatment of secondary waste according to the principle “from the earth to the earth”. The article identifies the main barriers to the recycling of mining wastes, proposes several methodological guidelines for the sustainable mining and

  8. The environmental impact of climate change adaptation on land use and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezzi, Carlo; Harwood, Amii R.; Lovett, Andrew A.; Bateman, Ian J.

    2015-03-01

    Encouraging adaptation is an essential aspect of the policy response to climate change. Adaptation seeks to reduce the harmful consequences and harness any beneficial opportunities arising from the changing climate. However, given that human activities are the main cause of environmental transformations worldwide, it follows that adaptation itself also has the potential to generate further pressures, creating new threats for both local and global ecosystems. From this perspective, policies designed to encourage adaptation may conflict with regulation aimed at preserving or enhancing environmental quality. This aspect of adaptation has received relatively little consideration in either policy design or academic debate. To highlight this issue, we analyse the trade-offs between two fundamental ecosystem services that will be impacted by climate change: provisioning services derived from agriculture and regulating services in the form of freshwater quality. Results indicate that climate adaptation in the farming sector will generate fundamental changes in river water quality. In some areas, policies that encourage adaptation are expected to be in conflict with existing regulations aimed at improving freshwater ecosystems. These findings illustrate the importance of anticipating the wider impacts of human adaptation to climate change when designing environmental policies.

  9. Stimulus-specific adaptation and deviance detection in the rat auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevo Taaseh

    Full Text Available Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA is the specific decrease in the response to a frequent ('standard' stimulus, which does not generalize, or generalizes only partially, to another, rare stimulus ('deviant'. Stimulus-specific adaptation could result simply from the depression of the responses to the standard. Alternatively, there may be an increase in the responses to the deviant stimulus due to the violation of expectations set by the standard, indicating the presence of true deviance detection. We studied SSA in the auditory cortex of halothane-anesthetized rats, recording local field potentials and multi-unit activity. We tested the responses to pure tones of one frequency when embedded in sequences that differed from each other in the frequency and probability of the tones composing them. The responses to tones of the same frequency were larger when deviant than when standard, even with inter-stimulus time intervals of almost 2 seconds. Thus, SSA is present and strong in rat auditory cortex. SSA was present even when the frequency difference between deviants and standards was as small as 10%, substantially smaller than the typical width of cortical tuning curves, revealing hyper-resolution in frequency. Strong responses were evoked also by a rare tone presented by itself, and by rare tones presented as part of a sequence of many widely spaced frequencies. On the other hand, when presented within a sequence of narrowly spaced frequencies, the responses to a tone, even when rare, were smaller. A model of SSA that included only adaptation of the responses in narrow frequency channels predicted responses to the deviants that were substantially smaller than the observed ones. Thus, the response to a deviant is at least partially due to the change it represents relative to the regularity set by the standard tone, indicating the presence of true deviance detection in rat auditory cortex.

  10. Development and application of a new method for specific and sensitive enumeration of spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum types B, E, and F in foods and food materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael W; Plowman, June; Aldus, Clare F; Wyatt, Gary M; Izurieta, Walter Penaloza; Stringer, Sandra C; Barker, Gary C

    2010-10-01

    The highly potent botulinum neurotoxins are responsible for botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease. Strains of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum form neurotoxins of types B, E, and F and are the main hazard associated with minimally heated refrigerated foods. Recent developments in quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) and food safety objectives (FSO) have made food safety more quantitative and include, as inputs, probability distributions for the contamination of food materials and foods. A new method that combines a selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR has been developed and validated to enumerate specifically the spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum. Key features of this new method include the following: (i) it is specific for nonproteolytic C. botulinum (and does not detect proteolytic C. botulinum), (ii) the detection limit has been determined for each food tested (using carefully structured control samples), and (iii) a low detection limit has been achieved by the use of selective enrichment and large test samples. The method has been used to enumerate spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum in 637 samples of 19 food materials included in pasta-based minimally heated refrigerated foods and in 7 complete foods. A total of 32 samples (5 egg pastas and 27 scallops) contained spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum type B or F. The majority of samples contained <100 spores/kg, but one sample of scallops contained 444 spores/kg. Nonproteolytic C. botulinum type E was not detected. Importantly, for QMRA and FSO, the construction of probability distributions will enable the frequency of packs containing particular levels of contamination to be determined.

  11. Adaptive Robust Sliding Mode Vibration Control of a Flexible Beam Using Piezoceramic Sensor and Actuator: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo Lin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of an adaptive robust sliding mode control scheme based on the Lyapunov’s direct method for active vibration control of a flexible beam using PZT (lead zirconate titanate sensor and actuator. PZT, a type of piezoceramic material, has the advantages of high reliability, high bandwidth, and solid state actuation and is adopted here in forms of surface-bond patches for vibration control. Two adaptive robust sliding mode controllers for vibration suppression are designed: one uses a discontinuous bang-bang robust compensator and the other uses a smooth compensator with a hyperbolic tangent function. Both controllers guarantee asymptotic stability, as proved by the Lyapunov’s direct method. Experimental results verified the effectiveness and the robustness of both adaptive sliding mode controllers. However, from the experimental results, the bang-bang robust compensator causes small-magnitude chattering because of the discontinuous switching actions. With the smooth compensator, vibration is quickly suppressed and no chattering is induced. Furthermore, the robustness of the controllers is successfully demonstrated with ensured effectiveness in vibration control when masses are added to the flexible beam.

  12. Infrared Emissivity Measurements for Mineral Materials and Materials Used for Infrastructure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves; Ausset, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings, civil engineering structures and soils studies is useful for two specific approaches. Firstly, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures using infrared thermography requires the emissivity value of materials in the spectral bandwidth of the camera. For instance emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors like micro-bolometers arrays. The knowledge of emissivity is in that case needed for computation of surface temperature fields. Secondly, accurate thermal balance requires the emissivity value in a large wavelength domain. This is for instance the case for computing roads surface temperature to predict ice forming. A measurement of emissivity just after construction and a regular survey of its variations due to ageing or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations like thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. For mineral materials, a lot of studies exist, but often in situ value of emissivity could be different. Mineral materials are not pure, and could be soiled. Real value obtained with a field device is required. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. Thus, two devices using the indirect measurement method were developed. The emissivity value is deduced from the measurement of the reflectivity of the material under study after calibration with a highly reflective surface. The first device uses a slow modulation frequency well adapted to laboratory measurements whereas the second one is a portable system using a faster modulation frequency authorizing outdoor measurements. Both devices allow measurements in broad band (1 to 40μm) and band III (8 to 14μm). Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. For instance at that time 180 samples of different pavement wearing course

  13. Relationships among adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology during the treatment of comorbid anxiety and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Laren R; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Barlow, David H

    2015-10-01

    Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanostructured Shape Memory Alloys: Adaptive Composite Materials and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    a clear relation between strain and nip gap can be observed. The use of LAT on calendering of isothermal flow, a problem analogous to the...Chemical Engineering Science, 57, (2002) 643-650. 9. Sofou S, Mitsoulis E. Calendering of Pseudoplastic and Viscoplastic Sheets of Finite Thickness

  15. SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF INTERACTION OF PLATELETS WITH THE HEPARINIZED MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Nemets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of anticoagulant nature on medical materials testing was done. It was found that change of citrate by heparin is accompanied by significant changes in platelet adhesion and activation. This results allowed us to arrive at a conclusion about reasonability of heparin usage as anticoagulant in in vitro testing. 

  16. Robust adaptive control of MEMS triaxial gyroscope using fuzzy compensator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Juntao; Zhou, Jian

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a robust adaptive control strategy using a fuzzy compensator for MEMS triaxial gyroscope, which has system nonlinearities, including model uncertainties and external disturbances, is proposed. A fuzzy logic controller that could compensate for the model uncertainties and external disturbances is incorporated into the adaptive control scheme in the Lyapunov framework. The proposed adaptive fuzzy controller can guarantee the convergence and asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system. The proposed adaptive fuzzy control strategy does not depend on accurate mathematical models, which simplifies the design procedure. The innovative development of intelligent control methods incorporated with conventional control for the MEMS gyroscope is derived with the strict theoretical proof of the Lyapunov stability. Numerical simulations are investigated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive fuzzy control scheme and demonstrate the satisfactory tracking performance and robustness against model uncertainties and external disturbances compared with conventional adaptive control method.

  17. Classical and adaptive control of ex vivo skeletal muscle contractions using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Adam; Grange, Robert W.; Abaid, Nicole; Leonessa, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation is a promising approach to treat patients by stimulating the peripheral nerves and their corresponding motor neurons using electrical current. This technique helps maintain muscle mass and promote blood flow in the absence of a functioning nervous system. The goal of this work is to control muscle contractions from FES via three different algorithms and assess the most appropriate controller providing effective stimulation of the muscle. An open-loop system and a closed-loop system with three types of model-free feedback controllers were assessed for tracking control of skeletal muscle contractions: a Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, a Model Reference Adaptive Control algorithm, and an Adaptive Augmented PI system. Furthermore, a mathematical model of a muscle-mass-spring system was implemented in simulation to test the open-loop case and closed-loop controllers. These simulations were carried out and then validated through experiments ex vivo. The experiments included muscle contractions following four distinct trajectories: a step, sine, ramp, and square wave. Overall, the closed-loop controllers followed the stimulation trajectories set for all the simulated and tested muscles. When comparing the experimental outcomes of each controller, we concluded that the Adaptive Augmented PI algorithm provided the best closed-loop performance for speed of convergence and disturbance rejection. PMID:28273101

  18. 3D design and electric simulation of a silicon drift detector using a spiral biasing adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-yun; Xiong, Bo; Li, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    The detector system of combining a spiral biasing adapter (SBA) with a silicon drift detector (SBA-SDD) is largely different from the traditional silicon drift detector (SDD), including the spiral SDD. It has a spiral biasing adapter of the same design as a traditional spiral SDD and an SDD with concentric rings having the same radius. Compared with the traditional spiral SDD, the SBA-SDD separates the spiral's functions of biasing adapter and the p-n junction definition. In this paper, the SBA-SDD is simulated using a Sentaurus TCAD tool, which is a full 3D device simulation tool. The simulated electric characteristics include electric potential, electric field, electron concentration, and single event effect. Because of the special design of the SBA-SDD, the SBA can generate an optimum drift electric field in the SDD, comparable with the conventional spiral SDD, while the SDD can be designed with concentric rings to reduce surface area. Also the current and heat generated in the SBA are separated from the SDD. To study the single event response, we simulated the induced current caused by incident heavy ions (20 and 50 μm penetration length) with different linear energy transfer (LET). The SBA-SDD can be used just like a conventional SDD, such as X-ray detector for energy spectroscopy and imaging, etc.

  19. Learning an EMG Controlled Game: Task-Specific Adaptations and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Ludger; van der Sluis, Corry K.; van Dijk, Hylke W.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2016-01-01

    Video games that aim to improve myoelectric control (myogames) are gaining popularity and are often part of the rehabilitation process following an upper limb amputation. However, direct evidence for their effect on prosthetic skill is limited. This study aimed to determine whether and how myogaming improves EMG control and whether performance improvements transfer to a prosthesis-simulator task. Able-bodied right-handed participants (N = 28) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The intervention group was trained to control a video game (Breakout-EMG) using the myosignals of wrist flexors and extensors. Controls played a regular Mario computer game. Both groups trained 20 minutes a day for 4 consecutive days. Before and after training, two tests were conducted: one level of the Breakout-EMG game, and grasping objects with a prosthesis-simulator. Results showed a larger increase of in-game accuracy for the Breakout-EMG group than for controls. The Breakout-EMG group moreover showed increased adaptation of the EMG signal to the game. No differences were found in using a prosthesis-simulator. This study demonstrated that myogames lead to task-specific myocontrol skills. Transfer to a prosthesis task is therefore far from easy. We discuss several implications for future myogame designs. PMID:27556154

  20. Learning an EMG Controlled Game: Task-Specific Adaptations and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Ludger; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Dijk, Hylke W; Bongers, Raoul M

    2016-01-01

    Video games that aim to improve myoelectric control (myogames) are gaining popularity and are often part of the rehabilitation process following an upper limb amputation. However, direct evidence for their effect on prosthetic skill is limited. This study aimed to determine whether and how myogaming improves EMG control and whether performance improvements transfer to a prosthesis-simulator task. Able-bodied right-handed participants (N = 28) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The intervention group was trained to control a video game (Breakout-EMG) using the myosignals of wrist flexors and extensors. Controls played a regular Mario computer game. Both groups trained 20 minutes a day for 4 consecutive days. Before and after training, two tests were conducted: one level of the Breakout-EMG game, and grasping objects with a prosthesis-simulator. Results showed a larger increase of in-game accuracy for the Breakout-EMG group than for controls. The Breakout-EMG group moreover showed increased adaptation of the EMG signal to the game. No differences were found in using a prosthesis-simulator. This study demonstrated that myogames lead to task-specific myocontrol skills. Transfer to a prosthesis task is therefore far from easy. We discuss several implications for future myogame designs.

  1. Using Frustration in the Design of Adaptive Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Gilleade, Kiel; Dix, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In efforts to attract a wider audience, videogames are beginning to incorporate adaptive gameplay mechanics. Unlike the more traditional videogame, adaptive games can cater the gaming experience to the individual user and not just a particular group of users as with the former. Affective videogames, games that respond to the user's emotional state, may hold the key to creating such gameplay mechanics. In this paper we discus how the emotion frustration may be used in the design of adaptive vi...

  2. Radiation Damage Studies of Materials and Electronic Devices Using Hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellett, David; Baldwin, Andrew; Gallagher, Garratt; Olson, David; Styczinski, Marshall

    2014-05-14

    We have irradiated NdFeB permanent magnet samples from different manufacturers and with differing values of coercivity and remanence using stepped doses of 1 MeV equivalent neutrons up to a fluence of 0:64 1015n=cm2 to evaluate effects on magnetization and B field distributions. The samples with high coercivity, irradiated in open circuit configurations, showed no or minimal effects when compared with unirradiated samples, whereas the lower coercivity magnets suffered significant losses of magnetization and changes in the shapes of their field patterns. One such magnet underwent a fractional magnetization loss of 13.1% after a fluence of 0:59 1015 n=cm2. This demagnetization was not uniform. With increasing fluence, B field scans along the centerlines of the pole faces revealed that the normal component of B decreased more near the midpoint of the scan than near the ends. In addition, a fit to the curve of overall magnetization loss with fluence showed a significant deviation from linearity. The results are discussed in light of other measurements and theory. The high coercivity materials appear suitable for use in accelerator applications subject to irradiation by fast neutrons such as dipoles where the internal demagnetizing field is comparable to or less than that of the open circuit samples tested in this study.

  3. Radiation Damage Studies of Materials and Electronic Devices Using Hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellett, David; Baldwin, Andrew; Gallagher, Garratt; Olson, David; Styczinski, Marshall

    2014-05-14

    We have irradiated NdFeB permanent magnet samples from different manufacturers and with differing values of coercivity and remanence using stepped doses of 1 MeV equivalent neutrons up to a fluence of 0:64 1015n=cm2 to evaluate effects on magnetization and B field distributions. The samples with high coercivity, irradiated in open circuit configurations, showed no or minimal effects when compared with unirradiated samples, whereas the lower coercivity magnets suffered significant losses of magnetization and changes in the shapes of their field patterns. One such magnet underwent a fractional magnetization loss of 13.1% after a fluence of 0:59 1015 n=cm2. This demagnetization was not uniform. With increasing fluence, B field scans along the centerlines of the pole faces revealed that the normal component of B decreased more near the midpoint of the scan than near the ends. In addition, a fit to the curve of overall magnetization loss with fluence showed a significant deviation from linearity. The results are discussed in light of other measurements and theory. The high coercivity materials appear suitable for use in accelerator applications subject to irradiation by fast neutrons such as dipoles where the internal demagnetizing field is comparable to or less than that of the open circuit samples tested in this study.

  4. Design and Analysis of Crankshaft Used in Aerospace Applications and Comparision Using Different Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Narayana Gupta,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this project was to evaluate and compare the fatigue performance of two competing manufacturing technologies for aerospace crankshafts, namely forged steel and ductile cast iron. In this project a dynamic simulation was conducted on two crankshafts, forged steel and ductile cast iron, from similar four cylinder four stroke engines. Finite element analysis was performed to obtain the variation of stress magnitude at critical locations. The pressure-volume diagram was used to calculate the load boundary condition in dynamic simulation model, and other simulation inputs were taken from the engine specification chart. The dynamic analysis was done analytically and was verified by simulations in ANSYS. Results achieved from aforementioned analysis were used in optimization of the forged steel crankshaft. Geometry, material, and manufacturing processes were optimized considering different constraints, manufacturing feasibility, and cost. The optimization Process included geometry changes compatible with the current engine, fillet rolling, and the use of micro alloyed steel, resulting in increased fatigue strength and reduced cost of the crankshaft, without changing connecting rod and or engine block.

  5. Adaptive management of watersheds and related resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of learning about natural resources through the practice of management has been around for several decades and by now is associated with the term adaptive management. The objectives of this paper are to offer a framework for adaptive management that includes an operational definition, a description of conditions in which it can be usefully applied, and a systematic approach to its application. Adaptive decisionmaking is described as iterative, learning-based management in two phases, each with its own mechanisms for feedback and adaptation. The linkages between traditional experimental science and adaptive management are discussed.

  6. Examining the Domain-Specificity of Metacognition Using Academic Domains and Task-Specific Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brianna M.; Berman, Ashleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition refers to students' knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as their accuracy in predicting their academic performance. This study addressed two major questions: 1) how do metacognitive knowledge, regulation and accuracy differ across domains?, and 2) how do students' individual differences relate to their reported…

  7. Adaptation of short-term plasticity parameters via error-driven learning may explain the correlation between activity-dependent synaptic properties, connectivity motifs and target specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Umberto; Giugliano, Michele; Vasilaki, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    The anatomical connectivity among neurons has been experimentally found to be largely non-random across brain areas. This means that certain connectivity motifs occur at a higher frequency than would be expected by chance. Of particular interest, short-term synaptic plasticity properties were found to colocalize with specific motifs: an over-expression of bidirectional motifs has been found in neuronal pairs where short-term facilitation dominates synaptic transmission among the neurons, whereas an over-expression of unidirectional motifs has been observed in neuronal pairs where short-term depression dominates. In previous work we found that, given a network with fixed short-term properties, the interaction between short- and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission is sufficient for the emergence of specific motifs. Here, we introduce an error-driven learning mechanism for short-term plasticity that may explain how such observed correspondences develop from randomly initialized dynamic synapses. By allowing synapses to change their properties, neurons are able to adapt their own activity depending on an error signal. This results in more rich dynamics and also, provided that the learning mechanism is target-specific, leads to specialized groups of synapses projecting onto functionally different targets, qualitatively replicating the experimental results of Wang and collaborators.

  8. Material-specific imaging system using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and spatially resolved CdZnTe detectors with potential application in breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbes, Damien; Tabary, Joachim; Paulus, Caroline; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Verger, Loïck

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a coherent X-ray-scattering imaging technique using a multipixel energy-dispersive system. Without any translation, the technique produces specific 1D image from data recorded by a single CdZnTe detector pixel using subpixelation techniques. The method is described in detail, illustrated by a simulation and then experimentally validated. As the main considered application of our study is breast imaging, this validation involves 2D imaging of a phantom made of plastics mimicking breast tissues. The results obtained show that our system can specifically image the phantom using a single detector pixel. For the moment, in vivo breast imaging applications remain difficult, as the dose delivered by the system is too high, but some adjustments are considered for further work.

  9. Identification of adaptation-specific differences in mRNA expression of sessile and pedunculate oak based on osmotic-stress-induced genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; Koch, Margit; Berenyi, Maria; Burg, Agnes; Burg, Kornel

    2005-10-01

    Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Q. robur L. hybridize frequently and occupy similar, though distinct, ecological niches. So far, genetic discrimination between these species at the molecular level has been based mainly on neutral markers. Because such markers often exhibit low species differentiation because of high genetic compatibility and exchange between Q. robur and Q. petraea at these loci, we used adaptation-related expressed genes as markers. Accordingly, we identified osmotic-stress-induced genes in a Q. petraea cell line grown under moderate osmotic stress conditions. Two subtraction libraries were established from callus cells cultured under hyperosmotic stress for 1 or 48 h. Thirty-three differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (from 70 originally isolated) were classified according to their putative functions. At least five of these gene products may contribute to osmotic-stress tolerance in oak: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, two trans-acting transcription factors (one abscsic acid (ABA)-responsive, the other ABA-independent), a glutathione-S- transferase and a heat-shock cognate protein. Seven genes were selected based on their putative function and their expression monitored in vivo. Leaf tissue from Q. petraea and Q. robur plantlets grown hydroponically under hyperosmotic conditions was harvested after 0, 1, 6, 24 or 72 h and analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We found indications of osmotic stress adaptation in Q. petraea based on up-regulation of genes related to protective functions, whereas down-regulation of these genes was evident in Q. robur. Thus, genetic markers related to adaptive traits may be useful for differentiating Q. petraea and Q. robur genotypes.

  10. Cultural adaptation and validation of an instrument on barriers for the use of research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Guimarães; Haas, Vanderlei José; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Felix, Márcia Marques Dos Santos; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2017-03-02

    to culturally adapt The Barriers to Research Utilization Scale and to analyze the metric validity and reliability properties of its Brazilian Portuguese version. methodological research conducted by means of the cultural adaptation process (translation and back-translation), face and content validity, construct validity (dimensionality and known groups) and reliability analysis (internal consistency and test-retest). The sample consisted of 335 nurses, of whom 43 participated in the retest phase. the validity of the adapted version of the instrument was confirmed. The scale investigates the barriers for the use of the research results in clinical practice. Confirmatory factorial analysis demonstrated that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument is adequately adjusted to the dimensional structure the scale authors originally proposed. Statistically significant differences were observed among the nurses holding a Master's or Doctoral degree, with characteristics favorable to Evidence-Based Practice, and working at an institution with an organizational cultural that targets this approach. The reliability showed a strong correlation (r ranging between 0.77 and 0.84, pcultura organizacional dirigida hacia tal aproximación. La fiabilidad presentó correlación fuerte (r variando entre 0,77 y 0,84, pcultura organizacional direcionada para tal abordagem. A confiabilidade apresentou correlação forte (r variando entre 0,77e 0,84, p<0,001) e a consistência interna foi adequada (alfa de Cronbach variando entre 0,77 e 0,82) . a versão para o português brasileiro do instrumento The Barriers Scale demonstrou-se válida e confiável no grupo estudado.

  11. Contributions of weather variables for specific adaptation of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.- Arg clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshan P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific adaptation of 15 rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones was assessed by analyzing yield during a normal year (1997-98 and a year (1998-99 in which the yield was exceptional. Differences in yield in response to changes in weather conditions over the years were evident with clones RRII 203, RRIM 703, PB 5/51 and PB 235 which all exhibited a negative trend with increasing wind velocity during 1997-98, these clones also exhibited a negative correlation with minimum temperature during 1998-99. The prominent yield differences across the years made selection based on both yield and stability inevitable through computing weather variables and environmental index as covariant. To determine the contribution of variable(s to genotype-environment (GE interactions, the GE interaction was partitioned into heterogeneity and residual GE interaction. Heterogeneity only for environmental index was highly significant (p = 0.01, meaning that stability or instability of clones was due to a linear effect of the environmental index. The non-significant values of heterogeneity for the weather variables revealed that none of these factors individually was sufficient to explain heterogeneity. A QBASIC computer program called STABLE was used to select simultaneously for yield and stability. Clones PB 235, RRII 118, RRII 203, RRIM 703 and RRIM 600 were stable over the years investigated.

  12. Investigation and Comparison of Recording Time of Steady State Evoked Potentials Using Three Methods of Kalman, Ziarani and adaptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Mehri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing assessment in infants and children younger than two years is an impor­tant issue, because the golden time of the language learning and speaking is under the age of two. Steady state auditory evoked potentials (SSAEPs is one of the best ways of the objective hearing assess­ment for infants and young children. The need for long time of stimulation and recording re­stricted the clinical uses of this method. Therefore, the reduction of the recording time is a common prob­lem. SSAEP signals are contaminated with background EEG signals of the brain and nervous sys­tem. To discriminate these signals the approach is using averaging method.Materials and Methods: In this work two adaptive methods were programmed and tried on (SSAEP sig­nals. The first method was the work of the Ziarani et al. and the second was the enhanced Kalman fil­ter. To assess suggested methods and to compare them with traditional averaging one, two sets of clini­cal signals prepared with Rotmen research group in university of Toronto were applied. Results: The speed of the extraction of the SSAEP signals with the Ziarani method is 1.6 times faster than the averaging method. The extraction time of the enhanced adaptive Kalman filter is 13.1 times faster than currently used averaging methods. Conclusion: The Kalman filter method seems to be more reliable than the other two methods. In addi­tion, this new application of the Kalman filter in hearing assessment could be more beneficial and faster than other methods as an objective method.

  13. A study on nuclear specific material detection technique using nuclear resonance reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Ha, J. H.; Cho, Y. S.; Choi, B. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    The non-destructive nuclear material detection technique is one of the novel methods under somewhat dangerous environments, for example, high level radiation or landmine areas. Specially, the detection of a landmine is a hot issue on the peaceful use of nuclear technology for human welfare. Generally, the explosives contain specific elements such as {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl. The photo-nuclear resonance gamma-rays are produced by nuclear reaction {sup 13}C(p , {gamma}){sup 14}N or {sup 34}S(p, {gamma}){sup 35}Cl in which target is bombarded by about 2MeV proton beam extracted from the proton accelerator. To avoid other neighboring resonant gamma-rays, we selected a higher resonant energy above 5MeV. The resonance gamma rays produced are absorbed or scattered when they react with {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl included in the mines and explosive. We can determine existence and position of mines or explosives by detecting the absorption and scattering gamma-ray signals.

  14. Performance assessment of electric power generations using an adaptive neural network algorithm and fuzzy DEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javaheri, Zahra

    2010-09-15

    Modeling, evaluating and analyzing performance of Iranian thermal power plants is the main goal of this study which is based on multi variant methods analysis. These methods include fuzzy DEA and adaptive neural network algorithm. At first, we determine indicators, then data is collected, next we obtained values of ranking and efficiency by Fuzzy DEA, Case study is thermal power plants In view of the fact that investment to establish on power plant is very high, and maintenance of power plant causes an expensive expenditure, moreover using fossil fuel effected environment hence optimum produce of current power plants is important.

  15. Exotic properties of neutrinos using effective Lagrangians and specific models

    CERN Document Server

    Aparici, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation presents several works on nonstandard properties of neutrinos exploiting the synergies between effective field theory and models. The phenomena are first analysed by means of effective operators, which allow to discuss their phenomenological consequences and to derive estimations about the mass scale of the heavy particles needed to induce the new interactions. In a second phase we propose models that realise the effective operators, allowing us to check the conclusions of effective field theory as well as to extract new phenomenological features of the scenarios considered. The text is divided into two parts: in the first one we apply these ideas to an effective interaction that generates magnetic dipole moments for right-handed neutrinos, and in the second one we discuss a family of operators that violate lepton number without quarks, and which can allow for large rates of neutrinoless double $\\beta$ decay and small neutrino masses. The right-handed neutrino magnetic moments have ...

  16. Sorting of pistachio nuts using image processing techniques and an adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Abdollahnejad Barough

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most important agricultural products of Iran and it is priced due to the quality and type. One of the significant factors of pistachio cost is its type in terms of shell. Filled split pistachio nut has the most quality and is utilized as nuts, while the closed shell type has lower cost, at the same time is economically efficient in food industry such as confectionery. Now, pistachio sorting is performed usually by human and sometimes using electromechanical apparatuses. Classification of pistachio by human is time consuming and is done with an unacceptable accuracy, on the other hand, electromechanical and electro optical apparatuses damages pistachio because the mechanism used in them while separating. So, the need to develop automated systems that could be implemented by intelligent ways is evident to increase the speed and accuracy of classification. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 samples of pistachios contains 100 Filled split, 100 Filled non-split and 100 split blank nuts ones are used. The training set consisted of 60 samples of each type of opened nuts, closed and empty opened shell nuts a total of 180 samples and the evaluation set consisted of 40 samples of each type of opened shell, closed shell and empty opened shell nuts a total of 120 samples. The principle of this study is implemented in two steps: 1 sample imaging and image processing to extract features 2 fuzzy network design based on the characteristics of data and training. To select useful features from the hypothesis, C4.5 decision tree is used. C4.5 algorithm makes a greedy top to bottom search on the hypothesis, and is made by the question what feature must be at the root of the tree. By the help of statistical methods, extracted features from the images were prioritized and the most appropriate features for classification of training set were selected. The algorithm chooses the best features as their number is minimum

  17. Adaptable Web Modules to Stimulate Active Learning in Engineering Hydrology using Data and Model Simulations of Three Regional Hydrologic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, E. H.; Tarboton, D. G.; Lall, U.; Bodin, M.; Rahill-Marier, B.; Chimmula, S.; Meselhe, E. A.; Ali, A.; Williams, D.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    server-based system. Open source web technologies and community-based tools are used to facilitate wide dissemination and adaptation by diverse, independent institutions. The new hydrologic learning modules are based on recent developments in hydrologic modeling, data, and resources. The modules are embedded in three regional-scale ecosystems, Coastal Louisiana, Florida Everglades, and Utah Great Salt Lake Basin. These sites provide a wealth of hydrologic concepts and scenarios that can be used in most water resource and hydrology curricula. The study develops several learning modules based on the three hydro-systems covering subjects such as: water-budget analysis, effects of human and natural changes, climate-hydrology teleconnections, and water-resource management scenarios. The new developments include an instructional interface to give critical guidance and support to the learner and an instructor's guide containing adaptation and implementation procedures to assist instructors in adopting and integrating the material into courses and provide a consistent experience. The design of the new hydrologic education developments will be transferable to independent institutions and adaptable both instructionally and technically through a server system capable of supporting additional developments by the educational community.

  18. Functionalization of biomedical materials using plasma and related technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-08-01

    Plasma techniques are important to biomedical engineering and surface modification. By modifying selective surface characteristics, conventional materials can be designed with superior biological properties while the favorable bulk materials properties can be retained. In this mini-review, recent progress pertaining to surface modification of Mg-based and polymer-based biomaterials by plasma-based techniques such as gas or metal ion implantation, dual metal and gas ion implantation, as well as plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is described. Plasma-based surface modification is promising in elevating the cell biocompatibility, blood compatibility, and antibacterial properties of Mg-based and polymer-based biomaterials and expected to be extensively applied to biomaterials.

  19. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptation and security validation of an irradiator suitable for use of cesium-137 sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Rogério M.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of offering a new application for 137Cs sources that were previously used in brachytherapy, we developed an irradiator for TL and OSL dosimeters by adapting a shielded storage container; this irradiator was named SOPHIA. It was assembled from a cubic iron casing, filled with lead, with external dimensions of 25 × 25 × 25 cm3. It has three different drawers with two sample holders suitable for samples or dosimeters with dimensions of up to 2 cm. Dose distribution of the surface of sample holder was obtained with EBT-3 radiochromic film and detectors thermoluminescent CaSO4: Dy. Regarding the security conditions of irradiation, the whole routine procedure for placement and removal of samples was simulated using Monte Carlo code. The equipment presented proper security conditions and the doses received by users during procedures for placement and extraction of the samples are in accordance with international standards.

  1. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Diann

    2011-09-01

    The third annual meeting of the AMSE/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in the heart of historic Philadelphia's cultural district, and included a pioneer banquet in the National Constitutional Center. The applications emphasis of the 2010 conference was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Alan Taub, vice president of General Motors global research and development, 'Smart materials in the automotive industry'; Dr Charles R Farrar, engineering institute leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 'Future directions for structural health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructure'; and Professor Christopher S Lynch of the University of California Los Angeles, 'Ferroelectric materials and their applications'. The SMASIS conference was divided into six technical symposia each of which included basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. The six symposia were: SYMP 1 Multifunctional Materials; SYMP 2 Active Materials, Mechanics and Behavior; SYMP 3 Modeling, Simulation and Control; SYMP 4 Enabling Technologies and Integrated System Design; SYMP 5 Structural Health Monitoring/NDE; and SYMP 6 Bio-inspired Smart Materials and Structures. In addition, the conference introduced a new student and young professional development symposium. Authors of papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2 and 6) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart Materials and Structures. This set of papers demonstrates the exceptional quality and originality of the conference presentations. We are appreciative of their efforts in producing this collection of highly relevant articles on smart materials.

  2. Connecting climate social adaptation and land use change in internationally adjoining protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rodríguez Solórzano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of climate adaptation strategies to address social problems derived from climate change is pressing. Yet, in addition to providing means to minimise the impact of climate variability and change on livelihoods, climate adaptation strategies might exacerbate environmental change and cause negative social impacts. Systematic research has not addressed the impacts of adaptation on environmental change. In this paper, I focus on land use change as a specific type of environmental change and on three adaptation strategies: diversification, pooling and out-migration. I analyse the influence of adaptation strategies on land use change by drawing on interviews with the managers of 56 internationally adjoining protected areas in 18 countries in the Americas. The findings indicate that the impact of adaptation depends on the adaptation strategy people choose. When people out-migrate, land use change increases. Community elite control for decision-making, shorter distances between communities and markets and more communities in and around the protected areas also increase land use change. These findings show that adaptation can be a driver of further environmental change, and thus further study is needed to understand the likely impacts of adaptation on conservation.

  3. Improving Sensorimotor Function and Adaptation using Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, R. C.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Oman, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during adaption to G-transitions that occur when entering and exiting microgravity. Post space flight, these sensorimotor disturbances can include postural and gait instability, visual performance changes, manual control disruptions, spatial disorientation, and motion sickness, all of which can hinder the operational capabilities of the astronauts. Crewmember safety would be significantly increased if sensorimotor changes brought on by gravitational changes could be mitigated and adaptation could be facilitated. The goal of this research is to investigate and develop the use of electrical stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a countermeasure to augment sensorimotor function and facilitate adaptation. For this project, SVS will be applied via electrodes on the mastoid processes at imperceptible amplitude levels. We hypothesize that SVS will improve sensorimotor performance through the phenomena of stochastic resonance, which occurs when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. In line with the theory of stochastic resonance, a specific optimal level of SVS will be found and tested for each subject [1]. Three experiments are planned to investigate the use of SVS in sensory-dependent tasks and performance. The first experiment will aim to demonstrate stochastic resonance in the vestibular system through perception based motion recognition thresholds obtained using a 6-degree of freedom Stewart platform in the Jenks Vestibular Laboratory at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. A range of SVS amplitudes will be applied to each subject and the subjectspecific optimal SVS level will be identified as that which results in the lowest motion recognition threshold, through previously established, well developed methods [2,3,4]. The second experiment will investigate the use of optimal SVS in facilitating sensorimotor adaptation to system

  4. Processing of pulse oximeter signals using adaptive filtering and autocorrelation to isolate perfusion and oxygenation components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibey, Bennett; Subramanian, Hariharan; Ericson, Nance; Xu, Weijian; Wilson, Mark; Cote, Gerard L.

    2005-03-01

    A blood perfusion and oxygenation sensor has been developed for in situ monitoring of transplanted organs. In processing in situ data, motion artifacts due to increased perfusion can create invalid oxygenation saturation values. In order to remove the unwanted artifacts from the pulsatile signal, adaptive filtering was employed using a third wavelength source centered at 810nm as a reference signal. The 810 nm source resides approximately at the isosbestic point in the hemoglobin absorption curve where the absorbance of light is nearly equal for oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. Using an autocorrelation based algorithm oxygenation saturation values can be obtained without the need for large sampling data sets allowing for near real-time processing. This technique has been shown to be more reliable than traditional techniques and proven to adequately improve the measurement of oxygenation values in varying perfusion states.

  5. The Use of Instructional Materials in the Teaching and Learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Use of Instructional Materials in the Teaching and Learning of ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... The study sought to examine the extent to which instructional material have been used ...

  6. The Use of Nanoscaled Fibers or Tubes to Improve Biocompatibility and Bioactivity of Biomedical Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibers and nanotubes have recently gained substantial interest for potential applications in tissue engineering due to their large ratio of surface area to volume and unique microstructure. It has been well proved that the mechanical property of matrix could be largely enhanced by the addition of nanoscaled fibers or tubes. At present, more and more researches have shown that the biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials could be improved by the addition of nanofibers or nanotubes. In this review, the efforts using nanofibers and nanotubes to improve biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials, including polymeric nanofibers/nanotubes, metallic nanofibers/nanotubes, and inorganic nanofibers/nanotubes, as well as their researches related, are demonstrated in sequence. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of improving biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials by nanofibers or nanotubes has been speculated to be that the specific protein absorption on the nanoscaled fibers or tubes plays important roles.

  7. MaterialVis: material visualization tool using direct volume and surface rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyan, Erhan; Güdükbay, Uğur; Bulutay, Ceyhun; Heinig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-05-01

    Visualization of the materials is an indispensable part of their structural analysis. We developed a visualization tool for amorphous as well as crystalline structures, called MaterialVis. Unlike the existing tools, MaterialVis represents material structures as a volume and a surface manifold, in addition to plain atomic coordinates. Both amorphous and crystalline structures exhibit topological features as well as various defects. MaterialVis provides a wide range of functionality to visualize such topological structures and crystal defects interactively. Direct volume rendering techniques are used to visualize the volumetric features of materials, such as crystal defects, which are responsible for the distinct fingerprints of a specific sample. In addition, the tool provides surface visualization to extract hidden topological features within the material. Together with the rich set of parameters and options to control the visualization, MaterialVis allows users to visualize various aspects of materials very efficiently as generated by modern analytical techniques such as the Atom Probe Tomography.

  8. A Methodological Report: Adapting the 505 Change-of-Direction Speed Test Specific to American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Farzad, Jalilvand; Orjalo, Ashley J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Moreno, Matthew R; Wright, Glenn A

    2017-02-01

    Lockie, RG, Jalilvand, F, Orjalo, AJ, Giuliano, DV, Moreno, MR, and Wright, GA. A methodological report: Adapting the 505 change-of-direction speed test specific to American football. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 539-547, 2017-The 505 involves a 10-m sprint past a timing gate, followed by a 180° change-of-direction (COD) performed over 5 m. This methodological report investigated an adapted 505 (A505) designed to be football-specific by changing the distances to 10 and 5 yd. Twenty-five high school football players (6 linemen [LM]; 8 quarterbacks, running backs, and linebackers [QB/RB/LB]; 11 receivers and defensive backs [R/DB]) completed the A505 and 40-yd sprint. The difference between A505 and 0 to 10-yd time determined the COD deficit for each leg. In a follow-up session, 10 subjects completed the A505 again and 10 subjects completed the 505. Reliability was analyzed by t-tests to determine between-session differences, typical error (TE), and coefficient of variation. Test usefulness was examined via TE and smallest worthwhile change (SWC) differences. Pearson's correlations calculated relationships between the A505 and 505, and A505 and COD deficit with the 40-yd sprint. A 1-way analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) derived between-position differences in the A505 and COD deficit. There were no between-session differences for the A505 (p = 0.45-0.76; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84-0.95; TE = 2.03-4.13%). Additionally, the A505 was capable of detecting moderate performance changes (SWC0.5 > TE). The A505 correlated with the 505 and 40-yard sprint (r = 0.58-0.92), suggesting the modified version assessed similar qualities. Receivers and defensive backs were faster than LM in the A505 for both legs, and right-leg COD deficit. Quarterbacks, running backs, and linebackers were faster than LM in the right-leg A505. The A505 is reliable, can detect moderate performance changes, and can discriminate between football position groups.

  9. Career Development and Older Workers: Study Evaluating Adaptability in Older Workers Using Hall's Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Merwyn L.; Torraco, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative case study described the development of adaptive competence in older workers using a Model of Adaptability and Adaptation developed by Dr. Douglas T. Hall (2002). Few studies have focused on the development of adaptability in workers when faced with change and no studies have focused on the development of adaptability in older…

  10. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can...... communicate information about materials and processes in a very concentrated and effective way. The product examples represent desired material properties but also includes information that can not be associated directly to the material, e.g. functional or perceived attributes. Previous studies suggest...... that designers often limit their selection of materials and processes to a few well-known ones. Designers need to expand the solution space by considering more materials and processes. But they have to be convinced that the materials and processes are likely candidates that are worth investing time in exploring...

  11. Curriculum-Dependent and Curriculum-Independent Factors in Preservice Elementary Teachers' Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials for Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.

    2013-01-01

    In this nested mixed methods study I investigate factors influencing preservice elementary teachers' adaptation of science curriculum materials to better support students' engagement in science as inquiry. Analyses focus on two "reflective teaching assignments" completed by 46 preservice elementary teachers in an undergraduate elementary science…

  12. On-line identification of hybrid systems using an adaptive growing and pruning RBF neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alizadeh, Tohid

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an adaptive growing and pruning radial basis function (GAP-RBF) neural network for on-line identification of hybrid systems. The main idea is to identify a global nonlinear model that can predict the continuous outputs of hybrid systems. In the proposed approach, GAP......-RBF neural network uses a modified unscented kalman filter (UKF) with forgetting factor scheme as the required on-line learning algorithm. The effectiveness of the resulting identification approach is tested and evaluated on a simulated benchmark hybrid system....

  13. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  14. Exploring social representations of adapting to climate change using topic modeling and Bayesian networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Lynam

    2016-12-01

    In this paper I describe the methods and results of applying topic modeling to 660 micronarratives collected from Australian academics / researchers, government employees, and members of the public in 2010-2011. The narrative fragments focused on adaptation to climate change (CC and hence provide an example of Australian society making sense of an emerging and conflict ridden phenomena. The results of the topic modeling reflect elements of SRs of adaptation to CC that are consistent with findings in the literature as well as being reasonably robust predictors of classes of action in response to CC. Bayesian Network (BN modeling was used to identify relationships among the topics (SR elements and in particular to identify relationships among topics, sentiment, and action. Finally the resulting model and topic modeling results are used to highlight differences in the salience of SR elements among social groups. The approach of linking topic modeling and BN modeling offers a new and encouraging approach to analysis for ongoing research on SRs.

  15. Procurement Guide for the Preparation and Use of Performance Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-15

    Joint ’-atement of Operational Requirements ( JSOR ), Operational ReqL.ement Documr. - ORD), or other similar document, which is then translated I., pr...Production Testing ISO International Standards Organization JSOR Joint Statement of Operational Requirements LORA Level of Repair Analysis LRU Line

  16. Velocity-specific and time-dependent adaptations following a standardized Nordic Hamstring Exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T; Nodler, Y T; Severin, J; Knicker, A J; Strüder, H K

    2017-03-01

    The Nordic Hamstring Exercise (NHE) is effective for selective hamstring strengthening to improve muscle balance between knee flexors and extensors. The purpose of this study (within subject design of repeated measures) was to determine the effects of a standardized 4-week NHE training on thigh strength and muscle balance with concomitant kinetic and kinematic monitoring. Sixteen male sprinters (22 years, 181 cm, 76 kg) performed a standardized 4-week NHE training consisting of three sessions per week (each 3×3 repetitions). Six rope-assisted and six unassisted sessions were performed targeting at a constant knee extension angular velocity of ~15°/s across a ~90-100° knee joint range of motion. Kinetic (peak and mean moment, impulse) and kinematic parameters (eg, ROM to downward acceleration, ROMDWA ) were recorded during selected sessions. Unilateral isokinetic tests of concentric and eccentric knee flexors and extensors quantified muscle group-, contraction mode-, and velocity-specific training adaptations. Peak moments and contractional work demonstrated strong interactions of time with muscle group, contraction modes, and angular velocities (η²>.150). NHE training increased eccentric hamstring strength by 6%-14% as well as thigh muscle balance with biggest adaptations at 150°/s 2 weeks after NHE training. Throughout the training period significant increases (P.05). A 4-week NHE training significantly strengthened the hamstrings and improved muscle balance between knee flexors and extensors. Despite the slow training velocity, biggest adaptations emerged at the highest velocity 2 weeks after training ended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Adaptation of a Digitally Predistorted RF Amplifier Using Selective Sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Neil Braithwaite

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a reduced-cost method of measuring residual nonlinearities in an adaptive digitally predistorted amplifier is proposed. Measurements obtained by selective sampling of the amplifier output are integrated over the input envelope range to adapt a fourth-order polynomial predistorter with memory correction. Results for a WCDMA input with a 101 carrier configuration show that a transmitter using the proposed method can meet the adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) specification. Inverse modeling of the nonlinearity is proposed as a future extension that will reduce the cost of the system further.

  18. Heat acclimation and physical training adaptations of young women using different contraceptive hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M; Keith, Nicole R; Elliott, Tabatha A; Vanheest, Jaci L; Scheett, Timothy P; Stoppani, James; Judelson, Daniel A; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2005-05-01

    Although endogenous and exogenous steroid hormones affect numerous physiological processes, the interactions of reproductive hormones, chronic exercise training, and heat acclimation are unknown. This investigation evaluated the responses and adaptations of 36 inactive females [age 21 +/- 3 (SD) yr] as they undertook a 7- to 8-wk program [heat acclimation and physical training (HAPT)] of indoor heat acclimation (90 min/day, 3 days/wk) and outdoor physical training (3 days/wk) while using either an oral estradiol-progestin contraceptive (ORAL, n = 15), a contraceptive injection of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DEPO, n = 7), or no contraceptive (EU-OV, n = 14; control). Standardized physical fitness and exercise-heat tolerance tests (36.5 degrees C, 37% relative humidity), administered before and after HAPT, demonstrated that the three subject groups successfully (P muscular endurance (i.e., sit-ups, push-ups, 4.6-km run time) and body composition characteristics. The stress of HAPT did not disrupt the menstrual cycle length/phase characteristics, ovulation, or plasma hormone concentrations of EU-OV. No between-group differences (P > 0.05) existed for rectal and skin temperatures or metabolic, cardiorespiratory, muscular endurance, or body composition variables. A significant difference post-HAPT in the onset temperature of local sweating, ORAL (37.2 +/- 0.4 degrees C) vs. DEPO (37.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C), suggested that steroid hormones influenced this adaptation. In summary, virtually all adaptations of ORAL and DEPO were similar to EU-OV, suggesting that exogenous reproductive hormones neither enhanced nor impaired the ability of women to complete 7-8 wk of strenuous physical training and heat acclimation.

  19. Rhizobia Indigenous to the Okavango Region in Sub-Saharan Africa: Diversity, Adaptations, and Host Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönemeyer, Jann L; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Berkelmann, Dirk; Hurek, Thomas; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    The rhizobial community indigenous to the Okavango region has not yet been characterized. The isolation of indigenous rhizobia can provide a basis for the formulation of a rhizobial inoculant. Moreover, their identification and characterization contribute to the general understanding of species distribution and ecology. Isolates were obtained from nodules of local varieties of the pulses cowpea, Bambara groundnut, peanut, hyacinth bean, and common bean. Ninety-one of them were identified by BOX repetitive element PCR (BOX-PCR) and sequence analyses of the 16S-23S rRNA internally transcribed spacer (ITS) and the recA, glnII, rpoB, and nifH genes. A striking geographical distribution was observed. Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi dominated at sampling sites in Angola which were characterized by acid soils and a semihumid climate. Isolates from the semiarid sampling sites in Namibia were more diverse, with most of them being related to Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and Bradyrhizobium daqingense. Host plant specificity was observed only for hyacinth bean, which was nodulated by rhizobia presumably representing yet-undescribed species. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized with respect to their adaptation to high temperatures, drought, and local host plants. The adaptation experiments revealed that the Namibian isolates shared an exceptionally high temperature tolerance, but none of the isolates showed considerable adaptation to drought. Moreover, the isolates' performance on different local hosts showed variable results, with most Namibian isolates inducing better nodulation on peanut and hyacinth bean than the Angolan strains. The local predominance of distinct genotypes implies that indigenous strains may exhibit a better performance in inoculant formulations.

  20. Availability of Books and Other Informational Materials and the Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    approach to performance measurement as “market research”. Similarly Oyesiku and ... of academic library should be given proper library orientation on the use of ..... Satisfaction with the Services of Private University. Libraries. A Case Study ...

  1. An in vitro study of the bond strength of five adhesives used for vinyl polysiloxane impression materials and tray materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Surender; Gandhi, Udey Vir; Banerjee, Saurav

    2014-03-01

    Although stock trays often provide mechanical retention for elastomeric impression materials, manufacturers typically recommend the use of an adhesive, whether a stock or custom tray is used. The mention of the bond strength on the adhesive packaging is not available, therefore the clinician has no idea whatsoever of the ideal adhesive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of three vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) materials, one with a poly(methyl methacrylate) autopolymerizing (PMMA) specimen and another with a light-polymerizing tray material (VLC), using the adhesive recommended by the manufacturer of the impression material, and two universal adhesives. A total of ninety specimens (15 × 15 × 20 mm) were used, 45 specimens were made in PMMA and rest 45 was made in VLC. Five paint-on adhesives (Coltene, Caulk, 3M, universal Zhermack and universal GC) were applied. Three impression materials, Affinis, Reprosil, and 3M, were mixed and injected into a perforated poly vinyl chloride cylinder. Tray specimens were positioned against the open cylinder end in contact with the VPS material. Tensile strength tests were conducted until adhesive separation failure. Mean values and standard errors of the adhesive strength were recorded in MPa for each material combination. GC paint-on universal adhesive provided significantly higher adhesive strength values.

  2. Adaptive Evolution of cry Genes in Bacillus thuringiensis:Implications for Their Specificity Determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cry gene family, produced during the late exponential phase of growth in Bacillus thuringiensis, is a large, still-growing family of homologous genes, in which each gene encodes a protein with strong specific activity against only one or a few insect species. Extensive studies are mostly focusing on the structural and functional relationships of Cry proteins, and have revealed several residues or domains that are important for the target recognition and receptor attachment. In this study,we have employed a maximum likelihood method to detect evidence of adaptive evolution in Cry proteins, and have identified 24 positively selected residues, which are all located in Domain Ⅱ or Ⅲ. Combined with known data from mutagenesis studies, the majority of these residues, at the molecular level, contribute much to the insect specificity determination. We postulate that the potential pressures driving the diversification of Cry proteins may be in an attempt to adapt for the "arm race" between δ-endotoxins and the targeted insects, or to enlarge their target spectra, hence result in the functional divergence. The sites identified to be under positive selection would provide targets for further structural and functional analyses on Cry proteins.

  3. Evaluation of reaction kinetics and material properties of cementitious ceramic materials using ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements have been used to characterise a range of phosphate bonded, alumina filled, magnesia ceramics and other ceramic materials... Measurements were made over a range of frequency from 50kHz - 1 OM Hz, using a variety of commercial probes and equipment, and a variety of techniques. An ultrasonic double-probe method was used to monitor the setting ...

  4. Compulsive use of Internet-based sexually explicit media: Adaptation and validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J; Antebi, Nadav; Schrimshaw, Eric W

    2014-06-01

    Despite evidence that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM) may contribute to greater numbers of sexual partners, sexual risk taking, greater interest in group sex, and lower self-esteem among men who have sex with men (MSM), research has not addressed compulsive use of Internet-based SEM due to the lack of a validated measure for this population. This report investigates the psychometric properties of the 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS; Meerkerk, van den Eijnden, Vermulst, & Garretsen, 2009) adapted to assess the severity of compulsive Internet SEM use. A total of 265 Internet SEM-viewing MSM participated in an online survey about their SEM preferences, viewing habits, and recent sexual behaviors. A principal components analysis revealed a single-component, 13-item scale to adequately assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of this phenomenon, with a high internal consistency (α=.92). Greater compulsive use of Internet SEM was positively correlated with several relevant variables including boredom, sexual frustration, time spent viewing Internet SEM, and number of recent male sexual partners. The results offer preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of using an adapted version of the CIUS to understand compulsive Internet SEM use, and allow for more research into the potential negative consequences of compulsive SEM use.

  5. Development and Use of an Adaptive Learning Environment to Research Online Study Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Anna Helga; Jakobsdottir, Audbjorg; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a system for research on the behaviour of students taking online drills. The system is accessible and free to use for anyone with web access. Based on open source software, the teaching material is licensed under a Creative Commons License. The system has been used for computer-assisted education in statistics, mathematics and…

  6. Removal of blue indigo and cadmium present in aqueous solutions using a modified zeolitic material and an activated carbonaceous material; Remocion de azul indigo y cadmio presentes en soluciones acuosas empleando un material zeolitico modificado y un material carbonoso activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez S, E. E.

    2011-07-01

    In the last years the use of water has been increased substantially, it has been also altered its quality as a result of human activities such as mining, industrial activities and others. Water pollution caused by dyes and heavy metals has adverse effects on the environment, since both pollutants are very persisten even after conventional treatments. Denim blue and cadmium are not biodegradable. There is a growing interest in finding new, efficient and low cost alternative materials to remove such pollutants from the aqueous medium. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a modified zeolitic tuff and an activated carbonaceous material obtained from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the removal of denim blue and cadmium. The zeolitic material was modified with Na{sup +} and Fe{sup 3+} solutions to improve its sorption properties for the removal of cadmium and denim blue, respectively. Carbonaceous material was treated with 10% HCl solution to remove ashes. Both materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis (EDS), specific surface areas (Bet), thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Simultaneously, the denim blue dye was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and its pKa value was determined, these data allowed the determination of its chemical properties and its acid-base behavior in solution. In the content of this work the term indigo blue was changed by denim blue, as it corresponds to the commercial name of the dye. To assess the sorption capacity of sorbents, the sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms in batch system were determined; the results were fitted to mathematical models such as the pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and second order to describe the sorption kinetics and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms to describe sorption processes. The results show that the most efficient material to remove denim blue from aqueous solutions is the carbonaceous

  7. Robust Cell Detection of Histopathological Brain Tumor Images Using Sparse Reconstruction and Adaptive Dictionary Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai; Xing, Fuyong; Yang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Successful diagnostic and prognostic stratification, treatment outcome prediction, and therapy planning depend on reproducible and accurate pathology analysis. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) is a useful tool to help doctors make better decisions in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Accurate cell detection is often an essential prerequisite for subsequent cellular analysis. The major challenge of robust brain tumor nuclei/cell detection is to handle significant variations in cell appearance and to split touching cells. In this paper, we present an automatic cell detection framework using sparse reconstruction and adaptive dictionary learning. The main contributions of our method are: 1) A sparse reconstruction based approach to split touching cells; 2) An adaptive dictionary learning method used to handle cell appearance variations. The proposed method has been extensively tested on a data set with more than 2000 cells extracted from 32 whole slide scanned images. The automatic cell detection results are compared with the manually annotated ground truth and other state-of-the-art cell detection algorithms. The proposed method achieves the best cell detection accuracy with a F1 score = 0.96.

  8. A dosimetric comparison of real-time adaptive and non-adaptive radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colvill, Emma; Booth, Jeremy; Nill, Simeon;

    2016-01-01

    AND MATERIALS: Ten institutions with robotic(2), gimbaled(2), MLC(4) or couch tracking(2) used common materials including CT and structure sets, motion traces and planning protocols to create a lung and a prostate plan. For each motion trace, the plan was delivered twice to a moving dosimeter; with and without...... accounted for realistic tumor motion accurately and performed to a similar high standard, with real-time adaptation significantly outperforming non-adaptive delivery methods....

  9. A Fusion Approach of RSSI and LQI for Indoor Localization System Using Adaptive Smoothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharly Joana Halder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ease of development and inexpensiveness, indoor localization systems are getting a significant attention but, with recent advancement in context and location aware technologies, the solutions for indoor tracking and localization had become more critical. Ranging methods play a basic role in the localization system, in which received signal strength indicator- (RSSI- based ranging technique gets the most attraction. To predict the position of an unknown node, RSSI measurement is an easy and reliable method for distance estimation. In indoor environments, the accuracy of the RSSI-based localization method is affected by strong variation, specially often containing substantial amounts of metal and other such reflective materials that affect the propagation of radio-frequency signals in nontrivial ways, causing multipath effects, dead spots, noise, and interference. This paper proposes an adaptive smoother based location and tracking algorithm for indoor positioning by making fusion of RSSI and link quality indicator (LQI, which is particularly well suited to support context aware computing. The experimental results showed that the proposed mathematical method can reduce the average error around 25%, and it is always better than the other existing interference avoidance algorithms.

  10. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs.

  11. Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebig, Klaus; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. There-fore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and ob-served mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies.

  12. ADAPTATION OF CRACK GROWTH DETECTION TECHNIQUES TO US MATERIAL TEST REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Joseph Palmer; Sebastien P. Teysseyre; Kurt L. Davis; Gordon Kohse; Yakov Ostrovsky; David M. Carpenter; Joy L. Rempe

    2015-04-01

    A key component in evaluating the ability of Light Water Reactors to operate beyond 60 years is characterizing the degradation of materials exposed to radiation and various water chemistries. Of particular concern is the response of reactor materials to Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC). Some test reactors outside the United States, such as the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), have developed techniques to measure crack growth propagation during irradiation. The basic approach is to use a custom-designed compact loading mechanism to stress the specimen during irradiation, while the crack in the specimen is monitored in-situ using the Direct Current Potential Drop (DCPD) method. In 2012 the US Department of Energy commissioned the Idaho National Laboratory and the MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (MIT NRL) to take the basic concepts developed at the HBWR and adapt them to a test rig capable of conducting in-pile IASCC tests in US Material Test Reactors. The first two and half years of the project consisted of designing and testing the loader mechanism, testing individual components of the in-pile rig and electronic support equipment, and autoclave testing of the rig design prior to insertion in the MIT Reactor. The load was applied to the specimen by means of a scissor like mechanism, actuated by a miniature metal bellows driven by pneumatic pressure and sized to fit within the small in-core irradiation volume. In addition to the loader design, technical challenges included developing robust connections to the specimen for the applied current and voltage measurements, appropriate ceramic insulating materials that can endure the LWR environment, dealing with the high electromagnetic noise environment of a reactor core at full power, and accommodating material property changes in the specimen, due primarily to fast neutron damage, which change the specimen resistance without additional crack growth. The project culminated with an in

  13. Impact of Adaptive Materials on Teachers and Their Students with Visual Impairments in Secondary Science and Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Stefanich, Greg P.; Boody, Robert M.; Peiffer, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, important in today's world, are underrepresented by students with disabilities. Students with visual impairments, although cognitively similar to sighted peers, face challenges as STEM subjects are often taught using visuals. They need alternative forms of access such as enlarged or…

  14. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2002-01-01

    that designers often limit their selection of materials and processes to a few well-known ones. Designers need to expand the solution space by considering more materials and processes. But they have to be convinced that the materials and processes are likely candidates that are worth investing time in exploring...... a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics.......The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can...

  15. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2001-01-01

    that designers often limit their selection of materials and processes to a few well-known ones. Designers need to expand the solution space by considering more materials and processes. But they have to be convinced that the materials and processes are likely candidates that are worth investing time in exploring...... a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics.......The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can...

  16. Programming of adaptive repair process chains using repair features and function blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Spöcker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current trends of product customization and repair of high value parts with individual defects demand automation and a high degree of flexibility of the involved manufacturing process chains. To determine the corresponding requirements this paper gives an overview of manufacturing process chains by distinguishing between horizontal and vertical process chains. The established way of modeling and programming processes with CAx systems and existing approaches is shown. Furthermore, the different types of possible adaptions of a manufacturing process chain are shown and considered as a cascaded control loop. Following this it is discussed which key requirements of repair process chains are unresolved by existing approaches. To overcome the deficits this paper introduces repair features which comprise the idea of geometric features and defines analytical auxiliary geometries based on the measurement input data. This meets challenges normally caused by working directly on reconstructed geometries in the form of triangulated surfaces which are prone to artifacts. Embedded into function blocks, this allows the use of traditional approaches for manufacturing process chains to be applied to adaptive repair process chains.

  17. Stability and adaptability analysis of rice cultivars using environment-centered yield in two-way ANOVA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sumith De. Z. Abeysiriwardena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of rice varieties with wider adaptability and stability are the important aspects in varietal recommendation to achieve better economic benefits for farmers. Multi locational trails are conducted in different locations / seasons to test and identify the consistently performing varieties in wider environments and location specific high performing varieties. The interaction aspect of varieties with environment is complex and highly variable across locations. Thus, the identifying varieties under these circumstances are difficult for varietal recommendations. However, several methods have been proposed in the recent past with the complex computation requirements. But, the aid of statistical software and other programs capabilities ease the complexity to a large extent. In this study, we employed one of the established techniques called variance component analysis (VCA to make the varietal recommendation for wider adaptability for many varying environments and the location specific recommendations. In this method variety × environment interaction is portioned into components for individual varieties using yield deviation approach. The average effect of variety (environment centered yield deviation - Dk and the stability measure of each variety (variety interaction variance -Sk2 are used make the recommendations. The rice yield data of cultivars of three month maturity duration, cultivated across diverse environments during the 2002/03 wet–season in Sri Lanka was analyzed for making recommendations. Based on the results the variety At581 gave the highest D2ksk value with wide adaptability selected for general recommendation. Varieties Bg305 and At303 also had relatively higher Dk and thus these two can also be selected for general cultivation purpose.

  18. Performance of wavefront-sensorless adaptive optics using modal and zonal correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzuola, Esdras; Segel, Max; Gladysz, Szymon; Stein, Karin

    2016-10-01

    Unconventional wavefront sensing strategies are being developed to provide alternatives for measuring the wavefront deformation of a laser beam propagating through strong turbulence and/or along a horizontal-path. In this paper we present results from two "wavefront-sensorless" approaches: stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) and its modal version (M-SPGD). We compare the performance of both algorithms through experimental measurements under emulated dynamic atmospheric turbulence by using the coupling efficiency in a single mode fiber as performance metric. We estimate probability density function of coupling efficiency for free-space optical links using adaptive optics (AO) as a function of key parameters such us turbulence strength and AO loop rate. We demonstrate faster convergence rate of the M-SPGD algorithm as compared to the traditional SPGD, although classic SPGD achieves higher correction. Additionally, we constrain the main temporal requirements of an AO system using wavefront-sensorless architectures.

  19. Classification of multiple sclerosis lesions using adaptive dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Maurel, Pierre; Barillot, Christian

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a sparse representation and an adaptive dictionary learning based method for automated classification of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Manual delineation of MS lesions is a time-consuming task, requiring neuroradiology experts to analyze huge volume of MR data. This, in addition to the high intra- and inter-observer variability necessitates the requirement of automated MS lesion classification methods. Among many image representation models and classification methods that can be used for such purpose, we investigate the use of sparse modeling. In the recent years, sparse representation has evolved as a tool in modeling data using a few basis elements of an over-complete dictionary and has found applications in many image processing tasks including classification. We propose a supervised classification approach by learning dictionaries specific to the lesions and individual healthy brain tissues, which include white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The size of the dictionaries learned for each class plays a major role in data representation but it is an even more crucial element in the case of competitive classification. Our approach adapts the size of the dictionary for each class, depending on the complexity of the underlying data. The algorithm is validated using 52 multi-sequence MR images acquired from 13 MS patients. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in MS lesion classification.

  20. Comprehensive modeling of special nuclear materials detection using three-dimensional deterministic and Monte Carlo methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Gabriel M.

    Our study aim to design a useful neutron signature characterization device based on 3He detectors, a standard neutron detection methodology used in homeland security applications. Research work involved simulation of the generation, transport, and detection of the leakage radiation from Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). To accomplish research goals, we use a new methodology to fully characterize a standard "1-Ci" Plutonium-Beryllium (Pu-Be) neutron source based on 3-D computational radiation transport methods, employing both deterministic SN and Monte Carlo methodologies. Computational model findings were subsequently validated through experimental measurements. Achieved results allowed us to design, build, and laboratory-test a Nickel composite alloy shield that enables the neutron leakage spectrum from a standard Pu-Be source to be transformed, through neutron scattering interactions in the shield, into a very close approximation of the neutron spectrum leaking from a large, subcritical mass of Weapons Grade Plutonium (WGPu) metal. This source will make possible testing with a nearly exact reproduction of the neutron spectrum from a 6.67 kg WGPu mass equivalent, but without the expense or risk of testing detector components with real materials. Moreover, over thirty moderator materials were studied in order to charac