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Sample records for ad libitum macronutrient

  1. The Ratio of Macronutrients, Not Caloric Intake, Dictates Cardiometabolic Health, Aging, and Longevity in Ad Libitum-Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M.; McMahon, Aisling C.; Ballard, J. William O.; Ruohonen, Kari; Wu, Lindsay E.; Cogger, Victoria C.; Warren, Alessandra; Huang, Xin; Pichaud, Nicolas; Melvin, Richard G.; Gokarn, Rahul; Khalil, Mamdouh; Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J.; Sinclair, David A.; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The fundamental questions of what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet and how this maintains health and longevity remain unanswered. Here, the Geometric Framework, a state-space nutritional modeling method, was used to measure interactive effects of dietary energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate on food intake, cardiometabolic phenotype, and longevity in mice fed one of 25 diets ad libitum. Food intake was regulated primarily by protein and carbohydrate content. Longevity and health were optimized when protein was replaced with carbohydrate to limit compensatory feeding for protein and suppress protein intake. These consequences are associated with hepatic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and mitochondrial function and, in turn, related to circulating branched-chain amino acids and glucose. Calorie restriction achieved by high-protein diets or dietary dilution had no beneficial effects on lifespan. The results suggest that longevity can be extended in ad libitum-fed animals by manipulating the ratio of macronutrients to inhibit mTOR activation. PMID:24606899

  2. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  3. Ad libitum and restricted day and night sleep architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korompeli, Anna St; Muurlink, Olav; Gavala, Alexandra; Myrianthefs, Pavlos; Fildissis, Georgios; Baltopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a first controlled comparison of restricted versus unrestricted sleep in both day and night sleep categories. A repeated measures study of a homogenous group of young women without sleep disorders (n=14) found that stage 1, 2, 3 and REM sleep, as well as sleep latency were not statistically different between day ad libitum sleep (DAL) and day interrupted (DI) sleep categories, while night interrupted (NI) and ad libitum (NAL) sleep showed strikingly different architecture.

  4. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-02-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The ad-libitum alcohol 'taste test': secondary analyses of potential confounds and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Button, Emily; Rose, Abigail K; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Di Lemma, Lisa; Field, Matt

    2016-03-01

    Motivation to drink alcohol can be measured in the laboratory using an ad-libitum 'taste test', in which participants rate the taste of alcoholic drinks whilst their intake is covertly monitored. Little is known about the construct validity of this paradigm. The objective of this study was to investigate variables that may compromise the validity of this paradigm and its construct validity. We re-analysed data from 12 studies from our laboratory that incorporated an ad-libitum taste test. We considered time of day and participants' awareness of the purpose of the taste test as potential confounding variables. We examined whether gender, typical alcohol consumption, subjective craving, scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and perceived pleasantness of the drinks predicted ad-libitum consumption (construct validity). We included 762 participants (462 female). Participant awareness and time of day were not related to ad-libitum alcohol consumption. Males drank significantly more alcohol than females (p alcohol consumption (p = 0.04), craving (p alcohol consumption. The construct validity of the taste test was supported by relationships between ad-libitum consumption and typical alcohol consumption, craving and pleasantness ratings of the drinks. The ad-libitum taste test is a valid method for the assessment of alcohol intake in the laboratory.

  6. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggi, Paolo; Thearle, Marie S; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2015-08-01

    Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m(2); body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Higher 24-hour RQ (P FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m(2) or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake.

  7. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects

  8. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkulo, M.A.R.; Bol, S.; Levels, K.; Lamberts, R.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Noakes, T.D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and

  9. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkulo, M.A.R.; Bol, S.; Levels, K.; Lamberts, R.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Noakes, T.D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and

  10. Ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding versus scheduled interval feeding for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Felicia M; Tosh, Karen; McGuire, William

    2010-02-17

    Scheduled interval feeding of prescribed enteral volumes is current standard practice for preterm infants. However, feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (ad libitum or demand/semi demand) rather than at scheduled intervals might help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at scheduled intervals on growth rates and the time to hospital discharge. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to Oct 2009), EMBASE (1980 to Oct 2009), CINAHL (1982 to Oct 2009), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (including cluster randomised trials) that compared a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding at scheduled intervals. We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We found eight randomised controlled trials that compared ad libitum or demand/semi-demand regimens with scheduled interval regimes in preterm infants in the transition phase from intragastric tube to oral feeding. The trials were generally small and of variable methodological quality. The duration of the intervention and the duration of data collection and follow-up in most of the trials was not likely to have allowed detection of measurable effects on growth. Three trials reported that feeding preterm infants using an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding regimen allowed earlier discharge from hospital (by about two to four days) but other trials did not confirm this

  11. Reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Susanne B; Franks, Paul W; Krakoff, Jonathan; Salbe, Arline D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Accurate assessment of energy intake is difficult but critical for the evaluation of eating behavior and intervention effects. Consequently, methods to assess ad libitum energy intake under controlled conditions have been developed. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system. Design: Twelve individuals (mean ± SD: 36 ± 8 y old; 41 ± 8% body fat) consumed a weight-maintaining diet for 3 d; subsequently, they self-selected all food with the use of a computerized vending machine system for an additional 3 d. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the actual weight of foods consumed and expressed as a percentage of weight-maintenance energy needs (%WMEN). Subjects repeated the study multiple times during 2 y. The within-person reproducibility of energy intake was determined through the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between visits. Results: Daily energy intake for all subjects was 5020 ± 1753 kcal during visit 1 and 4855 ± 1615 kcal during visit 2. There were no significant associations between energy intake and body weight, body mass index, or percentage body fat while subjects used the vending machines, which indicates that intake was not driven by body size or need. Despite overconsumption (%WMEN = 181 ± 57%), the reproducibility of intake between visits, whether expressed as daily energy intake (ICC = 0.90), %WMEN (ICC = 0.86), weight of food consumed (ICC = 0.87), or fat intake (g/d; ICC = 0.87), was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although ad libitum energy intake exceeded %WMEN, the within-person reliability of this intake across multiple visits was high, which makes this a reproducible method for the measurement of ad libitum intake in subjects who reside in a research unit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342732. PMID:19923376

  12. The ad-libitum alcohol ?taste test?: secondary analyses of potential confounds and construct validity

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andrew; Button, Emily; Rose, Abigail K.; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Di Lemma, Lisa; Field, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Motivation to drink alcohol can be measured in the laboratory using an ad-libitum ?taste test?, in which participants rate the taste of alcoholic drinks whilst their intake is covertly monitored. Little is known about the construct validity of this paradigm. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate variables that may compromise the validity of this paradigm and its construct validity. Methods We re-analysed data from 12 studies from our laboratory that incorporated a...

  13. Water balance and ad libitum water intake in football players during a training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.

  14. Measurement of ad libitum food intake, physical activity, and sedentary time in response to overfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying He

    Full Text Available Given the wide availability of highly palatable foods, overeating is common. Energy intake and metabolic responses to overfeeding may provide insights into weight gain prevention. We hypothesized a down-regulation in subsequent food intake and sedentary time, and up-regulation in non-exercise activity and core temperature in response to overfeeding in order to maintain body weight constant. In a monitored inpatient clinical research unit using a cross over study design, we investigated ad libitum energy intake (EI, using automated vending machines, core body temperature, and physical activity (using accelerometry following a short term (3-day weight maintaining (WM vs overfeeding (OF diet in healthy volunteers (n = 21, BMI, mean ± SD, 33.2±8.6 kg/m(2, 73.6% male. During the ad libitum periods following the WM vs. OF diets, there was no significant difference in mean 3-d EI (4061±1084 vs. 3926±1284 kcal/day, p = 0.41, and there were also no differences either in core body temperature (37.0±0.2°C vs. 37.1±0.2°C, p = 0.75 or sedentary time (70.9±12.9 vs. 72.0±7.4%, p = 0.88. However, during OF (but not WM, sedentary time was positively associated with weight gain (r = 0.49, p = 0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and initial weight. In conclusion, short term overfeeding did not result in a decrease in subsequent ad libitum food intake or overall change in sedentary time although in secondary analysis sedentary time was associated with weight gain during OF. Beyond possible changes in sedentary time, there is minimal attempt to restore energy balance during or following short term overfeeding.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342732.

  15. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (pexercise condition (pexercise condition (pExercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Central pipecolic acid increases food intake under ad libitum feeding conditions in the neonatal chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Tomo; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Saito, Ei-Suke; Tomonaga, Shouzou; Saito, Shin; Bungo, Takashi; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2003-08-21

    It has been demonstrated that L-pipecolic acid (L-PA) is a major metabolic intermediate of L-lysine in the mammalian and chicken brain. A previous study showed that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of L-PA suppressed feeding in neonatal chicks, and the actions were associated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor activation. It has been reported that endogenous L-PA in the brain fluctuated under different feeding conditions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of i.c.v. injection of L-PA on food intake in the neonatal chick under ad libitum feeding conditions. The food intake was increased by 0.5 or 1.0 mg L-PA under ad libitum feeding conditions contrary to previous studies using fasted birds. A hyperphagic effect of L-PA (0.5 mg) was attenuated by both GABA-A receptor antagonist (picrotoxin, 0.5 microg) and GABA-B receptor antagonist (CGP54626, 21.0 ng). These results indicate that a hyperphagic effect of L-PA is mediated by both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors and L-PA differentially affects food intake under different feeding conditions in the neonatal chick.

  18. Nicotine Delivery and Vaping Behavior During ad Libitum E-cigarette Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Helen, Gideon; Ross, Kathryn C.; Dempsey, Delia A.; Havel, Christopher M.; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To characterize vaping behavior and nicotine intake during ad libitum e-cigarette access. Methods Thirteen adult e-cigarette users had 90 minutes of videotaped ad libitum access to their usual e-cigarette. Plasma nicotine was measured before and every 15 minutes after the first puff; subjective effects were measured before and after the session. Results Average puff duration and interpuff interval were 3.5±1.4 seconds (±SD) and 118±141 seconds, respectively. 12% of puffs were unclustered puffs while 43%, 28%, and 17% were clustered in groups of 2–5, 6–10, and >10 puffs, respectively. On average, 4.0±3.3 mg of nicotine was inhaled; the maximum plasma nicotine concentration (Cmax) was 12.8±8.5 ng/mL. Among the 8 tank users, number of puffs was positively correlated with amount of nicotine inhaled, Cmax, and area under the plasma nicotine concentration-time curve (AUC0→90min) while interpuff interval was negatively correlated with Cmax and AUC0→90. Conclusion Vaping patterns differ from cigarette smoking. Plasma nicotine levels were consistent with intermittent dosing of nicotine from e-cigarettes compared to the more bolus dosing from cigarettes. Differences in delivery patterns and peak levels of nicotine achieved could influence the addictiveness of e-cigarettes compared to conventional cigarettes. PMID:28393086

  19. Nicotine Delivery and Vaping Behavior During ad Libitum E-cigarette Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Ross, Kathryn C; Dempsey, Delia A; Havel, Christopher M; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-10-01

    To characterize vaping behavior and nicotine intake during ad libitum e-cigarette access. Thirteen adult e-cigarette users had 90 minutes of videotaped ad libitum access to their usual e-cigarette. Plasma nicotine was measured before and every 15 minutes after the first puff; subjective effects were measured before and after the session. Average puff duration and interpuff interval were 3.5±1.4 seconds (±SD) and 118±141 seconds, respectively. 12% of puffs were unclustered puffs while 43%, 28%, and 17% were clustered in groups of 2-5, 6-10, and >10 puffs, respectively. On average, 4.0±3.3 mg of nicotine was inhaled; the maximum plasma nicotine concentration (C max ) was 12.8±8.5 ng/mL. Among the 8 tank users, number of puffs was positively correlated with amount of nicotine inhaled, C max , and area under the plasma nicotine concentration-time curve (AUC 0 → 90min ) while interpuff interval was negatively correlated with C max and AUC 0 → 90 . Vaping patterns differ from cigarette smoking. Plasma nicotine levels were consistent with intermittent dosing of nicotine from e-cigarettes compared to the more bolus dosing from cigarettes. Differences in delivery patterns and peak levels of nicotine achieved could influence the addictiveness of e-cigarettes compared to conventional cigarettes.

  20. Ad libitum Mediterranean and Low Fat Diets both Significantly Reduce Hepatic Steatosis: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Sherriff, Jill L; Ching, Helena L; Jeffrey, Garry P; Buckley, Rachel F; Tibballs, Jonathan; MacQuillan, Gerry C; Garas, George; Adams, Leon A

    2018-05-05

    Although diet induced weight loss is first-line treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term maintenance is difficult. The optimal diet for either improvement in NAFLD or associated cardio-metabolic risk factors regardless of weight loss, is unknown. We examined the effect of two ad libitum isocaloric diets [Mediterranean (MD) or Low Fat (LF)] on hepatic steatosis and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Subjects with NAFLD were randomized to a 12-week blinded dietary intervention (MD vs LF). Hepatic steatosis was determined via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). From a total of 56 subjects enrolled, 49 subjects completed the intervention and 48 were included for analysis. During the intervention, subjects on the MD had significantly higher total and monounsaturated fat but lower carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared to LF subjects (pfat reduction between the groups (p=0.32), with mean (SD) relative reductions of 25.0% (±25.3%) in LF and 32.4% (±25.5%) in MD. Liver enzymes also improved significantly in both groups. Weight loss was minimal and not different between groups [-1.6 (±2.1)kg in LF vs -2.1 (±2.5)kg in MD, (p=0.52)]. Within-group improvements in the Framingham risk score, total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, and HbA1c were observed in the MD (all pvs. 64%, p=0.048). Ad libitum low fat and Mediterranean diets both improve hepatic steatosis to a similar degree. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal energy intake in overweight and obese males.

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    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of behaviour, performance and mortality in restricted and ad libitum-fed growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Ramon, J; Piles, M; Sanchez, J P; Velarde, A; Rafel, O

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rabbits fed in a restricted regimen (75%) showed increased competition for feeding, drinking and use of specific areas of the cages as compared with those provided feed ad libitum. This evaluation was carried out by measuring their space utilisation in the cage, the incidence of agonistic behaviour and rates of mortality. In total, 504 rabbits between 31 and 66 days of age were used in this study. A total of 200 heavy-weight rabbits and 56 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 32 cages, each cage containing eight rabbits: 25 cages housing heavy rabbits and seven cages housing the light-weight ones. They were all fed ad libitum (AD). In addition, a total of 208 heavy-weight rabbits and 40 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 31 cages, each of them containing eight rabbits: 26 cages housing heavy weight rabbits and five cages housing light-weight ones. They were all fed a restricted diet (R) regimen. The restriction was calculated to be 75% of the feed consumed by the AD group. The total space available in the cage was 3252 cm(2), with a stocking density of 24.6 animals/m(2). Animals between 32 and 60 days of age from 20 different cages were observed nine times per week (morning or afternoon) by means of scan and focal sampling by one observer. During each period, cages were assessed for 5 min, registering every minute the position of all the animals in relation to Area A (feeder), Area B (central part) or Area C (back and drinker area). The incidence of agonistic behaviour such as displacement, biting and jumping on each other was also assessed. Performance variables such as daily gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to general health status and mortality rates, were recorded for all rabbits. When the rabbits were under restricted feeding, the competition for feed and drink increased with clear signs of agonistic behaviour such as biting, displacement and animals jumping on top of each other

  3. Sugar Restriction Leads to Increased Ad Libitum Sugar Intake by Overweight Adolescents in an Experimental Test Meal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Gillian A; Black, David S; Huh, Jimi; Davis, Jaimie N; Unger, Jennifer; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2017-07-01

    The impact of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake by overweight adolescents is unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent ad libitum sugar intake by overweight adolescents and whether habitual sugar intake and impulsivity influence the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake. This was an in-laboratory crossover feeding trial with sugar-exposure and sugar-restriction conditions. Eighty-seven overweight Latino and African-American adolescents underwent both meal conditions in two separate 8-hour in-laboratory visits. Participants had access to ad libitum snack trays for 3 hours after the condition-specific meals. Ad libitum sugar intake during the snack period was measured at each visit. Habitual sugar intake and impulsivity were assessed at baseline. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to examine the within-person effect of meal condition on ad libitum sugar intake. Mixed models were used to examine the moderating effects of habitual sugar intake and impulsivity on the meal condition-ad libitum sugar intake relationship. Participants consumed more ad libitum sugar during the snack period in the sugar-restriction condition than in the sugar-exposure condition (sugar restriction=78.63±38.84 g, sugar exposure=70.86±37.73 g; F=9.64, P=0.002). There was no relationship between habitual sugar intake and how much ad libitum sugar participants consumed during either condition. Higher impulsivity was associated with greater ad libitum sugar intake during both conditions (sugar restriction: b=.029, standard error=.01, Poverweight adolescents restricted from sugar intake consume greater amounts of sugar when they are later given access to high-sugar foods. Overweight adolescents with higher impulsivity appear to consume greater amounts of sugar regardless of previous levels of sugar consumption. Compensatory sugar intake and trait impulsivity may have implications for dietary interventions in this

  4. Phenotypic relationships among methane production traits assessed under ad libitum feeding of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird-Gardiner, T; Arthur, P F; Barchia, I M; Donoghue, K A; Herd, R M

    2017-10-01

    Angus cattle from 2 beef cattle projects in which daily methane production (MPR) was measured were used in this study to examine the nature of the relationships among BW, DMI, and methane traits of beef cattle fed ad libitum on a roughage diet or a grain-based feedlot diet. In both projects methane was measured using the GreenFeed Emission Monitoring system, which provides multiple short-term breath measures of methane production. The data used for this study were from 119 Angus heifers over 15 d on a roughage diet and 326 Angus steers over 70 d on a feedlot diet. Mean (±SD) age, BW, and DMI were 372 ± 28 d, 355 ± 37 kg, and 8.1 ± 1.3 kg/d for the heifers and 554 ± 86 d, 577 ± 69 kg, and 13.3 ± 2.0 kg/d for the steers, respectively. The corresponding mean MPR was 212 g/d for heifers and 203 g/d for steers. Additional traits studied included methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), methane intensity (MPR/BW), and 3 forms of residual methane production (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR. For RMP, RMP, and RMP predicted MPR were obtained by regression of MPR on BW, on DMI, and on both DMI and BW, respectively. The 2 data sets were analyzed separately using the same statistical procedures. For both feed types the relationships between MPR and DMI and between MPR and BW were both positive and linear. The correlation between MPR and DMI was similar to that between MPR and BW, although the correlations were stronger for the roughage diet ( = 0.75 for MPR vs. DMI; = 0.74 for MPR vs. BW) than the grain-based diet ( = 0.62 for MPR vs. DMI; = 0.66 for MPR vs. BW). The correlation between MY and DMI was negative and moderate for the roughage ( = -0.68) and grain-based ( = -0.59) diets, a finding that is different from the nonsignificant correlations reported in studies of cattle on a restricted roughage diet. The 3 RMP traits were strongly correlated ( values from 0.76 to 0.99) with each other for both the roughage and the grain-based diets, which indicates

  5. Use of nicotine substitute prescribed at hourly plus ab libitum intake or ad libitum for heavy smokers willing to quit: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zellweger Jean-Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the impact of instructional guidance in the regular use of use nicotine nasal spray (NNS on the true use of NNS during the first three weeks of smoking cessation for heavy smokers who are willing to quit. Methods This randomized, open, controlled trial included 50 patients who were heavy smokers, were willing to quit, and attending an academic outpatient clinic in Western Switzerland. Patients were randomised to instruction on NNS use as "ad libitum" (administration whenever cravings appear; control group or to use NNS when craving appears and at least every hour when awake (intervention group. Intakes were monitored using an electronic device fixed in the spray unit (MDILog™ during the first three weeks of use. Self reported abstinence from smoking at six months was confirmed by expired-air carbon monoxide. Using intention-to-treat analysis, random-effect GLS regression was used to calculate the mean difference of daily doses between groups controlling for lack of independence between measures from the same individual. Results One patient was lost to follow-up. At baseline randomization, the group receiving instruction to use NNS hourly included more women, patients with previous desires to quit, and patients with more psychiatric comorbidities and less somatic complaints compared to the group instructed to use NNS with cravings (group imbalance. Both groups self-administered more than the daily recommended dosage of 8 uses. Mean daily usage was 13.6 dose/day and 11.1 dose/day for the group instructed to use NNS hourly and with cravings, respectively. Adjusting for baseline imbalance, the increased daily doses in the intervention group (hourly use remained nonsignificant compared to ad libitum use (-0.5 dose/day; CI 95% -6.2; 5.3, from day 1 to day 7; and 2.3 dose/day; CI 95% -5.4; 10.0, from day 8 to day 21. Instructing patients to use the NNS daily had no effect on smoking cessation at six months (RR = 0.69; CI

  6. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and emotion regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the firs...

  7. Effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup similar in palatability and on salt preference after consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2010-11-01

    Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intensity of tomato soup on ad libitum intake (satiation), while controlling for palatability on an individual basis. Forty-eight subjects consumed both a low-salt (LS) and high-salt (HS) soup ad libitum from a self-refilling bowl. The results showed no difference between LS and HS soup in ad libitum intake, eating rate, changes in appetite ratings, and changes in hedonic ratings after intake. After intake of HS soup, LS soup was perceived as more bland than before intake of HS soup. After intake of LS soup, HS soup was perceived as more salt intense than before intake of LS soup. In conclusion, this study found no effect of salt intensity on satiation of tomato soups that were similar in palatability. During consumption, subjects adapted quickly to the exposed salt intensity as contrasting salt intensities were rated further from the ideal salt intensity and therefore perceived as less pleasant after consumption.

  8. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  9. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-02-01

    Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval -54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=-1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval -1645 kJ, -2281 kJ; Pfasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (Pfasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (Pfasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of the appetite-stimulating hormone-acylated ghrelin during the afternoon relative to lunch consumed after breakfast.

  10. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine Following Single and Ad Libitum Use of a Tobacco Heating System or Combustible Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picavet, Patrick; Haziza, Christelle; Lama, Nicola; Weitkunat, Rolf; Lüdicke, Frank

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of nicotine between the heat-not-burn Tobacco Heating System 2.1 (THS 2.1) and combustible cigarettes (CCs). We also examined whether the subjective urge to smoke was associated with the pharmacokinetics of nicotine. This open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover study conducted in 28 healthy smokers assessed the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after single and ad libitum use of the THS 2.1 or CCs. During the 7-day confinement period, blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjective effects related to THS 2.1 or CC use were assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief). The nicotine delivery rate was similar with the THS 2.1 and CCs after single and ad libitum use. The time to the maximum nicotine concentration was 8 minutes after single use of the THS 2.1 and CCs. The time to the peak concentration following ad libitum use was similar between the THS 2.1 and CCs. The maximum plasma nicotine concentration after single use of the THS 2.1 was 8.4 ng/mL, 70.3% of that obtained with CCs. A transient reduction from baseline in the urge to smoke of 40% was observed 15 minutes after the single use of both the THS 2.1 and CCs. The mean QSU-Brief total scores following single and ad libitum use were similar for the THS 2.1 and CCs. These results suggest that the THS 2.1 effectively delivers nicotine and achieves similar pharmacokinetic profiles to CCs. The THS 2.1 also reduced the urge to smoke similarly to CCs. Reducing exposure to toxicants and safer delivery of nicotine are among the strategies that may reduce the harm of smoking-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and their effects on the urge to smoke using the THS 2.1. It was developed to replicate the ritual of smoking as closely as possible by providing nicotine in a way that mimics CC smoking, but limits pyrolysis and combustion by heating tobacco at a much lower temperature

  11. Meat quality of rabbits reared with two different feeding strategies: with or without fresh alfalfa ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Capra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate production performance, carcass characteristics and nutritive value of meat of rabbits reared under the 2 prevailing feeding strategies in Uruguay. One week after weaning, 96 purebred V line rabbits were randomly distributed between 2 treatments: (T1 commercial pelleted food ad libitum and (T2 commercial pelleted food ad libitum plus fresh alfalfa ad libitum. Each treatment included 12 cages containing 4 individuals each (2 males and 2 females. Growth performance characteristics (live weight evolution, commercial food consumption and food/gain ratio were evaluated. The consumption of alfalfa was not measured. Rabbits were slaughtered at a live weight of 2500 g and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Samples of meat and dissectible fat were analysed to determine intramuscular fat content at muscle L. dorsi, dissectible fat and intramuscular fat composition, minerals (Zn, Fe, Mg and Na, vitamin E and purines. Sensory evaluations were conducted to assess the effect of treatments on the consumer’s perception of differences and the existence of attributes determining preferences. Differences between treatments were significant for total commercial food intake (23 356 vs. 20 930 g/cage; P<0.001 and feed conversion ratio (3.82 vs. 3.41; P<0.01 for T1 and T2 respectively. No significant differences were found in average daily gain, age at slaughter and carcass characteristics. There were no significant differences in the intramuscular fat content. The fatty acid composition of dissectible and intramuscular fat was affected the inclusion of alfalfa in the diet increasing the linolenic acid content (1.82 vs. 3.28% and 2.29 vs. 5.15% for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001, and improving the n-6/n-3 relationship (8.60 vs. 5.82 and 11.58 vs. 5.64 for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001. There were no significant differences in vitamin E

  12. Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Burrell, Kirsty; Mynott, Georgina; Creese, Mark; Skidmore, Nicola; Stensel, David J; James, Lewis J

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent severe energy restriction (SER) can induce substantial weight loss, but the appetite regulatory responses to SER are unknown and may dictate long-term dietary adherence. We determined the effect of 24-h SER on appetite regulation, metabolism, and energy intake. Eighteen lean men and women completed two 3-d trials in randomized, counterbalanced order. On day 1 subjects consumed standardized diets containing 100% (mean ± SD: 9.3 ± 1.3 MJ; energy balance) or 25% [2.3 ± 0.3 MJ; energy restriction (ER)] of energy requirements. On day 2, a standardized breakfast was consumed, with plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids determined for 4 h. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at lunch and dinner with subjective appetite and resting metabolism assessed throughout. On day 3, ad libitum energy intake was assessed at breakfast and by weighed food records. Energy intake was 7% greater on day 2 (P 0.145). During ER, postprandial concentrations of acylated ghrelin were lower (P < 0.05), whereas glucose (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001) were higher. Postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 7-36 (P = 0.784) and insulin (P = 0.06) concentrations were not significantly different between trials. Energy expenditure was lower during ER in the morning (P < 0.01). In lean young adults, 24-h SER transiently elevated subjective appetite and marginally increased energy intake, but hormonal appetite markers did not respond in a manner indicative of hyperphagia. These results suggest that intermittent SER might be useful to attenuate energy intake and control body weight in this population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov.uk as NCT02696772. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Food consumption in ground beetles is limited under hypoxic conditions in response to ad libitum feeding, but not restricted feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2018-02-09

    Habitats on land with low oxygen availability provide unique niches inhabited by numerous species. The occupation of such hypoxic niches by animals is hypothesized to come at a cost linked to the limitations of aerobic metabolism and thus energy budget but may also provide benefits through physical protection from predators and parasitoids or reduced competition for food. We investigated the effects of hypoxic conditions on standard metabolic rate (SMR) and specific dynamic action (SDA) in male Carabus nemoralis. SMR and SDA were determined under three manipulated oxygen availabilities: 7, 14 and 21% O 2 and two feeding regimes: limited or ad libitum food consumption. In both hypoxic conditions, C. nemoralis was able to maintain SMR at levels similar to those in normoxia. When the meal size was limited, SDA duration did not differ among the oxygen availability conditions, but SDA was smaller under hypoxic conditions than at normoxic levels. The relative cost of digestion was significantly higher in normoxia than in hypoxia, but it did not affect net energy intake. In contrast, when offered a large meal to simulate ad libitum food conditions, beetles reduced their food consumption and net energy gain by 30% under hypoxia. Oxygen availability may influence the consumed prey size: the hypoxic condition did not limit net energy gain when the beetles fed on a small meal but did when they fed on a large meal. The results indicate that meal size is an important variable in determining differences in physiological costs and whole animal energy budgets at different concentrations of environmental oxygen levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Study of Cloned versus Normal Pigs Fed Either Restricted or Ad Libitum High-Energy Diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Genetically identical cloned pigs should in principle eliminate biological variation and provide more pronounced effects when subjected to, e.g., dietary interventions, but little is known about how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning. Therefore, an investigation...... of the metabolome of cloned pigs compared to normal control pigs was performed to elucidate the variation and possible differences in the metabolic phenotypes during a dietary intervention. A total of 19 control pigs and 17 cloned pigs were given the same high-energy dense diet either ad libitum or in a restricted...... manner (60% of ad libitum) for 6 months, and plasma was subjected to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry nontargeted metabolomics and biochemical analyses. Low systemic levels of IGF-1 could indicate altered growth conditions and energy metabolism in cloned pigs. In response to ad libitum feeding...

  15. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Jensen, M.G.; Riboldi, G.

    2010-01-01

    based oil wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP......) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and El measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly...

  16. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8–11-year-old boys

    OpenAIRE

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline; Green, Benjamin; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8–11 year-old boys in a schoolbased setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum....

  17. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-01-01

    was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterized as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species......Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterized as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum...

  18. Eating ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    Food in the lab is a special kind of diet translated into natural science terms and parameters but also I find ‘food as nutrients' show itself as so much more than nourishment when prescribed or eaten as such. In this paper I interrogate the facts and measuring practices of nutritional scientists...... an eater who: ”shouldn't restrain herself”. Practices of food and eating in the test meal I suggest, will allow us to tackle reductionism by showing the complex cultural context shaping clinical intervention....

  19. Effects of Ad libitum Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Dieting in Middle-Age Male Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherly, Alexander J; Killen, Lauren G; Smith, Ashton F; Waldman, Hunter S; Seltmann, Christie L; Hollingsworth, Angela; O'Neal, Eric K

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a 3-wk ad libitum, low-carbohydrate (fat (~70% of calories) (LCHF) diet on markers of endurance performance in middle-age, recreationally competitive male runners. All subjects (n = 8) after their normal high-carbohydrate (HC) diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed five 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological variables, metabolic variables, and perceptual responses were recorded. After 20 min of rest, participants completed a 5-km time trial on a road course. Subjects then consumed an LCHF diet for 3 wk and returned for repeat testing. Body mass and seven-site skinfold thickness sum decreased by approximately 2.5 kg (P vs 37.3°C ± 0.2°C) in the HC diet but did not differ at any other time with LCHF diet. Heart rate and perceptual measures did not display any consistent differences between treatments excluding thirst sensation for LCHF diet. RER and carbohydrate oxidation declined significantly, whereas fat oxidation increased after LCHF diet for every pace (P fat oxidation from LCHF diet potentially negate expected performance decrement from reduced carbohydrate use late in exercise for nonelite runners. An acute decrease in training capacity is expected; however, if performance improvement is not exhibited after 3 wk, diet cessation is suggested for negative responders.

  20. Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aller, E E J G; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Background:A high dietary protein (P) content and low glycemic index (GI) have been suggested to be beneficial for weight management, but long-term studies are scarce.Objective:The DIOGENES randomized clinical trial investigated the effect of P and GI on weight loss maintenance in overweight...... or obese adults in 8 centers across Europe. This study reports the 1-year results in 2 of the centers that extended the intervention to 1 year.Method:After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD), 256 adults (BMI>27 kg/m(2)) were randomized to 5 ad libitum diets for 12 months: high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high...... GI (HP/HGI), low P/low GI (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI) and a control diet. During the first 6 months foods were provided for free through a shop system, during the whole 12-month period subjects received guidance by a dietician. Primary outcome variable was the change in body weight over the 12...

  1. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe M; Ritz, Christian; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hlavaty, Petr; Saris, Wim H M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2013-06-01

    Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European centers. Families were randomized to 1 of 5 diets consumed ad libitum: high protein (HP) or low protein (LP) combined with high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI), or a control diet. At 6 centers, families received dietary instruction (instruction centers); at 2 centers, free foods were also provided (supermarket centers). Diet, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cardiovascular markers (lipid profile, glucose regulation, and inflammation) were measured in 253 children at baseline, 1 mo, and/or 6 mo. Protein intake was higher in the HP groups (19.9 ± 1.3% energy) than in the LP groups at 6 mo (16.8 ± 1.2% energy) (P = 0.001). The GI was 4.0 points lower (95% CI: 2.1, 6.1) in the LGI compared with the HGI groups (P pressure (P children, particularly in those undergoing most intensive intervention.

  2. Insulin-like growth factor I and glucagon-like peptide-2 responses to fasting followed by controlled or ad libitum refeeding in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Murali, Sangita G; Liu, Xiaowen

    2008-01-01

    for 48 h and then refed for 2 or 4 days by continuous intravenous or intragastric infusion or ad libitum feeding. Fasting induced significant decreases in body weight, plasma concentrations of IGF-I and bioactive GLP-2, jejunal mucosal cellularity (mass, protein, DNA, and villus height), IGF-I m...

  3. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

    2013-04-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Meal pattern analysis for effects of compound feed formulation in mid to late lactating dairy cows fed hay and compound feed both ad libitum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, F.; Navarro-Villa, A.; Fowers, R.; Martin-Tereso, J.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Kempen System is a dairy feeding system allowing ad libitum access to pelleted compound feed (CF) and hay. This system allows high DM intake (DMI) up to 30 kg DM (80% CF), but small and frequent CF meals are essential to reduce negative ruminal pH fluctuations. Little is known about feed intake

  5. Effectiveness and safety of 1-year ad libitum consumption of a high-catechin beverage under nutritional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Takeshi; Shoji, Kentaro; Takase, Hideto; Hibi, Masanobu; Hase, Tadashi; Meguro, Shinichi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Kambe, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    It has been reported that a continuous intake of a catechin beverage will reduce body fat. Traditionally, improvement of eating and exercise habits has been the basis for prevention and reduction of obesity. In this study, we conducted a trial involving human subjects who ingested a catechin beverage for 1 year under nutritional guidance. This study was conducted based on a comprehensive cohort design using a catechin beverage (containing 588 mg of tea catechins) and a control beverage (containing 126 mg of tea catechins). At both the start and the end of the trial, the subjects underwent an annual health check and computer tomography for measurement of their abdominal fat. In addition, a food intake survey was conducted and all subjects were provided nutritional guidance by a registered dietitian every 3 months. Data were analyzed using per protocol samples of 134 subjects (catechin group, n = 77; control group, n = 57). Body weight and body mass index were reduced significantly in the catechin group compared to the control group. Changes in body weight during the study period were -1.1 kg in the catechin group and 0.2 kg in the control group. In the catechin group, the visceral fat areas at the start of the trial were significantly correlated with the magnitude of fat reduction at the end of the trial. Under the guidance of a registered dietitian, subjects in the catechin group who showed a reduction in their fat-derived energy percentage during the test period tended to reduce more body weight than those with an increase in this percentage, although no difference in total energy intake was noted between the two groups. One-year ad libitum consumption of a catechin beverage posed no health risks and resulted in a reduction in body weight. An overall improvement in dietary habits might enhance the weight-reduction effect of the beverage.

  6. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  7. Reappraise the situation but express your emotions:Impact of emotion regulation strategies on ad libitum food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eTaut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect and emotion regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165 could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of 1 whether eating (yes/no is used as a secondary emotion regulation strategy and 2 whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the emotion regulation strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, emotion regulation strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion-induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without emotion regulation instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no emotion regulation instruction then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no emotion regulation instruction and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted emotion regulation is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive emotion regulation such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when emotion regulation is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  8. Carcass fabrication yields of beef steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride and offered ad libitum or maintenance energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Angela N; Walter, Lee-Anne J; Nichols, Wade T; Hutcheson, John P; Lawrence, Ty E

    2018-06-04

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the fabrication yields of carcasses from beef steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and fed at maintenance (MA) or ad libitum (AB) intake levels. Beef steers (n = 56) from a common sire were blocked (n = 28 per block) by terminal growth implant and sorted into pairs by BW. Four pairs (n = 8) were harvested on day 0; the remaining 24 pairs (n = 48) were assigned to a dietary intake level (MA or AB) and days on feed (28 or 56 d). Within pairs of MA or AB intakes, steers harvested on day 56 were randomly assigned to supplementation of ZH (90 mg·d-1 per steer) for 20 d followed by a withdrawal period of 4 d or control (C). Steers (BW = 603.5 ± 48.1 kg) were harvested at a commercial processing facility. After a 24-h chill period, standard USDA grading procedures were used to derive a calculated yield grade and quality grade. Following grading, left carcass sides were transported to the West Texas A&M University Meat Laboratory for fabrication. Each side was fabricated into subprimals to determine individual red meat yield (RMY), trimmable fat yield (TFY), and bone yield (BY). A mixed model was used for analysis; fixed effects included treatment combinations and random effects included block and pairs. Single df contrasts tested day 0 vs. 28, day 0 vs. 56, day 28 vs. 56, MA vs. AB, and C vs. ZH. Yield of chuck eye roll differed (P = 0.05) by days on feed (0 d = 4.14, 28 d = 4.11, 56 d = 4.55%). Similarly, eye of round yield was impacted (P = 0.02) by days on feed (0 d = 1.51, 28 d = 1.37, 56 d = 1.36%). Additionally, brisket yield was altered (P < 0.01) by days on feed (0 d = 4.08, 28 d = 3.56, 56 d = 3.48%) and treatment (C = 3.34, ZH = 3.61%). For remaining subprimals, no differences (P ≥ 0.15) were detected. Furthermore, results indicated that RMY tended (P = 0.07) to differ by treatment (C = 61.35, ZH = 63.67%). Comparatively, TFY was impacted (P = 0.04) by intake (MA = 20.44, AB = 23.33%). Results from this

  9. Effects of feed consumption rate of beef cattle offered a diet supplemented with nitrate ad libitum or restrictively on potential toxicity of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of feed consumption rate on potential toxicity, rumen fermentation, and eating behavior when beef heifers were fed a diet supplemented with nitrate (NI). Twelve ruminally cannulated heifers (827 ± 65.5 kg BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment consisted of 10-d adaptation, 8-d urea-feeding, and 3-d nitrate-feeding periods. All heifers were fed a diet supplemented with urea (UR) during the adaptation and urea-feeding periods, whereas the NI diet (1.09% NO in dietary DM) was fed during the nitrate-feeding period. After adaptation, heifers were randomly assigned to ad libitum or restrictive feeding (about 80% of ad libitum intake) for the urea- and nitrate-feeding periods. Ad libitum DMI decreased (14.1 vs. 15.1 kg/d; nitrate feeding changed the consumption pattern (a more even distribution of feed intake over the day). The increased feed consumption from 0 to 3 h after feeding the NI diet restrictively vs. ad libitum numerically decreased ( = 0.11) rumen pH and numerically or significantly increased ( = 0.01 to 0.28) rumen ammonia, NO, and NO; blood methemoglobin; and plasma NO and NO at 3 h. Regression analysis indicated that increased feed consumption (0 to 3 h) exponentially elevated ( nitrate-feeding period, the nitrate content of orts on d 2 and 3 was greater ( = 0.02) than that on d 1. In conclusion, the increased consumption rate of a diet supplemented with nitrate was an important factor influencing risk of nitrate toxicity based on blood methemoglobin and plasma NO. In addition, the pattern of daily feed consumption was altered by nitrate (creating a "nibbling" pattern of eating) in beef heifers.

  10. Serum lipase activity and concentration during intravenous infusions of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 and after ad libitum meal ingestion in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Stevner, Lene Susanne

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect on serum lipase activity and protein concentration of intravenous infusions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY3-36) and of an ad libitum meal in healthy overweight men. Twenty-five healthy, male subjects participated in this randomized, double-blinded, pl......To examine the effect on serum lipase activity and protein concentration of intravenous infusions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY3-36) and of an ad libitum meal in healthy overweight men. Twenty-five healthy, male subjects participated in this randomized, double...... the infusion and after intake of an ad libitum meal for measurement of serum lipase. Serum lipase levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following mono-infusions of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 were comparable to serum lipase levels following placebo (P = 0.054 and P = 0.873, respectively......). Following the co-infusion of GLP-1 and PYY3-36, serum lipase levels measured by ELISA decreased over time compared to placebo (P = 0.012). However, the between-group difference was not consistent when each time point was analyzed separately. On the placebo day, serum lipase levels measured by ELISA after...

  11. Nutritional Status of the Cauliflower Cultivar ‘Verona’ Grown with Omission of out Added Macronutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Matheus Saraiva; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of plant nutritional status allows an understanding of the physiological responses of plants to crop fertilization. A hydroponic experiment evaluated the symptoms of macronutrient deficiency in cauliflower ‘Verona’ and determined: a) the macronutrient contents of foliar tissues when visual symptoms were observed, b) macronutrients content of foliar and inflorescence tissues at harvest. The effect of nutrient deficiency on inflorescence mass was also evaluated. Nitrogen deficiency caused chlorosis followed by purple color in the old leaves, while P deficiency caused only chlorosis in old leaves. Chlorosis at the edge of old leaves progressing to the center of the leaves was observed with the omission of K, and after was observed necrosis in the chlorotic areas. Ca deficiency caused tip burn in new leaves, while Mg deficiency caused internerval chlorosis in old leaves. The omission of each macronutrient reduced inflorescence dry matter. This deleterious effect was larger for N, P, and K deficiencies, reducing inflorescence dry matter by 87, 49, and 42%, respectively. When the nutrient solutions without N, P, K, Ca, or Mg were supplied to cauliflower plants, the macronutrient contents at harvest were 8.8, 0.6, 3.5, 13.0, and 0.8 g kg-1 in the foliar tissues and 27.3, 2.2, 21.6, 1.1, and 0.7 g kg-1 in the inflorescence tissues, respectively. PMID:25856380

  12. Nutritional status of the cauliflower cultivar 'verona' grown with omission of out added macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Matheus Saraiva; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of plant nutritional status allows an understanding of the physiological responses of plants to crop fertilization. A hydroponic experiment evaluated the symptoms of macronutrient deficiency in cauliflower 'Verona' and determined: a) the macronutrient contents of foliar tissues when visual symptoms were observed, b) macronutrients content of foliar and inflorescence tissues at harvest. The effect of nutrient deficiency on inflorescence mass was also evaluated. Nitrogen deficiency caused chlorosis followed by purple color in the old leaves, while P deficiency caused only chlorosis in old leaves. Chlorosis at the edge of old leaves progressing to the center of the leaves was observed with the omission of K, and after was observed necrosis in the chlorotic areas. Ca deficiency caused tip burn in new leaves, while Mg deficiency caused internerval chlorosis in old leaves. The omission of each macronutrient reduced inflorescence dry matter. This deleterious effect was larger for N, P, and K deficiencies, reducing inflorescence dry matter by 87, 49, and 42%, respectively. When the nutrient solutions without N, P, K, Ca, or Mg were supplied to cauliflower plants, the macronutrient contents at harvest were 8.8, 0.6, 3.5, 13.0, and 0.8 g kg-1 in the foliar tissues and 27.3, 2.2, 21.6, 1.1, and 0.7 g kg-1 in the inflorescence tissues, respectively.

  13. Ad libitum Pasture Feeding in Late Pregnancy Does Not Improve the Performance of Twin-bearing Ewes and Their Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner-Thomas, R A; Back, P J; Kenyon, P R; Hickson, R E; Ridler, A L; Stafford, K J; Morris, S T

    2015-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of controlled ryegrass-white clover herbage availability from day 128 until day 142 of pregnancy in comparison to unrestricted availability, on the performance of twin-bearing ewes of varying body condition score (BCS; 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0) and their lambs. It was hypothesised that under conditions of controlled herbage availability, the performance of lambs born to ewes with a greater BCS would be greater than those born to ewes with a lower BCS. During the period that the nutritional regimens were imposed, the pre- and post-grazing herbage masses of the Control regimen (1,070±69 and 801±30 kg dry matter [DM]/ha) were lower than the ad libitum regimen (1,784±69 and 1,333±33 kg DM/ha; pewe live weight, BCS and back fat depth or on lamb live weight, indices of colostrum uptake, maximal heat production, total litter weight weaned or survival to weaning (p>0.05). The difference in ewe BCSs and back fats observed among body condition groups was maintained throughout pregnancy (pewes from the BCS2.0 group had lower BCS and live weight (2.4±0.2, 74.3±2.6 kg) than both the BCS2.5 (2.6±0.2, 78.6±2.4 kg) and BCS3.0 ewes (2.7±0.2, 79.0±2.6 kg; p0.05). Ewe BCS group had no effect on lamb live weight at birth or weaning or on maximal heat production (p>0.05). Serum gamma glutamyl transferase concentrations of lambs born to BCS3.0 ewes were higher within 36 hours of birth than lambs born to BCS2.0 ewes and BCS2.5 ewes (51.8±1.9 vs 46.5±1.9 and 45.6±1.9 IU/mL, respectively [pewe body condition on lamb plasma glucose concentration (p>0.05). Lamb survival was the only lamb parameter that showed an interaction between ewe nutritional regimen and ewe BCS whereby survival of lambs born to BCS2.5 and BCS3.0 ewes differed but only within the Control nutritional regimen ewes (pewes with pre- and post-grazing ryegrass-white clover herbage covers of approximately 1,100 and 800 kg DM/ha in late pregnancy, provided that herbage covers are 1400

  14. Exercise Does Not Protect Against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad Libitum in Old ApoE-/- Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Di Cataldo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim:Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE-/- mice.Methods:45-weeks old obese ApoE-/-mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access and Sedentary (SED groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta and brain were then assessed.Results:In EX ApoE-/- mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE-/- EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during twelve weeks, brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r²=0.87; p=0.049 with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE-/-mice. Conclusion:We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE-/- animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE-/- mice.

  15. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, John E.; Agrawal, Nalini; Horsley, Elizabeth T.M.; Leakey, Tatiana I.; Scherer, Erin M.; Xia, Shijun; Allaben, William T.; Leakey, Julian E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F 1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which is associated with increased body weight. This report describes the influence of diet and body weight on the acute toxicity, hepatic enzyme response, and toxickinetics of chloral hydrate as part of a larger study investigating the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed and dietary controlled mice. Dietary control involves moderate food restriction to maintain the test animals at an idealized body weight. Mice were dosed with chloral hydrate at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week, by aqueous gavage for 2 weekly dosing cycles. Three diet groups were used: ad libitum, dietary control, and 40% caloric restriction. Both dietary control and caloric restriction slightly reduced acute toxicity of high doses of chloral hydrate and potentiated the induction of hepatic enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Chloral hydrate toxicokinetics were investigated using blood samples obtained by sequential tail clipping and a microscale gas chromatography technique. It was rapidly cleared from serum within 3 h of dosing. Trichloroacetate was the major metabolite in serum in all three diet groups. Although the area under the curve values for serum trichloroacetate were slightly greater in the dietary controlled and calorically restricted groups than in the ad libitum-fed groups, this increase did not appear to completely account for the potentiation of hepatic enzyme induction by dietary restriction

  16. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  17. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

  18. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  19. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  20. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject's estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals consuming SSBs occurred independently of the relative

  1. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. Objective: We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. Design: We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)–sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. Results: In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject’s estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). Conclusions: In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals

  2. Cats during gestation and lactation fed with canned food ad libitum: energy and protein intake, development of body weight and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichert, B; Signer, M; Uebelhart, D

    2012-12-01

    The NRC recommendations for cats for energy and protein supply during gestation and lactation are based on limited data. This study aimed to answer the question: Can the energy requirement be met with canned food or is the volume restrictive? Therefore, balance trials were conducted in 10 queens before mating, during the 4th and 7th week of gestation and during the 2nd and 6th week of lactation. The cats were fed with canned food ad libitum. Additionally, the body composition of the queens was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Dexa) before mating, after parturition and after weaning. Eight of 10 cats presented increased body fat content and lean body mass during gestation. The weight loss during lactation led to a loss of lean body mass, but only six cats lost body fat of widely differing amounts. It was evident that the queens' dry matter intake was consistent with that of queens fed ad libitum with dry food. The cats lost lean body mass during lactation and had negative protein balances in the 2nd week of lactation. This seems to be physiological in early lactation. Nevertheless, the protein recommendations for lactation seem to be too low. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  4. Effects of 7 days on an ad libitum low-fat vegan diet: the McDougall Program cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John; Thomas, Laurie E; McDougall, Craig; Moloney, Gavin; Saul, Bradley; Finnell, John S; Richardson, Kelly; Petersen, Katelin Mae

    2014-10-14

    Epidemiologic evidence, reinforced by clinical and laboratory studies, shows that the rich Western diet is the major underlying cause of death and disability (e.g, from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes) in Western industrialized societies. The objective of this study is to document the effects that eating a low-fat (≤10% of calories), high-carbohydrate (~80% of calories), moderate-sodium, purely plant-based diet ad libitum for 7 days can have on the biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Retrospective analysis of measurements of weight, blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood lipids and estimation of cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and day 7 from 1615 participants in a 10-day residential dietary intervention program from 2002 to 2011. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used for testing the significance of changes from baseline. The median (interquartile range, IQR) weight loss was 1.4 (1.8) kg (p 7.5% at baseline, the risk dropped to 5.5% (>27%) at day 7 (p vegan diet eaten ad libitum for 7 days results in significant favorable changes in commonly tested biomarkers that are used to predict future risks for cardiovascular disease and metabolic diseases.

  5. Growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and metabolic profile of dairy heifers limit-fed distillers dried grains with ad libitum forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a corn- and soybean-product-based concentrate mix or distillers dried grains with solubles concentrate mix with ad libitum grass hay to dairy heifers. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 24 heifers [18 Holstein and 6 Brown Swiss; 219 ± 2 d of age (±standard deviation); 230 ± 4 kg of body weight] to evaluate the effect of diet on dry matter intake (DMI), growth performance, rumen fermentation, metabolic profile, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) corn and soybean product concentrate mix, and (2) distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-based concentrate mix (DDG). Both concentrate mixes were limit-fed at 0.8% of body weight and grass hay was offered ad libitum. Heifers were individually fed using Calan gates and orts were recorded daily at feeding. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and ration concentrate mix offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2 wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Jugular blood samples were collected every 4 wk for metabolite and metabolic hormone analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 by fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the growth measurements and growth measurements and DMI did not differ between treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed for rumen butyrate percentage with heifers fed DDG having a greater percentage. Total volatile fatty acid concentration, acetate molar percentage, and acetate:propionate decreased with the DDG treatment, whereas propionate molar percentage increased. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the metabolites or metabolic hormones measured. A tendency was observed for glucose and plasma urea nitrogen concentration to decrease with DDG. Plasma

  6. Effects of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, DHPG, and injection stress on striatal cell signaling in food-restricted and ad libitum fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Kenneth D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic food restriction augments the rewarding effect of centrally administered psychostimulant drugs and this effect may involve a previously documented upregulation of D-1 dopamine receptor-mediated MAP kinase signaling in nucleus accumbens (NAc and caudate-putamen (CPu. Psychostimulants are known to induce striatal glutamate release, and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR have been implicated in the cellular and behavioral responses to amphetamine. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether chronic food restriction increases striatal MAP kinase signaling in response to the group I mGluR agonist, DHPG. Results Western immunoblotting was used to demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of DHPG (500 nmol produces greater activation of ERK1/2 and CREB in CPu and NAc of food-restricted as compared to ad libitum fed rats. Fos-immunostaining induced by DHPG was also stronger in CPu and NAc core of food-restricted relative to ad libitum fed rats. However, i.c.v. injection of saline-vehicle produced greater activation of ERK1/2 and CREB in CPu and NAc of food-restricted relative to ad libitum fed rats, and this difference was not seen when subjects received no i.c.v. injection prior to sacrifice. In addition, although DHPG activated Akt, there was no difference in Akt activation between feeding groups. To probe whether the augmented ERK1/2 and CREB activation in vehicle-injected food-restricted rats are mediated by one or more GluR types, effects of an NMDA antagonist (MK-801, 100 nmol, AMPA antagonist (DNQX, 10 nmol, and group I mGluR antagonist (AIDA, 100 nmol were compared to saline-vehicle. Antagonist injections did not diminish activation of ERK1/2 or CREB. Conclusions These results indicate that a group I mGluR agonist induces phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2 and CREB in both CPu and NAc. However, group I mGluR-mediated signaling may not be upregulated in food-restricted rats

  7. Roux-En-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy does not affect food preferences when assessed by an ad libitum buffet meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Christensen, Bodil Just; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    reports, which may be prone to recall bias and underestimation of especially unhealthy foods. METHODS: Using an ad libitum buffet meal targeting direct behavior, we investigated if RYGB and SG surgery leads to changes in food preferences. In addition, we assessed food preferences by a picture display test...... to explore differences between a method relying on verbal report and a method assessing direct behavior. RESULTS: Forty-one subjects (BMI 45.0 ± 6.8 kg/m(2)) completed a visit pre- and 6 months post-RYGB (n = 31) and SG (n = 10). Mean BMI decreased with 11.7 ± 0.6 kg/m(2) and total energy intake...

  8. The Influence of a Mouthpiece-Based Topography Measurement Device on Electronic Cigarette User's Plasma Nicotine Concentration, Heart Rate, and Subjective Effects Under Directed and Ad Libitum Use Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindle, Tory R; Hiler, Marzena M; Breland, Alison B; Karaoghlanian, Nareg V; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes aerosolize a liquid solution often containing nicotine. e-cigarette nicotine delivery may be influenced by user puffing behaviors ("puff topography"). E-cigarette puff topography can be recorded using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. The present study sought to examine the extent to which these systems influence e-cigarette nicotine delivery and other e-cigarette associated acute effects under ad libitum use conditions. Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were assessed in 29 experienced e-cigarette users using their preferred e-cigarette battery and liquid (≥12mg/mL nicotine) in two sessions differing only by the presence of a mouthpiece-based device. In both sessions, participants completed a directed e-cigarette use bout (10 puffs, 30-s interpuff interval) and a 90-min ad libitum bout. Puff topography was recorded in the session with the topography mouthpiece. Plasma nicotine, heart rate, and subjective effects, aside from "Did the e-cigarette Taste Good?" were independent of topography measurement (higher mean taste ratings were observed in the no topography condition). Mean (SEM) plasma nicotine concentration following the ad libitum bout was 34.3ng/mL (4.9) in the no topography condition and 35.7ng/mL (4.3) in the topography condition. Longer puff durations, longer interpuff intervals, and larger puff volumes were observed in the ad libitum relative to the directed bout. E-cigarette use significantly increased plasma nicotine concentration and heart rate while suppressing abstinence symptoms. These effects did not differ when a topography mouthpiece was present. Future studies using ad libitum e-cigarette use bouts would facilitate understanding of e-cigarette toxicant yield. No prior study has examined whether mouthpiece-based topography recording devices influence e-cigarette associated nicotine delivery, heart rate, or subjective effects under ad libitum conditions or assessed ad

  9. The effect of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on energy intake in an ad libitum 6-month low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Marjet J M; Saris, Wim H M

    2010-01-01

    The increased incidence of obesity coincides with an increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This study investigated the effect of SSB intake on energy intake in an ad libitum 6-month low-fat high-carbohydrate diet in a reanalysis of the CARMEN data. Forty-seven overweight-to-obese men and women participated in the Maastricht centre of the randomized controlled CARMEN study. They were allocated to a control (habitual) diet group (CD), a low-fat (-10 energy percent, En%) high simple carbohydrate (SCHO) or low-fat high complex carbohydrate group (CCHO) (SCHO vs. CCHO: 1.5 vs. 0.5) using a controlled laboratory shop system. Reanalyses were made for the energy, amount and density of all drinks and in particular of sweetened beverages (SBs). The SCHO and CD group could select non-diet SBs, including soft drinks and fruit juices, while the CCHO group received SB alternatives. Energy intake decreased in the CCHO and SCHO groups versus the CD group (-2.7 ± 0.4 MJ/day CCHO group vs. -0.2 ± 0.5 MJ/day CD group, p carbohydrate intake increased significantly in the SCHO group versus the CCHO and CD groups (+10.8 ± 1.6 vs. -2.0 ± 0.9 and -0.5 ± 1.1 En%; p carbohydrate intake increased through enhanced intake of non-diet SBs in the SCHO group. Fat reduction combined with only diet SBs in an ad libitum situation has a greater impact on energy intake than fat reduction combined with non-diet SBs. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ad libitum fluid intake does not prevent dehydration in suboptimally hydrated young soccer players during a training session of a summer camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Kotsis, Yiannis P; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Makrillos, Michalis; Bardis, Costas N

    2013-06-01

    There is a lack of studies concerning hydration status of young athletes exercising in the heat. To assess preexercise hydration status in young soccer players during a summer sports camp and to evaluate body- water balance after soccer training sessions. Initial hydration status was assessed in 107 young male soccer players (age 11-16 yr) during the 2nd day of the camp. Seventy-two athletes agreed to be monitored during 2 more training sessions (3rd and 5th days of the camp) to calculate dehydration via changes in body weight, while water drinking was allowed ad libitum. Hydration status was assessed via urine specific gravity (USG), urine color, and changes in total body weight. Mean environmental temperature and humidity were 27.2 ± 2 °C and 57% ± 9%, respectively. According to USG values, 95 of 107 of the players were hypohydrated (USG ≥ 1.020) before practice. The prevalence of dehydration observed was maintained on both days, with 95.8% and 97.2% of the players being dehydrated after the training sessions on the 3rd and 5th days, respectively. Despite fluid availability, 54 of the 66 (81.8%) dehydrated players reduced their body weight (-0.35 ± 0.04 kg) as a response to training, while 74.6% (47 out of the 63) further reduced their body weight (-0.22 ± 0.03 kg) after training on the 5th day. Approximately 90% of the young soccer players who began exercising under warm weather conditions were hypohydrated, while drinking ad libitum during practice did not prevent further dehydration in already dehydrated players.

  12. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: Results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Christopher L.; Heyes, Andrew; Hopkins, William

    2009-01-01

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ('Ad lib') larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ('Ration') larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V total (Control, 'C'), 109 ppm (Low, 'L'), and 363 ppm (High, 'H'). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at α = 0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources are typically more limited

  13. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: Results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Christopher L. [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, P.O. Box 38, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States)], E-mail: Rowe@cbl.umces.edu; Heyes, Andrew [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, P.O. Box 38, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States); Hopkins, William [Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 100 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2009-01-31

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ('Ad lib') larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ('Ration') larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V{sub total} (Control, 'C'), 109 ppm (Low, 'L'), and 363 ppm (High, 'H'). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at {alpha} = 0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources

  14. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Gao, Zhiling, E-mail: zhilinggao@hotmail.com [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo [College of Animal Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Cai, Zhenjiang [Mechanical and Electric Engineering College, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China)

    2015-04-15

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were

  15. Effects of toasting blue lupins, soybeans or barley as supplement for high-yielding organic dairy cows fed grass-clover silage ad libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Lund, Peter; Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    . The supplement under investigation was: lupins in experiment 1, barley in experiment 2 and soybeans in experiment 3. The same forage mixture of grass-clover silage (84% of DM), grass pellets (11% of DM) and straw (5% of DM) was fed ad libitum in all the experiments. Toasting decreased effective rumen protein...... degradability determined in situ for all three supplements. Compared to untreated lupins toasting of lupins tended (P = 0.10) to increase milk yield, whereas toasting of soybeans did not affect milk yield. Toasting of lupins decreased (P = 0.03) milk protein content (32.2 versus 32.7 g/kg), whereas toasting...... of soybeans did not affect milk protein content. ECM yield was significantly higher (P = 0.002) for cows fed toasted soybeans than for cows fed untreated soybeans (28.1 versus 26.4 kg ECM) whereas there was no significant effect on ECM yield from toasting lupins or barley. It can be concluded...

  16. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-05

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  17. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: A 6-mo randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effects of 3 ad libitum diets on the maintenance of an initial weight loss of >or=8% and risk factors for CVD and diabetes during...... a 6-mo controlled dietary intervention. DESIGN: Nondiabetic overweight or obese [mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.5 +/- 2.6] men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 +/- 4.8 y were randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45% of energy) and >20% of fat...... as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet; n = 54), to a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet; n = 51), or to a control diet (35% of energy as fat; n = 26). Protein constituted 10-20% of energy in all 3 diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: More subjects dropped...

  18. Plasma cortisol levels in response to a cold pressor test did not predict appetite or ad libitum test meal intake in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D; Hernandez, Dominica B; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E

    2012-12-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng/ml), heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as ratings of stress, pain, and appetite, were serially acquired. An ad libitum liquid meal was offered at 45min and intake measured covertly. Fasting cortisol was higher at 15min (mean peak cortisol) following the CPT compared to WW. Higher stress was reported at 2 and 15min for the CPT compared to WW. Pain, an indirect marker of the acute stress, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased following the CPT at 2min compared to WW. Hunger decreased after the CPT at 2 and 15min, and desire to eat ratings were lower following CPT compared to WW. Subjects did not have greater test meal intake (TMI) following CPT compared to WW. There was also no significant relationship between cortisol levels following stress and TMI, indicating that cortisol did not predict subsequent intake in obese women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE CONSEQUENCES ON BLOOD GSH DYNAMICS ON WISTAR FEMALE RATS AT AD LIBITUM CHROMIUM (VI ADMINISTRATION DURING THE GESTATION AFTER THE WEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA GRĂVILĂ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (VI is a widely used industrial chemical, extensively used in paints, metal finishes, steel including stainless steel manufacturing, alloy cast irons, chrome, and wood treatment. In nature chromium occurs in divalent, trivalent and hexavalent forms. Hexavalent chromium predominates over the trivalent form in natural waters. We have studied the influence of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 on blood GSH values in rats. This study was carried out on 28 Wistar adult female rats, divided in 3 experimental groups (E and one control group (C. The rats were feed with 25ppm (LOAEL, 50ppm and 75ppm potassium dichromate, ad libitum, in drinking water, during the gestation. The control batch received tap water. Reduced glutathione (GSH was measured quantitatively after the wean using a Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer, through Beutler et al. method, at 412nm. This study reports that potassium dichromate exposure induced the depletion of blood GSH because Cr(VI can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS. It can induce oxidative stress and toxicity.

  20. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard...... randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard...... produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (se 3) v. 52 (se 2) kJ/h, respectively, P = 0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P = 0·63) and energy balance (P = 0·67) also...

  1. Local e extensão da digestão em terneiros desmamados alimentados "Ad Libitum" com dietas ricas em concentrado contendo diferentes fontes de proteína suplementar Site and extent of digestion by weaned calves fed "Ad Libitum" on high concentrate-rich diets with different supplemental protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vilmar Kozloski

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados nove terneiros da raça Holandesa (139 ± 2,4kg, fistulados no duodeno, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado para estudar o efeito da suplementação com diferentes fontes protéicas (2% de uréia ou 10% de farinha de carne na dieta total de dietas ricas em concentrado (milho e farelo de soja sobre o local e extensão da digestão do alimento, em condições de consumo ad libitum. A relação volumoso:concentrado das dietas foi de 30:70. A digestibilidade ruminal e total da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e nitrogênio, assim como o fluxo duodenal de nitrogênio microbiano e residual do alimento, e a eficiência da síntese protéica microbiana foram semelhantes nos dois tratamentos (P>0,10. A digestibilidade ruminal do amido também foi semelhante, mas a digestibilidade total foi menor no tratamento com uréia (PNine weaned Holstein calves (139 ± 2.4kg fitted with duodenal cannulas were used in a completly ramdomized design to study the effects of supplemental protein sources (2% of urea or 10% of meat meal of high concentrate diets (corn and soybean meal on site and extent of digestion of feed, in ad libitum feeding conditions. The forage:concentrate ratio was 30:70. The ruminal and total digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and nitrogen, as well as microbial and feed residual nitrogen duodenal flow, and the microbial protein synthesis efficiency were similar for both treatments (P>0.10. The ruminal digestibility of starch was also similar, but total digestibility was lower for urea treatment (P<0.10. However, this is probably due more to the limited capacity of ruminants to digest starch in the intestines than to an effect of the protein supplement. The use of urea or meat meal, as supplemental protein sources for corn and soybean meal based diets, formulated to supply the growth requirements of calves fed ad libitum, did not affect the digestion process.Thus, the choise of the protein

  2. The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, M; van Baak, M A; Monsheimer, S; Saris, W H M

    2009-03-01

    High-protein (HP) diets are often advocated for weight reduction and weight loss maintenance. The aim was to compare the effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) and low-fat, HP ad libitum diets on weight maintenance after weight loss induced by a very low-calorie diet, and on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy obese subjects. Forty-eight subjects completed the study that consisted of an energy restriction period of 5-6 weeks followed by a weight maintenance period of 12 weeks. During weight maintenance subjects received maltodextrin (HC group) or protein (HP group) (casein (HPC subgroup) or whey (HPW subgroup)) supplements (2 x 25 g per day), respectively and consumed a low-fat diet. Subjects in the HP diet group showed significantly better weight maintenance after weight loss (2.3 kg difference, P=0.04) and fat mass reduction (2.2 kg difference, P=0.02) than subjects in the HC group. Triglyceride (0.6 mM difference, P=0.01) and glucagon (9.6 pg ml(-1) difference, P=0.02) concentrations increased more in the HC diet group, while glucose (0.3 mM difference, P=0.02) concentration increased more in the HP diet group. Changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin, HOMAir index, HbA1c, leptin and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the diets. No differences were found between the casein- or whey-supplemented HP groups. These results show that low-fat, high-casein or whey protein weight maintenance diets are more effective for weight control than low-fat, HC diets and do not adversely affect metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in weight-reduced moderately obese subjects without metabolic or cardiovascular complications.

  3. Live growth performance, carcass grading characteristics, and harvest yields of beef steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride and offered ad libitum or maintenance energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy Walter, Lee-Anne; Schmitz, Angela Nicole; Nichols, Wade Taylor; Hutcheson, John Paul; Lawrence, Ty Ellis

    2018-05-04

    A trial was conducted to examine live growth efficiency, harvest yields, and carcass grading performance of steers fed at maintenance (M) or at ad libitum (A) level of intake during zilpaterol hydrochloride (Z) supplementation. Single-sired, beef steers (n = 56; start of trial BW 590 ± 36 kg) blocked (n = 2) by weight and terminal implant were sorted into pairs (n = 14 per block) by weight. Pairs of steers were initially assigned to 0, 28, or 56 d of feeding. Within 28 or 56 d, pairs were assigned to M or A intake. Steers within a pair assigned to 56 d of feeding were randomly assigned to either 20 d of Z supplementation (90 mg/d per steer) with a 4 d withdrawal period prior to slaughter or to no ZH supplementation (C). Steers were housed and fed in individual pens. Weights of all non-carcass and carcass components were recorded at slaughter; carcasses were graded 24-h postmortem. Data were analyzed via a mixed model; the fixed effect was treatment combination with random effects of block and pair. Live growth data used harvest day as the repeated measure and animal as the subject. Single df contrasts were constructed for day 0 vs. day 28, day 0 vs. day 56, day 28 vs. day 56, M vs. A, and C vs. Z. Treatment impacted (P ≤ 0.05) live ADG; contrasts indicated A (1.33) was greater than M (0.14 kg), and Z (1.12) was greater than C (0.82 kg). Similarly, carcass ADG differences (P carcass and internal cavity mass (P carcass yield was greater (P carcass growth, carcass transfer, kill yields, and carcass characteristics across time.

  4. Effect of weaning age on feed intake and ruminal fermentation patterns of calves fed a dry total mixed ration with ad libitum access to grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ackeren, Caroline; Steingass, Herbert; Hartung, Karin; Funk, Rainer; Drochner, Winfried

    2010-08-01

    To study the effect of weaning age on average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal fermentation, 10 rumen-cannulated male Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (i) early weaned at 8 weeks of age (235 l milk); (ii) conventionally weaned at 12 weeks of age (347 l milk). Twice daily grass hay (9.0 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) and a dry total mixed ration (TMR) (11.6 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) containing 15% alfalfa hay and 85% concentrates were offered separately. Water was available ad libitum. Ruminal fluid was collected via cannulas at weeks 9, 11, 13 and 15, twice weekly just prior to as well as 1, 3, 5 and 7 h after morning feeding. Calves of both treatments achieved adequate ADG (947 vs. 959 g; p > 0.05). Just-weaned calves rapidly increased DMI (1.1-2.5 kg TMR and 2.4-3.6 kg TMR for early- and conventionally-weaned calves, respectively). From weeks 10-12 early-weaned calves consumed significantly more dry feed than conventionally-weaned calves (week 10: 2.5 vs. 1.6 kg/d; week 12: 3.4 vs. 2.4 kg/d). Early weaning stimulates DMI supporting ruminal fermentation intensity, indicated by lower ruminal pH. After weaning, only early-weaned calves achieved critical average ruminal pH (week 9: 5.7 vs. 6.0, p = 0.017; week 11: 5.9 vs. 6.2, p = 0.007). Experimental treatment did not affect the concentration of ruminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). For all calves, the effects of the concentrate-rich TMR were shown by a high SCFA level (daily average: 137-152 mmol x l(-1)) and an acetate to propionate to butyrate ratio between 51:36:9 and 54:33:10.

  5. Synergistic Effects of Ad-Libitum Low-Dose Fructose Drinking and Low-Dose Streptozotocin Treatment in Wistar Rats: A Mild Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asie Sadeghi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To develop a convenient animal model of T2D by pretreatment with low-dose 10% w/v fructose (FRC solution followed by the injection of low doses of streptozotocin (STZ in Wistar rats. For this 8-week experimental study; rats were first fed a standard chow ad-libitum diet and either tap water (n=40 or 10% w/v FRC solution (n=40 for 4 weeks. Next, rats in each category were randomly allocated to 4 subgroups (n=10 each of low-dose STZ (25,35, and 45 mg/kg. The final mean fasting blood sugar (FBG of FRC+STZ45 (197±55.87 mg/dl were significantly higher than that of the STZ45 (P=0.015 and FRC (P=0.019 groups. FRC+STZ45 showed the highest insulin resistance demonstrated by insulin tolerance test [area under the curve (AUC of insulin tolerance test; P<0.05]. AUC was not significantly different between the STZ45 and non-STZ groups and between FRC and non-FRC fed groups. Furthermore, FBG levels did not differ between FRC and non-FRC groups. Body weight measurement showed that the FRC+STZ45 group had the lowest body weight compared to all other groups. Our data provide the evidence that FRC and STZ45 synergistically could induce hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in Wistar rats. Here we presented a feasible model for initial forms of T2D by employing pretreatment with low-dose FRC solution and treatment with low-dose STZ.

  6. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4-6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S; Keller, Kathleen L

    2010-10-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4-6-year-old children's self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n=70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (ED(food+drink)) and ED for foods only (ED(foods)) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower ED(food+drink). In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower ED(food). There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children.

  7. Weight Loss in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Consider Individualised, Qualitative, ad Libitum Diets? A Narrative Review and Case Study

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    Irene Capizzi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In advanced chronic kidney disease, obesity may bring a survival advantage, but many transplant centres demand weight loss before wait-listing for kidney graft. The case here described regards a 71-year-old man, with obesity-related glomerulopathy; referral data were: weight 110 kg, Body Mass Index (BMI 37 kg/m2, serum creatinine (sCr 5 mg/dL, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 23 mL/min, blood urea nitrogen (BUN 75 mg/dL, proteinuria 2.3 g/day. A moderately restricted, low-protein diet allowed reduction in BUN (45–55 mg/dL and good metabolic and kidney function stability, with a weight increase of 6 kg. Therefore, he asked to be enrolled in a weight-loss program to be wait-listed (the two nearest transplant centres required a BMI below 30 or 35 kg/m2. Since previous low-calorie diets were not successful and he was against a surgical approach, we chose a qualitative, ad libitum coach-assisted diet, freely available in our unit. In the first phase, the diet is dissociated; he lost 16 kg in 2 months, without need for dialysis. In the second maintenance phase, in which foods are progressively combined, he lost 4 kg in 5 months, allowing wait-listing. Dialysis started one year later, and was followed by weight gain of about 5 kg. He resumed the maintenance diet, and his current body weight, 35 months after the start of the diet, is 94 kg, with a BMI of 31.7 kg/m2, without clinical or biochemical signs of malnutrition. This case suggests that our patients can benefit from the same options available to non-CKD (chronic kidney disease individuals, provided that strict multidisciplinary surveillance is assured.

  8. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of indigenous Pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia nilotica leaf meal and ad libitum Buffalo grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motubatse, M R; Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Malatje, M M

    2008-04-01

    In a first of two experiments, twenty yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.3 +/- 0.5 kg live weight were used in a 37-day study in a 2 (levels of PEG 4000) x 2 (levels ofAcacia) Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomised Design to determine the effect of the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g polyethylene glycol 4000 on diet intake and digestibility, and growth rate of Pedi goats fed ad libitum Buffalo grass hay. Acacia nilotica leaf meal contained high amounts of total phenolics (2.04% DM) and low amounts of condensed tannins; both extracted (0.37% DM) and unextracted (1.83% DM). Supplementation with PEG 4000 increased (P < 0.05) crude protein intake as the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal increased from 80 to 120 g. Similarly, treatment with PEG 4000 improved (P < 0.05) DM, OM and CP digestibilities when compared to 80 g Acacia nilotica leaf meal. Supplementation with PEG 4000 resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in blood urea concentrations. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has the potential to improve the feeding value of A. nilotica leaf meal and can, therefore, be used in the feeding systems for ruminant animals. The second experiment determined the effect of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation on in vitro digestibility of the diets similar to the actual ratios of the first experiment. Level of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation improved (P < 0.05) in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities where 120 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. Similarly, 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) in vitro CP digestibility where 80 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. In vivo DM and OM digestibilities were best predicted from in vitro DM and OM digestibilities while in vivo CP was explained by in vitro OM and CP digestibilities. It is, therefore, concluded that in vitro DM and OM digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo DM and OM digestibilities while OM and CP

  9. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  10. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  11. Adaptive changes in the appetite, growth and feeding behaviour of pony mares offered ad libitum access to a complete diet in either a pelleted or chaff-based form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argo, C.M.; Cox, J.E.; Lockyer, C.

    2002-01-01

    Seven, 3-year-old pony mares (similar to230 kg) were used in a cross-over study to compare the appetite, energy and nutrient digestibilities, growth rate and feeding behaviour, when a complete diet was offered ad libitum in either the original loose-chaff mix (C), or as a more convenient, milled...... provision continued for a further 4 weeks. Behaviour and apparent nutrient digestibilities were assessed in weeks 3 and 4 of each period. Pelleted food had a lower proportion of water (P, 0.12; C, 0.22), but relative proportions of oil (0.04), crude protein (0.08), crude fibre (0.29), neutral....... Following transfer from pellets to chaff, DEI decreased (P behaviour caused no detectable change in the appetite...

  12. Pattern of tissue deposition, gain and body composition of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two levels of concentrate in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty 18-month-old steers (20 Nellore, 20 F1 Simmental × Nellore and 20 F1 Angus × Nellore with average body weight of 265.6±6.4 kg; 325.3±4.7 kg and 324.6±6.0 kg, respectively were used. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on physical carcass composition, empty body composition, composition of the gain, as well as the pattern of tissue deposition were evaluated in this trial. The interaction between genetic group and feeding regime was not significant for any variable evaluated. Animals fed at the maintenance level produced carcass with larger proportions of bones and muscle than the animals fed ad libitum and Nellore animals had larger muscle portion and smaller adipose tissue portion on the carcass than the crossbred animals. Nellore animals and those fed at maintenance had smaller amount of total fat in the carcass than the crossbred animals and those fed ad libitum, respectively. Fat was deposited more pronouncedly in the intermuscular depot, followed by the visceral depot. The rate of deposition of the carcass tissues was smaller in the Nellore animals and in the animals fed the diet with concentrate allowance equivalent to 1% body weight (except for subcutaneous fat tissue, when compared with the crossbred animals and those fed the diet with 2% BW on concentrate, respectively. The rate of fat deposition on the visceral depot was larger in the F1 Angus × Nellore animals and on those fed the 2% of BW of concentrate diet when compared with F1 Simmental × Nellore animals and those fed the diet with the lowest concentrate allowance (1% BW.

  13. Effects of Feeding Milk Replacer Ad Libitum or in Restricted Amounts for the First Five Weeks of Life on the Growth, Metabolic Adaptation, and Immune Status of Newborn Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäff, Christine T.; Gruse, Jeannine; Maciej, Josefine; Mielenz, Manfred; Wirthgen, Elisa; Hoeflich, Andreas; Schmicke, Marion; Pfuhl, Ralf; Jawor, Paulina; Stefaniak, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The pre-weaning period is critical for calf health and growth, and intensive milk feeding programs may assist postnatal development by improving body growth and organ maturation. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding on the growth, metabolic adaptation, health, and immune status of newborn calves. Twenty-eight newborn Holstein and Holstein x Charolais crossbred calves were fed ad libitum (ADLIB) or in restricted amounts (6 liters per day; RES) during the first five weeks of life. The MR intake in the ADLIB treatment was gradually reduced at weeks 6 and 7, and all calves then received 6 liters of MR per day until day 60. Blood samples were collected to measure the plasma concentrations of metabolites, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), immunoglobulins, and acute phase proteins. The expression of mRNA associated with both the somatotropic axis and gluconeogenic enzymes was measured in the liver on day 60. Intensive feeding improved MR intake and growth in ADLIB without influencing concentrate intake. Carcass weight, perirenal fat, and muscle mass were greater in ADLIB. Plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, insulin, and IGF-I were greater, whereas plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, urea, IGFBP-2 and -4, and fibrinogen were lower at distinct time points in ADLIB. The hepatic mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was greater in ADLIB. Most metabolic and endocrine differences occurred during the MR feeding period, but a slightly greater concentrate intake was associated with increased plasma IGF-I and insulin at the end of the study. The immune and health status of the calves were not affected by MR feeding. However, increased plasma fibrinogen in the RES group suggested differences in the acute phase response. PMID:28036351

  14. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary F F; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-04-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children's eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, P<0·001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children's BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75 % more energy content than slower eating children (Δ548 kJ (Δ131 kcal); 95 % CI 107·6, 154·4, P<0·001), and had higher whole-body (P<0·05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118·3 cc; 95 % CI 24·0, 212·7, P=0·014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.

  15. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  16. The Influence of Macronutrients on Splanchnic and Hepatic Lymphocytes in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Couteur, David G; Tay, Szun S; Solon-Biet, Samantha; Bertolino, Patrick; McMahon, Aisling C; Cogger, Victoria C; Colakoglu, Feyza; Warren, Alessandra; Holmes, Andrew J; Pichaud, Nicolas; Horan, Martin; Correa, Carolina; Melvin, Richard G; Turner, Nigel; Ballard, J William O; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    There is a strong association between aging, diet, and immunity. The effects of macronutrients and energy intake on splanchnic and hepatic lymphocytes were studied in 15 month old mice. The mice were ad-libitum fed 1 of 25 diets varying in the ratios and amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and fat over their lifetime. Lymphocytes in liver, spleen, Peyers patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes were evaluated using flow cytometry. Low protein intake reversed aging changes in splenic CD4 and CD8 T cells, CD4:CD8 T cell ratio, memory/effector CD4 T cells and naïve CD4 T cells. A similar influence of total caloric intake in these ad-libitum fed mice was not apparent. Protein intake also influenced hepatic NK cells and B cells, while protein to carbohydrate ratio influenced hepatic NKT cells. Hepatosteatosis was associated with increased energy and fat intake and changes in hepatic Tregs, effector/memory T, and NK cells. Hepatic NK cells were also associated with body fat, glucose tolerance, and leptin levels while hepatic Tregs were associated with hydrogen peroxide production by hepatic mitochondria. Dietary macronutrients, particularly protein, influence splanchnic lymphocytes in old age, with downstream associations with mitochondrial function, liver pathology, and obesity-related phenotype. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Comportamento ingestivo de caprinos Moxotó e Canindé submetidos à alimentação à vontade e restrita = Ingestive behavior of Moxotó and Canindé goats submitted to ad libitum and restricted feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Louro Ribeiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de caprinos das raças Moxotó e Canindé, submetidos a dois níveis de alimentação. Foram utilizados 24 cabritos inteiros (12 Moxotó e 12 Canindé com idade média de quatro meses e peso vivo inicial médio de 15 kg, alojados em baias individuais, distribuídos no delineamentointeiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2x2 (duas raças e dois níveis de alimentação e seis repetições. Os níveis de alimentação foram: à vontade (T1 e 30% de restrição em relação ao animal que recebia alimentação à vontade (T2. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais das raças Moxotó e Canindé não apresentaram diferença significativa (P>0,05 para as variáveis comportamentaisobservadas. Alimentação à vontade proporcionou maior atividade de alimentação e ruminação e menor tempo em ócio. As atividades de micção, defecação e procura por água foram influenciadas pela hora do dia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake behavior of Moxotóand Canindé breed goats when offered a diet at two levels of intake. Twenty-four noncastrated goats (12 Moxotó and 12 Canindé were used, with an average age of four months and an initial average weight of 15 kg. The goats were housed in individual pens, distributed using a completely randomized design, in a 2x2 factorial arrangement (two breeds and two levels of intake with six repetitions. The levels of intake offered were: ad libitum (T1 and 30% restriction (T2. The level of restriction was determined in relation to the amount consumed by animals on ad libitum intake. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24hr period. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the observed behavioral variables between animals of the Moxotó and Canindé breeds. Feeding at the level of free-choice intake resulted in greater feeding and

  18. Dietary experience modifies horses' feeding behavior and selection patterns of three macronutrient rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redgate, S E; Cooper, J J; Hall, S; Eady, P; Harris, P A

    2014-04-01

    Choice feeding is often used to investigate an animal's nutritional requirements and dietary preferences. A problem with this approach is that animals with long gut transit times, such as the horse, may find it difficult to associate a chosen food with its nutritional consequence when alternative foods are presented simultaneously. One solution is to present foods singly for a period of time before a simultaneous choice session to allow the development of learned associations. This method was used to determine if horse's voluntary intake and feeding behavior was influenced by the macronutrient composition of the diet. Seven stabled horses, maintained on a low intensity exercise regimen, were allowed, on an ad libitum basis, haylage and 3 isocaloric forage based diets that were rich in 1 of 3 macronutrients (protein, lipid, and hydrolyzable carbohydrate). Initially, diets were presented as a 3-way choice for 5 d (self-selection a [SSa]), then singly (monadic phase) with exposure to each diet for 2 separate periods of 3 d each, and finally again as a choice for 5 d (self-selection b [SSb]). The total amount of trial diet offered differed with trial phase, with 2 to 2.5% of BW during SSa and the monadic phase, increasing to ad libitum access during SSb. To control differences in the total amount of trial diet offered, 2 measurements of voluntary intake were taken at 4 and 22 h postpresentation. Daily macronutrient and energy intakes were estimated from proximate analysis of the trial diets and batches of haylage fed. Feeding behavior was observed over a single 4-h period during both self-selection phases. Horses showed no initial preference after 4 h for any 1 diet during SSa. Following the monadic phase, horses demonstrated a preference for the protein and hydrolyzable carbohydrate rich diets over the lipid rich diet (P < 0.001). Dietary experience modified foraging behavior as the total number of visits to the diets decreased during SSb (P < 0.005). Analysis of 24

  19. Desempenho produtivo e eficiência bioeconômica de bovinos Nelore e Caracu selecionados para peso aos 378 dias de idade recebendo alimentação à vontade ou restrita Production and bioeconomic efficiency of Nellore and Caracu bulls selected to weight gain and fed ad libitum or restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gesualdi Júnior

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de 56 bovinos machos não-castrados de três grupos genéticos, com idade média de 18 meses, submetidos à alimentação à vontade ou restrita, em confinamento. Doze animais foram abatidos no início do experimento e os demais (16 Nelore selecionados, 12 Nelore não-selecionados e 16 Caracu selecionados com peso vivo médio inicial de 404, 345 e 434 kg, respectivamente foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3, composto por dois níveis de alimentação (restrito = consumo de 65 g de MS/kgPV0,75 por dia e ad libitum = fornecimento do alimento duas vezes ao dia e três grupos genéticos. O volumoso utilizado foi a silagem de milho e o concentrado foi constituído de milho moído, farelo de algodão, uréia, monensina e mistura mineral, com relação volumoso:concentrado 50:50. O abate foi realizado quando cada animal atingiu 4 mm gordura subcutânea à altura da 12ª costela, avaliada por ultra-som. Os grupos genéticos apresentaram ganhos médios diários de peso vivo e pesos de corpo vazio e de carcaça semelhantes, não havendo interação grupo genético × nível de alimentação. Os ganhos de peso vivo e os pesos de corpo vazio e de carcaça foram maiores nos animais alimentados ad libitum. Somente os consumos de matéria seca em kg/dia sofreram influência tanto do nível de alimentação quanto do grupo genético. Os animais Caracu apresentaram os maiores consumos, seguidos pelos Nelore selecionados. Os Nelores não-selecionados apresentaram melhor eficiência bionutricional e menor custo de produção da arroba que os demais grupos genéticos.Production of 56 feedlot bulls from three different genetic groups averaging 18 months of age and fed ad libitum or restricted was evaluated in this trial. Twelve animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the study and were used as references. The remaining 16 genetically selected Nellore, 12 ordinary Nellore, and 16

  20. Protein-Enriched Liquid Preloads Varying in Macronutrient Content Modulate Appetite and Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougkas, Anestis; Östman, Elin

    2016-03-01

    Dietary protein is considered the most satiating macronutrient, yet there is little evidence on whether the effects observed are attributable to the protein or to the concomitant manipulation of carbohydrates and fat. The aim was to examine the effect of consumption of preloads varying in macronutrient content on appetite, energy intake, and biomarkers of satiety. Using a randomized, within-subjects, 2-level factorial design, 36 adults [mean ± SD age: 27 ± 5 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 24.3 ± 1.6) received a breakfast consisting of 1 of 7 isovolumetric (670 mL) and isoenergetic (2100 kJ) liquid preloads matched for energy density and sensory properties but with different macronutrient composition (levels: 9%, 24%, or 40% of energy from protein combined with a carbohydrate-to-fat ratio of 0.4, 2, or 3.6, respectively). Appetite ratings and blood samples were collected and assessed at baseline and every 30 and 60 min, respectively, until a lunch test meal, which participants consumed ad libitum, was served 3.5 h after breakfast. Prospective consumption was 12% lower after intake of the high-protein (40%)/3.6 carbohydrate:fat preload than after intake of the low-protein (9%)/0.4 carbohydrate:fat preload (P = 0.02) solely because of the increased protein, irrespective of the manipulation of the other macronutrients. Most appetite ratings tended to be suppressed (13%) with increasing protein content of the preloads (P appetite than did carbohydrates and fat. Modulating the nutritional profile of a meal by replacing fat with protein can influence appetite in healthy adults. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01849302. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Efectos de la ingesta ad libitum de bebidas hidratantes sobre el peso corporal, la frecuencia cardíaca y el volumen plasmático durante una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración -Informe preliminar- Body weight, the heart rate, and the plasma volume during a high-intesity, long-duration run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiela Flórez Manrique

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la magnitud de la ingesta ad libitum de tres bebidas hidratantes de diferente osmolaridad y establecer sus efectos sobre el porcentaje de pérdida del peso corporal (PC, el aumento de la frecuencia cardíaca (FC y la reducción porcentual del volumen plasmático (VP en nueve deportistas con entrenamiento aeróbico, sometidos, bajo condiciones ambientales neutras, a una actividad física de alta intensidad 80% de la FC de reserva (FCR80 y larga duración 88 minutos. Metodología: el protocolo experimental se realizó en banda rodante, luego de nueve minutos de calentamiento, a una velocidad equivalente al 50% de la FCR y con una pendiente del 1%; siguieron 88 minutos de carrera, en tres intervalos, los dos iniciales de 29 minutos y el último de 30; la pendiente se mantuvo y la velocidad se incrementó al 80% de la FCR; finalmente, 90 minutos de recuperación, en tres intervalos de 30 minutos cada uno. No se hizo reposición hídrica durante el tratamiento deshidratado (DH; durante los tratamientos con hidratación se empleó un volumen similar de tres bebidas de diferente osmolaridad (H-I, H-II, H-III, el cual fue ingerido ad libitum. Resultados: durante la etapa de ejercicio la pérdida hídrica fue de 1.440 ml/h mientras que el volumen ingerido fue de 407 ml/h. Se observó, en cada uno de los tratamientos, una pérdida porcentual del PC (p<0,001; un incremento de la FC (p<0,05, y excepto con H-II y H-III una reducción porcentual del VP (p<0,05. No hubo diferencias intertratamientos en el porcentaje de la pérdida del PC, en el aumento de la FC ni en la reducción porcentual del VP. Conclusiones: la ingesta ad libitum fue menor que la cantidad recomendada internacionalmente por lo que, probablemente, no se pudieron establecer los efectos de la osmolaridad de las bebidas hidratantes sobre las variables estudiadas. Estos hallazgos nos obligan a revisar las prácticas de hidratación de nuestros deportistas ya que, al parecer

  2. The Calculator of Anti-Alzheimer's Diet. Macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, Marcin; Woźniak, Grażyna; Stępkowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    The opinions about optimal proportions of macronutrients in a healthy diet have changed significantly over the last century. At the same time nutritional sciences failed to provide strong evidence backing up any of the variety of views on macronutrient proportions. Herein we present an idea how these proportions can be calculated to find an optimal balance of macronutrients with respect to prevention of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and dementia. These calculations are based on our published observation that per capita personal income (PCPI) in the USA correlates with age-adjusted death rates for AD (AADR). We have previously reported that PCPI through the period 1925-2005 correlated with AADR in 2005 in a remarkable, statistically significant oscillatory manner, as shown by changes in the correlation coefficient R (Roriginal). A question thus arises what caused the oscillatory behavior of Roriginal? What historical events in the life of 2005 AD victims had shaped their future with AD? Looking for the answers we found that, considering changes in the per capita availability of macronutrients in the USA in the period 1929-2005, we can mathematically explain the variability of Roriginal for each quarter of a human life. On the basis of multiple regression of Roriginal with regard to the availability of three macronutrients: carbohydrates, total fat, and protein, with or without alcohol, we propose seven equations (referred to as "the calculator" throughout the text) which allow calculating optimal changes in the proportions of macronutrients to reduce the risk of AD for each age group: youth, early middle age, late middle age and late age. The results obtained with the use of "the calculator" are grouped in a table (Table 4) of macronutrient proportions optimal for reducing the risk of AD in each age group through minimizing Rpredicted-i.e., minimizing the strength of correlation between PCPI and future AADR.

  3. The Calculator of Anti-Alzheimer’s Diet. Macronutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, Marcin; Woźniak, Grażyna; Stępkowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    The opinions about optimal proportions of macronutrients in a healthy diet have changed significantly over the last century. At the same time nutritional sciences failed to provide strong evidence backing up any of the variety of views on macronutrient proportions. Herein we present an idea how these proportions can be calculated to find an optimal balance of macronutrients with respect to prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and dementia. These calculations are based on our published observation that per capita personal income (PCPI) in the USA correlates with age-adjusted death rates for AD (AADR). We have previously reported that PCPI through the period 1925–2005 correlated with AADR in 2005 in a remarkable, statistically significant oscillatory manner, as shown by changes in the correlation coefficient R (Roriginal). A question thus arises what caused the oscillatory behavior of Roriginal? What historical events in the life of 2005 AD victims had shaped their future with AD? Looking for the answers we found that, considering changes in the per capita availability of macronutrients in the USA in the period 1929–2005, we can mathematically explain the variability of Roriginal for each quarter of a human life. On the basis of multiple regression of Roriginal with regard to the availability of three macronutrients: carbohydrates, total fat, and protein, with or without alcohol, we propose seven equations (referred to as “the calculator” throughout the text) which allow calculating optimal changes in the proportions of macronutrients to reduce the risk of AD for each age group: youth, early middle age, late middle age and late age. The results obtained with the use of “the calculator” are grouped in a table (Table 4) of macronutrient proportions optimal for reducing the risk of AD in each age group through minimizing Rpredicted−i.e., minimizing the strength of correlation between PCPI and future AADR. PMID:27992612

  4. A thirteen week ad libitum administration toxicity study of tartrazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nabila

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... 1Laboratory of Physiology of Nutrition and Food Safety, Department of Biology, University of Oran,. El Menaouer 31000 Oran, Algeria. 2Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Oran, El Menaouer 31000 Oran, Algeria. ... synthetic colorants in food product samples was also.

  5. A thirteen week ad libitum administration toxicity study of tartrazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tartrazine is a colorant widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The current study evaluates the effect of sub-chronic ingestion of tartrazine in drinking water at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.45, 1 and 2.5% for 13 weeks in mice. Our results show that female body weight gain and food consumption decreased in all treated ...

  6. The effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, N.; Mars, M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Energy-yielding liquids elicit weak suppressive appetite responses and weak compensatory responses, suggesting that liquid calories might lead to a positive energy balance. However, data is often derived from foods differing in many characteristics other than viscosity. Objective: To

  7. Long-term Dietary Macronutrients and Hepatic Gene Expression in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokarn, Rahul; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Cogger, Victoria C; Cooney, Gregory J; Wahl, Devin; McMahon, Aisling C; Mitchell, James R; Mitchell, Sarah J; Hine, Christopher; de Cabo, Rafael; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Le Couteur, David G

    2018-04-23

    Nutrition influences both hepatic function and aging, but mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, the effects of lifelong, ad libitum-fed diets varying in macronutrients and energy on hepatic gene expression were studied. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix mouse arrays in livers of 46 mice aged 15 months fed one of 25 diets varying in protein, carbohydrates, fat, and energy density from 3 weeks of age. Gene expression was almost entirely influenced by protein intake. Carbohydrate and fat intake had few effects on gene expression compared with protein. Pathways and processes associated with protein intake included those involved with mitochondrial function, metabolic signaling (PI3K-Akt, AMPK, mTOR) and metabolism of protein and amino acids. Protein intake had variable effects on genes associated with regulation of longevity and influenced by caloric restriction. Among the genes of interest with expression that were significantly associated with protein intake are Cth, Gls2, Igf1, and Nnmt, which were increased with higher protein intake, and Igf2bp2, Fgf21, Prkab2, and Mtor, which were increased with lower protein intake. Dietary protein has a powerful impact on hepatic gene expression in older mice, with some overlap with genes previously reported to be involved with regulation of longevity or caloric restriction.

  8. Effects of proportions of dietary macronutrients on glucocorticoid metabolism in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland H Stimson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue glucocorticoid levels in the liver and adipose tissue are regulated by regeneration of inactive glucocorticoid by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1 and inactivation by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases. A low carbohydrate diet increases hepatic 11beta-HSD1 and reduces glucocorticoid metabolism during weight loss in obese humans. We hypothesized that similar variations in macronutrient proportions regulate glucocorticoid metabolism in obese rats. Male Lister Hooded rats were fed an obesity-inducing ad libitum 'Western' diet (37% fat, n = 36 for 22 weeks, then randomised to continue this diet (n = 12 or to switch to either a low carbohydrate (n = 12 or a moderate carbohydrate (n = 12 diet for the final 8 weeks. A parallel lean control group were fed an ad libitum control diet (10% fat, n = 12 throughout. The low and moderate carbohydrate diets decreased hepatic 11beta-HSD1 mRNA compared with the Western diet (both 0.7+/-0.0 vs 0.9+/-0.1 AU; p<0.01, but did not alter 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue. 5Alpha-reductase mRNA was increased on the low carbohydrate compared with the moderate carbohydrate diet. Compared with lean controls, the Western diet decreased 11beta-HSD1 activity (1.6+/-0.1 vs 2.8+/-0.1 nmol/mcg protein/hr; p<0.001 and increased 5alpha-reductase and 5beta-reductase mRNAs (1.9+/-0.3 vs 1.0+/-0.2 and 1.6+/-0.1 vs 1.0+/-0.1 AU respectively; p<0.01 in the liver, and reduced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity (both p<0.01 in adipose tissue. Although an obesity-inducing high fat diet in rats recapitulates the abnormal glucocorticoid metabolism associated with human obesity in liver (but not in adipose tissue, a low carbohydrate diet does not increase hepatic 11beta-HSD1 in obese rats as occurs in humans.

  9. Macronutrient composition determines accumulation of persistent organic pollutants from dietary exposure in adipose tissue of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    2016-01-01

    in metabolism and elimination of xenobiotics. Exposure to POPs, either as single compounds or mixtures, had no effect on obesity development, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the dietary composition of macronutrients profoundly modulates POP accumulation...... in adipose tissues adding an additional parameter to be included in future studies. Our results indicate that alterations in macronutrient composition might be an additional route for reducing total body burden of POPs....

  10. NPK macronutrients and microRNA homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcheski, Franceli R; Côrrea, Régis; Gomes, Igor A; de Lima, Júlio C; Margis, Rogerio

    2015-01-01

    Macronutrients are essential elements for plant growth and development. In natural, non-cultivated systems, the availability of macronutrients is not a limiting factor of growth, due to fast recycling mechanisms. However, their availability might be an issue in modern agricultural practices, since soil has been frequently over exploited. From a crop management perspective, the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are three important limiting factors and therefore frequently added as fertilizers. NPK are among the nutrients that have been reported to alter post-embryonic root developmental processes and consequently, impairs crop yield. To cope with nutrients scarcity, plants have evolved several mechanisms involved in metabolic, physiological, and developmental adaptations. In this scenario, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as additional key regulators of nutrients uptake and assimilation. Some studies have demonstrated the intrinsic relation between miRNAs and their targets, and how they can modulate plants to deal with the NPK availability. In this review, we focus on miRNAs and their regulation of targets involved in NPK metabolism. In general, NPK starvation is related with miRNAs that are involved in root-architectural changes and uptake activity modulation. We further show that several miRNAs were discovered to be involved in plant-microbe symbiosis during N and P uptake, and in this way we present a global view of some studies that were conducted in the last years. The integration of current knowledge about miRNA-NPK signaling may help future studies to focus in good candidates genes for the development of important tools for plant nutritional breeding.

  11. The Role of Macronutrients in Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterberry, Christopher M.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the role of macronutrients in exercise, examining research pertaining to exercise intensity, exercise duration, macronutrient intake, and mode of exercise as they pertain to both athletes and recreational exercisers. The paper explains that coaches and trainers must interpret and apply research findings to individual exercisers,…

  12. Improvement of aquaponic performance through micro- and macro-nutrient addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Dongyun; Liu, Jikai; Hu, Zhen; Zou, Yina; Jiang, Liping; Cheng, Xiaodian; Lv, Zhenting

    2017-07-01

    Aquaponics is one of the "zero waste" industry in the twenty-first century, and is considered to be one of the major trends for the future development of agriculture. However, the low nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) restricted its widely application. To date, many attempts have been conducted to improve its NUE. In the present study, effect of micro- and macro-nutrient addition on performance of tilapia-pak choi aquaponics was investigated. Results showed that the addition of micro- and macro-nutrients improved the growth of plant directly and facilitated fish physiology indirectly, which subsequently increased NUE of aquaponics from 40.42 to 50.64%. In addition, remarkable lower total phosphorus concentration was obtained in aquaponics with micro- and macro-nutrient addition, which was attributed to the formation of struvite. Most of the added micro-nutrients were enriched in plant root, while macro-nutrients mainly existed in water. Moreover, no enrichment of micro- and macro-nutrients in aquaponic products (i.e., fish and plant leaves) was observed, indicating that it had no influence on food safety. The findings here reported manifest that appropriate addition of micro- and macro-nutrients to aquaponics is necessary, and would improve its economic feasibility.

  13. The Macronutrients, Appetite, and Energy Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Alicia L; Dhillon, Jaapna; Gordon, Susannah; Higgins, Kelly A; Jacobs, Ashley G; McArthur, Breanna M; Redan, Benjamin W; Rivera, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Leigh R; Mattes, Richard D

    2016-07-17

    Each of the macronutrients-carbohydrate, protein, and fat-has a unique set of properties that influences health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, thinking has progressed regarding the mechanisms by which each macronutrient may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this period, metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency) were emphasized. This was followed by an orientation to gut endocrine signals that purportedly modulate the size of eating events (i.e., determined portion size). Most recently, research attention has been directed to the brain, where the reward signals elicited by the macronutrients are viewed as potentially problematic (e.g., contribute to disordered eating). At this point, the predictive power of the macronutrients for energy intake remains limited.

  14. Does Bertrand's rule apply to macronutrients?

    OpenAIRE

    Raubenheimer, D; Lee, K.P; Simpson, S.J

    2005-01-01

    It has been known for over a century that the dose–response curve for many micronutrients is non-monotonic, having an initial stage of increasing benefits with increased intake, followed by increasing costs as excesses become toxic. This phenomenon, termed Bertrand's rule, is widely assumed not to apply to caloric macronutrients. To date this assumption has been safe, owing to the considerable methodological challenges involved in coaxing animals to over-ingest macronutrients in a way that en...

  15. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; Cain, Steven L; Pils, Shannon; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A; van Manen, Frank T

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004-2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46-47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in this

  16. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecily M Costello

    Full Text Available When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos and black bears (Ursus americanus in Grand Teton National Park during 2004-2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates, which accounted for 46-47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1 daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2 diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3 mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4 allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among

  17. Diet and macronutrient optimization in wild ursids: A comparison of grizzly bears with sympatric and allopatric black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M.; Cain, Steven L.; Pils, Shannon R; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004–2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46–47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in

  18. The effect of a low-glycemic diet vs a standard diet on blood glucose levels and macronutrient intake in children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Alisha J; Nansel, Tonja R; Gellar, Lauren

    2009-02-01

    A low-glycemic index (GI) diet may lower postprandial hyperglycemia and decrease the risk for postabsorptive hypoglycemia in people with type 1 diabetes. However, insufficient evidence exists on the efficacy of a low-GI diet to support practice recommendations. The goal of this study was to examine the blood glucose response to and the macronutrient composition of low-GI meals vs usual meals consumed ad libitum at home in children with type 1 diabetes. A within-subject, crossover design was employed. Twenty-three participants were recruited between June and August 2006. Participants wore a continuous blood glucose monitoring system and completed diet diaries on 2 days. On 1 day, participants consumed their usual meal; on another day, participants consumed low-GI meals ad libidum. Order of the 2 days was counterbalanced. The mean GI was 34+/-6 for the low-GI day and 57+/-6 for the usual meal day (Plow-GI day, mean daytime blood glucose values (125+/-28 mg/dL [6.9+/-1.5 nmol/L] vs 185+/-58 mg/dL [10.3+/-3.2 nmol/L], Pvs 26,707+/-25,038, Pvs 13.6+/-7.6, Plow-GI day, subjects consumed more fiber (24.5+/-12.3 g vs 14.5+/-6.1 g, Pfat (45.7+/-12.2 g vs 76.8+/-32.4 g, Pcarbohydrate, or protein intake. In this pilot study, a low-GI diet was associated with improved diet quality and a reduction in hyperglycemia.

  19. Evaluation of energy and macronutrient intake of black women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macronutrient intake was determined using a validated Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (QFFQ). Median macronutrient intake was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) as applicable. Median energy, macronutrient and cholesterol intake of younger and older women was compared using ...

  20. Effect of amphetamine on human macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Kelly, T H; Fischman, M W

    1995-11-01

    Six male subjects participated in a 15-day residential study examining the effects of amphetamine on macronutrient intake. During the first 11 days, carbohydrate intake was manipulated by providing lunch meals high (155 g) or low (25 g) in carbohydrate. Subjects received oral d-amphetamine (5, 10 mg/70 kg, BID) or placebo. Total daily caloric intake was similar under both lunch conditions (approximately 3400/Kcal), but carbohydrate contributed more energy under the high-carbohydrate condition. Both doses of amphetamine decreased total caloric intake to approximately 2600 Kcal, by decreasing the number of eating bouts, without affecting macronutrient selection. During the last four days subjects received a higher daily dose of amphetamine (30 mg/70 kg in four doses) or placebo, and were allowed to self-select lunch. Although 30 mg amphetamine decreased intake of all macronutrients, the relative contribution of carbohydrate to total caloric intake was increased from 54% to 62%, while the contribution of fat was decreased from 32% to 26% and the contribution of protein was decreased from 14% to 12%. Thus, at a high dose, amphetamine altered the relative contribution of specific macronutrients to total caloric intake.

  1. Soil Macronutrient Sensing for Precision Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate measurements of soil macronutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) are needed for efficient agricultural production, including site-specific crop management (SSCM), where fertilizer nutrient application rates are adjusted spatially based on local requirements. Rapid, non-destru...

  2. STEPVfISE ADAPTATION OF SHEEP FED AD LIBITUM TO A HIGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All dicts contained a mxed buttbr and l5% Cp. Samples of ruminal in- gesta ucre takcn at short intervals dunng thc llrst l4 h of the t-eeding c:ycle until Day 7 on the finaldiet when it was continued over the .... fuged at 4 000 g for 20 min and the supernatant stored ..... diets would give rise to an alkaline urine high in HPO4=.

  3. The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M.; Mu, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. Methods: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) men (n =...

  4. Effects of ad libitum and restricted diets in different feeding regimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WJ

    Bomb Calorimeter and starch according to the AOAC (1984) procedure. ... the Perkin Elmer Atomic Spectrophotometer-2380 (Giron, 1973). ..... changes in ingredients, making it difficult to distinguish ingredient effects from energy effects.

  5. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake among male university students in an ad libitum buffet setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Ida; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Køpke Nielsen, Brit

    2016-01-01

    one-day lunch meal study was conducted in a FoodScape Laboratory where an Intelligent Buffet was used to register the exact weight of each meal component self-served by each participant. A convenience sample of 65 men was divided to a control group (n= 32) and an intervention group (n= 33). The choice......-served fruit and vegetables and decrease consumption of other meal components among male university students. Such simple choice architecture interventions could be used as a supplement to already existing strategies in the promotion of healthy eating....... due to the complexity of determinants for food choices and more research is therefore needed. This study assessed the of a choice architectural intervention aimed at reducing energy density of meals consumed by male university students, by proportionally increasing their vegetable consumption.A single...

  6. Great tits provided with ad libitum food lay larger eggs when exposed to colder temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, S.V.; Visser, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of nutrients deposited into a bird egg varies both between and within clutches of the same female. Larger eggs enhance offspring traits, but as a tradeoff, laying large eggs also infers energetic costs to the female. Income breeders usually lay larger eggs later in the season, when

  7. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    .03;0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001;0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23;1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4;2.6) mmHg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2;2.0) energy %, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6;12.7) % (all P≤0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep...

  8. Production traits of broiler chicken strains fed Ad Libitum and raised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of commercial broiler chickens reared on full-feeding, and under the same housing, feeding regime, agro-climatic zone and management practices. A total number of 150 broiler dayold chicks, that, is 50 chicks each of Arbor Acres (strain A), Hubbard (strain B) and Marshall (strain C) were purchased from local hatcheries, ...

  9. [Composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rušavý, Zdeněk; Žourek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The diabetic diet is one of the pillars of diabetes treatment. The rapid development of knowledge relating to the treatment of diabetes also includes diet. The paper focuses on the importance of a diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and prevention of atherosclerosis. Its main goal is to assess the impact of a composition of macronutrients on individuals with type 2 diabetes. The paper is divided into several parts, each of which ends with a conclusion. The first part examines weight reduction. The diet aimed at a weight loss is effective, it can effectively prevent diabetes, it leads to improvements in glucose control and reduction of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, however it will not impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality until after more than 20 years. The second part deals with "healthy" foods. The studies exploring this area are not convincing. The only really rational component of food in relation to atherosclerosis is dietary fibres. Important is a balanced diet combined with regular physical activities. The third part focuses on the composition of macronutrients. It turns out that, considering a low-calorie diet, the effects of high- and low-carbohydrate diets on people with diabetes are similar with regard to weight loss and lowering of HbA1c, however the low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower glycemic variability and a reduced need for anti-diabetic drugs. We do not know how the comparison of the two extreme diets would come out regarding individuals with a high energy diet. Currently it is useful to focus on the quality of individual macronutrients. Choose foods containing carbohydrates with a low glycemic index and high fibre foods, prefer fats that contain a low proportion of saturated fatty acids. The fourth part discusses the recent recommendation of the Czech Diabetes Society regarding the composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet. As compared with the diet proposed earlier, lower intake of fibre

  10. Breast milk macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Goele; Matthys, Christophe; Lannoo, Matthias; Van der Schueren, Bart; Devlieger, Roland

    2015-05-01

    Breast milk samples from 12 lactating women with bariatric surgery were investigated by comparing the macronutrient and energy content with samples from 36 non-surgical controls. Samples were analyzed with the Human Milk Analyzer and the maternal diet 24 h prior to sampling with a food record. A higher fat, energy, and a slightly higher carbohydrate milk content was found in the surgical group compared to the non-surgical group (3.0 ± 0.7 versus 2.2 ± 0.9 g/100 ml, P = 0.008; 61.0 ± 7.2 versus 51.7 ± 9 kcal/100 ml, P = 0.002; and 6.6 ± 0.6 versus 6.3 ± 0.4 g/100 ml, P = 0.045, respectively). No correlations and no strong explanatory variance were found between milk macronutrient composition and corresponding maternal dietary intake. The nutritional value of breast milk after bariatric surgery appears to be at least as high as in non-surgical controls.

  11. Macronutrient intake in preschoolers with cystic fibrosis and the relationship between macronutrients and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filigno, Stephanie S; Robson, Shannon M; Szczesniak, Rhonda D; Chamberlin, Leigh A; Baker, Meredith A; Sullivan, Stephanie M; Kroner, John; Powers, Scott W

    2017-07-01

    Adequate nutrition is essential for growth in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The new CF Foundation Clinical Practice Guidelines bring attention to monitoring macronutrient intake as well as total energy. Dietary intake of 75 preschool children with CF and pancreatic insufficiency was examined and compared to the Clinical Practice Guidelines. Regression analyses examined relationships between macronutrient intake and growth. Approximately 45% of children met the 110% minimum recommended dietary allowance (RDA) recommendation. Children consumed 35.3% (6.1) of total daily energy intake from fat, 12.7% (1.7) from protein, and 52.0% (6.1) from carbohydrates. Percent energy from protein was associated with height growth. Many preschoolers with CF are not meeting nutrition benchmarks for total energy and fat. To optimize nutrition early, dietary monitoring with frequent individualized feedback is needed. Optimizing intake of macronutrients that promote growth, especially fat and protein, should be a primary clinical target. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. SYMPOSIUM - MACRONUTRIENT UTILIZATION DURING EXERCISE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PERFORMANCE AND SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryn S. Willoughby

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The review articles constitute a mini-symposium entitled "Macronutrient Utilization During Exercise: Implications for Performance and Supplementation" that were recently presented at the 2004 annual conference of the International Society of Sports Nutrition in Las Vegas, NV. Much controversy often surrounds macronutrient intake, utilization, and subsequent metabolism regarding exercise and athletic performance. Furthermore, the role of macronutrient supplementation with the specificintent of improving body composition and exercise performance by way of nutrient timing is also an important issue. As such, the articles provide a comprehensive overview of metabolic and performance-enhancing implications regarding carbohydrate, fat, and protein.

  13. The Dietary Composition and Source of Macronutrients Determine Obesity Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrmel, Lene Secher

    The drastic worldwide increase in obesity during the last decades is accompanied with several different health disorders. The underlying mechanisms for this escalation is not clear, but certain alterations in the dietary macronutrient composition are suggested to be of importance. In addition...... fat and marine oils. To further investigate the importance of the macronutrient composition on obesity development, we have performed a series of mice experiments. Our results demonstrate that both the amount and source of macronutrients influence obesity development and related disorders. The anti...... to attenuate obesity development. The gut microbiota is less affected by alterations in protein:carbohydrate ratio and adiposity, but is altered in response to an elevated fat intake. The macronutrient composition is able to affect obesity development through direct influence on energy consuming metabolic...

  14. Evaluation of macronutrient demand in calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Daniella N. M.; Lopes Coelho, Lívia; Paiva, Patrícia D. O.

    2015-01-01

    Zantedeschia species are important plants in the flower market, but there is insufficient information available on nutrient absorption and accumulation for the various developmental stages of these plants. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate macronutrient accumulation in Zantedeschia aethiopica...... part (leaves, rhizomes, roots and flower stalks) and then calculated the dry mass accumulation and the nutrient contents. A randomized block study design was applied, with 4 replicates, totaling 48 plots. The aerial parts of the plants showed macronutrient content and accumulation in the sequences K......+>N>Ca2+>S>P>Mg and K>N>P>Ca>S>Mg, respectively, with the highest values being observed between 265 and 328 days after planting. The aerial parts showed greater accumulation of dry mass and macronutrients, whereas the flowers did not display significant macronutrient accumulation. The highest rates...

  15. Macronutrient considerations for the sport of bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Charles P; Frank, Laura L; Evans, William J

    2004-01-01

    Participants in the sport of bodybuilding are judged by appearance rather than performance. In this respect, increased muscle size and definition are critical elements of success. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the literature and provide recommendations regarding macronutrient intake during both 'off-season' and 'pre-contest' phases. Body builders attempt to increase muscle mass during the off-season (no competitive events), which may be the great majority of the year. During the off-season, it is advantageous for the bodybuilder to be in positive energy balance so that extra energy is available for muscle anabolism. Additionally, during the off-season, adequate protein must be available to provide amino acids for protein synthesis. For 6-12 weeks prior to competition, body builders attempt to retain muscle mass and reduce body fat to very low levels. During the pre-contest phase, the bodybuilder should be in negative energy balance so that body fat can be oxidised. Furthermore, during the pre-contest phase, protein intake must be adequate to maintain muscle mass. There is evidence that a relatively high protein intake (approximately 30% of energy intake) will reduce lean mass loss relative to a lower protein intake (approximately 15% of energy intake) during energy restriction. The higher protein intake will also provide a relatively large thermic effect that may aid in reducing body fat. In both the off-season and pre-contest phases, adequate dietary carbohydrate should be ingested (55-60% of total energy intake) so that training intensity can be maintained. Excess dietary saturated fat can exacerbate coronary artery disease; however, low-fat diets result in a reduction in circulating testosterone. Thus, we suggest dietary fats comprise 15-20% of the body builders' off-season and pre-contest diets. Consumption of protein/amino acids and carbohydrate immediately before and after training sessions may augment protein synthesis, muscle glycogen

  16. Macronutrients and caloric intake in health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Mitchell, Sarah J; de Cabo, Rafael; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Both lifespan and healthspan are influenced by nutrition, with nutritional interventions proving to be robust across a wide range of species. However, the relationship between nutrition, health and aging is still not fully understood. Caloric restriction is the most studied dietary intervention known to extend life in many organisms, but recently the balance of macronutrients has been shown to play a critical role. In this review, we discuss the current understanding regarding the impact of calories and macronutrient balance in mammalian health and longevity, and highlight the key nutrient-sensing pathways that mediate the effects of nutrition on health and ageing. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Neural responses to macronutrients: hedonic and homeostatic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Alastair J; Murray, Susan; Vaicekonyte, Regina; Avena, Nicole M

    2015-05-01

    The brain responds to macronutrients via intricate mechanisms. We review how the brain's neural systems implicated in homeostatic control of feeding and hedonic responses are influenced by the ingestion of specific types of food. We discuss how these neural systems are dysregulated in preclinical models of obesity. Findings from these studies can increase our understanding of overeating and, perhaps in some cases, the development of obesity. In addition, a greater understanding of the neural circuits affected by the consumption of specific macronutrients, and by obesity, might lead to new treatments and strategies for preventing unhealthy weight gain. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The content of macronutrients in milk from mothers of very preterm infants is highly variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Hviid, Mette Vogn

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the content of macronutrients in human milk (HM) from mothers who gave birth very prematurely, and to investigate possible associations between macronutrients and certain maternal and infant characteristics.......The objective of this study was to determine the content of macronutrients in human milk (HM) from mothers who gave birth very prematurely, and to investigate possible associations between macronutrients and certain maternal and infant characteristics....

  19. Illness, death, and macronutrients: adequacy of rural Mozambican household production of macronutrients in the face of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Cynthia; Massingue, Jaquelino

    2007-06-01

    As the public sector and civil society develop intervention programs to deal with the HIV/ AIDS epidemic, there has been an increasing emphasis on the relationship between nutrition and the disease. Drug interventions may be ineffective, and the progression from HIV infection to full-blown AIDS may be accelerated without adequate nutrition. Mozambique is still fighting an increasing prevalence rate of HIV including in rural areas. Rural households in Mozambique rely heavily on their own agricultural production for the basic macronutrients. To evaluate the extent to which household agricultural production of basic staples meets overall household needs for major macronutrients, comparing households affected and not directly affected by HIV/ AIDS and other major illnesses over two time periods. Methods. This research analyzes nationally representative panel data from rural household surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005 to evaluate whether households that have suffered the chronic illness or illness-related death of prime-age adult members (15 to 49 years of age) are more vulnerable to macronutrient gaps. Households in the South and in the North with a male illness or death in 2002 produced significantly less macronutrients from crops in 2005 than nonaffected households. These households also had significantly lower income per adult equivalent. Mortality or illness from HIV/AIDS affects the ability of agricultural households dependent on own-food production to produce macronutrients. Interventions to improve access to food may be needed for affected households, particularly in light of their inability to recover over time. More analysis is needed to understand income sources, crop diversification, and access to macronutrients through the market.

  20. Characterization of the effects of macronutrient deficiencies in mangabeira seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the mineral nutrition requirements of mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes is relatively scarce and rudimentary because there is a lack of consistent data concerning its nutritional demands at different developmental stages. The aim of this research was to characterize the visual symptoms of macronutrient deficiencies and to evaluate the effects of these deficiencies on the growth, the production of dry matter, and the leaf content of mangabeira. To achieve this goal, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Goiano Federal Institute (Instituto Federal Goiano in Rio Verde - GO, from January to June 2011 in which mangabeira plants were arranged in a random block design and grown in nutrient solutions. This experiment was replicated four times. The plants were treated with either a complete nutrient solution or a nutrient solution from which the individual macronutrient of interest (nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca, or sulfur (S had been omitted. The omission of a macronutrient from the nutrient solution resulted in morphological alterations that were characteristic symptoms of the particular nutritional deficiency and caused decreases in growth and dry matter mass production. The accumulation of macronutrients displayed the following order in mangabeira leaves: N>K>Ca>P>S>Mg.

  1. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  2. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of

  3. The influence of macronutrient deficiencies on chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of macronutrient deficiencies on chemical composition of dwarf green coconut (Cocu nucifera linn) seedling. ... Elimination of magnesium also leads to reduction in the concentration of chlorophyll. starch and sugar concentrations improved with nitrogen and potassium but decreased with were more ...

  4. Validation testing of a soil macronutrient sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid on-site measurements of soil macronutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) are needed for site-specific crop management, where fertilizer nutrient application rates are adjusted spatially based on local requirements. This study reports on validation testing of a previously develop...

  5. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most demanded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S. Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE, i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation, while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than 70 % of P, between 58 and 69 % of N, 40 and 52 % of S, 40 and 48 % of K, and 35 and 45 % of Mg absorbed during the cycle was exported with grains, whereas less than 15

  6. Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status.......We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status....

  7. Effects of different protein content and glycemic index of ad libitum diets on diabetes risk factors in overweight adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Dpt. Physiology and Nutrition, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (EG, JAM); Institute of Preventive Medicine, Centre for Health and Society, Copenhagen, Denmark (CH), Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the N...

  8. Anterior Cingulate Taste Activation Predicts Ad Libitum Intake of Sweet and Savory Drinks in Healthy, Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    After food consumption, the motivation to eat (wanting) decreases and associated brain reward responses change. Wanting-related brain responses and how these are affected by consumption of specific foods are ill documented. Moreover, the predictive value of food-induced brain responses for

  9. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  10. Effect of Salt Intensity on Ad Libitum Intake of Tomato Soup Similar in Palatability and on Salt Preference after Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the

  11. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades.......The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades....

  12. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2013-01-01

    Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European...

  13. Bone Composition in Male and Female Göttingen Minipigs Fed Variously Restrictedly and near ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P. J. A.; Lemmens, A. G.; Beynen, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    diet 2 was a high fat, low fibre diet. A higher level of feed intake led to a significant increase in the following parameters: body weight development, bone size (length and width of rib and femur), bone volume (rib), bone (rib) dry matter and ash content (mg), as well as bone density (femur...... development, bone volume, and dry matter and ash content of the rib (mg) as compared to males. Also bone mineral concentrations in the femur, expressed as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in mg/cm3, were significantly higher in females as compared to males, as was the Ca:Pi ratio. Bone density measurements...... of the femur’s proximal and distal segment, and total femur bone density (g/cm2) were significantly higher in females as compared to males. Feed conversion in females was significantly lower than in males. This study illustrates that female and male minipigs show distinct differences in body and bone...

  14. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P food (mL/kcal) increased (P Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P food (r = 0.16; P food intake (r = 0.23; Pfood intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hairy AdS solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  16. Hairy AdS solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales and Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru, E-mail: dumitru.astefanesei@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2016-11-10

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  17. The effect of post-exercise drink macronutrient content on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Stensel, David J; Watson, Phillip; James, Lewis J

    2014-11-01

    Carbohydrate and protein ingestion post-exercise are known to facilitate muscle glycogen resynthesis and protein synthesis, respectively, but the effects of post-exercise nutrient intake on subsequent appetite are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether protein induced satiety that has been reported at rest was still evident when pre-loads were consumed in a post-exercise context. Using a randomised, double blind, crossover design, 12 unrestrained healthy males completed 30 min of continuous cycling exercise at ~60% VO2peak, followed by five, 3 min intervals at ~85% VO2peak. Ten min post-exercise, subjects consumed 500 ml of either a low energy placebo (15 kJ) (PLA); a 6% whey protein isolate drink (528 kJ) (PRO); or a 6% sucrose drink (528 kJ) (CHO). Sixty min after drink ingestion, a homogenous ad-libitum pasta lunch was provided and energy intake at this lunch was quantified. Subjective appetite ratings were measured at various stages of the protocol. Energy consumed at the ad-libitum lunch was lower after PRO (5831 ± 960 kJ) than PLA (6406 ± 492 kJ) (P0.315). Considering the post-exercise drink, total energy intake was not different between trials (P=0.383). There were no differences between trials for any of the subjective appetite ratings. The results demonstrate that where post-exercise liquid protein ingestion may enhance the adaptive response of skeletal muscle, this may be possible without affecting gross energy intake relative to consuming a low energy drink. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Milk Macronutrients Content: Effect of Advanced Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Sever, Orna; Mimouni, Francis B; Mandel, Dror

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of advanced maternal age upon macronutrients of human milk. This study was designed to study contents of macronutrients (fat, lactose, and protein) in human milk collected in the first 2 weeks of life in older (≥35 years) compared with younger (Macronutrient contents were measured at 72 hours, 7 days, and 14 days after delivery using infrared transmission spectroscopy. The groups did not differ in terms of maternal prepregnancy weight, height, and diet or infant birth weight or gestational age. They differed significantly in terms of maternal age and maternal weight after pregnancy. Fat content in colostrum and carbohydrate content in mature milk were significantly higher in the older mothers group. Moreover, carbohydrates in mature milk correlated positively with maternal age. Fat content at an infant age of 7 days and 2 weeks was not affected by maternal age. There was no significant relationship between maternal body weight for height (or body mass index) and energy, protein, fat or lactose content at any stage. Fat content of colostrum and carbohydrate content of mature milk obtained from mothers with advanced age are elevated compared with those of younger mothers. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between maternal age and carbohydrate content in mature milk. The biological significance of our findings is yet to be determined.

  19. [Macronutrients and energy in milk from mothers of premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bi-Zi; Sun, Xiu-Jing; Quan, Mei-Ying; Wang, Dan-Hua

    2014-07-01

    To study the dynamic changes in macronutrients and energy in human milk from mothers of premature infants. A total of 339 human milk samples were collected from 170 women who delivered preterm or full-term infants in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital between November 2012 and January 2014. Macronutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates and energy were measured using a MIRIS human milk analyzer and compared between groups. In milk samples from premature infants' mothers, the protein levels were the highest in colostrum (2.22±0.49 g/dL), less in transitional milk (1.83±0.39 g/dL), and the least in mature milk (1.40±0.28 g/dL) (Pmacronutrients and energy in milk from mothers of premature infants vary significantly between colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk. Protein levels are significantly higher in colostrum from premature infants' mothers than in colostrum from term infants' mothers, but the significant difference is not seen for mature milk. Macronutrient and energy levels show significant differences between milk samples from mothers of premature infants with different gestational ages, so as to meet different needs of premature infants.

  20. The genetics of childhood obesity and interaction with dietary macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, William S; Newman, Sara B; Gonzales-Pacheco, Diana M; Castillo, Joseph J; Jelinek, David; Heidenreich, Randall A; Orlando, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    The genes contributing to childhood obesity are categorized into three different types based on distinct genetic and phenotypic characteristics. These types of childhood obesity are represented by rare monogenic forms of syndromic or non-syndromic childhood obesity, and common polygenic childhood obesity. In some cases, genetic susceptibility to these forms of childhood obesity may result from different variations of the same gene. Although the prevalence for rare monogenic forms of childhood obesity has not increased in recent times, the prevalence of common childhood obesity has increased in the United States and developing countries throughout the world during the past few decades. A number of recent genome-wide association studies and mouse model studies have established the identification of susceptibility genes contributing to common childhood obesity. Accumulating evidence suggests that this type of childhood obesity represents a complex metabolic disease resulting from an interaction with environmental factors, including dietary macronutrients. The objective of this article is to provide a review on the origins, mechanisms, and health consequences of obesity susceptibility genes and interaction with dietary macronutrients that predispose to childhood obesity. It is proposed that increased knowledge of these obesity susceptibility genes and interaction with dietary macronutrients will provide valuable insight for individual, family, and community preventative lifestyle intervention, and eventually targeted nutritional and medicinal therapies.

  1. County-Scale Spatial Variability of Macronutrient Availability Ratios in Paddy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingkai Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macronutrients (N, P, and K are essential to plants but also can be harmful to the environment when their available concentrations in soil are excessive. Availability ratios (available concentration/total concentration of macronutrients may reflect their transforming potential between fixed and available forms in soil. Understanding their spatial distributions and impact factors can be, therefore, helpful to applying specific measures to modify the availability of macronutrients for agricultural and environmental management purposes. In this study, 636 topsoil samples (0–15 cm were collected from paddy fields in Shayang County, Central China, for measuring soil properties. Factors influencing macronutrient availability ratios were investigated, and total and available concentrations of macronutrients were mapped using geostatistical method. Spatial distribution maps of macronutrient availability ratios were further derived. Results show that (1 availability of macronutrients is controlled by multiple factors, and (2 macronutrient availability ratios are spatially varied and may not always have spatial patterns identical to those of their corresponding total and available concentrations. These results are more useful than traditional soil macronutrient average content data for guiding site-specific field management for agricultural production and environmental protection.

  2. Influence of dietary macronutrients on liver fat accumulation and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Siôn A; Hodson, Leanne

    2017-01-01

    The liver is a principal metabolic organ within the human body and has a major role in regulating carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. With increasing rates of obesity, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is growing. It remains unclear why NAFLD, which is now defined as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, develops but lifestyle factors such as diet (ie, total calorie and specific nutrient intakes), appear to play a key role. Here we review the available observational and intervention studies that have investigated the influence of dietary macronutrients on liver fat content. Findings from observational studies are conflicting with some reporting that relative to healthy controls, patients with NAFLD consume diets higher in total fat/saturated fatty acids, whilst others find they consume diets higher in carbohydrates/sugars. From the limited number of intervention studies that have been undertaken, a consistent finding is a hypercaloric diet, regardless of whether the excess calories have been provided either as fat, sugar, or both, increases liver fat content. In contrast, a hypocaloric diet decreases liver fat content. Findings from both hyper- and hypo-caloric feeding studies provide some suggestion that macronutrient composition may also play a role in regulating liver fat content and this is supported by data from isocaloric feeding studies; fatty acid composition and/or carbohydrate content/type appear to influence whether there is accrual of liver fat or not. The mechanisms by which specific macronutrients, when consumed as part of an isocaloric diet, cause a change in liver fat remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:28947639

  3. Influence of dietary macronutrients on liver fat accumulation and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Siôn A; Hodson, Leanne

    2017-12-01

    The liver is a principal metabolic organ within the human body and has a major role in regulating carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. With increasing rates of obesity, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is growing. It remains unclear why NAFLD, which is now defined as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, develops but lifestyle factors such as diet (ie, total calorie and specific nutrient intakes), appear to play a key role. Here we review the available observational and intervention studies that have investigated the influence of dietary macronutrients on liver fat content. Findings from observational studies are conflicting with some reporting that relative to healthy controls, patients with NAFLD consume diets higher in total fat/saturated fatty acids, whilst others find they consume diets higher in carbohydrates/sugars. From the limited number of intervention studies that have been undertaken, a consistent finding is a hypercaloric diet, regardless of whether the excess calories have been provided either as fat, sugar, or both, increases liver fat content. In contrast, a hypocaloric diet decreases liver fat content. Findings from both hyper- and hypo-caloric feeding studies provide some suggestion that macronutrient composition may also play a role in regulating liver fat content and this is supported by data from isocaloric feeding studies; fatty acid composition and/or carbohydrate content/type appear to influence whether there is accrual of liver fat or not. The mechanisms by which specific macronutrients, when consumed as part of an isocaloric diet, cause a change in liver fat remain to be fully elucidated. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Transcriptional switches in the control of macronutrient metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Alan

    2008-06-01

    This review shows how some transcription factors respond to alterations in macronutrients. Carbohydrates induce enzymes for their metabolism and fatty acid synthesis. Fatty acids reduce carbohydrate processing, induce enzymes for their metabolism, and increase both gluconeogenesis and storage of fat. Fat stores help control carbohydrate uptake by other cells. The following main transcription factors are discussed: carbohydrate response element-binding protein; sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma.

  5. A Risk Assessment Model for Bacterial Leaf Spot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum), Caused by Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, Based on Concentrations of Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Micronutrient Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, B; Langston, D B; Luo, X; Carlson, S; Kichler, J; Gitaitis, R

    2017-11-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria causes bacterial leaf spot (BLS) of pepper and has a worldwide distribution. BLS is difficult to control and an integrated management strategy that incorporates crop rotation, use of clean seed and clean plants, weed control, resistant varieties, applications of bactericides, biocontrol agents, and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) inducers is generally recommended. However, even with that arsenal of weapons, BLS can still be responsible for severe losses under favorable environmental conditions. Thus, additional tools need to be added to an overall integrated management strategy to combat BLS. In this article, we developed several models from 2012 to 2014 that were based on how macronutrients, micronutrients, and micronutrient ratios affect BLS severity. Factors used to select a model for validation included highly significant P values, high adjusted R 2 values, low variance inflation factor values (macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations affect plant disease resistance genes in the SAR pathway.

  6. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  7. Does Circadian Variation of Mothers Affect Macronutrients of Breast Milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Aslihan Köse; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamaç; Yarcı, Erbu; Sari, Fatma Nur; Oguz, Serife Suna; Uras, Nurdan; Canpolat, Fuat Emre

    2017-06-01

    Objective  To determine the within-day variation of fat, protein, and carbohydrate content of breast milk. Methods  The study was conducted at Zekai Tahir Burak Maternity Teaching Hospital between April 2013 and January 2014. We obtained milk samples from lactating mothers of hospitalized infants through hand expression after breast-feeding or pumping three times a day. A mid-infrared human milk analyzer was used for measuring the macronutrient contents of breast milk samples. Results  Lactating mothers of 52 infants (30 preterm, 22 term) were recruited to the study. No significant difference was found in protein, fat, and carbohydrate content of milk samples throughout the day. We compared within-day variation of macronutrients of transitional and mature milk, milk samples from the mothers of preterm and term infants, and samples collected by either hand expression or pumping. We did not find a significant difference between the groups. Conclusion  Absence of circadian variations in lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content of breast milk in our study may be related to ethnic differences, maternal nutritional status, different milk content measurement technique, and population characteristics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Dietary macronutrients and the aging liver sinusoidal endothelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Victoria Carroll; Mohamad, Mashani; Solon-Biet, Samantha Marie; Senior, Alistair M; Warren, Alessandra; O'Reilly, Jennifer Nicole; Tung, Bui Thanh; Svistounov, Dmitri; McMahon, Aisling Clare; Fraser, Robin; Raubenheimer, David; Holmes, Andrew J; Simpson, Stephen James; Le Couteur, David George

    2016-05-01

    Fenestrations are pores within the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) that line the sinusoids of the highly vascularized liver. Fenestrations facilitate the transfer of substrates between blood and hepatocytes. With pseudocapillarization of the hepatic sinusoid in old age, there is a loss of fenestrations. LSECs are uniquely exposed to gut-derived dietary and microbial substrates delivered by the portal circulation to the liver. Here we studied the effect of 25 diets varying in content of macronutrients and energy on LSEC fenestrations using the Geometric Framework method in a large cohort of mice aged 15 mo. Macronutrient distribution rather than total food or energy intake was associated with changes in fenestrations. Porosity and frequency were inversely associated with dietary fat intake, while fenestration diameter was inversely associated with protein or carbohydrate intake. Fenestrations were also linked to diet-induced changes in gut microbiome, with increased fenestrations associated with higher abundance of Firmicutes and reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes Diet-induced changes in levels of several fatty acids (C16:0, C19:0, and C20:4) were also significantly inversely associated with fenestrations, suggesting a link between dietary fat and modulation of lipid rafts in the LSECs. Diet influences fenestrations and these data reflect both the key role of the LSECs in clearing gut-derived molecules from the vascular circulation and the impact these molecules have on LSEC morphology. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Macronutrients and obesity: revisiting the calories in, calories out framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Crichton, Daniel; Tefft, Nathan

    2014-07-01

    Recent clinical research has studied weight responses to varying diet composition, but the contribution of changes in macronutrient intake and physical activity to rising population weight remains controversial. Research on the economics of obesity typically assumes a "calories in, calories out" framework, but a weight production model separating caloric intake into carbohydrates, fat, and protein, has not been explored in an economic framework. To estimate the contributions of changes in macronutrient intake and physical activity to changes in population weight, we conducted dynamic time series and structural VAR analyses of U.S. data between 1974 and 2006 and a panel analysis of 164 countries between 2001 and 2010. Findings from all analyses suggest that increases in carbohydrates are most strongly and positively associated with increases in obesity prevalence even when controlling for changes in total caloric intake and occupation-related physical activity. Our structural VAR results suggest that, on the margin, a 1% increase in carbohydrates intake yields a 1.01 point increase in obesity prevalence over 5 years while an equal percent increase in fat intake decreases obesity prevalence by 0.24 points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  11. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J. William O.; Le Couteur, David G.; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K. M.; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance. PMID:27832138

  12. How is an ideal satiating yogurt described? A case study with added-protein yogurts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morell, P.; Piqueras-Fiszman, B.; Hernando, I.; Fiszman, S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein is recognized as the macronutrient with the highest satiating ability. Yogurt can be an excellent basis for designing satiating food as it is protein-based food product. Five different set-type yogurts were formulated by adding extra skim milk powder (MP), whey protein concentrate (WPC),

  13. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J

    1997-03-01

    To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population.

  14. Diabetes Nutrition Therapy: Effectiveness, Macronutrients, Eating Patterns and Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marion J

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes nutrition therapy provided for individuals with diabetes must be based on research documenting effectiveness. The roles of differing macronutrient percentages, eating patterns and weight loss interventions are controversial. A review of research related to these topics is summarized. Clinical trials as well as systematic reviews and Cochrane reviews report an approximately 1-2% lowering of hemoglobin A1c as well as other beneficial outcomes from nutrition therapy interventions, depending on the type and duration of diabetes and level of glycemic control. There are no ideal percentages of macronutrients or eating patterns or both that apply to all persons with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate the effectiveness of modest weight loss and physical activity for the prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes. However, as the disease progresses, weight loss interventions may or may not result in beneficial glycemic and other metabolic outcomes. To be effective, diabetes nutrition therapy must be individualized. Treatment goals, personal preferences (eg, tradition, culture, religion, health beliefs and economics) and the individual׳s ability and willingness to make lifestyle changes all must be considered when educating or counseling individuals with diabetes. A healthy eating pattern emphasizing nutrient-dense foods in appropriate portion sizes, regular physical activity and support are important. A reduced energy intake for persons with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes and matching insulin to planned carbohydrate intake for insulin users is nutrition therapy interventions shown to be effective in achieving glycemic and other metabolic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Macronutrients Association with Change in Waist and Hip Circumference Over 9 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofley, Amy C; Root, Martin M

    2017-01-01

    The calorie distribution of macronutrients affects individuals' health. Quantity and source of macronutrients may play major roles in waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC). This study's purpose is to investigate the association between the quantity and source of macronutrients and the change in WC and HC over 9 years. Participants (N = 11,343) were from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Community Study. Those diagnosed with cancer or a decrease in WC or HC of 15 cm or more over 9 years were excluded. Change scores were created for anthropometrics between clinic visits over 9 years. Macronutrient intakes were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire at visit 1 and presented as a percentage of energy intake. Linear regressions were performed with quartiles of dietary components on change scores for WC and HC with controlling cofactors. Gender subgroup analysis was performed. A larger increase in WC was associated with higher intakes of total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and fructose (p for trend Macronutrient source and quantity play a significant role in individuals' adiposity and effects on WC and HC. Overall, an increase in WC and HC was seen over the 11 years. The source and quantity of the macronutrients play a significant role in WC and HC. Further research needs to be conducted to see the exact effect that macronutrients play on WC and HC.

  16. SOIL EXCHANGEABLE ALUMINUM INFLUENCING THE GROWTH AND LEAF TISSUE MACRONUTRIENTS CONTENT OF CASTOR PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSIANE DE LOURDES SILVA DE LIMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three castor ( Ricinus communis genotypes were studied regarding tolerance to high exchange factorial distribution of five doses of exchangeable aluminum added to the soil (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.20 cmol c dm - 3 and three castor genotypes (BRS Nordestina, BRS Paraguaçu, and Lyra. The plants were raised in pots in a greenhouse. At 53 days after emergence, data were taken on plant height, leaf area, dry mass of shoot and root, and leaf tissue content of macronutrients. The most sensitive genotype was the cv. BRS Nordestina, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the highest aluminum content were reduced to 12.9% and 16.2% of the control treatment, respectively. The most tolerant genotype was the hybrid Lyra, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the maximum content of aluminum were reduced to 43.5% and 42.7% of the control treatment, respectively.The increased exchangeable aluminum affected the leaf nutrient content, and the intensity of the response was different among cultivars. The aluminum toxicity increased N, Ca, and Mg contents and reduced on P, K, and S contents. The cv. BRS Nordestina had a drastic shoot dry weight reduction associated with an intense increment in the N leaf content. Thus, the N increment was caused by a concentration effect caused by the limited growth.

  17. Effects of Substitution, and Adding of Carbohydrate and Fat to Whey-Protein on Energy Intake, Appetite, Gastric Emptying, Glucose, Insulin, Ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 in Healthy Older Men—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Giezenaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey protein, on ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180–210 min, gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography, plasma gut hormone concentrations (0–180 min and appetite (visual analogue scales, in healthy older men. In a randomized, double-blind order, 13 older men (75 ± 2 years ingested drinks (~450 mL containing: (i 70 g whey protein (280 kcal; ‘P280’; (ii 14 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (280 kcal; ‘M280’; (iii 70 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (504 kcal; ‘M504’; or (iv control (~2 kcal. The caloric drinks, compared to a control, did not suppress appetite or energy intake; there was an increase in total energy intake (drink + meal, p < 0.05, which was increased most by the M504-drink. P280- and M504-drink ingestion were associated with slower a gastric-emptying time (n = 9, lower ghrelin, and higher cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 than M280 (p < 0.05. Glucose and insulin were increased most by the mixed-macronutrient drinks (p < 0.05. In conclusion, energy intake was not suppressed, compared to a control, and particularly whey protein, affected gastric emptying and gut hormone responses.

  18. Bubbling AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose Francisco

    2005-01-01

    In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T 2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS 3 x S 3 , the pp-wave and the multi-center string. 'Bubbling', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T 2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane. (author)

  19. Structure and location of macronutrients in ancient and alternative crops (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structure, histochemistry and composition of mature seeds of several ancient or alternative crops were studied by light and electron microscopies to localize specific macronutrients including protein, starch, non-starch carbohydrates and lipid. Botanically, these seeds fall into different classifica...

  20. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-01-01

    A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronu......A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis...... of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g...

  1. Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-01-01

    Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed. Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values. Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [n = 20–22; women: 50%; age: 50–80 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 25–30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUCi) method. Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUCi (P < 0.0001), measured meal GI (P = 0.0066), and mean GL (P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUCi (P = 0.0026), measured meal GI (P = 0.0139), and meal GL (P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUCi or II; fiber had no effect. Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at

  2. Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-04-01

    Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed. Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values. Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [ n = 20-22; women: 50%; age: 50-80 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25-30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUC i ) method. Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUC i ( P < 0.0001), measured meal GI ( P = 0.0066), and mean GL ( P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUC i ( P = 0.0026), measured meal GI ( P = 0.0139), and meal GL ( P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUC i or II; fiber had no effect. Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at

  3. Interaction of plant phenols with food macronutrients: characterisation and nutritional-physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xianting; Jiang, Lu; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-06-01

    Polyphenols are dietary constituents of plants associated with health-promoting effects. In the human diet, polyphenols are generally consumed in foods along with macronutrients. Because the health benefits of polyphenols are critically determined by their bioavailability, the effect of interactions between plant phenols and food macronutrients is a very important topic. In the present review, we summarise current knowledge, with a special focus on the in vitro and in vivo effects of food macronutrients on the bioavailability and bioactivity of polyphenols. The mechanisms of interactions between polyphenols and food macronutrients are also discussed. The evidence collected in the present review suggests that when plant phenols are consumed along with food macronutrients, the bioavailability and bioactivity of polyphenols can be significantly affected. The protein-polyphenol complexes can significantly change the plasma kinetics profile but do not affect the absorption of polyphenols. Carbohydrates can enhance the absorption and extend the time needed to reach a maximal plasma concentration of polyphenols, and fats can enhance the absorption and change the absorption kinetics of polyphenols. Moreover, as highlighted in the present review, not only a nutrient alone but also certain synergisms between food macronutrients have a significant effect on the bioavailability and biological activity of polyphenols. The review emphasises the need for formulations that optimise the bioavailability and in vivo activities of polyphenols.

  4. Association between macronutrient intake and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boeun; Jin, Youri; Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Yongsoon

    2018-04-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and the nutritional state of ALS patients is associated with survival. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether macronutrient intake at early stage of the disease was positively associated with survival and duration from symptom onset to death, tracheostomy, or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in ALS. ALS patients diagnosed according to EI Escorial criteria were recruited from 2011 to 2016 and followed up until 2017, when they reached the endpoint of death, tracheostomy, or NIV use. Dietary intake was estimated based on a 24-hour recall conducted less than 2 years from symptom onset, and the survival time was defined as the duration from symptom onset to the endpoint. ALS patients were categorized as short-term group (n=79) and long-term group (n=69) according to the mean survival time (33.03±14.01 months). Short-term survival was negatively associated with fat, protein, and meat intake, and positively associated with carbohydrate intake after adjustment for confounders. In addition, the survival time was positively associated with fat, protein, and meat intake but was not associated with carbohydrate intake. The present study suggested that higher intake of fat and protein, particularly from meat at early stage of the disease, could prolong the survival of ALS patients. However, further clinical trials are necessary to confirm the beneficial effects of higher fat and protein intake on mortality in ALS patients.

  5. Effect of dietary macronutrients on aflatoxicosis: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Adilah, Zainuddin; Mohd Redzwan, Sabran

    2017-06-01

    Aflatoxin is a toxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. The main route of aflatoxin exposure is through the diet. Indeed, long-term aflatoxin exposure is linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aflatoxin causes aflatoxicosis, which can be affected by several factors and is prevalent in many developing Asian and African countries. This mini-review discusses the effects of carbohydrate, fat and protein on aflatoxicosis based on findings from animal and human studies. It was found that high carbohydrate intake enhanced aflatoxicosis occurrence, while low ingestion of carbohydrate with caloric restriction slowed the symptoms associated with aflatoxicosis. Additionally, diets with low protein content worsened the symptoms related to HCC due to aflatoxin exposure. Nevertheless, a study reported that a high-protein diet favored detoxification of aflatoxin in vivo. There were also conflicting results on the influence of dietary fat, as high ingestion of fat enhanced aflatoxicosis development as compared with a low-fat diet. Moreover, the type of fat also plays a significant role in influencing aflatoxin toxicity. In regard to food safety, understanding the influence of macronutrients toward the progression of aflatoxicosis can improve preventive measures against human and animal exposure to aflatoxin. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Macronutrients mediate the functional relationship between Drosophila and Wolbachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Fleur; Wilson, Kenneth; Holmes, Andrew; Raubenheimer, David; Robinson, Katie L.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts that naturally infect a diverse array of arthropods. They are primarily known for their manipulation of host reproductive biology, and recently, infections with Wolbachia have been proposed as a new strategy for controlling insect vectors and subsequent human-transmissible diseases. Yet, Wolbachia abundance has been shown to vary greatly between individuals and the magnitude of the effects of infection on host life-history traits and protection against infection is correlated to within-host Wolbachia abundance. It is therefore essential to better understand the factors that modulate Wolbachia abundance and effects on host fitness. Nutrition is known to be one of the most important mediators of host–symbiont interactions. Here, we used nutritional geometry to quantify the role of macronutrients on insect–Wolbachia relationships in Drosophila melanogaster. Our results show fundamental interactions between diet composition, host diet selection, Wolbachia abundance and effects on host lifespan and fecundity. The results and methods described here open a new avenue in the study of insect–Wolbachia relationships and are of general interest to numerous research disciplines, ranging from nutrition and life-history theory to public health. PMID:25520356

  7. Macronutrient contributions of insects to the diets of hunter-gatherers: a geometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M; Pontzer, Herman; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    We present a geometric model for examining the macronutrient contributions of insects in the diets of pre-agricultural humans, and relate the findings to some contemporary societies that regularly eat insects. The model integrates published data on the macronutrient composition of insects and other foods in the diets of humans, recommended human macronutrient intakes, and estimated macronutrient intakes to examine the assumption that insects provided to pre-agricultural humans an invertebrate equivalent of vertebrate-derived meats, serving primarily as a source of protein. Our analysis suggests that insects vary more widely in their macronutrient content than is likely to be the case for most wild vertebrate meats, spanning a broad range of protein, fat and carbohydrate concentrations. Potentially, therefore, in terms of their proportional macronutrient composition, insects could serve as equivalents not only of wild meat, but of a range of other foods including some shellfish, nuts, pulses, vegetables and even fruits. Furthermore, humans might systematically manipulate the composition of edible insects to meet specific needs through pre-ingestive processing, such as cooking and selective removal of body parts. We present data suggesting that in modern societies for which protein is the more limiting macronutrient, pre-ingestive processing of edible insects might serve to concentrate protein. It is likely, however, that the dietary significance of insects was different for Paleolithic hunter-gatherers who were more limited in non-protein energy. Our conclusions are constrained by available data, but highlight the need for further studies, and suggest that our model provides an integrative framework for conceiving these studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. String Theory on AdS Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop

  9. Nature and consequences of non-covalent interactions between flavonoids and macronutrients in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordenave, Nicolas; Hamaker, Bruce R; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2014-01-01

    Many of the potential health benefits of flavonoids have been associated with their specific chemical and biological properties including their ability to interact and bind non-covalently to macronutrients in foods. While flavonoid-protein interactions and binding have been the subject of intensive study, significantly less is understood about non-covalent interactions with carbohydrates and lipids. These interactions with macronutrients are likely to impact both the flavonoid properties in foods, such as their radical scavenging activity, and the food or beverage matrix itself, including their taste, texture and other sensorial properties. Overall, non-covalent binding of flavonoids with macronutrients is primarily driven by van der Waals interactions. From the flavonoid perspective, these interactions are modulated by characteristics such as degree of polymerization, molecular flexibility, number of external hydroxyl groups, or number of terminal galloyl groups. From the macronutrient standpoint, electrostatic and ionic interactions are generally predominant with carbohydrates, while hydrophobic interactions are generally predominant with lipids and mainly limited to interactions with flavonols. All of these interactions are involved in flavonoid-protein interactions. While primarily associated with undesirable characteristics in foods and beverages, such as astringency, negative impact on macronutrient digestibility and hazing, more recent efforts have attempted to leverage these interactions to develop controlled delivery systems or strategies to enhance flavonoids bioavailability. This paper aims at reviewing the fundamental bases for non-covalent interactions, their occurrence in food and beverage systems and their impact on the physico-chemical, organoleptic and some nutritional properties of food.

  10. The effect of between-breast differences on human milk macronutrients content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, N; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Moran Lev, H; Mangel, L; Lubetzky, R

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the effect of maternal handedness and preferential side of breastfeeding upon macronutrients concentration in human milk (HM). We aimed to compare macronutrients content of HM from both breasts, taking into account the self-reported preferential feeding ('dominant') breast, breast size and handedness (right versus left). We tested the null hypothesis that macronutrients content of HM is not affected by breast dominancy, breast size or maternal handedness. Fifty-seven lactating mothers were recruited. HM macronutrients were measured after mid manual expression using infrared transmission spectroscopy. Out of the 57 mothers recruited, 12 were excluded from the analyses because they brought in insufficient samples. Among the 22 who reported a size difference, 16 (73%) had a larger left breast (Pmacronutrients between the right and the left breasts. In multiple stepwise backward regression analysis, fat, carbohydrate, protein and energy contents were unaffected by maternal handedness, breast side dominance or breast size asymmetry. Macronutrients content of mid expression HM is unaffected by maternal handedness, breast size or breast side dominance.

  11. Warped AdS3 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li Wei; Padi, Megha; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l -2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS 3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,R) x U(1)-invariant warped AdS 3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS 3 . We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS 3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS 3 . Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS 3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS 3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c R -formula and c L -formula.

  12. Central oxytocin and food intake: focus on macronutrient-driven reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica eKlockars

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Centrally acting oxytocin (OT is known to terminate food consumption in response to excessive stomach distension, increase in salt loading and presence of toxins. Hypothalamic-hindbrain OT pathways facilitate these aspects of OT-induced hypophagia. However, recent discoveries have implicated OT in modifications of feeding via reward circuits: OT has been found to differentially affect consumption of individual macronutrients in choice and no-choice paradigms. In this mini-review, we focus on presenting and interpreting evidence that defines OT as a key component of mechanisms that reduce eating for pleasure and shape macronutrient preferences. We also provide remarks on challenges in integrating the knowledge on physiological and pathophysiological states in which both OT activity and macronutrient preferences are affected.

  13. Validation of mid-infrared spectroscopy for macronutrient analysis of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, S; Groh-Wargo, S; Merlino, S; Wijers, C; Super, D M

    2017-07-01

    Human milk has considerable variation in its composition. Hence, the nutrient profile is only an estimate and can result in under- or over-estimation of the intake of preterm infants. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is an evolving technique for analyzing human milk but needs validation before use in clinical practice. Human milk samples from 35 mothers delivering at 35 weeks to term gestation were analyzed for macronutrients by MIR spectroscopy and by standard laboratory methods using Kjeldahl assay for protein, Mojonnier assay for fat and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay for lactose. MIR analysis of the macronutrients in human milk correlated well with standard laboratory tests with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.997 for fat, 0.839 for protein and 0.776 for lactose. Agreement between the two methods was excellent for fat, and moderate for protein and lactose (Pmilk. Agreement between the methodologies varies by macronutrient.

  14. Macronutrient Composition of Menu Offerings in Fast Food Restaurants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian P; Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-10-01

    A high intake of fast food is associated with increased obesity risk. This study assessed recent changes in caloric content and macronutrient composition in large U.S. fast food restaurants. Data from the MenuStat project included 11,737 menu items in 37 fast food restaurants from 2012 to 2014. Generalized linear models were used to examine changes in the caloric content and corresponding changes in the macronutrient composition (non-sugar carbohydrates, sugar, unsaturated fat, saturated fat, and protein) of menu items over time. Additionally, macronutrient composition was compared in menu items newly introduced in 2013 and 2014, relative to 2012. Analyses, conducted in January 2016, controlled for restaurant and were stratified by menu categories. Overall, there was a 22-calorie reduction in food items from 2012 to 2014. Beverages had a 46-calorie increase, explained by an increase in calories from sugar (12 calories) and saturated fat (16 calories). Newly introduced main courses in 2014 had 59 calories fewer than those on 2012 menus, explained by a 54-calorie reduction in unsaturated fat, while other macronutrient content remained fairly constant. Newly introduced dessert items in 2014 had 90 calories more than those on 2012 menus, explained primarily by an increase of 57 calories of sugar. Overall, there were relatively minor changes in menu items' caloric and macronutrient composition. Although declines in caloric content among newly introduced fast food main courses may improve the public's caloric intake, it appears that the macronutrient composition of newly introduced items did not shift to a healthier profile. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in DNA Damage: Results From a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Carina; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Manuel C; Brito, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides) and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations. Micronucleus frequency tends to increase with higher intake of caffeine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and protein ( P macronutrients and micronutrients.

  16. Macronutrient manipulations of cheese resulted in lower energy content without compromising its satiating capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thea Toft; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Manipulation of food’s macronutrient composition in order to reduce energy content without compromising satiating capacity may be helpful in body weight control. For cheeses, substituting fat with protein may provide such opportunity. We aimed at examining the acute effect of cheeses with different...... macronutrient compositions on accumulated energy intake and subjective appetite sensation. A total of thirty-nine normal-weight (average BMI 24·4 kg/m2) men and women completed the partly double-blind, randomised crossover study with high-protein/low-fat (HP/LF, 696 kJ), high-protein/high-fat (HP/HF, 976 k...

  17. The role of micronutrients and macronutrients in patients hospitalized for heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippel, Tobias D; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    The detrimental pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) leaves room for physiologic and metabolomic concepts that include supplementation of micronutrients and macronutrients in these patients. Hence myocardial energetics and nutrient metabolism may represent relevant treatment targets in HF. This review focuses on the role of nutritive compounds such as lipids, amino acids, antioxidants, and other trace elements in the setting of HF. Supplementation of ferric carboxymaltose improves iron status, functional capacity, and quality of life in HF patients. To close the current gap in evidence further interventional studies investigating the role of micro- and macronutrients are needed in this setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.S. Ngwa; F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A.C. Frazier-Wood (Alexis); D.K. Houston (Denise); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn ); J. Luan; V. Mikkilä (Vera); F. Renström (Frida); E. Sonestedt (Emily); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); L. Qi (Lu); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.C. De Oliveira Otto (Marcia); E.J. Dhurandhar (Emily); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); I. Johansson (Ingegerd); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); K. Lohman (Kurt); A. Manichaikul (Ani); N.M. McKeown (Nicola ); D. Mozaffarian (Dariush); A.B. Singleton (Andrew); K. Stirrups (Kathy); J. Viikari (Jorma); Z. Ye (Zheng); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); I.E. Barroso (Inês); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); A. Hofman (Albert); Y. Liu (YongMei); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K.E. North (Kari); M. Dimitriou (Maria); G. Hallmans (Göran); M. Kähönen (Mika); C. Langenberg (Claudia); J.M. Ordovas (Jose); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F.B. Hu (Frank); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); O. Raitakari (Olli); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Johnson (Anthony); V. Emilsson (Valur); J.A. Schrack (Jennifer); R.D. Semba; D.S. Siscovick (David); D.K. Arnett (Donna); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P.W. Franks (Paul); S.B. Kritchevsky (Stephen); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M. Orho-Melander (Marju); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer )

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with macronutrient intake.

  19. Pen-mate directed behaviour in ad libitum fed pigs given different quantities and frequencies of straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Lahrmann, H. P.; Oxholm, L. C.

    2015-01-01

    Straw stimulates explorative behaviour and is therefore attractive to pigs. Further, it can be effective in reducing negative pen-mate directed behaviours. Under most commercial conditions, straw can only be used in limited amounts as it can be difficult to handle in most vacuum slurry systems...... as a control treatment, against which the other treatments (quantities T25 and T50) and frequencies of straw allocations (T2×50 and T4×25) were tested. Three focal pigs per pen were randomly chosen and observed for 15 min per hour where tail-in-mouth, ear-in-mouth, aggression and other pen-mate directed...... behaviour were recorded. In addition, residual straw in the pens was assessed using four categories ranging from straw in a thin layer; little straw; few straws; and soiled straw. Pigs were active for about 30% of the registered time, but overall no differences in total pen-mate directed behaviour (tail...

  20. Digital food photography technology improves efficiency and feasibility of dietary intake assessments in large populations eating ad libitum in collective dining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Holly L; Champagne, Catherine M; Allen, H Raymond; McGraw, Susan M; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Crombie, Aaron P

    2017-09-01

    Accurate assessment of dietary intake continues to challenge researchers, especially in field, or non-laboratory settings. In this study, digital food photography (DFP) methodology was used to assess nutritional intake (NI) of Soldiers participating in the US Army's Ranger Selection and Assessment Program (RASP). During this high-intensity six-week course, Soldiers complete simulated operational missions, perform various military tasks, and importantly, eating time is severely limited. Therefore, this study provided an opportunity to evaluate the utility of DFP methods for accurate assessment of energy balance in conditions where consumption of large numbers of subjects must be completed in a very short periods of time (≤20 min). NI of 131 male, enlisted Soldiers (21 ± 4 years, 178±7 cm, and 78±8 kg) enrolled in the RASP course was assessed in their garrison dining facility using DFP utilizing visual estimation of pre- and post-meal photos of participant meals concurrently with photos of weighed, standardized portions. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was assessed using doubly-labeled water ( 2 H 2 18 O) in a sub-group of 19 volunteers. During the study, data loss (i.e., missing meal photos) was less than 5% per meal, and during the visual estimation process discrepancies in food identification averaged less than 10% per meal, while approximately a third of serving size estimations required a third party adjudication prior to finalization and calculation NI. We conclude that the use of DFP allows an adequately reliable approach for quantifying NI in real-world scenarios involving large numbers of participants who must be assessed very rapidly, and researchers must have a small footprint. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The effect of covert changes in energy density of preloads on subsequent ad libitum energy intake in lean and obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, M L; Royston, J P; Wloch, R T; Garrow, J S

    1982-01-01

    1. Covert changes in energy intake were made by giving preloads of disguised energy density three times daily to 14 obese and 6 lean subjects. 2. The preloads contained 2.51 MJ (600 kcal)/d on days 2 and 3 and either 3.77 MJ (900 kcal)/d or 1.26 MJ (300 kcal/d) on days 4 and 5 and 1.26 MJ (300 kcal)/d or 3.77 MJ (900 kcal)/d on days 6 and 7. The order of testing was alternated for each subject. 3. Subsequent energy intake at each meal (lunch, dinner and breakfast) was measured with an automated food-dispensing machine. 4. Overall the obese subjects ate significantly less from the machine, 3.28 +/- 1.89 MJ (785 +/- 452 kcal)/d, than the lean subjects, 6.03 +/- 1.26 MJ (1442 +/- 300 kcal)/d. 5. Both groups of subjects adjusted their energy intake in the right direction to counterbalance the effect of the preloads but the lean subjects changed their intake by an average of 0.74 MJ (176 kcal)/d compared with the obese subjects who changed their intake by an average of 0.29 MJ (70 kcal)/d. 6. Although the lean subjects were better at adjusting their energy intake than the obese subjects, regulation was still imprecise relative to the 2.51 MJ (600 kcal)/d difference in energy intake that was imposed. 7. There were no significant differences in hunger or appetite between subjects or test situations.

  2. A snapshot of the hepatic transcriptome: ad libitum alcohol intake suppresses expression of cholesterol synthesis genes in alcohol-preferring (P rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon D Klein

    Full Text Available Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcohol drinking are largely unknown. Previous data from alcohol-preferring (P rats showed that chronic consumption does not produce significant hepatic steatosis in this well-established model. Therefore, free-choice alcohol drinking in P rats may mimic low risk or nonhazardous drinking in humans, and chronic exposure in P animals can illuminate the molecular underpinnings of free-choice drinking in the liver. To address this gap, we captured the global, steady-state liver transcriptome following a 23 week free-choice, moderate alcohol consumption regimen (∼ 7.43 g ethanol/kg/day in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP10a rats. Chronic consumption led to down-regulation of nine genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step for cholesterol synthesis. These findings corroborate our phenotypic analyses, which indicate that this paradigm produced animals whose hepatic triglyceride levels, cholesterol levels and liver histology were indistinguishable from controls. These findings explain, at least in part, the J- or U-shaped relationship between cardiovascular risk and alcohol intake, and provide outstanding candidates for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms that underlie the salutary cardiovascular benefits of chronic low risk and nonhazardous alcohol intake.

  3. Serum concentrations of creatine kinase and of triglycerides during lactation in gilts bred older and in multiparous sows fed ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira R.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the possible variation in blood concentrations of creatine kinase (CK and triglycerides in gilts bred older in comparison with multiparous sows. Ten primiparous and ten Camborough multiparous sows from the fourth to seventh parities were used. Breeding age and weight of gilts averaged respectively 231 days and 149.5kg. All females were moved into individual farrowing crates and were managed under the same conditions. Blood samples were collected by puncturing the coccygeal artery on day 7 before expected farrowing, and on days 2, 7, 14, 21 of lactation and 2 days after weaning. No difference in triglycerides and CK serum concentrations between groups were observed. The CK levels were low before farrowing, increased substantially on days 2 and 7 and decreased toward the end of lactation. The concentrations of triglycerides were slightly high before the parturition, diminished on days 2, 7, 14 and 21 and increased after weaning.

  4. Effects on markers of inflammation and endothelial cell function of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2011-01-01

    Diet is important for the prevention of CVD, and diets high in MUFA might be more cardioprotective than low-fat diets. We hypothesise that inflammation and endothelial cell function will be improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) assigned to a diet moderate in the amount of fat (35-45% of energy; >20% of fat as MUFA; MUFA diet, n 39), a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet, n 43) or a control diet (35 % of energy as fat, n 24) for 6 months after...

  5. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2010-01-01

    Diet is important in the prevention of CVD, and it has been suggested that a diet high in MUFA is more cardioprotective than a low-fat diet. We hypothesised that the thrombotic risk profile is improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45 % of energy; >20 % of fat as MUFA) (MUFA diet; n 39), to a low-fat (LF; 20-30 % of energy) diet (n 43), or to a control diet (35 % of energy as fat; n 24...

  6. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms ( P>0.05). Pepsin activity of TR fish also showed a significant daily rhythm ( P0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  7. A snapshot of the hepatic transcriptome: ad libitum alcohol intake suppresses expression of cholesterol synthesis genes in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jonathon D; Sherrill, Jeremy B; Morello, Gabriella M; San Miguel, Phillip J; Ding, Zhenming; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Liang, Tiebing; Muir, William M; Lumeng, Lawrence; Lossie, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d) is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcohol drinking are largely unknown. Previous data from alcohol-preferring (P) rats showed that chronic consumption does not produce significant hepatic steatosis in this well-established model. Therefore, free-choice alcohol drinking in P rats may mimic low risk or nonhazardous drinking in humans, and chronic exposure in P animals can illuminate the molecular underpinnings of free-choice drinking in the liver. To address this gap, we captured the global, steady-state liver transcriptome following a 23 week free-choice, moderate alcohol consumption regimen (∼ 7.43 g ethanol/kg/day) in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP10a) rats. Chronic consumption led to down-regulation of nine genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step for cholesterol synthesis. These findings corroborate our phenotypic analyses, which indicate that this paradigm produced animals whose hepatic triglyceride levels, cholesterol levels and liver histology were indistinguishable from controls. These findings explain, at least in part, the J- or U-shaped relationship between cardiovascular risk and alcohol intake, and provide outstanding candidates for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms that underlie the salutary cardiovascular benefits of chronic low risk and nonhazardous alcohol intake.

  8. A Snapshot of the Hepatic Transcriptome: Ad Libitum Alcohol Intake Suppresses Expression of Cholesterol Synthesis Genes in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Jonathon D.; Sherrill, Jeremy B.; Morello, Gabriella M.; San Miguel, Phillip J.; Ding, Zhenming; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Liang, Tiebing; Muir, William M.; Lumeng, Lawrence; Lossie, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d) is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcoh...

  9. Lipid metabolism and mitochondrial energy production are key pathways involved in adipose tissue of cows transitioning from feed restriction to ad libitum diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed costs account for over 70% of the annual expenditures in cow/calf production. The majority of the nutrients are used to support the cow’s maintenance requirements and substrate cycling has been identified as one of the major contributors toward this type of energy expenditure. The objective of ...

  10. Impact of the Bolsa Família Program on energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes: Study of the Northeast and Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara SPERANDIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on the energy and nutrient intakes of beneficiaries from the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Methods: The study used data from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamento Famíliar, which assessed individual food intake on two nonconsecutive days of individuals aged more than 10 years. Based the personal information booklet, food intake values were transformed into nutritional values (energy and nutrients. Analysis of the impact measure was preceded by propensity score matching, a technique that matches some socioeconomic characteristics of beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. Once the score was calculated, the impact of the Bolsa Família Program was estimated by nearest neighbor matching. Results: The program increased energy and macronutrient intakes and decreased calcium and vitamin A, D, E, and C intakes of adolescent beneficiaries in both regions. Adult beneficiaries from the Southeast region increased their fiber, iron, and selenium intakes, and those from the Northeast region decreased their energy, lipid, added sugar, sodium, zinc, vitamin E, and pyridoxine intakes. Conclusion: The results show a positive impact of the program on the energy and macronutrient intakes, and a negative impact on the intakes of most study micronutrients, especially in adolescents, which reinforce the importance of implementing intersectoral actions to improve the nutritional quality of the Bolsa Família Program beneficiaries' diet.

  11. AdS solutions through transgression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo

    2008-01-01

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or 'transgression' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS 3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial.

  12. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-05-03

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  13. When fed foods with similar palatability, healthy adult dogs and cats choose different macronutrient compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Vondran, Jodi C; Vanchina, Melissa A; Jewell, Dennis E

    2018-05-17

    Dogs and cats make short-term food choices based on palatability. We hypothesized that if palatability were masked, long-term food choices would be based on physiologic requirements, and circulating metabolite concentrations would reflect those choices. Four experimental foods with similar palatability, but varying in macronutrient composition, were prepared for healthy adult dogs (n=17) and cats (n=27). Food 1 was high protein; Food 2 was high fat; Food 3 was high carbohydrates; and Food 4 was balanced for macronutrients. By choosing any combination of foods, dogs and cats could individually set their macronutrient intake. Plasma metabolomic profiles were determined at baseline and after animals had consumed their food intake of choice for 28 days. Based on food intake calculations over 28 days, dogs on average chose to consume most of their calories from fat (41.1±4.3%) and then carbohydrate (35.8±3.7%), whereas cats on average chose to consume most of their calories from carbohydrate (43.1±4.0%) and then protein (30.3±3.9%; all P foods with similar palatability, dogs and cats consume different macronutrient compositions, and concentrations of circulating metabolites in cats reflect food choices. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Fusion of spectral and electrochemical sensor data for estimating soil macronutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid and efficient quantification of plant-available soil phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) is needed to support variable-rate fertilization strategies. Two methods that have been used for estimating these soil macronutrients are diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in visible and near-infrared (VNIR) w...

  15. Macronutrients in soils and plants, and their impacts on animal and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil supplies an abundance of macronutrients necessary for plants to grow and thrive under a variety of environmental conditions around the world. The capability of soil to store and release these nutrients supports our existence. Scientists from USDA-ARS in Raleigh NC and at the University of Ark...

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of Ion-Selective Electrodes for Simultaneous Analysis of Macronutrients in Hydroponic Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Automated sensing of macronutrients in hydroponic solution would allow more efficient management of nutrients for crop growth in closed hydroponic systems. Ion-selective microelectrode technology requires an ion-selective membrane or a solid metal material that responds selectively to one analyte in...

  17. Inflammation but not dietary macronutrients insufficiency associated with the malnutrition-inflammation score in hemodialysis population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Peng, Hongquan; Xiao, Long; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Zhimin; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is associated with increased risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients. And insufficient dietary intake is the common cause for malnutrition. So, in order to survey the dietary intake of hemodialysis patients and study the relationship between the dietary feature and nutritional status, a cross-sectional study was performed. 75 hemodialysis patients from South China participated in the dietary intake survey and nutrition assessment. A three-day diet diary record was used to estimate the major dietary macronutrients. Nutritional status was assessed by malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) in addition to several related anthropometric measurements. Serum albumin, transferrin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to quantify the assessing value of independent parameters for nutritional status. The results showed that 48% patients were malnourished according to the MIS. The malnourished patients had a lower body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), albumin and a higher level of CRP, compared with normal nourished patients (P macronutrients (calories, protein, fat, carbohydrates, etc) were found between the two nutrition groups (P > 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that the major macronutrients had no significant association with MIS (P > 0.05). In conclusion, malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population and these data indicated that inflammation but not dietary macronutrients insufficiency might be the candidate cause for malnutrition in hemodialysis population.

  18. Cranberry interacts with dietary macronutrients to promote healthy aging in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cecilia; Yolitz, Jason; Alberico, Thomas; Laslo, Mara; Sun, Yaning; Wheeler, Charles T; Sun, Xiaoping; Zou, Sige

    2014-08-01

    Botanicals possess numerous bioactivities, and some promote healthy aging. Dietary macronutrients are major determinants of life span. The interaction between botanicals and macronutrients that modulates life span is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of a cranberry-containing botanical on life span and the influence of macronutrients on the longevity-related effect of cranberry in Drosophila. Flies were supplemented with cranberry on three dietary conditions: standard, high sugar-low protein, and low sugar-high protein diets. We found that cranberry slightly extended life span in males fed with the low sugar-high protein diet but not with other diets. Cranberry extended life span in females fed with the standard diet and more prominently the high sugar-low protein diet but not with the low sugar-high protein diet. Life-span extension was associated with increased reproduction and higher expression of oxidative stress and heat shock response genes. Moreover, cranberry improved survival of sod1 knockdown and dfoxo mutant flies but did not increase wild-type fly's resistance to acute oxidative stress. Cranberry slightly extended life span in flies fed with a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that cranberry promotes healthy aging by increasing stress responsiveness. Our study reveals an interaction of cranberry with dietary macronutrients and stresses the importance of considering diet composition in designing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2013.

  19. Review of macronutrients in parenteral nutrition for neonatal intensive care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patricia J

    2014-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has become essential in the management of sick and growing newborn populations in the NICU. In the past few decades, PN has become fundamental in the nutritional management of the very low birth weight infant (macronutrients in PN, including carbohydrates, protein, and fat. A subsequent article will review the micronutrients in PN, including electrolytes, minerals, and vitamins.

  20. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...

  1. Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Food Sources in Preschool Children: Thai NHES IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Kasemsup, Rachada; Nontarak, Jiraluck; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2015-10-01

    Examine intakes of energy and macronutrients, and identify their food sources, in Thai preschool children. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV were used. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed regarding their children's 24-hour-dietary intake. Dietary data were analyzed for energy and macronutrients, and their food sources were investigated. Due to skewed data, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare energy and macronutrient intake between sexes and age groups. Among 256 preschool children, more than 90% had protein intakes higher than the recommended level. Only 12.7 to 29.0% met the recommended intake for energy. Amounts of carbohydrate and fat consumed varied from below to above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendation. Intakes of carbohydrate in boys and fat in girls were statistically different between age groups (p energy came from dairy products, grains and starchy products. The major carbohydrate contributors were grains and starchy products. Dairy products were the main source of protein. Important food sources of fat were dairy products for one- to three-year-old children and fat and oils for four- to five-year-old children. Thai preschool children have inappropriate intakes of energy and macronutrients. Dairy products and grains and/or starchy products were the main sources of energy, carbohydrate, and protein. Dietary fat sources varied by age group.

  2. The satiety effects of intragastric macronutrient infusions in fatty and lean Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, C A; Greenwood, M R; Vasselli, J R

    1983-09-01

    To evaluate satiety in the hyperphagic, genetically obese Zucker "fatty" (fafa) rat, food-deprived fatty and lean (FaFa) control rats were given equicaloric intragastric infusions consisting largely of fat, carbohydrate, or protein. Relative to distilled water infusion, these infusions resulted in immediate reductions of food intake in both fatty and lean rats allowed to feed 20 min post-infusion. Cumulative food intakes remained reduced throughout the 2 hr period of observation. Thus, despite its hyperphagia, the fatty rat is responsive to the satiating effect of infused nutrients. However, the relative satiating effectiveness of the macronutrient infusions differed for the two genotypes. In lean rats, the different macronutrient infusions resulted in equivalent reductions of feeding. In contrast, in fatty rats, fat was the least satiating and protein was the most satiating macronutrient. Moreover, compared to lean rats, fatty rats displayed less initial suppression of feeding after fat infusion and greater overall suppression after protein infusion. These effects are consistent with the long-term feeding behavior of the fatty rat for the different macronutrients and may be related to pre- and postabsorptive metabolic alterations that have been documented in this animal.

  3. Current status of AdS instability

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    arXiv:1403.6471 and thoroughly developed in arXiv:1407.6273. On the other hand the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of stable, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions of Einstein equations [arXiv:1303.3186].

  4. AdS. Klein-Gordon equation

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, Ll.

    2014-01-01

    I propose a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in the framework of AdS space-time and exhibit a four parameter family of solutions among which there is a two parameter family of time-dependent bound states.

  5. Lorentzian AdS, Wormholes and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Raul E; Silva, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the structure of two point functions for the QFT dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian AdS-wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of 5-dimensional second order Einstein Gauss Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS space times. We revisit the GKPW prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual QFT operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values phi_0^\\pm at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions, along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O^\\pm and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom leaving at each boundary. The AdS_(1+1) geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a ...

  6. Optimization of macronutrient kinetics for biomass production in Nostoc calcicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyer, Subramanian Seshadri C.; Akshai, A.; Kumar, B. G. Prakash; Ramachandran, S.

    2018-04-01

    To assess the feasibility of Allen and Arnon’s (AA) media addition to increase the biomass productivity, (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 ml of 10x media concentrate - MC) was added to aerated culture every six days, in two separate conditions i.e., single harvest (SH) and continuous harvest (CH) after 15th day. Results show that with addition of 5 ml of MC produced maximum amount of biomass is 1.32 g/L and 2.88 g/L for Sh and CH respectively. These results show that with addition of 5 ml of MC to an aerated culture every six days with continuous biomass harvesting leads to maximum growth of Nostoc calcicola @25°C

  7. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Winyard, Thomas [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  8. Supersymmetric AdS3, AdS2 and bubble solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Waldram, Daniel; Kim, Nakwoo

    2007-01-01

    We present new supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity. The former are dual to conformal field theories in two dimensions with N = (0, 2) supersymmetry while the latter are dual to conformal quantum mechanics with two supercharges. Our construction also includes AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity that have non-compact internal spaces which are dual to three-dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theories coupled to point-like defects. We also present some new bubble-type solutions, corresponding to BPS states in conformal theories, that preserve four supersymmetries

  9. Macronutrients and the FTO gene expression in hypothalamus; a systematic review of experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Doaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The various studies have examined the relationship between FTO gene expression and macronutrients levels. In order to obtain better viewpoint from this interactions, all of existing studies were reviewed systematically. All published papers have been obtained and reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords from databases such as CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane, from 1990 to 2016. The results indicated that all of 6 studies that met the inclusion criteria (from a total of 428 published article found FTO gene expression changes at short-term follow-ups. Four of six studies found an increased FTO gene expression after calorie restriction, while two of them indicated decreased FTO gene expression. The effect of protein, carbohydrate and fat were separately assessed and suggested by all of six studies. In Conclusion, The level of FTO gene expression in hypothalamus is related to macronutrients levels. Future research should evaluate the long-term impact of dietary interventions.

  10. Role of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in DNA Damage: Results From a Food Frequency Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations. Micronucleus frequency tends to increase with higher intake of caffeine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and protein ( P  < .05, Spearman correlation. Calorie and omega-6 intakes are negatively correlated with DNA damage measured by the comet assay. These results are somewhat controversial because some of the correlations found are contrary to dominant views in the literature; however, we suggest that unraveling the association between diet and genetic instability requires a much better understanding of the modulating role of macronutrients and micronutrients.

  11. Dietary Pattern and Macronutrients Profile on the Variation of Inflammatory Biomarkers: Scientific Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Brenda Kelly Souza; Oliveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva; Andrade, Patrícia Amaro; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Rosa, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2018-01-01

    It is known that the dietary pattern and macronutrients profile may influence the expression and secretion of inflammatory biomarkers, and the low-grade inflammation is associated with the manifestation of noncommunicable chronic diseases. Therefore, this review aimed to present and discuss the role of dietary patterns and macronutrients on the variation of inflammatory markers related to NCD risk. Scientific evidences within the last five years based on clinical trials, case-controls, cohorts, and cross-sectional studies indicate that normocaloric, carbohydrate-moderated, low-glycemic index, protein-moderated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich, omega-3, and low-saturated fat diets display positive effects on the inflammatory state, both in healthy individuals and in those with cardiovascular risk, although the second group seems to benefit more from changes in the dietary profile.

  12. Dietary Treatment Options for Depression among Diabetic Patient, Focusing on Macronutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-01-01

    There is a bidirectional adverse association between diabetes and depression. The odds for experiencing depressive symptoms in diabetic patients are two times more than nondiabetic persons, and depression is an independent predictor for the onset of diabetes. However, depression has been approximately unrecognized and untreated in two-thirds of diabetic patients, which may lead to worsened diabetes complications. A cornerstone strategy for managing depression among diabetic patients is the use of diet to improve both health problems. Because of similar pathophysiology for chronic diseases and depression, it seems that similar dietary recommendations could be useful. However, few studies have been conducted among diabetic patients. Regarding the complications of diabetes such as renal diseases and coronary heart diseases, the proper range of various macronutrients should be clarified in depressed diabetic patients as well as the proper type of each macronutrient. In this paper, we reviewed the available data on the treatment of depression in diabetic patients. PMID:24199205

  13. [Energy and macronutrients intake from pre-packaged foods among urban residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguo; Huang, Feifei; Wang, Huijun; Zhai, Feigying; Zhang, Bing

    2015-03-01

    To analyze the energy and macronutrients intake from pre-packaged foods among urban residents in China. The adult subjects were selected from 9 cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Shenyang, Harbin, Jinan, Zhengzhou, Changsha, Nanning. The recording method for 7 consecutive days was used to collect pre-packaged foods consumption information. Among subjects, the median intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate from pre-packaged foods were 628. 8kJ/d, 5.0 g/d, 6.7 g/d and 17.0 g/d, respectively. Among consumers, the median intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate from pre-packaged foods were 745. 3 kJ/d, 6. 0 g/d, 7. 7 g/d and 20. 7 g/d, respectively. The energy and macronutrients intake from pre-packaged foods were at low level.

  14. Effect of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sholly, D.M.; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Sutton, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to study the impact of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the small intestine and total tract of growing pigs. Eight pigs (initial BW, 34.5 ± 0.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin...... of polysaccharides and other macronutrients at the ileum and in feces to a larger extent for barley than wheat....

  15. Sex differences in macronutrient intake and adherence to dietary recommendations: findings from the UK Biobank

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, E; Peters, SAE; Woodward, M

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To characterise sex differences in macronutrient intakes and adherence to dietary recommendations in the UK Biobank population. Design: Cross-sectional population-based study. Setting: UK Biobank Resource. Participants: 210 106 (52.5% women) individuals with data on dietary behaviour. Main outcome measures: Women-to-men mean differences in nutrient intake in grams and as a percentage of energy and women-to-men ORs in non-adherence, adjusting for age, socioeconomic ...

  16. The diet quality index evaluates the adequacy of energy provided by dietary macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline MENDES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between macronutrient intake adequacy and the national diet quality index score. Methods The study analyzed a representative sample of 1,662 individuals from the municipality of São Paulo who participated in a cross-sectional study called Health Survey-Capital (2008/2009. Two 24-hour recalls were collected. Habitual intake was determined by the Multiple Source Method. The Brazilian index was calculated as suggested, and macronutrient adequacy was given by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations. A generalized linear model verified the relationship between the Brazilian index and macronutrient adequacy. All analyses with a descriptive level below 0.05 were considered significant. The analyses were performed by the software Stata 12.0, survey mode. Results The vast majority (91% of the population had inappropriate macronutrient intakes, and the total median Brazilian index score was 61.3 points (interquartile range=10.1. The total Brazilian index score of individuals with high lipid intake was worse than that of individuals with proper lipid intake (β=0,96; p=0,004, while those with high protein intake had a better score (β=1,10; p=0,003 than those with proper protein intake. Conclusion The revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index assesses diet quality properly regarding high lipid intake, but it has some limitations regarding high protein intake according to the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations. New studies should investigate the possibility of adapting this index to the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations.

  17. Longitudinal Changes in the Macronutrient Contents of Breast Milk in the Mothers with Preterm Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Aleali; minoo fallahi; Mohammad Kazemian; Seyyed Hossein Fakhraee; Abolfazl Afjeh

    2018-01-01

    Background: Contents of breast milk may change during the first weeks after childbirth, especially in preterm deliveries. The present study aimed to determine the macronutrient contents of breast milk in the mothers with preterm delivery. Methods: This prospective-descriptive study was conducted in Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2015. Participants included the mothers with preterm delivery, whose infants had a gestational age of

  18. Body macronutrient composition is predicted by lipid and not protein content of the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatt, Joshua P; Hambly, Catherine; Heap, Elizabeth; Kramer, Anna; Moon, Fiona; Speakman, John R; Walling, Craig A

    2017-12-01

    Diet is an important determinant of fitness-related traits including growth, reproduction, and survival. Recent work has suggested that variation in protein:lipid ratio and particularly the amount of protein in the diet is a key nutritional parameter. However, the traits that mediate the link between dietary macronutrient ratio and fitness-related traits are less well understood. An obvious candidate is body composition, given its well-known link to health. Here, we investigate the relationship between dietary and body macronutrient composition using a first-generation laboratory population of a freshwater fish, the three-spine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ). Carbohydrate is relatively unimportant in the diet of predatory fish, facilitating the exploration of how dietary protein-to-lipid ratio affects their relative deposition in the body. We find a significant effect of lipid intake, rather than protein, on body protein:lipid ratio. Importantly, this was not a result of absorbing macronutrients in relation to their relative abundance in the diet, as the carcass protein:lipid ratios differed from those of the diets, with ratios usually lower in the body than in the diet. This indicates that individuals can moderate their utilization, or uptake, of ingested macronutrients to reach a target balance within the body. We found no effect of diet on swimming endurance, activity, or testes size. However, there was an effect of weight on testes size, with larger males having larger testes. Our results provide evidence for the adjustment of body protein:lipid ratio away from that of the diet. As dietary lipid intake was the key determinant of body composition, we suggest this occurs via metabolism of excess protein, which conflicts with the predictions of the protein leverage hypothesis. These results could imply that the conversion and excretion of protein is one of the causes of the survival costs associated with high-protein diets.

  19. Impacts of Macronutrients on Gene Expression: Recent Evidence to Understand Productive and Reproductive Performance of Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmodul Hasan Sohel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the effects of nutrients on gene expression and to assess the interactions between genes and nutrition by means of various cutting-edge technologies, the interdisciplinary branch ‘Nutrigenomics’ was created. Therefore, nutrigenomics corresponds to the use of knowledge and techniques of nutrition, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics to seek and explain the cross-talk between nutrition and genes in molecular level. Macronutrients are important dietary signals that control metabolic programming of cells and have important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis by influencing specific gene expression. Recent advancements in molecular genetics studies, for instance, use of next-generation sequencing, microarray and qPCR array to investigate the expression of transcripts, genes, and miRNAs, has a crucial impact on understanding and quantitative measurement of the impact of dietary macronutrients on gene function. This review will shade a light on the interactions and mechanisms how the dietary source of macronutrients changes the expression of specific mRNA and miRNA. Furthermore, it will highlight the exciting recent findings in relation to animal performance characteristics which eventually help us to identify a dietary target to improve animal production.

  20. Nutritional disorder of lettuce cv. Veronica in nutrient solution with suppressed macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Batista Firmato de Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is the most popular of the leafy vegetables. It is known worldwide and its consumption occurs mainly in the natural form. The objective was to evaluate the effect of macronutrient omission on the growth and nutritional status of the lettuce cv. Veronica, and to describe the visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency. The treatments complete consisted of the solution and the individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S, under a completely randomized design with three replications. Plants were grown in Hoagland & Arnon, in pots (8L. At 56 days after transplant we evaluated plant height, leaf number, leaf area, SPAD index, dry matter of shoots, roots and whole plant, levels of macronutrients in shoots and roots, and the nature of nutritional disorders. The omission of nutrients affected the growth variables. The nutrients found in lettuce plants from nutrient solution and the complete omission in the shoot were, respectively, N= 23.2 to 9.5, P= 5.4 to 1.3, K= 58,9 to 3.2, Ca= 12.1 to 3.6, Mg= 5.5 to 0.7 and S= 3.2 to 1.5g.kg-1. The omission of macronutrients caused quality losses, since it affected the nutrition of the vegetables and this resulted in morphological changes, reflected as symptoms of deficiency for each nutrient.

  1. Water dephts and macronutrients accumulation in 'pérola' pineapple irrigated by drip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uirá do Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the largest pineapple producers worldwide, and those fruits are for the juice industry and the in natura market. Its cultivation requires high technology investment by using irrigation and balanced fertilization. However, little is known about the influence of drip irrigation on nutrient uptake by pineapple plants. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different irrigation depths on nutrients accumulation by 'Pérola' pineapples grown in northern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with five treatments referring to: 30% of Class A Evaporation Pan (ECA; 50% of ECA; 70% of ECA; 100% of ECA; and 150% of ECA. To determine the levels of macronutrients and dry matter, the plants were separated in root, stem, leaves, 'D' leaf, crown, fruit and whole plant. The sequence of macronutrients accumulated in the whole plant was K>N>Ca>P>Mg. The fruits exported from the cultivated area the following amounts of macronutrients: 17.52 kg ha-1 of K (12.8%; 16.91 kg ha-1 of N (20.7%; 10.77 kg ha-1 of Ca (15.9%, 1.29 kg ha-1 of P (12.4% and 1.04 kg ha-1 of Mg (20.5%. The irrigation depths that provided the maximum N, P, K and Ca accumulation in the whole plant are 53.6, 61.6, 54.5 and 60.2% of ECA, respectively.

  2. Mineral substances and macronutrients in the anaerobic conversion of biomass: an impact Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vintiloiu, Anca; Lemmer, Andreas; Oechsner, Hans; Jungbluth, Thomas

    2012-06-15

    Optimal nutrient supply in the digester is essential for efficient biogas production. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of various micro- and macronutrients on the process stability by a field test. The digestates of 25 biogas plants across the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, were investigated. Collected data including trace elements, macronutrients, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations, as well as the organic loading rate and hydraulic retention time were subjected to statistical analysis. High variations in the concentrations within the different biogas plants were observed. Statistically significant effects of substrate constituents and process parameters on the stability of the anaerobic digestion process were found. Several micro- and macronutrients and the relationships between these elements, as well as the process parameters propionic acid, acetic acid, and acetic acid equivalent were tested. Ni, Mo, and S had a consistent statistically significant effect, while the organic loading rate and Se only showed an effect limited to the acetic acid concentration and the acetic acid equivalent. No statistically significant effect could be shown for Fe, Co, and Na. Most of the significant interactions between the tested elements contained Ni, Fe, and Co. This shows that a balanced relation between the concentrations of these elements is of greater importance than the presence of individual elements for a digester to be able to operate at high organic loading rates and maintain low VFAconcentrations. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Macronutrient and Major Food Group Intake in a Cohort of Southern Italian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Mulè

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian adults. Results: No significant differences of macronutrient consumption between sexes were found. By contrast, younger individuals had significantly higher intake of animal protein than older ones. Men reported consuming significantly more total processed meats and less eggs than women; egg consumption significantly increased by age groups. Significantly lower intake of fruit in the younger age group compared to older ones was found. Various patterns of correlation between food groups were described. More than half of individuals reached the suggested recommendations for carbohydrate and fiber intake, and about two-thirds met the recommendations for total protein and cholesterol intake, while only a minority met for total fat intake. Total and plant protein, monounsaturated and omega-6 fatty acids, were significantly inversely related with BMI (body mass index, while trans fatty acids and cholesterol were directly correlated. A direct association with unprocessed meats and an inverse association with processed meats was also found. Conclusions: The overall findings suggest that relatively healthy dietary habits are common in southern Italy.

  4. Relationship between Serum Leptin, Ghrelin and Dietary Macronutrients in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Houjeghani, Shiva; Farzadi, Laya; Houjeghani, Sheyda; Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women. It may involve an impairment in physiologic regulation of leptin and ghrelin. There is limited, controversial data on the relation of dietary components with leptin and ghrelin in PCOS, so the current study has been conducted to explore the effects of different macronutrients on serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in PCOS and healthy subjects. In this case-control study, we randomly choose 30 PCOS pa- tients and 30 healthy age and body mass index (BMI) matched controls. Intake of macronutrients [protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), carbohydrate, dietary fiber] and energy were assessed using 3-day, 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Fasting hormonal status was measured for each participant. PCOS women had higher levels of serum leptin, insulin, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was lower compared to healthy women. There was no significant difference in mean ghrelin concentrations between the groups. Among PCOS women, independent of BMI and total energy intake, we observed an inverse association between leptin concentration and total dietary fat (β=-0.16, Pmacronutrients in PCOS and healthy participants. Certain habitual dietary components such as fat and SFA may decrease serum leptin, whereas ghrelin is not influenced by these in PCOS women. More studies are needed to better clarify the effects of dietary macronutrients on serum leptin and ghrelin.

  5. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment.

  6. Variation in macronutrients in human bank milk: Influencing factors and implications for human milk banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, K F; Skafte, Ester Lis; Badsberg, Jens Henrik

    1990-01-01

    . There was a large variation in the concentration of energy-yielding macronutrients. The contents of P, F, C, and E in the samples with the highest values (97.5 percentile) were 2.3-, 4.8-, 1.2-, and 2.3-fold, respectively, above the contents in the samples with the lowest values (2.5 percentile). The P content...... decreased exponentially during the 1st 8 months, followed by an increase during the following months. The F content decreased during the 1st 4 months, followed by an almost linear increase. The possible influence of different maternal characteristics on the macronutrient content of the milk was examined...... with a high P content, we have developed a "high-protein" milk with a P content of about 12 g/L (true protein) and an E content of about 725 kcal/L. Thus, by continuous monitoring of macronutrient content in human bank milk it is possible to develop a "high-protein" milk with sufficient P and E content...

  7. Omissão de macronutrientes em plantas de amendoim Deficiency of macronutrients in peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Solano de Oliveira Rodrigues Filho

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de amendoim Arachis hypogaea L. 'Tatu' foram cultivadas em condições de casa de vegetação, em vasos de Mitscherlich contendo areia lavada e irrigados com solução nutritiva completa e com soluções nutritivas com a omissão de cada macronutriente (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. As plantas mostraram sintomas de deficiência de macronutrientes, com exceção do fósforo, na ausência de cada elemento, relacionados com os seus baixos teores e redução no crescimento, desenvolvimento e produção de matéria seca.Peanut plants (Arachis hypogaea L. were cultivated in washed sand, under greenhouse conditions, irrigated with a complete nutrient solution and nutrient solutions with absence of each macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. Typical symptoms of macronutrient deficiencies were observed, except for phosphorus, related to the content of the element in the plant. The absence of macronutrients also influenced the plant dry matter production, development and height.

  8. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  9. Winding strings in AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herscovich, Estanislao; Minces, Pablo; Nunez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Correlation functions of one-unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS 3 are considered. We present the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes containing states in winding sector one and study their solution corresponding to the four point function including one w = 1 field. We compute the three point function involving two one-unit spectral flowed operators and find expressions for amplitudes of three w = 1 states satisfying certain particular relations among the spins of the fields. Several consistency checks are performed

  10. Macronutrients contribution from beverages according to sex and age: findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, Emma; Rodríguez-Alonso, Paula; Ávila-Torres, José Manuel; Valero-Gaspar, Teresa; Del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-07-13

    Methodologies and procedures used in dietary surveys have been widely developed with the aim of evaluating the nutritional status of a population. However, beverages are often either disregarded at national and international assessment of nutrients intake or poorly mentioned. Moreover, there is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of beverages intake in the general population. Moreover, the contribution of different beverages to macronutrients intake is rarely provided. The latter in the context of a continuous expansion and innovation of the beverages market in Spain. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages macronutrients contribution in the ANIBES study in Spain (9-75 years old).As expected, those contributed to dietary macronutrient intake mainly as total carbohydrates and sugar. The contribution to other macronutrients (proteins and lipids) by the beverage groups was of much less importance. For non-alcoholic beverages, contribution to carbohydrates was much higher in younger populations (children: 10.91 ± 9.49%, mean ± SD for boys and 9.46 ± 8.83% for girls; adolescents: 11.97 ± 11.26% for men and 13.77 ± 10.55% in women) than in adults: 9.01 ± 9.84% for men and 7.77 ± 8.73% in women. Finally, a much lower contribution was observed in the elderly: 4.22 ± 6.10% for men and 4.46 ± 6.56% for women. No sex differences, however, across all age groups were found. Results for sugar contribution showed a similar trend: children (23.14 ± 19.00% for boys and 19.77 ± 17.35% for girls); adolescents (28.13 ± 24.17% for men and 29.83 ± 21.82% in women); adults 20.42 ± 20.35% for men and 16.95 ± 17.76% in women, p ≤ 0.01; and elderly: 14.63% ± 9.97 for men and 9.33 ± 12.86% in women. The main contribution corresponded to sugared soft drinks, juices and nectars, more relevant and significant in the younger populations. As for alcoholic beverages, the

  11. Rapid measurement of macronutrients in breast milk: How reliable are infrared milk analyzers?✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Choi, Arum; Fusch, Stephanie; Poeschl, Susanna; Ubah, Adelaide Obianuju; Lee, Sau-Young; Raja, Preeya; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background & aims Significant biological variation in macronutrient content of breast milk is an important barrier that needs to be overcome to meet nutritional needs of preterm infants. To analyze macronutrient content, commercial infrared milk analyzers have been proposed as efficient and practical tools in terms of efficiency and practicality. Since milk analyzers were originally developed for the dairy industry, they must be validated using a significant number of human milk samples that represent the broad range of variation in macronutrient content in preterm and term milk. Aim of this study was to validate two milk analyzers for breast milk analysis with reference methods and to determine an effective sample pretreatment. Current evidence for the influence of (i) aliquoting, (ii) storage time and (iii) temperature, and (iv) vessel wall adsorption on stability and availability of macronutrients in frozen breast milk is reviewed. Methods Breast milk samples (n = 1188) were collected from 63 mothers of preterm and term infants. Milk analyzers: (A) Near-infrared milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, USA) and (B) Mid-infrared milk analyzer (Miris, Sweden) were compared to reference methods, e.g. ether extraction, elemental analysis, and UPLC-MS/MS for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively. Results For fat analysis, (A) measured precisely but not accurately (y = 0.55x + 1.25, r2 = 0.85), whereas (B) measured precisely and accurately (y = 0.93x + 0.18, r2 = 0.86). For protein analysis, (A) was precise but not accurate (y = 0.55x + 0.54, r2 = 0.67) while (B) was both precise and accurate (y = 0.78x + 0.05, r2 = 0.73). For lactose analysis, both devices (A) and (B) showed two distinct concentration levels and measured therefore neither accurately nor precisely (y = 0.02x + 5.69, r2 = 0.01 and y = −0.09x + 6.62, r2 = 0.02 respectively). Macronutrient levels were unchanged in two independent samples of stored breast milk (−20 °C measured with IR; −80

  12. Irradiated sewage sludge for increased crop production - III. Macronutrient availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.; Badawy, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    taken up by fruits were very low compared with those added to the soil in sludge. (author)

  13. Irradiated sewage sludge for increased crop production - III. Macronutrient availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.; Badawy, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    taken up by fruits were very low compared with those added to the soil in sludge. (author)

  14. Linking trace element variations with macronutrients and major cations in marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Marine mussels have long been used as biomonitors of contamination of trace elements, but little is known about whether variation in tissue trace elements is significantly associated with those of macronutrients and major cations. The authors examined the variability of macronutrients and major cations and their potential relationships with bioaccumulation of trace elements. The authors analyzed the concentrations of macronutrients (C, N, P, S), major cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca), and trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb) in the whole soft tissues of marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis collected globally from 21 sites. The results showed that 12% to 84% of the variances in the trace elements was associated with major cations, and the tissue concentration of major cations such as Na and Mg in mussels was a good proxy for ambient seawater concentrations of the major cations. Specifically, bioaccumulation of most of the trace elements was significantly associated with major cations, and the relationships of major cations with trace cations and trace oxyanions were totally opposite. Furthermore, 14% to 69% of the variances in the trace elements were significantly associated with macronutrients. Notably, more than half of the variance in the tissue concentrations of As, Cd, V, Ba, and Pb was explained by the variance in macronutrients in one or both species. Because the tissue macronutrient concentrations were strongly associated with animal growth and reproduction, the observed coupling relationships indicated that these biological processes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of some trace elements. The present study indicated that simultaneous quantification of macronutrients and major cations with trace elements can improve the interpretation of biomonitoring data. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  16. Macronutrient optimization and seasonal diet mixing in a large omnivore, the grizzly bear: a geometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C P Coogan

    Full Text Available Nutrient balance is a strong determinant of animal fitness and demography. It is therefore important to understand how the compositions of available foods relate to required balance of nutrients and habitat suitability for animals in the wild. These relationships are, however, complex, particularly for omnivores that often need to compose balanced diets by combining their intake from diverse nutritionally complementary foods. Here we apply geometric models to understand how the nutritional compositions of foods available to an omnivorous member of the order Carnivora, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos L., relate to optimal macronutrient intake, and assess the seasonal nutritional constraints on the study population in west-central Alberta, Canada. The models examined the proportion of macronutrients that bears could consume by mixing their diet from food available in each season, and assessed the extent to which bears could consume the ratio of protein to non-protein energy previously demonstrated using captive bears to optimize mass gain. We found that non-selective feeding on ungulate carcasses provided a non-optimal macronutrient balance with surplus protein relative to fat and carbohydrate, reflecting adaptation to an omnivorous lifestyle, and that optimization through feeding selectively on different tissues of ungulate carcasses is unlikely. Bears were, however, able to dilute protein intake to an optimal ratio by mixing their otherwise high-protein diet with carbohydrate-rich fruit. Some individual food items were close to optimally balanced in protein to non-protein energy (e.g. Hedysarum alpinum roots, which may help explain their dietary prevalence. Ants may be consumed particularly as a source of lipids. Overall, our analysis showed that most food available to bears in the study area were high in protein relative to lipid or carbohydrate, suggesting the lack of non-protein energy limits the fitness (e.g. body size and reproduction and

  17. Macronutrient optimization and seasonal diet mixing in a large omnivore, the grizzly bear: a geometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Sean C P; Raubenheimer, David; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Nielsen, Scott E

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient balance is a strong determinant of animal fitness and demography. It is therefore important to understand how the compositions of available foods relate to required balance of nutrients and habitat suitability for animals in the wild. These relationships are, however, complex, particularly for omnivores that often need to compose balanced diets by combining their intake from diverse nutritionally complementary foods. Here we apply geometric models to understand how the nutritional compositions of foods available to an omnivorous member of the order Carnivora, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos L.), relate to optimal macronutrient intake, and assess the seasonal nutritional constraints on the study population in west-central Alberta, Canada. The models examined the proportion of macronutrients that bears could consume by mixing their diet from food available in each season, and assessed the extent to which bears could consume the ratio of protein to non-protein energy previously demonstrated using captive bears to optimize mass gain. We found that non-selective feeding on ungulate carcasses provided a non-optimal macronutrient balance with surplus protein relative to fat and carbohydrate, reflecting adaptation to an omnivorous lifestyle, and that optimization through feeding selectively on different tissues of ungulate carcasses is unlikely. Bears were, however, able to dilute protein intake to an optimal ratio by mixing their otherwise high-protein diet with carbohydrate-rich fruit. Some individual food items were close to optimally balanced in protein to non-protein energy (e.g. Hedysarum alpinum roots), which may help explain their dietary prevalence. Ants may be consumed particularly as a source of lipids. Overall, our analysis showed that most food available to bears in the study area were high in protein relative to lipid or carbohydrate, suggesting the lack of non-protein energy limits the fitness (e.g. body size and reproduction) and population density

  18. Impact of macronutrient composition and palatability in wet diets on food selection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, F; Blanchard, G; Le Paih, L; Roberti, F; Niceron, C

    2017-04-01

    Cats are obligate carnivores adapted to high-protein diets, but are commonly fed diets rich in carbohydrate. The aim of this study was to examine the food intake choices of cats when diets with different protein and carbohydrate contents were offered. Thirty-nine cats participated in voluntary dietary intake studies. Four foods were formulated to provide between 24% and 53% of metabolizable energy as protein, between 43% and 11% as carbohydrate and holding dietary fat constant with a contribution of approximately 36%. Foods were offered either singly to evaluate voluntary food intake or in pairs to compare food intake between pairs of diets. Cats regulated their macronutrient intake to attain an overall diet composition that provided 53% of metabolizable energy as protein, 11% as carbohydrate and 36% as fat. The protein contribution corresponded to approximately 6 g of protein/kg body weight/day. High-protein/low-carbohydrate diets were always eaten preferentially over low-protein/high-carbohydrate foods. When low-protein/high-carbohydrate diets were offered, cats limited their food intake to limit daily carbohydrate intake to less than 3 g of carbohydrate/kg body weight. This carbohydrate ceiling may limit protein and even energy intake when only low-protein/high-carbohydrate diets were offered. The inclusion of palatability enhancer in the diets increased food intake but did not change protein or carbohydrate intake patterns, indicating that macronutrient intake can be regulated regardless of the use of palatability enhancers in cats. We conclude that cats can discriminate between diets based on macronutrient composition and regulate their intake to maintain maximal protein intake but limit carbohydrate intake. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Circadian Macronutrients Variations over the First 7 Weeks of Human Milk Feeding of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Lev, Hadar; Mimouni, Francis B; Ovental, Amit; Mangel, Laurence; Mandel, Dror; Lubetzky, Ronit

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about circadian variations of macronutrients content of expressed preterm human milk (HM). This study evaluated diurnal variations of macronutrients and energy content of preterm HM over the first 7 weeks of lactation and tested the hypothesis that values obtained during a morning sample are predictive of those obtained from an evening sample. Expressed HM was obtained from 32 mothers of preterm infants (26-33 weeks in gestational age), who routinely expressed all their milk every 3 hours from the beginning of the second to the seventh week after delivery. One aliquot was obtained from the first morning expression and the second from the evening expression. Energy and macronutrients contents were measured using an HM analyzer. Mean fat and energy contents of all samples obtained during the whole period were significantly higher in evening samples (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences between morning and evening carbohydrates and protein contents. Concentrations of protein, carbohydrates, and fat from morning samples were predictive of evening concentrations to different extents (R(2) = 0.720, R(2) = 0.663, and R(2) = 0.20, respectively; p < 0.02). The predictability of evening values by morning values was not influenced by the week of lactation at sampling or by individual patients. In repeated-measures analysis of variance performed on 11 patients who completed the whole 7-week period, over time, there was a significant decrease in fat, energy, and protein contents, whereas carbohydrates content remained unchanged. Day-night differences remained significant only for fat content. Circadian variations in fat and energy concentrations of HM are consistent over the first 7 weeks of lactation. There are no consistent circadian variations in HM protein and carbohydrates. Over a given day, there are little variations in protein and carbohydrates content, but fat concentrations are more variable, and evening values are less well predicted by

  20. Relative Intake of Macronutrients Impacts Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment or dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rosebud O.; Roberts, Lewis A.; Geda, Yonas E.; Cha, Ruth H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; O’Connor, Helen M.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    High caloric intake has been associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Total caloric intake is determined by the calories derived from macronutrients. The objective of the study was to investigate the association between percent of daily energy (calories) from macronutrients and incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. Participants were a population-based prospective cohort of elderly persons who were followed over a median 3.7 years (interquartile range, 2.5–3.9) of follow-up. At baseline and every 15 months, participants (median age, 79.5 years) were evaluated using the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, a neurological evaluation, and neuropsychological testing for a diagnosis of MCI, normal cognition, or dementia. Participants also completed a 128-item food-frequency questionnaire at baseline; total daily caloric and macronutrient intakes were calculated using an established database. The percent of total daily energy from protein (% protein), carbohydrate (% carbohydrate), and total fat (% fat) was computed. Among 937 subjects who were cognitively normal at baseline, 200 developed incident MCI or dementia. The risk of MCI or dementia (hazard ratio [HR], [95% confidence interval]) was elevated in subjects with high % carbohydrate (upper quartile: 1.89 [1.17–3.06]; P for trend=0.004), but was reduced in subjects with high % fat (upper quartile: 0.56 [0.34–0.91]; P for trend=0.03), and high % protein (upper quartile 0.79 [0.52 – 1.20]; P for trend=0.03) in the fully adjusted models. A dietary pattern with relatively high caloric intake from carbohydrates and low caloric intake from fat and proteins may increase the risk of MCI or dementia in elderly persons. PMID:22810099

  1. The association between serum C-reactive protein and macronutrients and antioxidants intake in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshki, A; Samadipour, E; Akbarzadeh, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the high levels of inflammation in hemodialysis patients and the effects of diet on systemic inflammation, such as the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, few studies have evaluated the relationship of macronutrients and antioxidants intake with serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Therefore, this study assessed the relationship between serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) with macronutrients and antioxidants intake and serum albumin. Methods: This cross-sectional study used census sampling to select 75 hemodialysis patients (35 men and 40 women) who attended the hemodialysis department of Vaseie Hospital of Sabzevar, Iran. After obtaining the written consent, all the patients were interviewed and dietary data was collected by using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 160 food items. Diet analysis was performed with Nutritionist IV. Before being connected to the dialysis machine, 5 cc fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants and serum hs-CRP and albumin levels were measured. All the statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS -for Windows, version 16.0. Results: The patients' mean body mass index was 20.09 ± 3.27 kg/ m2. The participants' intake of antioxidants and all macronutrients, except for carbohydrates and proteins, was less than the standard levels. Moreover, the hs-CRP had significant inverse relationships with serum albumin (P=0.0001) and vitamin E and C intakes but was not significant. Also, a significant relationship was observed between hs-CRP levels and the intake of energy (P=0.002) and protein (P=0.0001). Conclusion: Our findings indicated hs-CRP levels of hemodialysis patients to have significant inverse relationships with serum albumin and vitamin E and C intakes but was not significant. Also, a significant relationship was observed between hs-CRP levels and the intake of energy and protein.

  2. Differential vascular dysfunction in response to diets of differing macronutrient composition: a phenomenonological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy Roslyn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular dysfunction can develop from consumption of an energy-rich diet, even prior to the onset of obesity. However, the roles played by different dietary components remain uncertain. While attempting to develop models of obesity in a separate study, we observed that two high-energy diets of differing macronutrient compositions affected vascular function differently in overweight rats. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 6/group were fed diets providing varying percentages of energy from fat and carbohydrate (CHO. For 10 weeks, they were fed either chow, as control diet (10% of energy from fat; 63% from CHO, chow supplemented with chocolate biscuit (30% fat; 56% CHO or a high-fat diet (45% fat; 35% CHO. Blood concentrations of biochemical markers of obesity were measured, and epididymal fat pads weighed as a measure of adiposity. Mesenteric arteries were dissected and their contractile and relaxant properties analysed myographically. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Weight gain and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and leptin were similar in all groups. However, biscuit-fed animals showed increased food intake (+27%; p p p p p Conclusion Vascular dysfunction resulting from consumption of a high-fat or combined relatively high-fat/high-CHO diet occurs through different physiological processes, which may be attributable to their differing macronutrient compositions. Combining potentially atherogenic macronutrients induces more extensive vascular impairment than that of high-fat alone, and may be attributable to the more marked dyslipidaemia observed with such a diet. Thus, these findings help clarify the role of dietary components in vascular impairment, which has implications for clinical approaches to preventing cardiovascular disease.

  3. Effect of macronutrient ratio of the pre-starter diet on broiler performance and intermediary metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    SWENNEN, Quirine; Everaert, N.; Debonne, M.; Verbaeys, I.; Careghi, C.; Tona, K.; Janssens, G. P. J.; Decuypere, E.; Bruggeman, V.; Buyse, J.

    2010-01-01

    P>The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of isoenergetic substitution between the three energy delivering macronutrients in pre-starter diets on performance and intermediary nutrient metabolism in broiler chickens. From hatch until 5 days of age, 600 chicks, collected during peak of hatch, were fed one of the three experimental pre-starter diets with isoenergetic (13 MJ metabolisable energy/kg) substitutions between fat (43 vs. 108 g/kg), protein (126 vs. 240 g/kg) and carbohy...

  4. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2013)152, in agreement with the results of Castro and Song http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.1948. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS 2 ×S 2 or conformally AdS 2 ×S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide

  5. Complexity of the AdS soliton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the holographic complexity conjectures in the context of the AdS soliton, which is the holographic dual of the ground state of a field theory on a torus with antiperiodic boundary conditions for fermions on one cycle. The complexity is a non-trivial function of the size of the circle with antiperiodic boundary conditions, which sets an IR scale in the dual geometry. We find qualitative differences between the calculations of complexity from spatial volume and action (CV and CA). In the CV calculation, the complexity for antiperiodic boundary conditions is smaller than for periodic, and decreases monotonically with increasing IR scale. In the CA calculation, the complexity for antiperiodic boundary conditions is larger than for periodic, and initially increases with increasing IR scale, eventually decreasing to zero as the IR scale becomes of order the UV cutoff. We compare these results to a simple calculation for free fermions on a lattice, where we find the complexity for antiperiodic boundary conditions is larger than for periodic.

  6. AdS2 models in an embedding superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Sherry, T.N.

    2003-01-01

    An embedding superspace, whose bosonic part is the flat (2+1)-dimensional embedding space for AdS 2 , is introduced. Superfields and several supersymmetric models are examined in the embedded AdS 2 superspace

  7. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dashti, Hassan S; Follis, Jack L; Smith, Caren E

    2015-01-01

    examined associations between habitual sleep duration, body mass index (BMI), and macronutrient intake and assessed whether CLOCK variants modify these associations. DESIGN: We conducted inverse-variance weighted, fixed-effect meta-analyses of results of adjusted associations of sleep duration and BMI...... and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy as well as interactions with CLOCK variants from 9 cohort studies including up to 14,906 participants of European descent from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. RESULTS: We observed a significant association between...... sleep duration and lower BMI (β ± SE = 0.16 ± 0.04, P macronutrient intake were evident in age- and sex-stratified analyses only. We observed a significant association between sleep duration and lower saturated...

  8. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  9. The impact of maternal- and neonatal-associated factors on human milk's macronutrients and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dritsakou, Kalliopi; Liosis, Georgios; Valsami, Georgia; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2017-06-01

    To test the impact of specific maternal- and neonatal-associated factors on human milk's macronutrients and energy. This study was conducted with the use of a human milk analyzer (HMA, MIRIS, Uppsala, Sweden). Six hundred and thirty samples of raw milk and 95 samples of donor pasteurized milk were delivered from a total of 305 mothers. A significant inverse correlation of fat, protein and energy content with gestational age and birth weight was established. Fat and energy were lower in colostrum, increased in transitional milk and decreased on the 30th day's mature milk compared to transitional. The rate of protein decline from colostrum to mature milk was lower in premature deliveries compared to that of full-terms, resulting in greater contents of protein in preterm mature milk. The upmost amounts of carbohydrates were found in mature milk of preterm deliveries. A positive correlation was found between maternal age and fat contents. In women with higher post-pregnancy BMI levels greater analogies of fat and energy were presented. In women suffering diet-controlled gestational diabetes (GD), lower protein and higher fat and energy levels were found. Prematurity, maternal age, diet-controlled GD and high post-pregnancy BMI levels were found to impose statistical significant effect on milk's macronutrients and energy.

  10. Acute ingestion of different macronutrients differentially enhances aspects of memory and attention in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emma K; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Wesnes, Keith A

    2012-02-01

    The role of carbohydrates on mood and cognition is fairly well established, however research examining the behavioural effects of the other macronutrients is limited. The current study compared the effects of a 25 g glucose drink to energetically matched protein and fat drinks and an inert placebo. Following a blind, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover design, 18 healthy young adults consumed drinks containing fat, glucose, protein and placebo. Cognitive performance was examined at baseline and again 15- and 60 min post drink. Mood was assessed at baseline and then 10-, 35- and 80 min post drink. Attention and speed were enhanced 15 min following fat or glucose ingestion and working memory was enhanced 15 min following protein ingestion. Sixty minutes post drink memory enhancements were observed after protein and memory impairment was observed following glucose. All drinks increased ratings of alertness. The findings suggest that macronutrients: (i) have different windows of opportunity for effects (ii) target different cognitive domains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Dietary Macronutrients on Plasma Lipid Levels and the Consequence for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Daoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite gaining focus, cardiovascular disease (CVD remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Health promotion agencies have traditionally recommended diets that are low in fat in order to reduce CVD risk however, much debate remains about which dietary approaches are the most efficient for effective disease prevention. Common markers of CVD include elevated plasma triglycerides (TG and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels, as well as reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels. While weight loss alone can significantly reduce markers of CVD, manipulating dietary macronutrient content contributes to the beneficial effects of weight loss and furthers the improvement of lipid profiles even without the alteration of total caloric intake. Considering the recent attention to diets that are low in carbohydrates rather than fat, it remains to be elucidated the beneficial effects of each diet type when establishing new recommendations for CVD prevention. This review aims to examine the effects of different macronutrient compositions on lipid markers, thus providing insight into the potential roles of various diet types in the targeted prevention against CVD.

  12. Effects of macronutrient additions on nickel uptake and distribution in the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Huasheng; Wang Minghua; Huang Xuguang [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University/Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, No. 192, Daxue Road, Siming Zone, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang Dazhi, E-mail: dzwang@xmu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University/Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, No. 192, Daxue Road, Siming Zone, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The influences of macronutrient additions on nickel (Ni) uptake and distribution in the subcellular structures and macromolecular components of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu were examined using a radioisotope tracer method. The results showed that nitrate addition enhanced the uptake of Ni by P. donghaiense, whereas phosphate addition inhibited Ni uptake at high-Ni concentration. Nitrate or phosphate addition significantly affected Ni distribution in the subcellular structures and components. The majority of Ni was found in the soluble substances (>70%) and in the proteins (55.0-79.6%) of the algal cells. Urea reduced the Ni content in the amino acid-carbohydrate but elevated its content in proteins, and shown significantly correlated with the protein content of the algal cells. Thus, nutrient enrichment could influence both metal uptake and its distribution in the subcellular structures and components of the phytoplankton, as well as its subsequent transfer in marine food chains. - Macronutrient additions significantly affected nickel uptake and distribution in the subcellular substructures and components of the dinoflagellate.

  13. Absorption of macronutrients by cassava in different harvest dates and dosages of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Souza dos Santos

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in 2010-2011 crop years in the experimental area of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal de Roraima, in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nitrogen availability on the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in cassava, cultivar Aciolina, in different harvest times. A randomized block design was used in split-plot, with four replications. Dosages of N in cover were applied randomly on the plots (0, 30, 60, 150 and 330 kg ha-1, and in the subplot the harvest dates 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270 and 300 days after emergence (DAE. The vegetal material was collected, ground and then underwent an analysis for determination of nutrients concentrations in the leaves (N, P, K, Ca Mg and S. The harvest dates and dosages of N affect the nutrient concentrations in the cassava leaves, cv. Aciolina. The macronutrients dosage in the leaves, 120 DAE, is a good indicator of the nutritional status of the cassava plant. The dosage of 150 kg ha-1 of N raises the tubers roots per plant. The sequence of the macronutrients concentration in the leaves of the cassava, cv. Aciolina is N>Ca>K>Mg>P>S.

  14. Sustainable food security in India-Domestic production and macronutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Hannah; Reay, David; Higgins, Peter

    2018-01-01

    India has been perceived as a development enigma: Recent rates of economic growth have not been matched by similar rates in health and nutritional improvements. To meet the second Sustainable Development Goal (SDG2) of achieving zero hunger by 2030, India faces a substantial challenge in meeting basic nutritional needs in addition to addressing population, environmental and dietary pressures. Here we have mapped-for the first time-the Indian food system from crop production to household-level availability across three key macronutrients categories of 'calories', 'digestible protein' and 'fat'. To better understand the potential of reduced food chain losses and improved crop yields to close future food deficits, scenario analysis was conducted to 2030 and 2050. Under India's current self-sufficiency model, our analysis indicates severe shortfalls in availability of all macronutrients across a large proportion (>60%) of the Indian population. The extent of projected shortfalls continues to grow such that, even in ambitious waste reduction and yield scenarios, enhanced domestic production alone will be inadequate in closing the nutrition supply gap. We suggest that to meet SDG2 India will need to take a combined approach of optimising domestic production and increasing its participation in global trade.

  15. Daily Distribution of Macronutrient Intakes of Professional Soccer Players From the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-12-01

    The daily distribution of macronutrient intake can modulate aspects of training adaptations, performance and recovery. We therefore assessed the daily distribution of macronutrient intake (as assessed using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24-hr recalls) of professional soccer players (n = 6) of the English Premier League during a 7-day period consisting of two match days and five training days. On match days, average carbohydrate (CHO) content of the prematch (recovery from an evening kick-off) were similar (p > .05) though such intakes were lower than contemporary guidelines considered optimal for prematch CHO intake and postmatch recovery. On training days, we observed a skewed and hierarchical approach (p lunch (0.6 g·kg -1 )>breakfast (0.3 g·kg -1 )>evening snacks (0.1 g·kg -1 ). We conclude players may benefit from consuming greater amounts of CHO in both the prematch and postmatch meals so as to increase CHO availability and maximize rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis, respectively. Furthermore, attention should also be given to ensuring even daily distribution of protein intake so as to potentially promote components of training adaptation.

  16. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain” cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old. Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%. Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%, mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23% ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6% and meat and meat products (22.0%. Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70% combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%. The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents.

  17. Macronutrients accumulation and growth of pineapple cultivars submitted to aluminum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro F. C. Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to determine the growth and accumulation of macronutrients of two pineapple cultivars submitted to different concentrations of aluminum (Al. For this, a study was conducted in plastic pots containing 4 L of nutrient solution, in a randomized block design, in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, corresponding to two pineapple cultivars (‘IAC Fantástico’ and ‘Vitória’ and five Al concentrations (0, 21.6, 43.2, 64.8 and 86.4 mg of Al plant-1, with four replicates. The following variables were evaluated: root length, dry matter of root, stem and leaf, stem diameter, number of leaves, chlorophyll content and accumulation of macronutrients at 60 days after treatment. The cv. ‘Vitória’ showed a linear decrease in chlorophyll content, root dry matter, root length and accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in most plant components promoted by the increase of Al concentration in the nutrient solution. The cv. ‘IAC Fantástico’ had lower total dry matter, stem dry matter, stem diameter and accumulation of N, Ca and Mg. However, the evaluated characteristics were not influenced by the increase of Al concentration, showing greater tolerance of this cultivar to Al in nutrient solution.

  18. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nayera E; El Shebini, Salwa M; Ahmed, Nihad H; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-03-15

    Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity.

  19. Macronutrients and the FTO gene expression in hypothalamus; a systematic review of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doaei, Saeid; Kalantari, Naser; Mohammadi, Nastaran Keshavarz; Tabesh, Ghasem Azizi; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam

    The various studies have examined the relationship between FTO gene expression and macronutrients levels. In order to obtain better viewpoint from this interactions, all of existing studies were reviewed systematically. All published papers have been obtained and reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords from databases such as CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane, from 1990 to 2016. The results indicated that all of 6 studies that met the inclusion criteria (from a total of 428 published article) found FTO gene expression changes at short-term follow-ups. Four of six studies found an increased FTO gene expression after calorie restriction, while two of them indicated decreased FTO gene expression. The effect of protein, carbohydrate and fat were separately assessed and suggested by all of six studies. In Conclusion, The level of FTO gene expression in hypothalamus is related to macronutrients levels. Future research should evaluate the long-term impact of dietary interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effects of macronutrient additions on nickel uptake and distribution in the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Huasheng; Wang Minghua; Huang Xuguang; Wang Dazhi

    2009-01-01

    The influences of macronutrient additions on nickel (Ni) uptake and distribution in the subcellular structures and macromolecular components of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu were examined using a radioisotope tracer method. The results showed that nitrate addition enhanced the uptake of Ni by P. donghaiense, whereas phosphate addition inhibited Ni uptake at high-Ni concentration. Nitrate or phosphate addition significantly affected Ni distribution in the subcellular structures and components. The majority of Ni was found in the soluble substances (>70%) and in the proteins (55.0-79.6%) of the algal cells. Urea reduced the Ni content in the amino acid-carbohydrate but elevated its content in proteins, and shown significantly correlated with the protein content of the algal cells. Thus, nutrient enrichment could influence both metal uptake and its distribution in the subcellular structures and components of the phytoplankton, as well as its subsequent transfer in marine food chains. - Macronutrient additions significantly affected nickel uptake and distribution in the subcellular substructures and components of the dinoflagellate.

  1. Effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhisivam, B; Vishnu Bhat, B; Rao, Krishna; Kingsley, S M; Plakkal, Nishad; Palanivel, C

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk. This descriptive study was conducted in a Human Milk Bank of a tertiary care teaching institute in south India. Thirty random paired pooled donor human milk samples (before and after pasteurization) were analyzed for macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrates) using infrared spectroscopy. Similarly, immunoglobulin profile (IgA and IgG) before and after pasteurization was quantified using ELISA. The mean values of protein, fat, and carbohydrates in pooled donor milk pre-pasteurization were 1.6, 3.6, and 6.1 g/dl compared with post-pasteurization values 1.4, 2.7, and 5.9 g/dl, respectively. Pasteurization reduced protein, fat, and energy content of pooled donor milk by 12.5%, 25%, and 16%, respectively. However, carbohydrates were not significantly reduced. Pasteurization decreased IgA by 30% and IgG by 60%. Holder pasteurization of pooled donor human milk decreases protein, fat, and energy content and also reduces the levels of IgA and IgG.

  2. Validation of an in vitro digestive system for studying macronutrient decomposition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A; Schwander, Flurina; Gijs, Martin; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti

    2012-02-01

    The digestive process transforms nutrients and bioactive compounds contained in food to physiologically active compounds. In vitro digestion systems have proven to be powerful tools for understanding and monitoring the complex transformation processes that take place during digestion. Moreover, the investigation of the physiological effects of certain nutrients demands an in vitro digestive process that is close to human physiology. In this study, human digestion was simulated with a 3-step in vitro process that was validated in depth by choosing pasteurized milk as an example of a complex food matrix. The evolution and decomposition of the macronutrients was followed over the entire digestive process to the level of intestinal enterocyte action, using protein and peptide analysis by SDS-PAGE, reversed-phase HPLC, size exclusion HPLC, and liquid chromatography-MS. The mean peptide size after in vitro digestion of pasteurized milk was 5-6 amino acids (AA). Interestingly, mostly essential AA (93.6%) were released during in vitro milk digestion, a significantly different relative distribution compared to the total essential AA concentration of bovine milk (44.5%). All TG were degraded to FFA and monoacylglycerols. Herein, we present a human in vitro digestion model validated for its ability to degrade the macronutrients of dairy products comparable to physiological ranges. It is suited to be used in combination with a human intestinal cell culture system, allowing ex vivo bioavailability measurements and assessment of the bioactive properties of food components.

  3. Effects of macronutrient composition and cyclooxygenase-inhibition on diet-induced obesity, low grade inflammation and glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjære, Even

    - or protein based background, and supplemented with either corn- or fish oil. These experiments were conducted to determine whether macronutrient composition and type of dietary fat can modulate diet-induced obesity, and associated metabolic consequences. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...... was combined with a low fat diet. This further highlights the importance of the background diet and macronutrient composition of experimental diets. Conclusions: In summary, our results demonstrate that the composition of background diet modulates the obesogenic effect of the high fat diet. The obesogenic...

  4. Genetic mapping of QTLs associated with seed macronutrients accumulation in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research of genetic mapping of QTLs for macronutrient accumulation in soybean seed is limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to identify QTLs related to macronutrients (N, C, S, P, K, Ca, and Mg) in seeds in 92 F5:7 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between MD 96-5722 (...

  5. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    It was argued in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2013)028 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS 3 ×S 3 /ℤ N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  6. Hadronization at the AdS wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nick; French, James; Threlfall, Ed; Jensen, Kristan

    2010-01-01

    We describe hadronization events, using the AdS/CFT Correspondence, which display many of the qualitative features expected in QCD. In particular we study the motion of strings with separating end points in a back-reacted hard wall geometry. The solutions show the development of a linear QCD-like string. The end points oscillate in the absence of string breaking. We introduce string breaking by hand and evolve the new state forward in time to observe the separation of two string segments. A kink associated with this breaking evolves to the end points of the string inducing rho meson production. We explicitly compute the rho meson production at the end point.

  7. Effects of different phosphorus and potassium fertilization on contents and uptake of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg in winter wheat I. Content of macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata GAJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study carried out under field conditions was to evaluate the effect of differentiated phosphorus and potassium fertilization level on nutritional status of winter wheat at stem elongation (BBCH 31 and flowering (BBCH 65 development stages as well as on macronutrient contents in yield obtained (grain and straw. The research was conducted in 2007-2010, within an individual agricultural holding, on lessive soil with medium and high richness in potassium and phosphorus, respectively. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium in wheat changed depending on the organ assessed and plant development stage. At BBCH 31, regardless fertilization level, the plants observed were malnourished with potassium, phosphorus and calcium and at the control site also with nitrogen. Furthermore, there were found significant correlation relationships among the contents of nutrient pairs: nitrogen-potassium, nitrogen-phosphorus, nitrogen-magnesium and nitrogen-calcium. The content of nitrogen in wheat grain and straw differed mainly due to weather conditions during the study. Irrespective of the years of observation, differentiated rates of P and K applied had no significant effect on N accumulation in wheat at full ripening stage. In contrast to nitrogen, the level of P and K fertilization significantly differentiated the contents of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in wheat grain and straw. In case of calcium, the effect of fertilization factor was indicated only as regards the content of this nutrient in grain.

  8. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2014-01-01

    jobs by discursively constructing job ads that appeal to both sexes. This argument is part of the broader field of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder management, which involves discussions of the obligations of corporations to acknowledge and mitigate...... the increasingly widespread impact that their activities have on communities and social structures. The article emphasises the need for more active engagement on the part of corporations by analysing the discursive construction of preferred candidates in a small sample of Danish management job ads. By means...... that this agreement reflects a high degree of conservatism in the system where men enjoy a considerable advantage and where procedures that ensure male dominance are perpetuated even in the linguistic and discursive construction of job ads....

  9. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  10. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Tint, Mya-Thway; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D; Tan, Kok Hian; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-03-01

    Background: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak characteristics and early childhood BMI are emerging markers of future obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk, but little is known about their maternal nutritional determinants. Objective: We investigated the associations of maternal macronutrient intake with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study. Design: With the use of infant BMI data from birth to age 18 mo, infant BMI peak characteristics [age (in months) and magnitude (BMI peak ; in kg/m 2 ) at peak and prepeak velocities] were derived from subject-specific BMI curves that were fitted with the use of mixed-effects model with a natural cubic spline function. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake (assessed by using a 24-h recall during late gestation) with infant BMI peak characteristics ( n = 910) and BMI z scores at ages 2, 3, and 4 y were examined with the use of multivariable linear regression. Results: Mean absolute maternal macronutrient intakes (percentages of energy) were 72 g protein (15.6%), 69 g fat (32.6%), and 238 g carbohydrate (51.8%). A 25-g (∼100-kcal) increase in maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with a 0.01/mo (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.01/mo) higher prepeak velocity and a 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08) higher BMI peak These associations were mainly driven by sugar intake, whereby a 25-g increment of maternal sugar intake was associated with a 0.02/mo (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03/mo) higher infant prepeak velocity and a 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) higher BMI peak Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with a higher offspring BMI z score at ages 2-4 y. Maternal protein and fat intakes were not consistently associated with the studied outcomes. Conclusion: Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes are associated with unfavorable infancy BMI peak characteristics and higher early childhood BMI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  11. Lipids, CHOs, proteins: can all macronutrients put a 'brake' on eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H S; Ingram, J R; McGill, A-T; Poppitt, S D

    2013-08-15

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and specifically the most distal part of the small intestine, the ileum, has become a renewed focus of interest for mechanisms targeting appetite suppression. The 'ileal brake' is stimulated when energy-containing nutrients are delivered beyond the duodenum and jejunum and into the ileum, and is named for the feedback loop which slows or 'brakes' gastric emptying and duodeno-jejunal motility. More recently it has been hypothesized that the ileal brake also promotes secretion of satiety-enhancing GI peptides and suppresses hunger, placing a 'brake' on food intake. Postprandial delivery of macronutrients to the ileum, other than unavailable carbohydrates (CHO) which bypass absorption in the small intestine en route to fermentation in the large bowel, is an uncommon event and hence this brake mechanism is rarely activated following a meal. However the ability to place a 'brake' on food intake through delivery of protected nutrients to the ileum is both intriguing and challenging. This review summarizes the current clinical and experimental evidence for activation of the ileal brake by the three food macronutrients, with emphasis on eating behavior and satiety as well as GI function. While clinical studies have shown that exposure of the ileum to lipids, CHOs and proteins may activate GI components of the ileal brake, such as decreased gut motility, gastric emptying and secretion of GI peptides, there is less evidence as yet to support a causal relationship between activation of the GI brake by these macronutrients and the suppression of food intake. The predominance of evidence for an ileal brake on eating comes from lipid studies, where direct lipid infusion into the ileum suppresses both hunger and food intake. Outcomes from oral feeding studies are less conclusive with no evidence that 'protected' lipids have been successfully delivered into the ileum in order to trigger the brake. Whether CHO or protein may induce the ileal brake

  12. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  13. Macronutrient intake and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, N.E.; Appleby, P.N.; Key, T.J.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Tjonneland, A.; Roswall, N.; Overvad, K.; Weikert, S.; Boeing, H.; Chang-Claude, J.; Teucher, B.; Panico, S.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Peeters, P.; Quiros, J.R.; Jakszyn, P.; Molina-Montes, E.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Dorronsoro, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Ljungberg, B; Hallmans, G.; Ehrnstrom, R.; Ericson, U.; Gram, I.T.; Parr, C.L.; Trichopoulou, A.; Karapetyan, T.; Dilis, V.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Fagherrazzi, G.; Romieu, I.; Gunter, M.J.; Riboli, E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that dietary factors may be important in the development of bladder cancer. We examined macronutrient intake in relation to risk of urothelial cell carcinoma among 469,339 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations

  14. Associations between FTO genotype and total energy and macronutrient intake in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livingstone K.M.; Celis-Morales C.; Lara J.; Ashor A.W.; Lovegrove J.A.; Martinez J.A.; Saris W.H.; Gibney M.; Manios Y.; Traczyk I.; Drevon C.A.; Daniel H.; Gibney E.R.; Brennan L.; Bouwman J.; Grimaldi K.A.; Mathers J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Risk variants of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with increased obesity. However, the evidence for associations between FTO genotype and macronutrient intake has not been reviewed systematically. Our aim was to evaluate the potential associations between FTO genotype

  15. Contribution of beverages to energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, G.; Vossenaar, M.; Doak, C.M.; Solomons, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    Beverages are selected based on availability, culture, taste preference, health, safety and social context. Beverages may be important to energy and to the macronutrient and micronutrient quality of overall intake. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of beverages to the dietary

  16. Relationships of Dietary Patterns, Foods, and Micro- and Macronutrients with Alzheimer's Disease and Late-Life Cognitive Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Custodero, Carlo; Lozupone, Madia; Imbimbo, Bruno P; Valiani, Vincenzo; Agosti, Pasquale; Schilardi, Andrea; D'Introno, Alessia; La Montagna, Maddalena; Calvani, Mariapaola; Guerra, Vito; Sardone, Rodolfo; Abbrescia, Daniela I; Bellomo, Antonello; Greco, Antonio; Daniele, Antonio; Seripa, Davide; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Sabbá, Carlo; Panza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, the association between diet and cognitive function or dementia has been largely investigated. In the present article, we systematically reviewed observational studies published in the last three years (2014-2016) on the relationship among dietary factors and late-life cognitive disorders at different levels of investigation (i.e., dietary patterns, foods and food-groups, and dietary micro- and macronutrients), and possible underlying mechanisms of the proposed associations. From the reviewed evidence, the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive decline due to AD pathology introduced some evidence suggesting a direct relation between diet and changes in the brain structure and activity. There was also accumulating evidence that combinations of foods and nutrients into certain patterns may act synergistically to provide stronger health effects than those conferred by their individual dietary components. In particular, higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet was associated with decreased cognitive decline. Moreover, also other emerging healthy dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean-DASH diet Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diets were associated with slower rates of cognitive decline and significant reduction of AD rate. Furthermore, some foods or food groups traditionally considered harmful such as eggs and red meat have been partially rehabilitated, while there is still a negative correlation of cognitive functions with saturated fatty acids and a protective effect against cognitive decline of elevated fish consumption, high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly n-3 PUFA.

  17. Adding an extra storey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmark, Jesper; Dahl, Torben; Melgaard, Ebbe

    2007-01-01

    of them had to be renovated after a shorter period. In stead of just replacing the original roof with a new one, it is now a days rather common to ad an extra storey where that is possible according to local planning. The reason is as a rule based on economical benefits, but very often this extra storey...

  18. "Calories in, calories out" and macronutrient intake: the hope, hype, and science of calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Scott; Kones, Richard

    2017-11-01

    One of the central tenets in obesity prevention and management is caloric restriction. This perspective presents salient features of how calories and energy balance matter, also called the "calories in, calories out" paradigm. Determinants of energy balance and relationships to dietary macronutrient content are reviewed. The rationale and features of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis postulate that carbohydrate restriction confers a metabolic advantage. According to this model, a large amount of fat intake is enabled without weight gain. Evidence concerning this possibility is detailed. The relationship and application of the laws of thermodynamics are then clarified with current primary research. Strong data indicate that energy balance is not materially changed during isocaloric substitution of dietary fats for carbohydrates. Results from a number of sources refute both the theory and effectiveness of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis. Instead, risk for obesity is primarily determined by total calorie intake. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Novel Molecules Regulating Energy Homeostasis: Physiology and Regulation by Macronutrient Intake and Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gavrieli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Excess energy intake, without a compensatory increase of energy expenditure, leads to obesity. Several molecules are involved in energy homeostasis regulation and new ones are being discovered constantly. Appetite regulating hormones such as ghrelin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and amylin or incretins such as the gastric inhibitory polypeptide have been studied extensively while other molecules such as fibroblast growth factor 21, chemerin, irisin, secreted frizzle-related protein-4, total bile acids, and heme oxygenase-1 have been linked to energy homeostasis regulation more recently and the specific role of each one of them has not been fully elucidated. This mini review focuses on the above mentioned molecules and discusses them in relation to their regulation by the macronutrient composition of the diet as well as diet-induced weight loss.

  20. Plant Nutrition 2: Macronutrients (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the second of three lessons spanning the topic of Plant Nutrition, we examine how macronutrients affect plant growth. Specifically, we look at (1) the availability of nutrients in the soil along with the effects of soil microbes and physical properties on their availability; (2) nutrient uptake from the external environment, across plasma membranes and into plant cells; (3) in some cases, the assimilation of the nutrient into organic molecules; (4) the distribution and redistribution of nutrients throughout the plant; and (5) regulation of these processes. In parallel, we examine the genetic basis of a plant's nutrient use efficiency (NUE) and evaluate strategies by which to replenish nutrients that growing plants extract from soil.

  1. Piezoresistive microcantilever based lab-on-a-chip system for detection of macronutrients in the soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Rajul S.; Ashwin, Mamta; Rao, V. Ramgopal

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring of soil nutrients is very important in precision agriculture. In this paper, we have demonstrated a micro electro mechanical system based lab-on-a-chip system for detection of various soil macronutrients which are available in ionic form K+, NO3-, and H2PO4-. These sensors are highly sensitive piezoresistive silicon microcantilevers coated with a polymer matrix containing methyltridodecylammonium nitrate ionophore/ nitrate ionophore VI for nitrate sensing, 18-crown-6 ether for potassium sensing and Tributyltin chloride for phosphate detection. A complete lab-on-a-chip system integrating a highly sensitive current excited Wheatstone's bridge based portable electronic setup along with arrays of microcantilever devices mounted on a printed circuit board with a liquid flow cell for on the site experimentation for soil test has been demonstrated.

  2. Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevizan, Lilian Cristina [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba-SP (Brazil)], E-mail: lilian@conectcor.com.br; Santos, Dario [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo - UNIFESP, Rua Prof. Artur Riedel 275, 09972-270, Diadema-SP (Brazil); Elgul Samad, Ricardo; Dias Vieira, Nilson [Centro de Lasers e Aplicacoes, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Seimi Nomura, Cassiana [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adelia 166, 09210-170, Santo Andre-SP (Brazil); Nunes, Lidiane Cristina [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil); Rufini, Iolanda Aparecida; Krug, Francisco Jose [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba-SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become an analytical tool for the direct analysis of a large variety of materials in order to provide qualitative and/or quantitative information. However, there is a lack of information for LIBS analysis of agricultural and environmental samples. In this work a LIBS system has been evaluated for the determination of macronutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg) in pellets of vegetal reference materials. An experimental setup was designed by using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm and an Echelle spectrometer with ICCD detector. The plasma temperature was estimated by Boltzmann plots and instrumental parameters such as delay time, lens-to-sample distance and pulse energy were evaluated. Certified reference materials as well as reference materials were used for analytical calibrations of P, K, Ca, and Mg. Most results of the direct analysis of plant samples by LIBS were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by ICP OES after wet acid decomposition.

  3. ENERGY CONSUMPTION, THE DISTRIBUTION OF MACRONUTRIENTS AND BMI IN MOTHERS AND THEIR MEXICAN SCHOOLCHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Ríos, L Lizette; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Nuño-Cosío, M Eugenia; Campos-Barrera, Liliana R

    2015-12-01

    to identify the association between the percentage of adequacy of energy and protein and the distribution of macronutrients and sugar in the diets of mothers and schoolchildren with their respective BMI. in a cross-sectional study, 174 5-12-year-old schoolchildren and their mothers were randomly selected. BMI was measured, and 24-hour dietary surveys were administered on weekdays and weekends. The associations between the dietetic indicators in the mothers and their children and the BMI of the mothers and their children were assessed. The chi-square test, linear regression and odds ratio were used for analysis. excessive energy consumption in the mothers increased the risk of excessive energy consumption in their daughters by 11-fold (p=0.04). Maternal lipid intake was associated with the consumption of lipids in their sons and daughters (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevizan, Lilian Cristina; Santos, Dario; Elgul Samad, Ricardo; Dias Vieira, Nilson; Seimi Nomura, Cassiana; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Rufini, Iolanda Aparecida; Krug, Francisco Jose

    2008-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become an analytical tool for the direct analysis of a large variety of materials in order to provide qualitative and/or quantitative information. However, there is a lack of information for LIBS analysis of agricultural and environmental samples. In this work a LIBS system has been evaluated for the determination of macronutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg) in pellets of vegetal reference materials. An experimental setup was designed by using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm and an Echelle spectrometer with ICCD detector. The plasma temperature was estimated by Boltzmann plots and instrumental parameters such as delay time, lens-to-sample distance and pulse energy were evaluated. Certified reference materials as well as reference materials were used for analytical calibrations of P, K, Ca, and Mg. Most results of the direct analysis of plant samples by LIBS were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by ICP OES after wet acid decomposition

  5. Quantitative determination of the human breast milk macronutrients by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Edlene d. C. M.; Zângaro, Renato A.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes the evaluation of the macronutrient constitution of human breast milk based on the spectral information provided by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Human breast milk (5 mL) from a subject was collected during the first two weeks of breastfeeding and stocked in -20°C freezer. Raman spectra were measured using a Raman spectrometer (830 nm excitation) coupled to a fiber based Raman probe. Spectra of human milk were dominated by bands of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in the 600-1800 cm-1 spectral region. Raman spectroscopy revealed differences in the biochemical constitution of human milk depending on the time of breastfeeding startup. This technique could be employed to develop a classification routine for the milk in Human Milk Banking (HMB) depending on the nutritional facts.

  6. Analysis of the influence of pasteurization, freezing/thawing, and offer processes on human milk's macronutrient concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alan Araujo; Soares, Fernanda Valente Mendes; Pimenta, Hellen Porto; Abranches, Andrea Dunshee; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2011-08-01

    The macronutrient concentrations of human milk could be influenced by the various processes used in human milk bank. To determine the effect of various process (Holder pasteurization, freezing and thawing and feeding method) on the macronutrient concentration of human milk. The samples of donated fresh human milk were studied before and after each process (Holder pasteurization, freezing and thawing and feeding method) until their delivery to newborn infants. Fifty-seven raw human milk samples were analyzed in the first step (pasteurization) and 228 in the offer step. Repeated measurements of protein, fat and lactose amounts were made in samples of human milk using an Infrared analyzer. The influence of repeated processes on the mean concentration of macronutrients in donor human milk was analyzed by repeated measurements ANOVA, using R statistical package. The most variable macronutrient concentration in the analyzed samples was fat (reduction of 59%). There was a significant reduction of fat and protein mean concentrations following pasteurization (5.5 and 3.9%, respectively). The speed at which the milk was thawed didn't cause a significant variation in the macronutrients concentrations. However, the continuous infusion delivery significantly reduced the fat concentration. When the influence of repeated processes was analyzed, the fat and protein concentrations varied significantly (reduction of 56.6% and 10.1% respectively) (Pmilk is submitted before delivery to newborn infants cause a reduction in the fat and protein concentration. The magnitude of this decrease is higher on the fat concentration and it needs to be considered when this processed milk is used to feed preterm infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adiponectin changes in relation to the macronutrient composition of a weight-loss diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summer, Suzanne S; Brehm, Bonnie J; Benoit, Stephen C; D'Alessio, David A

    2011-11-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose-derived protein with beneficial metabolic effects. Low adiponectin is associated with obesity and related diseases. Significant weight loss increases adiponectin, reducing disease risk. This study compared the effects of two weight-loss diets with different macronutrient compositions on adiponectin. Eighty-one obese women in two cohorts were randomized to a low-fat (LF) or a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. All subjects underwent equivalent weight-loss intervention, with weight and other measures assessed at baseline and after 6 (cohort I) or 4 (cohort II) months. Body fat was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Adiponectin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Diet intake was assessed using 24-h recalls and 3-day diet records. Data were analyzed via t-tests and repeated-measures factorial ANOVA using time, diet, and replicate (cohort I vs. cohort II) as factors. Age, weight, body fat, BMI, adiponectin, and diet were similar at baseline. Following intervention, macronutrient composition of the diet was vastly different between the groups, reflecting the assigned diet. Both groups lost weight and body fat (P vs. -4.97 kg weight, P vs. -2.62 kg fat, P < 0.001). Adiponectin increased in the LC (+1.92 mcg/ml, P < 0.01), but not the LF (+0.86 mcg/ml, P = 0.81), group. There was no correlation between weight loss and increase in adiponectin. These results confirm that diet-induced loss of weight and body fat is associated with increased adiponectin concentrations. This effect is evident with weight loss of 10% or more, and may be greater with LC diets.

  8. The macronutrients in human milk change after storage in various containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Chao-Huei; Lin, Ming-Chih

    2012-06-01

    The concentrations of macronutrients in human milk can be influenced by various processes, such as storage, freezing, and thawing, that are performed by lactating working mothers and breast milk banks. We evaluated the impact of various containers on the nutrient concentrations in human milk. A total of 42 breast milk samples from 18 healthy lactating mothers were collected. A baseline macronutrient concentration was determined for each sample. Then, the breast milk samples were divided and stored in nine different commercial milk containers. After freezing at -20°C for 2 days, the milk samples were thawed and analyzed again. A midinfrared human milk analyzer (HMA) was used to measure the protein, fat, and carbohydrate contents. There was a significant decrease in the fat content following the storage, freezing, and thawing processes, ranging from 0.27-0.30 g/dL (p=0.02), but no significant decrease in energy content (p=0.069) was noted in the nine different containers. There were statistically significant increases in protein and carbohydrate concentrations in all containers (p=0.021 and 0.001, respectively), however there were no significant differences between the containers in terms of fat, protein, carbohydrate, or energy contents. Human milk, when subjected to storage, freezing, and thawing processes, demonstrated a significant decrease in fat content (up to 9% reduction) in various containers. It is better for infants to receive milk directly from the mother via breastfeeding. More studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of milk storage on infant growth and development. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Postprandial Metabolism of Macronutrients and Cardiometabolic Risk: Recent Developments, Emerging Concepts, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Parks, Elizabeth J; Bruno, Richard S; Tasali, Esra; Lewis, Gary F; Schneeman, Barbara O; Rains, Tia M

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the role of habitual lifestyle factors such as physical activity and dietary patterns in increasing CVD risk has long been appreciated, less is known about how acute daily activities may cumulatively contribute to long-term disease risk. Here, the term acute refers to metabolic responses occurring in a short period of time after eating, and the goal of this article is to review recently identified stressors that can occur after meals and during the sleep-wake cycle to affect macronutrient metabolism. It is hypothesized that these events, when repeated on a regular basis, contribute to the observed long-term behavioral risks identified in population studies. In this regard, developments in research methods have supported key advancements in 3 fields of macronutrient metabolism. The first of these research areas is the focus on the immediate postmeal metabolism, spanning from early intestinal adsorptive events to the impact of incretin hormones on these events. The second topic is a focus on the importance of meal components on postprandial vasculature function. Finally, some of the most exciting advances are being made in understanding dysregulation in metabolism early in the day, due to insufficient sleep, that may affect subsequent processing of nutrients throughout the day. Key future research questions are highlighted which will lead to a better understanding of the relations between nocturnal, basal (fasting), and early postmeal events, and aid in the development of optimal sleep and targeted dietary patterns to reduce cardiometabolic risk. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Calculating the metabolizable energy of macronutrients: a critical review of Atwater's results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, M Judith; Márquez-Sandoval, Fabiola; Ramírez-Anguiano, Ana C; Velasco-Ramírez, Sandra F; Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; González-Ortiz, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    The current values for metabolizable energy of macronutrients were proposed in 1910. Since then, however, efforts to revise these values have been practically absent, creating a crucial need to carry out a critical analysis of the experimental methodology and results that form the basis of these values. Presented here is an exhaustive analysis of Atwater's work on this topic, showing evidence of considerable weaknesses that compromise the validity of his results. These weaknesses include the following: (1) the doubtful representativeness of Atwater's subjects, their activity patterns, and their diets; (2) the extremely short duration of the experiments; (3) the uncertainty about which fecal and urinary excretions contain the residues of each ingested food; (4) the uncertainty about whether or not the required nitrogen balance in individuals was reached during experiments; (5) the numerous experiments carried out without valid preliminary experiments; (6) the imprecision affecting Atwater's experimental measurements; and (7) the numerous assumptions and approximations, along with the lack of information, characterizing Atwater's studies. This review presents specific guidelines for establishing new experimental procedures to estimate more precise and/or more accurate values for the metabolizable energy of macronutrients. The importance of estimating these values in light of their possible dependence on certain nutritional parameters and/or physical activity patterns of individuals is emphasized. The use of more precise values would allow better management of the current overweight and obesity epidemic. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Bioaccessibility of calcium, iron and magnesium in residues of citrus and characterization of macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joyce Grazielle Siqueira; Rebellato, Ana Paula; Greiner, Ralf; Pallone, Juliana Azevedo Lima

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate bioaccessibility of Ca, Fe and Mg in residues of orange, lime, and their mixture, in order to evaluate the effects of cooking in water on mineral bioaccessibility and also to determine the composition of macronutrients and myo-inositol phosphate content. The citrus samples contained on average 9.53g/100 g moisture, 6.09g/100 g protein, 3.23g/100g ash, 3.15g/100g lipids, 34.26g/100g insoluble fiber, 27.88g/100g soluble fiber and 25.64g/100g carbohydrates. The percentage of soluble and dialyzable minerals ranged from 19.36 to 77.33% and from 5.59 to 69.06% for Fe, from 33.34 to 60.84% and 14.71 to -26.13% for Ca, and from 29.95 to 94.20% and 34.42 to 62.51%, for Mg, respectively. It was verified that cooking influenced the minerals bioaccessibility and increased the dialyzable fraction of Fe and Mg, but decreased the fraction of Ca dialysate, except to orange. No myoinositol phosphate esters were detected. The Principal Component Analysis allowed the separation of different types of citrus residues, but did not discriminate the raw and cooked samples. This study pointed the potential of citrus residue to be used for human consumption and contribute to the necessary dietary minerals and macronutrients, with high content of soluble and insoluble fibers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Macronutrients and micronutrients of soybean oil bodies extracted at different pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeming; Cao, Yanyun; Zhao, Luping; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the macronutrients and micronutrients of pH 6.8, 8.0, 9.5, and 11.0 extracted soybean oil bodies (OBs) were examined, revealing that soybean OBs might be used as a natural carrier for bioactive components (unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipid, tocopherol, and phytosterol). pH 6.8 extracted OBs (dry basis) contained 85.88% neutral lipid, 8.18% protein, and 5.85% polar lipid (mainly phospholipid) by gravimetric analysis. The percentage of neutral lipid was increased, while those of protein and polar lipid were decreased with increasing pH. Tocopherol (about 75 mg/100 g neutral lipid of OBs) was not affected, while phytosterol was decreased (136 to 110 mg/100 g neutral lipid of OBs) with increasing pH. The detectable total monosaccaride (galactosamine, glucosamine, and glucose) content of extracted OBs was low and also decreased (35.80 to 6.13 mg/100 g neutral lipid of OBs) with increasing pH. The protein of extracted OBs had higher percentage of essential amino acids than soybean protein isolate with tryptophan and methionine as limited amino acids. The fatty acid composition of extracted OBs was rich in linoleic acid (about 59%), oleic acid (about 20%), and α-linolenic acid (about 7%). Oil bodies (OBs) from soybean and other plant seeds are greatly examined owing to their potential utilizations in food ingredients. The determination of its macronutrients and micronutrients would be very meaningful for its efficient utilization in the future. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Macronutrients and trace metals in soil and food crops of Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Ansari, Maryam; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Kaabi, Helena; Kermani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of 10 macronutrients and trace metals in the arable soils of Isfahan Province, their phytoavailability, and associated health risks were investigated; 134 plant and 114 soil samples (from 114 crop fields) were collected and analyzed at harvesting time. Calculation of the soil pollution index (SPI) revealed that arable soil polluted by metals was more severe in the north and southwest of the study area. The results of cluster analysis indicated that Pb, Zn, and Cu share a similar origin from industries and traffic. The concentrations of macronutrients and trace metals in the sampled crops were found in the order of K > Ca > S > Mg > P and Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb, respectively, whereas calculation of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the accumulation of the investigated elements in crops was generally in the order of S ≈ K > P > Mg > Ca and Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Fe, respectively. Thus, various parameters including crop species and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil also affected the bioavailability of the elements besides the total element contents in soil. Daily intake (DI) values of elements were lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) levels in rice grains except for Fe and Mn, but for wheat grains, all elements displayed DI values higher than the RDI. Moreover, based on the hazard index (HI) values, inhabitants are experiencing a significant potential health risk solely due to the consumption of wheat and rice grains (particularly wheat grains). Mn health quotient (HQ) also indicated a high risk of Mn absorption for crop consumer inhabitants.

  14. Adiposity among 132 479 UK Biobank participants; contribution of sugar intake vs other macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J J; Celis-Morales, C A; Mackay, D F; Iliodromiti, S; Lyall, D M; Sattar, N; Gill, Jmr; Pell, J P

    2017-04-01

    Policy makers are being encouraged to specifically target sugar intake in order to combat obesity. We examined the extent to which sugar, relative to other macronutrients, was associated with adiposity. We used baseline data from UK Biobank to examine the associations between energy intake (total and individual macronutrients) and adiposity [body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat and waist circumference]. Linear regression models were conducted univariately and adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and physical activity. Among 132 479 participants, 66.3% of men and 51.8% of women were overweight/obese. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.24) between energy from sugar and fat; 13% of those in the highest quintile for sugar were in the lowest for fat, and vice versa. Compared with normal BMI, obese participants had 11.5% higher total energy intake and 14.6%, 13.8%, 9.5% and 4.7% higher intake from fat, protein, starch and sugar, respectively. Hence, the proportion of energy derived from fat was higher (34.3% vs 33.4%, P < 0.001) but from sugar was lower (22.0% vs 23.4%, P < 0.001). BMI was more strongly associated with total energy [coefficient 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.36-2.55] and energy from fat (coefficient 1.96, 95% CI 1.91-2.06) than sugar (coefficient 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.55). The latter became negative after adjustment for total energy. Fat is the largest contributor to overall energy. The proportion of energy from fat in the diet, but not sugar, is higher among overweight/obese individuals. Focusing public health messages on sugar may mislead on the need to reduce fat and overall energy consumption. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  15. Globally regular instability of AdS_3

    OpenAIRE

    Bizon, P.; Jałmużna, J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider three-dimensional AdS gravity minimally coupled to a massless scalar field and study numerically the evolution of small smooth circularly symmetric perturbations of the $AdS_3$ spacetime. As in higher dimensions, for a large class of perturbations, we observe a turbulent cascade of energy to high frequencies which entails instability of $AdS_3$. However, in contrast to higher dimensions, the cascade cannot be terminated by black hole formation because small perturbations have ener...

  16. Conclusions about children’s reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported information to reference information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F.; Hardin, James W.; Nichols, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Validation-study data are used to illustrate that conclusions about children’s reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews (ie, time) depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported and reference information—conventional, which disregards accuracy of reported items and amounts, or reporting-error-sensitive, which classifies reported items as matches (eaten) or intrusions (not eaten), and amounts as corresponding or overreported. Subjects and design Children were observed eating school meals on one day (n = 12), or two (n = 13) or three (n = 79) nonconsecutive days separated by ≥25 days, and interviewed in the morning after each observation day about intake the previous day. Reference (observed) and reported information were transformed to energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat), and compared. Main outcome measures For energy and each macronutrient: report rates (reported/reference), correspondence rates (genuine accuracy measures), inflation ratios (error measures). Statistical analyses Mixed-model analyses. Results Using the conventional approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, report rates did not vary systematically over interviews (Ps > .61). Using the reporting-error-sensitive approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, correspondence rates increased over interviews (Ps macronutrients improved over time, but the conventional approach masked improvements and overestimated accuracy. Applications The reporting-error-sensitive approach is recommended when analyzing data from validation studies of dietary reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients. PMID:17383265

  17. Conclusions about children's reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported information to reference information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F; Hardin, James W; Nichols, Michele D

    2007-04-01

    Validation study data are used to illustrate that conclusions about children's reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews (ie, time) depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported and reference information-conventional, which disregards accuracy of reported items and amounts, or reporting-error-sensitive, which classifies reported items as matches (eaten) or intrusions (not eaten), and amounts as corresponding or overreported. Children were observed eating school meals on 1 day (n=12), or 2 (n=13) or 3 (n=79) nonconsecutive days separated by >or=25 days, and interviewed in the morning after each observation day about intake the previous day. Reference (observed) and reported information were transformed to energy and macronutrients (ie, protein, carbohydrate, and fat), and compared. For energy and each macronutrient: report rates (reported/reference), correspondence rates (genuine accuracy measures), and inflation ratios (error measures). Mixed-model analyses. Using the conventional approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, report rates did not vary systematically over interviews (all four P values >0.61). Using the reporting-error-sensitive approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, correspondence rates increased over interviews (all four P values macronutrients improved over time, but the conventional approach masked improvements and overestimated accuracy. The reporting-error-sensitive approach is recommended when analyzing data from validation studies of dietary reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients.

  18. Nonlinear realization of supersymmetric AdS space isometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T. E.; Love, S. T.

    2006-01-01

    The isometries of AdS 5 space and supersymmetric AdS 5 xS 1 space are nonlinearly realized on four-dimensional Minkowski space. The resultant effective actions in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone modes are constructed. The dilatonic mode governing the motion of the Minkowski space probe brane into the covolume of supersymmetric AdS 5 space is found to be unstable and the bulk of the AdS 5 space is unable to sustain the brane. No such instability appears in the nonsupersymmetric case

  19. Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and cultural studies. Major conclusions showed that the beauty myth since the Dutch colonial period never been change. The main concept is always in colonialism’s idea: “white is better”. The West is better than the East.

  20. Philosophia ad bellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Loboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper «Philosophia ad bellum» is being realized an attempt to classify philosophic approaches to the study of phenomenon of war by the analogy with the structure of «Just war theory» – 1. Philosophia ad bellum – «philosophy for war», where are investigated ways of using of philosophic methods of cognition in applied military sciences; 2. Philosophia supra bello – «philosophy above war», which investigates world­view, historic­philosophic, existential, logic­epistemological aspects of war; 3. Philosophia contra belli – «philosophy against war», where research of the essence of war gets its logical conclusion in grounding of the absurdity of thinking schemes which justify war as an act of violence. In the article was made historic­philosophic overview of the part «Philosophia ad bellum», where were showed tangent questions, which are considered by philosophic logic and theory of strategic intelligence. It was stated, that specialists if military intelligence admit the important role of researches in logic and theory of cognition in their professional work; were defined basic questions, which have the most essential interest for military professionals. There were analyzed ways of using of philosophic methods in developing military strategies, was made a conclusion that philosophy can be a basis of strategic failures and victories as well.

  1. The group approach to AdS space propagators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Thorsten; Manvelyan, Ruben; Ruehl, Werner

    2003-01-01

    We show that AdS two-point functions can be obtained by connecting two points in the interior of AdS space with one point on its boundary by a dual pair of Dobrev's boundary-to-bulk intertwiners and integrating over the boundary point

  2. Manifestly T-dual formulation of AdS space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuda, Machiko; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Siegel, Warren

    2017-01-01

    We present a manifestly T-dual formulation of curved spaces such as an AdS space. For group manifolds related by the orthogonal vielbein fields the three form H=dB in the doubled space is universal at least locally. We construct an affine nondegenerate doubled bosonic AdS algebra to define the AdS space with the Ramond-Ramond flux. The non-zero commutator of the left and right momenta leads to that the left momentum is in an AdS space while the right momentum is in a dS space. Dimensional reduction constraints and the physical AdS algebra are shown to preserve all the doubled coordinates.

  3. Evaporation of large black holes in AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Jorge V

    2010-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence offers a new perspective on the long-standing black hole information paradox. However, to be able to use the available gauge/gravity machinery one is forced to consider so-called 'large' black holes in AdS, and these objects are thermodynamically stable - they do not evaporate. We describe a simple toy model that allows large AdS black holes to decay, by coupling the emitted radiation to an external scalar field propagating in an auxiliary space. This effectively changes the properties of the boundary of AdS, making it partly absorbing. We demonstrate that the evaporation process never ceases by explicitly presenting (a) the transmission coefficient for a wave scattering from the bulk into auxiliary space and (b) the greybody factor for a black 3-brane in an AdS background. Therefore, the model provides an interesting framework to address the information paradox using AdS/CFT techniques.

  4. Manifestly T-dual formulation of AdS space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Machiko [Physics Division, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University,Chiba 270-1695 (Japan); KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kamimura, Kiyoshi [Physics Division, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University,Chiba 270-1695 (Japan); Siegel, Warren [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States)

    2017-05-12

    We present a manifestly T-dual formulation of curved spaces such as an AdS space. For group manifolds related by the orthogonal vielbein fields the three form H=dB in the doubled space is universal at least locally. We construct an affine nondegenerate doubled bosonic AdS algebra to define the AdS space with the Ramond-Ramond flux. The non-zero commutator of the left and right momenta leads to that the left momentum is in an AdS space while the right momentum is in a dS space. Dimensional reduction constraints and the physical AdS algebra are shown to preserve all the doubled coordinates.

  5. Open strings on AdS2 branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Peter; Ooguri, Hirosi.; Park, Jongwon; Tannenhauser, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    We study the spectrum of open strings on AdS 2 branes in AdS 3 in an NS-NS background, using the SL(2,R) WZW model. When the brane carries no fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum is the holomorphic square root of the spectrum of closed strings in AdS 3 . It contains short and long strings, and is invariant under spectral flow. When the brane carries fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum again contains short and long strings in all winding sectors. However, branes with fundamental string charge break half the spectral flow symmetry. This has different implications for short and long strings. As the fundamental string charge increases, the brane approaches the boundary of AdS 3 . In this limit, the induced electric field on the worldvolume reaches its critical value, producing noncommutative open string theory on AdS 2

  6. Water restriction and heat effects on thyroid activity in ad libitium and force-fed cattle exposed to 180C and 320C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; Johnson, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    Seven non-lactating Holstein cows were maintained in a climatic laboratory for two weeks at 18 0 C and 50% relative humidity, followed by two weeks at 32 0 C and 50% relative humidity. Water was provided ad libitum in the first week and restricted 50% of the ad libitum level in the second week. Thyroid activity, determined by the 125 I-triiodothyronine uptake with coated charcoal, decreased 10.9% (P 0 C. Water restriction at 32 0 C did not depress thyroid activity because environmental heat had already decreased thyroid activity to a low level. High ambient temperature depressed thyroid activity 14.7% in ad libitum cows (P<0.01) and a further 1.8% in water-restricted cows. Similar effects of water restriction and heat were obtained when the same experiment was repeated on four non-lactating rumen-fistulated cows, in which the refused feed during the water restriction periods was put into the rumen to maintain the feed levels for each temperature exposure. This indicated that forced feeding did not prevent the adverse effect of water restriction or heat on thyroid activity. (author)

  7. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View.

  8. Conical singularities in AdS space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Cristine Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, the study of conformal gauge theories from 10-D has been motivated by the AdS d+1 /CFT d correspondence, first conjectured by J. Maldacena. The aim of this work is to consider the d = 4 case by analysing the configuration of the N coincident D3 branes. In this context, the work shows that there is a duality between type IIB string theory in AdS 5 x S 5 and N = 4 SU(N) Super Yang-Mills Theory in the IR. The AdS 5 /CFT 4 correspondence brought also new approaches to the strong coupling problem in QCD. Nowadays, there is a whole line of works that focus on the low dimensional correspondence AdS 4 /CFT 3 , like the application to graphene and topological insulators, and the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, related with the entanglement entropy. In this work, we consider the vortex configuration solution to the AdS 4 and AdS 3 space-time. The most important motivation is to discuss the boundary theory resulting from these solutions. We have examined a straightforward approach to a holographic computation of the graphene and entanglement entropy in the presence of the conical singularity. After this analysis, we consider the scalar field in the bulk in the presence of this metrics and work out the compactification modes. Taking the holographic point of view, we study and discuss the resulting Green function. (author)

  9. Hawking radiation from AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E; Rangamani, Mukund; Marolf, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We study Hartle-Hawking-like states of quantum field theories on asymptotically AdS black hole backgrounds, with particular regard to the phase structure of interacting theories. By a suitable analytic continuation we show that the equilibrium dynamics of field theories on large asymptotically AdS black holes can be related to the low-temperature states of the same field theory on the AdS soliton (or pure AdS) background. This allows us to gain insight into Hartle-Hawking-like states on large-radius Schwarzschild- or rotating-AdS black holes. Furthermore, we exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore the physics of strongly coupled large N theories on asymptotically AdS black holes. In particular, we exhibit a plausibly complete set of phases for the M2-brane world-volume superconformal field theory on a BTZ black hole background. Our analysis partially resolves puzzles previously raised in connection with Hawking radiation on large AdS black holes.

  10. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan or without (Yangling employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan and K (at Yangling, but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1 due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3, Zn+P (18.7, and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1 treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three

  11. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Meng; Liu, Ke; Tian, Xiaohong; Li, Shuo; Chen, Yanlong; Jia, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N) can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management) on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn) were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan) or without (Yangling) employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan) and K (at Yangling), but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1) due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3), Zn+P (18.7), and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1) treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three soil N

  12. Macronutrients intake and risk of Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimin; Lin, Yan; Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2015-05-01

    We carried out a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from published studies on macronutrients intake and risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Embase. Study-specific effect was combined with the random-effect model. The dose-response relationship was assessed by the restricted cubic spline. For highest versus lowest level of intake, the relative risk (RR) of PD was 1.13 (95% CI 0.88-1.44) for protein (7 articles including 1570 PD cases among 357,827 subjects), RR 1.24 (95% CI 1.05-1.48) for carbohydrate (8 articles including 1482 PD cases among 232,869 subjects), RR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74-1.06) for fat (12 articles including 2936 PD cases among 374,124 subjects), RR 0.97 (95% CI 0.75-1.26) for cholesterol (6 articles including 1713 PD cases among 170,058 subjects) and 1.39 (95% CI 1.01-1.92) for energy (8 articles including 1553 PD cases among 170,317 subjects), respectively. Among prospective studies adjusting for smoking and coffee/caffeine, no associations were found between PD risk and intake of protein (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.80-1.30), carbohydrate (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.86-1.43), fat (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.70-1.16), cholesterol (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.74-1.09) and energy (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-1.02); however, polyunsaturated fatty acid (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.96) was inversely associated with PD risk. Limited data showed a linear dose-response relationship between the aforementioned macronutrients and PD risk. Dietary intake of protein, carbohydrate, cholesterol and energy might be not independently associated with PD risk. Higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid might be inversely associated with PD risk. Confounding by smoking and coffee/caffeine should be considered regarding the association between fat intake and PD risk in further studies. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Variation in content of macronutrients of guava tree leaves, in function of type and time of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Antunes de Souza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf analysis for perennial crops such as the guava tree is an important tool. It was used to evaluate the influence of the type of packaging (with or without refrigerator and storage time after collection on the macronutrient composition of guava tree leaves. The leaf sampling was carried out on a commercial guava tree (cv. Paluma, collecting the third pair of recently matured leaves in full bloom. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, subdivided according to the type of packaging (with or without refrigerator and further subdivided into eight storage times before washing (zero, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168h after sampling, with four replications. The storage time significantly affected the concentration of leaf nitrogen, calcium and sulfur. Moreover, the type and time of conditioning (with or without refrigerator affected only the magnesium. In general, storage fot up to 12h before washing produced no significant changes in the levels of macronutrients.

  14. Variation in content of macronutrients of guava tree leaves, in function of type and time of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Antunes de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf analysis for perennial crops such as the guava tree is an important tool. It was used to evaluate the influence of the type of packaging (with or without refrigerator and storage time after collection on the macronutrient composition of guava tree leaves. The leaf sampling was carried out on a commercial guava tree (cv. Paluma, collecting the third pair of recently matured leaves in full bloom. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, subdivided according to the type of packaging (with or without refrigerator and further subdivided into eight storage times before washing (zero, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168h after sampling, with four replications. The storage time significantly affected the concentration of leaf nitrogen, calcium and sulfur. Moreover, the type and time of conditioning (with or without refrigerator affected only the magnesium. In general, storage fot up to 12h before washing produced no significant changes in the levels of macronutrients.

  15. Synergism by individual macronutrients explains the marked early GLP-1 and islet hormone responses to mixed meal challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlkvist, L; Vikman, J; Pacini, G; Ahrén, B

    2012-10-10

    Apart from glucose, proteins and lipids also stimulate incretin and islet hormone secretion. However, the glucoregulatory effect of macronutrients in combination is poorly understood. We therefore developed an oral mixed meal model in mice to 1) explore the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and islet hormone responses to mixed meal versus isocaloric glucose, and 2) characterize the relative contribution of individual macronutrients to these responses. Anesthetized C57BL/6J female mice were orally gavaged with 1) a mixed meal (0.285 kcal; glucose, whey protein and peanut oil; 60/20/20% kcal) versus an isocaloric glucose load (0.285 kcal), and 2) a mixed meal (0.285 kcal) versus glucose, whey protein or peanut oil administered individually in their mixed meal caloric quantity, i.e., 0.171, 0.055 and 0.055 kcal, respectively. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin and intact GLP-1 before and during oral challenges. Plasma glucose was lower after mixed meal versus after isocaloric glucose ingestion. In spite of this, the peak insulin response (P=0.02), the peak intact GLP-1 levels (P=0.006) and the estimated β-cell function (P=0.005) were higher. Furthermore, the peak insulin (P=0.004) and intact GLP-1 (P=0.006) levels were higher after mixed meal ingestion than the sum of responses to individual macronutrients. Compared to glucose alone, we conclude that there is a marked early insulin response to mixed meal ingestion, which emanates from a synergistic, rather than an additive, effect of the individual macronutrients in the mixed meal and is in part likely caused by increased levels of GLP-1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Impact of Macronutrients on Retinal Microvasculature among Singapore Pregnant Women during the Mid-Late Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Jun; Ong, Peng Guan; Colega, Marjorelee T; Han, Chad Yixian; Chen, Ling Wei; Man Eyn Kidd, Ryan; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Gluckman, Peter; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap Seng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Wong, Tien Yin; Chong Foong-Fong, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imbalanced macronutrient intakes can induce impairment of endothelial and vascular function, and further lead to metabolic and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the influence of such diets on endothelial and vascular dysfunction in pregnant women, even though high-fat diet is a known risk for pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. We aimed to assess the association between maternal macronutrient intakes (protein, fat and carbohydrates), dietary quality and retinal microvascular changes in a multi-ethnic Asian mother-offspring cohort. Pregnant women (n = 614) with singleton pregnancies were recruited during their first trimester from June 2009 to Sep 2010. Maternal diet quality and macronutrient intakes, expressed as a percentage of total energy during pregnancy, were ascertained using 24 hr recalls and 3 d food diaries at 26-28 weeks gestation. Retinal examination was completed at the same clinic visit. Dietary quality was assessed and scored using the Health Eating Index in Asian Pregnant women (HEI-AP), while macronutrients intakes ware expressed as percentages of total energy and further log transformed for analysis. Associations were examined cross-sectionally by substitution models with the use of multiple linear regression. In adjusted model, each 20 points decrease in HEI-AP score was associated with a significant increase of 1.70 μm (p<0.05) in retinal venular calibre. Each 0.1 log increase in percentage of total fat intake was associated with a significant increment of 1.84 μm (p<0.05) in retinal venular caliber. Additionally, each 0.1 log increase in percentage of mono-unsaturated fat intake was associated with an increment of 1.84 μm (p<0.01) in retinal venular caliber. In this cross-sectional study, we found that women with higher fat and lower protein intakes, and lower diet quality tended to have wider retinal venular caliber, which is suggestive of suboptimal microvasculature.

  17. Translation and implementation of added sugars consumption recommendations: a conference report from the American Heart Association Added Sugars Conference 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Linda; Johnson, Rachel K; Flickinger, Brent D; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Yin-Piazza, Shirley

    2010-12-07

    science also reinforces the importance of preventing, rather than simply treating diseases, especially overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. Reducing added sugars consumption is a good target for addressing obesity, along with other sources of excess calories. However, the potential unintended consequences of substituting added sugars with ingredients that may not reduce calories and of increasing other macronutrients or food groups that may not result in a net health gain must be considered. Although there are many challenges to incorporating added sugars to the food label as was discussed during the conference, disclosure of added sugars content on food and beverage labels is an essential element in consumer education and can provide the information and motivation for making healthier food choices. This conference demonstrated the value of interactive dialogue among multiple sectors and disciplines. More disciplines should be at the table to bring expertise to discuss cross-cutting issues related to public policies and offer diverse insights to finding a solution.

  18. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  19. AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS d+1 superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS 4 supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS 5 and scalar 3-brane on AdS 5 x S 1 , which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS d+1 (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d

  20. Metabolic routing of dietary nutrients in birds: effects of diet quality and macronutrient composition revealed using stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesak, David W; McWilliams, Scott R

    2006-01-01

    During fall migration many songbirds switch from consuming primarily insects to consuming mostly fruit. Fruits with more carbohydrates and less protein may be sufficient to rebuild expended fat stores, but such fruits may be inadequate to replace catabolized protein. We manipulated the concentrations and isotopic signatures of macronutrients in diets fed to birds to study the effects of diet quality on metabolic routing of dietary nutrients. We estimated that approximately 45% and 75%, respectively, of the carbon in proteinaceous tissue of birds switched to high- or low-protein diets came from nonprotein dietary sources. In contrast, we estimated that approximately 100% and 20%-80%, respectively, of the nitrogen in proteinaceous tissues of birds switched to high- or low-protein diets was attributable to dietary protein. Thus, the routing and assimilation of dietary carbon and nitrogen differed depending on diet composition. As a result, delta (15)N of tissues collected from wild animals that consume high-quality diets may reliably indicate the dietary protein source, whereas delta (13)C of these same tissues is likely the product of metabolic routing of carbon from several macronutrients. These results have implications for how isotopic discrimination is best estimated and how we can study macronutrient routing in wild animals.

  1. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes em sisal Macronutrients deficiency on sisal (Agave sisalana perr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barbos Salgado

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de sisal (Agave sisalana Perr. foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo areia lavada e irrigados com solução nutritiva completa e com soluções nutritivas com a omissão de cada macronutriente. As plantas mostraram, na ausência de cada nutriente, os sintomas típicos de sua carência, relacionados com baixos teores do respectivo elemento nas folhas, e redução no seu crescimento e desenvolvimento.Sisal plants were cultivated in washed sand during twenty-one months. The plants were irrigated with complete nutrient solution and solutions with absence of each macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. The plants, in the absence of each macronutrient, showed typical symptoms which were related to the low level of the respective element in the leaf. The growing of the leaves was reduced by the absence of the macronutrients.

  2. Higher Leptin but Not Human Milk Macronutrient Concentration Distinguishes Normal-Weight from Obese Mothers at 1-Month Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Arnaud; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Gaud, Marie-Agnès; Christin, Patricia; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Millet, Christine; Herviou, Manon; Darmaun, Dominique; Robins, Richard J; Ingrand, Pierre; Hankard, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Exclusively breastfed infants born to obese mothers have previously been shown to gain less weight by 1-month postpartum than infants of normal-weight mothers. Our hypothesis is that human milk composition and volume may differ between obese and normal-weight mothers. To compare human milk leptin, macronutrient concentration, and volume in obese and normal-weight mothers. Mother and infant characteristics were studied as secondary aims. This cross-sectional observational study compared 50 obese mothers matched for age, parity, ethnic origin, and educational level with 50 normal-weight mothers. Leptin, macronutrient human milk concentration, and milk volume were determined at 1 month in exclusively breastfed infants. Mother characteristics and infant growth were recorded. Human milk leptin concentration was higher in obese mothers than normal-weight mothers (4.8±2.7 vs. 2.5±1.5 ng.mL-1, pobese and normal-weight mothers in protein, lipid, carbohydrate content, and volume, nor in infant weight gain. Leptin concentration was higher in the milk of obese mothers than that of normal-weight mothers, but macronutrient concentration was not. It remains to be established whether the higher leptin content impacts on infant growth beyond the 1-month of the study period.

  3. In vitro antiplasmodial activity, macronutrients and trace metals in the medicinal plants: Phyllanthus spp. and Alpinia conchigera Griff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinda, M S; Aiyub, Z; Bakar, N K A; Tohar, N; Musa, Y; Abdullah, N R; Ibrahim, H; Awang, K

    2015-03-01

    An antiplasmodial screening of Phyllanthus debilis and Phyllanthus urinaria was carried out. The medicinal plants were extracted and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against D10 (chloroquine-sensitive, CQS) and Gombak A (chloroquine-resistant, CQR) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The methanolic crudes from the soxhlet extraction were active against both strains however, P. urinaria (IC50 8.9 μg/ml with CQR strain) exhibited better anti-malarial activity compared to P. debilis (IC50 12.2 μg/ml with CQR strain). Furthermore, the methanolic crude of P. urinaria obtained by the cold extraction has good anti-malarial activity towards CQS (IC50 4.1 μg/ml). The concentration of macronutrients (calcium and magnesium) and trace metals (copper, manganese, iron and zinc) from three Phyllanthus species i.e. P. debilis Klein ex Wild., Phyllanthus niruri L., P. urinaria L. and Alpinia conchigera Griff. were determined using microwave digestion method and analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Standard Reference Material 1547 (peach leaves) was used to validate the method throughout this study. The recovery values were in the range of 80% to 120% which were in very good agreement with the certified values. The three Phyllanthus species and leaves of A. conchigera showed the highest concentration of calcium compared to other metals and macronutrients studied. The significant presence of all the important macronutrients and trace metals which are essential for human health and well-being substantiate their use medicinally in traditional practices.

  4. An assessment of the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens by nutritional geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sonia Y; Selle, Peter H; Raubenheimer, David; Cadogan, David J; Simpson, Stephen J; Cowieson, Aaron J

    2016-12-01

    The right-angled triangle mixture experiment was designed to include fourteen diets with different concentrations of starch, protein and lipid. Experimental diets were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chickens from 10 to 23 d after hatching, and response curves and surfaces were generated to illustrate the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisations. Despite the primary function of macronutrients, especially protein, may not be providing energy, macronutrients were expressed as energy derived from starch, protein and fat for statistical purposes in the mixture design. Energy derived from lipid had a greater impact on feed intake than energy derived from starch and protein. When we compared the influence of starch and protein on feed intake, 'equal distance rule' was observed, which means the animal consumes feed to the point on its respective nutritional rails where the shortage of starch exactly equals the surplus of consumed protein. Increasing the protein-derived energy intake increased weight gain in broiler chickens, whereas energy intake derived from starch and lipid had little impact on weight gain. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) may be reduced by either increasing protein energy intake or decreasing starch energy intake. As the slope of the contours was less than 1, the influence of starch energy intakes on FCR exceeded that of protein energy intakes. In conclusion, energy derived from protein is more important than non-protein energy in terms of weight gain, and a balance between protein and energy supplies is required for efficient muscle protein deposition.

  5. Micronutrient quality of weight-loss diets that focus on macronutrients: results from the A TO Z study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Kim, Soowon; Bersamin, Andrea; Dopler-Nelson, Mindy; Otten, Jennifer; Oelrich, Beibei; Cherin, Rise

    2010-01-01

    Background: Information on the micronutrient quality of alternative weight-loss diets is limited, despite the significant public health relevance. Objective: Micronutrient intake was compared between overweight or obese women randomly assigned to 4 popular diets that varied primarily in macronutrient distribution. Design: Dietary data were collected from women in the Atkins (n = 73), Zone (n = 73), LEARN (Lifestyle, Exercise, Attitudes, Relationships, Nutrition) (n = 73), and Ornish (n = 72) diet groups by using 3-d, unannounced 24-h recalls at baseline and after 8 wk of instruction. Nutrient intakes were compared between groups at 8 wk and within groups for 8-wk changes in risk of micronutrient inadequacy. Results: At 8 wk, significant differences were observed between groups for all macronutrients and for many micronutrients (P macronutrient composition should attend to the overall quality of the diet, including the adequacy of micronutrient intakes. Concerning calorie-restricted diets, there may be a micronutrient advantage to diets providing moderately low carbohydrate amounts and that contain nutrient-dense foods. PMID:20573800

  6. Supersymmetric warped AdS in extended topologically massive supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deger, N.S.; Kaya, A.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.

    2014-01-01

    We determine the most general form of off-shell N=(1,1) supergravity field configurations in three dimensions by requiring that at least one off-shell Killing spinor exists. We then impose the field equations of the topologically massive off-shell supergravity and find a class of solutions whose properties crucially depend on the norm of the auxiliary vector field. These are spacelike-squashed and timelike-stretched AdS 3 for the spacelike and timelike norms, respectively. At the transition point where the norm vanishes, the solution is null warped AdS 3 . This occurs when the coefficient of the Lorentz–Chern–Simons term is related to the AdS radius by μℓ=2. We find that the spacelike-squashed AdS 3 can be modded out by a suitable discrete subgroup of the isometry group, yielding an extremal black hole solution which avoids closed timelike curves

  7. Organismal and spatial partitioning of energy and macronutrient transformations within a hypersaline mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobberley, Jennifer M.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Moran, James J.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome; Hu, Dehong; Beyenal, Haluk; Nelson, William C.

    2017-03-21

    Phototrophic mat communities are model ecosystems for studying energy cycling and elemental transformations because complete biogeochemical cycles occur over millimeter-to-centimeter scales. Characterization of energy and nutrient capture within hypersaline phototrophic mats has focused on specific processes and organisms, however little is known about community-wide distribution of and linkages between these processes. To investigate energy and macronutrient capture and flow through a structured community, the spatial and organismal distribution of metabolic functions within a compact hypersaline mat community from Hot Lake have been broadly elucidated through species-resolved metagenomics and geochemical, microbial diversity, and metabolic gradient measurements. Draft reconstructed genomes of abundant organisms revealed three dominant cyanobacterial populations differentially distributed across the top layers of the mat suggesting niche separation along light and oxygen gradients. Many organisms contained diverse functional profiles, allowing for metabolic response to changing conditions within the mat. Organisms with partial nitrogen and sulfur metabolisms were widespread indicating dependence upon metabolite exchange. In addition, changes in community spatial structure were observed over the diel. These results indicate that organisms within the mat community have adapted to the temporally dynamic environmental gradients in this hypersaline mat through metabolic flexibility and fluid syntrophic interactions, including shifts in spatial arrangements.

  8. Effect of Sewage Sludge on Some Macronutrients Concentration and Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakine Vaseghi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer has economic benefits. Land application of sewage sludge improves some soil chemical and physical properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge on soil chemical properties and macronutrient concentration in acid and calcareous soils. The study was carried out in a greenhouse using factorial experiment design as completely randomized with three replications. Treatments included : four levels of 0 or control, 50, and 100, 200 ton ha-1 sludge and one level of chemical fertilizer (F consisting of 250 kg ha-1 diammonium phosphate and 250 kg ha-1 urea, and soil including soils of Langroud, Lahijan, Rasht, and Isfahan. As a major vegetable , crop spinach (Spinacea oleracea was grown in the treated soils. Soils samples were analyzed for their chemical properties after crop narvesting. Application of sewage sludge significantly increased plant available k, P, total N, organic matter, electrical conductivity and cation exchange in the soils. Soils pH significantly decreased as a result sewage sludge application. The effect of sewage sludge on plant yield was significant. Overall, the results indicated that sewage sludge is potentially a valuable fertilizer. However, the sludge effect on soil EC and heavy metals should be taken into consideration before its widespread use on cropland.

  9. Maize dry matter production and macronutrient extraction model as a new approach for fertilizer rate estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARLA V. MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution. A uniform maize crop was grown to observe dry matter accumulation and nutrient content in the plant. The dry matter accumulation followed a sigmoidal model and the macronutrient content a power model. The maximum nutrient absorption occurred at the R4 growth stage, for which the sap concentration was successfully calculated. It is hoped that this new approach of evaluating nutrient sap concentration will help to develop more rational ways to estimate crop fertilizer needs. This new approach has great potential for on-the-go crop sensor-based nutrient application methods and its sensitivity to soil tillage and management systems need to be examined in following studies. If mathematical model reflects management impact adequately, resources for experiments can be saved.

  10. Association between sleep duration and obesity is modified by dietary macronutrients intake in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2016-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been reported to be inversely associated with risk of obesity. The effects of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and the interaction of sleep duration and dietary macronutrients consumption on risk of obesity were analysed in 14,111 subjects aged 20-79 from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sleep restriction to less than 7h per day resulted in higher body mass index, plasma triglyceride level, and obesity prevalence for women, but not for men. Protein intake was significantly lower in subjects with lower sleep duration for both men and women. The subjects with short sleep duration were significantly higher fat consumption for men, whereas carbohydrate consumption for women. Among subjects whose carbohydrate consumption was above the median, subjects with sleep duration of less than 7h per day increased their odds of being obese (OR=1.255, 95% CI: 1.073-1.476, Pmacronutrients consumption in women subjects. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships Among Microbial Communities, Maternal Cells, Oligosaccharides, and Macronutrients in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet E; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Yahvah, Katherine M; Bode, Lars; McGuire, Mark A; McGuire, Michelle K

    2017-08-01

    Human milk provides all essential nutrients necessary for early life and is rich in nonnutrients, maternally derived (host) cells, and bacteria, but almost nothing is known about the interplay among these components. Research aim: The primary objective of this research was to characterize relationships among macronutrients, maternal cells, and bacteria in milk. Milk samples were collected from 16 women and analyzed for protein, lipid, fatty acid, lactose, and human milk oligosaccharide concentrations. Concentrations of maternal cells were determined using microscopy, and somatic cell counts were enumerated. Microbial ecologies were characterized using culture-independent methods. Absolute and relative concentrations of maternal cells were mostly consistent within each woman as were relative abundances of bacterial genera, and there were many apparent relationships between these factors. For instance, relative abundance of Serratia was negatively associated with somatic cell counts ( r = -.47, p < .0001) and neutrophil concentration ( r = -.38, p < .0006). Concentrations of several oligosaccharides were correlated with maternally derived cell types as well as somatic cell counts; for example, lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-neotetraose were inversely correlated with somatic cell counts ( r = -.64, p = .0082; r = -.52, p = .0387, respectively), and relative abundance of Staphylococcus was positively associated with total oligosaccharide concentration ( r = .69, p = .0034). Complex relationships between milk nutrients and bacterial community profile, maternal cells, and milk oligosaccharides were also apparent. These data support the possibility that profiles of maternally derived cells, nutrient concentrations, and the microbiome of human milk might be interrelated.

  12. Co-occurring Synechococcus ecotypes occupy four major oceanic regimes defined by temperature, macronutrients and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohm, Jill A; Ahlgren, Nathan A; Thomson, Zachary J; Williams, Cheryl; Moffett, James W; Saito, Mak A; Webb, Eric A; Rocap, Gabrielle

    2016-02-01

    Marine picocyanobacteria, comprised of the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, are the most abundant and widespread primary producers in the ocean. More than 20 genetically distinct clades of marine Synechococcus have been identified, but their physiology and biogeography are not as thoroughly characterized as those of Prochlorococcus. Using clade-specific qPCR primers, we measured the abundance of 10 Synechococcus clades at 92 locations in surface waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. We found that Synechococcus partition the ocean into four distinct regimes distinguished by temperature, macronutrients and iron availability. Clades I and IV were prevalent in colder, mesotrophic waters; clades II, III and X dominated in the warm, oligotrophic open ocean; clades CRD1 and CRD2 were restricted to sites with low iron availability; and clades XV and XVI were only found in transitional waters at the edges of the other biomes. Overall, clade II was the most ubiquitous clade investigated and was the dominant clade in the largest biome, the oligotrophic open ocean. Co-occurring clades that occupy the same regime belong to distinct evolutionary lineages within Synechococcus, indicating that multiple ecotypes have evolved independently to occupy similar niches and represent examples of parallel evolution. We speculate that parallel evolution of ecotypes may be a common feature of diverse marine microbial communities that contributes to functional redundancy and the potential for resiliency.

  13. Light limitation of phytoplankton biomass and macronutrient utilization in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, B.G.; Brody, E.A.; Holm-Hansen, O.; McClain, C.; Bishop, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is unique in that it has continually high concentrations of major plant nutrients but low phytoplankton biomass. This enigmatic phenomenon is the focus of significant speculation that trace nutrients, including Fe, may limit phytoplankton crop size. Global climatologies indicate that the ACC is a region with low surface temperatures, weak density stratification, little summertime surface solar irradiance, and strong wind stress. These physical phenomena act to limit growth rates of the phytoplankton community. Using a photo-physiological description of phytoplankton growth in a simple one-dimensional ecosystem model forced by observations or climatologies of mixing depth and surface irradiance, the authors make an evaluation of the potential for massive, nutrient-exhausting, phytoplankton blooms forming in the ACC. The ACC has persistent mixed layers in excess of 50 m. Literature values and model optimization indicate that the minimal aggregate specific loss rate and typical physical conditions of stratification and surface irradiance, the model predicts that phytoplankton in the ACC would not utilize >10% of the available macronutrients. Without a mechanism for increasing the strength of stratification, the authors predict that massive Fe additions to the Southern Ocean would fail to significantly mitigate the atmospheric CO 2 derived from fossil fuel

  14. In Situ Detection of Macronutrients and Chloride in Seawater by Submersible Electrochemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartero, Maria; Crespo, Gaston; Cherubini, Thomas; Pankratova, Nadezda; Confalonieri, Fabio; Massa, Francesco; Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou; Abdou, Melina; Schäfer, Jörg; Bakker, Eric

    2018-04-03

    A new submersible probe for the in situ detection of nitrate, nitrite, and chloride in seawater is presented. Inline coupling of a desalination unit, an acidification unit, and a sensing flow cell containing all-solid-state membrane electrodes allows for the potentiometric detection of nitrate and nitrite after removal of the key interfering ions in seawater, chloride and hydroxide. Thus, the electrodes exhibited attractive analytical performances for the potentiometric detection of nitrate and nitrite in desalinated and acidified seawater: fast response time ( t 95 macronutrient levels with salinity cycles, which is of special interest in recessed coastal water bodies. The system is capable of autonomous operation during deployment, with routines for repetitive measurements (every 2 h), data storage and management, and computer visualization of the data in real time. In situ temporal profiles observed in the Arcachon Bay (France) showed valuable environmental information concerning tide-dependent cycles of nitrate and chloride levels in the lagoon, which are here observed for the first time using direct in situ measurements. The submersible probe based on membrane electrodes presented herein may facilitate the study of biogeochemical processes occurring in marine ecosystems by the direct monitoring of nitrate and nitrite levels, which are key chemical targets in coastal waters.

  15. Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat--from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy--from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p = 0.02) and in Yakutsk (p = 0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.

  16. Associations between Maternal Body Composition and Appetite Hormones and Macronutrients in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugananthan, Sambavi; Gridneva, Zoya; Lai, Ching T; Hepworth, Anna R; Mark, Peter J; Kakulas, Foteini; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-03-09

    Human milk (HM) appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM) in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women ( n = 59) provided milk samples ( n = 283) at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, total protein and lactose were measured. Maternal %FM was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Higher maternal %FM was associated with higher leptin concentrations in both whole (0.006 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.008) and skim HM (0.005 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.007), and protein (0.16 ± 0.07 g/L, p = 0.028) concentrations. Adiponectin and lactose concentrations were not associated with %FM (0.01 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.81; 0.08 ± 0.11 g/L, p = 0.48, respectively). Whole milk concentrations of adiponectin and leptin did not differ significantly over the first year of lactation. These findings suggest that the level of maternal adiposity during lactation may influence the early appetite programming of breastfed infants by modulating concentrations of HM components.

  17. Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, J.; Abid, H.; Hussain, A.

    2010-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

  18. [Survey and analysis of the intakes of energy and macronutrients in rural boarding school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Jin; Sun, Jing; Wang, Chen; Li, Ying; Wei, Yanli; Huo, Junsheng; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-05-01

    To preliminarily survey the intakes of energy and macronutrients in rural boarding school students and analyse the affect factors of discrepancies between different sex and age groups. A total of 1834 rural boarding junior high school first grade students were selected from 16 provinces, and stratified cluster sampling method was used. The method of weight recording and three days dietary recall were used to investigate the diet of boarding school students. The ratios which reached the EER of energy intakes in boy and girl groups were 37.0% and 46.7% (P 0.05) respectively, and the proportion of the intakes level of EAR among the age groups of 11y ~ and 14y ~ for both boys and girls were 124.8%, 107.3% (P > 0.05) and 134.8%, 112.1% (P 0.05) respectively, and among the age groups of 11y ~ and 14y ~ for both boys and girls were 21.8% and 30.5% (P 0.05) respectively. Double burden of nutrient might exist in the rural boarding schools. The status of nutrition could be improved evidently, by fulfilling the relative national policies, promoting the balance of the nutrition supplying in schools, and enriching the boarding students' knowledge of nutrition.

  19. Macronutrient and carbon supply, uptake and cycling across the Antarctic Peninsula shelf during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Sian F; Jones, Elizabeth M; Venables, Hugh J; Meredith, Michael P; Firing, Yvonne L; Dittrich, Ribanna; Heiser, Sabrina; Stefels, Jacqueline; Dougans, Julie

    2018-06-28

    The West Antarctic Peninsula shelf is a region of high seasonal primary production which supports a large and productive food web, where macronutrients and inorganic carbon are sourced primarily from intrusions of warm saline Circumpolar Deep Water. We examined the cross-shelf modification of this water mass during mid-summer 2015 to understand the supply of nutrients and carbon to the productive surface ocean, and their subsequent uptake and cycling. We show that nitrate, phosphate, silicic acid and inorganic carbon are progressively enriched in subsurface waters across the shelf, contrary to cross-shelf reductions in heat, salinity and density. We use nutrient stoichiometric and isotopic approaches to invoke remineralization of organic matter, including nitrification below the euphotic surface layer, and dissolution of biogenic silica in deeper waters and potentially shelf sediment porewaters, as the primary drivers of cross-shelf enrichments. Regenerated nitrate and phosphate account for a significant proportion of the total pools of these nutrients in the upper ocean, with implications for the seasonal carbon sink. Understanding nutrient and carbon dynamics in this region now will inform predictions of future biogeochemical changes in the context of substantial variability and ongoing changes in the physical environment.This article is part of the theme issue 'The marine system of the West Antarctic Peninsula: status and strategy for progress in a region of rapid change'. © 2018 The Authors.

  20. Interdisciplinary Discrepancies Between Parenteral Nutrition Macronutrient Prescribing and Recommendations: Is Body Mass Index a Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Katie L; Kandiah, Jay; Walroth, Todd A

    2017-07-01

    Formal nutrition training in medical schools and residencies is lacking and needed. Registered dietitians (RDs) are formally trained in nutrition support and considered experts in the nutrition field. Our purpose was to examine prescribing and recommending discrepancies of parenteral nutrition macronutrients between medical residents (MRs) and RDs and compare results with the ASPEN clinical care guidelines. We also looked at discrepancies among obese patients, due to their increased risk of mortality. The primary end point of this retrospective review was discrepancies in nonprotein calories (NPCs) and grams of protein (PRO) between MRs and RDs. The secondary end point was discrepancies in NPCs and PRO between MRs and RDs among patients stratified by body mass index category. MRs prescribed 300 NPCs more versus RDs ( P < .001). When compared with RDs, MRs prescribed fewer NPCs for underweight patients and more for obese patients ( P < .001). The same analysis found that the PRO discrepancies significantly varied by body mass index classification as well ( P = .022). When these results were compared with the ASPEN clinical care guidelines, RDs adhered closer to the guidelines than did MRs in terms of permissive underfeeding of obese patients. It is widely accepted that MRs are in need of increased formal training, and the results of our study confirm this need and suggest a short-term solution of increasing order-writing privileges for the RD. RDs with this privilege may adhere more closely to clinical care guidelines and therefore increase patient safety.

  1. Associations between Maternal Body Composition and Appetite Hormones and Macronutrients in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambavi Kugananthan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women (n = 59 provided milk samples (n = 283 at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, total protein and lactose were measured. Maternal %FM was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Higher maternal %FM was associated with higher leptin concentrations in both whole (0.006 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.008 and skim HM (0.005 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.007, and protein (0.16 ± 0.07 g/L, p = 0.028 concentrations. Adiponectin and lactose concentrations were not associated with %FM (0.01 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.81; 0.08 ± 0.11 g/L, p = 0.48, respectively. Whole milk concentrations of adiponectin and leptin did not differ significantly over the first year of lactation. These findings suggest that the level of maternal adiposity during lactation may influence the early appetite programming of breastfed infants by modulating concentrations of HM components.

  2. Ad gist : Ad communication in a single eye fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.; Wedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Most ads in practice receive no more than a single eye fixation. This study investigates the limits of what ads can communicate under such adverse exposure conditions. We find that consumers already know at maximum levels of accuracy and with high degree of certainty whether something is an ad or is

  3. Added masses of ship structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  4. AdS5 black holes with fermionic hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrington, Benjamin A.; Liu, James T.; Sabra, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of new Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) objects in AdS 5 has led to a deeper understanding of AdS/CFT. To help complete this picture, and to fully explore the consequences of the supersymmetry algebra, it is also important to obtain new solutions with bulk fermions turned on. In this paper we construct superpartners of the 1/2 BPS black hole in AdS 5 using a natural set of fermion zero modes. We demonstrate that these superpartners, carrying fermionic hair, have conserved charges differing from the original bosonic counterpart. To do so, we find the R-charge and dipole moment of the new system, as well as the mass and angular momentum, defined through the boundary stress tensor. The complete set of superpartners fits nicely into a chiral representation of AdS 5 supersymmetry, and the spinning solutions have the expected gyromagnetic ratio, g=1

  5. AdS Black Hole with Phantom Scalar Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an AdS black hole solution with Ricci flat horizon in Einstein-phantom scalar theory. The phantom scalar fields just depend on the transverse coordinates x and y, which are parameterized by the parameter α. We study the thermodynamics of the AdS phantom black hole. Although its horizon is a Ricci flat Euclidean space, we find that the thermodynamical properties of the black hole solution are qualitatively the same as those of AdS Schwarzschild black hole. Namely, there exists a minimal temperature and the large black hole is thermodynamically stable, while the smaller one is unstable, so there is a so-called Hawking-Page phase transition between the large black hole and the thermal gas solution in the AdS space-time in Poincare coordinates. We also calculate the entanglement entropy for a strip geometry dual to the AdS phantom black holes and find that the behavior of the entanglement entropy is qualitatively the same as that of the black hole thermodynamical entropy.

  6. Universal regularization prescription for Lovelock AdS gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofinas, Georgios; Olea, Rodrigo

    2007-01-01

    A definite form for the boundary term that produces the finiteness of both the conserved quantities and Euclidean action for any Lovelock gravity with AdS asymptotics is presented. This prescription merely tells even from odd bulk dimensions, regardless the particular theory considered, what is valid even for Einstein-Hilbert and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity. The boundary term is a given polynomial of the boundary extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures (also referred to as Kounterterms series). Only the coupling constant of the boundary term changes accordingly, such that it always preserves a well-posed variational principle for boundary conditions suitable for asymptotically AdS spaces. The background-independent conserved charges associated to asymptotic symmetries are found. In odd bulk dimensions, this regularization produces a generalized formula for the vacuum energy in Lovelock AdS gravity. The standard entropy for asymptotically AdS black holes is recovered directly from the regularization of the Euclidean action, and not only from the first law of thermodynamics associated to the conserved quantities

  7. Macronutrient uptake, accumulation and export by the irrigated 'vitória' pineapple plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional state of the pineapple plant has a large effect on plant growth, on fruit production, and fruit quality. The aim of this study was to assess the uptake, accumulation, and export of nutrients by the irrigated 'Vitória' pineapple plant during and at the end of its development. A randomized block statistical design with four replications was used. The treatments were defined by different times of plant collection: at 270, 330, 390, 450, 510, 570, 690, 750, and 810 days after planting (DAP. The collected plants were separated into the following components: leaves, stem, roots, fruit, and slips for determination of fresh and dry matter weight at 65 ºC. After drying, the plant components were ground for characterization of the composition and content of nutrients taken up and exported by the pineapple plant. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and non-linear regression models were fitted for the significant differences identified by the F test (p N > S > Ca > Mg > P, which corresponded to 898, 452, 134, 129, 126, and 107 kg ha-1, respectively, of total accumulation. The export of macronutrients by the pineapple fruit was in the following decreasing order: K > N > S > Ca > P > Mg, which was equivalent to 18, 17, 11, 8, 8, and 5 %, respectively, of the total accumulated by the pineapple. The 'Vitória' pineapple plant exported 78 kg ha-1 of N, 8 kg ha-1 of P, 164 kg ha-1 of K, 14 kg ha-1 of S, 10 kg ha-1 of Ca, and 6 kg ha-1 of Mg by the fruit. The nutrient content exported by the fruits represent important components of nutrient extraction from the soil, which need to be restored, while the nutrients contained in the leaves, stems and roots can be incorporated in the soil within a program of recycling of crop residues.

  8. The influence of recipe modification and nutritional information on restaurant food acceptance and macronutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenitsky, K; Aaron, J; Catt, S; Mela, D

    2000-06-01

    To examine the influences of nutritional information and consumer characteristics on meal quality expectations, food selection and subsequent macronutrient intakes of consumers offered a reduced-fat option in a restaurant. A target, full-fat (FF) main restaurant meal option was developed in a version substantially reduced in fat and energy (RF). Restaurant patrons were randomly placed into one of four treatment groups varying in provision of menu information about the target dish, and the actual version of that dish served (if ordered). A full-fat blind (FFB) control group was given no nutritional information in the menu and was served the FF version. The other three groups were all served the modified RF version: (i) reduced-fat blind (RFB), who were given no nutritional information; (ii) reduced-fat informed (RFI), who were given nutritional information; and (iii) reduced-fat informed with details (RFID), who were given the same nutritional information plus recipe modification details. Subjects rated their expected and actual liking, the pleasantness of taste, texture and appearance of the dish, how well the dish matched their expectations, and the likelihood of purchase again. Additional measures included the other dish selections, sociodemographic and attitudinal information. A silver service (training) restaurant. Members of the public (n = 279) consuming meals in the restaurant. The presence of nutritional information on the menu did not significantly increase subsequent intakes of energy and fat from the rest of the meal, and did not significantly influence sensory expectations or post-meal acceptance measures (which also did not differ between the FF and RF versions). Consumer characteristics relating to fat reduction attitudes and behaviours were significantly related to the selection of different dishes. Provision of RF alternatives in a restaurant can have significant positive dietary benefits. Menu nutritional information did not affect measures of meal

  9. Preterm human milk macronutrient concentration is independent of gestational age at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Jan; Burianova, Iva; Vitkova, Veronika; Ticha, Eva; Navratilova, Martina; Cermakova, Eva

    2018-01-20

    To evaluate the amount of macronutrients in aggregate of human milk samples after preterm delivery during the first 2 months of lactation. Analysis of the donated single milk samples, gained by complete emptying of the whole breast at the same daytime between 24+0 and 35+6 gestational age (GA), was designed as prospective observational cohort trial. Two milk samples were analysed every postnatal week up to the discharge from the hospital, week 9 or loss of lactation. 24-Hour milk collection was not done. Analysis was performed using the MIRIS Human Milk Analyser (MIRIS AB, Uppsala, Sweden). A set of 1917 human milk samples donated by 225 mothers after preterm labour was analysed. Group A (24-30 GA) contains 969 milk samples; group B (31-35 GA) contains 948 milk samples. No difference in milk composition between the groups was identified. Median of true protein content decreased from 1.6 g/dL in group A and 1.5 g/dL in group B in the first week of life, to 1.1 g/dL in both groups at the end of week 3, and then remained stable up to week 9. Content of carbohydrates and fat was stable during the whole observation, with interindividual differences. Human milk does not differ as a function of degree of prematurity. Protein content of preterm human milk is low and decreases during the first 3 weeks of lactation. Recommended daily protein intake cannot be achieved with routine fortification in majority of milk samples. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Influence of Light, Temperature, and Macronutrients on Growth and Scopolamine Biosynthesis in Duboisia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sophie Friederike; Rothauer, Andreas; Hagels, Hansjörg; Kayser, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Scopolamine is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a precursor in the organic synthesis of different classes of important active substances and is extracted in large scale from field grown Duboisia plants. Previous research revealed that plant growth as well as production of scopolamine and its derivatives varies strongly depending on abiotic factors. However, only a small amount of systematic research has been done on the influence of environmental conditions on scopolamine and biomass production, so far. In order to extend knowledge in this field, plants of three different genotypes (wild type Duboisia myoporoides and hybrids of D. myoporoides and Duboisia leichhardtii ) were grown in climate chambers under controlled conditions in order to systematically analyse the influence of temperature (20, 24, 28 °C), light (50-300 µmol/m 2  × s, 12, 18, 24 h per day) and macronutrients (nitrogen, calcium, potassium) on growth and scopolamine biosynthesis. The data indicate that light intensity and daily exposure to light have a major impact on scopolamine production and plant development, whereas temperature only shows a minor influence. Nitrogen (N) positively affects biomass production with increasing levels up to 4 mM, but is negatively correlated with scopolamine content. Calcium (Ca) shows a negative influence on scopolamine biosynthesis at increased levels above 1 mM as well. Potassium (K) neither affects biomass nor scopolamine production within the tested concentration range (0.05-4 mM). All in all, it can be concluded that light intensity and nitrogen supply are especially important regulating variables that can be applied in a targeted manner for influencing scopolamine and biomass production. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Effect of enzyme supplements on macronutrient digestibility by healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Cecilia; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Molina, Jenifer; Larsen, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Some enzyme supplement products claim benefits for healthy dogs to compensate for alleged suboptimal production of endogenous enzymes and the loss of enzymes in commercial pet foods secondary to processing. The objective of the current study was to determine macronutrient and energy digestibility by healthy adult dogs fed a commercial maintenance diet with or without supplementation with plant- and animal-origin enzyme products at the dosage recommended by their respective manufacturers. A group of fourteen healthy neutered adult Beagle dogs (average age 8 years) was divided into two equal groups and fed the basal diet alone and then with either the plant- or animal-origin enzyme supplement in three consecutive 10-d periods; the treatment groups received the opposite enzyme supplement in the third period. Digestibility in each period was performed by the total faecal collection method. Serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) was measured at the end of each trial. Data were analysed by repeated measures and the α level of significance was set at 0·05. There were no differences in energy and nutrient digestibility between enzyme treatments. When comparing basal with enzyme supplementation, fat digestibility was higher for the basal diet compared with the animal-origin enzyme treatment, which could be a period effect and was not biologically significant (94·7 v . 93·5 %). Serum TLI was not affected by supplementation with either enzyme product. Exogenous enzyme supplementation did not significantly increase digestibility of a typical commercial dry diet in healthy adult dogs and routine use of such products is not recommended.

  12. Relationship between Milk Microbiota, Bacterial Load, Macronutrients, and Human Cells during Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix-Amorós, Alba; Collado, Maria C; Mira, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for infants, providing essential nutrients and a broad range of bioactive compounds, as well as its own microbiota. However, the interaction among those components and the biological role of milk microorganisms is still uncovered. Thus, our aim was to identify the relationships between milk microbiota composition, bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific qPCR targeted to the single-copy gene fusA. Milk microbiome composition and diversity was estimated by 16S-pyrosequencing and the structure of these bacteria in the fluid was studied by flow cytometry, qPCR, and microscopy. Fat, protein, lactose, and dry extract of milk as well as the number of somatic cells were also analyzed. We observed that milk bacterial communities were generally complex, and showed individual-specific profiles. Milk microbiota was dominated by Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Acinetobacter. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in any of these samples from healthy mothers. There was high variability in composition and number of bacteria per milliliter among mothers and in some cases even within mothers at different time points. The median bacterial load was 10(6) bacterial cells/ml through time, higher than those numbers reported by 16S gene PCR and culture methods. Furthermore, milk bacteria were present in a free-living, "planktonic" state, but also in equal proportion associated to human immune cells. There was no correlation between bacterial load and the amount of immune cells in milk, strengthening the idea that milk bacteria are not sensed as an infection by the immune system.

  13. Vertical stratification of the nutritional value of fruit: macronutrients and condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Alain; Conklin-Brittain, Nancy L; Wrangham, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Competing successfully for the best feeding sites is an important behavioral strategy but little is known about how feeding sites vary nutritionally within a fruit tree. To answer this question we tested how the nutritional value of a fruit is influenced by its ripeness and its height within the tree crown. A complementary objective was to assess the nutritional value of the midripe fruit, a food item rarely mentioned in the literature despite being exploited on a daily basis by many frugivores. We measured how the dry weight of pulp, water content, and concentration of macronutrients and condensed tannins varied within the tree crowns of 15 fruit species. Collections occurred early in the fruiting cycle, so as to assess the amount of food in the tree before its exploitation by primates. We found that (1) the upper crown produced fruit densities 4.2 times higher, and a fruit crop 4.8 times larger, than the lower crown of the same tree; (2) considering only midripe and ripe stages, upper-crown fruits contained 28.6% more dry pulp, 21.1% more water, and 13.5% more sugars per dry matter than lower-crown fruits of the same tree; (3) midripe fruits contained 80% of the concentrations of sugars of ripe fruits, making them a sweeter food item than one would expect from the intermediate color of their epidermis; (4) cellulose, hemicellulose, proteins, and ash proportionally decreased in concentration while dry pulp and sugars increased during ripening; and (5) ripe fruits were usually rare in the tree (<0.5% of all fruit available) compared to midripe fruits (3-8%). Overall, upper-crown feeding sites produced a higher density and quality of food than lower-crown sites of the same tree. Our data therefore provide a clear nutritional explanation for why tree-feeding frugivores compete for the highest feeding sites. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. New Massive Gravity and AdS4 Counterterms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-01-01

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS 4 ). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS 4 Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS 3 gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory.

  15. Constrained supermanifolds for AdS M-theory backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fre, Pietro; Grassi, Pietro Antonio

    2008-01-01

    A long standing problem is the supergauge completion of AdS 4 x ({G/H}) 7 or AdS 5 x ({G/H}) 5 backgrounds which preserve less then maximal supersymmetry. In parallel with the supersolvable realization of the AdS 4 x S 7 background based on κ-symmetry, we develop a technique which amounts to solving the above-mentioned problem in a way useful for pure spinor quantization for supermembranes and superstrings. Instead of gauge fixing some of the superspace coordinates using κ-symmetry, we impose an additional constraint on them reproducing the simplifications of the supersolvable representations. The constraints are quadratic, homogeneous, Sp(4,R)-covariant, and consistent from the quantum point of view in the pure spinor approach. Here we provide the geometrical solution which, in a subsequent work, will be applied to the membrane and the superstring sigma models

  16. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jie [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-07-21

    Exact solutions to Einstein’s equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution’s appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  17. Holographic description of AdS2 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Alejandra; Larsen, Finn; Grumiller, Daniel; McNees, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We develop the holographic renormalization of AdS 2 gravity systematically. We find that a bulk Maxwell term necessitates a boundary mass term for the gauge field and verify that this unusual term is invariant under gauge transformations that preserve the boundary conditions. We determine the energy-momentum tensor and the central charge, recovering recent results by Hartman and Strominger. We show that our expressions are consistent with dimensional reduction of the AdS 3 energy-momentum tensor and the Brown-Henneaux central charge. As an application of our results we interpret the entropy of AdS 2 black holes as the ground state entropy of a dual CFT.

  18. Central charge for AdS2 quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, Thomas; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional Maxwell-dilaton quantum gravity on AdS 2 with radius l and a constant electric field E is studied. In conformal gauge, this is equivalent to a CFT on a strip. In order to maintain consistent boundary conditions, the usual conformal diffeomorphisms must be accompanied by a certain U(1) gauge transformation. The resulting conformal transformations are generated by a twisted stress tensor, which has a central charge c = 3kE 2 l 4 /4 where k is the level of the U(1) current. This is an AdS 2 analog of the Brown-Henneaux formula c = 3l/2G for the central charge of quantum gravity on AdS 3 .

  19. New supersymmetric AdS4 type II vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsimpis, D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the supersymmetric AdS 4 x w M 6 backgrounds of type IIA/IIB supergravity constructed in[1]. In type IIA the supersymmetry is N=2, and the six-dimensional internal space is locally an S 2 bundle over a four-dimensional Kaehler-Einstein base; in IIB the internal space is the direct product of a circle and a five-dimensional squashed Sasaki-Einstein manifold. These backgrounds do not contain any sources, all fluxes (including the Romans mass in IIA) are generally non-zero, and the dilaton and warp factor are non-constant. The IIA solutions include the massive deformations of the IIA reduction of the eleven-dimensional AdS 4 x Y p,q solutions, and had been predicted to exist on the basis of the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Instantons from geodesics in AdS moduli spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Daniele; Trigiante, Mario; Van Riet, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    We investigate supergravity instantons in Euclidean AdS5 × S5/ℤk. These solutions are expected to be dual to instantons of N = 2 quiver gauge theories. On the supergravity side the (extremal) instanton solutions are neatly described by the (lightlike) geodesics on the AdS moduli space for which we find the explicit expression and compute the on-shell actions in terms of the quantised charges. The lightlike geodesics fall into two categories depending on the degree of nilpotency of the Noether charge matrix carried by the geodesic: for degree 2 the instantons preserve 8 supercharges and for degree 3 they are non-SUSY. We expect that these findings should apply to more general situations in the sense that there is a map between geodesics on moduli-spaces of Euclidean AdS vacua and instantons with holographic counterparts.

  1. Loops in AdS from conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Ofer; Alday, Luis F.; Bissi, Agnese; Perlmutter, Eric

    2017-07-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new use for conformal field theory (CFT) crossing equations in the context of AdS/CFT: the computation of loop amplitudes in AdS, dual to non-planar correlators in holographic CFTs. Loops in AdS are largely unexplored, mostly due to technical difficulties in direct calculations. We revisit this problem, and the dual 1 /N expansion of CFTs, in two independent ways. The first is to show how to explicitly solve the crossing equations to the first subleading order in 1 /N 2, given a leading order solution. This is done as a systematic expansion in inverse powers of the spin, to all orders. These expansions can be resummed, leading to the CFT data for finite values of the spin. Our second approach involves Mellin space. We show how the polar part of the four-point, loop-level Mellin amplitudes can be fully reconstructed from the leading-order data. The anomalous dimensions computed with both methods agree. In the case of ϕ 4 theory in AdS, our crossing solution reproduces a previous computation of the one-loop bubble diagram. We can go further, deriving the four-point scalar triangle diagram in AdS, which had never been computed. In the process, we show how to analytically derive anomalous dimensions from Mellin amplitudes with an infinite series of poles, and discuss applications to more complicated cases such as the N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  2. Phases of global AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala

    2016-01-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime (AdS_4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  3. Minimal surfaces in AdS space and integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrington, Benjamin A.; Gao, Peng

    2010-04-01

    We consider the Pohlmeyer reduction for spacelike minimal area worldsheets in AdS5. The Lax pair for the reduced theory is found, and written entirely in terms of the A3 = D3 root system, generalizing the B2 affine Toda system which appears for the AdS4 string. For the B2 affine Toda system, we show that the area of the worlsheet is obtainable from the moduli space Kähler potential of a related Hitchin system. We also explore the Saveliev-Leznov construction for solutions of the B2 affine Toda system, and recover the rotationally symmetric solution associated to Painleve transcendent.

  4. AdS5 magnetized solutions in minimal gauged supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Blázquez-Salcedo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We construct a generalization of the AdS charged rotating black holes with two equal magnitude angular momenta in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. In addition to the mass, electric charge and angular momentum, the new solutions possess an extra-parameter associated with a non-zero magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity. In contrast with the known cases, these new black holes possess a non-trivial zero-horizon size limit which describes a one parameter family of spinning charged solitons. All configurations reported in this work approach asymptotically an AdS5 spacetime in global coordinates and are free of pathologies.

  5. Twistor description of spinning particles in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitakis, Alex S.; Barns-Graham, Alec E.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2018-01-01

    The two-twistor formulation of particle mechanics in D-dimensional anti-de Sitter space for D = 4 , 5 , 7, which linearises invariance under the AdS isometry group Sp(4; K ) for K=R,C,H, is generalized to the massless N -extended "spinning particle". The twistor variables are gauge invariant with respect to the initial N local worldline supersymmetries; this simplifies aspects of the quantum theory such as implications of global gauge anomalies. We also give details of the two-supertwistor form of the superparticle, in particular the massive superparticle on AdS5.

  6. Holography in Lovelock Chern-Simons AdS gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Branislav; Miskovic, Olivera; Simić, Dejan

    2017-08-01

    We analyze holographic field theory dual to Lovelock Chern-Simons anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity in higher dimensions using first order formalism. We first find asymptotic symmetries in the AdS sector showing that they consist of local translations, local Lorentz rotations, dilatations and non-Abelian gauge transformations. Then, we compute 1-point functions of energy-momentum and spin currents in a dual conformal field theory and write Ward identities. We find that the holographic theory possesses Weyl anomaly and also breaks non-Abelian gauge symmetry at the quantum level.

  7. The forecaster's added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  8. Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metsaev, R.R. [Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS field evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of short mixed-symmetry conformal field. We speculate on string theory interpretation of a model which involves short low-spin conformal fields and long higher-spin conformal fields.

  9. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  10. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  11. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Lamp

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS and one pair-fed (PF at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1, cows were challenged for 6 days (P2 by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI = 76 or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  12. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  13. Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Fogelholm

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This systematic literature review examined the role of dietary macronutrient composition, food consumption and dietary patterns in predicting weight or waist circumference (WC change, with and without prior weight reduction. The literature search covered year 2000 and onwards. Prospective cohort studies, case–control studies and interventions were included. The studies had adult (18–70 y, mostly Caucasian participants. Out of a total of 1,517 abstracts, 119 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After a careful scrutiny, 50 papers were quality graded as A (highest, B or C. Forty-three papers with grading A or B were included in evidence grading, which was done separately for all exposure-outcome combinations. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or no conclusion. We found probable evidence for high intake of dietary fibre and nuts predicting less weight gain, and for high intake of meat in predicting more weight gain. Suggestive evidence was found for a protective role against increasing weight from whole grains, cereal fibre, high-fat dairy products and high scores in an index describing a prudent dietary pattern. Likewise, there was suggestive evidence for both fibre and fruit intake in protection against larger increases in WC. Also suggestive evidence was found for high intake of refined grains, and sweets and desserts in predicting more weight gain, and for refined (white bread and high energy density in predicting larger increases in WC. The results suggested that the proportion of macronutrients in the diet was not important in predicting changes in weight or WC. In contrast, plenty of fibre-rich foods and dairy products, and less refined grains, meat and sugar-rich foods and drinks were associated with less weight gain in prospective cohort studies. The results on the role of dietary macronutrient composition in prevention of weight regain (after prior weight loss were inconclusive.

  14. Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, Mikael; Anderssen, Sigmund; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana

    2012-01-01

    This systematic literature review examined the role of dietary macronutrient composition, food consumption and dietary patterns in predicting weight or waist circumference (WC) change, with and without prior weight reduction. The literature search covered year 2000 and onwards. Prospective cohort studies, case–control studies and interventions were included. The studies had adult (18–70 y), mostly Caucasian participants. Out of a total of 1,517 abstracts, 119 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After a careful scrutiny, 50 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B or C. Forty-three papers with grading A or B were included in evidence grading, which was done separately for all exposure-outcome combinations. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or no conclusion. We found probable evidence for high intake of dietary fibre and nuts predicting less weight gain, and for high intake of meat in predicting more weight gain. Suggestive evidence was found for a protective role against increasing weight from whole grains, cereal fibre, high-fat dairy products and high scores in an index describing a prudent dietary pattern. Likewise, there was suggestive evidence for both fibre and fruit intake in protection against larger increases in WC. Also suggestive evidence was found for high intake of refined grains, and sweets and desserts in predicting more weight gain, and for refined (white) bread and high energy density in predicting larger increases in WC. The results suggested that the proportion of macronutrients in the diet was not important in predicting changes in weight or WC. In contrast, plenty of fibre-rich foods and dairy products, and less refined grains, meat and sugar-rich foods and drinks were associated with less weight gain in prospective cohort studies. The results on the role of dietary macronutrient composition in prevention of weight regain (after prior weight loss) were inconclusive. PMID:22893781

  15. Association of maternal breast milk and serum levels of macronutrients, hormones, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Vahid, Farhad; Safarian, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast-milk levels of macronutrients, hormones, growth factors, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight. Eighty mother-infant pairs comprised 40 with overweight or obese infant and 40 with normal-weight infant were enrolled in this study. The level of ghrelin, Leptin, adiponectin, EGF, and IGF1 in plasma and breast milk were assessed. Daily breast milk intake and macronutrient concentration along with anthropometric indices of mother-infant pairs were also assessed. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of serum hormones between two groups (p > 0.05). However, hormones levels in maternal serum were higher than those in breast milk. A significant positive correlation was found between serum EGF and ghrelin (r = 0.57, p = 0 macronutrient content was not comparable between two groups. However, the average daily breast milk consumption in obese infants was higher than normals (p = 0.001). Milk EGF and leptin were related to a decrease of 59% and 46% the odds of obese infant development, respectively. There was a significant association of milk EGF and ghrelin with birth weight (B = -0.19, p = 0.04 and B = -0.2, p = 0.04, respectively), and also serum leptin with infant's body weight at the 6th month. Our findings provide a positive association of maternal weight, daily breast milk intake, EGF, and ghrelin with infant's body weight.

  16. Effect of dietary macronutrients on postprandial incretin hormone release and satiety in obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikarek, Tomasz; Chudek, Jerzy; Owczarek, Aleksander; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2014-01-28

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary macronutrients on postprandial incretin responses and satiety and hunger sensation in obese and normal-weight women. A total of eleven obese and nine normal-weight women were recruited for the assessment of plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and insulin and the sensation of satiety and hunger using a visual analogue scale before and during a 6 h period after administration of three different macronutrient test meals. The AUCtotal GLP-1 and AUCtotal GIP values were decreased in obese women after the consumption of a fatty meal and all the test meals, respectively. However, the AUCtotal insulin value after a carbohydrate meal was greater in the obese group. The AUCtotal satiety value was decreased only after the intake of the protein meal in obese women when compared with normal-weight women. After the consumption of the fatty meal, a significant positive correlation between maximum satiety sensation and the AUCtotal GLP-1 value in the obese group and that between minimum hunger sensation and the AUCtotal GLP-1 value in the normal-weight group were observed. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that: (1) satiety sensation after consumption of carbohydrate and protein meals in the obese group is related to the postprandial insulin response, while after consumption of a fatty meal, it is related to the postprandial GLP-1 release; (2) the postprandial GIP response does not influence the sensation of satiety and hunger; (3) the reduced GLP-1 release after the intake of a fatty meal in obese individuals may explain impaired satiety sensation; (4) the impaired postprandial GIP response is not related to the consumption of macronutrients and may be the early indicator of incretin axis dysfunction in obese women.

  17. Specific Macronutrients Exert Unique Influences on the Adipose-Liver Axis to Promote Hepatic Steatosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwaerts, Caroline C; Amin, Amin M; Siao, Kevin; Her, Chris; Fitch, Mark; Beysen, Carine; Turner, Scott M; Goodsell, Amanda; Baron, Jody L; Grenert, James P; Cho, Soo-Jin; Maher, Jacquelyn J

    2017-09-01

    The factors that distinguish metabolically healthy obesity from metabolically unhealthy obesity are not well understood. Diet has been implicated as a determinant of the unhealthy obesity phenotype, but which aspects of the diet induce dysmetabolism are unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate whether specific macronutrients or macronutrient combinations provoke dysmetabolism in the context of isocaloric, high-energy diets. Mice were fed 4 high-energy diets identical in calorie and nutrient content but different in nutrient composition for 3 weeks to 6 months. The test diets contained 42% carbohydrate (sucrose or starch) and 42% fat (oleate or palmitate). Weight and glucose tolerance were monitored; blood and tissues were collected for histology, gene expression, and immunophenotyping. Mice gained weight on all 4 test diets but differed significantly in other metabolic outcomes. Animals fed the starch-oleate diet developed more severe hepatic steatosis than those on other formulas. Stable isotope incorporation showed that the excess hepatic steatosis in starch-oleate-fed mice derived from exaggerated adipose tissue lipolysis. In these mice, adipose tissue lipolysis coincided with adipocyte necrosis and inflammation. Notably, the liver and adipose tissue abnormalities provoked by starch-oleate feeding were reproduced when mice were fed a mixed-nutrient Western diet with 42% carbohydrate and 42% fat. The macronutrient composition of the diet exerts a significant influence on metabolic outcome, independent of calories and nutrient proportions. Starch-oleate appears to cause hepatic steatosis by inducing progressive adipose tissue injury. Starch-oleate phenocopies the effect of a Western diet; consequently, it may provide clues to the mechanism whereby specific nutrients cause metabolically unhealthy obesity.

  18. Two new meal- and web-based interactive food frequency questionnaires: validation of energy and macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sara E; Möller, Elisabeth; Bonn, Stephanie E; Ploner, Alexander; Wright, Antony; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Olle; Lissner, Lauren; Bälter, Katarina

    2013-06-05

    Meal-Q and its shorter version, MiniMeal-Q, are 2 new Web-based food frequency questionnaires. Their meal-based and interactive format was designed to promote ease of use and to minimize answering time, desirable improvements in large epidemiological studies. We evaluated the validity of energy and macronutrient intake assessed with Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q as well as the reproducibility of Meal-Q. Healthy volunteers aged 20-63 years recruited from Stockholm County filled out the 174-item Meal-Q. The questionnaire was compared to 7-day weighed food records (WFR; n=163), for energy and macronutrient intake, and to doubly labeled water (DLW; n=39), for total energy expenditure. In addition, the 126-item MiniMeal-Q was evaluated in a simulated validation using truncated Meal-Q data. We also assessed the answering time and ease of use of both questionnaires. Bland-Altman plots showed a varying bias within the intake range for all validity comparisons. Cross-classification of quartiles placed 70%-86% in the same/adjacent quartile with WFR and 77% with DLW. Deattenuated and energy-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients with the WFR ranged from r=0.33-0.74 for macronutrients and was r=0.18 for energy. Correlations with DLW were r=0.42 for Meal-Q and r=0.38 for MiniMeal-Q. Intraclass correlations for Meal-Q ranged from r=0.57-0.90. Median answering time was 17 minutes for Meal-Q and 7 minutes for MiniMeal-Q, and participants rated both questionnaires as easy to use. Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q are easy to use and have short answering times. The ranking agreement is good for most of the nutrients for both questionnaires and Meal-Q shows fair reproducibility.

  19. Two New Meal- and Web-Based Interactive Food Frequency Questionnaires : Validation of Energy and Macronutrient Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Sara; Möller, Elisabeth; Bonn, Stephanie; Ploner, Alexander; Wright, Antony; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Olle; Lissner, Lauren; Bälter, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Meal-Q and its shorter version, MiniMeal-Q, are 2 new Web-based food frequency questionnaires. Their meal-based and interactive format was designed to promote ease of use and to minimize answering time, desirable improvements in large epidemiological studies. Objective: We evaluated the validity of energy and macronutrient intake assessed with Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q as well as the reproducibility of Meal-Q. Methods: Healthy volunteers aged 20-63 years recruited from Stockholm Count...

  20. AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandia, Osvaldo; Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina; Vallilo, Brenno Carlini

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS_5×S"5 around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background

  1. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    OpenAIRE

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  2. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  3. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itkin, Igor; Oz, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  4. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-02-28

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  5. Beef quality traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at the maintenance level or ad libitum with two concentrate levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted to evaluate some beef quality attributes of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers finished on feedlot. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on shear force, thawing losses, cooking (leak + evaporation losses, total losses and muscle fiber type, as well as carcass pH and temperature during 24 h of chilling were evaluated. There was a genetic group effect on shear force, where the beef from F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore animals had lower values than Nellore animals. Beef of the animals fed the diets with 1% and 2% of body weight on concentrated lost more liquid than the meat of the animals fed at maintenance during thawing and when considering total losses. During cooking there was a difference among the feeding regimes for drip losses which were greater on the animals fed the diet of 1% of body weight on concentrate, followed by the 2% diet and, finally, by the animals fed at maintenance. The muscle of the Nellore steers had larger proportion of intermediate fibers and lower proportion of oxidative fibers than the crossbred animals. The proportion of glycolytic fibers was not influenced by genetic group. The Nellore animals had larger proportion of fibers of fast contraction and smaller proportion of fibers of slow contraction when compared with the crossbred animals. Feeding regime did not influence the proportion of muscular fibers or shear force. Nellore cattle produce tougher beef than crossbred Simmental × Nellore or Angus × Nellore, although all of them have the potential to produce an acceptable beef when slaughtered at young age. Feed restriction up to 90 days is not enough to cause modification on muscle fiber frequencies, then not affecting beef quality.

  6. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate: a 6-month randomised study in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas M; Due, Anette

    2010-01-01

    Diet is important in the prevention of CVD, and it has been suggested that a diet high in MUFA is more cardioprotective than a low-fat diet. We hypothesised that the thrombotic risk profile is improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45 % of energy; >20 % of fat as MUFA) (MUFA diet; n 39), to a low-fat (LF; 20-30 % of energy) diet (n 43), or to a control diet (35 % of energy as fat; n 24...

  7. Confinement, glueballs and strings from deformed AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apreda, Riccardo; Crooks, David E.; Evans, Nick; Petrini, Michela

    2004-01-01

    We study aspects of confinement in two deformed versions of the AdS/CFT correspondence - the GPPZ dual of N = 1* Yang Mills, and the Yang Mills* N 0 dual. Both geometries describe discrete glueball spectra which we calculate numerically. The results agree at the 10% level with previous AdS/CFT computations in the Klebanov Strassler background and AdS Schwarzchild respectively. We also calculate the spectra of bound states of the massive fermions in these geometries and show that they are light, so not decoupled from the dynamics. We then study the behaviour of Wilson loops in the 10d lifts of these geometries. We find a transition from AdS-like strings in the UV to strings that interact with the unknown physics of the central singularity of the space in the IR. (author)

  8. Perceptual Characterization of the Macronutrient Picture System (MaPS for Food Image fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill L. King

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Food image fMRI paradigms are used widely for investigating the neural basis of ingestive behavior. However, these paradigms have not been validated in terms of ingestive behavior constructs, engagement of food-relevant neural systems, or test-retest reliability, making the generalizability of study findings unclear. Therefore, we validated the Macronutrient Picture System (MaPS (McClernon et al., 2013, which includes food images from the six categories represented in the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ (Geiselman et al., 1998. Twenty-five healthy young adults (n = 21 female, mean age = 20.6 ± 1.1 years, mean BMI = 22.1 ± 1.9 kg/m2 rated the MaPS images in terms of visual interest, appetitive quality, nutrition, emotional valence, liking, and frequency of consumption, and completed the FPQ. In a second study, 12 individuals (n=8 female, mean age = 25.0 ± 6.5 years, mean BMI = 28.2 ± 8.7 kg/m2 viewed MaPS and control images (vegetables and non-food during two separate 3T BOLD fMRI scans after fasting overnight. Intuitively, high fat/high sugar (HF/HS and high fat/high complex carbohydrate (HF/HCCHO images achieved higher liking and appetitive ratings, and lower nutrition ratings, than low fat/low complex carbohydrate/high protein (LF/LCHO/HP images on average. Within each food category, FPQ scores correlated strongly with MaPS image liking ratings (p < 0.001. Brain activation differences between viewing images of HF/HS and vegetables, and between HF/HCCHO and vegetables, were seen in several reward-related brain regions (e.g., putamen, insula, and medial frontal gyrus. Intra-individual, inter-scan agreement in a summary measure of brain activation differences in seven reward network regions of interest was high (ICC = 0.61, and was even higher when two distinct sets of food images with matching visual ratings were shown in the two scans (ICC = 0.74. These results suggest that the MaPS provides valid representation of food

  9. Olfactory Dysfunction Is Associated with the Intake of Macronutrients in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory function can impact food selection. However, few large population-based studies have investigated this effect across different age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the association between subjective olfactory dysfunction (anosmia or hyposmia) and macronutrient intake. A total of 24,990 participants aged 20 to 98 years were evaluated based on data collected through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 through 2012. Olfactory dysfunction was surveyed using a self-reported questionnaire, and the nutritional status was assessed through a validated 24-hour recall method. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses with complex sampling were performed to evaluate the relationships between olfactory dysfunction and protein intake (daily protein intake/recommended protein intake [%]), carbohydrate intake (daily carbohydrate intake/total calories [%]), and fat intake (daily fat intake/total calories [%]) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, income, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and stress level. Olfactory dysfunction was reported by 5.4% of Korean adults and was found to be associated with decreased fat consumption (estimated value [EV] of fat intake [%] = -0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.13 to -0.13, P = 0.045). A subgroup analysis according to age and sex revealed that among young females, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat consumption (EV = -2.30, 95% CI = -4.16 to -0.43, P = 0.016) and increased carbohydrate intake (EV = 2.80, 95% CI = 0.55 to 5.05, P = 0.015), and that among middle-aged females, olfactory dysfunction was also associated with reduced fat intake (EV = -1.26, 95% CI = -2.37 to -0.16, P = 0.025). In contrast, among young males, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced protein intake (EV = -26.41 95% CI = -45.14 to -7.69, P = 0.006). Olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat intake. Moreover, olfactory dysfunction exerted

  10. Macronutrients Intake and Incident Frailty in Older Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Insausti, Helena; Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F; López-García, Esther; García-Esquinas, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar

    2016-10-01

    Only a few studies have assessed the association between protein intake and frailty incidence and have obtained inconsistent results. This study examined the association of protein and other macronutrient intake with the risk of frailty in older adults. A prospective cohort of 1,822 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 and older was recruited in 2008-2010 and followed-up through 2012. At baseline, food consumption was assessed with a validated, computerized face-to-face diet history. In 2012, individuals were contacted again to ascertain incident frailty, defined as the presence of at least three of the five Fried criteria: low physical activity, slowness, unintentional weight loss, muscle weakness, and exhaustion. Analyses were performed using logistic regression and adjusted for the main confounders, including total energy intake. During a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, 132 persons with incident frailty were identified. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty across increasing quartiles of total protein were 1.00, 0.55 (0.32-0.93), 0.45 (0.26-0.78), and 0.41 (0.23-0.72); p trend: .001. The corresponding figures for animal protein intake were 1.00, 0.68 (0.40-1.17), 0.56 (0.32-0.97), and 0.48 (0.26-0.87), p trend: .011. And for intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), the results were 1.00, 0.66 (0.37-1.20), 0.54 (0.28-1.02), and 0.50 (0.26-0.96); p trend: .038. No association was found between intake of vegetable protein, saturated fats, long-chain ω-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, simple sugars, or polysaccharides and the risk of frailty. Intake of total protein, animal protein, and MUFAs was inversely associated with incident frailty. Promoting the intake of these nutrients might reduce frailty. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Kirby, Jason K.; Beak, Douglas G.; Stacey, Samuel P.; McLaughlin, Mike J.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ–XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ–XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the

  12. Interplay between genetic predisposition, macronutrient intake and type 2 diabetes incidence: analysis within EPIC-InterAct across eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Sherly X.; Imamura, Fumiaki; Schulze, Matthias B.

    2018-01-01

    , protein, fat, plant and animal protein, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat and dietary fibre. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression, we estimated country-specific interaction results on the multiplicative scale, using random-effects meta-analysis. Secondary analysis used isocaloric......Aims/hypothesis: Gene–macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient...... intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Methods: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective...

  13. A specialized araneophagic predator's short-term nutrient utilization depends on the macronutrient content of prey rather than on prey taxonomic affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Søren; Li, Daiqin; Mayntz, David

    2010-01-01

    rate of high-protein flies than of high-lipid flies and spiders but, after 5 days of feeding, there is no significant difference in growth between treatments, and the diets lead to significant changes in the macronutrient composition of P. quei as a result of variable extraction and utilization...... of the prey. The short-term utilization of spider prey is similar to that of high-lipid flies and both differ in several respects from the utilization of high-protein flies. Thus, the short-term nutrient utilization is better explained by prey macronutrient content than by whether the prey is a spider or not....... The results suggest that spider prey may have a more optimal macronutrient composition for P. quei and that P. quei does not depend on spider-specific substances....

  14. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.

    2002-01-01

    record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages....... Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. Results: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible......-reporting increased by BMI in both sexes and by age in men. Conclusions: Energy and macronutrient intake data collected under even conditions by either a 7 day food record or a diet history interview may be collapsed and analysed independent of the underlying diet method. Both diet methods, however, appear...

  15. Latent Profiles of Macronutrient Density and their Association with Mobility Limitations in an Observational Longitudinal Study of Older U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, N J; Zuniga, K E; Lucht, A L

    2018-01-01

    Our first objective was to estimate empirically-derived subgroups (latent profiles) of observed carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake density in a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. Our second objective was to determine whether membership in these groups was associated with levels of, and short term change in, physical mobility limitations. Measures of macronutrient density were taken from the 2013 Health Care and Nutrition Study, an off-year supplement to the Health and Retirement Study, which provided indicators of physical mobility limitations and sociodemographic and health-related covariates. 3,914 community-dwelling adults age 65 years and older. Percent of daily calories from carbohydrate, protein, and fat were calculated based on responses to a modified Harvard food frequency questionnaire. Latent profile analysis was used to describe unobserved heterogeneity in measures of carbohydrate, protein, and fat density. Mobility limitation counts were based on responses to 11 items indicating physical limitations. Poisson regression models with autoregressive controls were used to identify associations between macronutrient density profile membership and mobility limitations. Sociodemographic and health-related covariates were included in all Poisson regression models. Four latent subgroups of macronutrient density were identified: "High Carbohydrate", "Moderate with Fat", "Moderate", and "Low Carbohydrate/High Fat". Older adults with the lowest percentage of daily calories coming from carbohydrate and the greatest percentage coming from fat ("Low Carbohydrate/High Fat") were found to have greater reported mobility limitations in 2014 than those identified as having moderate macronutrient density, and more rapid two-year increases in mobility limitations than those identified as "Moderate with Fat" or "Moderate". Older adults identified as having the lowest carbohydrate and highest fat energy density were more likely to report a greater number

  16. Nucleotides, micro- and macro-nutrients, limonoids, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamates composition in the phloem sap of sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Manthey, John A; Van der Merwe, Deon; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-06-02

    Currently, the global citrus production is declining due to the spread of Huanglongbing (HLB). HLB, otherwise known as citrus greening, is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllids (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. ACP transmits CLas bacterium while feeding on the citrus phloem sap. Multiplication of CLas in the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for CLas. In this study, we investigated the micro- and macro-nutrients, nucleotides, and others secondary metabolites of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. The micro- and macro-nutrients were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Nucleotides and other secondary metabolites analysis was accomplished by reversed phase HPLC coupled with UV, fluorescence detection, or negative mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Calcium (89 mM) was the highest element followed by potassium (38.8 mM) and phosphorous (24 mM). Magnesium and sulfur were also abundant and their concentrations were 15 and 9 mM, respectively. The rest of the elements were found in low amounts (sap.

  17. Production of canafístula seedlings cultivated in red-yellow alic latosol in response to macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Augusto Fonseca e Cruz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Peltophorum dubium (canafístula is a fast-growing, rustic species excellent for use in combined reforestation of degraded areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of doses of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S on seedling growth and quality indices; and to determine the recommended dose of these elements for establishment of a suitable fertilization program. The study was conducted in a greenhouse using red-yellow alic latosol as substrate. The experiment was designed following a Baconian matrix, evaluating three doses of the six macronutrients and two additional treatments, one with reference doses and another with no addition of nutrients. A completely randomized design was adopted with four replicates. Analysis using orthogonal contrasts revealed a significant response from all variables being studied to application of macronutrients, except the H/D ratio. The nutrients P and N had the most significant effects, 540 mg/dm3 being the recommended dose of P, and 50 mg/dm3 being the recommended dose of N. No response was observed to application of K, Ca, Mg and S, for most traits being assessed, indicating that the species has a low requirement for these nutrients.

  18. Nucleotides, micro- and macro-nutrients, limonoids, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamates composition in the phloem sap of sweet orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Manthey, John A.; Van der Merwe, Deon; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Currently, the global citrus production is declining due to the spread of Huanglongbing (HLB). HLB, otherwise known as citrus greening, is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllids (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. ACP transmits CLas bacterium while feeding on the citrus phloem sap. Multiplication of CLas in the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for CLas. In this study, we investigated the micro- and macro-nutrients, nucleotides, and others secondary metabolites of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. The micro- and macro-nutrients were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Nucleotides and other secondary metabolites analysis was accomplished by reversed phase HPLC coupled with UV, fluorescence detection, or negative mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Calcium (89 mM) was the highest element followed by potassium (38.8 mM) and phosphorous (24 mM). Magnesium and sulfur were also abundant and their concentrations were 15 and 9 mM, respectively. The rest of the elements were found in low amounts (flavonoids. In addition, several hydroxycinnamates were detected. The results of this study will increase our knowledge about the nature and the chemical composition of citrus phloem sap. PMID:27171979

  19. Supersymmetric AdS6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-01-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS 6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS 6 . This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing SL(3,ℝ)/SO(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) ⊂SL(3,ℝ) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity

  20. AdS gravity and the scalar glueball spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vento, Vicente [Departament de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia y Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2017-09-15

    The scalar glueball spectrum has attracted much attention since the formulation of Quantum Chromodynamics. Different approaches give very different results for the glueball masses. We revisit the problem from the perspective of the AdS/CFT correspondence. (orig.)

  1. Smoothed transitions in higher spin AdS gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Shamik; Shenker, Stephen; Castro, Alejandra; Hellerman, Simeon; Hijano, Eliot; Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud; Maloney, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS 3 and AdS 4 . Two-dimensional CFTs with W N symmetry are considered in the λ = 0 (k → ∞) limit where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free-field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order 1; the usual Hawking–Page phase transition is removed by the highly degenerate light states associated with conical defect states in the bulk. Three-dimensional Chern–Simons matter CFTs with vector-like matter are considered on T 3 , where the dynamics is described by an effective theory for the eigenvalues of the holonomies. Likewise, we find no evidence for a Hawking–Page phase transition at a large level k. (paper)

  2. Winding strings and AdS3 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troost, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We start a systematic study of string theory in AdS 3 black hole backgrounds. Firstly, we analyse in detail the geodesic structure of the BTZ black hole, including spacelike geodesics. Secondly, we study the spectrum for massive and massless scalar fields, paying particular attention to the connection between Sl(2,R) subgroups, the theory of special functions and global properties of the BTZ black holes. We construct classical strings that wind the black holes. Finally, we apply the general formalism to the vacuum black hole background, and formulate the boundary spacetime Virasoro algebra in terms of worldsheet operators. We moreover establish the link between a proposal for a ghost free spectrum for Sl(2,R) string propagation and the massless black hole background, thereby claryfing aspects of the AdS 3 /CFT correspondence. (author)

  3. AdS strings with torsion: Noncomplex heterotic compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, Andrew R.; Lippert, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Combining the effects of fluxes and gaugino condensation in heterotic supergravity, we use a ten-dimensional approach to find a new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric AdS 4 compactifications on almost-Hermitian manifolds of SU(3) structure. Computation of the torsion allows a classification of the internal geometry, which for a particular combination of fluxes and condensate, is nearly Kaehler. We argue that all moduli are fixed, and we show that the Kaehler potential and superpotential proposed in the literature yield the correct AdS 4 radius. In the nearly Kaehler case, we are able to solve the H Bianchi identity using a nonstandard embedding. Finally, we point out subtleties in deriving the effective superpotential and understanding the heterotic supergravity in the presence of a gaugino condensate

  4. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  5. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: renormalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rohit; Singh, Harvendra

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that ‘boosted’ AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately ‘renormalized’ at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where T thermal ≪T E .

  6. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, André [Institut für Theoretische Physik & Center for Quantum Engineering and Spacetime Research,Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-16

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of E{sub d(d)}×ℝ{sup +} generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  7. Factors associated with added sugars intake among adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Ana Carolina A; Cesar, Chester L G; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Fisberg, Regina M

    2012-08-01

    To measure added sugars intake among adolescents and describe its demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional status determinants. The study was conducted based on a household survey carried out between March and December 2003. Food intake was assessed through 24-hour food recalls, and an adjustment approach was applied using external variance estimates derived from 195 adolescents of the same age in 2007. Population-based cross-sectional study, city of São Paulo, Brazil. Seven hundred and ninety-three male (n = 410) and female (n = 383) adolescents aged 10-19 years. MEASURE OF OUTCOME: Foods with greater contributions toward the added sugars intake were identified. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, with calories from added sugars as the dependent continuous variable and the remaining factors (socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, household condition, and food intake) as independent variables. The average contribution of added sugars to total energy value was 12.28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.87-12.70) with no statistically significant sex difference (p > 0.05). Soft drinks were a major source of added sugars among the adolescents (34.2% among males and 32.0% among females), followed by sugars (sucrose and honey) and chocolate powder (around 11%). In the multiple linear regression analysis, the head of household's education level and calories from protein, fats, and carbohydrates other than sugars had an independent effect on added sugars intake. This study showed that the percentage contribution of added sugars to energy intake among adolescents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, was above the current recommended levels. Socioeconomic condition (represented by the head of the household's education level) and macronutrient intake were shown to be determinants of sugars intake.

  8. ADS Bumblebee comes of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin; Grant, Carolyn S.; Thompson, Donna M.; Chyla, Roman; McDonald, Steven; Shaulis, Taylor J.; Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Shapurian, Golnaz; Hostetler, Timothy W.; Templeton, Matthew R.; Lockhart, Kelly E.

    2018-01-01

    The ADS Team has been working on a new system architecture and user interface named “ADS Bumblebee” since 2015. The new system presents many advantages over the traditional ADS interface and search engine (“ADS Classic”). A new, state of the art search engine features a number of new capabilities such as full-text search, advanced citation queries, filtering of results and scalable analytics for any search results. Its services are built on a cloud computing platform which can be easily scaled to match user demand. The Bumblebee user interface is a rich javascript application which leverages the features of the search engine and integrates a number of additional visualizations such as co-author and co-citation networks which provide a hierarchical view of research groups and research topics, respectively. Displays of paper analytics provide views of the basic article metrics (citations, reads, and age). All visualizations are interactive and provide ways to further refine search results. This new search system, which has been in beta for the past three years, has now matured to the point that it provides feature and content parity with ADS Classic, and has become the recommended way to access ADS content and services. Following a successful transition to Bumblebee, the use of ADS Classic will be discouraged starting in 2018 and phased out in 2019. You can access our new interface at https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu

  9. Noncommutative D-branes from covariant AdS superstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2008-01-01

    We study noncommutative (NC) D-branes on AdS 5 xS 5 from κ-invariance of covariant Green-Schwarz action of an open string with a non-trivial world-volume flux. Finding boundary conditions to ensure the κ-invariance, we can see possible configurations of the NC D-branes. With this method 1/4 BPS NC D-branes are discussed. The resulting NC Dp-branes are 1/4 BPS at arbitrary position other than the p=1 case. The exceptional D-string is 1/2 BPS at the origin and 1/4 BPS outside the origin. Those are reduced to possible 1/4 BPS or 1/2 BPS AdS D-branes in the commutative limit. The same analysis is applied to an open superstring in a pp-wave and leads to 1/4 BPS configurations of NC D-branes. These D-branes are consistently obtained from AdS D-branes via the Penrose limit

  10. Supersymmetric giant graviton solutions in AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Raju, Suvrat; Smedbaeck, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    We parametrize all classical probe brane configurations that preserve four supersymmetries in (a) the extremal D1-D5 geometry, (b) the extremal D1-D5-P geometry, (c) the smooth D1-D5 solutions proposed by Lunin and Mathur, and (d) global AdS 3 xS 3 xT 4 /K3. These configurations consist of D1 branes, D5 branes, and bound states of D5 and D1 branes with the property that a particular Killing vector is tangent to the brane world volume at each point. We show that the supersymmetric sector of the D5-brane world volume theory may be analyzed in an effective 1+1 dimensional framework that places it on the same footing as D1 branes. In global AdS and the corresponding Lunin-Mathur solution, the solutions we describe are ''bound'' to the center of AdS for generic parameters and cannot escape to infinity. We show that these probes only exist on the submanifold of moduli space where the background B NS field and theta angle vanish. We quantize these probes in the near-horizon region of the extremal D1-D5 geometry and obtain the theory of long strings discussed by Seiberg and Witten

  11. Exploring AdS waves via nonminimal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Hassaiene, Mokhtar

    2006-01-01

    We consider nonminimally coupled scalar fields to explore the Siklos spacetimes in three dimensions. Their interpretation as exact gravitational waves propagating on AdS space restrict the source to behave as a pure radiation field. We show that the related pure radiation constraints single out a unique self-interaction potential depending on one coupling constant. For a vanishing coupling constant, this potential reduces to a mass term with a mass fixed in terms of the nonminimal-coupling parameter. This mass dependence allows the existence of several free cases including massless and tachyonic sources. There even exists a particular value of the nonminimal-coupling parameter for which the corresponding mass exactly compensates the contribution generated by the negative scalar curvature, producing a genuinely massless field in this curved background. The self-interacting case is studied in detail for the conformal coupling. The resulting gravitational wave is formed by the superposition of the free and the self-interaction contributions, except for a critical value of the coupling constant where a nonperturbative effect relating the strong and weak regimes of the source appears. We establish a correspondence between the scalar source supporting an AdS wave and a pp wave by showing that their respective pure radiation constraints are conformally related, while their involved backgrounds are not. Finally, we consider the AdS waves for topologically massive gravity and its limit to conformal gravity

  12. Enthalpy and the mechanics of AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie; Ray, Sourya

    2009-01-01

    We present geometric derivations of the Smarr formula for static AdS black holes and an expanded first law that includes variations in the cosmological constant. These two results are further related by a scaling argument based on Euler's theorem. The key new ingredient in the constructions is a two-form potential for the static Killing field. Surface integrals of the Killing potential determine the coefficient of the variation of Λ in the first law. This coefficient is proportional to a finite, effective volume for the region outside the AdS black hole horizon, which can also be interpreted as minus the volume excluded from a spatial slice by the black hole horizon. This effective volume also contributes to the Smarr formula. Since Λ is naturally thought of as a pressure, the new term in the first law has the form of effective volume times change in pressure that arises in the variation of the enthalpy in classical thermodynamics. This and related arguments suggest that the mass of an AdS black hole should be interpreted as the enthalpy of the spacetime.

  13. Shock wave collisions and thermalization in AdS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2011-01-01

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling using AdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS 5 . We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS 5 , which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling. (author)

  14. Ad skepticisms: Antecedents and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Engaging customer is the burning issue for companies especially the service sector, either online or offline. Minimizing the customer disengagement is the same like reducing dissatisfaction or churn. Customer disengagement may be caused by many factors, ad skepticism is one of them; ad skepticism has two main antecedents personality variable and consumption/influencing varia-bles. This research explores the relationship of ad skepticism with customer disengagement through personality variables which are cynicism, reactance and self-esteem. The unit of analysis is the telecom and banking industry of Pakistan which is foreseeing an era of virtual currency and both are customer oriented industries. Only offline disengagement is researched and data is collected from the Business centers of telecom and banking branches dealing with virtual curren-cy in Pakistan. Hypothetical model is given after digging the relevant literature; model is tested through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Eight hypotheses were purposed from the connections of model, all hypotheses are accepted except the cynicism posi-tive effect on social ad skepticism. This can be due to commonality of social and charity in Paki-stani society, Muslims consider charity as a pious act and they do not think for cynic behavior in charity or social related works. The results manifest that customers in telecom industry are hav-ing ad skepticism and that is becoming the cause of their disengagement. Further, social ad skep-ticism has more impact on the customer disengagement than the general ad skepticism. While the reactance has more effect on general ad skepticism than other antecedents and cynicism has the lowest impact on social ad skepticism than other antecedents.

  15. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....

  16. ADS-B in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bjarke Gosvig; Jensen, Morten; Birklykke, Alex

    2014-01-01

    ADS-B is increasingly used for air traffic control in areas covered by terrestrial receivers; however, its limited range makes it unsuitable for other areas such as the oceans. To overcome this limitation, it has been proposed to receive ADS-B signals from low earth orbit nano-satellites and relay...... them to the terrestrial receivers. This paper gives an overview of the GATOSS mission and of its highly-sensitive ADS-B software-defined radio receiver payload. Details of the design and implementation of the receiver's decoder are introduced. The first real-life, space-based results show that ADS......-B signals are indeed successfully received in space and retransmitted to a terrestrial station by the GATOSS nano-satellite orbiting at 700+ km altitudes, thus showing that GATOSS is capable of tracking flights, including transoceanic ones, from space....

  17. Virginia ADS consortium - thorium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myneni, Ganapati

    2015-01-01

    A Virginia ADS consortium, consisting of Virginia Universities (UVa, VCU, VT), Industry (Casting Analysis Corporation, GEM*STAR, MuPlus Inc.), Jefferson Lab and not-for-profit ISOHIM, has been organizing International Accelerator-Driven Sub-Critical Systems (ADS) and Thorium Utilization (ThU) workshops. The third workshop of this series was hosted by VCU in Richmond, Virginia, USA Oct 2014 with CBMM and IAEA sponsorship and was endorsed by International Thorium Energy Committee (IThEC), Geneva and Virginia Nuclear Energy Consortium Authority. In this presentation a brief summary of the successful 3 rd International ADS and ThU workshop proceedings and review the worldwide ADS plans and/or programs is given. Additionally, a report on new start-ups on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) systems is presented. Further, a discussion on potential simplistic fertile 232 Th to fissile 233 U conversion is made

  18. A closer look at two AdS4 branes in an AdS5 bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambyahpillai, Shiyamala

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a scenario with two AdS 4 branes in an AdS 5 bulk. In this scenario there are two gravitons and we investigate the role played by each of them for different positions of the second brane. We show that both gravitons play a significant role only when the turn-around point in the warp factor is approximately equidistant from both branes. We find that the ultralight mode becomes heavy as the second brane approaches the turn-around point, and the physics begins to resemble that of the RS model. Thus we demonstrate the crucial role played by the turn-around in the warp factor in enabling the presence of both gravitons. (author)

  19. ADS/CFT and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2007-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable ζ which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation

  20. Wilson lines for AdS5 black strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristov, Kiril; Katmadas, Stefanos

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple method of extending AdS 5 black string solutions of 5d gauged supergravity in a supersymmetric way by addition of Wilson lines along a circular direction in space. When this direction is chosen along the string, and due to the specific form of 5d supergravity that features Chern-Simons terms, the existence of magnetic charges automatically generates conserved electric charges in a 5d analogue of the Witten effect. Therefore we find a rather generic, model-independent way of adding electric charges to already existing solutions with no backreaction from the geometry or breaking of any symmetry. We use this method to explicitly write down more general versions of the Benini-Bobev black strings (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.061601, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2013)005) and comment on the implications for the dual field theory and the similarities with generalizations of the Cacciatori-Klemm black holes (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2010)085) in AdS 4 .

  1. An AdS3 dual for minimal model CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    We propose a duality between the 2d W N minimal models in the large N't Hooft limit, and a family of higher spin theories on AdS 3 . The 2d conformal field theories (CFTs) can be described as Wess-Zumino-Witten coset models, and include, for N=2, the usual Virasoro unitary series. The dual bulk theory contains, in addition to the massless higher spin fields, two complex scalars (of equal mass). The mass is directly related to the 't Hooft coupling constant of the dual CFT. We give convincing evidence that the spectra of the two theories match precisely for all values of the 't Hooft coupling. We also show that the renormalization group flows in the 2d CFT agree exactly with the usual AdS/CFT prediction of the gravity theory. Our proposal is in many ways analogous to the Klebanov-Polyakov conjecture for an AdS 4 dual for the singlet sector of large N vector models.

  2. Heavy ion collisions in AdS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2011-01-01

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling using AdS/CFT correspondence. Heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS 5 . We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS 5 , which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  3. Supergravity one-loop corrections on AdS7 and AdS3, higher spins and AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Beccaria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As was shown earlier, the one-loop correction in 10d supergravity on AdS5×S5 corresponds to the contributions to the vacuum energy and 4d boundary conformal anomaly which are minus the values for one N=4 Maxwell supermultiplet, thus reproducing the subleading term in the N2−1 coefficient in the dual SU(N SYM theory. We perform similar one-loop computations in 11d supergravity on AdS7×S4 and 10d supergravity on AdS3×S3×T4. In the AdS7 case we find that the corrections to the 6d conformal anomaly a-coefficient and the vacuum energy are again minus the ones for one (2,0 tensor multiplet, suggesting that the total a-anomaly coefficient for the dual (2,0 theory is 4N3−9/4N−7/4 and thus vanishes for N=1. In the AdS3 case the one-loop correction to the vacuum energy or 2d central charge turns out to be equal to that of one free (4,4 scalar multiplet, i.e. is c=+6. This reproduces the subleading term in the central charge c=6(Q1Q5+1 of the dual 2d CFT describing decoupling limit of D5–D1 system. We also present the expressions for the 6d a-anomaly coefficient and vacuum energy contributions of general-symmetry higher spin field in AdS7 and consider their application to tests of vectorial AdS/CFT with the boundary conformal 6d theory represented by free scalars, spinors or rank-2 antisymmetric tensors.

  4. Macronutrient composition and sodium intake of diet are associated with risk of metabolic syndrome and hypertension in Korean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea Young Oh

    Full Text Available Hypertension and hypertriglycemia are the most important contributors to metabolic syndrome (MetS and cardiovascular disease risk in South Koreans with a relatively lean body mass. These major contributors differ from those identified in Western populations. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the Korean diet associated with increased risk of MetS, whose prevalence has been steadily increasing in South Korea. On the basis of data collected from 5,320 subjects by the 2007-2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 3 dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis and their association with the risk of MetS and its components was examined. The balanced Korean diet, a typical Korean diet of rice and kimchi intake supplemented by a variety of foods had a desirable macronutrient composition and was associated with a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.45-0.84 and hypertriglyceridemia (0.69, 0.49-0.88 in men and a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (0.59, 0.41-0.85 and MetS (0.67, 0.47-0.96 in women. The unbalanced Korean diet, characterized by a high intake of carbohydrates and sodium and little variety, was associated with a higher risk of MetS (1.44, 1.03-2.01 and elevated blood pressure (1.41, 1.00-1.98 in women. The semi-western diet, characterized by a relatively high intake of meat, poultry, and alcohol, was associated with a lower risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.70, 0.54-0.89 in women. Thus, macronutrient composition and sodium intake are associated with the risk of MetS and prehypertension in women. Maintaining a desirable macronutrient composition and avoiding excessive consumption of carbohydrates and sodium should be emphasized for prevention of MetS and hypertension in South Korean women.

  5. Within- and Trans-Generational Effects of Variation in Dietary Macronutrient Content on Life-History Traits in the Moth Plodia interpunctella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that parental environment can play an important role in determining offspring phenotype. These “transgenerational effects” have been linked to many different components of the environment, including toxin exposure, infection with pathogens and parasites, temperature and food quality. In this study, we focus on the latter, asking how variation in the quantity and quality of nutrition affects future generations. Previous studies have shown that artificial diets are a useful tool to examine the within-generation effects of variation in macronutrient content on life history traits, and could therefore be applied to investigations of the transgenerational effects of parental diet. Synthetic diets varying in total macronutrient content and protein: carbohydrate ratios were used to examine both within- and trans-generational effects on life history traits in a generalist stored product pest, the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella. The macronutrient composition of the diet was important for shaping within-generation life history traits, including pupal weight, adult weight, and phenoloxidase activity, and had indirect effects via maternal weight on fecundity. Despite these clear within-generation effects on the biology of P. interpunctella, diet composition had no transgenerational effects on the life history traits of offspring. P. interpunctella mothers were able to maintain their offspring quality, possibly at the expense of their own somatic condition, despite high variation in dietary macronutrient composition. This has important implications for the plastic biology of this successful generalist pest. PMID:28033396

  6. Macronutrient Composition and Management of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM): A New Paradigm for Individualized Nutritional Therapy in Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloverou, Efi; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy constitutes an important lifestyle intervention in diabetes management. Several nutrition patterns have been effective in improving diabetes control, but there has been a debate about the optimal macronutrient composition in diabetes meal planning. For many years, the recommended diets for persons with and without diabetes were similar, i.e. heart-healthy and low in fat. For almost three decades, carbohydrates have been lauded, lipids demonized, and proteins considered of little importance. However, in the past few years, this concept has been questioned and reassessed. Modern nutritional recommendations for people with diabetes are headed towards individualization, but lack specific guidelines. Nutritional algorithms may help nutritionists in diabetes meal planning. This review aims to discuss: 1) the effects of the three major macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) on glucose levels, 2) current recommendations for macronutrient intake for people with diabetes, and 3) specific parameters that need to be taken into consideration when determining the macronutrient composition for a person with diabetes, for example body mass index, degree of insulin resistance, HbA1c value, and lipid profile (especially triglycerides and HDL cholesterol). These aspects are analyzed in the context of the results of recent studies, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Finally, we introduce an individualized nutritional concept that proposes carbohydrate over lipid restriction, substitution of SFAs with MUFAs and PUFAs, and adequate intake of dietary fiber, which are key factors in optimizing diabetes management.

  7. Within- and Trans-Generational Effects of Variation in Dietary Macronutrient Content on Life-History Traits in the Moth Plodia interpunctella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne E Littlefair

    Full Text Available It is increasingly clear that parental environment can play an important role in determining offspring phenotype. These "transgenerational effects" have been linked to many different components of the environment, including toxin exposure, infection with pathogens and parasites, temperature and food quality. In this study, we focus on the latter, asking how variation in the quantity and quality of nutrition affects future generations. Previous studies have shown that artificial diets are a useful tool to examine the within-generation effects of variation in macronutrient content on life history traits, and could therefore be applied to investigations of the transgenerational effects of parental diet. Synthetic diets varying in total macronutrient content and protein: carbohydrate ratios were used to examine both within- and trans-generational effects on life history traits in a generalist stored product pest, the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella. The macronutrient composition of the diet was important for shaping within-generation life history traits, including pupal weight, adult weight, and phenoloxidase activity, and had indirect effects via maternal weight on fecundity. Despite these clear within-generation effects on the biology of P. interpunctella, diet composition had no transgenerational effects on the life history traits of offspring. P. interpunctella mothers were able to maintain their offspring quality, possibly at the expense of their own somatic condition, despite high variation in dietary macronutrient composition. This has important implications for the plastic biology of this successful generalist pest.

  8. Within- and Trans-Generational Effects of Variation in Dietary Macronutrient Content on Life-History Traits in the Moth Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefair, Joanne E; Knell, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that parental environment can play an important role in determining offspring phenotype. These "transgenerational effects" have been linked to many different components of the environment, including toxin exposure, infection with pathogens and parasites, temperature and food quality. In this study, we focus on the latter, asking how variation in the quantity and quality of nutrition affects future generations. Previous studies have shown that artificial diets are a useful tool to examine the within-generation effects of variation in macronutrient content on life history traits, and could therefore be applied to investigations of the transgenerational effects of parental diet. Synthetic diets varying in total macronutrient content and protein: carbohydrate ratios were used to examine both within- and trans-generational effects on life history traits in a generalist stored product pest, the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella. The macronutrient composition of the diet was important for shaping within-generation life history traits, including pupal weight, adult weight, and phenoloxidase activity, and had indirect effects via maternal weight on fecundity. Despite these clear within-generation effects on the biology of P. interpunctella, diet composition had no transgenerational effects on the life history traits of offspring. P. interpunctella mothers were able to maintain their offspring quality, possibly at the expense of their own somatic condition, despite high variation in dietary macronutrient composition. This has important implications for the plastic biology of this successful generalist pest.

  9. Caloric, but not macronutrient, compensation by humans for required-eating occasions with meals and snack varying in fat and carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Rolls, B J; Moran, T H; Kelly, T H; McNelis, A L; Fischman, M W

    1992-02-01

    Six subjects participated in a residential study assessing the effects of covert macronutrient and energy manipulations during three required-eating occasions (breakfast, lunch, and afternoon snack) on total macronutrient and energy intakes. Overall, energy content of the occasions varied between approximately 3000 and approximately 7000 kJ (approximately 700 and approximately 1700 kcal) with the majority of the differential derived from either fat or carbohydrate (CHO). Each condition (high, medium, and low fat; high, medium, and low CHO; and no required eating) was examined for 2 d. Subjects compensated for the energy content of the required occasions such that only under the low-CHO condition (11,297 +/- 3314 kJ) was total daily energy intake lower than that observed in the absence of required occasions (13,297 +/- 1356 kJ). Only total energy intake under the high-fat condition (12,326 +/- 2548 kJ) was significantly different from its matched CHO condition (high-CHO condition: 14,665 +/- 2686 kJ). In contrast to the clear evidence for caloric compensation, there were no differential effects of condition on macronutrient intake, ie, there was no macronutrient compensation.

  10. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according

  11. Evaluation of calculated energy and macronutrient contents of diets provided in controlled dietary intervention trials by chemical analysis of duplicate portions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, E.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Trijsburg, L.E.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Dutch food composition databases (Dutch-FCDB) are accurate enough to plan experimental diets with specified amounts of energy and macronutrients. From 2003 to 2012, 10 controlled dietary intervention trials lasting from 2 to 13 weeks were

  12. Isocaloric intake of diets differing in macronutrient content (high protein or high fat) in adult rats indicate adverse effects as analysed by hepatic transcriptomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz Rua, Ruben; Schothorst, van Evert; Keijer, Jaap; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2017-01-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular

  13. Small AdS black holes from SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asplund, Curtis; Berenstein, David

    2009-01-01

    We provide a characterization of the set of configurations in N=4 SYM theory that are dual to small AdS black holes. Our construction shows that the black hole dual states are approximately thermal on a SU(M) subset of degrees of freedom of a SU(N) gauge theory. M is determined dynamically and the black hole degrees of freedom are dynamically insulated from the rest. These states are localized on the S 5 and have dynamical processes that correspond to matter absorption that make them behave as black objects

  14. On attractor mechanism of AdS4 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru

    2013-01-01

    We construct a general family of exact non-extremal 4-dimensional black holes in AdS gravity with U(1) gauge fields non-minimally coupled to a dilaton and a non-trivial dilaton potential. These black holes can have spherical, toroidal, and hyperbolic horizon topologies. We use the entropy function formalism to obtain the near horizon data in the extremal limit. Due to the non-trivial self-interaction of the scalar field, the zero temperature black holes can have a finite horizon area even if only the electric field is turned on

  15. Small black holes in global AdS spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Niko; Pönni, Arttu; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    We study the properties of two-point functions and quasinormal modes in a strongly coupled field theory holographically dual to a small black hole in global anti-de Sitter spacetime. Our results are seen to smoothly interpolate between known limits corresponding to large black holes and thermal AdS space, demonstrating that the Son-Starinets prescription works even when there is no black hole in the spacetime. Omitting issues related to the internal space, the results can be given a field theory interpretation in terms of the microcanonical ensemble, which provides access to energy densities forbidden in the canonical description.

  16. Configurational entropy of charged AdS black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Oh Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When we consider charged AdS black holes in higher dimensional spacetime and a molecule number density along coexistence curves is numerically extended to higher dimensional cases. It is found that a number density difference of a small and large black holes decrease as a total dimension grows up. In particular, we find that a configurational entropy is a concave function of a reduced temperature and reaches a maximum value at a critical (second-order phase transition point. Furthermore, the bigger a total dimension becomes, the more concave function in a configurational entropy while the more convex function in a reduced pressure.

  17. Gravitational charges of transverse asymptotically AdS spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Using Killing-Yano symmetries, we construct conserved charges of spacetimes that asymptotically approach to the flat or anti-de Sitter spaces only in certain directions. In D dimensions, this allows one to define gravitational charges (such as mass and angular momenta densities) of p-dimensional branes/solitons or any other extended objects that curve the transverse space into an asymptotically flat or AdS one. Our construction answers the question of what kind of charges the antisymmetric Killing-Yano tensors lead to

  18. Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bakas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS=δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric–magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy–momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  19. The AdS3 central charge in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS 3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  20. Introducing ADS 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  1. Cross-cultural differences in the macronutrient intakes of women with anorexia nervosa in Australia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Touyz, Stephen; Dobbins, Timothy; Surgenor, Lois; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael; Lee, Ee Lian; Leow, Vincent; Rieger, Elizabeth; Ung, Ken Eng Khean; Walter, Garry

    2008-11-01

    To compare the macronutrient intakes of women with and without anorexia nervosa (AN) across cultures. Participants were women with AN (n = 39) and without AN (n = 89) of North European and East Asian backgrounds recruited in Australia and Singapore. Energy and the percentage energy contributed by protein (%protein), fat (%fat) and carbohydrate (%CHO) were assessed from participant's diet histories and analysed in terms of cultural group, acculturation, socio-economic status (SES) and education level. AN status was associated with lower energy and higher %CHO. Greater %protein was associated with greater acculturation to Western culture and lower SES, but not AN. Greater %fat was associated with lower SES and lower acculturation in women with AN, but with higher acculturation in controls. Greater %CHO was also associated with higher SES. The findings may represent Western diets' higher protein and fat contents, 'Western' knowledge of weight-loss diets, and affordability of low fat foods.

  2. Influence of agronomic variables on the macronutrient and micronutrient contents and thermal behavior of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rosângela A; Arruda, Eduardo J; de Oliveira, Lincoln C S; de Oliveira, Ana P; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, J Vladimir; Caramão, Elina B

    2007-09-05

    The influence of agronomic variables (light intensity, age of leaves, and fertilization type) on the content of macronutrients and micronutrients (potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, and copper) of tea leaves was assessed by acid digestion, followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The thermal behavior of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) was also studied in this work. Samples of mate (Ilex paraguariensis) were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Erva-Mate Barão Commerce and Industry LTD (Brazil). The results showed that the mineral content in mate is affected by the agronomic variables investigated. In general, the content of mineral compounds analyzed is higher for younger leaves and for plants cultivated in shadow. Thermal analysis of samples indicated a similar behavior, with three typical steps of decomposition: loss of water, degradation of low-molecular weight compounds, and degradation of residual materials.

  3. The Influence on Population Weight Gain and Obesity of the Macronutrient Composition and Energy Density of the Food Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Michelle; Sacks, Gary; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd; Neal, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Rates of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in all regions of the world over the last few decades. Almost all of the world's population now has ubiquitous access to low-cost, but highly-processed, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food products. These changes in the food supply, rather than decreases in physical activity, are most likely the primary driver of population weight gain and obesity. To-date, the majority of prevention efforts focus on personalised approaches targeting individuals. Population-wide food supply interventions addressing sodium and trans fat reduction have proven highly effective and comparable efforts are now required to target obesity. The evidence suggests that strategies focusing upon reducing the energy density and portion size of foods will be more effective than those targeting specific macronutrients. Government leadership, clearly specified targets, accountability and transparency will be the key to achieving the food supply changes required to address the global obesity epidemic.

  4. MACRONUTRIENT CONCENTRATION AND CONTENT IN PASSION FRUIT LEAVES UNDER SAMPLING METHODS AND N-K FERTILIZATION RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODINEI FACCO PEGORARO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen and potassium fertilization and assessment of adequate nutritional status are essential for increasing fruit production of passion fruit. However, studies related to characterization of the leaf nutrient concentration and content in passion fruit with different production capacities are scarce in the literature in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate macronutrient leaf concentration and content in different parts of the reproductive shoot of yellow passion fruit subjected to different ratios of N and K fertilization. The study was conducted in a randomized block design, with three replications, following a 4 x 6 factorial arrangement consisting of four cultivars of yellow passion fruit (BRS Gigante Amarelo, IAC 275, BRS Ouro Vermelho, and BRS Sol do Cerrado and six application rates of N-K2O fertilizer (0-0, 50-125, 100-250, 150-375, 200-500, and 250-625 kg ha-1 year-1. Two leaf sampling methods were adopted (leaf located at a position adjacent to the fruit, and leaf located at the end of the reproductive branch for nutritional assessment. The leaf located at the adjacent position had lower N, P, K, Mg, and S concentration and higher Ca concentration than the concentrations observed in the standard leaf. However, the higher leaf dry matter in adjacent leaves resulted in increased macronutrient concentration/content. The increase in N-K fertilizations inhibited Ca and Mg content in the leaves adjacent to the fruit of the Gigante Amarelo, IAC, and Ouro Vermelho passion fruit cultivars, but did not affect Ca and Mg content in the standard leaf. The passion fruit cultivars showed different leaf nutrient contents after N-K fertilization, indicating variable nutritional demands and the need for specific diagnostic methods for each cultivar.

  5. Breakfast skipping is associated with differences in meal patterns, macronutrient intakes and overweight among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon; Potvin Kent, Monique; Farmer, Anna; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    To examine the association between skipping breakfast, daily energy, macronutrients and food intakes, and BMI in pre-school children. A cross-sectional study using information on children's food consumption and measured height and weight. Energy and macronutrient intakes of the children were derived from parent/day-care attendant's responses to 24 h recall interviews and eating behaviour questionnaires. Data obtained from a representative sample (n 2,103) of children born in Quebec (Canada) in 1998. One thousand five hundred and forty-nine children, with a mean age of 49 (sd 3.12) months. Ten per cent of children ate breakfast on fewer than 7 days per week. This behaviour was associated with a lower diet quality and concentrated energy intakes through higher protein intakes at lunch and the consumption of snacks higher in energy and carbohydrate in the afternoon and evening; yet total daily energy intakes were not significantly different from those of pre-school children who ate breakfast every day. Breakfast skippers' mean BMI increased as intake of energy, carbohydrates or servings of grain products increased; however, this was not the case for breakfast eaters. When Cole's cut-off for overweight/obesity was used, overweight/obesity in breakfast skippers was related to the dinner-time consumption of approximately 3,000 kJ (700 kcal) or more for energy intake, approximately 100 g or more of carbohydrates, or approximately 3 servings or more of grain products. Eating breakfast every day is associated with having a healthy body weight, likely due to a more even distribution of energy intake across meals throughout the day.

  6. Composition and Variation of Macronutrients, Immune Proteins, and Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Human Milk From Nonprofit and Commercial Milk Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith-Dennis, Laura; Xu, Gege; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Underwood, Mark A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2018-02-01

    When human milk is unavailable, banked milk is recommended for feeding premature infants. Milk banks use processes to eliminate pathogens; however, variability among methods exists. Research aim: The aim of this study was to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, energy), immune-protective protein, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) content of human milk from three independent milk banks that use pasteurization (Holder vs. vat techniques) or retort sterilization. Randomly acquired human milk samples from three different milk banks ( n = 3 from each bank) were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations using a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy human milk analyzer. The concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, α antitrypsin, casein, and HMO were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of protein and fat were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized compared with the Holder and vat pasteurized samples, respectively. The concentrations of all immune-modulating proteins were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized samples compared with vat and/or Holder pasteurized samples. The total HMO concentration and HMOs containing fucose, sialic acid, and nonfucosylated neutral sugars were significantly ( p < .05) less in retort sterilized compared with Holder pasteurized samples. Random milk samples that had undergone retort sterilization had significantly less immune-protective proteins and total and specific HMOs compared with samples that had undergone Holder and vat pasteurization. These data suggest that further analysis of the effect of retort sterilization on human milk components is needed prior to widespread adoption of this process.

  7. The influence of the selection of macronutrients coupled with dietary energy density on the performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sonia Y; Chrystal, Peter V; Cowieson, Aaron J; Truong, Ha H; Moss, Amy F; Selle, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period. There were no differences between starch and protein intakes between choice and sequentially fed birds (P > 0.05) when broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch, protein and lipid concentrations. When broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch and protein but similar lipid concentrations, both sequentially and choice fed birds selected similar ratios of starch and protein intake (P > 0.05). However, when broiler chickens selected from diets with different protein and lipid but similar starch concentrations, choice fed birds had higher lipid intake (129 versus 118 g/bird, P = 0.027) and selected diets with lower protein concentrations (258 versus 281 g/kg, P = 0.042) than birds offered sequential diet options. Choice fed birds had greater intakes of the high energy diet (1471 g/bird, P macronutrients from 10-31 days in choice and sequential feeding groups were plotted and compared with the null path if broiler chickens selected equal amounts of the three diets in the combination. Regardless of feeding regimen, the intake paths of starch and protein are very close to the null path; however, lipid and protein intake paths in choice fed birds are father from the null path than sequentially fed birds.

  8. Foods, macronutrients and fibre in the diet of blue sheep (Psuedois nayaur) in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Achyut; Coogan, Sean C P; Ji, Weihong; Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-09-01

    Food resources are often critical regulating factors affecting individual fitness and population densities. In the Himalayan Mountains, Bharal "blue sheep" (Pseudois nayaur) are the main food resource for the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia), as well as being preyed upon by other predators. Blue sheep, however, may face a number of challenges including food resource competition with other wild and domestic ungulates, and hunting pressure. Here, we characterized the diet of blue sheep in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) of Nepal and conducted proximate nutritional analysis on a limited number of plants identified as foods. Furthermore, we investigated the macronutrient and fiber balance of these plants using nutritional geometry which is a state-space approach to modeling multidimensional and interactive nutritional aspects of foraging. A total of 19 plant species/genera were identified in blue sheep pellets using microhistological analysis. On average, across seasons and regions of the study area, the two most frequently occurring plants in pellets were graminoids: Kobressia sp. and Carex spp. The macronutrient balance of Kobresia sp. was relatively high in carbohydrate and low in protein, while other plants in the diet were generally higher in protein and lipid content. Analysis of fiber balance showed that the two most consumed plants of blue sheep (i.e., Kobresia spp. and Carex spp.) contained the highest concentration of hemicellulose, which is likely digestible by blue sheep. The hemicellulose and lignin balance of plants ranged relatively widely, yet their cellulose contents showed less variation. Foraging by blue sheep may therefore be a balance between consuming highly digestible high-carbohydrate plants and plants less-digestible but higher in protein and/or lipid.

  9. Critical gravity on AdS2 spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2011-01-01

    We study the critical gravity in two-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS 2 ) spacetimes, which was obtained from the cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMG Λ ) in three dimensions by using the Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction. We perform the perturbation analysis around AdS 2 , which may correspond to the near-horizon geometry of the extremal Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black hole obtained from the TMG Λ with identification upon uplifting three dimensions. A massive propagating scalar mode δF satisfies the second-order differential equation away from the critical point of K=l, whose solution is given by the Bessel functions. On the other hand, δF satisfies the fourth-order equation at the critical point. We exactly solve the fourth-order equation, and compare it with the log gravity in two dimensions. Consequently, the critical gravity in two dimensions could not be described by a massless scalar δF ml and its logarithmic partner δF log 4th .

  10. AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-06-05

    In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.

  11. Crystal manyfold universes in /AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloper, N.

    2000-02-01

    We derive crystal braneworld solutions, comprising of intersecting families of parallel /n+2-branes in a /4+n-dimensional /AdS space. Each family consists of alternating positive and negative tension branes. In the simplest case of exactly orthogonal families, there arise different crystals with unbroken /4D Poincaré invariance on the intersections, where our world can reside. A crystal can be finite along some direction, either because that direction is compact, or because it ends on a segment of /AdS bulk, or infinite, where the branes continue forever. If the crystal is interlaced by connected /3-branes directed both along the intersections and orthogonal to them, it can be viewed as an example of a Manyfold universe proposed recently by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, Dvali and the author. There are new ways for generating hierarchies, since the bulk volume of the crystal and the lattice spacing affect the /4D Planck mass. The low energy physics is sensitive to the boundary conditions in the bulk, and has to satisfy the same constraints discussed in the Manyfold universe. Phenomenological considerations favor either finite crystals, or crystals which are infinite but have broken translational invariance in the bulk. The most distinctive signature of the bulk structure is that the bulk gravitons are Bloch waves, with a band spectrum, which we explicitly construct in the case of a /5-dimensional theory.

  12. The PredictAD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antila, Kari; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia affecting 36 million people worldwide. As the demographic transition in the developed countries progresses towards older population, the worsening ratio of workers per retirees and the growing number of patients with age-related illnes...... candidates and implement the framework in software. The results are currently used in several research projects, licensed to commercial use and being tested for clinical use in several trials....... objective of the PredictAD project was to find and integrate efficient biomarkers from heterogeneous patient data to make early diagnosis and to monitor the progress of AD in a more efficient, reliable and objective manner. The project focused on discovering biomarkers from biomolecular data...

  13. Facilities Management and Added Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims to present different models of the concept of the added value of Facilities Management (FM), including the FM Value Map, which forms the basis of research group in EuroFM, and to present some of the results of this research collaboration. Approach and methodology: The paper...... is based on literature reviews of the most influential journals within the academic fields of FM, Corporate Real Estate Management and Business to Business Marketing and discussions between participants of the research group working on a further exploration and testing of the FM Value Map. Conclusions......: The research shows a number of different definitions and focus points of Added Value of FM, dependent on the academic field and the area of application. The different research perspectives explored a holistic view on the added value of FM by the integration of an external market based view (with a focus...

  14. Smooth causal patches for AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Suvrat

    2017-06-01

    We review the paradox of low energy excitations of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space (AdS). An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than k T cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position-space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analysis, we show how this resolves the "Born rule" paradox of Marolf and Polchinski [J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 008, 10.1007/JHEP01(2016)008] and we verify our solution using an independent calculation. We then consider boundary states that are finely tuned to display a spontaneous excitation outside the causal patch of the infalling observer, and we propose a version of causal patch complementarity in AdS/CFT that resolves the paradox for such states as well.

  15. Amount of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Petiole of Some Iranian and Imported Grape Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doulati Baneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is one of the oldest and most important perennial crops in the world. Several native grapevine genotypes, highly appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics and commercial potential are still cultivated in Iran. Developing viticulture requires the conservation of autochthonous varieties that have evolved several mechanisms enabling them to cope with the local bioclimatic and edaphic conditions. Nutrition is a key component of vineyard management that has the potential to influence various factors in vine production that includes fruit set and quality. To develop suitable nutrient plant growers need to have an understanding of the factors such as cultivars, rootstocks, soil type, irrigation type and nutrients that they are applying in the vineyard. The uptake of nutrients from the soil depends on different factors namely; their soluble content in it, soil pH, plant growth stage, plant genetics and types of soil and fertilizers. Plant species have a variety of capacities in removing and accumulating elements. Vigorous genotypes are more capable of finding the necessary nutrients from the surrounding soil environment. This indicates that it does not require as much nutrient as poor vigor genotypes. So, for sustainable viticulture, it is important to know the interactive influences of cultivars, soil characters, climatic conditions, and irrigation type on vine productivity. Materials and Methods: To evaluate and compare the amount of macronutrient elements (N, P, K, Mg and Ca and micronutrient elements (B, Zn and Mn in petiole of some Iranian grapevine cultivars including Bidanesefid Qazvin- Peikany Kashmar- Khalili Shiraz-Rasha and four foreign cultivars Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Perlette and Black seedless,This study was carried out as –randomized complete blocks design -with-four replications in the Kahriz Horticulture Research station -.A total of 30 adult leaves per cultivar were

  16. Smart AD and DA Converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, van A.H.M.; Hegt, J.A.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Radulov, G.I.; Zanikopoulos, A.; Doris, K.; Quinn, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a concept is proposed to solve the problems related to the embedding of AD and DA converters in system-on-chips, FPGAs or other VLSI solutions. Problems like embedded testing, yield, reliability and reduced design space become crucial bottlenecks in the integration of high-performance

  17. agradecimento aos consultores ad hoc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REA Editor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Agradecemos aos professores Nildo Viana (UFG e Flavio Sofiati (UFG, organizadores do DOSSIÊ JUVENTUDE & SOCIEDADE, e aos Consultores Ad hoc pela leitura e apreciação crítica dos artigos submetidos e publicados nesta edição.

  18. Efeito da adubação fosfatada sobre o crescimento e teor de macronutrientes de mudas de pinhão manso Phosphorus fertilization on growth and contents of macronutrients in Jatropha curcas seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A adição de fósforo na composição do substrato para produção de mudas ajuda as raízes e as plântulas a crescerem mais rapidamente, aumenta a resistência aos estresses ambientais e doenças e melhora ainda a eficiência no uso de nutrientes e da água em várias espécies vegetais. Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar o efeito da adição de superfosfato simples no substrato sobre o crescimento e teor foliar de macronutrientes de mudas de pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas. O substrato contendo material de solo e composto de lixo recebeu as doses de 0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10 e 12,5 kg m-3 de superfosfato simples. As mudas foram avaliadas 30 dias após o plantio. O crescimento máximo das plantas de pinhão manso foi observado com a adição de superfosfato simples ao substrato em doses estimadas na faixa de 5 a 8 kg m-3 de substrato. O fertilizante fosfatado favoreceu o crescimento principalmente de raízes e área foliar e propiciou aumento do teor de todos os macronutrientes no tecido vegetal, exceto o cálcio.The addition of phosphorous to the substrate for the production of seedlings promotes faster growth of both root and shoots, increases tolerance to environmental stress and diseases, and even improves the efficiency of nutrient and water use in several plant species. This experiment aimed to study the effect of the addition of simple superphosphate to the substrate on the growth and macronutrient levels in the contents of seedlings of Jatropha curcas. A substrate containing soil and urban-waste compost was modified by the addition of simple superphosphate in 0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 and 12.5 kg m-3 amounts. The seedlings were evaluated 30 days after planting. Maximum growth of the Jatropha plants was observed for the simple superphosphate added in estimated amounts in the range of 5 to 8 kg m-3. The phosphorus fertilization especially favored the growth of leaf-area and roots, and promoted increase in contents of all macronutrient except

  19. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS 2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2015)014 and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  20. Chiral gauge theory on AdS domain wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We describe a realization of chiral gauge theories based on the domaim wall fermion construction implemented on an interval in five dimensional AdS spacetime. At semi-classical level deconstructed description of the theory is given in terms of 4-dimensional Minkowski slices supporting chiral zero modes at the ends. Energy scales warp down along the fifth dimension. When the theory is augmented by 4-dimensional neutral Majorana spinors together with the Higgs mechanism at the low energy end, we can arrange for a theory where the lightest gauge boson mode as well as chiral zero mode at the high energy end are parametrically lighter than other states. Triangle anomalies and instanton effects are expected to make gauge bosons heavy if the resulting effective theory is anomalous. Due to the strong coupling effects at the quantum level, full non-perturbative calculation will be necessary to validate this construction

  1. From free fields to AdS space: Thermal case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the reorganization of free field theory correlators to closed string amplitudes investigated in previous papers in the case of Euclidean thermal field theory and study how the dual bulk geometry is encoded on them. The expectation value of Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for confinement-deconfinement transition, is directly reflected on the dual bulk geometry. The dual geometry of the confined phase is found to be AdS space periodically identified in Euclidean time direction. The gluing of Schwinger parameters, which is a key step for the reorganization of field theory correlators, works in the same way as in the nonthermal case. In the deconfined phase the gluing is made possible only by taking the dual geometry correctly. The dual geometry for the deconfined phase does not have a noncontractable circle in the Euclidean time direction

  2. Fine Grained Chaos in AdS_{2} Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehl, Felix M; Rozali, Moshe

    2018-03-23

    Quantum chaos can be characterized by an exponential growth of the thermal out-of-time-order four-point function up to a scrambling time u[over ^]_{*}. We discuss generalizations of this statement for certain higher-point correlation functions. For concreteness, we study the Schwarzian theory of a one-dimensional time reparametrization mode, which describes two-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS_{2}) gravity and the low-energy dynamics of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model. We identify a particular set of 2k-point functions, characterized as being both "maximally braided" and "k-out of time order," which exhibit exponential growth until progressively longer time scales u[over ^]_{*}^{(k)}∼(k-1)u[over ^]_{*}. We suggest an interpretation as scrambling of increasingly fine grained measures of quantum information, which correspondingly take progressively longer time to reach their thermal values.

  3. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  4. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasobh, C.B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V.C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)

  5. Higher-derivative superparticle in AdS3 space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-03-01

    Employing the coset approach we construct component actions for a superparticle moving in AdS3 with N =(2 ,0 ), D =3 supersymmetry partially broken to N =2 , d =1 . These actions may contain higher time-derivative terms, which are chosen to possess the same (super)symmetries as the free superparticle. In terms of the nonlinear-realization superfields, the component actions always take a simpler form when written in terms of covariant Cartan forms. We also consider in detail the reduction to the nonrelativistic case and construct the corresponding action of a Newton-Hooke superparticle and its higher-derivative generalizations. The structure of these higher time-derivative generalizations is completely fixed by invariance under the supersymmetric Newton-Hooke algebra extended by two central charges.

  6. Fine Grained Chaos in AdS2 Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehl, Felix M.; Rozali, Moshe

    2018-03-01

    Quantum chaos can be characterized by an exponential growth of the thermal out-of-time-order four-point function up to a scrambling time u^*. We discuss generalizations of this statement for certain higher-point correlation functions. For concreteness, we study the Schwarzian theory of a one-dimensional time reparametrization mode, which describes two-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS2 ) gravity and the low-energy dynamics of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model. We identify a particular set of 2 k -point functions, characterized as being both "maximally braided" and "k -out of time order," which exhibit exponential growth until progressively longer time scales u^*(k)˜(k -1 )u^*. We suggest an interpretation as scrambling of increasingly fine grained measures of quantum information, which correspondingly take progressively longer time to reach their thermal values.

  7. Adiabatic pumping solutions in global AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carracedo, Pablo [Meteo-Galicia,Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain); Mas, Javier; Musso, Daniele; Serantes, Alexandre [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela,Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain); Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxías (IGFAE),Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain)

    2017-05-26

    We construct a family of very simple stationary solutions to gravity coupled to a massless scalar field in global AdS. They involve a constantly rising source for the scalar field at the boundary and thereby we name them pumping solutions. We construct them numerically in D=4. They are regular and, generically, have negative mass. We perform a study of linear and nonlinear stability and find both stable and unstable branches. In the latter case, solutions belonging to different sub-branches can either decay to black holes or to limiting cycles. This observation motivates the search for non-stationary exactly time-periodic solutions which we actually construct. We clarify the role of pumping solutions in the context of quasistatic adiabatic quenches. In D=3 the pumping solutions can be related to other previously known solutions, like magnetic or translationally-breaking backgrounds. From this we derive an analytic expression.

  8. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  9. Worldsheet dilatation operator for the AdS superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, Israel [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,IRIS Haus, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-05-23

    In this work we propose a systematic way to compute the logarithmic divergences of composite operators in the pure spinor description of the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring. The computations of these divergences can be summarized in terms of a dilatation operator acting on the local operators. We check our results with some important composite operators of the formalism.

  10. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinsky, A.O.

    2015-01-01

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality can be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem from the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous $O(N^0)$ tests of AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large $N$ CFT coupled to the tower of higher spin gauge fields for t...

  11. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-03-01

    Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5 h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations.

  12. Neutronic design of an ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintas, A; Lopasso, E.M; Marquez Damian, J.I

    2009-01-01

    We present a LEU-ADS design based on an existing Argentine experimental facility, the RA-8 pool type zero power reactor. The versatility of this reactor allows measurement of different core configurations using different fuel enrichment, burnable poison rods, water perturbations and different control rods types in critical or subcritical configurations with an external source. To assess the feasibility of the LEU-ADS, multiplication factors, kinetic parameters, spectra, and time flux evolution were computed. Two external sources were considered: an isotopic 252 C f source, and a D-D pulsed neutron source. Parameters for different core configurations were calculated, and the feasibility of using continuous and pulsed neutron sources was verified. [es

  13. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  14. The influence of the selection of macronutrients coupled with dietary energy density on the performance of broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Y Liu

    Full Text Available A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period. There were no differences between starch and protein intakes between choice and sequentially fed birds (P > 0.05 when broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch, protein and lipid concentrations. When broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch and protein but similar lipid concentrations, both sequentially and choice fed birds selected similar ratios of starch and protein intake (P > 0.05. However, when broiler chickens selected from diets with different protein and lipid but similar starch concentrations, choice fed birds had higher lipid intake (129 versus 118 g/bird, P = 0.027 and selected diets with lower protein concentrations (258 versus 281 g/kg, P = 0.042 than birds offered sequential diet options. Choice fed birds had greater intakes of the high energy diet (1471 g/bird, P < 0.0001 than low energy (197 g/bird or medium energy diets (663 g/bird whilst broiler chickens were offered diets with different energy densities but high crude protein (300 g/kg or digestible lysine (17.5 g/kg concentrations. Choice fed birds had lower FCR (1.217 versus 1.327 g/g, P < 0.0001 and higher carcass yield (88.1 versus 87.3%, P = 0.012 than sequentially fed birds. This suggests that the dietary balance between protein and energy is essential for optimal feed conversion efficiency. The intake path

  15. Dietitian-observed macronutrient intakes of young skill and team-sport athletes: adequacy of pre, during, and postexercise nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Heaton, Lisa E; Nuccio, Ryan P; Stein, Kimberly W

    2014-04-01

    Sports nutrition experts recommend that team-sport athletes participating in intermittent high-intensity exercise for ≥1 hr consume 1-4 g carbohydrate/kg 1-4 hr before, 30-60 g carbohydrate/hr during, and 1-1.2 g carbohydrate/kg/hr and 20-25 g protein as soon as possible after exercise. The study objective was to compare observed vs. recommended macronutrient intake of competitive athletes under free-living conditions. The dietary intake of 29 skill/team-sport athletes (14-19 y; 22 male, 7 female) was observed at a sports training facility by trained registered dietitians for one 24-hr period. Dietitians accompanied subjects to the cafeteria and field/court to record their food and fluid intake during meals and practices/competitions. Other dietary intake within the 24-hr period (e.g., snacks during class) was accounted for by having the subject take a picture of the food/fluid and completing a log. For male and female athletes, respectively, the mean ± SD (and percent of athletes meeting recommended) macronutrient intake around exercise was 1.4 ± 0.6 (73%) and 1.4 ± 1.0 (57%) g carbohydrate/kg in the 4 hr before exercise, 21.1 ± 17.2 (18%) and 18.6 ± 13.2 (29%) g carbohydrate/hrr during exercise, 1.4±1.1 (68%) and 0.9± 1.0 (43%) g carbohydrate/kg and 45.2 ± 36.9 (73%) and 18.0 ± 21.2 (43%) g protein in the 1 hr after exercise. The male athletes' carbohydrate and protein intake more closely approximated recommendations overall than that of the female athletes. The most common shortfall was carbohydrate intake during exercise, as only 18% of male and 29% of female athletes consumed 3060 g carbohydrate/hr during practice/competition.

  16. Predicting of perceived self efficacy in the amount of macronutrients intake in women with metabolic syndrome - 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebi, Siamak; Azadbakht, Leila; Feizi, Avat; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hozori, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a collection of metabolic disorders, which can increase the mortality rates from 20% to 80%. One of strategies to control the disease is the attention to the dietary habits. Compliance with proper diet is one of the major challenges in the management of this syndrome. Due to this fact, that the patient is responsible for the adjustment of the daily diet, it is important to identify the factors affecting the adoption of nutritional self-care. Besides, self-efficacy is considered as an important pre-requisite for this behavior because it acts as an independent part of the basic skills. This study was carried out with the purpose of determining the predictive role of perceived self-efficacy on macronutrients intake in women with metabolic syndrome. In this descriptive study with correlational nature in 2012, there were 329 patients with the metabolic syndrome. The patients were covered by Isfahan oil industry medical centers and selected by a systematic method. In order to gather information on perceived self-efficacy, the questionnaires constructed by the researchers were used and the validity and reliability had been confirmed by the calculation of content validity indexand content validity ratio values and the indices of internal consistency and stability of the tool. The 24-h dietary recall questionnaire was also used for 3 days in order to investigate the nutritional behavior. The obtained data from the dietary recall questionnaire were analyzed by the N4 nutritional software. In this study, AMOS software version 16 was used for the structural model fitting by using the generalized least squares method besides the SPSS statistical software version 16. THESE AVERAGES OBTAINED FROM THE RESULTS: 2512.37 kcal energy intake, 70.95 g protein, 420 g carbohydrates and 61.61 g of fat per day. The mean of perceived self-efficacy score was 47.89. The Pearson correlation coefficient was indicated a significant inverse relationship between the perceived

  17. From free fields to AdS space. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    We continue with the program of paper I [Phys. Rev. D 70, 025009 (2004)] to implement open-closed string duality on free gauge field theory (in the large-N limit). In this paper we consider correlators such as i=1 n TrΦ J i (x i )>. The Schwinger parametrization of this n-point function exhibits a partial gluing up into a set of basic skeleton graphs. We argue that the moduli space of the planar skeleton graphs is exactly the same as the moduli space of genus zero Riemann surfaces with n holes. In other words, we can explicitly rewrite the n-point (planar) free-field correlator as an integral over the moduli space of a sphere with n holes. A preliminary study of the integrand also indicates compatibility with a string theory on AdS space. The details of our argument are quite insensitive to the specific form of the operators and generalize to diagrams of a higher genus as well. We take this as evidence of the field theory's ability to reorganize itself into a string theory

  18. On modular properties of the AdS3 CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Walter H.; Nunez, Carmen A.

    2011-01-01

    We study modular properties of the AdS 3 Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model. Although the Euclidean partition function is modular invariant, the characters on the Euclidean torus diverge and the regularization proposed in the literature removes information on the spectrum and the usual one to one map between characters and representations of rational models is lost. Reconsidering the characters defined on the Lorentzian torus and focusing on their structure as distributions, we obtain expressions that recover those properties. We study their modular transformations and find a generalized S matrix, depending on the sign of the real modular parameters, which has two diagonal blocks and one off-diagonal block, mixing discrete and continuous representations, that we fully determine. We then explore the relations among the modular transformations, the fusion algebra and the boundary states. We explicitly construct Ishibashi states for the maximally symmetric D-branes and show that the generalized S matrix defines the one-point functions associated to pointlike and H 2 -branes as well as the fusion rules of the degenerate representations of sl(2,R) appearing in the open string spectrum of the pointlike D-branes, through a generalized Verlinde theorem.

  19. Quantum Black Holes as Holograms in AdS Braneworlds

    CERN Document Server

    Emparan, R; Kaloper, Nemanja; Emparan, Roberto; Fabbri, Alessandro; Kaloper, Nemanja

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new approach for using the AdS/CFT correspondence to study quantum black hole physics. The black holes on a brane in an AdS$_{D+1}$ braneworld that solve the classical bulk equations are interpreted as duals of {\\it quantum-corrected} $D$-dimensional black holes, rather than classical ones, of a conformal field theory coupled to gravity. We check this explicitly in D=3 and D=4. In D=3 we reinterpret the existing exact solutions on a flat membrane as states of the dual 2+1 CFT. We show that states with a sufficiently large mass really are 2+1 black holes where the quantum corrections dress the classical conical singularity with a horizon and censor it from the outside. On a negatively curved membrane, we reinterpret the classical bulk solutions as quantum-corrected BTZ black holes. In D=4 we argue that the bulk solution for the brane black hole should include a radiation component in order to describe a quantum-corrected black hole in the 3+1 dual. Hawking radiation of the conformal field is then ...

  20. The Effects of a Normal Rate versus a Slow Intervalled Rate of Oral Nutrient Intake and Intravenous Low Rate Macronutrient Application on Psychophysical Function – Two Pilot Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Denzer-Lippmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stomach distension and energy per time are factors influencing satiety. Moreover, different rates of nutrient intake induce different stomach distension. The goal of our studies was to elucidate the influence of different oral rates of nutrient intake (normal rate versus slow intervalled rate; study I and intravenous low rate macronutrient application (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo (study II on psychophysical function. The pilot studies investigated the effects of 1 study I: a mixed nutrient solution (1/3 protein, 1/3 fat, 1/3 carbohydrates 2 study II: intravenous macronutrient infusions (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo on psychophysical function (mood, hunger, food craving, alertness, smell intensity ratings and hedonic ratings in human subjects. In study I 10 male subjects (age range: 21–30 years completed the study protocol participating in both test conditions and in study II 20 male subjects (age range: 19–41 years completed the study protocol participating in all test conditions. Additionally, metabolic function was analyzed and cognitive and olfactory tests were conducted twice starting 100 min before the beginning of the intervention and 240 min after. Psychophysical (mood, hunger, fat-, protein-, carbohydrate-, sweets- and vegetable-craving, alertness and metabolic function tests were performed seven times on each examination day. Greater effects on hunger and food cravings were observed for normal rate of intake compared to slow intervalled rate of intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application. Our findings potentially confirm that volume of the food ingested and a higher rate of energy per time contribute to satiety during normal rate of food intake, while slow intervalled rate of food intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application showed no effects on satiation. Our results motivate the view that a certain amount of volume of the food ingested and a certain energy per time ratio are necessary