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Sample records for ad libitum macronutrient

  1. The ratio of macronutrients, not caloric intake, dictates cardiometabolic health, aging, and longevity in ad libitum-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; McMahon, Aisling C; Ballard, J William O; Ruohonen, Kari; Wu, Lindsay E; Cogger, Victoria C; Warren, Alessandra; Huang, Xin; Pichaud, Nicolas; Melvin, Richard G; Gokarn, Rahul; Khalil, Mamdouh; Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J; Sinclair, David A; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-03-04

    The fundamental questions of what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet and how this maintains health and longevity remain unanswered. Here, the Geometric Framework, a state-space nutritional modeling method, was used to measure interactive effects of dietary energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate on food intake, cardiometabolic phenotype, and longevity in mice fed one of 25 diets ad libitum. Food intake was regulated primarily by protein and carbohydrate content. Longevity and health were optimized when protein was replaced with carbohydrate to limit compensatory feeding for protein and suppress protein intake. These consequences are associated with hepatic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and mitochondrial function and, in turn, related to circulating branched-chain amino acids and glucose. Calorie restriction achieved by high-protein diets or dietary dilution had no beneficial effects on lifespan. The results suggest that longevity can be extended in ad libitum-fed animals by manipulating the ratio of macronutrients to inhibit mTOR activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Eating ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    using an ad libitum meal consisting of spaghetti bolognaise. I analyse the entanglement and concurrence of different knowledge practices and show how several scalings of appetite play out, one ex explaining the aim of the test, being to ”measure what your body would want the most” and hence producing...... an eater who: ”shouldn't restrain herself”. Practices of food and eating in the test meal I suggest, will allow us to tackle reductionism by showing the complex cultural context shaping clinical intervention....

  3. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  4. Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Donnelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. OBJECTIVE: TO ADDRESS THE QUESTION: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-January 2013 for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies were included. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete adults (mean age 18-64 years. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. RESULTS: No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17, 69% of acute (n = 40, 50% of short-term (n = 10, 92% of non-randomized (n = 12 and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24. Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. LIMITATIONS: The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure, or

  5. The ad-libitum alcohol 'taste test': secondary analyses of potential confounds and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Button, Emily; Rose, Abigail K; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Di Lemma, Lisa; Field, Matt

    2016-03-01

    Motivation to drink alcohol can be measured in the laboratory using an ad-libitum 'taste test', in which participants rate the taste of alcoholic drinks whilst their intake is covertly monitored. Little is known about the construct validity of this paradigm. The objective of this study was to investigate variables that may compromise the validity of this paradigm and its construct validity. We re-analysed data from 12 studies from our laboratory that incorporated an ad-libitum taste test. We considered time of day and participants' awareness of the purpose of the taste test as potential confounding variables. We examined whether gender, typical alcohol consumption, subjective craving, scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and perceived pleasantness of the drinks predicted ad-libitum consumption (construct validity). We included 762 participants (462 female). Participant awareness and time of day were not related to ad-libitum alcohol consumption. Males drank significantly more alcohol than females (p alcohol consumption (p = 0.04), craving (p alcohol consumption. The construct validity of the taste test was supported by relationships between ad-libitum consumption and typical alcohol consumption, craving and pleasantness ratings of the drinks. The ad-libitum taste test is a valid method for the assessment of alcohol intake in the laboratory.

  6. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggi, Paolo; Thearle, Marie S; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2015-08-01

    Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m(2); body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R(2) = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R(2) = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m(2) or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake.

  7. Effects of ad libitum and restricted diets in different feeding regimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WJ

    rates of controlled-fed pigs were significantly lower compared to the ad libitum group and single-fed animals. The hypothesis was ... Modern pig production units aim to achieve high daily growth rates with minimal feeding ... is variable since environmental factors such as hot temperatures can affect it (Hyun et al., 1998).

  8. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects

  9. STEPVfISE ADAPTATION OF SHEEP FED AD LIBITUM TO A HIGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both ruminal bacteria and protozoa of lowered pH values for prolonged periods of time (Mackie et al.,. 1978; Mackie & Gilchrist, 1979). ln view of this, NH1-N and ruminal pH as well as food intake, weight gain and. D- and L-lactic acid were determined in the rumen of adult sheep during stepwise adaptation at ad libitum in-.

  10. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkulo, M.A.R.; Bol, S.; Levels, K.; Lamberts, R.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Noakes, T.D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and

  11. Ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding versus scheduled interval feeding for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Felicia M; Tosh, Karen; McGuire, William

    2010-02-17

    Scheduled interval feeding of prescribed enteral volumes is current standard practice for preterm infants. However, feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (ad libitum or demand/semi demand) rather than at scheduled intervals might help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at scheduled intervals on growth rates and the time to hospital discharge. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to Oct 2009), EMBASE (1980 to Oct 2009), CINAHL (1982 to Oct 2009), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (including cluster randomised trials) that compared a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding at scheduled intervals. We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We found eight randomised controlled trials that compared ad libitum or demand/semi-demand regimens with scheduled interval regimes in preterm infants in the transition phase from intragastric tube to oral feeding. The trials were generally small and of variable methodological quality. The duration of the intervention and the duration of data collection and follow-up in most of the trials was not likely to have allowed detection of measurable effects on growth. Three trials reported that feeding preterm infants using an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding regimen allowed earlier discharge from hospital (by about two to four days) but other trials did not confirm this

  12. Growth differences of male and female Gottingen minipigs during ad libitum feeding: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P.J.A.; Madsen, L.W.; Meyer, Otto A.

    2005-01-01

    Even though minipigs have been used in biomedical research for nearly half a century now, no specific nutrient requirements are available. For that reason a series of studies into the nutrient requirements of Gottingen minipigs were carried out. Firstly, a pilot study was carried out to determine...... the ad libitum feed intake (FI) during growth, as a reference for later feed restriction studies. Four male and four female minipigs were fed two types of diet, one standard pig diet (20.6% crude protein; 11.7% crude fat; 13.5 mj/kg DM metabolizable energy) and one diet specially designed for minipigs...... backfat thickness. Relative backfat thickness ranged from 5 to 13 cm/100 kg. Females had thicker relative backfat layers than males. Remarkably, no large changes in haematology and clinical chemistry occurred in ad libitum fed Gottingen minipigs as compared to reference values, and no abnormalities other...

  13. Utilization Patterns and User Characteristics of an Ad Libitum Internet Weight Loss Program

    OpenAIRE

    Binks, Martin; van Mierlo, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Background The Internet holds promise for the delivery of evidence-based weight loss treatment to underserved populations. However, most studies do not reflect the more naturalistic and common ad libitum, or freely at will, use of the Internet. Randomized clinical trials, for example, typically include at least some direct contact with participants and often have restrictive selection criteria. There is a paucity of research examining utilization patterns of online weight loss programs, parti...

  14. Brisk walking reduces ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters during a workplace simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2012-02-01

    Workplace snacking can contribute to obesity. Exercise reduces chocolate cravings but effects on chocolate consumption are unknown. This study investigated the effect of brief exercise on ad libitum consumption during breaks in a computerised task. Seventy-eight regular chocolate eaters, age: 24.90±8.15 years, BMI: 23.56±3.78 kg/m(2) abstained for 2 days. They were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, involving either a 15 min brisk walk or quiet rest, and then computerised Stroop tasks with low or high demanding conditions, in three 180 s blocks with a 90 s interval. Throughout, a pre-weighed bowl of chocolates was available for ad libitum eating. A two-way ANOVA revealed no interaction effect of exercise and stress on total chocolate consumption, or main effect of stress, but a main effect of exercise [F(1, 74)=7.12, pchocolate consumption was less (t(73.5)=2.69, 95% CI for difference 3.4-22.9, ES=0.61) for the exercise (15.6 g) than control (28.8 g) group. Exercise also increased affective activation, but there was no mediating effect of change in affect on chocolate consumption. A brief walk may help to reduce ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Water balance and ad libitum water intake in football players during a training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.

  16. Is there peripheral or ovarian insulin action alteration in broiler breeder hens fed ad libitum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métayer, S; Tesseraud, S; Cassy, S; Taouis, M; Williams, J; Picard, M; Rideau, N

    2006-06-01

    We investigated whether a change in peripheral glucose homeostasis, a local change in the insulin-related ovarian regulatory system, or both occurred in ad libitum-fed broiler breeder hens compared with feed-restricted counterparts. Feed-restricted (R, from 5 to 16 wk of age) and ad libitum-fed (A) hens from a standard commercial line (S) and an experimental dwarf genotype (E) were studied. Basal and stimulated plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were measured during the prebreeding and laying periods. In the basal state (after 16 h fasting) plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower in SA chickens (-5% at 17 wk, -7.5% at 32 wk) compared with EA, SR, and ER chickens, with no difference in plasma insulin concentrations (n = 16). In 17-wk-old SA birds, 30 min after oral glucose loading, plasma glucose concentrations increased significantly compared with the basal state and were also significantly lower as compared with SR but did not differ significantly from EA and ER. Plasma insulin concentrations did not differ significantly between genotypes or regimens (n = 16). A potential modification of intracellular mediators involved in the regulation of cell growth and survival in small follicles that were overrecruited in SA compared with SR was also investigated in SA and SR hens at 32 wk. There was no effect of food restriction in phospho-Akt, Akt, phospho-ERK, and phospho-S6 in the small white ovarian follicles (n = 6) in the basal state and after 30 min of refeeding. In conclusion, the present study does not demonstrate any evidence of glucose intolerance during the prebreeding period, specific change in the ovarian small follicle insulin signalling pathway, or both, in laying broiler breeders fed ad libitum compared with feed-restricted hens.

  17. Measurement of ad libitum food intake, physical activity, and sedentary time in response to overfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying He

    Full Text Available Given the wide availability of highly palatable foods, overeating is common. Energy intake and metabolic responses to overfeeding may provide insights into weight gain prevention. We hypothesized a down-regulation in subsequent food intake and sedentary time, and up-regulation in non-exercise activity and core temperature in response to overfeeding in order to maintain body weight constant. In a monitored inpatient clinical research unit using a cross over study design, we investigated ad libitum energy intake (EI, using automated vending machines, core body temperature, and physical activity (using accelerometry following a short term (3-day weight maintaining (WM vs overfeeding (OF diet in healthy volunteers (n = 21, BMI, mean ± SD, 33.2±8.6 kg/m(2, 73.6% male. During the ad libitum periods following the WM vs. OF diets, there was no significant difference in mean 3-d EI (4061±1084 vs. 3926±1284 kcal/day, p = 0.41, and there were also no differences either in core body temperature (37.0±0.2°C vs. 37.1±0.2°C, p = 0.75 or sedentary time (70.9±12.9 vs. 72.0±7.4%, p = 0.88. However, during OF (but not WM, sedentary time was positively associated with weight gain (r = 0.49, p = 0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and initial weight. In conclusion, short term overfeeding did not result in a decrease in subsequent ad libitum food intake or overall change in sedentary time although in secondary analysis sedentary time was associated with weight gain during OF. Beyond possible changes in sedentary time, there is minimal attempt to restore energy balance during or following short term overfeeding.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342732.

  18. Feed intake of sheep when allowed ad libitum access to feed in methane respiration chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickell, S L; Revell, D K; Toovey, A F; Vercoe, P E

    2014-05-01

    The patterns of feed intake when animals are allowed ad libitum access to feed in a respiration chamber is not known, nor are the potential effects of the artificial environment of chambers on voluntary feed intake. The objectives of the study were to describe the pattern of hourly feed intake of sheep when fed for ad libitum intake in respiration chambers and determine the repeatability of this pattern and the correlation between feed intake and methane production calculated at hourly intervals. Daily and hourly measurements of methane production and feed intake of 47 Merino wethers were measured in respiration chambers twice, 4 wk apart. We found that hourly feed intake of sheep with ad libitum access to feed in respiration chambers showed a repeatable pattern over the 2 measurement periods (r = 0.89, P sheep ate continuously throughout the 23 h period, but most of the eating occurred during the first 8 h in the respiration chambers. There was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.22) between hourly feed intake and hourly methane production (P sheep had 15 to 25% lower feed intake in the respiration chambers compared with their feed intake during the previous week in the animal house pens. In addition, daily feed intake in the respiration chamber was not correlated with feed intake in any of the 7 d before entering the chamber (P > 0.05). Future methane research may consider using feed intake and changes in intake levels as a quantitative indicator of habituation to the methane measurement procedure and environment, which, given the tight association between feed intake and methane production, will be crucial in providing accurate values for methane production.

  19. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ractopamine for finishing barrows fed restricted or ad libitum diets: performance and nitrogen balance

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarelli,Vinícius de Souza; Fialho,Elias Tadeu; Almeida,Erin Caperuto de; Zangeronimo,Márcio Gilberto; Rodrigues,Paulo Borges; Freitas,Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de

    2009-01-01

    Supplementation of 5 ppm of ractopamine, associated or not to feed restriction in diets with a high total lysine content (1.04%) was evaluated on performance and nitrogen balance. In experiment 1, 60 hybrid castrated male swine (76.2 ± 2.3 kg) were housed in pairs according to a randomized complete block design in a factorial treatment arrangement (2 ×2 + 1) with or without ractopamine supplementation, two forms of feeding, ad libitum and feed restriction with 1.04% lysine, and an...

  1. No Impact of Calorie or Unit Information on Ad Libitum Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Langfield, Tess; Attwood, Angela S; Allen, Emily; Drew, Imogen; Votier, Alex; Munafò, Marcus R

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the impact of unit and calorie information on drinking behaviour in an ad libitum taste test paradigm. In this experimental human laboratory study, participants were randomized to one of four conditions, balanced by gender, using a 2 (unit information: present vs. absent) × 2 (calorie information: present vs. absent) between-subjects design. The percentage of beer consumed during the taste test was the primary outcome measure. Among this largely undergraduate student population, we found no evidence that either unit or calorie information impacted alcohol consumption in an ad libitum taste test. A manipulation check indicated that few of the participants receiving either unit and/or calorie information could accurately recall the number of units and/or calories in the beverages provided to them, indicating low levels of engagement with this information. Analysis of qualitative reactions to calorie and unit labelling indicated possible negative unintended consequences of calorie and unit information, including using unit information to facilitate consumption of higher strength beverages, and calorie information to reduce food consumption prior to a drinking episode. We find no evidence to support an effect of unit or calorie information, a public-health initiative supported by the alcohol industry, on drinking behaviour. It is possible that compulsory unit and calorie labelling, at least in the numeric format used here, would have no effect on alcohol intake and may even have some negative unintended consequences among certain populations. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  2. Protocol versus ad libitum feeds after laparoscopic pyloromyotomy: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibe, Obinna O; Iqbal, Corey W; Sharp, Susan W; Juang, David; Snyder, Charles L; Holcomb, George W; Ostlie, Daniel J; St Peter, Shawn D

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, randomized trial comparing protocol to ad libitum (ad lib) feeding after laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. Infants undergoing laparoscopic pyloromyotomy were randomized to protocol versus ad lib feeding strategies. The protocol started with Pedialyte® two hours post-operative. This was repeated by another round of Pedialyte®, then two rounds of half-strength formula or breast milk, followed by two rounds of full strength formula or breast milk, followed by the home feeding regimen, at which time the patient was discharged if feeding well. The ad lib group was allowed formula or breast milk two hours after the operation and considered for discharge after tolerating three consecutive feeds. The primary outcome variable was the length of postoperative hospitalization. One hundred fifty infants were enrolled between January 2010 and December 2011. There were no differences in patient characteristics at presentation. While the ad lib group reached goal feeds sooner than the protocol group, this did not translate into a difference in duration of postoperative hospitalization. There were more patients with emesis in the ad lib group after goal feeding was reached, but no difference in readmissions. Ad lib feeding allows patients to reach goal feeds more rapidly than protocol feeding following laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. However, this goal is usually reached beyond discharge hours, resulting in a similar duration of hospitalization. © 2014.

  3. Comparison of behaviour, performance and mortality in restricted and ad libitum-fed growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Ramon, J; Piles, M; Sanchez, J P; Velarde, A; Rafel, O

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rabbits fed in a restricted regimen (75%) showed increased competition for feeding, drinking and use of specific areas of the cages as compared with those provided feed ad libitum. This evaluation was carried out by measuring their space utilisation in the cage, the incidence of agonistic behaviour and rates of mortality. In total, 504 rabbits between 31 and 66 days of age were used in this study. A total of 200 heavy-weight rabbits and 56 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 32 cages, each cage containing eight rabbits: 25 cages housing heavy rabbits and seven cages housing the light-weight ones. They were all fed ad libitum (AD). In addition, a total of 208 heavy-weight rabbits and 40 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 31 cages, each of them containing eight rabbits: 26 cages housing heavy weight rabbits and five cages housing light-weight ones. They were all fed a restricted diet (R) regimen. The restriction was calculated to be 75% of the feed consumed by the AD group. The total space available in the cage was 3252 cm(2), with a stocking density of 24.6 animals/m(2). Animals between 32 and 60 days of age from 20 different cages were observed nine times per week (morning or afternoon) by means of scan and focal sampling by one observer. During each period, cages were assessed for 5 min, registering every minute the position of all the animals in relation to Area A (feeder), Area B (central part) or Area C (back and drinker area). The incidence of agonistic behaviour such as displacement, biting and jumping on each other was also assessed. Performance variables such as daily gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to general health status and mortality rates, were recorded for all rabbits. When the rabbits were under restricted feeding, the competition for feed and drink increased with clear signs of agonistic behaviour such as biting, displacement and animals jumping on top of each other

  4. Sugar Restriction Leads to Increased Ad Libitum Sugar Intake by Overweight Adolescents in an Experimental Test Meal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Gillian A; Black, David S; Huh, Jimi; Davis, Jaimie N; Unger, Jennifer; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2017-07-01

    The impact of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake by overweight adolescents is unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent ad libitum sugar intake by overweight adolescents and whether habitual sugar intake and impulsivity influence the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake. This was an in-laboratory crossover feeding trial with sugar-exposure and sugar-restriction conditions. Eighty-seven overweight Latino and African-American adolescents underwent both meal conditions in two separate 8-hour in-laboratory visits. Participants had access to ad libitum snack trays for 3 hours after the condition-specific meals. Ad libitum sugar intake during the snack period was measured at each visit. Habitual sugar intake and impulsivity were assessed at baseline. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to examine the within-person effect of meal condition on ad libitum sugar intake. Mixed models were used to examine the moderating effects of habitual sugar intake and impulsivity on the meal condition-ad libitum sugar intake relationship. Participants consumed more ad libitum sugar during the snack period in the sugar-restriction condition than in the sugar-exposure condition (sugar restriction=78.63±38.84 g, sugar exposure=70.86±37.73 g; F=9.64, P=0.002). There was no relationship between habitual sugar intake and how much ad libitum sugar participants consumed during either condition. Higher impulsivity was associated with greater ad libitum sugar intake during both conditions (sugar restriction: b=.029, standard error=.01, Poverweight adolescents restricted from sugar intake consume greater amounts of sugar when they are later given access to high-sugar foods. Overweight adolescents with higher impulsivity appear to consume greater amounts of sugar regardless of previous levels of sugar consumption. Compensatory sugar intake and trait impulsivity may have implications for dietary interventions in this

  5. The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M.; Mu, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. Methods: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) men (n...... = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 ± 4.8 years were randomized to either 1. Moderate fat (40 E%) with 20 E% MUFA and low in glycemic index (GI) (MUFA, n = 54), 2. Low fat (25 E%) and medium in GI (LF, n = 51) or 3. Control (35 E% fat) and high in GI (CTR, n = 26) all with similar protein content......, and all provided ad libitum. First 6-month intervention with 100 % food provision (previously reported) following 12 months of moderately intensive intervention with 20 % food provision now reported. Results: Attrition rate was higher in MUFA (63 %) than in LF (37 %, P = 0.019) and CTR (42 %, P = 0...

  6. Use Behaviors, Dependence, and Nicotine Exposure Associated with Ad Libitum Cigar Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Eric D.; Moeller, Benjamin C.; Harbour, Darlene; Kuehl, Philip J.; McGuire, Michael; Vivar, Juan C.; Schroeder, Megan J.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To examine factors important to cigar smoking and subsequent nicotine exposure, we evaluated the impact of cigar type, cigarette smoking history, and inhalation behaviors on nicotine dependence, smoking topography, and biomarkers of exposure in current exclusive cigar smokers. Methods Adult, exclusive cigar smokers (N = 77) were recruited based on cigar type, cigarette smoking history, and self-reported inhalation behaviors. Participants smoked their own brand product ad libitum for up to one hour; dependence symptoms, smoking topography, and biomarkers of exposure were assessed. Results Cigar smokers showed low levels of dependence. Cigar smoking alleviated withdrawal and craving symptoms, increased plasma nicotine concentration, and increased exhaled CO. Multiple regression analyses indicate that inhalation behaviors were associated with increased dependence and greater reductions in withdrawal symptoms upon cigar smoking. Large cigar smokers smoked longer and smoked more tobacco than small cigar and cigarillo smokers. Furthermore, large cigar smokers and self-reported inhalers were exposed to more nicotine than small cigar smokers and non-inhalers. Conclusions Our study suggests that cigar type and smoking behaviors affect dependence and nicotine exposure upon cigar smoking. These findings provide additional insight into the substantial risks associated with cigar smoking. PMID:29516029

  7. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity.

  8. Use of nicotine substitute prescribed at hourly plus ab libitum intake or ad libitum for heavy smokers willing to quit: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zellweger Jean-Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the impact of instructional guidance in the regular use of use nicotine nasal spray (NNS on the true use of NNS during the first three weeks of smoking cessation for heavy smokers who are willing to quit. Methods This randomized, open, controlled trial included 50 patients who were heavy smokers, were willing to quit, and attending an academic outpatient clinic in Western Switzerland. Patients were randomised to instruction on NNS use as "ad libitum" (administration whenever cravings appear; control group or to use NNS when craving appears and at least every hour when awake (intervention group. Intakes were monitored using an electronic device fixed in the spray unit (MDILog™ during the first three weeks of use. Self reported abstinence from smoking at six months was confirmed by expired-air carbon monoxide. Using intention-to-treat analysis, random-effect GLS regression was used to calculate the mean difference of daily doses between groups controlling for lack of independence between measures from the same individual. Results One patient was lost to follow-up. At baseline randomization, the group receiving instruction to use NNS hourly included more women, patients with previous desires to quit, and patients with more psychiatric comorbidities and less somatic complaints compared to the group instructed to use NNS with cravings (group imbalance. Both groups self-administered more than the daily recommended dosage of 8 uses. Mean daily usage was 13.6 dose/day and 11.1 dose/day for the group instructed to use NNS hourly and with cravings, respectively. Adjusting for baseline imbalance, the increased daily doses in the intervention group (hourly use remained nonsignificant compared to ad libitum use (-0.5 dose/day; CI 95% -6.2; 5.3, from day 1 to day 7; and 2.3 dose/day; CI 95% -5.4; 10.0, from day 8 to day 21. Instructing patients to use the NNS daily had no effect on smoking cessation at six months (RR = 0.69; CI

  9. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and emotion regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the firs...

  10. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  11. Meat quality of rabbits reared with two different feeding strategies: with or without fresh alfalfa ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Capra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate production performance, carcass characteristics and nutritive value of meat of rabbits reared under the 2 prevailing feeding strategies in Uruguay. One week after weaning, 96 purebred V line rabbits were randomly distributed between 2 treatments: (T1 commercial pelleted food ad libitum and (T2 commercial pelleted food ad libitum plus fresh alfalfa ad libitum. Each treatment included 12 cages containing 4 individuals each (2 males and 2 females. Growth performance characteristics (live weight evolution, commercial food consumption and food/gain ratio were evaluated. The consumption of alfalfa was not measured. Rabbits were slaughtered at a live weight of 2500 g and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Samples of meat and dissectible fat were analysed to determine intramuscular fat content at muscle L. dorsi, dissectible fat and intramuscular fat composition, minerals (Zn, Fe, Mg and Na, vitamin E and purines. Sensory evaluations were conducted to assess the effect of treatments on the consumer’s perception of differences and the existence of attributes determining preferences. Differences between treatments were significant for total commercial food intake (23 356 vs. 20 930 g/cage; P<0.001 and feed conversion ratio (3.82 vs. 3.41; P<0.01 for T1 and T2 respectively. No significant differences were found in average daily gain, age at slaughter and carcass characteristics. There were no significant differences in the intramuscular fat content. The fatty acid composition of dissectible and intramuscular fat was affected the inclusion of alfalfa in the diet increasing the linolenic acid content (1.82 vs. 3.28% and 2.29 vs. 5.15% for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001, and improving the n-6/n-3 relationship (8.60 vs. 5.82 and 11.58 vs. 5.64 for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001. There were no significant differences in vitamin E

  12. Bone Composition in Male and Female Göttingen Minipigs Fed Variously Restrictedly and near ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P. J. A.; Lemmens, A. G.; Beynen, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    diet 2 was a high fat, low fibre diet. A higher level of feed intake led to a significant increase in the following parameters: body weight development, bone size (length and width of rib and femur), bone volume (rib), bone (rib) dry matter and ash content (mg), as well as bone density (femur...... metabolism. Bone densities, in contrast to bone mineral concentrations, were related to the level of feed restriction and may therefore be useful biomarkers to study the influence of nutrient intake on bone metabolism in Göttingen minipigs.......The current study evaluated the influence of restricted feeding at low and medium levels versus near ad libitum food intake, on the growth and bone development in male and female Göttingen minipigs aged 8 to 43 weeks fed two different types of diets. Diet 1 was a low fat, high fibre diet, whereas...

  13. Food consumption in ground beetles is limited under hypoxic conditions in response to ad libitum feeding, but not restricted feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2018-02-09

    Habitats on land with low oxygen availability provide unique niches inhabited by numerous species. The occupation of such hypoxic niches by animals is hypothesized to come at a cost linked to the limitations of aerobic metabolism and thus energy budget but may also provide benefits through physical protection from predators and parasitoids or reduced competition for food. We investigated the effects of hypoxic conditions on standard metabolic rate (SMR) and specific dynamic action (SDA) in male Carabus nemoralis. SMR and SDA were determined under three manipulated oxygen availabilities: 7, 14 and 21% O 2 and two feeding regimes: limited or ad libitum food consumption. In both hypoxic conditions, C. nemoralis was able to maintain SMR at levels similar to those in normoxia. When the meal size was limited, SDA duration did not differ among the oxygen availability conditions, but SDA was smaller under hypoxic conditions than at normoxic levels. The relative cost of digestion was significantly higher in normoxia than in hypoxia, but it did not affect net energy intake. In contrast, when offered a large meal to simulate ad libitum food conditions, beetles reduced their food consumption and net energy gain by 30% under hypoxia. Oxygen availability may influence the consumed prey size: the hypoxic condition did not limit net energy gain when the beetles fed on a small meal but did when they fed on a large meal. The results indicate that meal size is an important variable in determining differences in physiological costs and whole animal energy budgets at different concentrations of environmental oxygen levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8–11-year-old boys

    OpenAIRE

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline; Green, Benjamin; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8–11 year-old boys in a schoolbased setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum....

  15. Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aller, E E J G; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    or obese adults in 8 centers across Europe. This study reports the 1-year results in 2 of the centers that extended the intervention to 1 year.Method:After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD), 256 adults (BMI>27 kg/m(2)) were randomized to 5 ad libitum diets for 12 months: high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P....../high GI (HP/HGI), low P/low GI (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI) and a control diet. During the first 6 months foods were provided for free through a shop system, during the whole 12-month period subjects received guidance by a dietician. Primary outcome variable was the change in body weight over the 12......-month intervention period.Results:During the LCD period subjects lost 11.2 (10.8, 12.0) kg (mean (95% CI)). Average weight regain over the 12-month intervention period was 3.9 (95% CI 3.0 to 4.8) kg. Subjects on the HP diets regained less weight than subjects on the LP diets. The difference in weight...

  16. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-12-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data were clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilisation of energy was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterised as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species was highest after four days of ad libitum feeding suggesting a short term imbalance in the transport or metabolism of these metabolites when changing the feeding level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of food restriction versus ad libitum feeding of chow and purified diets on variation in body weight, growth and physiology of female Wistar rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraal, M.; Leenaars, P.P.A.M.; Arnts, H.F.G.; Smeets, K.; Savenije, B.; Curfs, J.H.A.J.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ad libitum (AL) supply of standard chow is the feeding method most often used for rodents in animal experiments. However, AL feeding is known to result in a shorter lifespan and decreased health as compared with restricted feeding. Restricted feeding and thus limiting calorie intake prevents many

  18. Meal pattern analysis for effects of compound feed formulation in mid to late lactating dairy cows fed hay and compound feed both ad libitum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, F.; Navarro-Villa, A.; Fowers, R.; Martin-Tereso, J.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Kempen System is a dairy feeding system allowing ad libitum access to pelleted compound feed (CF) and hay. This system allows high DM intake (DMI) up to 30 kg DM (80% CF), but small and frequent CF meals are essential to reduce negative ruminal pH fluctuations. Little is known about feed intake

  19. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  20. Reappraise the situation but express your emotions:Impact of emotion regulation strategies on ad libitum food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eTaut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect and emotion regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165 could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of 1 whether eating (yes/no is used as a secondary emotion regulation strategy and 2 whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the emotion regulation strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, emotion regulation strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion-induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without emotion regulation instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no emotion regulation instruction then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no emotion regulation instruction and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted emotion regulation is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive emotion regulation such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when emotion regulation is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  1. Effects of Ad libitum Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Dieting in Middle-Age Male Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherly, Alexander J; Killen, Lauren G; Smith, Ashton F; Waldman, Hunter S; Seltmann, Christie L; Hollingsworth, Angela; O'Neal, Eric K

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a 3-wk ad libitum, low-carbohydrate (<50 g·d) high-fat (~70% of calories) (LCHF) diet on markers of endurance performance in middle-age, recreationally competitive male runners. All subjects (n = 8) after their normal high-carbohydrate (HC) diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed five 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological variables, metabolic variables, and perceptual responses were recorded. After 20 min of rest, participants completed a 5-km time trial on a road course. Subjects then consumed an LCHF diet for 3 wk and returned for repeat testing. Body mass and seven-site skinfold thickness sum decreased by approximately 2.5 kg (P < 0.01) and 13 mm (P < 0.05) after LCHF diet. Rectal temperature was higher after the first 10 min of exercise (37.7°C ± 0.3°C vs 37.3°C ± 0.2°C) in the HC diet but did not differ at any other time with LCHF diet. Heart rate and perceptual measures did not display any consistent differences between treatments excluding thirst sensation for LCHF diet. RER and carbohydrate oxidation declined significantly, whereas fat oxidation increased after LCHF diet for every pace (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference (P = 0.25) in a 5-km time trial performance, but LCHF diet (23.45 ± 2.25 min) displayed a trend of improved performance versus HC (23.92 ± 2.57 min). Improved body composition and fat oxidation from LCHF diet potentially negate expected performance decrement from reduced carbohydrate use late in exercise for nonelite runners. An acute decrease in training capacity is expected; however, if performance improvement is not exhibited after 3 wk, diet cessation is suggested for negative responders.

  2. Influence of ad libitum milk replacer feeding and butyrate supplementation on the systemic and hepatic insulin-like growth factor I and its binding proteins in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieten, D; Gerbert, C; Koch, C; Dusel, G; Eder, K; Hoeflich, A; Mielenz, B; Hammon, H M

    2018-02-01

    Ad libitum milk feeding and butyrate (B) supplementation have the potential to stimulate postnatal growth and development in calves. The somatotropic axis is the main endocrine regulator of postnatal growth and may be affected by both ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding and B supplementation in calves. We hypothesized that ad libitum MR feeding and B supplementation stimulate systemic and hepatic insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) in preweaning calves. Sixty-four (32 male, 32 female) Holstein calves were examined from birth until wk 11 of life. Calves received MR either ad libitum (Adl) or restrictively (6 L/d; Res). In each feeding group half of the calves received a MR with 0.24% butyrate and the other half received same MR without butyrate. Ad libitum MR feeding was performed from d 4 until wk 8 of age. From wk 9 to 10, Adl and Res calves were gradually weaned and were fed 2 L/d until the end of the trial. Concentrate, hay, and water were freely available. Feed intake was measured daily and body weight weekly. Blood samples for analyzing plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-2, -3, and -4 were taken on d 1, 2, 4, and 7, then weekly or every other week (IGFBP) until wk 11 of life. Liver samples were taken on d 50 and at the end of the study (d 80) to measure gene expression of the growth hormone receptor 1A (GHR1A), IGF1, IGFBP1 to 4, and of the IGF Type 1 and insulin receptor in the liver. Intake of MR and body weight were greater, but concentrate intake was lower in Adl than in Res. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were greater and plasma concentration of IGFBP-2 was lower in Adl than in Res during the ad libitum milk feeding period. After reduction of MR in both groups to 2 L/d plasma concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-4 were lower and plasma concentration of IGFBP-2 was higher in Adl than in Res. Supplementation of B depressed plasma IGF-I from wk 1 to 4 and in wk 9. On d 50, mRNA abundance of

  3. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-01-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterized as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum...... component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilization of energy...... feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal...

  4. Effect of ad Libitum Ice-Slurry and Cold-Fluid Ingestion on Cycling Time-Trial Performance in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Ed; Laursen, Paul B; Kilding, Andrew E

    2017-01-01

    To compare the physiological and performance effects of ad libitum cold-fluid (CF) and ice-slurry (IS) ingestion on cycling time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Seven well-trained male triathletes and cyclists completed 2 maximaleffort 40-km cycling TTs in hot (35°C) and humid (60% relative humidity) conditions. In randomized order, participants ingested CF or IS (initial temperatures 4°C and -1°C, respectively) ad libitum during exercise. At each 5-km interval, time elapsed, power output, rectal and skin temperature, heart rate, and perceptual measures were recorded. The actual CF and IS temperatures during the 40-km TT were determined post hoc. Performance time (2.5% ± 2.6%, ES = 0.27) and mean power (-2.2% ± 3.2%, ES = -0.15) were likely worse in the IS trial. Differences in thermoregulatory and cardiovascular measures were largely unclear between trials, while feeling state was worse in the later stages of the IS trial (ES = -0.31 to -0.95). Fluid-ingestion volume was very likely lower in the IS trial (-29.7% ± 19.4%, ES = -0.97). The temperatures of CF and IS increased by 0.37°C/min and 0.02°C/min, respectively, over the mean TT duration. Ad libitum ingestion of CF resulted in improved 40-km cycling TT performance compared with IS. Participants chose greater fluid-ingestion rates in the CF trial than in the IS trial and had improved feeling state. These findings suggest that ad libitum CF ingestion is preferable to IS during cycling TTs under conditions of environmental heat stress.

  5. Ad libitum Pasture Feeding in Late Pregnancy Does Not Improve the Performance of Twin-bearing Ewes and Their Lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner-Thomas, R. A.; Back, P. J.; Kenyon, P. R.; Hickson, R. E.; Ridler, A. L.; Stafford, K. J.; Morris, S. T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of controlled ryegrass-white clover herbage availability from day 128 until day 142 of pregnancy in comparison to unrestricted availability, on the performance of twin-bearing ewes of varying body condition score (BCS; 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0) and their lambs. It was hypothesised that under conditions of controlled herbage availability, the performance of lambs born to ewes with a greater BCS would be greater than those born to ewes with a lower BCS. During the period that the nutritional regimens were imposed, the pre- and post-grazing herbage masses of the Control regimen (1,070±69 and 801±30 kg dry matter [DM]/ha) were lower than the ad libitum regimen (1,784±69 and 1,333±33 kg DM/ha; pewe live weight, BCS and back fat depth or on lamb live weight, indices of colostrum uptake, maximal heat production, total litter weight weaned or survival to weaning (p>0.05). The difference in ewe BCSs and back fats observed among body condition groups was maintained throughout pregnancy (pewes from the BCS2.0 group had lower BCS and live weight (2.4±0.2, 74.3±2.6 kg) than both the BCS2.5 (2.6±0.2, 78.6±2.4 kg) and BCS3.0 ewes (2.7±0.2, 79.0±2.6 kg; p0.05). Ewe BCS group had no effect on lamb live weight at birth or weaning or on maximal heat production (p>0.05). Serum gamma glutamyl transferase concentrations of lambs born to BCS3.0 ewes were higher within 36 hours of birth than lambs born to BCS2.0 ewes and BCS2.5 ewes (51.8±1.9 vs 46.5±1.9 and 45.6±1.9 IU/mL, respectively [pewe body condition on lamb plasma glucose concentration (p>0.05). Lamb survival was the only lamb parameter that showed an interaction between ewe nutritional regimen and ewe BCS whereby survival of lambs born to BCS2.5 and BCS3.0 ewes differed but only within the Control nutritional regimen ewes (pewes with pre- and post-grazing ryegrass-white clover herbage covers of approximately 1,100 and 800 kg DM/ha in late pregnancy, provided that herbage covers are 1400

  6. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  7. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  8. Insulin-like growth factor I and glucagon-like peptide-2 responses to fasting followed by controlled or ad libitum refeeding in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Murali, Sangita G; Liu, Xiaowen

    2008-01-01

    Luminal nutrients stimulate structural and functional regeneration in the intestine through mechanisms thought to involve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We investigated the relationship between IGF-I and GLP-2 responses and mucosal growth in rats fasted...... for 48 h and then refed for 2 or 4 days by continuous intravenous or intragastric infusion or ad libitum feeding. Fasting induced significant decreases in body weight, plasma concentrations of IGF-I and bioactive GLP-2, jejunal mucosal cellularity (mass, protein, DNA, and villus height), IGF-I m...

  9. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject's estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals consuming SSBs occurred independently of the relative

  10. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. Objective: We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. Design: We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)–sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. Results: In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject’s estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). Conclusions: In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals

  11. Serum lipase activity and concentration during intravenous infusions of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 and after ad libitum meal ingestion in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Stevner, Lene Susanne

    2016-01-01

    -blinded, placebo-controlled 4-arm crossover study (Body Mass Index (BMI): 29 ± 3 kg/m(2), age: 33 ± 9 years). On separate days, the subjects received a 150-min intravenous infusion of either (1) 0.8 pmol/kg/min PYY3-36, (2) 1.0 pmol/kg/min GLP-1, (3) 1 + 2, or (4) placebo. Samples were collected throughout......To examine the effect on serum lipase activity and protein concentration of intravenous infusions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY3-36) and of an ad libitum meal in healthy overweight men. Twenty-five healthy, male subjects participated in this randomized, double...... the infusion and after intake of an ad libitum meal for measurement of serum lipase. Serum lipase levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following mono-infusions of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 were comparable to serum lipase levels following placebo (P = 0.054 and P = 0.873, respectively...

  12. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  13. Effects of 7 days on an ad libitum low-fat vegan diet: the McDougall Program cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John; Thomas, Laurie E; McDougall, Craig; Moloney, Gavin; Saul, Bradley; Finnell, John S; Richardson, Kelly; Petersen, Katelin Mae

    2014-10-14

    Epidemiologic evidence, reinforced by clinical and laboratory studies, shows that the rich Western diet is the major underlying cause of death and disability (e.g, from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes) in Western industrialized societies. The objective of this study is to document the effects that eating a low-fat (≤10% of calories), high-carbohydrate (~80% of calories), moderate-sodium, purely plant-based diet ad libitum for 7 days can have on the biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Retrospective analysis of measurements of weight, blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood lipids and estimation of cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and day 7 from 1615 participants in a 10-day residential dietary intervention program from 2002 to 2011. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used for testing the significance of changes from baseline. The median (interquartile range, IQR) weight loss was 1.4 (1.8) kg (p 7.5% at baseline, the risk dropped to 5.5% (>27%) at day 7 (p vegan diet eaten ad libitum for 7 days results in significant favorable changes in commonly tested biomarkers that are used to predict future risks for cardiovascular disease and metabolic diseases.

  14. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard...... in a meal on 4 h postprandial DIT. The secondary aim was to examine the effects on subjective appetite measures, ad libitum EI and energy balance. In a five-way placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, twenty-two young (age 24·9 (sd 4·6) years), normal-weight (BMI 21·8 (sd 2·1) kg/m2) males were...... produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (se 3) v. 52 (se 2) kJ/h, respectively, P = 0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P = 0·63) and energy balance (P = 0·67) also...

  15. Diet control to achieve euglycemia induces significant loss of heart and liver weight via increased autophagy compared with ad libitum diet in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Ju-Han; Jin, Mingli; Han, Sang-Don; Chon, Gyu-Rak; Kim, Ick-Hee; Kim, Seonguk; Kim, Sung-Young; Choi, Soo-Bong; Noh, Yun-Hee

    2014-08-29

    Intensive glucose control increases the all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that strict diet control to achieve euglycemia in diabetes damages major organs, increasing the mortality risk. To evaluate effects on major organs when euglycemia is obtained by diet control, we generated a model of end-stage T2DM in 13-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats by subtotal pancreatectomy, followed by ad libitum feeding for 5 weeks. We divided these rats into two groups and for the subsequent 6 weeks provided ad libitum feeding to half (AL, n=12) and a calorie-controlled diet to the other half (R, n=12). To avoid hypoglycemia, the degree of calorie restriction in the R group was isocaloric (g per kg body weight per day) compared with a sham-operated control group (C, n=12). During the 6-week diet control period, AL rats ate three times more than rats in the C or R groups, developing hyperglycemia with renal hyperplasia. R group achieved euglycemia but lost overall body weight significantly compared with the C or AL group (49 or 22%, respectively), heart weight (39 or 23%, respectively) and liver weight (50 or 46%, respectively). Autophagy levels in the heart and liver were the highest in the R group (Pdiabetes but may be deleterious even at isocaloric rate when insulin is deficient because of significant loss of heart and liver mass via increased autophagy.

  16. Growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and metabolic profile of dairy heifers limit-fed distillers dried grains with ad libitum forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a corn- and soybean-product-based concentrate mix or distillers dried grains with solubles concentrate mix with ad libitum grass hay to dairy heifers. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 24 heifers [18 Holstein and 6 Brown Swiss; 219 ± 2 d of age (±standard deviation); 230 ± 4 kg of body weight] to evaluate the effect of diet on dry matter intake (DMI), growth performance, rumen fermentation, metabolic profile, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) corn and soybean product concentrate mix, and (2) distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-based concentrate mix (DDG). Both concentrate mixes were limit-fed at 0.8% of body weight and grass hay was offered ad libitum. Heifers were individually fed using Calan gates and orts were recorded daily at feeding. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and ration concentrate mix offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2 wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Jugular blood samples were collected every 4 wk for metabolite and metabolic hormone analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 by fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the growth measurements and growth measurements and DMI did not differ between treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed for rumen butyrate percentage with heifers fed DDG having a greater percentage. Total volatile fatty acid concentration, acetate molar percentage, and acetate:propionate decreased with the DDG treatment, whereas propionate molar percentage increased. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the metabolites or metabolic hormones measured. A tendency was observed for glucose and plasma urea nitrogen concentration to decrease with DDG. Plasma

  17. Influencia de la ingesta ad libitum de bebidas con diferente osmolaridad sobre algunas variables fisiológicas durante una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración. Influence of ad libitum intake of beverages with different osmolarities on some physiological parameters during a high-intensity, long-duration physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: establecer la influencia de la ingesta ad libitum de diferentes bebidas hidratantes sobre el porcentaje de pérdida del peso corporal (%PC, el aumento de la frecuencia cardíaca (FC y la reducción porcentual del volumen plasmático (%VP en deportistas sometidos a una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración. Metodología: luego de nueve minutos de calentamiento, en banda rodante con velocidad equivalente al 50% de la frecuencia cardíaca de reserva (FCR, siguieron 88 minutos de carrera, durante la cual la velocidad se incrementó al 80% de la FCR; al final, 90 minutos de recuperación. No se hizo reposición hídrica durante el tratamiento deshidratado (DH; durante los tratamientos con hidratación se emplearon volúmenes similares, ingeridos ad libitum, de cada una de tres bebidas, a saber: hiperosmolar (Hiper, hipoosmolar (Hipo e isoosmolar (Iso. Resultados: se observó en cada uno de los tratamientos un aumento del porcentaje de pérdia del peso corporal (%PC (p<0,001 y de la FC (p< 0,05 al igual que una correlación entre el %PC y el incremento de la FC (p<0,000; en los tratamientos DH e Hiper hubo una reducción del volumen plasmático (%VP (p<0,05. Se observó interacción tiempo-tratamiento con el %PC. Conclusiones: la ingesta ad libitum fue menor que la cantidad recomendada en la literatura internacional, por lo que, probablemente, no se pudieron establecer los efectos de la osmolaridad de las bebidas hidratantes sobre las variables estudiadas. La magnitud del %PC, del incremento de la FC y de la reducción del %VP fueron proporcionales a la duración de la actividad física; la relación existente entre el %PC y la %VP se modificó por la osmolaridad de la bebida. Objetive: To establish the influence of ad libitum intake of hydrating beverages with different osmolarities on the percentage of body weight loss (%BW, the increase of heart rate (HR, and the percentage of plasma volume decrease (%PV in athletes

  18. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: Results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Christopher L. [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, P.O. Box 38, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States)], E-mail: Rowe@cbl.umces.edu; Heyes, Andrew [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, P.O. Box 38, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States); Hopkins, William [Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 100 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2009-01-31

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ('Ad lib') larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ('Ration') larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V{sub total} (Control, 'C'), 109 ppm (Low, 'L'), and 363 ppm (High, 'H'). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at {alpha} = 0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources

  19. CH4 and N2O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-01-01

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N 2 O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH 4 from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N 2 O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH 4 emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH 4 animal −1 d −1 and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH 4 conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N 2 O emission rates (21.2 g N 2 O animal −1 d −1 ) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N 2 O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N 2 O animal −1 d −1 and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N 2 O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH 4 conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH 4 and N 2 O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were provided in the first time. • Feeding strategies determined the diurnal pattern of feedlot CH 4

  20. THE CONSEQUENCES ON BLOOD GSH DYNAMICS ON WISTAR FEMALE RATS AT AD LIBITUM CHROMIUM (VI ADMINISTRATION DURING THE GESTATION AFTER THE WEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA GRĂVILĂ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (VI is a widely used industrial chemical, extensively used in paints, metal finishes, steel including stainless steel manufacturing, alloy cast irons, chrome, and wood treatment. In nature chromium occurs in divalent, trivalent and hexavalent forms. Hexavalent chromium predominates over the trivalent form in natural waters. We have studied the influence of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 on blood GSH values in rats. This study was carried out on 28 Wistar adult female rats, divided in 3 experimental groups (E and one control group (C. The rats were feed with 25ppm (LOAEL, 50ppm and 75ppm potassium dichromate, ad libitum, in drinking water, during the gestation. The control batch received tap water. Reduced glutathione (GSH was measured quantitatively after the wean using a Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer, through Beutler et al. method, at 412nm. This study reports that potassium dichromate exposure induced the depletion of blood GSH because Cr(VI can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS. It can induce oxidative stress and toxicity.

  1. Effects of toasting blue lupins, soybeans or barley as supplement for high-yielding organic dairy cows fed grass-clover silage ad libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Lund, Peter; Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    The effect of toasted supplement on milk production was examined in three experiments on an organic study farm during the winter 2004/2005. Three types of iso-energetic supplement feed, toasted or untreated, were examined in each experiment, with an untreated cereal mixture as control. The supple......The effect of toasted supplement on milk production was examined in three experiments on an organic study farm during the winter 2004/2005. Three types of iso-energetic supplement feed, toasted or untreated, were examined in each experiment, with an untreated cereal mixture as control....... The supplement under investigation was: lupins in experiment 1, barley in experiment 2 and soybeans in experiment 3. The same forage mixture of grass-clover silage (84% of DM), grass pellets (11% of DM) and straw (5% of DM) was fed ad libitum in all the experiments. Toasting decreased effective rumen protein...... of soybeans did not affect milk protein content. ECM yield was significantly higher (P = 0.002) for cows fed toasted soybeans than for cows fed untreated soybeans (28.1 versus 26.4 kg ECM) whereas there was no significant effect on ECM yield from toasting lupins or barley. It can be concluded...

  2. Plasma cortisol levels in response to a cold pressor test did not predict appetite or ad libitum test meal intake in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D; Hernandez, Dominica B; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E

    2012-12-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng/ml), heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as ratings of stress, pain, and appetite, were serially acquired. An ad libitum liquid meal was offered at 45min and intake measured covertly. Fasting cortisol was higher at 15min (mean peak cortisol) following the CPT compared to WW. Higher stress was reported at 2 and 15min for the CPT compared to WW. Pain, an indirect marker of the acute stress, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased following the CPT at 2min compared to WW. Hunger decreased after the CPT at 2 and 15min, and desire to eat ratings were lower following CPT compared to WW. Subjects did not have greater test meal intake (TMI) following CPT compared to WW. There was also no significant relationship between cortisol levels following stress and TMI, indicating that cortisol did not predict subsequent intake in obese women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-05

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  4. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Drew Sayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g + normal fiber (2 g, normal protein (12 g + high fiber (8 g, high protein (25 g + normal fiber (2 g, high protein (25 g + high fiber (8 g. The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  5. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: A 6-mo randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    changes in adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Diet composition had no major effect on preventing weight regain. However, both the LF and MUFA diets produced less body fat regain than did the control diet, and the dropout rate was lowest in the LF diet group, whereas fasting insulin decreased and the homeostasis......BACKGROUND: The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effects of 3 ad libitum diets on the maintenance of an initial weight loss of >or=8% and risk factors for CVD and diabetes during...... a 6-mo controlled dietary intervention. DESIGN: Nondiabetic overweight or obese [mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.5 +/- 2.6] men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 +/- 4.8 y were randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45% of energy) and >20% of fat...

  6. Local e extensão da digestão em terneiros desmamados alimentados "Ad Libitum" com dietas ricas em concentrado contendo diferentes fontes de proteína suplementar Site and extent of digestion by weaned calves fed "Ad Libitum" on high concentrate-rich diets with different supplemental protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vilmar Kozloski

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados nove terneiros da raça Holandesa (139 ± 2,4kg, fistulados no duodeno, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado para estudar o efeito da suplementação com diferentes fontes protéicas (2% de uréia ou 10% de farinha de carne na dieta total de dietas ricas em concentrado (milho e farelo de soja sobre o local e extensão da digestão do alimento, em condições de consumo ad libitum. A relação volumoso:concentrado das dietas foi de 30:70. A digestibilidade ruminal e total da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e nitrogênio, assim como o fluxo duodenal de nitrogênio microbiano e residual do alimento, e a eficiência da síntese protéica microbiana foram semelhantes nos dois tratamentos (P>0,10. A digestibilidade ruminal do amido também foi semelhante, mas a digestibilidade total foi menor no tratamento com uréia (PNine weaned Holstein calves (139 ± 2.4kg fitted with duodenal cannulas were used in a completly ramdomized design to study the effects of supplemental protein sources (2% of urea or 10% of meat meal of high concentrate diets (corn and soybean meal on site and extent of digestion of feed, in ad libitum feeding conditions. The forage:concentrate ratio was 30:70. The ruminal and total digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and nitrogen, as well as microbial and feed residual nitrogen duodenal flow, and the microbial protein synthesis efficiency were similar for both treatments (P>0.10. The ruminal digestibility of starch was also similar, but total digestibility was lower for urea treatment (P<0.10. However, this is probably due more to the limited capacity of ruminants to digest starch in the intestines than to an effect of the protein supplement. The use of urea or meat meal, as supplemental protein sources for corn and soybean meal based diets, formulated to supply the growth requirements of calves fed ad libitum, did not affect the digestion process.Thus, the choise of the protein

  7. Effects of an Ad Libitum Consumed Low-Fat Plant-Based Diet Supplemented with Plant-Based Meal Replacements on Body Composition Indices

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    Boštjan Jakše

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To document the effect of a diet free from animal-sourced nutrients on body composition indices. Methods. This was a nonrandomized interventional (n=241-control (n=84 trial with a 10-week, low-fat, plant-based diet supplemented with two daily meal replacements. The meals were allowed to be eaten to full satiety without prespecified calorie restrictions. Control subjects received weekly lectures on the rationale and expected benefits of plant-based nutrition. Body composition indices were measured with bioimpedance analysis. Results. Relative to controls, in cases, postintervention body fat percentage was reduced by 4.3 (95% CI 4.1–4.6% points (a relative decrement of −13.4%, visceral fat by 1.6 (95% CI 1.5–1.7 fat cross-sectional surface units, and weight by 5.6 kg (95% CI 5.2–6, while muscle mass was reduced by 0.3 kg (95% CI 0.06–0.5 with a relative increase of muscle mass percentage of 4.2 (3.9–4.4% points. Analysis of covariance showed significantly larger adjusted fat reductions in cases compared to controls. Late follow-up revealed further weight loss in 60% of cases and no significant change in controls. Conclusions. Low-fat, plant-based diet in free-living nonresidential conditions eaten ad libitum enables significant and meaningful body fat reductions with relative preservation of muscle mass. This trial is registered with NCT02906072, ClinicalTrials.gov.

  8. Effect of weaning age on feed intake and ruminal fermentation patterns of calves fed a dry total mixed ration with ad libitum access to grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ackeren, Caroline; Steingass, Herbert; Hartung, Karin; Funk, Rainer; Drochner, Winfried

    2010-08-01

    To study the effect of weaning age on average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal fermentation, 10 rumen-cannulated male Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (i) early weaned at 8 weeks of age (235 l milk); (ii) conventionally weaned at 12 weeks of age (347 l milk). Twice daily grass hay (9.0 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) and a dry total mixed ration (TMR) (11.6 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) containing 15% alfalfa hay and 85% concentrates were offered separately. Water was available ad libitum. Ruminal fluid was collected via cannulas at weeks 9, 11, 13 and 15, twice weekly just prior to as well as 1, 3, 5 and 7 h after morning feeding. Calves of both treatments achieved adequate ADG (947 vs. 959 g; p > 0.05). Just-weaned calves rapidly increased DMI (1.1-2.5 kg TMR and 2.4-3.6 kg TMR for early- and conventionally-weaned calves, respectively). From weeks 10-12 early-weaned calves consumed significantly more dry feed than conventionally-weaned calves (week 10: 2.5 vs. 1.6 kg/d; week 12: 3.4 vs. 2.4 kg/d). Early weaning stimulates DMI supporting ruminal fermentation intensity, indicated by lower ruminal pH. After weaning, only early-weaned calves achieved critical average ruminal pH (week 9: 5.7 vs. 6.0, p = 0.017; week 11: 5.9 vs. 6.2, p = 0.007). Experimental treatment did not affect the concentration of ruminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). For all calves, the effects of the concentrate-rich TMR were shown by a high SCFA level (daily average: 137-152 mmol x l(-1)) and an acetate to propionate to butyrate ratio between 51:36:9 and 54:33:10.

  9. Weight Loss in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Consider Individualised, Qualitative, ad Libitum Diets? A Narrative Review and Case Study

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    Irene Capizzi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In advanced chronic kidney disease, obesity may bring a survival advantage, but many transplant centres demand weight loss before wait-listing for kidney graft. The case here described regards a 71-year-old man, with obesity-related glomerulopathy; referral data were: weight 110 kg, Body Mass Index (BMI 37 kg/m2, serum creatinine (sCr 5 mg/dL, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 23 mL/min, blood urea nitrogen (BUN 75 mg/dL, proteinuria 2.3 g/day. A moderately restricted, low-protein diet allowed reduction in BUN (45–55 mg/dL and good metabolic and kidney function stability, with a weight increase of 6 kg. Therefore, he asked to be enrolled in a weight-loss program to be wait-listed (the two nearest transplant centres required a BMI below 30 or 35 kg/m2. Since previous low-calorie diets were not successful and he was against a surgical approach, we chose a qualitative, ad libitum coach-assisted diet, freely available in our unit. In the first phase, the diet is dissociated; he lost 16 kg in 2 months, without need for dialysis. In the second maintenance phase, in which foods are progressively combined, he lost 4 kg in 5 months, allowing wait-listing. Dialysis started one year later, and was followed by weight gain of about 5 kg. He resumed the maintenance diet, and his current body weight, 35 months after the start of the diet, is 94 kg, with a BMI of 31.7 kg/m2, without clinical or biochemical signs of malnutrition. This case suggests that our patients can benefit from the same options available to non-CKD (chronic kidney disease individuals, provided that strict multidisciplinary surveillance is assured.

  10. Episodic Sucrose Intake During Food Restriction Increases Synaptic Abundance of AMPA Receptors in Nucleus Accumbens and Augments Intake of Sucrose Following Restoration of Ad Libitum Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xing-Xiang; Lister, Amanda; Rabinowitsch, Ariana; Kolaric, Rhonda; de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Ziff, Edward B.; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic “breakthrough” intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for ten occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-hour chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  11. Adaptive changes in the appetite, growth and feeding behaviour of pony mares offered ad libitum access to a complete diet in either a pelleted or chaff-based form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argo, C.M.; Cox, J.E.; Lockyer, C.

    2002-01-01

    with CS (R-2 = 0.72). Each CS point represented a 53.4 (s.e. 4.8) kg gain in body weight. Chaff meals were longer (30.6 (s.e. 1.6) min, P lower bite rate (3.8 (s.e. 0.2) per min, P ...Seven, 3-year-old pony mares (similar to230 kg) were used in a cross-over study to compare the appetite, energy and nutrient digestibilities, growth rate and feeding behaviour, when a complete diet was offered ad libitum in either the original loose-chaff mix (C), or as a more convenient, milled...... and pelleted preparation (P). Ad libitum access to the study diet (gross energy 17.2 MJ/kg dry matter (DM)) was attained over 2 weeks. In the following 4 weeks, groups 1 (no. = 3) and 2 (no. 4) received pelleted and chaff-based diets respectively. Dietary forms were exchanged during week 5 and ad libitum...

  12. Binge-like consumption of caloric and non-caloric palatable substances in ad libitum-fed C57BL/6J mice: pharmacological and molecular evidence of orexin involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Lerma-Cabrera, José Manuel; Valor, Luis Miguel; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2014-10-01

    The orexin (OX) system has been implicated in food-reinforced behavior, food-seeking and food overconsumption. Recent evidence suggests that OX signaling might influence consumption of palatable foods with high reinforcing value depending upon the caloric status of the animal. The present study evaluates from a pharmacological and a molecular approach the contribution of OX to excessive binge-like consumption of highly preferred palatable substances (sucrose and saccharin) in ad libitum-fed C57BL/6J mice. The main findings of this study are: (1) intraperitoneal (ip) injection of SB-334867 (10, 20 or 30mg/kg), a selective OXR1 antagonist, significantly decreased binge-like consumption of sucrose (10%, w/v) and saccharin (0.15%, w/v) during the test day in a Drinking in the Dark procedure in ad libitum-fed animals, without evidence of any significant alteration of locomotor activity. (2) Four repetitive, 2-h daily episodes of sucrose and saccharin (but not water) binge-like drinking significantly dampened OX mRNA expression in the LH. Present findings show for the first time a role for OXR1 signaling in binge-like consumption of palatable substances in animals under no caloric needs. Targeting OXR1 could represent a novel pharmacological approach to treat binge-eating episodes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pattern of tissue deposition, gain and body composition of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two levels of concentrate in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty 18-month-old steers (20 Nellore, 20 F1 Simmental × Nellore and 20 F1 Angus × Nellore with average body weight of 265.6±6.4 kg; 325.3±4.7 kg and 324.6±6.0 kg, respectively were used. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on physical carcass composition, empty body composition, composition of the gain, as well as the pattern of tissue deposition were evaluated in this trial. The interaction between genetic group and feeding regime was not significant for any variable evaluated. Animals fed at the maintenance level produced carcass with larger proportions of bones and muscle than the animals fed ad libitum and Nellore animals had larger muscle portion and smaller adipose tissue portion on the carcass than the crossbred animals. Nellore animals and those fed at maintenance had smaller amount of total fat in the carcass than the crossbred animals and those fed ad libitum, respectively. Fat was deposited more pronouncedly in the intermuscular depot, followed by the visceral depot. The rate of deposition of the carcass tissues was smaller in the Nellore animals and in the animals fed the diet with concentrate allowance equivalent to 1% body weight (except for subcutaneous fat tissue, when compared with the crossbred animals and those fed the diet with 2% BW on concentrate, respectively. The rate of fat deposition on the visceral depot was larger in the F1 Angus × Nellore animals and on those fed the 2% of BW of concentrate diet when compared with F1 Simmental × Nellore animals and those fed the diet with the lowest concentrate allowance (1% BW.

  14. Effects of Feeding Milk Replacer Ad Libitum or in Restricted Amounts for the First Five Weeks of Life on the Growth, Metabolic Adaptation, and Immune Status of Newborn Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäff, Christine T.; Gruse, Jeannine; Maciej, Josefine; Mielenz, Manfred; Wirthgen, Elisa; Hoeflich, Andreas; Schmicke, Marion; Pfuhl, Ralf; Jawor, Paulina; Stefaniak, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The pre-weaning period is critical for calf health and growth, and intensive milk feeding programs may assist postnatal development by improving body growth and organ maturation. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding on the growth, metabolic adaptation, health, and immune status of newborn calves. Twenty-eight newborn Holstein and Holstein x Charolais crossbred calves were fed ad libitum (ADLIB) or in restricted amounts (6 liters per day; RES) during the first five weeks of life. The MR intake in the ADLIB treatment was gradually reduced at weeks 6 and 7, and all calves then received 6 liters of MR per day until day 60. Blood samples were collected to measure the plasma concentrations of metabolites, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), immunoglobulins, and acute phase proteins. The expression of mRNA associated with both the somatotropic axis and gluconeogenic enzymes was measured in the liver on day 60. Intensive feeding improved MR intake and growth in ADLIB without influencing concentrate intake. Carcass weight, perirenal fat, and muscle mass were greater in ADLIB. Plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, insulin, and IGF-I were greater, whereas plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, urea, IGFBP-2 and -4, and fibrinogen were lower at distinct time points in ADLIB. The hepatic mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was greater in ADLIB. Most metabolic and endocrine differences occurred during the MR feeding period, but a slightly greater concentrate intake was associated with increased plasma IGF-I and insulin at the end of the study. The immune and health status of the calves were not affected by MR feeding. However, increased plasma fibrinogen in the RES group suggested differences in the acute phase response. PMID:28036351

  15. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumpler William V

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO, protein (Hi-PRO, or fat (Hi-FAT. Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs. Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05. In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions.

  16. Comportamento ingestivo de caprinos Moxotó e Canindé submetidos à alimentação à vontade e restrita = Ingestive behavior of Moxotó and Canindé goats submitted to ad libitum and restricted feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Louro Ribeiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de caprinos das raças Moxotó e Canindé, submetidos a dois níveis de alimentação. Foram utilizados 24 cabritos inteiros (12 Moxotó e 12 Canindé com idade média de quatro meses e peso vivo inicial médio de 15 kg, alojados em baias individuais, distribuídos no delineamentointeiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2x2 (duas raças e dois níveis de alimentação e seis repetições. Os níveis de alimentação foram: à vontade (T1 e 30% de restrição em relação ao animal que recebia alimentação à vontade (T2. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais das raças Moxotó e Canindé não apresentaram diferença significativa (P>0,05 para as variáveis comportamentaisobservadas. Alimentação à vontade proporcionou maior atividade de alimentação e ruminação e menor tempo em ócio. As atividades de micção, defecação e procura por água foram influenciadas pela hora do dia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake behavior of Moxotóand Canindé breed goats when offered a diet at two levels of intake. Twenty-four noncastrated goats (12 Moxotó and 12 Canindé were used, with an average age of four months and an initial average weight of 15 kg. The goats were housed in individual pens, distributed using a completely randomized design, in a 2x2 factorial arrangement (two breeds and two levels of intake with six repetitions. The levels of intake offered were: ad libitum (T1 and 30% restriction (T2. The level of restriction was determined in relation to the amount consumed by animals on ad libitum intake. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24hr period. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the observed behavioral variables between animals of the Moxotó and Canindé breeds. Feeding at the level of free-choice intake resulted in greater feeding and

  17. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efectos de la ingesta ad libitum de bebidas hidratantes sobre el peso corporal, la frecuencia cardíaca y el volumen plasmático durante una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración -Informe preliminar- Body weight, the heart rate, and the plasma volume during a high-intesity, long-duration run

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiela Flórez Manrique; Jaime Alberto Pérez Giraldo; Diana Patricia Díaz Hernández; Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño; Juan Carlos Aristizábal Rivera

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar la magnitud de la ingesta ad libitum de tres bebidas hidratantes de diferente osmolaridad y establecer sus efectos sobre el porcentaje de pérdida del peso corporal (PC), el aumento de la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) y la reducción porcentual del volumen plasmático (VP) en nueve deportistas con entrenamiento aeróbico, sometidos, bajo condiciones ambientales neutras, a una actividad física de alta intensidad 80% de la FC de reserva (FCR80) y larga duración 88 minutos. Metodolog...

  19. Desempenho produtivo e eficiência bioeconômica de bovinos Nelore e Caracu selecionados para peso aos 378 dias de idade recebendo alimentação à vontade ou restrita Production and bioeconomic efficiency of Nellore and Caracu bulls selected to weight gain and fed ad libitum or restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gesualdi Júnior

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de 56 bovinos machos não-castrados de três grupos genéticos, com idade média de 18 meses, submetidos à alimentação à vontade ou restrita, em confinamento. Doze animais foram abatidos no início do experimento e os demais (16 Nelore selecionados, 12 Nelore não-selecionados e 16 Caracu selecionados com peso vivo médio inicial de 404, 345 e 434 kg, respectivamente foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3, composto por dois níveis de alimentação (restrito = consumo de 65 g de MS/kgPV0,75 por dia e ad libitum = fornecimento do alimento duas vezes ao dia e três grupos genéticos. O volumoso utilizado foi a silagem de milho e o concentrado foi constituído de milho moído, farelo de algodão, uréia, monensina e mistura mineral, com relação volumoso:concentrado 50:50. O abate foi realizado quando cada animal atingiu 4 mm gordura subcutânea à altura da 12ª costela, avaliada por ultra-som. Os grupos genéticos apresentaram ganhos médios diários de peso vivo e pesos de corpo vazio e de carcaça semelhantes, não havendo interação grupo genético × nível de alimentação. Os ganhos de peso vivo e os pesos de corpo vazio e de carcaça foram maiores nos animais alimentados ad libitum. Somente os consumos de matéria seca em kg/dia sofreram influência tanto do nível de alimentação quanto do grupo genético. Os animais Caracu apresentaram os maiores consumos, seguidos pelos Nelore selecionados. Os Nelores não-selecionados apresentaram melhor eficiência bionutricional e menor custo de produção da arroba que os demais grupos genéticos.Production of 56 feedlot bulls from three different genetic groups averaging 18 months of age and fed ad libitum or restricted was evaluated in this trial. Twelve animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the study and were used as references. The remaining 16 genetically selected Nellore, 12 ordinary Nellore, and 16

  20. Macronutrient content of plant-based food affects growth of a carnivorous arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Shawn M; Holway, David A; Suarez, Andrew V; Eubanks, Micky D

    2011-02-01

    Many arthropods engage in mutualisms in which they consume plant-based foods including nectar, extrafloral nectar, and honeydew. However, relatively little is known about the manner in which the specific macronutrients in these plant-based resources affect growth, especially for carnivorous arthropods. Using a combination of laboratory and field experiments, we tested (1) how plant-based foods, together with ad libitum insect prey, affect the growth of a carnivorous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and (2) which macronutrients in these resources (i.e., carbohydrates, amino acids, or both) contribute to higher colony growth. Access to honeydew increased the production of workers and brood in experimental colonies. This growth effect appeared to be due to carbohydrates alone as colonies provided with the carbohydrate component of artificial extrafloral nectar had greater worker and brood production compared to colonies deprived of carbohydrates. Surprisingly, amino acids only had a slight interactive effect on the proportion of a colony composed of brood and negatively affected worker survival. Diet choice in the laboratory and field matched performance in the laboratory with high recruitment to carbohydrate baits and only slight recruitment to amino acids. The strong, positive effects of carbohydrates on colony growth and the low cost of producing this macronutrient for plants and hemipterans may have aided the evolution of food-for-protection mutualisms and help explain why these interactions are so common in ants. In addition, greater access to plant-based resources in the introduced range of S. invicta may help to explain the high densities achieved by this species throughout the southeastern United States.

  1. Efectos de la ingesta ad libitum de bebidas hidratantes sobre el peso corporal, la frecuencia cardíaca y el volumen plasmático durante una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración -Informe preliminar- Body weight, the heart rate, and the plasma volume during a high-intesity, long-duration run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiela Flórez Manrique

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la magnitud de la ingesta ad libitum de tres bebidas hidratantes de diferente osmolaridad y establecer sus efectos sobre el porcentaje de pérdida del peso corporal (PC, el aumento de la frecuencia cardíaca (FC y la reducción porcentual del volumen plasmático (VP en nueve deportistas con entrenamiento aeróbico, sometidos, bajo condiciones ambientales neutras, a una actividad física de alta intensidad 80% de la FC de reserva (FCR80 y larga duración 88 minutos. Metodología: el protocolo experimental se realizó en banda rodante, luego de nueve minutos de calentamiento, a una velocidad equivalente al 50% de la FCR y con una pendiente del 1%; siguieron 88 minutos de carrera, en tres intervalos, los dos iniciales de 29 minutos y el último de 30; la pendiente se mantuvo y la velocidad se incrementó al 80% de la FCR; finalmente, 90 minutos de recuperación, en tres intervalos de 30 minutos cada uno. No se hizo reposición hídrica durante el tratamiento deshidratado (DH; durante los tratamientos con hidratación se empleó un volumen similar de tres bebidas de diferente osmolaridad (H-I, H-II, H-III, el cual fue ingerido ad libitum. Resultados: durante la etapa de ejercicio la pérdida hídrica fue de 1.440 ml/h mientras que el volumen ingerido fue de 407 ml/h. Se observó, en cada uno de los tratamientos, una pérdida porcentual del PC (p<0,001; un incremento de la FC (p<0,05, y excepto con H-II y H-III una reducción porcentual del VP (p<0,05. No hubo diferencias intertratamientos en el porcentaje de la pérdida del PC, en el aumento de la FC ni en la reducción porcentual del VP. Conclusiones: la ingesta ad libitum fue menor que la cantidad recomendada internacionalmente por lo que, probablemente, no se pudieron establecer los efectos de la osmolaridad de las bebidas hidratantes sobre las variables estudiadas. Estos hallazgos nos obligan a revisar las prácticas de hidratación de nuestros deportistas ya que, al parecer

  2. A thirteen week ad libitum administration toxicity study of tartrazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tartrazine is a colorant widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The current study evaluates the effect of sub-chronic ingestion of tartrazine in drinking water at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.45, 1 and 2.5% for 13 weeks in mice. Our results show that female body weight gain and food consumption decreased in all treated ...

  3. A thirteen week ad libitum administration toxicity study of tartrazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nabila

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... 1Laboratory of Physiology of Nutrition and Food Safety, Department of Biology, University of Oran,. El Menaouer 31000 Oran, Algeria. 2Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Oran, El Menaouer 31000 Oran, Algeria. Accepted 5 July ... Acute oral exposure to tartrazine did ...

  4. Ractopamine for finishing barrows fed restricted or ad libitum diets: performance and nitrogen balance Ractopamina para suínos em terminação recebendo ração restrita ou à vontade: desempenho e balanço de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius de Souza Cantarelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation of 5 ppm of ractopamine, associated or not to feed restriction in diets with a high total lysine content (1.04% was evaluated on performance and nitrogen balance. In experiment 1, 60 hybrid castrated male swine (76.2 ± 2.3 kg were housed in pairs according to a randomized complete block design in a factorial treatment arrangement (2 ×2 + 1 with or without ractopamine supplementation, two forms of feeding, ad libitum and feed restriction with 1.04% lysine, and an additional treatment (control, with ad libitum feed without ractopamine with 0.8% lysine, amounting to five treatments and six replications. The final live weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed conversion for 28 days were evaluated. There were improvements in supplementation with ractopamine for final live weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion. The ad libitum feeding improved both final live weight and daily weight gain compared with ractopamine. Compared with the control, there was a decrease in feed conversion with ractopamine supplementation and improvement for final weight (FW in the treatment with the ractopamine and ad libitum feed. In experiment 2, 30 hybrid castrated male swine (74.1 ± 2.5 kg were housed in metabolism cages and fed the same experimental treatments to evaluate the percentages of absorbed nitrogen (Nabs, retained nitrogen (Nret, nitrogen retained from the absorbed nitrogen (Nret/Nabs and the plasma urea concentration at 14 and 28 days. At 14 days, there was an increase in the Nret/Nabs and plasma urea concentration with ractopamine supplementation. Compared with the control, there was a decrease in the plasma urea concentration for feed restriction with ractopamine. At 28 days, there was an increase in the Nret/Nabs with ractopamine supplementation. Thus supplementation with 5 ppm ractopamine improved the performance and efficiency of swine nitrogen use. Feed restriction interfered negatively in weight gain, but it

  5. Macronutrient manipulations of cheese resulted in lower energy content without compromising its satiating capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thea Toft; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Manipulation of food’s macronutrient composition in order to reduce energy content without compromising satiating capacity may be helpful in body weight control. For cheeses, substituting fat with protein may provide such opportunity. We aimed at examining the acute effect of cheeses with different......J) and low-protein/high-fat (LP/HF, 771 kJ) cheeses. After overnight fasting, 80 g cheese were served with 70 g bread, 132 g juice and 125 g coffee/tea/water. Ad libitum spaghetti bolognaise was served after 3 h and energy intake assessed. Subjective appetite ratings were assessed using visual analogue......·4) kJ lower; P = 0·08). In relation to energy intake, the composite appetite score was lower when consuming the HP/LF compared with the HP/HF (P = 0·003) and the LP/HF (P = 0·007) cheeses. Thereby, no compensatory eating following consumption of the HP/LF compared with the HP/HF cheese was found...

  6. Características da carcaça e viabilidade econômica do uso de cloridrato de ractopamina para suínos em terminação com alimentação à vontade ou restrita Carcass characteristics and economic viability of the use of ractopamine for finishing swine with ad libitum or restricted feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius de Souza Cantarelli

    2009-06-01

    design in factorial scheme 2 x 2 + 1 (with or without RAC in diets with 1.04% of total lysine; ad libitum or feed restriction of 15% and an additional treatment - control - ad libitum, without RAC containing 0.8% of lysine - standard diet, totalizing five treatments and six replicates. The addiction of RAC per se increased the loin eye area, the meat percentage, the carcass meat:fat ratio, the allowance index, the gross earnings and the production net earnings and decreased the animals backfat thickness. When associated with feed restriction, the RAC decreased the carcass fat percentage. Compared to standard diet, the RAC increased the carcass yield, the carcass meat percentage and the allowance index paid to the producer and decreased the backfat thickness. The RAC associated at the feed restriction decreased the fat carcass percentage and increased the carcass meat:fat ratio and the gross earnings. Thus, the supplementation with 5ppm of RAC, associated or no at the feed restriction, improves the carcass characteristics and the economic viability of production.

  7. Effects of proportions of dietary macronutrients on glucocorticoid metabolism in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland H Stimson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue glucocorticoid levels in the liver and adipose tissue are regulated by regeneration of inactive glucocorticoid by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1 and inactivation by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases. A low carbohydrate diet increases hepatic 11beta-HSD1 and reduces glucocorticoid metabolism during weight loss in obese humans. We hypothesized that similar variations in macronutrient proportions regulate glucocorticoid metabolism in obese rats. Male Lister Hooded rats were fed an obesity-inducing ad libitum 'Western' diet (37% fat, n = 36 for 22 weeks, then randomised to continue this diet (n = 12 or to switch to either a low carbohydrate (n = 12 or a moderate carbohydrate (n = 12 diet for the final 8 weeks. A parallel lean control group were fed an ad libitum control diet (10% fat, n = 12 throughout. The low and moderate carbohydrate diets decreased hepatic 11beta-HSD1 mRNA compared with the Western diet (both 0.7+/-0.0 vs 0.9+/-0.1 AU; p<0.01, but did not alter 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue. 5Alpha-reductase mRNA was increased on the low carbohydrate compared with the moderate carbohydrate diet. Compared with lean controls, the Western diet decreased 11beta-HSD1 activity (1.6+/-0.1 vs 2.8+/-0.1 nmol/mcg protein/hr; p<0.001 and increased 5alpha-reductase and 5beta-reductase mRNAs (1.9+/-0.3 vs 1.0+/-0.2 and 1.6+/-0.1 vs 1.0+/-0.1 AU respectively; p<0.01 in the liver, and reduced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity (both p<0.01 in adipose tissue. Although an obesity-inducing high fat diet in rats recapitulates the abnormal glucocorticoid metabolism associated with human obesity in liver (but not in adipose tissue, a low carbohydrate diet does not increase hepatic 11beta-HSD1 in obese rats as occurs in humans.

  8. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  9. Energy balance, macronutrient intake, and hydration status during a 1,230 km ultra-endurance bike marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesmann, Bjoern; Mester, Joachim; Koehler, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise.

  10. Improvement of aquaponic performance through micro- and macro-nutrient addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Dongyun; Liu, Jikai; Hu, Zhen; Zou, Yina; Jiang, Liping; Cheng, Xiaodian; Lv, Zhenting

    2017-07-01

    Aquaponics is one of the "zero waste" industry in the twenty-first century, and is considered to be one of the major trends for the future development of agriculture. However, the low nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) restricted its widely application. To date, many attempts have been conducted to improve its NUE. In the present study, effect of micro- and macro-nutrient addition on performance of tilapia-pak choi aquaponics was investigated. Results showed that the addition of micro- and macro-nutrients improved the growth of plant directly and facilitated fish physiology indirectly, which subsequently increased NUE of aquaponics from 40.42 to 50.64%. In addition, remarkable lower total phosphorus concentration was obtained in aquaponics with micro- and macro-nutrient addition, which was attributed to the formation of struvite. Most of the added micro-nutrients were enriched in plant root, while macro-nutrients mainly existed in water. Moreover, no enrichment of micro- and macro-nutrients in aquaponic products (i.e., fish and plant leaves) was observed, indicating that it had no influence on food safety. The findings here reported manifest that appropriate addition of micro- and macro-nutrients to aquaponics is necessary, and would improve its economic feasibility.

  11. Macronutrient intake and stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; de Groh, Margaret; Morrison, Howard; Mery, Les

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the association between intake of selected macronutrients and the risk of stomach cancer in a Northern American population. Mailed questionnaires were completed between 1994 and 1997 in eight Canadian provinces by 1,181 incident, histologically confirmed cases of stomach cancer and 5,039 population controls. Information on nutrient intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived through unconditional logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders, including an estimate of total energy intake. Intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of stomach cancer: The ORs for the highest versus the lowest quartile were 1.58 (95% CI 1.13-2.20), 1.86 (95% CI 1.37-2.52), and 1.75 (95% CI 1.36-2.25), respectively. Total fiber was inversely associated with stomach cancer (p = 0.03). The positive associations with intake of total fat and saturated fat were apparently stronger in women, overweight or obese subjects, and ever smokers. Saturated fat was specifically associated with increased risk of gastric cardia cancer, with an OR of 3.31 (95% CI 1.48-7.43). A diet high in saturated fat appears to increase the risk of stomach cancer, particularly among obese subjects and for gastric cardia cancer.

  12. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecily M Costello

    Full Text Available When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos and black bears (Ursus americanus in Grand Teton National Park during 2004-2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates, which accounted for 46-47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1 daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2 diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3 mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4 allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among

  13. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; Cain, Steven L; Pils, Shannon; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A; van Manen, Frank T

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004-2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46-47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in this

  14. Diet and macronutrient optimization in wild ursids: A comparison of grizzly bears with sympatric and allopatric black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M.; Cain, Steven L.; Pils, Shannon R; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004–2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46–47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in

  15. Does Bertrand's rule apply to macronutrients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, D; Lee, K.P; Simpson, S.J

    2005-01-01

    It has been known for over a century that the dose–response curve for many micronutrients is non-monotonic, having an initial stage of increasing benefits with increased intake, followed by increasing costs as excesses become toxic. This phenomenon, termed Bertrand's rule, is widely assumed not to apply to caloric macronutrients. To date this assumption has been safe, owing to the considerable methodological challenges involved in coaxing animals to over-ingest macronutrients in a way that enables the effects of specific food components to be isolated. Here we report an experiment which overcomes these difficulties, to test whether the second phase (incurring costs with excessive intake) applies to carbohydrate intake by the generalist-feeding caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis. The results showed that excess carbohydrate intake caused increased mortality, thus extending Bertrand's rule to macronutrients. PMID:16243690

  16. The macronutrients, appetite and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Alicia L; Dhillon, Jaapna; Gordon, Susannah; Jacobs, Ashley G; Higgins, Kelly A; McArthur, Breanna M; Redan, Benjamin W; Rivera, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Leigh R; Mattes, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Each of the macronutrients, carbohydrate, protein and fat, has a unique set of properties that influence health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, there has been a progression of thinking regarding the mechanisms by which each may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this time period, the emphasis was on metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency). This was followed by an orientation to gut endocrine signals that purportedly modulate the size of eating events (i.e., determined portion size). Most recently, research attention has been directed to the brain where the reward signals elicited by the macronutrients are viewed as potentially problematic (i.e., contribute to disordered eating). At this point the predictive power of the macronutrients for energy intake remains limited. PMID:27431364

  17. ASSESSMENT OF MACRONUTRIENTS AND HEAVY METALS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    This study was aimed at presenting the macronutrients and trace heavy metals of a medicinal herb named F. cretica Linn. and level of toxic metals by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Their levels could be beneficial to the pharmacological industry for assessing ...

  18. EFFECTS OF MACRONUTRIENT COMPOSITION ON SPECIFIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Open-flow respirometry was used to measure the magnitude of specific dynamic action (SDA), the maximum rate of oxygen consumption ..... Table 2: Body mass of female mice and respiratory quotient of macronutrient diets. Diets. Body mass before SDA (g). Body mass after SDA (g). VO2. (ml/min. VCO2. (ml/min). RQ. HP.

  19. Evaluation of energy and macronutrient intake of black women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macronutrient intake was determined using a validated Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (QFFQ). Median macronutrient intake was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) as applicable. Median energy, macronutrient and cholesterol intake of younger and older women was compared using ...

  20. Nicotine Delivery and Vaping Behavior Duringad LibitumE-cigarette Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Ross, Kathryn C; Dempsey, Delia A; Havel, Christopher M; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-10-01

    To characterize vaping behavior and nicotine intake during ad libitum e-cigarette access. Thirteen adult e-cigarette users had 90 minutes of videotaped ad libitum access to their usual e-cigarette. Plasma nicotine was measured before and every 15 minutes after the first puff; subjective effects were measured before and after the session. Average puff duration and interpuff interval were 3.5±1.4 seconds (±SD) and 118±141 seconds, respectively. 12% of puffs were unclustered puffs while 43%, 28%, and 17% were clustered in groups of 2-5, 6-10, and >10 puffs, respectively. On average, 4.0±3.3 mg of nicotine was inhaled; the maximum plasma nicotine concentration (C max ) was 12.8±8.5 ng/mL. Among the 8 tank users, number of puffs was positively correlated with amount of nicotine inhaled, C max , and area under the plasma nicotine concentration-time curve (AUC 0 → 90min ) while interpuff interval was negatively correlated with C max and AUC 0 → 90 . Vaping patterns differ from cigarette smoking. Plasma nicotine levels were consistent with intermittent dosing of nicotine from e-cigarettes compared to the more bolus dosing from cigarettes. Differences in delivery patterns and peak levels of nicotine achieved could influence the addictiveness of e-cigarettes compared to conventional cigarettes.

  1. Soil macronutrient sensing for precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Jin; Sudduth, Kenneth A; Hummel, John W

    2009-10-01

    Accurate measurements of soil macronutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) are needed for efficient agricultural production, including site-specific crop management (SSCM), where fertilizer nutrient application rates are adjusted spatially based on local requirements. Rapid, non-destructive quantification of soil properties, including nutrient levels, has been possible with optical diffuse reflectance sensing. Another approach, electrochemical sensing based on ion-selective electrodes or ion-selective field effect transistors, has been recognized as useful in real-time analysis because of its simplicity, portability, rapid response, and ability to directly measure the analyte with a wide range of sensitivity. Current sensor developments and related technologies that are applicable to the measurement of soil macronutrients for SSCM are comprehensively reviewed. Examples of optical and electrochemical sensors applied in soil analyses are given, while advantages and obstacles to their adoption are discussed. It is proposed that on-the-go vehicle-based sensing systems have potential for efficiently and rapidly characterizing variability of soil macronutrients within a field.

  2. [Composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rušavý, Zdeněk; Žourek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The diabetic diet is one of the pillars of diabetes treatment. The rapid development of knowledge relating to the treatment of diabetes also includes diet. The paper focuses on the importance of a diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and prevention of atherosclerosis. Its main goal is to assess the impact of a composition of macronutrients on individuals with type 2 diabetes. The paper is divided into several parts, each of which ends with a conclusion. The first part examines weight reduction. The diet aimed at a weight loss is effective, it can effectively prevent diabetes, it leads to improvements in glucose control and reduction of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, however it will not impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality until after more than 20 years. The second part deals with "healthy" foods. The studies exploring this area are not convincing. The only really rational component of food in relation to atherosclerosis is dietary fibres. Important is a balanced diet combined with regular physical activities. The third part focuses on the composition of macronutrients. It turns out that, considering a low-calorie diet, the effects of high- and low-carbohydrate diets on people with diabetes are similar with regard to weight loss and lowering of HbA1c, however the low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower glycemic variability and a reduced need for anti-diabetic drugs. We do not know how the comparison of the two extreme diets would come out regarding individuals with a high energy diet. Currently it is useful to focus on the quality of individual macronutrients. Choose foods containing carbohydrates with a low glycemic index and high fibre foods, prefer fats that contain a low proportion of saturated fatty acids. The fourth part discusses the recent recommendation of the Czech Diabetes Society regarding the composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet. As compared with the diet proposed earlier, lower intake of fibre

  3. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    .03;0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001;0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23;1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4;2.6) mmHg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2;2.0) energy %, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6;12.7) % (all P≤0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep...

  4. Great tits provided with ad libitum food lay larger eggs when exposed to colder temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, S.V.; Visser, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of nutrients deposited into a bird egg varies both between and within clutches of the same female. Larger eggs enhance offspring traits, but as a tradeoff, laying large eggs also infers energetic costs to the female. Income breeders usually lay larger eggs later in the season, when

  5. The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M.; Mu, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. Methods: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) men (n.......23 ± 0.11 in LF (P diets over 18 months. No effects on risk markers for T2D or CVD were found, with the exception of an improvement in the LDL/HDL ratio by the MUFA diet compared to the CTR...... diet. The LF diet was generally more satisfactory and the MUFA diet seemed more difficult to follow....

  6. Production traits of broiler chicken strains fed Ad Libitum and raised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of commercial broiler chickens reared on full-feeding, and under the same housing, feeding regime, agro-climatic zone and management practices. A total number of 150 broiler dayold chicks, that, is 50 chicks each of Arbor Acres (strain A), Hubbard (strain B) and Marshall (strain C) were purchased from local hatcheries, ...

  7. SYMPOSIUM - MACRONUTRIENT UTILIZATION DURING EXERCISE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PERFORMANCE AND SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryn S. Willoughby

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The review articles constitute a mini-symposium entitled "Macronutrient Utilization During Exercise: Implications for Performance and Supplementation" that were recently presented at the 2004 annual conference of the International Society of Sports Nutrition in Las Vegas, NV. Much controversy often surrounds macronutrient intake, utilization, and subsequent metabolism regarding exercise and athletic performance. Furthermore, the role of macronutrient supplementation with the specificintent of improving body composition and exercise performance by way of nutrient timing is also an important issue. As such, the articles provide a comprehensive overview of metabolic and performance-enhancing implications regarding carbohydrate, fat, and protein.

  8. Energy and macronutrient intakes in Brazil: results of the first nationwide individual dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rita A G; Yokoo, Edna M; Sichieri, Rosely; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2015-12-01

    To characterize energy and macronutrient intakes in Brazil and to describe the top food items contributing to energy and macronutrient intakes. Two non-consecutive 24 h dietary records were collected and energy and macronutrient data were adjusted for usual intake distribution. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA with the Bonferroni post hoc test were analysed using SAS version 9·1. Means and standard deviations were estimated for sex, age and income strata. Nationwide cross-sectional survey, 2008-2009. Nationally representative sample of individuals ≥10 years old (n32 749), excluding pregnant and lactating women (n 1254). The average energy intake was 7958 kJ/d (1902 kcal/d) and mean energy density was 6·82 kJ/g (1·63 kcal/g). Added sugar represented 13 % of total energy intake and animal protein represented 10 %. The mean contribution of total fat to energy intake was 27 %, while the mean saturated fat contribution was 9 %. Compared with the lowest quartile of income, individuals in the highest income quartile had greater mean intakes of energy, added sugar, alcohol, animal protein, total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fat. Rice, beans, beef, bread and coffee were among the top five foods contributing most to the intakes of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat and fibre. In general, Brazilians' dietary intake is compatible with a high risk of obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases, being characterized by high intakes of added sugar and saturated fat. Income may be a major determinant of diet nutritional characteristics.

  9. Mannitol Metabolism in Celery Stressed by Excess Macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, JMH.; Pharr, D. M.

    1994-10-01

    The effect of excess macronutrients in the root environment on mannitol and sucrose metabolism was investigated in celery (Apium graveolens L. var dulce [Mill.] Pers.). Plant growth was inhibited progressively as macronutrient concentration in the media, as measured by electrical conductivity (E.C.), increased from 1.0 to 11.9 decisiemens m-1. Plants grown for 35 d at higher E.C. had a lower water content but similar dry weight in their roots, leaves, and petioles compared to plants grown at lower E.C. Macronutrient concentrations of leaves, roots, and petioles were not affected by the imposed stress, indicating that the macronutrient stress resulted in a water-deficit stress response rather than a salt-specific response. Mannitol accumulated in sink tissues and was accompanied by a drastic decrease in activity of mannitol-1-oxidoreductase. Sucrose concentration and activities of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in sink tissues were not affected by the macronutrient stress. Mature leaves exhibited increased concentrations of both mannitol and sucrose, together with increased activity of mannose-6-phosphate reductase and sucrose phosphate synthase, in response to macronutrient stress. Thus, mannitol accumulation in osmotically stressed celery is regulated by diminished catabolism in sink tissues and increased capacity for mannitol biosynthesis in source leaves.

  10. AdS wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, A. [George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Lue, H. [George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Interdisciplinary Center of Theoretical Studies, USTC, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Mei, Jianwei [George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Pope, C.N. [George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: pope@physics.tamu.edu

    2009-03-21

    We obtain a large class of smooth Lorentzian p-brane wormholes in supergravities in various dimensions. They connect two asymptotically flat spacetimes. In cases where there is no dilaton involved in the solution, the wormhole can connect an AdS{sub n}xS{sup m} in one asymptotic region to a flat spacetime in the other. We obtain explicit examples for (n,m)=(4,7),(7,4),(5,5),(3,3),(3,2). These geometries correspond to field theories with UV conformal fixed points, and they undergo decompactification in the IR region. In the case of AdS{sub 3}, we compute the central charge of the corresponding conformal field theory.

  11. Macronutrient considerations for the sport of bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Charles P; Frank, Laura L; Evans, William J

    2004-01-01

    Participants in the sport of bodybuilding are judged by appearance rather than performance. In this respect, increased muscle size and definition are critical elements of success. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the literature and provide recommendations regarding macronutrient intake during both 'off-season' and 'pre-contest' phases. Body builders attempt to increase muscle mass during the off-season (no competitive events), which may be the great majority of the year. During the off-season, it is advantageous for the bodybuilder to be in positive energy balance so that extra energy is available for muscle anabolism. Additionally, during the off-season, adequate protein must be available to provide amino acids for protein synthesis. For 6-12 weeks prior to competition, body builders attempt to retain muscle mass and reduce body fat to very low levels. During the pre-contest phase, the bodybuilder should be in negative energy balance so that body fat can be oxidised. Furthermore, during the pre-contest phase, protein intake must be adequate to maintain muscle mass. There is evidence that a relatively high protein intake (approximately 30% of energy intake) will reduce lean mass loss relative to a lower protein intake (approximately 15% of energy intake) during energy restriction. The higher protein intake will also provide a relatively large thermic effect that may aid in reducing body fat. In both the off-season and pre-contest phases, adequate dietary carbohydrate should be ingested (55-60% of total energy intake) so that training intensity can be maintained. Excess dietary saturated fat can exacerbate coronary artery disease; however, low-fat diets result in a reduction in circulating testosterone. Thus, we suggest dietary fats comprise 15-20% of the body builders' off-season and pre-contest diets. Consumption of protein/amino acids and carbohydrate immediately before and after training sessions may augment protein synthesis, muscle glycogen

  12. Models for estimating macronutrients in Mimosa scabrella Bentham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Jorge Téo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to adjust and test different statistical models for estimating macronutrient content in theabove-ground biomass of bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham. The data were collected from 25 bracatinga trees, all native to thenorth of the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Paraná state, Brazil. To determine the biomass and macronutrient content, the trees wereseparated into the compartments leaves, branches < 4 cm, branches 4 cm, wood and stem barks. Different statistical models wereadjusted to estimate N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents in the tree compartments, using dendrometric variables as the model independentvariables. Based on the results, the equations developed for estimating macronutrient contents were, in general, satisfactory. The mostaccurate estimates were obtained for the stem biomass compartments and the sum of the biomass compartments. In some cases, theequations had a better performance when crown and stem dimensions, age and dominant height were included as independentvariables.

  13. Assessment of macronutrients and heavy metals in Fagonia cretica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The macronutrients and heavy metals content of different parts of a locally found herb named Fagonia cretica, an important medicinal herb, were investigated. Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr and Zn were measured in roots, shoots, leaves, spines and flowers/fruits of the plant. The analysis was carried out by ...

  14. The influence of macronutrient deficiencies on chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of macronutrient deficiencies on chemical composition of dwarf green coconut (Cocu nucifera linn) seedling. ... Elimination of magnesium also leads to reduction in the concentration of chlorophyll. starch and sugar concentrations improved with nitrogen and potassium but decreased with were more ...

  15. Development of macronutrient composition of very preterm human milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, YGH; Gerritsen, J; Hart, AAM; Hadders-Algra, M; Tamminga, P; Mirmiran, M; Spekreijse, H; Ruijters, J.M.

    The effects of gestational age at delivery (GA), postnatal age (PNA) and post-menstrual age (PMA=PNA+ GA, an indicator of autonomous developmental processes not affected by the moment of birth) on macronutrient composition of very preterm milk were studied. Total N, fat, lactose and carbohydrate

  16. Development of macronutrient composition of very preterm human milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Y. G.; Gerritsen, J.; Hart, A. A.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Ruijter, J. M.; Tamminga, P.; Mirmiran, M.; Spekreijse, H.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of gestational age at delivery (GA), postnatal age (PNA) and post-menstrual age (PMA = PNA + GA, an indicator of autonomous developmental processes not affected by the moment of birth) on macronutrient composition of very preterm milk were studied. Total N, fat, lactose and carbohydrate

  17. Characterization of the effects of macronutrient deficiencies in mangabeira seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the mineral nutrition requirements of mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes is relatively scarce and rudimentary because there is a lack of consistent data concerning its nutritional demands at different developmental stages. The aim of this research was to characterize the visual symptoms of macronutrient deficiencies and to evaluate the effects of these deficiencies on the growth, the production of dry matter, and the leaf content of mangabeira. To achieve this goal, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Goiano Federal Institute (Instituto Federal Goiano in Rio Verde - GO, from January to June 2011 in which mangabeira plants were arranged in a random block design and grown in nutrient solutions. This experiment was replicated four times. The plants were treated with either a complete nutrient solution or a nutrient solution from which the individual macronutrient of interest (nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca, or sulfur (S had been omitted. The omission of a macronutrient from the nutrient solution resulted in morphological alterations that were characteristic symptoms of the particular nutritional deficiency and caused decreases in growth and dry matter mass production. The accumulation of macronutrients displayed the following order in mangabeira leaves: N>K>Ca>P>S>Mg.

  18. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of

  19. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  20. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most demanded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S. Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE, i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation, while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than 70 % of P, between 58 and 69 % of N, 40 and 52 % of S, 40 and 48 % of K, and 35 and 45 % of Mg absorbed during the cycle was exported with grains, whereas less than 15

  1. Selection of macronutrients by goldfish operating self-feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vázquez, F J; Yamamoto, T; Akiyama, T; Madrid, J A; Tabata, M

    1998-11-15

    In the wild, both food availability and an animal's requirements may fluctuate. Given the choice to feed on different diets, animals may exhibit preferences in their selection. Although macronutrient selection has been investigated in mammals and birds, few attempts have been made to investigate dietary selection in fish. In the present study we investigate the feeding of goldfish on three "pure" macronutrient diets. Twelve single goldfish and one group of four goldfish, initially weighing 163.1 +/- 7.4 and 70.2 +/- 8.0 g, respectively, were maintained in 54-liter tanks at 20 degrees C under a 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle. Three pelleted diets were made containing 50% of each macronutrient: protein (casein + gelatin), fat (fish oil + soy oil), or carbohydrate (dextrin). All the diets included mixtures of vitamins and minerals, a binder (sodium alginate), and cellulose as a filler. During trials, three self-feeding devices delivering the protein, fat, or carbohydrate diet were installed in each aquarium. Goldfish soon learned to select from among the three diets. Overall daily food and digestible energy demands differed significantly between macronutrients. The demand for protein was lower than that for carbohydrate (16.6 and 33.7 g/kg BW/day, respectively), and the digestible energy demand for protein was lower than for fat (108.6 and 308.5 kJ/kg BW/day, respectively). Goldfish made their dietary selections on the basis of energy content, so that food demand increased to compensate for changes in the digestible energy density of the diets. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between carbohydrate and fat demand (n = 8), whereas there were significant negative (n = 3) and positive (n = 1) relationships between protein and fat. Different daily patterns for the selection of each macronutrient were detected in some fish (i.e., carbohydrate during daytime, protein at the beginning of the night, and fat during the transition phase). In

  2. Phosphate Rock Application on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Production and Macronutrients in Latosol Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of phosphate rocks (PRs fertilizer compared to chemical P fertilizer for the best crop production and macronutrients of alfalfa. A completely randomized design under 3x3 factorial patterns was used in this research. The first factor was different sources of P fertilizer: Guizhou Phosphate Rock (GPR, Jingxiang Phosphate Rock (JPR, and Single Super Phosphate (SSP. The second factor was level of P fertilizer: 75, 100, and 125 mg P2O5/kg soil. A control treatment (without addition of P fertilizer, CK was added as a comparison with the treatments. The results showed that JPR was the best for alfalfa production, whereas GPR and SSP were better for nutrient content in the alfalfa tissue than JPR. On the whole, phosphate rocks had similar effect on alfalfa growth compared to SSP at the experimental conditions.

  3. The Dietary Composition and Source of Macronutrients Determine Obesity Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrmel, Lene Secher

    to an elevation in energy intake, these alterations include increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and a relative decrease in protein consumption. The relative intake of dietary fat has not increased during the last decades, but the proportion of vegetable oils has increased at the expense of saturated...... fat and marine oils. To further investigate the importance of the macronutrient composition on obesity development, we have performed a series of mice experiments. Our results demonstrate that both the amount and source of macronutrients influence obesity development and related disorders. The anti......-obesity and insulin-sensitizing effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are well described in rodents. In line with this, we show that replacing marine oil with soybean oil in salmon feed, translates into a lower content of n-3 PUFAs in salmon fillets leading to aggravated insulin resistance in mice...

  4. Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status.......We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status....

  5. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Salt Intensity on Ad Libitum Intake of Tomato Soup Similar in Palatability and on Salt Preference after Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the

  7. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades.......The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades....

  8. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2013-01-01

    Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European...... centers). Diet, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cardiovascular markers (lipid profile, glucose regulation, and inflammation) were measured in 253 children at baseline, 1 mo, and/or 6 mo. Protein intake was higher in the HP groups (19.9 ± 1.3% energy) than in the LP groups at 6 mo (16.8 ± 1......, increased protein intake improved cardiovascular markers in high-risk children, particularly in those undergoing most intensive intervention....

  9. Effects of different protein content and glycemic index of ad libitum diets on diabetes risk factors in overweight adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Dpt. Physiology and Nutrition, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (EG, JAM); Institute of Preventive Medicine, Centre for Health and Society, Copenhagen, Denmark (CH), Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the N...

  10. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  11. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake among male university students in an ad libitum buffet setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Ida; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Nielsen, Brit Køpke

    2016-01-01

    one-day lunch meal study was conducted in a FoodScape Laboratory where an Intelligent Buffet was used to register the exact weight of each meal component self-served by each participant. A convenience sample of 65 men was divided to a control group (n= 32) and an intervention group (n= 33). The choice...... due to the complexity of determinants for food choices and more research is therefore needed. This study assessed the of a choice architectural intervention aimed at reducing energy density of meals consumed by male university students, by proportionally increasing their vegetable consumption.A single...... information.The quantity (g) of self-served F&V was significantly higher in the intervention group (+63.3 g, p=.005). The total energy (kJ) was significantly lower in the intervention group (-1326.3 kJ, p=.010), while there was no significant difference in the total amount (g) of self-served food between...

  12. Anterior Cingulate Taste Activation Predicts Ad Libitum Intake of Sweet and Savory Drinks in Healthy, Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    After food consumption, the motivation to eat (wanting) decreases and associated brain reward responses change. Wanting-related brain responses and how these are affected by consumption of specific foods are ill documented. Moreover, the predictive value of food-induced brain responses for

  13. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P food (mL/kcal) increased (P Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P food (r = 0.16; P food intake (r = 0.23; Pfood intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Sweetest Thing: Regulation of Macronutrient Preference by FGF21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Andrew C; Gimeno, Ruth E

    2016-02-09

    Links between FGF21 and carbohydrate consumption have recently been described, with both genomic associations and elevated FGF21 levels in healthy subjects following sugar ingestion. In this issue, von Holstein-Rathlou et al. (2016) and Talukdar et al. (2016) demonstrate a mechanistic role for FGF21 in the regulation of macronutrient preference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hairy AdS solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales and Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru, E-mail: dumitru.astefanesei@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2016-11-10

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  16. STUDY ON THE MACRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF APPLE LEAVES IN AN ORGANIC APPLE ORCHARD

    OpenAIRE

    NAGY, Péter T.; HOLB, Imre J.

    2006-01-01

    Macronutrient contents of soil and apple leaves were investigated in an organic apple orchard in Eastern Hungary in 2002-2004. Soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm depth in April and October. The macronutrient content of leaves was measured on cvs. Jonagold, Mutsu, Idared, Red Elstar, Egri Piros, Reka, and Remo at six assessment dates (from April to September). The macronutrient contents of N, P, K, S, Ca and Mg were measured in both soil and leaf samples, then macronutrient ratios were calcu...

  17. Personalized weight loss strategies - the role of macronutrient distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, J Alfredo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Saris, Wim H M

    2014-01-01

    A large number of different dietary approaches have been studied in an attempt to achieve healthy, sustainable weight loss among individuals with overweight and obesity. Restriction of energy intake is the primary method of producing a negative energy balance leading to weight loss. However, owing...... with specific genotypes. This Review discusses all available systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and summarizes the results of relevant randomized controlled intervention trials assessing the influence of macronutrient composition on weight management. The initial findings of research into personalized...

  18. Macronutrients and obesity: revisiting the calories in, calories out framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Crichton, Daniel; Tefft, Nathan

    2014-07-01

    Recent clinical research has studied weight responses to varying diet composition, but the contribution of changes in macronutrient intake and physical activity to rising population weight remains controversial. Research on the economics of obesity typically assumes a "calories in, calories out" framework, but a weight production model separating caloric intake into carbohydrates, fat, and protein, has not been explored in an economic framework. To estimate the contributions of changes in macronutrient intake and physical activity to changes in population weight, we conducted dynamic time series and structural VAR analyses of U.S. data between 1974 and 2006 and a panel analysis of 164 countries between 2001 and 2010. Findings from all analyses suggest that increases in carbohydrates are most strongly and positively associated with increases in obesity prevalence even when controlling for changes in total caloric intake and occupation-related physical activity. Our structural VAR results suggest that, on the margin, a 1% increase in carbohydrates intake yields a 1.01 point increase in obesity prevalence over 5 years while an equal percent increase in fat intake decreases obesity prevalence by 0.24 points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  20. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  1. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Jonathan; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; McMahon, Aisling C; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J William O; Le Couteur, David G; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K M; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance.

  2. The endocannabinoid system: directing eating behavior and macronutrient metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alan Watkins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the brain has been the primary focus for research on eating behavior. More recently, the discovery of the endogenous endocannabinoids (EC and the endocannabinoid system (ECS, as well as the characterization of its actions on appetite and metabolism, has provided greater insight on the brain and food intake. The purpose of this review is to explain the actions of EC in the brain and other organs as well as their precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA that are converted to these endogenous ligands. The binding of the EC to the cannabinoid receptors in the brain stimulates food intake, and the ECS participates in systemic macronutrient metabolism where the gastrointestinal system, liver, muscle, and adipose are involved. The EC are biosynthesized from two distinct families of dietary PUFA, namely the n-6 and n-3. Based on their biochemistry, these PUFA are well known to exert considerable physiological and health-promoting actions. However, little is known about how these different families of PUFA compete as precursor ligands of cannabinoid receptors to stimulate appetite or perhaps down-regulate the ECS to amend food intake and prevent or control obesity. The goal of this review is to assess the current available research on ECS and food intake, suggest research that may improve the complications associated with obesity and diabetes by dietary PUFA intervention, and further reveal mechanisms to elucidate the relationships between substrate for EC synthesis, ligand actions on receptors, and the physiological consequences of the ECS. Dietary PUFA are lifestyle factors that could potentially curb eating behavior, which may translate to changes in macronutrient metabolism, systemically and in muscle, benefiting health overall.

  3. Macronutrients, diet quality, and frailty in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikany, James M; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Ensrud, Kristine E; Cawthon, Peggy M; Lewis, Cora E; Dam, Thuy-Tien L; Shannon, Jackilen; Redden, David T

    2014-06-01

    Frailty, a phenotype of multisystem impairment and expanding vulnerability, is associated with higher risk of adverse health outcomes not entirely explained by advancing age. We investigated associations of macronutrients, dietary fiber, and overall diet quality with frailty status in older community-dwelling men. Participants were 5,925 men aged ≥ 65 years enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study at six U.S. centers. Diet was assessed at baseline with a food frequency questionnaire. We assessed frailty status (robust, intermediate, or frail) at baseline and at a second clinic visit (a mean of 4.6 years later) using a slightly modified Cardiovascular Health Study frailty index. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess associations between macronutrient intake, dietary fiber, and the Diet Quality Index Revised with frailty status at baseline and at the second clinic visit. At baseline, 2,748 (46.4%) participants were robust, 2,681 (45.2%) were intermediate, and 496 (8.4%) were frail. Carbohydrate, fat, protein, and dietary fiber showed no consistent associations with frailty status. Overall diet quality exhibited fairly consistent associations with frailty status. The Diet Quality Index Revised was inversely associated with frail status relative to robust status at the baseline visit (odds ratio for Q5 vs Q1 = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.63; p for trend clinic visit (odds ratio for Q5 vs Q1 = 0.18, 95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.97; p for trend = .0180). Overall diet quality was inversely associated with prevalent and future frailty status in this cohort of older men. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. SOIL EXCHANGEABLE ALUMINUM INFLUENCING THE GROWTH AND LEAF TISSUE MACRONUTRIENTS CONTENT OF CASTOR PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSIANE DE LOURDES SILVA DE LIMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three castor ( Ricinus communis genotypes were studied regarding tolerance to high exchange factorial distribution of five doses of exchangeable aluminum added to the soil (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.20 cmol c dm - 3 and three castor genotypes (BRS Nordestina, BRS Paraguaçu, and Lyra. The plants were raised in pots in a greenhouse. At 53 days after emergence, data were taken on plant height, leaf area, dry mass of shoot and root, and leaf tissue content of macronutrients. The most sensitive genotype was the cv. BRS Nordestina, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the highest aluminum content were reduced to 12.9% and 16.2% of the control treatment, respectively. The most tolerant genotype was the hybrid Lyra, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the maximum content of aluminum were reduced to 43.5% and 42.7% of the control treatment, respectively.The increased exchangeable aluminum affected the leaf nutrient content, and the intensity of the response was different among cultivars. The aluminum toxicity increased N, Ca, and Mg contents and reduced on P, K, and S contents. The cv. BRS Nordestina had a drastic shoot dry weight reduction associated with an intense increment in the N leaf content. Thus, the N increment was caused by a concentration effect caused by the limited growth.

  5. How is an ideal satiating yogurt described? A case study with added-protein yogurts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morell, P.; Piqueras-Fiszman, B.; Hernando, I.; Fiszman, S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein is recognized as the macronutrient with the highest satiating ability. Yogurt can be an excellent basis for designing satiating food as it is protein-based food product. Five different set-type yogurts were formulated by adding extra skim milk powder (MP), whey protein concentrate (WPC),

  6. Waste compost effect on macronutrients in haplorthox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinei Tadeu Paulino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a controlled aerobic process to treat and stabilize organic wastes, transforming them into organic fertilizers. It is environmentally friendly (by treating polluting wastes and recycling nutrients and materials, sanitary (by breaking the cycle of diseases and eliminating vectors and socially beneficial (by generating jobs and improving crop yields. The use of compost from urban waste (the product obtained by composting the organic part of solid household wastes can improve soil fertility without harming the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of levels of organic fertilizer (waste compost - WC on soil macronutrient contents. The experiment was performed at the Animal Nutrition and Pasture Center – Instituto de Zootecnia – Nova Odessa, SP, between January and June 2013, in a Haplorthox soil (pHCaCl2= 4.9, cultivated with piatagrass (Brachiaria brizantha, Stapf, without liming. The treatments involved five rates of WC application: 0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 Mg ha-1, mixed with soil before sowing the grass. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replications, in pottery vessels (3.34 dm3. Soil samples were collected prior to the experiment (original soil and after cultivation of the grass (60 days after application. The samples were air dried and passed through sieves with 2 mm mesh and analyzed chemically. The macronutrients (P, S, in mg kg-1 and K, Ca and Mg mmolc kg-1 were quantified. The method to measure P, Ca, Mg and K was atomic emission spectrophotometry, after extraction with ion exchange resin, and the S concentration was measured by turbidimetry. The data were analyzed by the mixed procedure of SAS V. 9.2. The degrees of freedom related to the five rates (quantitative treatment were decomposed into orthogonal polynomials to obtain the best equation to fit the data. In the original soil, the concentrations of the macronutrients analyzed were considered low. The application of the WC

  7. Evaluation of macronutrient demand in calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Daniella N. M.; Lopes Coelho, Lívia; Paiva, Patrícia D. O.

    2015-01-01

    Zantedeschia species are important plants in the flower market, but there is insufficient information available on nutrient absorption and accumulation for the various developmental stages of these plants. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate macronutrient accumulation in Zantedeschia aethiopica. Foll...

  8. Macronutrient content and food exchanges for 48 Greek Mediterranean dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detopoulou, Paraskevi; Aggeli, Maria; Andrioti, Elena; Detopoulou, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to facilitate the translation of traditional Greek Mediterranean recipes into food exchanges for diabetes. Moreover, it provides a useful food list for meal planning, which can be used by health professionals and nutritionists, as well as researchers and the public. A total of 48 traditional Greek Mediterranean dishes were selected in order to include appetisers, sauces, salads, pies, dishes with vegetables and legumes as well as egg, pasta, rice, meat, fish and poultry-based dishes. The macronutrient content of each recipe (carbohydrate, fat, protein and dietary fibre) was estimated with the use of the USDA database and Greek food composition tables. Then, in order to calculate the food exchanges per serve, an approximation method was followed as suggested in the literature. The Mediterranean Greek dishes contain a considerable amount of vegetables and dietary fibre, and their energy content mainly derives from olive oil. For each serve, carbohydrate, non-starchy vegetable, protein (lean, medium or high fat), milk and fat exchanges are provided. Moreover, the type of fat that each recipe contains is reported. The presented data offer a chance for health professionals to efficiently plan Mediterranean-type meals, ensuring more sophisticated dietetic advice, higher standards of medical nutrition therapy and greater patient self-efficacy. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  9. Macronutrient assessment in apple growing region of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siddique

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the aim of examining soil and plant macronutrient status (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S and their interaction to understand causes of low apple yield. Murree region was studied being major apple cultivated area in Punjab. Surveyed apple orchards were selected from all union councils of Murree. Out of thirteen orchard sites, soils of seven sites have been classified as clay loam, three sandy clay loam, two clayey and one loam. Electrical conductivity varied from 0.12 to 2.00 dS m-1 at surface and 0.12 to 1.60 dS m-1 at subsurface soil. Surface soil pH ranged from 7.2 to 8.4. Orchard soils were low in nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and potassium. Calcium was deficient in all the orchards sites while a general deficiency of magnesium was observed in the area. Apple orchards were deficient in foliage nitrogen, potassium and magnesium but sufficient in phosphorus and calcium contents. Both in soil and foliage, there was a general deficiency of nitrogen, potassium and sulphur. A variable trend of correlation between plant and surface, subsurface N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S was established. Insufficient nutrient status of apple orchards could be the major concern for low yield in the area.

  10. STUDY ON THE MACRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF APPLE LEAVES IN AN ORGANIC APPLE ORCHARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter NAGY

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Macronutrient contents of soil and apple leaves were investigated in an organic apple orchard in Eastern Hungary in 2002-2004. Soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm depth in April and October. The macronutrient content of leaves was measured on cvs. Jonagold, Mutsu, Idared, Red Elstar, Egri Piros, Reka, and Remo at six assessment dates (from April to September. The macronutrient contents of N, P, K, S, Ca and Mg were measured in both soil and leaf samples, then macronutrient ratios were calculated from the obtained results. The results showed that younger leaves contained more N and P than older ones. K and Ca contents of leaves decreased until July, then increased slightly, and decreased again. A continuous decrease of the S content of leaves was observed until August. The Mg content of leaves increased until June, then decreased in July and then increased again. Macronutrient values were dependent on cultivar. Calculated macronutrient ratios showed that the nutrient supply of soil was not optimal in the orchard.

  11. Effects of Substitution, and Adding of Carbohydrate and Fat to Whey-Protein on Energy Intake, Appetite, Gastric Emptying, Glucose, Insulin, Ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 in Healthy Older Men—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Giezenaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey protein, on ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180–210 min, gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography, plasma gut hormone concentrations (0–180 min and appetite (visual analogue scales, in healthy older men. In a randomized, double-blind order, 13 older men (75 ± 2 years ingested drinks (~450 mL containing: (i 70 g whey protein (280 kcal; ‘P280’; (ii 14 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (280 kcal; ‘M280’; (iii 70 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (504 kcal; ‘M504’; or (iv control (~2 kcal. The caloric drinks, compared to a control, did not suppress appetite or energy intake; there was an increase in total energy intake (drink + meal, p < 0.05, which was increased most by the M504-drink. P280- and M504-drink ingestion were associated with slower a gastric-emptying time (n = 9, lower ghrelin, and higher cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 than M280 (p < 0.05. Glucose and insulin were increased most by the mixed-macronutrient drinks (p < 0.05. In conclusion, energy intake was not suppressed, compared to a control, and particularly whey protein, affected gastric emptying and gut hormone responses.

  12. A genetic risk tool for obesity predisposition assessment and personalized nutrition implementation based on macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Leticia; Cuervo, Marta; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    There is little evidence about genetic risk score (GRS)-diet interactions in order to provide personalized nutrition based on the genotype. The aim of the study was to assess the value of a GRS on obesity prediction and to further evaluate the interactions between the GRS and dietary intake on obesity. A total of 711 seekers of a Nutrigenetic Service were examined for anthropometric and body composition measurements and also for dietary habits and physical activity. Oral epithelial cells were collected for the identification of 16 SNPs (related with obesity or lipid metabolism) using DNA zip-coded beads. Genotypes were coded as 0, 1 or 2 according to the number of risk alleles, and the GRS was calculated by adding risk alleles with such a criterion. After being adjusted for gender, age, physical activity and energy intake, the GRS demonstrated that individuals carrying >7 risk alleles had in average 0.93 kg/m(2) of BMI, 1.69 % of body fat mass, 1.94 cm of waist circumference and 0.01 waist-to-height ratio more than the individuals with ≤7 risk alleles. Significant interactions for GRS and the consumption of energy, total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates and fiber intake on adiposity traits were found after adjusted for confounders variables. The GRS confirmed that the high genetic risk group showed greater values of adiposity than the low risk group and demonstrated that macronutrient intake modifies the GRS association with adiposity traits.

  13. String Theory on AdS Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop

  14. Central oxytocin and food intake: focus on macronutrient-driven reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica eKlockars

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Centrally acting oxytocin (OT is known to terminate food consumption in response to excessive stomach distension, increase in salt loading and presence of toxins. Hypothalamic-hindbrain OT pathways facilitate these aspects of OT-induced hypophagia. However, recent discoveries have implicated OT in modifications of feeding via reward circuits: OT has been found to differentially affect consumption of individual macronutrients in choice and no-choice paradigms. In this mini-review, we focus on presenting and interpreting evidence that defines OT as a key component of mechanisms that reduce eating for pleasure and shape macronutrient preferences. We also provide remarks on challenges in integrating the knowledge on physiological and pathophysiological states in which both OT activity and macronutrient preferences are affected.

  15. Macronutrient Composition of Menu Offerings in Fast Food Restaurants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian P; Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-10-01

    A high intake of fast food is associated with increased obesity risk. This study assessed recent changes in caloric content and macronutrient composition in large U.S. fast food restaurants. Data from the MenuStat project included 11,737 menu items in 37 fast food restaurants from 2012 to 2014. Generalized linear models were used to examine changes in the caloric content and corresponding changes in the macronutrient composition (non-sugar carbohydrates, sugar, unsaturated fat, saturated fat, and protein) of menu items over time. Additionally, macronutrient composition was compared in menu items newly introduced in 2013 and 2014, relative to 2012. Analyses, conducted in January 2016, controlled for restaurant and were stratified by menu categories. Overall, there was a 22-calorie reduction in food items from 2012 to 2014. Beverages had a 46-calorie increase, explained by an increase in calories from sugar (12 calories) and saturated fat (16 calories). Newly introduced main courses in 2014 had 59 calories fewer than those on 2012 menus, explained by a 54-calorie reduction in unsaturated fat, while other macronutrient content remained fairly constant. Newly introduced dessert items in 2014 had 90 calories more than those on 2012 menus, explained primarily by an increase of 57 calories of sugar. Overall, there were relatively minor changes in menu items' caloric and macronutrient composition. Although declines in caloric content among newly introduced fast food main courses may improve the public's caloric intake, it appears that the macronutrient composition of newly introduced items did not shift to a healthier profile. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.S. Ngwa; F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A.C. Frazier-Wood (Alexis); D.K. Houston (Denise); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn ); J. Luan; V. Mikkilä (Vera); F. Renström (Frida); E. Sonestedt (Emily); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); L. Qi (Lu); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.C. De Oliveira Otto (Marcia); E.J. Dhurandhar (Emily); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); I. Johansson (Ingegerd); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); K. Lohman (Kurt); A. Manichaikul (Ani); N.M. McKeown (Nicola ); D. Mozaffarian (Dariush); A.B. Singleton (Andrew); K. Stirrups (Kathy); J. Viikari (Jorma); Z. Ye (Zheng); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); I.E. Barroso (Inês); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); A. Hofman (Albert); Y. Liu (YongMei); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K.E. North (Kari); M. Dimitriou (Maria); G. Hallmans (Göran); M. Kähönen (Mika); C. Langenberg (Claudia); J.M. Ordovas (Jose); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F.B. Hu (Frank); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); O. Raitakari (Olli); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Johnson (Anthony); V. Emilsson (Valur); J.A. Schrack (Jennifer); R.D. Semba; D.S. Siscovick (David); D.K. Arnett (Donna); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P.W. Franks (Paul); S.B. Kritchevsky (Stephen); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M. Orho-Melander (Marju); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer )

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with macronutrient intake.

  17. Magnetic Monopoles in AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Applications to holographic theories have led to some recent interest in magnetic monopoles in four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Some analytic and numerical results are discussed for monopoles in AdS, including the symmetries of minimal energy monopoles (which are often Platonic), a connection to Skyrmions, and the emergence of a hexagonal lattice in the large charge limit.

  18. Axion wormholes in AdS compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Thomas; Trigiante, Mario; Van Riet, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    We find regular axionic Euclidean wormhole solutions in Type IIB string theory compactified on {AdS}_5× {S}^5/{Z}_k . AdS/CFT enables a precise derivation of the axion content of the Euclidean theory, placing the string theory embedding of the wormholes on firm footing. This further sharpens the paradox posed by these solutions.

  19. Macronutrient status of the elderly (60-80 years) from Central India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    present investigation was undertaken to assess the macronutrient intake of the elderly (60-80 years) from Central India. Four hundred elderly, which included 200 males and 200 females were selected from Nagpur city, Maharashtra, India, through stratified random sampling. All subjects were personally interviewed.

  20. Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Food Sources in Preschool Children: Thai NHES IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Kasemsup, Rachada; Nontarak, Jiraluck; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2015-10-01

    Examine intakes of energy and macronutrients, and identify their food sources, in Thai preschool children. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV were used. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed regarding their children's 24-hour-dietary intake. Dietary data were analyzed for energy and macronutrients, and their food sources were investigated. Due to skewed data, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare energy and macronutrient intake between sexes and age groups. Among 256 preschool children, more than 90% had protein intakes higher than the recommended level. Only 12.7 to 29.0% met the recommended intake for energy. Amounts of carbohydrate and fat consumed varied from below to above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendation. Intakes of carbohydrate in boys and fat in girls were statistically different between age groups (p carbohydrate contributors were grains and starchy products. Dairy products were the main source of protein. Important food sources of fat were dairy products for one- to three-year-old children and fat and oils for four- to five-year-old children. Thai preschool children have inappropriate intakes of energy and macronutrients. Dairy products and grains and/or starchy products were the main sources of energy, carbohydrate, and protein. Dietary fat sources varied by age group.

  1. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-01-01

    A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronu...... protein and most essential amino acid intake as well as carbohydrate intake even though it was based on a small range of food items.......A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis...... of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g...

  2. The satiety effects of intragastric macronutrient infusions in fatty and lean Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, C A; Greenwood, M R; Vasselli, J R

    1983-09-01

    To evaluate satiety in the hyperphagic, genetically obese Zucker "fatty" (fafa) rat, food-deprived fatty and lean (FaFa) control rats were given equicaloric intragastric infusions consisting largely of fat, carbohydrate, or protein. Relative to distilled water infusion, these infusions resulted in immediate reductions of food intake in both fatty and lean rats allowed to feed 20 min post-infusion. Cumulative food intakes remained reduced throughout the 2 hr period of observation. Thus, despite its hyperphagia, the fatty rat is responsive to the satiating effect of infused nutrients. However, the relative satiating effectiveness of the macronutrient infusions differed for the two genotypes. In lean rats, the different macronutrient infusions resulted in equivalent reductions of feeding. In contrast, in fatty rats, fat was the least satiating and protein was the most satiating macronutrient. Moreover, compared to lean rats, fatty rats displayed less initial suppression of feeding after fat infusion and greater overall suppression after protein infusion. These effects are consistent with the long-term feeding behavior of the fatty rat for the different macronutrients and may be related to pre- and postabsorptive metabolic alterations that have been documented in this animal.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Ion-Selective Electrodes for Simultaneous Analysis of Macronutrients in Hydroponic Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Automated sensing of macronutrients in hydroponic solution would allow more efficient management of nutrients for crop growth in closed hydroponic systems. Ion-selective microelectrode technology requires an ion-selective membrane or a solid metal material that responds selectively to one analyte in...

  4. Impact of the Bolsa Família Program on energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes: Study of the Northeast and Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara SPERANDIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on the energy and nutrient intakes of beneficiaries from the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Methods: The study used data from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamento Famíliar, which assessed individual food intake on two nonconsecutive days of individuals aged more than 10 years. Based the personal information booklet, food intake values were transformed into nutritional values (energy and nutrients. Analysis of the impact measure was preceded by propensity score matching, a technique that matches some socioeconomic characteristics of beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. Once the score was calculated, the impact of the Bolsa Família Program was estimated by nearest neighbor matching. Results: The program increased energy and macronutrient intakes and decreased calcium and vitamin A, D, E, and C intakes of adolescent beneficiaries in both regions. Adult beneficiaries from the Southeast region increased their fiber, iron, and selenium intakes, and those from the Northeast region decreased their energy, lipid, added sugar, sodium, zinc, vitamin E, and pyridoxine intakes. Conclusion: The results show a positive impact of the program on the energy and macronutrient intakes, and a negative impact on the intakes of most study micronutrients, especially in adolescents, which reinforce the importance of implementing intersectoral actions to improve the nutritional quality of the Bolsa Família Program beneficiaries' diet.

  5. The Effects of Caloric Density of the Food on Running Endurance and General Condition of Rats and Hamsters Restricted in Food Intake or Fed Ad Libitum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    that of the high-soyhtHtn- oil r,roup nnd nbout four times that of the h’igh- coconut - oil group. All experiments quoted so fa~. unless otherwise...triglyceride levels were 76Z and plasma total cholesterol levels 22X (significant) higher in non-exercised than in regularly exercised animals...right after running to exhaustion. In the hamsters kept at tropical climatic conditions, plasma total cholesterol at both food intake levels was

  6. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Genoni; Philippa Lyons-Wall; Johnny Lo; Amanda Devine

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to either ...

  7. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-05-23

    (1) BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) METHODS: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) RESULTS: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (-1.99 kg, 95% CI -2.9, -1.0), p Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (-14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI -19.5, -9.7), sodium (-1055 mg/day, 95% CI -1593, -518), calcium (-292 mg/day 95% CI -486.0, -99.0) and iodine (-47.9 μg/day, 95% CI -79.2, -16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations.

  8. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Genoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2 Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2 were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22 or AGHE diet (n = 17 for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3 Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0, p < 0.001. There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E, 95% CI −19.5, −9.7, sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518, calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0 and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5 and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1 and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410 (all p < 0.01; (4 Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations.

  9. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2010-01-01

    Diet is important in the prevention of CVD, and it has been suggested that a diet high in MUFA is more cardioprotective than a low-fat diet. We hypothesised that the thrombotic risk profile is improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45 % of energy; >20 % of fat as MUFA) (MUFA diet; n 39), to a low-fat (LF; 20-30 % of energy) diet (n 43), or to a control diet (35 % of energy as fat; n 24......) for 6 months after a weight loss of about 10 %. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all three diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after intervention and analysed for factor VII coagulant activity (FVII...

  10. Roux-En-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy does not affect food preferences when assessed by an ad libitum buffet meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Christensen, Bodil Just; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    surgery (all P ≥ 0.18). In contrast, the picture display test showed that food from the low-fat-savory group was chosen more often post-surgery (34 ± 8% vs. 65 ± 9%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The reduction in energy intake after RYGB and SG surgery and the subsequent weight loss seems to be primarily related...... at the buffet meal with 54% (4491 ± 208 kJ vs. 2083 ± 208 kJ, P fat, low-fat, sweet, savory, high-fat-savory, high-fat-sweet, low-fat-savory, and low-fat-sweet, as well as energy density did not change following...

  11. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Jensen, M.G.; Riboldi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 Young adults Was Conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals...

  12. Serum concentrations of creatine kinase and of triglycerides during lactation in gilts bred older and in multiparous sows fed ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira R.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the possible variation in blood concentrations of creatine kinase (CK and triglycerides in gilts bred older in comparison with multiparous sows. Ten primiparous and ten Camborough multiparous sows from the fourth to seventh parities were used. Breeding age and weight of gilts averaged respectively 231 days and 149.5kg. All females were moved into individual farrowing crates and were managed under the same conditions. Blood samples were collected by puncturing the coccygeal artery on day 7 before expected farrowing, and on days 2, 7, 14, 21 of lactation and 2 days after weaning. No difference in triglycerides and CK serum concentrations between groups were observed. The CK levels were low before farrowing, increased substantially on days 2 and 7 and decreased toward the end of lactation. The concentrations of triglycerides were slightly high before the parturition, diminished on days 2, 7, 14 and 21 and increased after weaning.

  13. A snapshot of the hepatic transcriptome: ad libitum alcohol intake suppresses expression of cholesterol synthesis genes in alcohol-preferring (P rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon D Klein

    Full Text Available Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcohol drinking are largely unknown. Previous data from alcohol-preferring (P rats showed that chronic consumption does not produce significant hepatic steatosis in this well-established model. Therefore, free-choice alcohol drinking in P rats may mimic low risk or nonhazardous drinking in humans, and chronic exposure in P animals can illuminate the molecular underpinnings of free-choice drinking in the liver. To address this gap, we captured the global, steady-state liver transcriptome following a 23 week free-choice, moderate alcohol consumption regimen (∼ 7.43 g ethanol/kg/day in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP10a rats. Chronic consumption led to down-regulation of nine genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step for cholesterol synthesis. These findings corroborate our phenotypic analyses, which indicate that this paradigm produced animals whose hepatic triglyceride levels, cholesterol levels and liver histology were indistinguishable from controls. These findings explain, at least in part, the J- or U-shaped relationship between cardiovascular risk and alcohol intake, and provide outstanding candidates for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms that underlie the salutary cardiovascular benefits of chronic low risk and nonhazardous alcohol intake.

  14. A snapshot of the hepatic transcriptome: ad libitum alcohol intake suppresses expression of cholesterol synthesis genes in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jonathon D; Sherrill, Jeremy B; Morello, Gabriella M; San Miguel, Phillip J; Ding, Zhenming; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Liang, Tiebing; Muir, William M; Lumeng, Lawrence; Lossie, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d) is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcohol drinking are largely unknown. Previous data from alcohol-preferring (P) rats showed that chronic consumption does not produce significant hepatic steatosis in this well-established model. Therefore, free-choice alcohol drinking in P rats may mimic low risk or nonhazardous drinking in humans, and chronic exposure in P animals can illuminate the molecular underpinnings of free-choice drinking in the liver. To address this gap, we captured the global, steady-state liver transcriptome following a 23 week free-choice, moderate alcohol consumption regimen (∼ 7.43 g ethanol/kg/day) in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP10a) rats. Chronic consumption led to down-regulation of nine genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step for cholesterol synthesis. These findings corroborate our phenotypic analyses, which indicate that this paradigm produced animals whose hepatic triglyceride levels, cholesterol levels and liver histology were indistinguishable from controls. These findings explain, at least in part, the J- or U-shaped relationship between cardiovascular risk and alcohol intake, and provide outstanding candidates for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms that underlie the salutary cardiovascular benefits of chronic low risk and nonhazardous alcohol intake.

  15. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sayer, R. Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F.; Tamer, Gregory G.; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A.; Talavage, Thomas M.; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g...

  16. Digital food photography technology improves efficiency and feasibility of dietary intake assessments in large populations eating ad libitum in collective dining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Holly L; Champagne, Catherine M; Allen, H Raymond; McGraw, Susan M; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Crombie, Aaron P

    2017-09-01

    Accurate assessment of dietary intake continues to challenge researchers, especially in field, or non-laboratory settings. In this study, digital food photography (DFP) methodology was used to assess nutritional intake (NI) of Soldiers participating in the US Army's Ranger Selection and Assessment Program (RASP). During this high-intensity six-week course, Soldiers complete simulated operational missions, perform various military tasks, and importantly, eating time is severely limited. Therefore, this study provided an opportunity to evaluate the utility of DFP methods for accurate assessment of energy balance in conditions where consumption of large numbers of subjects must be completed in a very short periods of time (≤20 min). NI of 131 male, enlisted Soldiers (21 ± 4 years, 178±7 cm, and 78±8 kg) enrolled in the RASP course was assessed in their garrison dining facility using DFP utilizing visual estimation of pre- and post-meal photos of participant meals concurrently with photos of weighed, standardized portions. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was assessed using doubly-labeled water ( 2 H 2 18 O) in a sub-group of 19 volunteers. During the study, data loss (i.e., missing meal photos) was less than 5% per meal, and during the visual estimation process discrepancies in food identification averaged less than 10% per meal, while approximately a third of serving size estimations required a third party adjudication prior to finalization and calculation NI. We conclude that the use of DFP allows an adequately reliable approach for quantifying NI in real-world scenarios involving large numbers of participants who must be assessed very rapidly, and researchers must have a small footprint. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effects on markers of inflammation and endothelial cell function of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2011-01-01

    weight loss. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all diets. Food was provided free of charge. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the intervention and analysed for C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and tissue factor pathway...

  18. Pen-mate directed behaviour in ad libitum fed pigs given different quantities and frequencies of straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Lahrmann, H. P.; Oxholm, L. C.

    2015-01-01

    Straw stimulates explorative behaviour and is therefore attractive to pigs. Further, it can be effective in reducing negative pen-mate directed behaviours. Under most commercial conditions, straw can only be used in limited amounts as it can be difficult to handle in most vacuum slurry systems...... as a control treatment, against which the other treatments (quantities T25 and T50) and frequencies of straw allocations (T2×50 and T4×25) were tested. Three focal pigs per pen were randomly chosen and observed for 15 min per hour where tail-in-mouth, ear-in-mouth, aggression and other pen-mate directed...... behaviour were recorded. In addition, residual straw in the pens was assessed using four categories ranging from straw in a thin layer; little straw; few straws; and soiled straw. Pigs were active for about 30% of the registered time, but overall no differences in total pen-mate directed behaviour (tail...

  19. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms ( P>0.05). Pepsin activity of TR fish also showed a significant daily rhythm ( P0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  20. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-05-03

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  1. Gaugino mass in AdS space

    CERN Document Server

    Gripaios, Ben; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Redi, Michele; Scrucca, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    We study supersymmetric QED in AdS4 with massless matter. At 1-loop the ultra-violet regulator of the theory generates a contribution to the gaugino mass that is naively inconsistent with unbroken supersymmetry. We show that this effect, known in flat space as anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking, is required to cancel an infra-red contribution arising from the boundary conditions in AdS space, which necessarily break chiral symmetry. We also discuss an analogous UV/IR cancellation that is independent of supersymmetry.

  2. Current status of AdS instability

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    arXiv:1403.6471 and thoroughly developed in arXiv:1407.6273. On the other hand the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of stable, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions of Einstein equations [arXiv:1303.3186].

  3. Deficiency of macronutrients in sangra d’água (Croton urucurana, Baill. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Mendes Sorreano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objectives of inducing and describing deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur, and evaluating the effect of nutrient omission on the foliar mineral composition of “sangra d’água” (Croton urucurana young plants. The experiment was carried out in a green house and used the technique of diagnosis by subtraction. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with seven treatments and three replicates. Macronutrient omission led to morphological alterations expressed by visual symptoms being the first symptons occurring on the treatments with omission of N, K, Ca and Mg treatments, and later on the treatments with omission of P and S. Growth parameters, namely height, diameter, number of leaves and of branches were affected by the treatments with omission of N, Ca and Mg. Dry matter yield was not significantly decreased by the omission of macronutrients.

  4. Dietary Treatment Options for Depression among Diabetic Patient, Focusing on Macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Haghighatdoost

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a bidirectional adverse association between diabetes and depression. The odds for experiencing depressive symptoms in diabetic patients are two times more than nondiabetic persons, and depression is an independent predictor for the onset of diabetes. However, depression has been approximately unrecognized and untreated in two-thirds of diabetic patients, which may lead to worsened diabetes complications. A cornerstone strategy for managing depression among diabetic patients is the use of diet to improve both health problems. Because of similar pathophysiology for chronic diseases and depression, it seems that similar dietary recommendations could be useful. However, few studies have been conducted among diabetic patients. Regarding the complications of diabetes such as renal diseases and coronary heart diseases, the proper range of various macronutrients should be clarified in depressed diabetic patients as well as the proper type of each macronutrient. In this paper, we reviewed the available data on the treatment of depression in diabetic patients.

  5. Deficiencies of macronutrient intake among HIV-positive breastfeeding women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Faith; Neke, Nyasule M; Hendricks, Kristy; Wamsele, Joyce; Lukmanji, Zohra; Waddell, Richard; Maro, Isaac; Connor, Ruth; Mackenzie, Todd; Matee, Mecky; Bakari, Muhammad; Pallangyo, Kisali; von Reyn, C Fordham

    2014-12-15

    We compared macronutrient intake, food insecurity, and anthropometrics in breastfeeding women: 40 HIV-positive women not yet on antiretroviral therapy and 40 HIV-negative women. Calculated deficits at 2 weeks were 517 kcal per day for HIV-positive women vs 87 kcal per day surplus for HIV-negative women (P = 0.01) and 29 g protein per day for HIV-positive women vs 16 g protein per day for HIV-negative women (P = 0.04). Food insecurity scores were 11.3 for HIV-positive women vs 7.8 for HIV-negative women (P < 0.01). Enhanced dietary education together with macronutrient supplementation may be required to improve health outcomes in HIV-positive women and their infants.

  6. Role of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in DNA Damage: Results From a Food Frequency Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations. Micronucleus frequency tends to increase with higher intake of caffeine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and protein ( P  < .05, Spearman correlation. Calorie and omega-6 intakes are negatively correlated with DNA damage measured by the comet assay. These results are somewhat controversial because some of the correlations found are contrary to dominant views in the literature; however, we suggest that unraveling the association between diet and genetic instability requires a much better understanding of the modulating role of macronutrients and micronutrients.

  7. Macronutrients and the FTO gene expression in hypothalamus; a systematic review of experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Doaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The various studies have examined the relationship between FTO gene expression and macronutrients levels. In order to obtain better viewpoint from this interactions, all of existing studies were reviewed systematically. All published papers have been obtained and reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords from databases such as CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane, from 1990 to 2016. The results indicated that all of 6 studies that met the inclusion criteria (from a total of 428 published article found FTO gene expression changes at short-term follow-ups. Four of six studies found an increased FTO gene expression after calorie restriction, while two of them indicated decreased FTO gene expression. The effect of protein, carbohydrate and fat were separately assessed and suggested by all of six studies. In Conclusion, The level of FTO gene expression in hypothalamus is related to macronutrients levels. Future research should evaluate the long-term impact of dietary interventions.

  8. Lorentzian AdS, Wormholes and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Raul E; Silva, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the structure of two point functions for the QFT dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian AdS-wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of 5-dimensional second order Einstein Gauss Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS space times. We revisit the GKPW prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual QFT operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values phi_0^\\pm at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions, along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O^\\pm and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom leaving at each boundary. The AdS_(1+1) geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a ...

  9. Is dietary macronutrient composition during pregnancy associated with offspring birth weight? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sukshma S; Greenwood, Darren C; Simpson, Nigel A B; Cade, Janet E

    2018-02-01

    There is lack of evidence on the differential impact of maternal macronutrient consumption: carbohydrates (CHO), fats and protein on birth weight. We investigated the association between maternal dietary macronutrient intakes and their sub-components such as saccharides and fatty acids and birth weight. This analyses included 1,196 women with singleton pregnancies who were part of the CAffeine and REproductive health study in Leeds, UK between 2003 and 2006. Women were interviewed in each trimester. Dietary information was collected twice using a 24-h dietary recall about 8-12 weeks and 13-27 weeks of gestation. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for alcohol and smoking in trimester 1, showed that each additional 10 g/d CHO consumption was associated with an increase of 4 g (95 % CI 1, 7; P=0·003) in birth weight. Conversely, an additional 10 g/d fat intake was associated with a lower birth weight of 8 g (95 % CI 0, 16; P=0·04) when we accounted for energy contributing macronutrients in each model, and maternal height, weight, parity, ethnicity, gestational age at delivery and sex of the baby. There was no evidence of an association between protein intake and birth weight. Maternal diet in trimester 2 suggested that higher intakes of glucose (10 g/d) and lactose (1 g/d) were both associated with higher birth weight of 52 g (95 % CI 4, 100; P=0·03) and 5 g (95 % CI 2, 7; P<0·001) respectively. These results show that dietary macronutrient composition during pregnancy is associated with birth weight outcomes. An appropriately balanced intake of dietary CHO and fat during pregnancy could support optimum birth weight.

  10. Macronutrient Intake and Distribution in the Etiology, Prevention and Treatment of Osteosarcopenic Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Owen J; Gilman, Jennifer C; Kim, Youjin; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcopenic obesity, the combined deterioration of bone, muscle and fat tissues, could become the ultimate trajectory of aging. Aging stem cells are deregulated by low-grade chronic inflammation and possibly by diet. The metabolic shift of stem cells towards adipogenesis results in osteo obesity, sarco obesity and obesity. Macronutrients have numerous physiological functions but are regarded mainly for their energy contribution. Currently, no nutritional causes or treatment/prevention guidelines exist for osteosarcopenic obesity. The aim of this review is to assemble the evidence to elucidate if the macronutrient composition of the Western diet has an effect on the development of osteosarcopenic obesity. In view of the role of brain in locomotion a section examining the macronutrients as possible modulators of brain functioning was included. An extensive literature search of PubMed and Medline was conducted for human data using combinations and synonyms of osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity, and energy, carbohydrate, protein and lipid, and brain. US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food intake data from 2002-2012 were obtained and transposed to Microsoft Excel for analysis. NHANES data showed that energy imbalances in aging, excess high glycemic carbohydrate, lower protein intakes and low long chain polyunsaturated fat intakes may contribute to osteosarcopenic obesity. 135 articles were included in the review. Early humans probably consumed a diet closer to what the human body was designed for; however, we do not know the ideal energy and macronutrient proportions for optimal health or for preventing/treating aging and osteosarcopenic obesity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Relationship between Serum Leptin, Ghrelin and Dietary Macronutrients in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Pourghassem Gargari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy in women. It may involve an impairment in physiologic regulation of leptin and ghrelin. There is limited, controversial data on the relation of dietary components with leptin and ghrelin in PCOS, so the current study has been conducted to explore the effects of different macronutrients on serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in PCOS and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we randomly choose 30 PCOS patients and 30 healthy age and body mass index (BMI matched controls. Intake of macronutrients [protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, carbohydrate, dietary fiber] and energy were assessed using 3-day, 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ. Fasting hormonal status was measured for each participant. Results: PCOS women had higher levels of serum leptin, insulin, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH, whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG was lower compared to healthy women. There was no significant difference in mean ghrelin concentrations between the groups. Among PCOS women, independent of BMI and total energy intake, we observed an inverse association between leptin concentration and total dietary fat (β=-0.16, P<0.05 and saturated fatty acid (SFA intake (β=-0.58, P<0.05. This relationship was not seen in the healthy subjects. There was no significant association between ghrelin and macronutrients in PCOS and healthy participants. Conclusion: Certain habitual dietary components such as fat and SFA may decrease serum leptin, whereas ghrelin is not influenced by these in PCOS women. More studies are needed to better clarify the effects of dietary macronutrients on serum leptin and ghrelin.

  12. The diet quality index evaluates the adequacy of energy provided by dietary macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline MENDES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between macronutrient intake adequacy and the national diet quality index score. Methods The study analyzed a representative sample of 1,662 individuals from the municipality of São Paulo who participated in a cross-sectional study called Health Survey-Capital (2008/2009. Two 24-hour recalls were collected. Habitual intake was determined by the Multiple Source Method. The Brazilian index was calculated as suggested, and macronutrient adequacy was given by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations. A generalized linear model verified the relationship between the Brazilian index and macronutrient adequacy. All analyses with a descriptive level below 0.05 were considered significant. The analyses were performed by the software Stata 12.0, survey mode. Results The vast majority (91% of the population had inappropriate macronutrient intakes, and the total median Brazilian index score was 61.3 points (interquartile range=10.1. The total Brazilian index score of individuals with high lipid intake was worse than that of individuals with proper lipid intake (β=0,96; p=0,004, while those with high protein intake had a better score (β=1,10; p=0,003 than those with proper protein intake. Conclusion The revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index assesses diet quality properly regarding high lipid intake, but it has some limitations regarding high protein intake according to the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations. New studies should investigate the possibility of adapting this index to the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization recommendations.

  13. Effect of Dietary Polydextrose on Feces Consistency and Macronutrient Digestibility in Healthy Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    K. Vasupen; C. Yuangklang; A. C. Beynen; A. W.C. Einerhand

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: There is evidence that the addition of 3% STA-LITE® polydextrose to a dry food reduces the clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs. For the application of polydextrose as functional ingredient of dog foods, information as to its impact on the acceptance of food, feces consistency, fecal odor and digestibility of macronutrients and minerals is required. Approach: A feeding experiment with 4×4 Latin square design was carried out with 12 adult, healthy Golden Retrievers. The ...

  14. Alcohol and macronutrient intake patterns are related to general and central adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhagen, M; Forslund, H Bertéus; Lissner, L; Winkvist, A; Lindroos, A K; Carlsson, L M S; Sjöström, L; Larsson, I

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol and dietary fat have high energy densities and may therefore be related to body weight and fat deposition. We studied associations between alcohol and macronutrient intake patterns and general and central adiposity. A population-based cross-sectional study of 524 men and 611 women. The participants answered a dietary questionnaire describing habitual food consumption including intake of alcoholic beverages. Macronutrient intake was analysed in relation to anthropometric measures and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry determined body fat. In women, total alcohol intake was negatively associated with body fat percentage (β:-0.67, Pbody fat percentage (β: 1.17, Pbody mass index (BMI) (β: 0.03, P=0.001), body fat percentage (β: 0.04, Pfat intake and BMI (β: -0.03, Prelative body fat in women whereas spirits consumption was positively related to central and general obesity in men. Macronutrient intakes, particularly protein and fat, were differently associated with obesity indicators in men versus women. This may reflect a differential effect by gender, or differential obesity related reporting errors in men and women.

  15. Macronutrient and Major Food Group Intake in a Cohort of Southern Italian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Mulè

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian adults. Results: No significant differences of macronutrient consumption between sexes were found. By contrast, younger individuals had significantly higher intake of animal protein than older ones. Men reported consuming significantly more total processed meats and less eggs than women; egg consumption significantly increased by age groups. Significantly lower intake of fruit in the younger age group compared to older ones was found. Various patterns of correlation between food groups were described. More than half of individuals reached the suggested recommendations for carbohydrate and fiber intake, and about two-thirds met the recommendations for total protein and cholesterol intake, while only a minority met for total fat intake. Total and plant protein, monounsaturated and omega-6 fatty acids, were significantly inversely related with BMI (body mass index, while trans fatty acids and cholesterol were directly correlated. A direct association with unprocessed meats and an inverse association with processed meats was also found. Conclusions: The overall findings suggest that relatively healthy dietary habits are common in southern Italy.

  16. Omissão de macronutrientes em plantas de amendoim Deficiency of macronutrients in peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Solano de Oliveira Rodrigues Filho

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de amendoim Arachis hypogaea L. 'Tatu' foram cultivadas em condições de casa de vegetação, em vasos de Mitscherlich contendo areia lavada e irrigados com solução nutritiva completa e com soluções nutritivas com a omissão de cada macronutriente (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. As plantas mostraram sintomas de deficiência de macronutrientes, com exceção do fósforo, na ausência de cada elemento, relacionados com os seus baixos teores e redução no crescimento, desenvolvimento e produção de matéria seca.Peanut plants (Arachis hypogaea L. were cultivated in washed sand, under greenhouse conditions, irrigated with a complete nutrient solution and nutrient solutions with absence of each macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. Typical symptoms of macronutrient deficiencies were observed, except for phosphorus, related to the content of the element in the plant. The absence of macronutrients also influenced the plant dry matter production, development and height.

  17. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment.

  18. Water dephts and macronutrients accumulation in 'pérola' pineapple irrigated by drip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uirá do Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the largest pineapple producers worldwide, and those fruits are for the juice industry and the in natura market. Its cultivation requires high technology investment by using irrigation and balanced fertilization. However, little is known about the influence of drip irrigation on nutrient uptake by pineapple plants. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different irrigation depths on nutrients accumulation by 'Pérola' pineapples grown in northern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with five treatments referring to: 30% of Class A Evaporation Pan (ECA; 50% of ECA; 70% of ECA; 100% of ECA; and 150% of ECA. To determine the levels of macronutrients and dry matter, the plants were separated in root, stem, leaves, 'D' leaf, crown, fruit and whole plant. The sequence of macronutrients accumulated in the whole plant was K>N>Ca>P>Mg. The fruits exported from the cultivated area the following amounts of macronutrients: 17.52 kg ha-1 of K (12.8%; 16.91 kg ha-1 of N (20.7%; 10.77 kg ha-1 of Ca (15.9%, 1.29 kg ha-1 of P (12.4% and 1.04 kg ha-1 of Mg (20.5%. The irrigation depths that provided the maximum N, P, K and Ca accumulation in the whole plant are 53.6, 61.6, 54.5 and 60.2% of ECA, respectively.

  19. Impacts of Macronutrients on Gene Expression: Recent Evidence to Understand Productive and Reproductive Performance of Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmodul Hasan Sohel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the effects of nutrients on gene expression and to assess the interactions between genes and nutrition by means of various cutting-edge technologies, the interdisciplinary branch ‘Nutrigenomics’ was created. Therefore, nutrigenomics corresponds to the use of knowledge and techniques of nutrition, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics to seek and explain the cross-talk between nutrition and genes in molecular level. Macronutrients are important dietary signals that control metabolic programming of cells and have important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis by influencing specific gene expression. Recent advancements in molecular genetics studies, for instance, use of next-generation sequencing, microarray and qPCR array to investigate the expression of transcripts, genes, and miRNAs, has a crucial impact on understanding and quantitative measurement of the impact of dietary macronutrients on gene function. This review will shade a light on the interactions and mechanisms how the dietary source of macronutrients changes the expression of specific mRNA and miRNA. Furthermore, it will highlight the exciting recent findings in relation to animal performance characteristics which eventually help us to identify a dietary target to improve animal production.

  20. Inflammation but Not Dietary Macronutrients Insufficiency Associated with the Malnutrition-Inflammation Score in Hemodialysis Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Zhimin; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is associated with increased risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients. And insufficient dietary intake is the common cause for malnutrition. So, in order to survey the dietary intake of hemodialysis patients and study the relationship between the dietary feature and nutritional status, a cross-sectional study was performed. 75 hemodialysis patients from South China participated in the dietary intake survey and nutrition assessment. A three-day diet diary record was used to estimate the major dietary macronutrients. Nutritional status was assessed by malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) in addition to several related anthropometric measurements. Serum albumin, transferrin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to quantify the assessing value of independent parameters for nutritional status. The results showed that 48% patients were malnourished according to the MIS. The malnourished patients had a lower body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), albumin and a higher level of CRP, compared with normal nourished patients (P nutrition groups (P > 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that the major macronutrients had no significant association with MIS (P > 0.05). In conclusion, malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population and these data indicated that inflammation but not dietary macronutrients insufficiency might be the candidate cause for malnutrition in hemodialysis population. PMID:24349471

  1. Inflammation but not dietary macronutrients insufficiency associated with the malnutrition-inflammation score in hemodialysis population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is associated with increased risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients. And insufficient dietary intake is the common cause for malnutrition. So, in order to survey the dietary intake of hemodialysis patients and study the relationship between the dietary feature and nutritional status, a cross-sectional study was performed. 75 hemodialysis patients from South China participated in the dietary intake survey and nutrition assessment. A three-day diet diary record was used to estimate the major dietary macronutrients. Nutritional status was assessed by malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS in addition to several related anthropometric measurements. Serum albumin, transferrin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to quantify the assessing value of independent parameters for nutritional status. The results showed that 48% patients were malnourished according to the MIS. The malnourished patients had a lower body mass index (BMI, fat mass (FM, albumin and a higher level of CRP, compared with normal nourished patients (P 0.05. The multivariate regression analysis showed that the major macronutrients had no significant association with MIS (P > 0.05. In conclusion, malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population and these data indicated that inflammation but not dietary macronutrients insufficiency might be the candidate cause for malnutrition in hemodialysis population.

  2. Nutritional disorder of lettuce cv. Veronica in nutrient solution with suppressed macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Batista Firmato de Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is the most popular of the leafy vegetables. It is known worldwide and its consumption occurs mainly in the natural form. The objective was to evaluate the effect of macronutrient omission on the growth and nutritional status of the lettuce cv. Veronica, and to describe the visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency. The treatments complete consisted of the solution and the individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S, under a completely randomized design with three replications. Plants were grown in Hoagland & Arnon, in pots (8L. At 56 days after transplant we evaluated plant height, leaf number, leaf area, SPAD index, dry matter of shoots, roots and whole plant, levels of macronutrients in shoots and roots, and the nature of nutritional disorders. The omission of nutrients affected the growth variables. The nutrients found in lettuce plants from nutrient solution and the complete omission in the shoot were, respectively, N= 23.2 to 9.5, P= 5.4 to 1.3, K= 58,9 to 3.2, Ca= 12.1 to 3.6, Mg= 5.5 to 0.7 and S= 3.2 to 1.5g.kg-1. The omission of macronutrients caused quality losses, since it affected the nutrition of the vegetables and this resulted in morphological changes, reflected as symptoms of deficiency for each nutrient.

  3. Macronutrient cycles and climate change: key science areas and an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Crossman, J

    2012-09-15

    Human activities have doubled global cycles of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) and elevated N and P have compromised ecosystem services through the degradation of natural resources of soils, freshwaters and marine waters with a subsequent loss of biodiversity. Elevated Carbon (C) levels in the atmosphere have been linked to global warming, with positive feedback mechanisms accelerating the warming process. In order to initiate nutrient control, both national and international mitigation measures have been implemented. However, many of these initiatives focus upon a single nutrient without considering cycle interactions. A sound understanding of processes and transformations involved in the interactions of macronutrient cycles is required to avoid inadvertently enhancing effects of one nutrient, during mitigation for impacts of another. Emerging research initiatives are addressing these research gaps, with programmes in the US (USGCRP) and the UK (Macronutrient Cycles) advocating integration between scientists and stakeholders, in order to deliver results directly to policy makers. Through these programmes the scales of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes will be quantified, and a determination made of the nature of nutrient transformations in catchments under a changing climate and perturbed carbon cycle. The consideration of connectivity between multiple macronutrient cycles will help to minimise the threats to biodiversity, ecosystem dynamics, public water supplies and human health by improved management and better focused policy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal Macronutrient Consumption and the Developmental Origins of Metabolic Disease in the Offspring

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    Stephanie M. Kereliuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research aimed at understanding the rise in obesity and cardiometabolic disease in children suggests that suboptimal maternal nutrition conditions organ systems and physiological responses in the offspring contributing to disease development. Understanding the mechanisms by which the macronutrient composition of the maternal diet during pregnancy or lactation affects health outcomes in the offspring may lead to new maternal nutrition recommendations, disease prevention strategies and therapies that reduce the increasing incidence of cardiometabolic disease in children. Recent mechanistic animal model research has identified how excess fats and sugars in the maternal diet alter offspring glucose tolerance, insulin signaling and metabolism. Maternal nutrition appears to influence epigenetic alterations in the offspring and the programming of gene expression in key metabolic pathways. This review is focused on experimental studies in animal models that have investigated mechanisms of how maternal consumption of macronutrients affects cardiometabolic disease development in the offspring. Future research using “-omic” technologies is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of how altered maternal macronutrient consumption influences the development of disease in the offspring.

  5. Irradiated sewage sludge for increased crop production - III. Macronutrient availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.; Badawy, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    taken up by fruits were very low compared with those added to the soil in sludge. (author)

  6. AdS solutions through transgression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science

    2008-07-15

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  7. Macronutrients contribution from beverages according to sex and age: findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, Emma; Rodríguez-Alonso, Paula; Ávila-Torres, José Manuel; Valero-Gaspar, Teresa; Del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-07-13

    Methodologies and procedures used in dietary surveys have been widely developed with the aim of evaluating the nutritional status of a population. However, beverages are often either disregarded at national and international assessment of nutrients intake or poorly mentioned. Moreover, there is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of beverages intake in the general population. Moreover, the contribution of different beverages to macronutrients intake is rarely provided. The latter in the context of a continuous expansion and innovation of the beverages market in Spain. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages macronutrients contribution in the ANIBES study in Spain (9-75 years old).As expected, those contributed to dietary macronutrient intake mainly as total carbohydrates and sugar. The contribution to other macronutrients (proteins and lipids) by the beverage groups was of much less importance. For non-alcoholic beverages, contribution to carbohydrates was much higher in younger populations (children: 10.91 ± 9.49%, mean ± SD for boys and 9.46 ± 8.83% for girls; adolescents: 11.97 ± 11.26% for men and 13.77 ± 10.55% in women) than in adults: 9.01 ± 9.84% for men and 7.77 ± 8.73% in women. Finally, a much lower contribution was observed in the elderly: 4.22 ± 6.10% for men and 4.46 ± 6.56% for women. No sex differences, however, across all age groups were found. Results for sugar contribution showed a similar trend: children (23.14 ± 19.00% for boys and 19.77 ± 17.35% for girls); adolescents (28.13 ± 24.17% for men and 29.83 ± 21.82% in women); adults 20.42 ± 20.35% for men and 16.95 ± 17.76% in women, p ≤ 0.01; and elderly: 14.63% ± 9.97 for men and 9.33 ± 12.86% in women. The main contribution corresponded to sugared soft drinks, juices and nectars, more relevant and significant in the younger populations. As for alcoholic beverages, the

  8. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  9. AdS null deformations with inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, K.

    2012-12-01

    We study AdS×X null deformations arising as near horizon limits of D3-brane analogs of inhomogeneous plane waves. Restricting to normalizable deformations for the AdS5 case, these generically correspond in the dual field theory to super Yang-Mills states with light cone momentum density T++ varying spatially, the homogeneous case studied in [K. Narayan, arXiv:1202.5935] corresponding to uniform T++. All of these preserve some supersymmetry. Generically these inhomogeneous solutions exhibit analogs of horizons in the interior where a timelike Killing vector becomes null. From the point of view of x+-dimensional reduction, the circle pinches off on these horizon loci in the interior. We discuss similar inhomogeneous solutions with asymptotically Lifshitz boundary conditions, as well as aspects of Lifshitz singularities in string constructions involving anti-de Sitter null deformations. We also briefly discuss holographic entanglement entropy for some of these.

  10. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    Recent studies reveal that consumers respond favourably to “organic plus” products with additional ethical attributes. The aim of the current study is to explore whether consumers would notice and value further improvements in the animal welfare standards than those imposed by the organic...... it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value....

  11. Macronutrient optimization and seasonal diet mixing in a large omnivore, the grizzly bear: a geometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C P Coogan

    Full Text Available Nutrient balance is a strong determinant of animal fitness and demography. It is therefore important to understand how the compositions of available foods relate to required balance of nutrients and habitat suitability for animals in the wild. These relationships are, however, complex, particularly for omnivores that often need to compose balanced diets by combining their intake from diverse nutritionally complementary foods. Here we apply geometric models to understand how the nutritional compositions of foods available to an omnivorous member of the order Carnivora, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos L., relate to optimal macronutrient intake, and assess the seasonal nutritional constraints on the study population in west-central Alberta, Canada. The models examined the proportion of macronutrients that bears could consume by mixing their diet from food available in each season, and assessed the extent to which bears could consume the ratio of protein to non-protein energy previously demonstrated using captive bears to optimize mass gain. We found that non-selective feeding on ungulate carcasses provided a non-optimal macronutrient balance with surplus protein relative to fat and carbohydrate, reflecting adaptation to an omnivorous lifestyle, and that optimization through feeding selectively on different tissues of ungulate carcasses is unlikely. Bears were, however, able to dilute protein intake to an optimal ratio by mixing their otherwise high-protein diet with carbohydrate-rich fruit. Some individual food items were close to optimally balanced in protein to non-protein energy (e.g. Hedysarum alpinum roots, which may help explain their dietary prevalence. Ants may be consumed particularly as a source of lipids. Overall, our analysis showed that most food available to bears in the study area were high in protein relative to lipid or carbohydrate, suggesting the lack of non-protein energy limits the fitness (e.g. body size and reproduction and

  12. Macronutrient intake and food sources in the very old: analysis of the Newcastle 85+ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Nuno; Hill, Tom R; Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Collerton, Joanna; Mathers, John C; Siervo, Mario; Wrieden, Wendy L; Seal, Chris J; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J

    2016-06-01

    Food and nutrient intake data are scarce in very old adults (85 years and older) - one of the fastest growing age segments of Western societies, including the UK. Our primary objective was to assess energy and macronutrient intakes and respective food sources in 793 85-year-olds (302 men and 491 women) living in North-East England and participating in the Newcastle 85+ cohort Study. Dietary information was collected using a repeated multiple-pass recall (2×24 h recalls). Energy, macronutrient and NSP intakes were estimated, and the contribution (%) of food groups to nutrient intake was calculated. The median energy intake was 6·65 (interquartile ranges (IQR) 5·49-8·16) MJ/d - 46·8 % was from carbohydrates, 36·8 % from fats and 15·7 % from proteins. NSP intake was 10·2 g/d (IQR 7·3-13·7). NSP intake was higher in non-institutionalised, more educated, from higher social class and more physically active 85-year-olds. Cereals and cereal products were the top contributors to intakes of energy and most macronutrients (carbohydrates, non-milk extrinsic sugars, NSP and fat), followed by meat and meat products. The median intakes of energy and NSP were much lower than the estimated average requirement for energy (9·6 MJ/d for men and 7·7 MJ/d for women) and the dietary reference value (DRV) for NSP (≥18 g/d). The median SFA intake was higher than the DRV (≤11 % of dietary energy). This study highlights the paucity of data on dietary intake and the uncertainties about DRV for this age group.

  13. Influence of macronutrients and activated charcoal on intake of sagebrush by sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Banner, R E

    2002-08-01

    We determined if supplemental macronutrients or activated charcoal influenced intake of sagebrush, a shrub that contains terpenes. Sheep (lambs 3 mo age, 33 kg) and goats (kids 5 mo age, 28 kg) were fed supplements high in energy, high in protein, or offered a choice between the two supplements before and after receiving sagebrush for 4 h/d. The effect of activated charcoal, a compound that reduces bioavailability of toxins, was assessed by offering charcoal mixed with a carrier or the carrier alone while animals consumed sagebrush for 4 h/d. The effects of supplemental macronutirents were tested before and after charcoal supplementation. Activated charcoal did not increase intake of sagebrush by sheep or goats (P > 0.05), but supplemental macronutrients influenced intake of sagebrush by both species (P animals fed the high-protein supplement than for animals fed the high-energy supplement (P charcoal supplementation) and kids (after charcoal supplementation) offered a choice between the two supplements used sagebrush at levels comparable to animals supplemented with protein. They consumed more CP than animals fed the high-energy supplement and more ME than lambs fed the high-protein supplement (P animals to achieve a more balanced intake of macronutrients. Preference for supplement and sagebrush also depended on an animal's immediate past history with a supplement. Sheep and goats previously fed the high-energy or the high-protein supplement preferred, respectively, the high-protein or the high-energy supplement when given a choice (P < 0.05). The changes in preference for supplement caused a decreased intake of sagebrush by groups that preferred the energy concentrate, and an increased intake of sagebrush by groups that preferred the protein concentrate. Thus, supplements of different energy and protein densities consistently altered intake of sagebrush by sheep and goats.

  14. The excesive intake of macronutrients: does it influence the sports performances of young cyclists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Benito, J L; Sánchez Soriano, E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to determine whether 34 young Spanish males belonging to a cyclist team, follows the optimal macronutrients intake based on the recommended dietary guidelines. The deficits in nutrition jeopardise the sportive performances, but what about the diets with excessive intake of macronutrients? Furthermore, is there an association between their sports achievements and the psychological profile? Surely, but the problem is to determine which psychological variables are involved. Nutritional evaluation based on Nutrients intake questionnaire of 7 consecutive days. Cyclists consume an excessive quantity of proteins and lipids in their diets. The average consumption of proteins is 16,36% of their caloric intake (the recommended quantity is less than 10%). The average consumption of fats is 38,71% (the recommended is less than 30%). The same tendency is found in the homologous Spanish young people of the enKID study, where the percentage of energy from fat and saturated fat is much higher than the recommended one. The cyclists consume insufficient quantities of carbohydrates (average is 44, 94% of their caloric intake, the recommended is more than 60%), therefore the reload of their glycogen stores may not be complete on each competition stage. No association has been found between the excessive intake of referred macronutrients and the achieved sports performances. This work contributes to the knowledge of the diets of very active young cyclists. Excessive intake of proteins and fats do not jeopardise their sportive performances. The commonly studied psychological variables in sport, are not determinant of sports achievements of young cyclists; additional work is needed to determine the psychological profile playing a determinant role in success of young cyclists.

  15. Macronutrient composition of a morning meal and the maintenance of attention throughout the morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tommy J; Gray, Michael J; Van Klinken, Jan-Willem; Kaczmarczyk, Melissa; Foxe, John J

    2017-07-17

    At present, the impact of macronutrient composition and nutrient intake on sustained attention in adults is unclear, although some prior work suggests that nutritive interventions that engender slow, steady glucose availability support sustained attention after consumption. A separate line of evidence suggests that nutrient consumption may alter electroencephalographic markers of neurophysiological activity, including neural oscillations in the alpha-band (8-14 Hz), which are known to be richly interconnected with the allocation of attention. It is here investigated whether morning ingestion of foodstuffs with differing macronutrient compositions might differentially impact the allocation of sustained attention throughout the day as indexed by both behavior and the deployment of attention-related alpha-band activity. Twenty-four adult participants were recruited into a three-day study with a cross-over design that employed a previously validated sustained attention task (the Spatial CTET). On each experimental day, subjects consumed one of three breakfasts with differing carbohydrate availabilities (oatmeal, cornflakes, and water) and completed blocks of the Spatial CTET throughout the morning while behavioral performance, subjective metrics of hunger/fullness, and electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements of alpha oscillatory activity were recorded. Although behavior and electrophysiological metrics changed over the course of the day, no differences in their trajectories were observed as a function of breakfast condition. However, subjective metrics of hunger/fullness revealed that caloric interventions (oatmeal and cornflakes) reduced hunger across the experimental day with respect to the non-caloric, volume-matched control (water). Yet, no differences in hunger/fullness were observed between the oatmeal and cornflakes interventions. Observation of a relationship between macronutrient intervention and sustained attention (if one exists) will require further

  16. Differential vascular dysfunction in response to diets of differing macronutrient composition: a phenomenonological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy Roslyn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular dysfunction can develop from consumption of an energy-rich diet, even prior to the onset of obesity. However, the roles played by different dietary components remain uncertain. While attempting to develop models of obesity in a separate study, we observed that two high-energy diets of differing macronutrient compositions affected vascular function differently in overweight rats. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 6/group were fed diets providing varying percentages of energy from fat and carbohydrate (CHO. For 10 weeks, they were fed either chow, as control diet (10% of energy from fat; 63% from CHO, chow supplemented with chocolate biscuit (30% fat; 56% CHO or a high-fat diet (45% fat; 35% CHO. Blood concentrations of biochemical markers of obesity were measured, and epididymal fat pads weighed as a measure of adiposity. Mesenteric arteries were dissected and their contractile and relaxant properties analysed myographically. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Weight gain and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and leptin were similar in all groups. However, biscuit-fed animals showed increased food intake (+27%; p p p p p Conclusion Vascular dysfunction resulting from consumption of a high-fat or combined relatively high-fat/high-CHO diet occurs through different physiological processes, which may be attributable to their differing macronutrient compositions. Combining potentially atherogenic macronutrients induces more extensive vascular impairment than that of high-fat alone, and may be attributable to the more marked dyslipidaemia observed with such a diet. Thus, these findings help clarify the role of dietary components in vascular impairment, which has implications for clinical approaches to preventing cardiovascular disease.

  17. Productivity in a dominant herbaceous species is largely unrelated to soil macronutrient stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, E C; Toberman, H; Adams, J L; Lawlor, A J; Thacker, S A; Patel, M; Tipping, E

    2016-12-01

    To predict ecosystem responses to anthropogenic change it is important to understand how and where plant productivity is limited by macronutrient availability. Nitrogen (N) is required in large quantities for plant growth, and is readily lost through leaching or gas fluxes, but reactive nitrogen can be obtained through dinitrogen fixation, and phosphorus (P) is often considered a more fundamental long-term constraint to growth and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Phosphorus limitation may be becoming more prevalent due to widespread pollution by atmospheric N. Assessments of the effects of macronutrient availability on productivity in natural ecosystems are however scarce. We measured standing biomass of bracken Pteridium aquilinum as a proxy for productivity across sites with similar climate but varied geology. Total above-ground biomass varied from 404 to 1947gm -2 , yet despite 12-fold to 281-fold variation in soil macronutrient stocks these were remarkably poor at explaining variation in productivity. Soil total nitrogen, organic phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and zinc had no relationship with productivity, whether expressed as concentrations, stocks or element/C ratios, and nor did foliar N/P. Soil potassium (K) and molybdenum stocks both showed weak relationships with productivity. The stock of K in bracken biomass was considerably greater as a proportion of soil stock than for other nutrient elements, suggesting that this nutrient element can be important in determining productivity. Moisture availability, as indicated by environmental trait scores for plant species present, explained considerably more of the variation in productivity than did K stock, with less production in wetter sites. Soil N/C ratio and organic P stock were relatively unimportant in determining productivity across these bracken sites. It is possible that more-direct measures of N and P availability would explain variation in productivity, but the study shows the

  18. Short-term modulation of lipogenesis by macronutrients in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M J; Díez, A; López-Bote, C; Gallego, M; Bautista, J M

    2000-11-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes were cultured under simulated conditions of varying nutritional status to explore the short-term modulation by dietary substrates of the main lipogenic enzymes: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACoAC) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS). Primary cultures were individually exposed to varying amounts of glucose, hydrolysed casein and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for 12 h. A second set of experiments was designed to evaluate the effects of mixing different relative amounts of these macronutrients in the culture medium. Glucose concentrations of up to 20-25 mm showed a stimulatory effect on G6PD, ME, ACL and ACoAC activity while an earlier inhibitory effect on FAS was observed at 10-20 mm glucose The use of hydrolysed casein as a nutritional source of amino acids inhibited the activity of FAS and ME and stimulated G6PD, ACoAC and ACL activity Low levels of linolenic acid exerted a stimulatory effect on all the lipogenic enzymes assayed with the exception of FAS, and increased amounts showed some inhibition of lipogenic activities Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid showed a similar effect, although the former strongly inhibited FAS activity while the latter showed greater potential to inhibit ACoAC and G6PD. A complete change in the relative levels of glucose, hydrolysed casein and PUFA in turn led to changes in the enzyme activity patterns observed. The present study shows the feasibility of exploring the direct regulation of lipogenesis in isolated fish cells by varying the relative amounts of main macronutrients, mimicking in vivo dietary conditions. It is felt that such an approach may serve to investigate the macronutrient regulation of other metabolic pathways.

  19. The Role of Macronutrient Content in the Diet for Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A; Siri-Tarino, Patty W

    2016-09-01

    Diets to treat obesity have been in existence since Hippocrates treated obesity some 2500 years ago. There are currently a wide variety of diets and a common misconception that a single magical diet can cure overweight and obesity. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses indicate that all diets work when adhered to and that initial weight loss can predict the amount of weight lost and maintained for up to 4 years. Individual preferences are thus key in selecting a diet. There are emerging data pinpointing genetic variability in the metabolic responses to variation in macronutrient intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal Macronutrient Intake and Offspring Blood Pressure 20 Years Later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrolfsdottir, Laufey; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rytter, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from 2 cohort studies in Scotland established in the 1940s and 1950s (Aberdeen and Motherwell) suggested that a high protein diet during pregnancy might adversely influence offspring blood pressure at adult age. Our objective was to examine this association in the Danish Fetal...... Origins Cohort (DaFO88). METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective birth cohort of 965 women who gave birth in 1988-1989 in Aarhus, Denmark, and whose offspring (n=434) participated in a clinical examination ≈20 years later. Macronutrient intake was assessed in gestational week 30. Multivariable...

  1. Daily dietary energy and macronutrient intake and anthropometric measurements of the peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Gamze; Sanlıer, Nevin; Inal, Salih; Tek, Nilüfer Acar; Oneç, Kürşad; Erten, Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate the relation between dietary macronutrient status and anthropometric measurements in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. A total of 28 clinically stable patients were enrolled in this study. All patients were taken a dietary therapy according to the guidelines of the American Journal of Kidney Foundation for 12 weeks. The anthropometric measurements were taken by bioelectrical impedance analyzer. The daily macronutrient intakes of the patients were calculated by the food consumption records. The mean age was 48.3 ± 13.10 years [56.3 ± 7.41 years for males (n = 14) and 40.3 ± 12.84 years for females (n = 14)]. There were significant changes in fat percentage (%), total body water (TBW; %, L), extracellular water (ECW; %, L), basal metabolic rate over body weight (BMR/BW), and body fat mass index (BMFI) in males (p 0.05). The daily dietary energy and protein intakes were under the recommended level in the study period. Patients undergoing PD frequently have low intakes of protein and energy. It is recommended that individuals undergoing PD periodically maintain 3-day dietary records followed by dietary interviews conducted by a dietitian.

  2. The impact of maternal- and neonatal-associated factors on human milk's macronutrients and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dritsakou, Kalliopi; Liosis, Georgios; Valsami, Georgia; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2017-06-01

    To test the impact of specific maternal- and neonatal-associated factors on human milk's macronutrients and energy. This study was conducted with the use of a human milk analyzer (HMA, MIRIS, Uppsala, Sweden). Six hundred and thirty samples of raw milk and 95 samples of donor pasteurized milk were delivered from a total of 305 mothers. A significant inverse correlation of fat, protein and energy content with gestational age and birth weight was established. Fat and energy were lower in colostrum, increased in transitional milk and decreased on the 30th day's mature milk compared to transitional. The rate of protein decline from colostrum to mature milk was lower in premature deliveries compared to that of full-terms, resulting in greater contents of protein in preterm mature milk. The upmost amounts of carbohydrates were found in mature milk of preterm deliveries. A positive correlation was found between maternal age and fat contents. In women with higher post-pregnancy BMI levels greater analogies of fat and energy were presented. In women suffering diet-controlled gestational diabetes (GD), lower protein and higher fat and energy levels were found. Prematurity, maternal age, diet-controlled GD and high post-pregnancy BMI levels were found to impose statistical significant effect on milk's macronutrients and energy.

  3. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie V. Kizirian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96 and late (n = 88 pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI. In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037. In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010 and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034. Higher fat intake (%E and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy. Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity.

  4. Sustainable food security in India-Domestic production and macronutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Hannah; Reay, David; Higgins, Peter

    2018-01-01

    India has been perceived as a development enigma: Recent rates of economic growth have not been matched by similar rates in health and nutritional improvements. To meet the second Sustainable Development Goal (SDG2) of achieving zero hunger by 2030, India faces a substantial challenge in meeting basic nutritional needs in addition to addressing population, environmental and dietary pressures. Here we have mapped-for the first time-the Indian food system from crop production to household-level availability across three key macronutrients categories of 'calories', 'digestible protein' and 'fat'. To better understand the potential of reduced food chain losses and improved crop yields to close future food deficits, scenario analysis was conducted to 2030 and 2050. Under India's current self-sufficiency model, our analysis indicates severe shortfalls in availability of all macronutrients across a large proportion (>60%) of the Indian population. The extent of projected shortfalls continues to grow such that, even in ambitious waste reduction and yield scenarios, enhanced domestic production alone will be inadequate in closing the nutrition supply gap. We suggest that to meet SDG2 India will need to take a combined approach of optimising domestic production and increasing its participation in global trade.

  5. Variation in macronutrients in human bank milk: influencing factors and implications for human milk banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, K F; Skafte, L; Badsberg, J H

    1990-01-01

    Protein (P), fat (F), and carbohydrate (C) concentration in expressed human bank milk was determined by infrared analysis of 2,554 samples from 224 mothers. The mean contents of P, F, C, and energy (E, calculated from P, F, and C) were 9.0 g/L, 39.0 g/L, 71.9 g/L, and 696 kcal/L, respectively...... with a high P content, we have developed a "high-protein" milk with a P content of about 12 g/L (true protein) and an E content of about 725 kcal/L. Thus, by continuous monitoring of macronutrient content in human bank milk it is possible to develop a "high-protein" milk with sufficient P and E content...... decreased exponentially during the 1st 8 months, followed by an increase during the following months. The F content decreased during the 1st 4 months, followed by an almost linear increase. The possible influence of different maternal characteristics on the macronutrient content of the milk was examined...

  6. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization in yield and macronutrients contents of heliconia cv. Golden Torch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márkilla Z. Beckmann-Cavalcante

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (N and potassium (K fertilization in yield and contents of macronutrients in heliconia plants (Heliconia psittacorum x Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeguieta cv. Golden Torch. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a 4 x 4 factorial, corresponding to N doses (0, 120, 180 and 240 g of N hole-1 and K doses (0, 120, 180 and 240 g of K2O hole-1 with four replicates and five rhizomes per plot, under field conditions. After one year of cultivation, yield (number of flower stems per square meter and the leaf contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S were determined. The applied N doses did not influence either yield or the leaf contents of the evaluated macronutrients. K fertilization favored the increase in leaf K content and the decrease in the contents of P, Ca and Mg in leaves of heliconias. Under the conditions of this experiment, it is recommended to apply 161.46 g of K2O hole-1 for a maximum yield of 9.89 stems m-2 per month.

  7. Effects of macronutrient additions on nickel uptake and distribution in the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Huasheng; Wang Minghua; Huang Xuguang [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University/Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, No. 192, Daxue Road, Siming Zone, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang Dazhi, E-mail: dzwang@xmu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University/Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, No. 192, Daxue Road, Siming Zone, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The influences of macronutrient additions on nickel (Ni) uptake and distribution in the subcellular structures and macromolecular components of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu were examined using a radioisotope tracer method. The results showed that nitrate addition enhanced the uptake of Ni by P. donghaiense, whereas phosphate addition inhibited Ni uptake at high-Ni concentration. Nitrate or phosphate addition significantly affected Ni distribution in the subcellular structures and components. The majority of Ni was found in the soluble substances (>70%) and in the proteins (55.0-79.6%) of the algal cells. Urea reduced the Ni content in the amino acid-carbohydrate but elevated its content in proteins, and shown significantly correlated with the protein content of the algal cells. Thus, nutrient enrichment could influence both metal uptake and its distribution in the subcellular structures and components of the phytoplankton, as well as its subsequent transfer in marine food chains. - Macronutrient additions significantly affected nickel uptake and distribution in the subcellular substructures and components of the dinoflagellate.

  8. Macronutrients accumulation and growth of pineapple cultivars submitted to aluminum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro F. C. Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to determine the growth and accumulation of macronutrients of two pineapple cultivars submitted to different concentrations of aluminum (Al. For this, a study was conducted in plastic pots containing 4 L of nutrient solution, in a randomized block design, in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, corresponding to two pineapple cultivars (‘IAC Fantástico’ and ‘Vitória’ and five Al concentrations (0, 21.6, 43.2, 64.8 and 86.4 mg of Al plant-1, with four replicates. The following variables were evaluated: root length, dry matter of root, stem and leaf, stem diameter, number of leaves, chlorophyll content and accumulation of macronutrients at 60 days after treatment. The cv. ‘Vitória’ showed a linear decrease in chlorophyll content, root dry matter, root length and accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in most plant components promoted by the increase of Al concentration in the nutrient solution. The cv. ‘IAC Fantástico’ had lower total dry matter, stem dry matter, stem diameter and accumulation of N, Ca and Mg. However, the evaluated characteristics were not influenced by the increase of Al concentration, showing greater tolerance of this cultivar to Al in nutrient solution.

  9. Changes in hyperspectral reflectance signatures of lettuce leaves in response to macronutrient deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacumbaba, R. O.; Beyl, C. A.

    2011-07-01

    The adaptation of specific remote sensing and hyperspectral analysis techniques for the determination of incipient nutrient stress in plants could allow early detection and precision supplementation for remediation, important considerations for minimizing mass of advanced life support systems on space station and long term missions. This experiment was conducted to determine if hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect nutrient stress in Lactuca sativa L. cv. Black Seeded Simpson. Lettuce seedlings were grown for 90 days in a greenhouse or growth chamber in vermiculite containing modified Hoagland's nutrient solution with key macronutrient elements removed in order to induce a range of nutrient stresses, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Leaf tissue nutrient concentrations were compared with corresponding spectral reflectances taken at the end of 90 days. Spectral reflectances varied with growing location, position on the leaf, and nutrient deficiency treatment. Spectral responses of lettuce leaves under macronutrient deficiency conditions showed an increase in reflectance in the red, near red, and infrared wavelength ranges. The data obtained suggest that spectral reflectance shows the potential as a diagnostic tool in predicting nutrient deficiencies in general. Overlapping of spectral signatures makes the use of wavelengths of narrow bandwidths or individual bands for the discrimination of specific nutrient stresses difficult without further data processing.

  10. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain” cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old. Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%. Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%, mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23% ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6% and meat and meat products (22.0%. Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70% combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%. The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents.

  11. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2013)152, in agreement with the results of Castro and Song http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.1948. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS 2 ×S 2 or conformally AdS 2 ×S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide

  12. Effects of macronutrient composition and cyclooxygenase-inhibition on diet-induced obesity, low grade inflammation and glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjære, Even

    - or protein based background, and supplemented with either corn- or fish oil. These experiments were conducted to determine whether macronutrient composition and type of dietary fat can modulate diet-induced obesity, and associated metabolic consequences. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...... was combined with a low fat diet. This further highlights the importance of the background diet and macronutrient composition of experimental diets. Conclusions: In summary, our results demonstrate that the composition of background diet modulates the obesogenic effect of the high fat diet. The obesogenic...

  13. Interplay between genetic predisposition, macronutrient intake and type 2 diabetes incidence: analysis within EPIC-InterAct across eight European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Sherly X; Imamura, Fumiaki; Schulze, Matthias B; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Agudo, Antonio; Ardanaz, Eva; Aune, Dagfinn; Boeing, Heiner; Dorronsoro, Miren; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Grioni, Sara; Gunter, Marc J; Huerta, José María; Ibsen, Daniel B; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kyrø, Cecilie; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Murphy, Neil; Nilsson, Peter M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Poveda, Alaitz; Quirós, J Ramón; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Winkvist, Anna; Langenberg, Claudia; Sharp, Stephen J; Riboli, Elio; Scott, Robert A; Forouhi, Nita G; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2018-01-01

    Gene-macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their

  14. AdS2 models in an embedding superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Sherry, T.N.

    2003-01-01

    An embedding superspace, whose bosonic part is the flat (2+1)-dimensional embedding space for AdS 2 , is introduced. Superfields and several supersymmetric models are examined in the embedded AdS 2 superspace

  15. Effects of different phosphorus and potassium fertilization on contents and uptake of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg in winter wheat I. Content of macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata GAJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study carried out under field conditions was to evaluate the effect of differentiated phosphorus and potassium fertilization level on nutritional status of winter wheat at stem elongation (BBCH 31 and flowering (BBCH 65 development stages as well as on macronutrient contents in yield obtained (grain and straw. The research was conducted in 2007-2010, within an individual agricultural holding, on lessive soil with medium and high richness in potassium and phosphorus, respectively. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium in wheat changed depending on the organ assessed and plant development stage. At BBCH 31, regardless fertilization level, the plants observed were malnourished with potassium, phosphorus and calcium and at the control site also with nitrogen. Furthermore, there were found significant correlation relationships among the contents of nutrient pairs: nitrogen-potassium, nitrogen-phosphorus, nitrogen-magnesium and nitrogen-calcium. The content of nitrogen in wheat grain and straw differed mainly due to weather conditions during the study. Irrespective of the years of observation, differentiated rates of P and K applied had no significant effect on N accumulation in wheat at full ripening stage. In contrast to nitrogen, the level of P and K fertilization significantly differentiated the contents of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in wheat grain and straw. In case of calcium, the effect of fertilization factor was indicated only as regards the content of this nutrient in grain.

  16. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  17. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    It was argued in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2013)028 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS 3 ×S 3 /ℤ N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  18. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Tint, Mya-Thway; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D; Tan, Kok Hian; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-03-01

    Background: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak characteristics and early childhood BMI are emerging markers of future obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk, but little is known about their maternal nutritional determinants. Objective: We investigated the associations of maternal macronutrient intake with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study. Design: With the use of infant BMI data from birth to age 18 mo, infant BMI peak characteristics [age (in months) and magnitude (BMI peak ; in kg/m 2 ) at peak and prepeak velocities] were derived from subject-specific BMI curves that were fitted with the use of mixed-effects model with a natural cubic spline function. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake (assessed by using a 24-h recall during late gestation) with infant BMI peak characteristics ( n = 910) and BMI z scores at ages 2, 3, and 4 y were examined with the use of multivariable linear regression. Results: Mean absolute maternal macronutrient intakes (percentages of energy) were 72 g protein (15.6%), 69 g fat (32.6%), and 238 g carbohydrate (51.8%). A 25-g (∼100-kcal) increase in maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with a 0.01/mo (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.01/mo) higher prepeak velocity and a 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08) higher BMI peak These associations were mainly driven by sugar intake, whereby a 25-g increment of maternal sugar intake was associated with a 0.02/mo (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03/mo) higher infant prepeak velocity and a 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) higher BMI peak Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with a higher offspring BMI z score at ages 2-4 y. Maternal protein and fat intakes were not consistently associated with the studied outcomes. Conclusion: Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes are associated with unfavorable infancy BMI peak characteristics and higher early childhood BMI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  19. Future body mass index modelling based on macronutrient profiles and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cundiff David K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate system of determining the relationship of macronutrient profiles of foods and beverages to the long-term weight impacts of foods is necessary for evidence-based, unbiased front-of-the-package food labels. Methods Data sets on diet, physical activity, and BMI came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the World Health Organization (WHO, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT, and Epidemiology Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC. To predict future BMI of individuals, multiple regression derived FAO/WHO and DCCT/EDIC formulas related macronutrient profiles and physical activity (independent variables to BMI change/year (dependent variable. Similar formulas without physical activity related macronutrient profiles of individual foods and beverages to four-year weight impacts of those items and compared those forecasts to published food group profiling estimates from three large prospective studies by Harvard nutritional epidemiologists. Results FAO/WHO food and beverage formula: four-year weight impact (pounds=(0.07710 alcohol g+11.95 (381.7+carbohydrates g per serving*4/(2,613+kilocalories per serving–304.9 (30.38+dietary fiber g per serving/(2,613+kilocalories per serving+19.73 (84.44+total fat g*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving–68.57 (20.45+PUFA g per serving*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving*2.941–12.78 (n=334, R2=0.29, P 2=0.03, P P = 0.0004. Formula predictions did not correlate with food group profiling findings for potatoes and dairy products (n=10, r= −0.33 P=0.36. A formula based diet and exercise analysis tool is available to researchers and individuals: http://thehealtheconomy.com/healthTool/. Conclusions Two multiple regression derived formulas from dissimilar databases produced markedly similar estimates of future BMI for 1,055 individuals with type 1 diabetes and female and male cohorts from 167 countries. These formulas predicted the long-term weight impacts of

  20. Comparison of caloric intake and weight outcomes of an ad lib feeding regimen for preterm infants in two nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridham, K F; Kosorok, M R; Greer, F; Kayata, S; Bhattacharya, A; Grunwald, P

    2001-09-01

    Effects on caloric intake and weight gain of an ad libitum (ad lib) feeding regimen for preterm infants may be specific to a special care nursery. To explore across two nurseries the similarity of effect on caloric intake and weight gain of an ad lib feeding regimen compared with a prescribed regimen and the similarity of effect of caloric intake on weight gain. All infants participating in the multi-site randomized clinical trial (RCT) of the ad lib feeding regimen were lib. After accounting for caloric intake, the ad lib regimen did not affect weight gain. The time-by-regimen interaction effect on caloric intake was significant in both nurseries. Caloric intake for infants fed ad lib increased significantly over 5 days. Despite differences between nurseries in infant characteristics and in protocol implementation, the feeding regimen effect was consistent for caloric intake and weight gain. Further support was found for the development of infant self-regulatory capacity.

  1. The relationship between emotions and food consumption (macronutrient) in a foodservice college setting - a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Heather J; Edwards, John S A; Brown, Lorraine

    2013-05-01

    Many aspects of eating out have been studied, yet emotions remain an under-researched area, despite having been shown to play a significant role in food consumption. The aim of this research is to critically evaluate the relationship between emotions and food consumption (macronutrient) in a realistic eating environment, a college cafeteria. Subjects (n = 408), diners using a cafeteria, completed an emotions questionnaire before and after freely choosing, paying for and consuming a hot main meal. The results demonstrated a greater feeling of contentment with a high fat, high energy meal, whereas with a low carbohydrate meal, participants felt unfulfilled. In addition, a high protein meal also leads to a feeling of contentment. These results are rather counter-intuitive to public health nutrition policy but indicate the importance of inclusion of a protein or high carbohydrate item in any dish design in a foodservice setting.

  2. "Calories in, calories out" and macronutrient intake: the hope, hype, and science of calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Scott; Kones, Richard

    2017-11-01

    One of the central tenets in obesity prevention and management is caloric restriction. This perspective presents salient features of how calories and energy balance matter, also called the "calories in, calories out" paradigm. Determinants of energy balance and relationships to dietary macronutrient content are reviewed. The rationale and features of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis postulate that carbohydrate restriction confers a metabolic advantage. According to this model, a large amount of fat intake is enabled without weight gain. Evidence concerning this possibility is detailed. The relationship and application of the laws of thermodynamics are then clarified with current primary research. Strong data indicate that energy balance is not materially changed during isocaloric substitution of dietary fats for carbohydrates. Results from a number of sources refute both the theory and effectiveness of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis. Instead, risk for obesity is primarily determined by total calorie intake. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Piezoresistive microcantilever based lab-on-a-chip system for detection of macronutrients in the soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Rajul S.; Ashwin, Mamta; Rao, V. Ramgopal

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring of soil nutrients is very important in precision agriculture. In this paper, we have demonstrated a micro electro mechanical system based lab-on-a-chip system for detection of various soil macronutrients which are available in ionic form K+, NO3-, and H2PO4-. These sensors are highly sensitive piezoresistive silicon microcantilevers coated with a polymer matrix containing methyltridodecylammonium nitrate ionophore/ nitrate ionophore VI for nitrate sensing, 18-crown-6 ether for potassium sensing and Tributyltin chloride for phosphate detection. A complete lab-on-a-chip system integrating a highly sensitive current excited Wheatstone's bridge based portable electronic setup along with arrays of microcantilever devices mounted on a printed circuit board with a liquid flow cell for on the site experimentation for soil test has been demonstrated.

  4. Quantitative determination of the human breast milk macronutrients by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Edlene d. C. M.; Zângaro, Renato A.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes the evaluation of the macronutrient constitution of human breast milk based on the spectral information provided by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Human breast milk (5 mL) from a subject was collected during the first two weeks of breastfeeding and stocked in -20°C freezer. Raman spectra were measured using a Raman spectrometer (830 nm excitation) coupled to a fiber based Raman probe. Spectra of human milk were dominated by bands of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in the 600-1800 cm-1 spectral region. Raman spectroscopy revealed differences in the biochemical constitution of human milk depending on the time of breastfeeding startup. This technique could be employed to develop a classification routine for the milk in Human Milk Banking (HMB) depending on the nutritional facts.

  5. Novel Molecules Regulating Energy Homeostasis: Physiology and Regulation by Macronutrient Intake and Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gavrieli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Excess energy intake, without a compensatory increase of energy expenditure, leads to obesity. Several molecules are involved in energy homeostasis regulation and new ones are being discovered constantly. Appetite regulating hormones such as ghrelin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and amylin or incretins such as the gastric inhibitory polypeptide have been studied extensively while other molecules such as fibroblast growth factor 21, chemerin, irisin, secreted frizzle-related protein-4, total bile acids, and heme oxygenase-1 have been linked to energy homeostasis regulation more recently and the specific role of each one of them has not been fully elucidated. This mini review focuses on the above mentioned molecules and discusses them in relation to their regulation by the macronutrient composition of the diet as well as diet-induced weight loss.

  6. Postprandial Metabolism of Macronutrients and Cardiometabolic Risk: Recent Developments, Emerging Concepts, and Future Directions12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Bruno, Richard S; Tasali, Esra; Lewis, Gary F; Schneeman, Barbara O; Rains, Tia M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the role of habitual lifestyle factors such as physical activity and dietary patterns in increasing CVD risk has long been appreciated, less is known about how acute daily activities may cumulatively contribute to long-term disease risk. Here, the term acute refers to metabolic responses occurring in a short period of time after eating, and the goal of this article is to review recently identified stressors that can occur after meals and during the sleep-wake cycle to affect macronutrient metabolism. It is hypothesized that these events, when repeated on a regular basis, contribute to the observed long-term behavioral risks identified in population studies. In this regard, developments in research methods have supported key advancements in 3 fields of macronutrient metabolism. The first of these research areas is the focus on the immediate postmeal metabolism, spanning from early intestinal adsorptive events to the impact of incretin hormones on these events. The second topic is a focus on the importance of meal components on postprandial vasculature function. Finally, some of the most exciting advances are being made in understanding dysregulation in metabolism early in the day, due to insufficient sleep, that may affect subsequent processing of nutrients throughout the day. Key future research questions are highlighted which will lead to a better understanding of the relations between nocturnal, basal (fasting), and early postmeal events, and aid in the development of optimal sleep and targeted dietary patterns to reduce cardiometabolic risk. PMID:26980820

  7. Postprandial Metabolism of Macronutrients and Cardiometabolic Risk: Recent Developments, Emerging Concepts, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Parks, Elizabeth J; Bruno, Richard S; Tasali, Esra; Lewis, Gary F; Schneeman, Barbara O; Rains, Tia M

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the role of habitual lifestyle factors such as physical activity and dietary patterns in increasing CVD risk has long been appreciated, less is known about how acute daily activities may cumulatively contribute to long-term disease risk. Here, the term acute refers to metabolic responses occurring in a short period of time after eating, and the goal of this article is to review recently identified stressors that can occur after meals and during the sleep-wake cycle to affect macronutrient metabolism. It is hypothesized that these events, when repeated on a regular basis, contribute to the observed long-term behavioral risks identified in population studies. In this regard, developments in research methods have supported key advancements in 3 fields of macronutrient metabolism. The first of these research areas is the focus on the immediate postmeal metabolism, spanning from early intestinal adsorptive events to the impact of incretin hormones on these events. The second topic is a focus on the importance of meal components on postprandial vasculature function. Finally, some of the most exciting advances are being made in understanding dysregulation in metabolism early in the day, due to insufficient sleep, that may affect subsequent processing of nutrients throughout the day. Key future research questions are highlighted which will lead to a better understanding of the relations between nocturnal, basal (fasting), and early postmeal events, and aid in the development of optimal sleep and targeted dietary patterns to reduce cardiometabolic risk. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. The macronutrients in human milk change after storage in various containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Chao-Huei; Lin, Ming-Chih

    2012-06-01

    The concentrations of macronutrients in human milk can be influenced by various processes, such as storage, freezing, and thawing, that are performed by lactating working mothers and breast milk banks. We evaluated the impact of various containers on the nutrient concentrations in human milk. A total of 42 breast milk samples from 18 healthy lactating mothers were collected. A baseline macronutrient concentration was determined for each sample. Then, the breast milk samples were divided and stored in nine different commercial milk containers. After freezing at -20°C for 2 days, the milk samples were thawed and analyzed again. A midinfrared human milk analyzer (HMA) was used to measure the protein, fat, and carbohydrate contents. There was a significant decrease in the fat content following the storage, freezing, and thawing processes, ranging from 0.27-0.30 g/dL (p=0.02), but no significant decrease in energy content (p=0.069) was noted in the nine different containers. There were statistically significant increases in protein and carbohydrate concentrations in all containers (p=0.021 and 0.001, respectively), however there were no significant differences between the containers in terms of fat, protein, carbohydrate, or energy contents. Human milk, when subjected to storage, freezing, and thawing processes, demonstrated a significant decrease in fat content (up to 9% reduction) in various containers. It is better for infants to receive milk directly from the mother via breastfeeding. More studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of milk storage on infant growth and development. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  10. Globally regular instability of AdS_3

    OpenAIRE

    Bizon, P.; Jałmużna, J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider three-dimensional AdS gravity minimally coupled to a massless scalar field and study numerically the evolution of small smooth circularly symmetric perturbations of the $AdS_3$ spacetime. As in higher dimensions, for a large class of perturbations, we observe a turbulent cascade of energy to high frequencies which entails instability of $AdS_3$. However, in contrast to higher dimensions, the cascade cannot be terminated by black hole formation because small perturbations have ener...

  11. Nonlinear realization of supersymmetric AdS space isometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T. E.; Love, S. T.

    2006-01-01

    The isometries of AdS 5 space and supersymmetric AdS 5 xS 1 space are nonlinearly realized on four-dimensional Minkowski space. The resultant effective actions in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone modes are constructed. The dilatonic mode governing the motion of the Minkowski space probe brane into the covolume of supersymmetric AdS 5 space is found to be unstable and the bulk of the AdS 5 space is unable to sustain the brane. No such instability appears in the nonsupersymmetric case

  12. Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and cultural studies. Major conclusions showed that the beauty myth since the Dutch colonial period never been change. The main concept is always in colonialism’s idea: “white is better”. The West is better than the East.

  13. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2014-01-01

    The article asks whether it is not the responsibility of corporations to address the issue of women being underrepresented in Danish management jobs. In other words, it is argued that corporations should be encouraged to engage more actively in the recruitment of both men and women for management...... jobs by discursively constructing job ads that appeal to both sexes. This argument is part of the broader field of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder management, which involves discussions of the obligations of corporations to acknowledge and mitigate...... the increasingly widespread impact that their activities have on communities and social structures. The article emphasises the need for more active engagement on the part of corporations by analysing the discursive construction of preferred candidates in a small sample of Danish management job ads. By means...

  14. Philosophia ad bellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Loboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper «Philosophia ad bellum» is being realized an attempt to classify philosophic approaches to the study of phenomenon of war by the analogy with the structure of «Just war theory» – 1. Philosophia ad bellum – «philosophy for war», where are investigated ways of using of philosophic methods of cognition in applied military sciences; 2. Philosophia supra bello – «philosophy above war», which investigates world­view, historic­philosophic, existential, logic­epistemological aspects of war; 3. Philosophia contra belli – «philosophy against war», where research of the essence of war gets its logical conclusion in grounding of the absurdity of thinking schemes which justify war as an act of violence. In the article was made historic­philosophic overview of the part «Philosophia ad bellum», where were showed tangent questions, which are considered by philosophic logic and theory of strategic intelligence. It was stated, that specialists if military intelligence admit the important role of researches in logic and theory of cognition in their professional work; were defined basic questions, which have the most essential interest for military professionals. There were analyzed ways of using of philosophic methods in developing military strategies, was made a conclusion that philosophy can be a basis of strategic failures and victories as well.

  15. Protein from meat or vegetable sources in meals matched for fiber content has similar effects on subjective appetite sensations and energy intake - A randomized acute cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars

    2018-01-01

    intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19...... libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient...

  16. Macronutrients intake and risk of Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimin; Lin, Yan; Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2015-05-01

    We carried out a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from published studies on macronutrients intake and risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Embase. Study-specific effect was combined with the random-effect model. The dose-response relationship was assessed by the restricted cubic spline. For highest versus lowest level of intake, the relative risk (RR) of PD was 1.13 (95% CI 0.88-1.44) for protein (7 articles including 1570 PD cases among 357,827 subjects), RR 1.24 (95% CI 1.05-1.48) for carbohydrate (8 articles including 1482 PD cases among 232,869 subjects), RR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74-1.06) for fat (12 articles including 2936 PD cases among 374,124 subjects), RR 0.97 (95% CI 0.75-1.26) for cholesterol (6 articles including 1713 PD cases among 170,058 subjects) and 1.39 (95% CI 1.01-1.92) for energy (8 articles including 1553 PD cases among 170,317 subjects), respectively. Among prospective studies adjusting for smoking and coffee/caffeine, no associations were found between PD risk and intake of protein (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.80-1.30), carbohydrate (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.86-1.43), fat (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.70-1.16), cholesterol (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.74-1.09) and energy (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-1.02); however, polyunsaturated fatty acid (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.96) was inversely associated with PD risk. Limited data showed a linear dose-response relationship between the aforementioned macronutrients and PD risk. Dietary intake of protein, carbohydrate, cholesterol and energy might be not independently associated with PD risk. Higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid might be inversely associated with PD risk. Confounding by smoking and coffee/caffeine should be considered regarding the association between fat intake and PD risk in further studies. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Deficiencies of macronutrient intake among HIV-positive breast-feeding women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Faith; Neke, Nyasule Majura; Hendricks, Kristy; Wamsele, Joyce; Lukmanji, Zohra; Waddell, Richard; Maro, Isaac; Connor, Ruth; Mackenzie, Todd; Matee, Mecky; Bakari, Muhammad; Pallangyo, Kisali; von Reyn, C. Fordham

    2014-01-01

    We compared macronutrient intake, food insecurity and anthropometrics in breast feeding women: 40 HIV-positive women not yet on antiretroviral therapy and 40 HIV-negative women. Calculated deficits at 2 weeks were 517 kcal/d for HIV-positive women vs 87 kcal/d surplus for HIV-negative women (p = 0.01) and 29g protein/d for HIV-positive women vs 16g protein/d for HIV-negative women (p = 0.04). Food insecurity scores were 11.3 for HIV-positive women vs 7.8 for HIV− negative women (p < 0.01). Enhanced dietary education together with macronutrient supplementation may be required to improve health outcomes in HIV-positive women and their infants. PMID:25230293

  18. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Hassan S; Follis, Jack L; Smith, Caren E; Tanaka, Toshiko; Cade, Brian E; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Hruby, Adela; Jacques, Paul F; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Richardson, Kris; Saxena, Richa; Scheer, Frank A J L; Kovanen, Leena; Bartz, Traci M; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Jonsson, Anna; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Mikkilä, Vera; Partonen, Timo; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Lahti, Jari; Hernandez, Dena G; Toft, Ulla; Johnson, W Craig; Kanoni, Stavroula; Raitakari, Olli T; Perola, Markus; Psaty, Bruce M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Grarup, Niels; Highland, Heather M; Rallidis, Loukianos; Kähönen, Mika; Havulinna, Aki S; Siscovick, David S; Räikkönen, Katri; Jørgensen, Torben; Rotter, Jerome I; Deloukas, Panos; Viikari, Jorma S A; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Linneberg, Allan; Seppälä, Ilkka; Hansen, Torben; Salomaa, Veikko; Gharib, Sina A; Eriksson, Johan G; Bandinelli, Stefania; Pedersen, Oluf; Rich, Stephen S; Dedoussis, George; Lehtimäki, Terho; Ordovás, José M

    2015-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been associated with greater risks of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Also, common genetic variants in the human Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) show associations with ghrelin and total energy intake. We examined associations between habitual sleep duration, body mass index (BMI), and macronutrient intake and assessed whether CLOCK variants modify these associations. We conducted inverse-variance weighted, fixed-effect meta-analyses of results of adjusted associations of sleep duration and BMI and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy as well as interactions with CLOCK variants from 9 cohort studies including up to 14,906 participants of European descent from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. We observed a significant association between sleep duration and lower BMI (β ± SE = 0.16 ± 0.04, P y) adults (men: 0.11 ± 0.06%, P = 0.03; women: 0.10 ± 0.05%, P = 0.04) and with lower carbohydrate (-0.31 ± 0.12%, P y) women. In addition, the following 2 nominally significant interactions were observed: between sleep duration and rs12649507 on PUFA intake and between sleep duration and rs6858749 on protein intake. Our results indicate that longer habitual sleep duration is associated with lower BMI and age- and sex-specific favorable dietary behaviors. Differences in the relative intake of specific macronutrients associated with short sleep duration could, at least in part, explain previously reported associations between short sleep duration and chronic metabolic abnormalities. In addition, the influence of obesity-associated CLOCK variants on the association between sleep duration and macronutrient intake suggests that longer habitual sleep duration could ameliorate the genetic predisposition to obesity via a favorable dietary profile. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. In Situ Detection of Macronutrients and Chloride in Seawater by Submersible Electrochemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartero, Maria; Crespo, Gaston; Cherubini, Thomas; Pankratova, Nadezda; Confalonieri, Fabio; Massa, Francesco; Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou; Abdou, Melina; Schäfer, Jörg; Bakker, Eric

    2018-04-03

    A new submersible probe for the in situ detection of nitrate, nitrite, and chloride in seawater is presented. Inline coupling of a desalination unit, an acidification unit, and a sensing flow cell containing all-solid-state membrane electrodes allows for the potentiometric detection of nitrate and nitrite after removal of the key interfering ions in seawater, chloride and hydroxide. Thus, the electrodes exhibited attractive analytical performances for the potentiometric detection of nitrate and nitrite in desalinated and acidified seawater: fast response time ( t 95 sensor for chloride and indirect salinity detection. The detection of these two parameters together with nitrate and nitrite may be useful for the correlation of relative changes in macronutrient levels with salinity cycles, which is of special interest in recessed coastal water bodies. The system is capable of autonomous operation during deployment, with routines for repetitive measurements (every 2 h), data storage and management, and computer visualization of the data in real time. In situ temporal profiles observed in the Arcachon Bay (France) showed valuable environmental information concerning tide-dependent cycles of nitrate and chloride levels in the lagoon, which are here observed for the first time using direct in situ measurements. The submersible probe based on membrane electrodes presented herein may facilitate the study of biogeochemical processes occurring in marine ecosystems by the direct monitoring of nitrate and nitrite levels, which are key chemical targets in coastal waters.

  20. Mood and the macro-nutrient composition of breakfast and the mid-day meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David; Brock, Helen

    2010-12-01

    Six hundred and eighty-six individuals were approached at mid-day after they had chosen a meal in a cafeteria. They were asked to rate their mood during the morning and list what they had eaten that morning. Both males and females who had eaten breakfast rather than fasting reported that they had been happier and more relaxed during the morning. The macro-nutrient compositions of breakfast and lunch were calculated and related to mood during the morning. In males, but not females, the consumption of more carbohydrate in the morning was associated with feeling happy rather than sad and relaxed rather than stressed. Further examination demonstrated that in males the amount of fat, protein and total energy consumed was not associated with mood; that is there was a selective relationship between carbohydrate intake and mood. It was not possible to establish whether the nature of breakfast influenced mood or the pre-existing mood influenced the choice of breakfast although both explanations are plausible. In females, however, there was no relationship between carbohydrate intake and mood, possibly a reflection of the smaller amounts consumed. The suggestion that mood during the morning might influence food choice at mid-day was considered but no association was found. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Light limitation of phytoplankton biomass and macronutrient utilization in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, B.G.; Brody, E.A.; Holm-Hansen, O.; McClain, C.; Bishop, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is unique in that it has continually high concentrations of major plant nutrients but low phytoplankton biomass. This enigmatic phenomenon is the focus of significant speculation that trace nutrients, including Fe, may limit phytoplankton crop size. Global climatologies indicate that the ACC is a region with low surface temperatures, weak density stratification, little summertime surface solar irradiance, and strong wind stress. These physical phenomena act to limit growth rates of the phytoplankton community. Using a photo-physiological description of phytoplankton growth in a simple one-dimensional ecosystem model forced by observations or climatologies of mixing depth and surface irradiance, the authors make an evaluation of the potential for massive, nutrient-exhausting, phytoplankton blooms forming in the ACC. The ACC has persistent mixed layers in excess of 50 m. Literature values and model optimization indicate that the minimal aggregate specific loss rate and typical physical conditions of stratification and surface irradiance, the model predicts that phytoplankton in the ACC would not utilize >10% of the available macronutrients. Without a mechanism for increasing the strength of stratification, the authors predict that massive Fe additions to the Southern Ocean would fail to significantly mitigate the atmospheric CO 2 derived from fossil fuel

  2. Organismal and spatial partitioning of energy and macronutrient transformations within a hypersaline mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobberley, Jennifer M.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Moran, James J.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome; Hu, Dehong; Beyenal, Haluk; Nelson, William C.

    2017-03-21

    Phototrophic mat communities are model ecosystems for studying energy cycling and elemental transformations because complete biogeochemical cycles occur over millimeter-to-centimeter scales. Characterization of energy and nutrient capture within hypersaline phototrophic mats has focused on specific processes and organisms, however little is known about community-wide distribution of and linkages between these processes. To investigate energy and macronutrient capture and flow through a structured community, the spatial and organismal distribution of metabolic functions within a compact hypersaline mat community from Hot Lake have been broadly elucidated through species-resolved metagenomics and geochemical, microbial diversity, and metabolic gradient measurements. Draft reconstructed genomes of abundant organisms revealed three dominant cyanobacterial populations differentially distributed across the top layers of the mat suggesting niche separation along light and oxygen gradients. Many organisms contained diverse functional profiles, allowing for metabolic response to changing conditions within the mat. Organisms with partial nitrogen and sulfur metabolisms were widespread indicating dependence upon metabolite exchange. In addition, changes in community spatial structure were observed over the diel. These results indicate that organisms within the mat community have adapted to the temporally dynamic environmental gradients in this hypersaline mat through metabolic flexibility and fluid syntrophic interactions, including shifts in spatial arrangements.

  3. Health effects of changes in the structure of dietary macronutrients intake in western societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okręglicka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    A Western-type diet, characterized by a significant share of highly processed and refined foods and high content of sugars, salt, fat and protein from red meat, has been recognized as an important factor contributing to the development of metabolic disorders and the obesity epidemic around the world. Excessive body fat causes metabolic pathologies, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. According to the World Health Organization 1.5 billion adults are overweight, nearly 500 million are obese and 220 million suffer from type 2 diabetes. The Western-type diet is also associated with an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease. It is known that a combination of nutrients typical for this diet contributes to impaired renal function, renal steatosis and inflammation, hypertension and dysfunctional renal hormonal regulation. The Western diet is also associated with a chronic inflammatory process that is involved in all stages of atherosclerosis development and is increasingly recognized as a universal mechanism of various chronic degenerative diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, some neoplasms or osteoporosis. The present article is focused on the results of the most recent research investigating the effects of dietary macronutrients and the type of fatty acids on selected mechanisms associated with the occurrence of the most common diet-related diseases.

  4. Maize dry matter production and macronutrient extraction model as a new approach for fertilizer rate estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARLA V. MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution. A uniform maize crop was grown to observe dry matter accumulation and nutrient content in the plant. The dry matter accumulation followed a sigmoidal model and the macronutrient content a power model. The maximum nutrient absorption occurred at the R4 growth stage, for which the sap concentration was successfully calculated. It is hoped that this new approach of evaluating nutrient sap concentration will help to develop more rational ways to estimate crop fertilizer needs. This new approach has great potential for on-the-go crop sensor-based nutrient application methods and its sensitivity to soil tillage and management systems need to be examined in following studies. If mathematical model reflects management impact adequately, resources for experiments can be saved.

  5. Dry matter production and macronutrient leaf composition in lettuce under fertigation with nitrogen, potassium and silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan S. de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate, in greenhouse, the response of the lettuce cultivar 'Vera', with respect to the marketable shoot dry matter production and macronutrient accumulation, as a function of the application of different doses of nitrogen (N and a potassium silicate-based leaf fertilizer. The lettuce was cultivated from August 10, 2012 (sowing to October 16, 2012 (harvest. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replicates, referring to nine treatments, resulting from the combination between top-dressing doses of N (9, 54, 90, 126 and 171 kg ha-1 and Si/K2O (1.15, 6.90, 11.50, 16.10 and 21.85 kg ha-1, using the Plan Puebla III experimental matrix, and a control treatment without fertigation. Drip fertigation was used for the application of the doses. The highest doses of N and Si/K2O resulted in the highest marketable shoot dry matter production and highest leaf accumulation of magnesium, calcium, potassium and phosphorus.

  6. Organismal and spatial partitioning of energy and macronutrient transformations within a hypersaline mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobberley, Jennifer M.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Moran, James J.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome; Hu, Dehong; Beyenal, Haluk; Nelson, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phototrophic mat communities are model ecosystems for studying energy cycling and elemental transformations because complete biogeochemical cycles occur over millimeter-to-centimeter scales. Characterization of energy and nutrient capture within hypersaline phototrophic mats has focused on specific processes and organisms; however, little is known about community-wide distribution of and linkages between these processes. To investigate energy and macronutrient capture and flow through a structured community, the spatial and organismal distribution of metabolic functions within a compact hypersaline mat community from Hot Lake have been broadly elucidated through species-resolved metagenomics and geochemical, microbial diversity and metabolic gradient measurements. Draft reconstructed genomes of 34 abundant organisms revealed three dominant cyanobacterial populations differentially distributed across the top layers of the mat suggesting niche separation along light and oxygen gradients. Many organisms contained diverse functional profiles, allowing for metabolic response to changing conditions within the mat. Organisms with partial nitrogen and sulfur metabolisms were widespread indicating dependence on metabolite exchange. In addition, changes in community spatial structure were observed over the diel. These results indicate that organisms within the mat community have adapted to the temporally dynamic environmental gradients in this hypersaline mat through metabolic flexibility and fluid syntrophic interactions, including shifts in spatial arrangements. PMID:28334407

  7. [Survey and analysis of the intakes of energy and macronutrients in rural boarding school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Jin; Sun, Jing; Wang, Chen; Li, Ying; Wei, Yanli; Huo, Junsheng; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-05-01

    To preliminarily survey the intakes of energy and macronutrients in rural boarding school students and analyse the affect factors of discrepancies between different sex and age groups. A total of 1834 rural boarding junior high school first grade students were selected from 16 provinces, and stratified cluster sampling method was used. The method of weight recording and three days dietary recall were used to investigate the diet of boarding school students. The ratios which reached the EER of energy intakes in boy and girl groups were 37.0% and 46.7% (P 0.05) respectively, and the proportion of the intakes level of EAR among the age groups of 11y ~ and 14y ~ for both boys and girls were 124.8%, 107.3% (P > 0.05) and 134.8%, 112.1% (P 0.05) respectively, and among the age groups of 11y ~ and 14y ~ for both boys and girls were 21.8% and 30.5% (P 0.05) respectively. Double burden of nutrient might exist in the rural boarding schools. The status of nutrition could be improved evidently, by fulfilling the relative national policies, promoting the balance of the nutrition supplying in schools, and enriching the boarding students' knowledge of nutrition.

  8. The relationship of human milk leptin and macronutrients with gastric emptying in term breastfed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Anna M; Gridneva, Zoya; Hepworth, Anna R; Lai, Ching T; Tie, Wan J; Khan, Sadaf; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-07-01

    BackgroundInfants breastfed on demand exhibit a variety of feeding patterns and self-regulate their nutrient intake, but factors influencing their gastric emptying (GE) are poorly understood. Despite research into appetite regulation properties of leptin, there is limited information about relationships between human milk leptin and infant GE.MethodsGastric volumes were calculated from ultrasound scans of infants' stomachs (n=20) taken before and after breastfeeding, and then every 12.5 min (median; range: 3-45 min) until the next feed. Skim milk leptin and macronutrient concentrations were measured and doses were calculated.ResultsThe leptin concentration was (mean±SD) 0.51±0.16 ng/ml; the leptin dose was 45.5±20.5 ng per feed. No relationships between both concentration and dose of leptin and time between the feeds (P=0.57; P=1, respectively) or residual stomach volumes before the subsequent feed (P=0.20; P=0.050) were found. Post-feed stomach volumes (GE rate) were not associated with leptin concentration (P=0.77) or dose (P=0.85).ConclusionGE in term breastfed infants was not associated with either skim milk leptin concentration or dose. Further investigation with inclusion of whole-milk leptin and other hormones that affect gastrointestinal activity is warranted.

  9. Associations between Maternal Body Composition and Appetite Hormones and Macronutrients in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambavi Kugananthan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women (n = 59 provided milk samples (n = 283 at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, total protein and lactose were measured. Maternal %FM was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Higher maternal %FM was associated with higher leptin concentrations in both whole (0.006 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.008 and skim HM (0.005 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.007, and protein (0.16 ± 0.07 g/L, p = 0.028 concentrations. Adiponectin and lactose concentrations were not associated with %FM (0.01 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.81; 0.08 ± 0.11 g/L, p = 0.48, respectively. Whole milk concentrations of adiponectin and leptin did not differ significantly over the first year of lactation. These findings suggest that the level of maternal adiposity during lactation may influence the early appetite programming of breastfed infants by modulating concentrations of HM components.

  10. Associations between Maternal Body Composition and Appetite Hormones and Macronutrients in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugananthan, Sambavi; Gridneva, Zoya; Lai, Ching T; Hepworth, Anna R; Mark, Peter J; Kakulas, Foteini; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-03-09

    Human milk (HM) appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM) in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women ( n = 59) provided milk samples ( n = 283) at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, total protein and lactose were measured. Maternal %FM was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Higher maternal %FM was associated with higher leptin concentrations in both whole (0.006 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.008) and skim HM (0.005 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.007), and protein (0.16 ± 0.07 g/L, p = 0.028) concentrations. Adiponectin and lactose concentrations were not associated with %FM (0.01 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.81; 0.08 ± 0.11 g/L, p = 0.48, respectively). Whole milk concentrations of adiponectin and leptin did not differ significantly over the first year of lactation. These findings suggest that the level of maternal adiposity during lactation may influence the early appetite programming of breastfed infants by modulating concentrations of HM components.

  11. The effect of lactational mastitis on the macronutrient content of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Birgul; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamaç; Degirmencioglu, Halil; Uras, Nurdan; Sari, Fatma Nur; Oguz, Suna; Canpolat, Fuat Emre

    2016-07-01

    Mastitis in lactating mothers reduces milk production and alters the cellular composition of milk. Changes occurring in the mammary gland during the inflammatory response are believed to increase the permeability of the blood-milk barrier. This study examined the effect of mastitis during lactation on the macronutrient content of breast milk. The study was conducted at Zekai Tahir Burak Maternity Teaching Hospital. Transitional breast milk samples were obtained from term lactating mothers with or without mastitis. Milk protein, fat, carbohydrate, and energy levels were measured using a mid-infrared human milk analyzer. The study recruited 30 term lactating mothers: 15 mothers diagnosed with mastitis and 15 healthy mothers. The characteristics of the mothers in both groups were similar. Fat, carbohydrate, and energy levels were statistically lower in the milk samples of mothers with mastitis compared with the mothers without mastitis. Lactational mastitis was associated with lower breast milk fat, carbohydrate, and energy levels. The local inflammatory response induced by cytokines and increased blood-milk barrier permeability might account for the changes in the fat, carbohydrate, and energy levels of human milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Macro-nutrient concentrations in Antarctic pack ice: Overall patterns and overlooked processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Fripiat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic pack ice is inhabited by a diverse and active microbial community reliant on nutrients for growth. Seeking patterns and overlooked processes, we performed a large-scale compilation of macro-nutrient data (hereafter termed nutrients in Antarctic pack ice (306 ice-cores collected from 19 research cruises. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen and silicic acid concentrations change with time, as expected from a seasonally productive ecosystem. In winter, salinity-normalized nitrate and silicic acid concentrations (C* in sea ice are close to seawater concentrations (Cw, indicating little or no biological activity. In spring, nitrate and silicic acid concentrations become partially depleted with respect to seawater (C* Cw. The phosphate excess could be explained by a greater allocation to phosphorus-rich biomolecules during ice algal blooms coupled with convective loss of excess dissolved nitrogen, preferential remineralization of phosphorus, and/or phosphate adsorption onto metal-organic complexes. Ammonium also appears to be efficiently adsorbed onto organic matter, with likely consequences to nitrogen mobility and availability. This dataset supports the view that the sea ice microbial community is highly efficient at processing nutrients but with a dynamic quite different from that in oceanic surface waters calling for focused future investigations.

  13. Assessment of macronutrients and heavy metals in Fagonia cretica Linn of Pakistan by atomic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naeem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The macronutrients and heavy metals content of different parts of a locally found herb named Fagonia cretica, an important medicinal herb, were investigated. Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr and Zn were measured in roots, shoots, leaves, spines and flowers/fruits of the plant. The analysis was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The results revealed that the Fagonia cretica accumulate the elemental contents at different parts. The accuracy of the method was checked by analysing a certified reference material and the results were in agreement with the enumerate value. The presence of a certain set of elements at percentage level like Ca, K and Mg is useful for strengthening of bones and body. Other elements important from health perspective including Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Sr and Zn are found at ppm levels in all parts of the plant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i2.2

  14. Growth performances and changes of macronutrient ion concentrations in the culture medium when Euglena gracilis was cultured with nitrified digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kenji; Endo, Ryosuke; Shibuya, Toshio; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the possibility of using Euglena gracilis to convert digestate from methane fermentation of organic wastes into a medium for soilless crop culture. The growth of E. gracilis cultured with aqueous solutions containing filtrate of raw digestate at 1-30% (v/v) and nitrified digestate at 10-100% (v/v) was examined. Concentrations of plant macronutrient ions in nitrified digestate before and after culturing E. gracilis were also examined. Specific growth rates in aqueous solutions containing filtrate of raw digestate at 1-10% and nitrified digestate at 10-100% showed no significant differences, respectively (0.781 ± 0.031 d -1 and 0.925 ± 0.033 d -1 , mean ± standard error). The rates in the filtrate of nitrified digestate were significantly higher than those in the filtrate of raw digestate. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the concentrations of plant macronutrient ions other than [Formula: see text] in the filtrate of nitrified digestate before and after culturing E. gracilis. The concentration of [Formula: see text] decreased significantly by 10.5% of the initial concentration. As a result, the constituent ratio of plant macronutrient ions other than magnesium in the solution after culturing E. gracilis was similar to that in a standard nutrient solution for soilless culture.

  15. Micronutrient quality of weight-loss diets that focus on macronutrients: results from the A TO Z study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Kim, Soowon; Bersamin, Andrea; Dopler-Nelson, Mindy; Otten, Jennifer; Oelrich, Beibei; Cherin, Rise

    2010-08-01

    Information on the micronutrient quality of alternative weight-loss diets is limited, despite the significant public health relevance. Micronutrient intake was compared between overweight or obese women randomly assigned to 4 popular diets that varied primarily in macronutrient distribution. Dietary data were collected from women in the Atkins (n = 73), Zone (n = 73), LEARN (Lifestyle, Exercise, Attitudes, Relationships, Nutrition) (n = 73), and Ornish (n = 72) diet groups by using 3-d, unannounced 24-h recalls at baseline and after 8 wk of instruction. Nutrient intakes were compared between groups at 8 wk and within groups for 8-wk changes in risk of micronutrient inadequacy. At 8 wk, significant differences were observed between groups for all macronutrients and for many micronutrients (P Zone group, the risk of inadequacy significantly decreased for vitamins A, E, K, and C (P Weight-loss diets that focus on macronutrient composition should attend to the overall quality of the diet, including the adequacy of micronutrient intakes. Concerning calorie-restricted diets, there may be a micronutrient advantage to diets providing moderately low carbohydrate amounts and that contain nutrient-dense foods.

  16. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes em sisal Macronutrients deficiency on sisal (Agave sisalana perr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barbos Salgado

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de sisal (Agave sisalana Perr. foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo areia lavada e irrigados com solução nutritiva completa e com soluções nutritivas com a omissão de cada macronutriente. As plantas mostraram, na ausência de cada nutriente, os sintomas típicos de sua carência, relacionados com baixos teores do respectivo elemento nas folhas, e redução no seu crescimento e desenvolvimento.Sisal plants were cultivated in washed sand during twenty-one months. The plants were irrigated with complete nutrient solution and solutions with absence of each macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. The plants, in the absence of each macronutrient, showed typical symptoms which were related to the low level of the respective element in the leaf. The growing of the leaves was reduced by the absence of the macronutrients.

  17. Hawking radiation from AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E; Rangamani, Mukund; Marolf, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We study Hartle-Hawking-like states of quantum field theories on asymptotically AdS black hole backgrounds, with particular regard to the phase structure of interacting theories. By a suitable analytic continuation we show that the equilibrium dynamics of field theories on large asymptotically AdS black holes can be related to the low-temperature states of the same field theory on the AdS soliton (or pure AdS) background. This allows us to gain insight into Hartle-Hawking-like states on large-radius Schwarzschild- or rotating-AdS black holes. Furthermore, we exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore the physics of strongly coupled large N theories on asymptotically AdS black holes. In particular, we exhibit a plausibly complete set of phases for the M2-brane world-volume superconformal field theory on a BTZ black hole background. Our analysis partially resolves puzzles previously raised in connection with Hawking radiation on large AdS black holes.

  18. Eating rate of commonly consumed foods promotes food and energy intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viskaal-van Dongen, M.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the eating rate of commonly consumed foods and the associations with food intake and macronutrient composition. Ingestion time (s) of 50 g of 45 foods was measured to assess eating rate (g/min), after which ad libitum food intake (g) was measured. Thirteen men and 24 women (aged 23.3

  19. Macronutrient composition of human milk from Korean mothers of full term infants born at 37-42 gestational weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji A; Kim, Hyesook; Jo, Ara; Kang, Sujeong; Lee, Si-Won; Yi, Hyunju; Kim, Jihee; Yim, Jong-Gap; Jung, Byung-Moon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Breast milk is the best available food for optimum growth and development of infants and the breastfeeding rate is increasing in Korea. The purpose of this study is to measure the concentrations of macronutrients and to evaluate their changes according to lactation period in breast milk from lactating Korean women. SUBJECTS/METHODS Milk samples were obtained from 2,632 healthy lactating women (mean age; 32.0 ± 3.3 years), where the lactating period was up to a period of 8 months, who also volunteered to participate in the Human Milk Macronutrient Analysis Research. Lactose, protein, fat and water content in the breast milk samples were analyzed with infrared spectrometry using MilkoScan FT-2. RESULTS The mean macronutrient composition per 100 mL of mature breast milk was 7.1 g for lactose, 1.4 g for protein and 3.0 g for fat, and energy content was 61.1 kcal. The protein concentration was significantly lower in milk samples at 1-2 weeks (2.0 g/dL) to 2-3 months (1.4 g/dL) than those at 0-1 week (2.2 g/dL), but it was similar among samples from 3-4 months to 7-8 months (1.3 g/dL). Mean lipid levels varied among different lactational period groups (2.7-3.2 g/dL), but presented no significant difference. Lactose concentration in the milk samples did not differ with lactation period. Maternal body mass index was positively related to protein and lipid breast milk contents, but was negatively related to lactose content. General linear models examining the associations between maternal variables and milk macronutrient content revealed that lactation period had a major impact on protein and lipid, but not on lactose content in breast milk. CONCLUSIONS These results warrant future studies to explore factors that may be associated with changes in macronutrient content in human milk. PMID:26244084

  20. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  1. Translation and implementation of added sugars consumption recommendations: a conference report from the American Heart Association Added Sugars Conference 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Linda; Johnson, Rachel K; Flickinger, Brent D; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Yin-Piazza, Shirley

    2010-12-07

    science also reinforces the importance of preventing, rather than simply treating diseases, especially overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. Reducing added sugars consumption is a good target for addressing obesity, along with other sources of excess calories. However, the potential unintended consequences of substituting added sugars with ingredients that may not reduce calories and of increasing other macronutrients or food groups that may not result in a net health gain must be considered. Although there are many challenges to incorporating added sugars to the food label as was discussed during the conference, disclosure of added sugars content on food and beverage labels is an essential element in consumer education and can provide the information and motivation for making healthier food choices. This conference demonstrated the value of interactive dialogue among multiple sectors and disciplines. More disciplines should be at the table to bring expertise to discuss cross-cutting issues related to public policies and offer diverse insights to finding a solution.

  2. Ad gist : Ad communication in a single eye fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.; Wedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Most ads in practice receive no more than a single eye fixation. This study investigates the limits of what ads can communicate under such adverse exposure conditions. We find that consumers already know at maximum levels of accuracy and with high degree of certainty whether something is an ad or is

  3. Preterm human milk macronutrient concentration is independent of gestational age at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Jan; Burianova, Iva; Vitkova, Veronika; Ticha, Eva; Navratilova, Martina; Cermakova, Eva

    2018-01-20

    To evaluate the amount of macronutrients in aggregate of human milk samples after preterm delivery during the first 2 months of lactation. Analysis of the donated single milk samples, gained by complete emptying of the whole breast at the same daytime between 24+0 and 35+6 gestational age (GA), was designed as prospective observational cohort trial. Two milk samples were analysed every postnatal week up to the discharge from the hospital, week 9 or loss of lactation. 24-Hour milk collection was not done. Analysis was performed using the MIRIS Human Milk Analyser (MIRIS AB, Uppsala, Sweden). A set of 1917 human milk samples donated by 225 mothers after preterm labour was analysed. Group A (24-30 GA) contains 969 milk samples; group B (31-35 GA) contains 948 milk samples. No difference in milk composition between the groups was identified. Median of true protein content decreased from 1.6 g/dL in group A and 1.5 g/dL in group B in the first week of life, to 1.1 g/dL in both groups at the end of week 3, and then remained stable up to week 9. Content of carbohydrates and fat was stable during the whole observation, with interindividual differences. Human milk does not differ as a function of degree of prematurity. Protein content of preterm human milk is low and decreases during the first 3 weeks of lactation. Recommended daily protein intake cannot be achieved with routine fortification in majority of milk samples. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Serum adiponectin concentration in relation to macronutrient and food intake in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating adiponectin concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. The aim of this study was to determine the association between macronutrient and food intake and serum adiponectin concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1047 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 y. Using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire, we assessed intake of nutrients (protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber) and foods (rice, bread, noodles, potatoes, confectioneries, fats and oils, pulses, fish and shellfish, meats, eggs, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, coffee, green and oolong tea, black tea, and soft drinks) and glycemic index and load. Fasting blood samples were collected and serum adiponectin concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, none of the nutrients examined was a significant determinant of serum adiponectin concentration. There was no association for glycemic index or load. Coffee was the only food significantly and independently associated with serum adiponectin concentration. Mean (SE) values of serum adiponectin concentration for each quartile of coffee intake were 12.4 (0.2), 12.4 (0.5), 12.5 (0.3), and 13.2 (0.3) μg/mL, respectively (P for trend = 0.04). In a group of young Japanese women, higher coffee intake was independently associated with higher serum adiponectin concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of enzyme supplements on macronutrient digestibility by healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Cecilia; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Molina, Jenifer; Larsen, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Some enzyme supplement products claim benefits for healthy dogs to compensate for alleged suboptimal production of endogenous enzymes and the loss of enzymes in commercial pet foods secondary to processing. The objective of the current study was to determine macronutrient and energy digestibility by healthy adult dogs fed a commercial maintenance diet with or without supplementation with plant- and animal-origin enzyme products at the dosage recommended by their respective manufacturers. A group of fourteen healthy neutered adult Beagle dogs (average age 8 years) was divided into two equal groups and fed the basal diet alone and then with either the plant- or animal-origin enzyme supplement in three consecutive 10-d periods; the treatment groups received the opposite enzyme supplement in the third period. Digestibility in each period was performed by the total faecal collection method. Serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) was measured at the end of each trial. Data were analysed by repeated measures and the α level of significance was set at 0·05. There were no differences in energy and nutrient digestibility between enzyme treatments. When comparing basal with enzyme supplementation, fat digestibility was higher for the basal diet compared with the animal-origin enzyme treatment, which could be a period effect and was not biologically significant (94·7 v . 93·5 %). Serum TLI was not affected by supplementation with either enzyme product. Exogenous enzyme supplementation did not significantly increase digestibility of a typical commercial dry diet in healthy adult dogs and routine use of such products is not recommended.

  6. The influence of recipe modification and nutritional information on restaurant food acceptance and macronutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenitsky, K; Aaron, J; Catt, S; Mela, D

    2000-06-01

    To examine the influences of nutritional information and consumer characteristics on meal quality expectations, food selection and subsequent macronutrient intakes of consumers offered a reduced-fat option in a restaurant. A target, full-fat (FF) main restaurant meal option was developed in a version substantially reduced in fat and energy (RF). Restaurant patrons were randomly placed into one of four treatment groups varying in provision of menu information about the target dish, and the actual version of that dish served (if ordered). A full-fat blind (FFB) control group was given no nutritional information in the menu and was served the FF version. The other three groups were all served the modified RF version: (i) reduced-fat blind (RFB), who were given no nutritional information; (ii) reduced-fat informed (RFI), who were given nutritional information; and (iii) reduced-fat informed with details (RFID), who were given the same nutritional information plus recipe modification details. Subjects rated their expected and actual liking, the pleasantness of taste, texture and appearance of the dish, how well the dish matched their expectations, and the likelihood of purchase again. Additional measures included the other dish selections, sociodemographic and attitudinal information. A silver service (training) restaurant. Members of the public (n = 279) consuming meals in the restaurant. The presence of nutritional information on the menu did not significantly increase subsequent intakes of energy and fat from the rest of the meal, and did not significantly influence sensory expectations or post-meal acceptance measures (which also did not differ between the FF and RF versions). Consumer characteristics relating to fat reduction attitudes and behaviours were significantly related to the selection of different dishes. Provision of RF alternatives in a restaurant can have significant positive dietary benefits. Menu nutritional information did not affect measures of meal

  7. A comparative evaluation of the macronutrient and micronutrient profiles of soybean-fortified gari and tapioca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolapo, Adelodun Lawrence; Sanni, Morenike Olayinka

    2009-03-01

    Gari and tapioca are storage-cupboard convenience foods obtained from the tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). They are important staples in Nigeria and many African countries where malnutrition is a major problem. Tapioca is a quick-cooking food made from partly gelatinized starch and gari is a fermented, roasted, granular food made from cassava pulp. Gari and tapioca are nutritionally inferior and need to be fortified. This paper reports the macro- and micronutrient profiles of soybean-fortified gari and tapioca. Gari and tapioca were fortified with soybean flour or soybean residue at 25% of dry weight. Standard methods were used for the determination of proximate parameters such as crude protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate and moisture content. All the samples were analyzed for phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc. Unfortified tapioca had significantly lower (p fortification of both gari and tapioca significantly (p < .05) increased the contents of crude protein, phosphorus, fat, and ash as well as all the monitored macro- and micronutrients. These values (%) increased from 1.50-9.31, 0.06-0.11, 1.56-4.31 and 1.35-1.64 for gari-soybean fortified gari; and 0.31-12.56, 0.03-0.12, 0.17-5.45 and 0.34-1.41 for tapioca to soybean fortified tapioca respectively. Soybean flour increased the nutrient content of the fortified gari and tapioca compared to soybean residue. Data from this study suggest that both soybean flour-fortified tapioca and soybean flour-fortified gari are effective means of meeting the daily requirements of minerals, protein, and energy. Both soybean flour-fortified tapioca and soybean flour-fortified gari could be used to fight macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies, not only in Nigeria and other African countries where these two cassava products are staples, but also in other cassava-consuming developing nations.

  8. Adequacy of energy and macronutrient intake of food supplements for athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Behrends RODRIGUES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess how much food supplements contribute to the nutritional adequacy of energy and macronutrients in relation those recommended for athletes. Methods This was a cross sectional study was composed of 182 athletes from 19 sports (150 men and 32 women with a mean age, weight, height and body mass index of 23.8±7.5 years, 73.7±15.6kg, 1.7±0.1m, 24.2±4.0kg/m², respectively. The 24 hours dietary recall was applied to assess intake and the Multiple Source Method to evaluate usual intake. We used the t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Analysis of Variance and Kruskal-Wallis for comparative analysis among the diets, gender and types of groups, and the comparison of two-proportion test to assess the diets Food and Food and Supplementation. Results Of the athletes studied, less than half used dietary supplements (39.0%. Energy intake was below the recommended (52.7% in Food diet, and 45.6% in Food and Supplementation diet. The mean total of carbohydrate inadequacy (g.kg-1.day-1 was high for athletes of both genders and between Food and Food and Supplementation diets. The protein intake was above the recommended levels in Food diet (23.1% and in Food and Supplementation diet (33.5%. The lipid intake was also above the recommended dietary levels in Food (47.3% and in Food and Supplementation diets (50.0%. Conclusion The use of supplements did not significantly reduce inadequacies of diet and the athletes’ intake of calories and carbohydrates was below the recommended for these groups. However, the protein intake was above the recommended levels for athletes.

  9. Macronutrient uptake, accumulation and export by the irrigated 'vitória' pineapple plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional state of the pineapple plant has a large effect on plant growth, on fruit production, and fruit quality. The aim of this study was to assess the uptake, accumulation, and export of nutrients by the irrigated 'Vitória' pineapple plant during and at the end of its development. A randomized block statistical design with four replications was used. The treatments were defined by different times of plant collection: at 270, 330, 390, 450, 510, 570, 690, 750, and 810 days after planting (DAP. The collected plants were separated into the following components: leaves, stem, roots, fruit, and slips for determination of fresh and dry matter weight at 65 ºC. After drying, the plant components were ground for characterization of the composition and content of nutrients taken up and exported by the pineapple plant. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and non-linear regression models were fitted for the significant differences identified by the F test (p N > S > Ca > Mg > P, which corresponded to 898, 452, 134, 129, 126, and 107 kg ha-1, respectively, of total accumulation. The export of macronutrients by the pineapple fruit was in the following decreasing order: K > N > S > Ca > P > Mg, which was equivalent to 18, 17, 11, 8, 8, and 5 %, respectively, of the total accumulated by the pineapple. The 'Vitória' pineapple plant exported 78 kg ha-1 of N, 8 kg ha-1 of P, 164 kg ha-1 of K, 14 kg ha-1 of S, 10 kg ha-1 of Ca, and 6 kg ha-1 of Mg by the fruit. The nutrient content exported by the fruits represent important components of nutrient extraction from the soil, which need to be restored, while the nutrients contained in the leaves, stems and roots can be incorporated in the soil within a program of recycling of crop residues.

  10. Macronutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors in older coloured South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, K E; Wolmarans, P; Marais, A D; Lombard, C J

    1997-08-01

    A cross-sectional analytical study was undertaken to investigate the macronutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factor profile of community-dwelling older coloured (mixed descent) South Africans. A sample of 200 subjects aged 65 years and above in Cape Town was randomly drawn using a two-stage cluster design. Trained field workers interviewed subjects to obtain demographic, dietary and life-style data, to draw fasting blood samples for the analysis of plasma lipids, and to take anthropometric measurements. Nutrient intake was assessed using a validated quantified food frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured according to the guidelines of the American Heart Association. The mean daily energy intake was 7984 (3245) kJ and 6979 (2219) kJ for men and women, respectively. Twenty-nine per cent of the subjects had energy intakes less than two-thirds of the RDA. Dietary fat intake comprised 32.4% of total energy intake, which is in line with the prudent dietary guidelines. The inadequate fibre intake (mean = 17(8) g/day) was attributed to the low consumption of fruit and vegetables. Anthropometric assessment indicated that the women tended towards overnutrition, while the men appeared to be undernourished. Lipid profiles fell within the lower end of the moderate risk band for cardiovascular disease and a high prevalence of hypertension (71.7%) was identified. The survey findings indicate a need for health promotion activities to encourage increased physical activity levels and an increased consumption of vegetables, fruit, wholegrain cereals and low fat dairy products in this population.

  11. ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Alicia Correa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos de agrupamiento permiten que las MANET (redes móviles ad hoc presenten un mejor desempeño en cuanto a la rapidez de conexión, el enrutamiento y el manejo de la topología. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión sobre las técnicas de agrupamiento para MANET. Se introducen algunos temas preliminares que forman la base para el desarrollo de los algoritmos de agrupamiento, tales como: la topología de la red, el enrutamiento, la teoría de grafos y los algoritmos de movilidad. Adicionalmente, se describen algunas de las técnicas de agrupamiento más conocidas como Lowest-ID heuristic, Highest degree heuristic, DMAC (distributed mobility-adaptive clustering, WCA (weighted clustering algorithm, entre otros. El propósito central es ilustrar los conceptos principales respecto a las técnicas de agrupamiento en MANET.

  12. Added masses of ship structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  13. AdS5 black holes with fermionic hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrington, Benjamin A.; Liu, James T.; Sabra, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of new Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) objects in AdS 5 has led to a deeper understanding of AdS/CFT. To help complete this picture, and to fully explore the consequences of the supersymmetry algebra, it is also important to obtain new solutions with bulk fermions turned on. In this paper we construct superpartners of the 1/2 BPS black hole in AdS 5 using a natural set of fermion zero modes. We demonstrate that these superpartners, carrying fermionic hair, have conserved charges differing from the original bosonic counterpart. To do so, we find the R-charge and dipole moment of the new system, as well as the mass and angular momentum, defined through the boundary stress tensor. The complete set of superpartners fits nicely into a chiral representation of AdS 5 supersymmetry, and the spinning solutions have the expected gyromagnetic ratio, g=1

  14. Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) AD-6

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) in July of 2012. The visible parts are the positron accumulator (blue structures on top of of the antiproton extraction line) and the 5T magnet which traps the antiprotons.

  15. AdS Black Hole with Phantom Scalar Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an AdS black hole solution with Ricci flat horizon in Einstein-phantom scalar theory. The phantom scalar fields just depend on the transverse coordinates x and y, which are parameterized by the parameter α. We study the thermodynamics of the AdS phantom black hole. Although its horizon is a Ricci flat Euclidean space, we find that the thermodynamical properties of the black hole solution are qualitatively the same as those of AdS Schwarzschild black hole. Namely, there exists a minimal temperature and the large black hole is thermodynamically stable, while the smaller one is unstable, so there is a so-called Hawking-Page phase transition between the large black hole and the thermal gas solution in the AdS space-time in Poincare coordinates. We also calculate the entanglement entropy for a strip geometry dual to the AdS phantom black holes and find that the behavior of the entanglement entropy is qualitatively the same as that of the black hole thermodynamical entropy.

  16. Two new meal- and web-based interactive food frequency questionnaires: validation of energy and macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sara E; Möller, Elisabeth; Bonn, Stephanie E; Ploner, Alexander; Wright, Antony; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Olle; Lissner, Lauren; Bälter, Katarina

    2013-06-05

    Meal-Q and its shorter version, MiniMeal-Q, are 2 new Web-based food frequency questionnaires. Their meal-based and interactive format was designed to promote ease of use and to minimize answering time, desirable improvements in large epidemiological studies. We evaluated the validity of energy and macronutrient intake assessed with Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q as well as the reproducibility of Meal-Q. Healthy volunteers aged 20-63 years recruited from Stockholm County filled out the 174-item Meal-Q. The questionnaire was compared to 7-day weighed food records (WFR; n=163), for energy and macronutrient intake, and to doubly labeled water (DLW; n=39), for total energy expenditure. In addition, the 126-item MiniMeal-Q was evaluated in a simulated validation using truncated Meal-Q data. We also assessed the answering time and ease of use of both questionnaires. Bland-Altman plots showed a varying bias within the intake range for all validity comparisons. Cross-classification of quartiles placed 70%-86% in the same/adjacent quartile with WFR and 77% with DLW. Deattenuated and energy-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients with the WFR ranged from r=0.33-0.74 for macronutrients and was r=0.18 for energy. Correlations with DLW were r=0.42 for Meal-Q and r=0.38 for MiniMeal-Q. Intraclass correlations for Meal-Q ranged from r=0.57-0.90. Median answering time was 17 minutes for Meal-Q and 7 minutes for MiniMeal-Q, and participants rated both questionnaires as easy to use. Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q are easy to use and have short answering times. The ranking agreement is good for most of the nutrients for both questionnaires and Meal-Q shows fair reproducibility.

  17. Calibration Adjustment of the Mid-infrared Analyzer for an Accurate Determination of the Macronutrient Composition of Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, Hélène; Simon, Laure; Desnots, Emmanuelle; Sochard, Agnès; Boscher, Cécile; Riaublanc, Alain; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Boquien, Clair-Yves

    2016-08-01

    Human milk composition analysis seems essential to adapt human milk fortification for preterm neonates. The Miris human milk analyzer (HMA), based on mid-infrared methodology, is convenient for a unique determination of macronutrients. However, HMA measurements are not totally comparable with reference methods (RMs). The primary aim of this study was to compare HMA results with results from biochemical RMs for a large range of protein, fat, and carbohydrate contents and to establish a calibration adjustment. Human milk was fractionated in protein, fat, and skim milk by covering large ranges of protein (0-3 g/100 mL), fat (0-8 g/100 mL), and carbohydrate (5-8 g/100 mL). For each macronutrient, a calibration curve was plotted by linear regression using measurements obtained using HMA and RMs. For fat, 53 measurements were performed, and the linear regression equation was HMA = 0.79RM + 0.28 (R(2) = 0.92). For true protein (29 measurements), the linear regression equation was HMA = 0.9RM + 0.23 (R(2) = 0.98). For carbohydrate (15 measurements), the linear regression equation was HMA = 0.59RM + 1.86 (R(2) = 0.95). A homogenization step with a disruptor coupled to a sonication step was necessary to obtain better accuracy of the measurements. Good repeatability (coefficient of variation < 7%) and reproducibility (coefficient of variation < 17%) were obtained after calibration adjustment. New calibration curves were developed for the Miris HMA, allowing accurate measurements in large ranges of macronutrient content. This is necessary for reliable use of this device in individualizing nutrition for preterm newborns. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Association of maternal breast milk and serum levels of macronutrients, hormones, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Vahid, Farhad; Safarian, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast-milk levels of macronutrients, hormones, growth factors, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight. Eighty mother-infant pairs comprised 40 with overweight or obese infant and 40 with normal-weight infant were enrolled in this study. The level of ghrelin, Leptin, adiponectin, EGF, and IGF1 in plasma and breast milk were assessed. Daily breast milk intake and macronutrient concentration along with anthropometric indices of mother-infant pairs were also assessed. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of serum hormones between two groups (p > 0.05). However, hormones levels in maternal serum were higher than those in breast milk. A significant positive correlation was found between serum EGF and ghrelin (r = 0.57, p = 0 milk counterpart (r = 0.37). Current mother's weight was associated with infant's weight at the 2nd and 6th month (B = 0.023 p = 0.04, B = 0.055 p = 0.005). The breast-milk macronutrient content was not comparable between two groups. However, the average daily breast milk consumption in obese infants was higher than normals (p = 0.001). Milk EGF and leptin were related to a decrease of 59% and 46% the odds of obese infant development, respectively. There was a significant association of milk EGF and ghrelin with birth weight (B = -0.19, p = 0.04 and B = -0.2, p = 0.04, respectively), and also serum leptin with infant's body weight at the 6th month. Our findings provide a positive association of maternal weight, daily breast milk intake, EGF, and ghrelin with infant's body weight.

  19. Energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of German adults: A DEDIPAC-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Friederike; Hummel, Eva; Wenzler, Germaine; Heuer, Thorsten

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of selected population groups in Germany defined by sex, age, BMI, SES, and diet quality. The study was based on food consumption data from the German National Nutrition Survey II (2005-2007) assessed by two 4-day dietary weighing records of 662 women and men aged between 18 and 80 years. Energy and macronutrient intake were calculated using the German Nutrient Database 3.02 and summarized for the periods 'morning', 'midday', 'afternoon', 'evening', and 'night'. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine differences in energy and macronutrient intake. For women and men, a three-main-meal pattern ('morning', 'midday', and 'evening') was observed, indicated as peaks in energy intake at 08:00 to 09:00, 13:00 and 19:00 o'clock. The distributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake mirror the distribution of energy intake over the course of the day. The highest energy intake was found in the 'evening' period, especially in young adults, overweight persons, persons with a high SES, and men with a low diet quality. Women of the oldest age group showed a similar energy intake across the three-main-meals in contrast to young adults, who had lower peaks in the 'morning' and 'midday' periods as well as a shift to later meal times. Young adults seem to have a higher variability in energy intake and a less distinct meal pattern, while seniors have a more structured day. Because a high energy intake in the 'evening' period is associated with negative health-related factors, the distribution of energy intake should be considered by recommendations for a healthy nutritional behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dashti, Hassan S; Follis, Jack L; Smith, Caren E

    2015-01-01

    examined associations between habitual sleep duration, body mass index (BMI), and macronutrient intake and assessed whether CLOCK variants modify these associations. DESIGN: We conducted inverse-variance weighted, fixed-effect meta-analyses of results of adjusted associations of sleep duration and BMI...... sleep duration and lower BMI (β ± SE = 0.16 ± 0.04, P ..., the following 2 nominally significant interactions were observed: between sleep duration and rs12649507 on PUFA intake and between sleep duration and rs6858749 on protein intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that longer habitual sleep duration is associated with lower BMI and age- and sex...

  1. Two New Meal- and Web-Based Interactive Food Frequency Questionnaires : Validation of Energy and Macronutrient Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Sara; Möller, Elisabeth; Bonn, Stephanie; Ploner, Alexander; Wright, Antony; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Olle; Lissner, Lauren; Bälter, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Meal-Q and its shorter version, MiniMeal-Q, are 2 new Web-based food frequency questionnaires. Their meal-based and interactive format was designed to promote ease of use and to minimize answering time, desirable improvements in large epidemiological studies. Objective: We evaluated the validity of energy and macronutrient intake assessed with Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q as well as the reproducibility of Meal-Q. Methods: Healthy volunteers aged 20-63 years recruited from Stockholm Count...

  2. Induced leaf intercellular CO₂, photosynthesis, potassium and nitrate retention and strawberry early fruit formation under macronutrient limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Li, Tingxian; Fu, Gang; Katulanda, Panchali

    2013-07-01

    Relationships between induced high leaf intercellular CO₂ concentrations, leaf K⁺ and NO₃⁻ ion movement and early fruit formation under macronutrient limitation are not well understood. We examined the effects and interactions of reduced K/N input treatments on leaf intercellular CO₂, photosynthesis rate, carboxylation and water use efficiency, berry formation as well as leaf/fruit K⁺, NO₃⁻ and photosynthate retention of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) to enhance low-input agriculture. The field study was conducted in Nova Scotia, eastern Canada during 2009-2010. The experimental treatments consisted of five K₂O rates (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 kg ha(-1)) and five N rates (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 kg ha(-1)), representing respectively, 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % of regular macronutrient recommendations based on the soil testing. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks in the field. The cultivar was 'Mira', a June-bearing crop. The results showed that strawberry plants treated with 25 %-reduced inputs could induce significantly higher leaf intercellular CO₂ concentrations to improve plant photosynthesis, carboxylation and water use efficiency and translocation of leaf/fruit K⁺ and dissolved solids, which could advance berry formation by 6 days and produce significantly higher marketable yields (P < 0.05). Higher leaf intercellular CO₂ inhibited leaf/fruit NO₃⁻ ion retention, but this inhibition did not occur in leaf/fruit K⁺ retention. Linear interactions of the K/N treatments were significant on fruit marketable yields, intercellular CO₂, net photosynthesis, leaf transpiration rates, and leaf temperatures (P < 0.05). It was concluded that higher leaf CO₂ could enhance plant photosynthesis, promote plant carboxylation and water use efficiency, and advance berry formation, but it could inhibit leaf NO₃⁻ retention. This inhibition did not find in leaf K⁺ ion and dissolved solid retention. Overlay co

  3. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Lamp

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS and one pair-fed (PF at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1, cows were challenged for 6 days (P2 by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI = 76 or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  4. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jie [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-07-21

    Exact solutions to Einstein’s equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution’s appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  5. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory.

  6. Instantons from geodesics in AdS moduli spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Daniele; Trigiante, Mario; Van Riet, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    We investigate supergravity instantons in Euclidean AdS5 × S5/ℤk. These solutions are expected to be dual to instantons of N = 2 quiver gauge theories. On the supergravity side the (extremal) instanton solutions are neatly described by the (lightlike) geodesics on the AdS moduli space for which we find the explicit expression and compute the on-shell actions in terms of the quantised charges. The lightlike geodesics fall into two categories depending on the degree of nilpotency of the Noether charge matrix carried by the geodesic: for degree 2 the instantons preserve 8 supercharges and for degree 3 they are non-SUSY. We expect that these findings should apply to more general situations in the sense that there is a map between geodesics on moduli-spaces of Euclidean AdS vacua and instantons with holographic counterparts.

  7. Macronutrients leaf contents of corn in consortium with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Micheletti Protes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the corn crop in Brazil has undergone major technological changes, aiming at a sustainable production. This improvement may be related to appropriate management, which includes, among other practices, crop rotation and tillage; that one can get through crop-livestock integration (CLI. The CLI can be done by the consortium sequence or crop rotation with annual forages in order to recover degraded pastures. This work aimed to evaluate the macronutrient leaf content of corn intercropped with forages of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Farm for Teaching, Research and Extension, Faculty of Engineering - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in Savannah conditions, being in no-tillage for 8 years (previous corn crop. In nitrogen fertilization was applying 100 kg ha-1 of N as urea. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha Xaraes sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn, and corn without intercropping (CWI. The grasses seeds were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing and placed in fertilizer seeder compartment and the fertilizer were deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m in the amount of 5 kg ha-1. It was observed that there was no significant difference between the single corn tillage and the corn in intercropping with different modalities of forages of genus Panicum and Urochloa to foliar contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg, demonstrating that the consortium did not influence the absorption of nutrients by corn. In respect to S, the consortium CTD, was higher only when compared at CWI, however, did not differ significantly from the others (Table 1. The

  8. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Milani

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP and urea using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS. Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO42.2H2O and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4PO4 species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be

  9. Enhanced Lacto-Tri-Peptide Bio-Availability by Co-Ingestion of Macronutrients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella A M Ten Have

    Full Text Available Some food-derived peptides possess bioactive properties, and may affect health positively. For example, the C-terminal lacto-tri-peptides Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP, Leu-Pro-Pro (LPP and Val-Pro-Pro (VPP (together named here XPP are described to lower blood pressure. The bioactivity depends on their availability at the site of action. Quantitative trans-organ availability/kinetic measurements will provide more insight in C-terminal tri-peptides behavior in the body. We hypothesize that the composition of the meal will modify their systemic availability. We studied trans-organ XPP fluxes in catheterized pigs (25 kg; n=10 to determine systemic and portal availability, as well as renal and hepatic uptake of a water-based single dose of synthetic XPP and a XPP containing protein matrix (casein hydrolyte, CasH. In a second experiment (n=10, we compared the CasH-containing protein matrix with a CasH-containing meal matrix and the modifying effects of macronutrients in a meal on the availability (high carbohydrates, low quality protein, high fat, and fiber. Portal availability of synthetic XPP was 0.08 ± 0.01% of intake and increased when a protein matrix was present (respectively 3.1, 1.8 and 83 times for IPP, LPP and VPP. Difference between individual XPP was probably due to release from longer peptides. CasH prolonged portal bioavailability with 18 min (absorption half-life, synthetic XPP: 15 ± 2 min, CasH: 33 ± 3 min, p<0.0001 and increased systemic elimination with 20 min (synthetic XPP: 12 ± 2 min; CasH: 32 ± 3 min, p<0.0001. Subsequent renal and hepatic uptake is about 75% of the portal release. A meal containing CasH, increased portal 1.8 and systemic bioavailability 1.2 times. Low protein quality and fiber increased XPP systemic bioavailability further (respectively 1.5 and 1.4 times. We conclude that the amount and quality of the protein, and the presence of fiber in a meal, are the main factors that increase the systemic bioavailability of food

  10. Enhanced Lacto-Tri-Peptide Bio-Availability by Co-Ingestion of Macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Have, Gabriella A M; van der Pijl, Pieter C; Kies, Arie K; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2015-01-01

    Some food-derived peptides possess bioactive properties, and may affect health positively. For example, the C-terminal lacto-tri-peptides Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP), Leu-Pro-Pro (LPP) and Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) (together named here XPP) are described to lower blood pressure. The bioactivity depends on their availability at the site of action. Quantitative trans-organ availability/kinetic measurements will provide more insight in C-terminal tri-peptides behavior in the body. We hypothesize that the composition of the meal will modify their systemic availability. We studied trans-organ XPP fluxes in catheterized pigs (25 kg; n=10) to determine systemic and portal availability, as well as renal and hepatic uptake of a water-based single dose of synthetic XPP and a XPP containing protein matrix (casein hydrolyte, CasH). In a second experiment (n=10), we compared the CasH-containing protein matrix with a CasH-containing meal matrix and the modifying effects of macronutrients in a meal on the availability (high carbohydrates, low quality protein, high fat, and fiber). Portal availability of synthetic XPP was 0.08 ± 0.01% of intake and increased when a protein matrix was present (respectively 3.1, 1.8 and 83 times for IPP, LPP and VPP). Difference between individual XPP was probably due to release from longer peptides. CasH prolonged portal bioavailability with 18 min (absorption half-life, synthetic XPP: 15 ± 2 min, CasH: 33 ± 3 min, p<0.0001) and increased systemic elimination with 20 min (synthetic XPP: 12 ± 2 min; CasH: 32 ± 3 min, p<0.0001). Subsequent renal and hepatic uptake is about 75% of the portal release. A meal containing CasH, increased portal 1.8 and systemic bioavailability 1.2 times. Low protein quality and fiber increased XPP systemic bioavailability further (respectively 1.5 and 1.4 times). We conclude that the amount and quality of the protein, and the presence of fiber in a meal, are the main factors that increase the systemic bioavailability of food

  11. Olfactory Dysfunction Is Associated with the Intake of Macronutrients in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory function can impact food selection. However, few large population-based studies have investigated this effect across different age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the association between subjective olfactory dysfunction (anosmia or hyposmia) and macronutrient intake. A total of 24,990 participants aged 20 to 98 years were evaluated based on data collected through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 through 2012. Olfactory dysfunction was surveyed using a self-reported questionnaire, and the nutritional status was assessed through a validated 24-hour recall method. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses with complex sampling were performed to evaluate the relationships between olfactory dysfunction and protein intake (daily protein intake/recommended protein intake [%]), carbohydrate intake (daily carbohydrate intake/total calories [%]), and fat intake (daily fat intake/total calories [%]) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, income, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and stress level. Olfactory dysfunction was reported by 5.4% of Korean adults and was found to be associated with decreased fat consumption (estimated value [EV] of fat intake [%] = -0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.13 to -0.13, P = 0.045). A subgroup analysis according to age and sex revealed that among young females, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat consumption (EV = -2.30, 95% CI = -4.16 to -0.43, P = 0.016) and increased carbohydrate intake (EV = 2.80, 95% CI = 0.55 to 5.05, P = 0.015), and that among middle-aged females, olfactory dysfunction was also associated with reduced fat intake (EV = -1.26, 95% CI = -2.37 to -0.16, P = 0.025). In contrast, among young males, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced protein intake (EV = -26.41 95% CI = -45.14 to -7.69, P = 0.006). Olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat intake. Moreover, olfactory dysfunction exerted

  12. Perceptual Characterization of the Macronutrient Picture System (MaPS for Food Image fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill L. King

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Food image fMRI paradigms are used widely for investigating the neural basis of ingestive behavior. However, these paradigms have not been validated in terms of ingestive behavior constructs, engagement of food-relevant neural systems, or test-retest reliability, making the generalizability of study findings unclear. Therefore, we validated the Macronutrient Picture System (MaPS (McClernon et al., 2013, which includes food images from the six categories represented in the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ (Geiselman et al., 1998. Twenty-five healthy young adults (n = 21 female, mean age = 20.6 ± 1.1 years, mean BMI = 22.1 ± 1.9 kg/m2 rated the MaPS images in terms of visual interest, appetitive quality, nutrition, emotional valence, liking, and frequency of consumption, and completed the FPQ. In a second study, 12 individuals (n=8 female, mean age = 25.0 ± 6.5 years, mean BMI = 28.2 ± 8.7 kg/m2 viewed MaPS and control images (vegetables and non-food during two separate 3T BOLD fMRI scans after fasting overnight. Intuitively, high fat/high sugar (HF/HS and high fat/high complex carbohydrate (HF/HCCHO images achieved higher liking and appetitive ratings, and lower nutrition ratings, than low fat/low complex carbohydrate/high protein (LF/LCHO/HP images on average. Within each food category, FPQ scores correlated strongly with MaPS image liking ratings (p < 0.001. Brain activation differences between viewing images of HF/HS and vegetables, and between HF/HCCHO and vegetables, were seen in several reward-related brain regions (e.g., putamen, insula, and medial frontal gyrus. Intra-individual, inter-scan agreement in a summary measure of brain activation differences in seven reward network regions of interest was high (ICC = 0.61, and was even higher when two distinct sets of food images with matching visual ratings were shown in the two scans (ICC = 0.74. These results suggest that the MaPS provides valid representation of food

  13. Twistor description of spinning particles in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitakis, Alex S.; Barns-Graham, Alec E.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2018-01-01

    The two-twistor formulation of particle mechanics in D-dimensional anti-de Sitter space for D = 4 , 5 , 7, which linearises invariance under the AdS isometry group Sp(4; K ) for K=R,C,H, is generalized to the massless N -extended "spinning particle". The twistor variables are gauge invariant with respect to the initial N local worldline supersymmetries; this simplifies aspects of the quantum theory such as implications of global gauge anomalies. We also give details of the two-supertwistor form of the superparticle, in particular the massive superparticle on AdS5.

  14. AdS5 magnetized solutions in minimal gauged supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Blázquez-Salcedo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We construct a generalization of the AdS charged rotating black holes with two equal magnitude angular momenta in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. In addition to the mass, electric charge and angular momentum, the new solutions possess an extra-parameter associated with a non-zero magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity. In contrast with the known cases, these new black holes possess a non-trivial zero-horizon size limit which describes a one parameter family of spinning charged solitons. All configurations reported in this work approach asymptotically an AdS5 spacetime in global coordinates and are free of pathologies.

  15. AdS5 magnetized solutions in minimal gauged supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Radu, Eugen

    2017-08-01

    We construct a generalization of the AdS charged rotating black holes with two equal magnitude angular momenta in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. In addition to the mass, electric charge and angular momentum, the new solutions possess an extra-parameter associated with a non-zero magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity. In contrast with the known cases, these new black holes possess a non-trivial zero-horizon size limit which describes a one parameter family of spinning charged solitons. All configurations reported in this work approach asymptotically an AdS5 spacetime in global coordinates and are free of pathologies.

  16. Holography in Lovelock Chern-Simons AdS gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Branislav; Miskovic, Olivera; Simić, Dejan

    2017-08-01

    We analyze holographic field theory dual to Lovelock Chern-Simons anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity in higher dimensions using first order formalism. We first find asymptotic symmetries in the AdS sector showing that they consist of local translations, local Lorentz rotations, dilatations and non-Abelian gauge transformations. Then, we compute 1-point functions of energy-momentum and spin currents in a dual conformal field theory and write Ward identities. We find that the holographic theory possesses Weyl anomaly and also breaks non-Abelian gauge symmetry at the quantum level.

  17. Stringy N = (2, 2) holography for AdS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shouvik; Eberhardt, Lorenz; Gaberdiel, Matthias R.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a class of AdS3/CFT2 dualities with N = (2, 2) supersymmetry. These dualities relate string theory on {AdS}_3× ({S}^3× T^4)/G to marginal deformations of the symmetric product orbifold of T^4/G , where G is a dihedral group. We demonstrate that the BPS spectrum calculated from supergravity and string theory agrees with that of the dual CFT. Moreover, the supergravity elliptic genus is shown to reproduce the CFT answer, thus providing further non-trivial evidence in favour of the proposal.

  18. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  19. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  20. Composition and Variation of Macronutrients, Immune Proteins, and Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Human Milk From Nonprofit and Commercial Milk Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith-Dennis, Laura; Xu, Gege; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Underwood, Mark A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2018-02-01

    When human milk is unavailable, banked milk is recommended for feeding premature infants. Milk banks use processes to eliminate pathogens; however, variability among methods exists. Research aim: The aim of this study was to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, energy), immune-protective protein, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) content of human milk from three independent milk banks that use pasteurization (Holder vs. vat techniques) or retort sterilization. Randomly acquired human milk samples from three different milk banks ( n = 3 from each bank) were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations using a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy human milk analyzer. The concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, α antitrypsin, casein, and HMO were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of protein and fat were significantly ( p milk samples that had undergone retort sterilization had significantly less immune-protective proteins and total and specific HMOs compared with samples that had undergone Holder and vat pasteurization. These data suggest that further analysis of the effect of retort sterilization on human milk components is needed prior to widespread adoption of this process.

  1. Production of canafístula seedlings cultivated in red-yellow alic latosol in response to macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Augusto Fonseca e Cruz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Peltophorum dubium (canafístula is a fast-growing, rustic species excellent for use in combined reforestation of degraded areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of doses of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S on seedling growth and quality indices; and to determine the recommended dose of these elements for establishment of a suitable fertilization program. The study was conducted in a greenhouse using red-yellow alic latosol as substrate. The experiment was designed following a Baconian matrix, evaluating three doses of the six macronutrients and two additional treatments, one with reference doses and another with no addition of nutrients. A completely randomized design was adopted with four replicates. Analysis using orthogonal contrasts revealed a significant response from all variables being studied to application of macronutrients, except the H/D ratio. The nutrients P and N had the most significant effects, 540 mg/dm3 being the recommended dose of P, and 50 mg/dm3 being the recommended dose of N. No response was observed to application of K, Ca, Mg and S, for most traits being assessed, indicating that the species has a low requirement for these nutrients.

  2. Dietary Intake after Weight Loss and the Risk of Weight Regain: Macronutrient Composition and Inflammatory Properties of the Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Harry Freitag Luglio; Vink, Roel G.; Roumans, Nadia J. T.; Arkenbosch, Laura A. J.; Mariman, Edwin C.; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Weight regain after successful weight loss is a big problem in obesity management. This study aimed to investigate whether weight regain after a weight loss period is correlated with the macronutrient composition and/or the inflammatory index of the diet during that period. Sixty one overweight and obese adults participated in this experimental study. Subjects lost approximately 10% of their initial weight by means of very low-calorie diet for five weeks, or a low calorie diet for 12 weeks. After that, subjects in both groups followed a strict weight maintenance diet based on individual needs for four weeks, which was followed by a nine-month weight maintenance period without dietary counseling. Anthropometrics and dietary intake data were recorded before weight loss (baseline) and during the weight maintenance period. On average, participants regained approximately half of their lost weight. We found no evidence that macronutrient composition during the weight maintenance period was associated with weight regain. The dietary inflammatory index (r = 0.304, p = 0.032) was positively correlated with weight regain and remained significant after correction for physical activity (r = 0.287, p = 0.045). Our data suggest that the inflammatory properties of diet play a role in weight regain after weight loss in overweight and obese adults. PMID:29099051

  3. Dietary Intake after Weight Loss and the Risk of Weight Regain: Macronutrient Composition and Inflammatory Properties of the Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Freitag Luglio Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after successful weight loss is a big problem in obesity management. This study aimed to investigate whether weight regain after a weight loss period is correlated with the macronutrient composition and/or the inflammatory index of the diet during that period. Sixty one overweight and obese adults participated in this experimental study. Subjects lost approximately 10% of their initial weight by means of very low-calorie diet for five weeks, or a low calorie diet for 12 weeks. After that, subjects in both groups followed a strict weight maintenance diet based on individual needs for four weeks, which was followed by a nine-month weight maintenance period without dietary counseling. Anthropometrics and dietary intake data were recorded before weight loss (baseline and during the weight maintenance period. On average, participants regained approximately half of their lost weight. We found no evidence that macronutrient composition during the weight maintenance period was associated with weight regain. The dietary inflammatory index (r = 0.304, p = 0.032 was positively correlated with weight regain and remained significant after correction for physical activity (r = 0.287, p = 0.045. Our data suggest that the inflammatory properties of diet play a role in weight regain after weight loss in overweight and obese adults.

  4. Macronutrient composition and increased physical activity modulate plasma adipokines and appetite hormones during a weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Shymaa M; Vaishnav, Ushma; Puglisi, Michael; Lofgren, Ingrid E; Wood, Richard J; Volek, Jeff S; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2010-01-01

    We have shown previously that in overweight premenopausal women, changes in macronutrient composition and increasing the number of steps walked per day favorably affect body composition and plasma lipid profiles. As a follow-up, we evaluated the effect of moderate carbohydrate intake and increased physical activity on inflammation and regulation of appetite. Seventy premenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 37 kg/m(2) participated in a 10-week weight loss intervention program consisting of the following macronutrient energy distribution: 40% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 30% protein, in addition to a progressive increase in the number of steps taken per day. Plasma adiponectin, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), leptin, and ghrelin levels were assessed at baseline and after 10 weeks. Subjects reduced body weight by 4.5%, waist circumference (WC) by 6.4%, and trunk fat by 4.6%. Plasma insulin and insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) were reduced after 10 weeks (p r = -0.397, p < 0.01), indicating a role of adiponectin in increasing insulin sensitivity. In addition, plasma ghrelin levels were increased by 17% (p < 0.001), indicating a signal for increased appetite associated with weight loss. These studies indicate that weight loss interventions involving moderate changes in dietary carbohydrate and increases in physical activity favorably affect insulin sensitivity and decrease inflammation.

  5. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-02-28

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  6. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itkin, Igor; Oz, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  7. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  8. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    OpenAIRE

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  9. Prediction of Macronutrients at the Canopy Level Using Spaceborne Imaging Spectroscopy and LiDAR Data in a Mixedwood Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Gökkaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on foliar macronutrients is required in order to understand plant physiological and ecosystem processes such as photosynthesis, nutrient cycling, respiration and cell wall formation. The ability to measure, model and map foliar macronutrients (nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg at the forest canopy level provides information on the spatial patterns of ecosystem processes (e.g., carbon exchange and provides insight on forest condition and stress. Imaging spectroscopy (IS has been used particularly for modeling N, using airborne and satellite imagery mostly in temperate and tropical forests. However, there has been very little research conducted at these scales to model P, K, Ca, and Mg and few studies have focused on boreal forests. We report results of a study of macronutrient modeling using spaceborne IS and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR data for a mixedwood boreal forest canopy in northern Ontario, Canada. Models incorporating Hyperion data explained approximately 90% of the variation in canopy concentrations of N, P, and Mg; whereas the inclusion of LiDAR data significantly improved the prediction of canopy concentration of Ca (R2 = 0.80. The combined used of IS and LiDAR data significantly improved the prediction accuracy of canopy Ca and K concentration but decreased the prediction accuracy of canopy P concentration. The results indicate that the variability of macronutrient concentration due to interspecific and functional type differences at the site provides the basis for the relationship observed between the remote sensing measurements (i.e., IS and LiDAR and macronutrient concentration. Crown closure and canopy height are the structural metrics that establish the connection between macronutrient concentration and IS and LiDAR data, respectively. The spatial distribution of macronutrient concentration at the canopy scale mimics functional type distribution at the site. The

  10. Pattern of tissue deposition, gain and body composition of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two levels of concentrate in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ivanna Moraes de; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Detmann, Edenio; Cavali, Jucilene; Duarte, Marcio de Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Sixty 18-month-old steers (20 Nellore, 20 F1 Simmental × Nellore and 20 F1 Angus × Nellore with average body weight of 265.6±6.4 kg; 325.3±4.7 kg and 324.6±6.0 kg, respectively) were used. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on physical carcass composition, empty body composition, composition of the gain, as well as the pattern of tissue deposition were evaluated in this trial. The interaction between genetic group and feeding regime was not significant for any variable evaluated....

  11. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate: a 6-month randomised study in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas M; Due, Anette

    2010-01-01

    ) for 6 months after a weight loss of about 10 %. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all three diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after intervention and analysed for factor VII coagulant activity (FVII...

  12. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate: a 6-month randomised study in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas M; Due, Anette

    2010-01-01

    Diet is important in the prevention of CVD, and it has been suggested that a diet high in MUFA is more cardioprotective than a low-fat diet. We hypothesised that the thrombotic risk profile is improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45 % of energy; >20 % of fat as MUFA) (MUFA diet; n 39), to a low-fat (LF; 20-30 % of energy) diet (n 43), or to a control diet (35 % of energy as fat; n 24......) for 6 months after a weight loss of about 10 %. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all three diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after intervention and analysed for factor VII coagulant activity (FVII...

  13. Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF**6) is a commonly used method for measuring CH**4 enteric emissions in ruminants. Studies using SF**6 have shown large variation in CH**4 emissions data, inconsistencies in CH**4 emissions across studies, and potential methodological errors. Therefore, th...

  14. Muhammad As`ad Bugis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    1998-01-01

    MUHAMMAD AS`AD BUGIS [Wajo, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, 1907-1953] [Dictionnaire biographique des savants et grandes figures du monde musulman périphérique, du XIXe siècle à nos jours, Fasc. no 2. Paris: CNRS-EHESS, 1998, p. 22-23] Muhammad As`ad was one of the greatest `ulamâ of South

  15. AdS vacua from dilaton tadpoles and form fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mourad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe how unbounded three-form fluxes can lead to families of AdS3×S7 vacua, with constant dilaton profiles, in the USp(32 model with “brane supersymmetry breaking” and in the U(32 0'B model, if their (projective-disk dilaton tadpoles are taken into account. We also describe how, in the SO(16×SO(16 heterotic model, if the torus vacuum energy Λ is taken into account, unbounded seven-form fluxes can support similar AdS7×S3 vacua, while unbounded three-form fluxes, when combined with internal gauge fields, can support AdS3×S7 vacua, which continue to be available even if Λ is neglected. In addition, special gauge field fluxes can support, in the SO(16×SO(16 heterotic model, a set of AdSn×S10−n vacua, for all n=2,..,8. String loop and α′ corrections appear under control when large form fluxes are allowed.

  16. Thermodynamics of Einstein-Proca AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Shan [Institute for Advanced Physics & Mathematics, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); Lü, H. [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Pope, C.N. [George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-18

    We study static spherically-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Proca equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We show that the theory admits solutions describing both black holes and also solitons in an asymptotically AdS background. Interesting subtleties can arise in the computation of the mass of the solutions and also in the derivation of the first law of thermodynamics. We make use of holographic renormalisation in order to calculate the mass, even in cases where the solutions have a rather slow approach to the asymptotic AdS geometry. By using the procedure developed by Wald, we derive the first law of thermodynamics for the black hole and soliton solutions. This includes a non-trivial contribution associated with the Proca “charge”. The solutions cannot be found analytically, and so we make use of numerical integration techniques to demonstrate their existence.

  17. Oscillating shells and oscillating balls in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Avik; Kundu, Arnab; Roy, Pratik; Virmani, Amitabh

    2017-07-01

    It has recently been reported that certain thin timelike shells undergo oscillatory motion in AdS. In this paper, we compute two-point function of a probe field in the geodesic approximation in such an oscillating shell background. We confirm that the two-point function exhibits an oscillatory behaviour following the motion of the shell. We show that similar oscillatory dynamics is possible when the perfect fluid on the shell has a polytropic equation of state. Moreover, we show that certain ball like configurations in AdS also exhibit oscillatory motion and comment on how such a solution can be smoothly matched to an appropriate exterior solution. We also demonstrate that the weak energy condition is satisfied for these oscillatory configurations.

  18. Smoothed transitions in higher spin AdS gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Shamik; Shenker, Stephen; Castro, Alejandra; Hellerman, Simeon; Hijano, Eliot; Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud; Maloney, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS 3 and AdS 4 . Two-dimensional CFTs with W N symmetry are considered in the λ = 0 (k → ∞) limit where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free-field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order 1; the usual Hawking–Page phase transition is removed by the highly degenerate light states associated with conical defect states in the bulk. Three-dimensional Chern–Simons matter CFTs with vector-like matter are considered on T 3 , where the dynamics is described by an effective theory for the eigenvalues of the holonomies. Likewise, we find no evidence for a Hawking–Page phase transition at a large level k. (paper)

  19. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  20. AdS gravity and the scalar glueball spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vento, Vicente [Departament de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia y Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2017-09-15

    The scalar glueball spectrum has attracted much attention since the formulation of Quantum Chromodynamics. Different approaches give very different results for the glueball masses. We revisit the problem from the perspective of the AdS/CFT correspondence. (orig.)

  1. AdS sub 2 supergravity and superconformal quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Astorino, M; Klemm, D; Zanon, D

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the asymptotic dynamics of topological anti-de Sitter supergravity in two dimensions. Starting from the formulation as a BF theory, it is shown that the AdS sub 2 boundary conditions imply that the asymptotic symmetries form a super-Virasoro algebra. Using the central charge of this algebra in Cardy's formula, we exactly reproduce the thermodynamical entropy of AdS sub 2 black holes. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of the dilaton and its superpartner reduces to that of superconformal transformations that leave invariant one chiral component of the stress tensor supercurrent of a two-dimensional conformal field theory. This dynamics is governed by a supersymmetric extension of the de Alfaro-Fubini-Furlan model of conformal quantum mechanics. Finally, two-dimensional de Sitter gravity is also considered, and the dS sub 2 entropy is computed by counting CFT states.

  2. Bjorken flow from an AdS Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Alsup, James; Siopsis, George

    2007-01-01

    We consider a large black hole in asymptotically AdS spacetime of arbitrary dimension with a Minkowski boundary. By performing an appropriate slicing as we approach the boundary, we obtain via holographic renormalization a gauge theory fluid obeying Bjorken hydrodynamics in the limit of large longitudinal proper time. The metric we obtain reproduces to leading order the metric recently found as a direct solution of the Einstein equations in five dimensions. Our results are also in agreement w...

  3. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, André [Institut für Theoretische Physik & Center for Quantum Engineering and Spacetime Research,Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-16

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of E{sub d(d)}×ℝ{sup +} generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  4. Aspects of holography and rotating AdS black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, D S

    1999-01-01

    A comparison is made between the thermodynamics of weakly and stronglycoupled Yang-Mills with fixed angular momentum. The free energy of the stronglycoupled Yang-Mills is calculated by using a dual supergravity descriptioncorresponding to a rotating black hole in an Anti de Sitter (AdS) background.All thermodynamic quantities are shown have the same ratio of 3/4 (independentof angular momentum) between strong and weak coupling.

  5. Macronutrient composition and sodium intake of diet are associated with risk of metabolic syndrome and hypertension in Korean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea Young Oh

    Full Text Available Hypertension and hypertriglycemia are the most important contributors to metabolic syndrome (MetS and cardiovascular disease risk in South Koreans with a relatively lean body mass. These major contributors differ from those identified in Western populations. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the Korean diet associated with increased risk of MetS, whose prevalence has been steadily increasing in South Korea. On the basis of data collected from 5,320 subjects by the 2007-2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 3 dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis and their association with the risk of MetS and its components was examined. The balanced Korean diet, a typical Korean diet of rice and kimchi intake supplemented by a variety of foods had a desirable macronutrient composition and was associated with a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.45-0.84 and hypertriglyceridemia (0.69, 0.49-0.88 in men and a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (0.59, 0.41-0.85 and MetS (0.67, 0.47-0.96 in women. The unbalanced Korean diet, characterized by a high intake of carbohydrates and sodium and little variety, was associated with a higher risk of MetS (1.44, 1.03-2.01 and elevated blood pressure (1.41, 1.00-1.98 in women. The semi-western diet, characterized by a relatively high intake of meat, poultry, and alcohol, was associated with a lower risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.70, 0.54-0.89 in women. Thus, macronutrient composition and sodium intake are associated with the risk of MetS and prehypertension in women. Maintaining a desirable macronutrient composition and avoiding excessive consumption of carbohydrates and sodium should be emphasized for prevention of MetS and hypertension in South Korean women.

  6. ADS Bumblebee comes of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin; Grant, Carolyn S.; Thompson, Donna M.; Chyla, Roman; McDonald, Steven; Shaulis, Taylor J.; Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Shapurian, Golnaz; Hostetler, Timothy W.; Templeton, Matthew R.; Lockhart, Kelly E.

    2018-01-01

    The ADS Team has been working on a new system architecture and user interface named “ADS Bumblebee” since 2015. The new system presents many advantages over the traditional ADS interface and search engine (“ADS Classic”). A new, state of the art search engine features a number of new capabilities such as full-text search, advanced citation queries, filtering of results and scalable analytics for any search results. Its services are built on a cloud computing platform which can be easily scaled to match user demand. The Bumblebee user interface is a rich javascript application which leverages the features of the search engine and integrates a number of additional visualizations such as co-author and co-citation networks which provide a hierarchical view of research groups and research topics, respectively. Displays of paper analytics provide views of the basic article metrics (citations, reads, and age). All visualizations are interactive and provide ways to further refine search results. This new search system, which has been in beta for the past three years, has now matured to the point that it provides feature and content parity with ADS Classic, and has become the recommended way to access ADS content and services. Following a successful transition to Bumblebee, the use of ADS Classic will be discouraged starting in 2018 and phased out in 2019. You can access our new interface at https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu

  7. Enthalpy and the mechanics of AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie; Ray, Sourya

    2009-01-01

    We present geometric derivations of the Smarr formula for static AdS black holes and an expanded first law that includes variations in the cosmological constant. These two results are further related by a scaling argument based on Euler's theorem. The key new ingredient in the constructions is a two-form potential for the static Killing field. Surface integrals of the Killing potential determine the coefficient of the variation of Λ in the first law. This coefficient is proportional to a finite, effective volume for the region outside the AdS black hole horizon, which can also be interpreted as minus the volume excluded from a spatial slice by the black hole horizon. This effective volume also contributes to the Smarr formula. Since Λ is naturally thought of as a pressure, the new term in the first law has the form of effective volume times change in pressure that arises in the variation of the enthalpy in classical thermodynamics. This and related arguments suggest that the mass of an AdS black hole should be interpreted as the enthalpy of the spacetime.

  8. Ad skepticisms: Antecedents and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Engaging customer is the burning issue for companies especially the service sector, either online or offline. Minimizing the customer disengagement is the same like reducing dissatisfaction or churn. Customer disengagement may be caused by many factors, ad skepticism is one of them; ad skepticism has two main antecedents personality variable and consumption/influencing varia-bles. This research explores the relationship of ad skepticism with customer disengagement through personality variables which are cynicism, reactance and self-esteem. The unit of analysis is the telecom and banking industry of Pakistan which is foreseeing an era of virtual currency and both are customer oriented industries. Only offline disengagement is researched and data is collected from the Business centers of telecom and banking branches dealing with virtual curren-cy in Pakistan. Hypothetical model is given after digging the relevant literature; model is tested through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Eight hypotheses were purposed from the connections of model, all hypotheses are accepted except the cynicism posi-tive effect on social ad skepticism. This can be due to commonality of social and charity in Paki-stani society, Muslims consider charity as a pious act and they do not think for cynic behavior in charity or social related works. The results manifest that customers in telecom industry are hav-ing ad skepticism and that is becoming the cause of their disengagement. Further, social ad skep-ticism has more impact on the customer disengagement than the general ad skepticism. While the reactance has more effect on general ad skepticism than other antecedents and cynicism has the lowest impact on social ad skepticism than other antecedents.

  9. Factors associated with added sugars intake among adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Ana Carolina A; Cesar, Chester L G; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Fisberg, Regina M

    2012-08-01

    To measure added sugars intake among adolescents and describe its demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional status determinants. The study was conducted based on a household survey carried out between March and December 2003. Food intake was assessed through 24-hour food recalls, and an adjustment approach was applied using external variance estimates derived from 195 adolescents of the same age in 2007. Population-based cross-sectional study, city of São Paulo, Brazil. Seven hundred and ninety-three male (n = 410) and female (n = 383) adolescents aged 10-19 years. MEASURE OF OUTCOME: Foods with greater contributions toward the added sugars intake were identified. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, with calories from added sugars as the dependent continuous variable and the remaining factors (socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, household condition, and food intake) as independent variables. The average contribution of added sugars to total energy value was 12.28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.87-12.70) with no statistically significant sex difference (p > 0.05). Soft drinks were a major source of added sugars among the adolescents (34.2% among males and 32.0% among females), followed by sugars (sucrose and honey) and chocolate powder (around 11%). In the multiple linear regression analysis, the head of household's education level and calories from protein, fats, and carbohydrates other than sugars had an independent effect on added sugars intake. This study showed that the percentage contribution of added sugars to energy intake among adolescents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, was above the current recommended levels. Socioeconomic condition (represented by the head of the household's education level) and macronutrient intake were shown to be determinants of sugars intake.

  10. Within- and Trans-Generational Effects of Variation in Dietary Macronutrient Content on Life-History Traits in the Moth Plodia interpunctella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that parental environment can play an important role in determining offspring phenotype. These “transgenerational effects” have been linked to many different components of the environment, including toxin exposure, infection with pathogens and parasites, temperature and food quality. In this study, we focus on the latter, asking how variation in the quantity and quality of nutrition affects future generations. Previous studies have shown that artificial diets are a useful tool to examine the within-generation effects of variation in macronutrient content on life history traits, and could therefore be applied to investigations of the transgenerational effects of parental diet. Synthetic diets varying in total macronutrient content and protein: carbohydrate ratios were used to examine both within- and trans-generational effects on life history traits in a generalist stored product pest, the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella. The macronutrient composition of the diet was important for shaping within-generation life history traits, including pupal weight, adult weight, and phenoloxidase activity, and had indirect effects via maternal weight on fecundity. Despite these clear within-generation effects on the biology of P. interpunctella, diet composition had no transgenerational effects on the life history traits of offspring. P. interpunctella mothers were able to maintain their offspring quality, possibly at the expense of their own somatic condition, despite high variation in dietary macronutrient composition. This has important implications for the plastic biology of this successful generalist pest. PMID:28033396

  11. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according

  12. Macronutrient-induced differences in food intake relate with hepatic oxidative metabolism and hypothalamic regulatory neuropeptides in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo-Silva, A.C.; Subramanian, S.; Schrama, J.W.; Kaushik, S.J.; Geurden, I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how dietary macronutrient-induced changes in voluntary food intake (FI) relate to changes in markers of hepatic oxidative metabolism and in the expression of FI regulatory neuropeptides in a teleost model, the rainbow trout. Rainbow trout were fed for 6 weeks with one of four

  13. Ion Chromatography as an Alternative to Standard Methods for Analysis of Macro-nutrients in Mehlich 1 Extracts of Unfertilized Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph B. Fischer; James H. Miller

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates ion chromatography (IC) as an alternative to atomic absorption (AA) and inductively-coupled plasma spectromctry (ICP) for analysis of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca), and and as an alternative to antimonylmolybdate colorimetry and ICP for analysis of phosphorus (P) macro-nutrients in Mehlich 1 extracts. Soils typical of pine forests...

  14. Chia seed (Salvia Hispanica L.) added yogurt reduces short-term food intake and increases satiety: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Aylin; Akyol, Asli; Inan-Eroglu, Elif; Kabasakal Cetin, Arzu; Samur, Gulhan; Akbiyik, Filiz

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have reported that consumption of Salvia Hispanica L. ,commonly known as chia seed, may exert beneficial effects on health outcomes. The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of chia seed consumption as a mid-morning snack on short-term satiety. Subjects (n = 24) were tested using a randomized, cross-over design consisting of three mid-morning snacks. Yogurt with no chia seed, yogurt with 7 g chia seed, and yogurt with 14 g chia seed were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes, ad libitum lunch was served, and energy intake of individuals was measured. VAS scores indicated that participants reported significantly lower scores for hunger ( P = 0.033), prospective food consumption ( P = 0.031), amounts of food that could be consumed ( P = 0.017), desire for sugary foods ( P = 0.015), and higher scores for satiety ( P = 0.031) on the test days with 7 g and 14 g chia seed. Energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower when they consumed yogurt with 7 g or 14 g chia seed ( P = 0.037). The study demonstrated that chia seed consumption as a mid-morning snack may induce short-term satiety in healthy individuals.

  15. AD status and consolidation plans

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksson, T; Arnaudon, L; Belochitskii, P; Bojtar, L; Calviani, M; Caspers, F; Federmann, S; Jørgensen, L; Louwerse, R; Oliveira, C; Tranquille, G

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) has now completed its 12th year of supplying low-energy antiproton beams for the successful physics program. Most of the machine’s key components are in operation since more than 25 years and prompted by the approval of the ELENA project, a substantial consolidation program is now being launched to ensure continued reliable operation. Over the course of the next few years a progressive renovation of the AD-Target area and the AD-ring with all the associated systems will take place. Status and performance of the AD are presented along with an overview of planned and ongoing consolidation activities with emphasis on stochastic and electron beam cooling.

  16. Influence of agronomic variables on the macronutrient and micronutrient contents and thermal behavior of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rosângela A; Arruda, Eduardo J; de Oliveira, Lincoln C S; de Oliveira, Ana P; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, J Vladimir; Caramão, Elina B

    2007-09-05

    The influence of agronomic variables (light intensity, age of leaves, and fertilization type) on the content of macronutrients and micronutrients (potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, and copper) of tea leaves was assessed by acid digestion, followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The thermal behavior of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) was also studied in this work. Samples of mate (Ilex paraguariensis) were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Erva-Mate Barão Commerce and Industry LTD (Brazil). The results showed that the mineral content in mate is affected by the agronomic variables investigated. In general, the content of mineral compounds analyzed is higher for younger leaves and for plants cultivated in shadow. Thermal analysis of samples indicated a similar behavior, with three typical steps of decomposition: loss of water, degradation of low-molecular weight compounds, and degradation of residual materials.

  17. Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Brianna L; Dunn, Amy; Johnson, Dallas; Adams, J D; Baum, Jamie I

    2016-08-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week). Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group): breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast), carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g fat) or protein (PRO; 350 kcal; 39 g CHO, 30 g PRO, 8 g fat). On days 1 (D1) and 8 (D8), TEF, substrate oxidation, appetite and blood glucose were measured. PRO had higher (p breakfast on appetite response. In addition, CHO had a significant increase (p breakfast for 8 days increased TEF compared to CHO and SKP, while consumption of CHO for one week increased PP hunger response.

  18. The Influence on Population Weight Gain and Obesity of the Macronutrient Composition and Energy Density of the Food Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Michelle; Sacks, Gary; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd; Neal, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Rates of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in all regions of the world over the last few decades. Almost all of the world's population now has ubiquitous access to low-cost, but highly-processed, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food products. These changes in the food supply, rather than decreases in physical activity, are most likely the primary driver of population weight gain and obesity. To-date, the majority of prevention efforts focus on personalised approaches targeting individuals. Population-wide food supply interventions addressing sodium and trans fat reduction have proven highly effective and comparable efforts are now required to target obesity. The evidence suggests that strategies focusing upon reducing the energy density and portion size of foods will be more effective than those targeting specific macronutrients. Government leadership, clearly specified targets, accountability and transparency will be the key to achieving the food supply changes required to address the global obesity epidemic.

  19. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Parveen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998. Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases.

  20. Relevance of Morning and Evening Energy and Macronutrient Intake during Childhood for Body Composition in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Roßbach, Sarah; Herder, Christian; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2016-11-10

    (1) Background: This study investigated the relevance of morning and evening energy and macronutrient intake during childhood for body composition in early adolescence; (2) Methods: Analyses were based on data from 372 DONALD (DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed study) participants. Explorative life-course plots were performed to examine whether morning or evening energy and macronutrient intake at 3/4 years, 5/6 years, or 7/8 years is critical for fat mass index (FMI [kg/m²]) and fat free mass index (FFMI [kg/m²]) in early adolescence (10/11 years). Subsequently, exposures in periods identified as consistently critical were examined in depth using adjusted regression models; (3) Results: Life-course plots identified morning fat and carbohydrate (CHO) intake at 3/4 years and 7/8 years as well as changes in these intakes between 3/4 years and 7/8 years as potentially critical for FMI at 10/11 years. Adjusted regression models corroborated higher FMI values at 10/11 years among those who had consumed less fat ( p = 0.01) and more CHO ( p = 0.01) in the morning at 7/8 years as well as among those who had decreased their morning fat intake ( p = 0.02) and increased their morning CHO intake ( p = 0.05) between 3/4 years and 7/8 years; (4) Conclusion: During childhood, adherence to a low fat, high CHO intake in the morning may have unfavorable consequences for FMI in early adolescence.

  1. MACRONUTRIENT CONCENTRATION AND CONTENT IN PASSION FRUIT LEAVES UNDER SAMPLING METHODS AND N-K FERTILIZATION RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODINEI FACCO PEGORARO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen and potassium fertilization and assessment of adequate nutritional status are essential for increasing fruit production of passion fruit. However, studies related to characterization of the leaf nutrient concentration and content in passion fruit with different production capacities are scarce in the literature in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate macronutrient leaf concentration and content in different parts of the reproductive shoot of yellow passion fruit subjected to different ratios of N and K fertilization. The study was conducted in a randomized block design, with three replications, following a 4 x 6 factorial arrangement consisting of four cultivars of yellow passion fruit (BRS Gigante Amarelo, IAC 275, BRS Ouro Vermelho, and BRS Sol do Cerrado and six application rates of N-K2O fertilizer (0-0, 50-125, 100-250, 150-375, 200-500, and 250-625 kg ha-1 year-1. Two leaf sampling methods were adopted (leaf located at a position adjacent to the fruit, and leaf located at the end of the reproductive branch for nutritional assessment. The leaf located at the adjacent position had lower N, P, K, Mg, and S concentration and higher Ca concentration than the concentrations observed in the standard leaf. However, the higher leaf dry matter in adjacent leaves resulted in increased macronutrient concentration/content. The increase in N-K fertilizations inhibited Ca and Mg content in the leaves adjacent to the fruit of the Gigante Amarelo, IAC, and Ouro Vermelho passion fruit cultivars, but did not affect Ca and Mg content in the standard leaf. The passion fruit cultivars showed different leaf nutrient contents after N-K fertilization, indicating variable nutritional demands and the need for specific diagnostic methods for each cultivar.

  2. Amount of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Petiole of Some Iranian and Imported Grape Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doulati Baneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is one of the oldest and most important perennial crops in the world. Several native grapevine genotypes, highly appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics and commercial potential are still cultivated in Iran. Developing viticulture requires the conservation of autochthonous varieties that have evolved several mechanisms enabling them to cope with the local bioclimatic and edaphic conditions. Nutrition is a key component of vineyard management that has the potential to influence various factors in vine production that includes fruit set and quality. To develop suitable nutrient plant growers need to have an understanding of the factors such as cultivars, rootstocks, soil type, irrigation type and nutrients that they are applying in the vineyard. The uptake of nutrients from the soil depends on different factors namely; their soluble content in it, soil pH, plant growth stage, plant genetics and types of soil and fertilizers. Plant species have a variety of capacities in removing and accumulating elements. Vigorous genotypes are more capable of finding the necessary nutrients from the surrounding soil environment. This indicates that it does not require as much nutrient as poor vigor genotypes. So, for sustainable viticulture, it is important to know the interactive influences of cultivars, soil characters, climatic conditions, and irrigation type on vine productivity. Materials and Methods: To evaluate and compare the amount of macronutrient elements (N, P, K, Mg and Ca and micronutrient elements (B, Zn and Mn in petiole of some Iranian grapevine cultivars including Bidanesefid Qazvin- Peikany Kashmar- Khalili Shiraz-Rasha and four foreign cultivars Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Perlette and Black seedless,This study was carried out as –randomized complete blocks design -with-four replications in the Kahriz Horticulture Research station -.A total of 30 adult leaves per cultivar were

  3. Wilson lines for AdS5 black strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristov, Kiril; Katmadas, Stefanos

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple method of extending AdS 5 black string solutions of 5d gauged supergravity in a supersymmetric way by addition of Wilson lines along a circular direction in space. When this direction is chosen along the string, and due to the specific form of 5d supergravity that features Chern-Simons terms, the existence of magnetic charges automatically generates conserved electric charges in a 5d analogue of the Witten effect. Therefore we find a rather generic, model-independent way of adding electric charges to already existing solutions with no backreaction from the geometry or breaking of any symmetry. We use this method to explicitly write down more general versions of the Benini-Bobev black strings (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.061601, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2013)005) and comment on the implications for the dual field theory and the similarities with generalizations of the Cacciatori-Klemm black holes (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2010)085) in AdS 4 .

  4. Interaction between genes and macronutrient intake on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes: systematic review and findings from European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sherly X; Imamura, Fumiaki; Ye, Zheng; Schulze, Matthias B; Zheng, Jusheng; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Agudo, Antonio; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Katzke, Verena A; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Mancini, Francesca R; Navarro, Carmen; Nilsson, Peter M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke Mw; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Sharp, Stephen J; Riboli, Elio; Langenberg, Claudia; Scott, Robert A; Forouhi, Nita G; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2017-07-01

    Background: Gene-diet interactions have been reported to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to our knowledge, few examples have been consistently replicated to date. Objective: We aimed to identify existing evidence for gene-macronutrient interactions and T2D and to examine the reported interactions in a large-scale study. Design: We systematically reviewed studies reporting gene-macronutrient interactions and T2D. We searched the MEDLINE, Human Genome Epidemiology Network, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform electronic databases to identify studies published up to October 2015. Eligibility criteria included assessment of macronutrient quantity (e.g., total carbohydrate) or indicators of quality (e.g., dietary fiber) by use of self-report or objective biomarkers of intake. Interactions identified in the review were subsequently examined in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer)-InterAct case-cohort study ( n = 21,148, with 9403 T2D cases; 8 European countries). Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to estimate country-specific HRs, 95% CIs, and P -interaction values, which were then pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. A primary model was fitted by using the same covariates as reported in the published studies, and a second model adjusted for additional covariates and estimated the effects of isocaloric macronutrient substitution. Results: Thirteen observational studies met the eligibility criteria ( n gene-macronutrient interactions were identified for the risk of T2D from the literature. These interactions were not replicated in the EPIC-InterAct study, which mirrored the analyses undertaken in the original reports. Our findings highlight the importance of independent replication of reported interactions.

  5. Fermionic currents in AdS spacetime with compact dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, S.; Saharian, A. A.; Vardanyan, V.

    2017-09-01

    We derive a closed expression for the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the fermionic current density in a (D +1 )-dimensional locally AdS spacetime with an arbitrary number of toroidally compactified Poincaré spatial dimensions and in the presence of a constant gauge field. The latter can be formally interpreted in terms of a magnetic flux treading the compact dimensions. In the compact subspace, the field operator obeys quasiperiodicity conditions with arbitrary phases. The VEV of the charge density is zero and the current density has nonzero components along the compact dimensions only. They are periodic functions of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum and tend to zero on the AdS boundary. Near the horizon, the effect of the background gravitational field is small and the leading term in the corresponding asymptotic expansion coincides with the VEV for a massless field in the locally Minkowski bulk. Unlike the Minkowskian case, in the system consisting of an equal number of fermionic and scalar degrees of freedom, with same masses, charges and phases in the periodicity conditions, the total current density does not vanish. In these systems, the leading divergences in the scalar and fermionic contributions on the horizon are canceled and, as a consequence of that, the charge flux, integrated over the coordinate perpendicular to the AdS boundary, becomes finite. We show that in odd spacetime dimensions the fermionic fields realizing two inequivalent representations of the Clifford algebra and having equal phases in the periodicity conditions give the same contribution to the VEV of the current density. Combining the contributions from these fields, the current density in odd-dimensional C -,P - and T -symmetric models are obtained. As an application, we consider the ground state current density in curved carbon nanotubes described in terms of a (2 +1 )-dimensional effective Dirac model.

  6. Bjorken flow from an AdS Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsup, James; Siopsis, George

    2008-04-01

    We consider a large black hole in asymptotically AdS spacetime of arbitrary dimension with a Minkowski boundary. By performing an appropriate slicing as we approach the boundary, we obtain via holographic renormalization a gauge theory fluid obeying Bjorken hydrodynamics in the limit of large longitudinal proper time. The metric we obtain reproduces to leading order the metric recently found as a direct solution of the Einstein equations in five dimensions. Our results are also in agreement with recent exact results in three dimensions.

  7. Scalar charges in asymptotic AdS geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Shan, E-mail: hsliu.zju@gmail.com [Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); Lü, H., E-mail: mrhonglu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-03-07

    We show that for n-dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field with mass-squared m{sub 0}{sup 2}=−n(n−2)/(4ℓ{sup 2}), the first law of thermodynamics of (charged) AdS black holes will be modified by the boundary conditions of the scalar field at asymptotic infinity. Such scalars can arise in gauged supergravities in four and six dimensions, but not in five or seven. The result provides a guiding principle for constructing designer black holes and solitons in general dimensions, where the properties of the dual field theories depend on the boundary conditions.

  8. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-03-01

    Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5 h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations.

  9. Introducing ADS 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  10. AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-06-05

    In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.

  11. The PredictAD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antila, Kari; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    can be managed. Today the significance of early and precise diagnosis of AD is emphasized in order to minimize its irreversible effects on the nervous system. When new drugs and therapies enter the market it is also vital to effectively identify the right candidates to benefit from these. The main...... objective of the PredictAD project was to find and integrate efficient biomarkers from heterogeneous patient data to make early diagnosis and to monitor the progress of AD in a more efficient, reliable and objective manner. The project focused on discovering biomarkers from biomolecular data...... candidates and implement the framework in software. The results are currently used in several research projects, licensed to commercial use and being tested for clinical use in several trials....

  12. Facilities Management and Added Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims to present different models of the concept of the added value of Facilities Management (FM), including the FM Value Map, which forms the basis of research group in EuroFM, and to present some of the results of this research collaboration. Approach and methodology: The paper...... is based on literature reviews of the most influential journals within the academic fields of FM, Corporate Real Estate Management and Business to Business Marketing and discussions between participants of the research group working on a further exploration and testing of the FM Value Map. Conclusions......: The research shows a number of different definitions and focus points of Added Value of FM, dependent on the academic field and the area of application. The different research perspectives explored a holistic view on the added value of FM by the integration of an external market based view (with a focus...

  13. Smooth causal patches for AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Suvrat

    2017-06-01

    We review the paradox of low energy excitations of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space (AdS). An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than k T cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position-space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analysis, we show how this resolves the "Born rule" paradox of Marolf and Polchinski [J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 008, 10.1007/JHEP01(2016)008] and we verify our solution using an independent calculation. We then consider boundary states that are finely tuned to display a spontaneous excitation outside the causal patch of the infalling observer, and we propose a version of causal patch complementarity in AdS/CFT that resolves the paradox for such states as well.

  14. ADS-B in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bjarke Gosvig; Jensen, Morten; Birklykke, Alex

    2014-01-01

    them to the terrestrial receivers. This paper gives an overview of the GATOSS mission and of its highly-sensitive ADS-B software-defined radio receiver payload. Details of the design and implementation of the receiver's decoder are introduced. The first real-life, space-based results show that ADS......-B signals are indeed successfully received in space and retransmitted to a terrestrial station by the GATOSS nano-satellite orbiting at 700+ km altitudes, thus showing that GATOSS is capable of tracking flights, including transoceanic ones, from space....

  15. Efeito da adubação fosfatada sobre o crescimento e teor de macronutrientes de mudas de pinhão manso Phosphorus fertilization on growth and contents of macronutrients in Jatropha curcas seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A adição de fósforo na composição do substrato para produção de mudas ajuda as raízes e as plântulas a crescerem mais rapidamente, aumenta a resistência aos estresses ambientais e doenças e melhora ainda a eficiência no uso de nutrientes e da água em várias espécies vegetais. Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar o efeito da adição de superfosfato simples no substrato sobre o crescimento e teor foliar de macronutrientes de mudas de pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas. O substrato contendo material de solo e composto de lixo recebeu as doses de 0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10 e 12,5 kg m-3 de superfosfato simples. As mudas foram avaliadas 30 dias após o plantio. O crescimento máximo das plantas de pinhão manso foi observado com a adição de superfosfato simples ao substrato em doses estimadas na faixa de 5 a 8 kg m-3 de substrato. O fertilizante fosfatado favoreceu o crescimento principalmente de raízes e área foliar e propiciou aumento do teor de todos os macronutrientes no tecido vegetal, exceto o cálcio.The addition of phosphorous to the substrate for the production of seedlings promotes faster growth of both root and shoots, increases tolerance to environmental stress and diseases, and even improves the efficiency of nutrient and water use in several plant species. This experiment aimed to study the effect of the addition of simple superphosphate to the substrate on the growth and macronutrient levels in the contents of seedlings of Jatropha curcas. A substrate containing soil and urban-waste compost was modified by the addition of simple superphosphate in 0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 and 12.5 kg m-3 amounts. The seedlings were evaluated 30 days after planting. Maximum growth of the Jatropha plants was observed for the simple superphosphate added in estimated amounts in the range of 5 to 8 kg m-3. The phosphorus fertilization especially favored the growth of leaf-area and roots, and promoted increase in contents of all macronutrient except

  16. Interaction between genes and macronutrient intake on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes: systematic review and findings from European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sherly X; Imamura, Fumiaki; Ye, Zheng; Schulze, Matthias B; Zheng, Jusheng; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Agudo, Antonio; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Katzke, Verena A; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Mancini, Francesca R; Navarro, Carmen; Nilsson, Peter M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Sharp, Stephen J; Riboli, Elio; Langenberg, Claudia; Scott, Robert A; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gene-diet interactions have been reported to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to our knowledge, few examples have been consistently replicated to date. Objective: We aimed to identify existing evidence for gene-macronutrient interactions and T2D and to examine the reported interactions in a large-scale study. Design: We systematically reviewed studies reporting gene-macronutrient interactions and T2D. We searched the MEDLINE, Human Genome Epidemiology Network, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform electronic databases to identify studies published up to October 2015. Eligibility criteria included assessment of macronutrient quantity (e.g., total carbohydrate) or indicators of quality (e.g., dietary fiber) by use of self-report or objective biomarkers of intake. Interactions identified in the review were subsequently examined in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer)-InterAct case-cohort study (n = 21,148, with 9403 T2D cases; 8 European countries). Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to estimate country-specific HRs, 95% CIs, and P-interaction values, which were then pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. A primary model was fitted by using the same covariates as reported in the published studies, and a second model adjusted for additional covariates and estimated the effects of isocaloric macronutrient substitution. Results: Thirteen observational studies met the eligibility criteria (n < 1700 cases). Eight unique interactions were reported to be significant between macronutrients [carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, dietary fiber, and glycemic load derived from self-report of dietary intake and circulating n–3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids] and genetic variants in or near transcription factor 7–like 2 (TCF7L2), gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR), caveolin 2 (CAV2), and peptidase D (PEPD) (P-interaction < 0.05). We found no evidence of interaction when we

  17. Black holes as bubbles of AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Giri, S.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we propose that bubbles of AdS within Minkowski spacetime, stabilized at a finite radius by stiff matter and an electromagnetic gas, can be an alternative endpoint of gravitational collapse. The bubbles are horizonless with a size up to 12.5% larger than their Schwarzschild radius depending on their charge. We argue that they are stable against small perturbations, and have thermodynamical properties similar to those of real black holes. We provide a realization of the bubbles within string theory that relies on a specific brane intersection giving rise to a shell carrying dissolved charges from lower dimensional D-branes as well as a gas of open strings. We also note that our construction provides a new way of understanding the entropy of Reissner-Nordström black holes in the extremal limit.

  18. Colliding waves on a string in AdS$_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the classical motion of a string in global AdS$_3$. The initially static string stretches between two antipodal points on the boundary circle. Both endpoints are perturbed which creates cusps at a steady rate. The cusps propagate towards the interior where they collide. The behavior of the string depends on the strength of forcing. Three qualitatively different phases can be distinguished: transparent, gray, and black. The transparent region is analogous to a standing wave. In the black phase, there is a horizon on the worldsheet and cusps never reach the other endpoint. The string keeps folding and its length grows linearly over time. In the gray phase, the string still grows linearly. However, cusps do cross to the other side. The transparent and gray regions are separated by a transition point where a logarithmic accumulation of cusps is numerically observed. A simple model reproduces the qualitative behavior of the string in the three phases.

  19. Superconformal interpretation of BPS states in AdS geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Ferrara, Sergio; Sokatchev, Emery

    2001-01-01

    We carry out a general analysis of the representations of the superconformal algebras SU(2,2/N), OSp(8/4,R) and OSp(8^*/4) and give their realization in superspace. We present a construction of their UIR's by multiplication of the different types of massless superfields ("supersingletons"). Particular attention is paid to the so-called "short multiplets". Representations undergoing shortening have "protected dimension" and correspond to BPS states in the dual supergravity theory in anti-de Sitter space. These results are relevant for the classification of multitrace operators in boundary conformally invariant theories as well as for the classification of AdS black holes preserving different fractions of supersymmetry.

  20. Higher-derivative superparticle in AdS3 space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-03-01

    Employing the coset approach we construct component actions for a superparticle moving in AdS3 with N =(2 ,0 ), D =3 supersymmetry partially broken to N =2 , d =1 . These actions may contain higher time-derivative terms, which are chosen to possess the same (super)symmetries as the free superparticle. In terms of the nonlinear-realization superfields, the component actions always take a simpler form when written in terms of covariant Cartan forms. We also consider in detail the reduction to the nonrelativistic case and construct the corresponding action of a Newton-Hooke superparticle and its higher-derivative generalizations. The structure of these higher time-derivative generalizations is completely fixed by invariance under the supersymmetric Newton-Hooke algebra extended by two central charges.

  1. Massless AdS 2 scattering and Bethe ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, A.; Torrielli, A.

    2017-09-01

    We first analyse the integrable scattering theory describing the massless excitations of AdS 2 × S 2 × T 6 superstrings in the relativistic limit. The matrix part of the S-matrix is obtained in the BMN limit from the conjectured exact expression, and compared to known S-matrices with N=1 supersymmetry in 1 + 1 dimensions. A dressing factor, yet unknown for the complete theory, is here constructed based on relativistic crossing symmetry. We derive a Bethe-ansatz condition by employing a transfer-matrix technique based on the so-called free-fermion condition. This is known to overcome the problem of lack of a reference state. We then generalise the method to the massless non-relativistic case, and compare the resulting Bethe-ansatz condition with a simple massless limit of the one conjectured by Sorokin, Tseytlin, Wulff and Zarembo.

  2. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS 2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2015)014 and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  3. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasobh, C.B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V.C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)

  4. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinsky, A.O.

    2015-01-01

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality can be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem from the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous $O(N^0)$ tests of AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large $N$ CFT coupled to the tower of higher spin gauge fields for t...

  5. Potential link between excess added sugar intake and ectopic fat: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiantao; Karlsen, Micaela C.; Chung, Mei; Jacques, Paul F.; Saltzman, Edward; Smith, Caren E.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat accumulation is a subject of debate. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the potential effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat depots. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts, CAB Global Health, and EBM (Evidence-Based Medicine) Reviews – Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for studies published from 1973 to September 2014. Data Extraction: RCTs with a minimum of 6 days’ duration of added sugar exposure in the intervention group were selected. The dosage of added sugar intake as a percentage of total energy was extracted or calculated. Means and standard deviations of pre- and post-test measurements or changes in ectopic fat depots were collected. Data Synthesis: Fourteen RCTs were included. Most of the studies had a medium to high risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with eucaloric controls, subjects who consumed added sugar under hypercaloric conditions likely increased ectopic fat, particularly in the liver (pooled standardized mean difference = 0.9 [95%CI, 0.6–1.2], n = 6) and muscles (pooled SMD = 0.6 [95%CI, 0.2–1.0], n = 4). No significant difference was observed in liver fat, visceral adipose tissue, or muscle fat when isocaloric intakes of different sources of added sugars were compared. Conclusions: Data from a limited number of RCTs suggest that excess added sugar intake under hypercaloric diet conditions likely increases ectopic fat depots, particularly in the liver and in muscle fat. There are insufficient data to compare the effect of different sources of added sugars on ectopic fat deposition or to compare intake of added sugar with intakes of other macronutrients. Future well-designed RCTs with sufficient power and duration are needed to address the role of sugars on ectopic fat deposition. PMID:26518034

  6. The influence of the selection of macronutrients coupled with dietary energy density on the performance of broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Y Liu

    Full Text Available A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period. There were no differences between starch and protein intakes between choice and sequentially fed birds (P > 0.05 when broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch, protein and lipid concentrations. When broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch and protein but similar lipid concentrations, both sequentially and choice fed birds selected similar ratios of starch and protein intake (P > 0.05. However, when broiler chickens selected from diets with different protein and lipid but similar starch concentrations, choice fed birds had higher lipid intake (129 versus 118 g/bird, P = 0.027 and selected diets with lower protein concentrations (258 versus 281 g/kg, P = 0.042 than birds offered sequential diet options. Choice fed birds had greater intakes of the high energy diet (1471 g/bird, P < 0.0001 than low energy (197 g/bird or medium energy diets (663 g/bird whilst broiler chickens were offered diets with different energy densities but high crude protein (300 g/kg or digestible lysine (17.5 g/kg concentrations. Choice fed birds had lower FCR (1.217 versus 1.327 g/g, P < 0.0001 and higher carcass yield (88.1 versus 87.3%, P = 0.012 than sequentially fed birds. This suggests that the dietary balance between protein and energy is essential for optimal feed conversion efficiency. The intake path

  7. Dietary macronutrients and feeding frequency affect fasting and postprandial concentrations of hormones involved in appetite regulation in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbs, D C; Vester Boler, B M; Ridge, T K; Spears, J K; Graves, T K; Swanson, K S

    2010-12-01

    Identifying dietary effects on appetite-regulating hormones will enhance our understanding of appetite control. Before complex diets are tested, effects of specific macronutrients or feeding frequency should be identified. The objectives of this nutrition study were to identify differences in endocrine response with feeding frequency (Exp. 1) and after a single dose of a sole macronutrient (Exp. 2). A control diet supplying similar energy content from carbohydrate, protein, and fat was fed to maintain ideal BW. In Exp. 1, 8 healthy adult (1.9 ± 0.1 yr old) female hound cross dogs with an average BW of 22 kg (4.8 ± 0.8 BCS based on a 9-point scale) were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments (fed once or twice daily) in a crossover design. After a 14-d adaptation period, a blood sample was taken (10 mL) before feeding, and samples were collected every 2 h postprandially for 24 h. In Exp. 2, dogs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. After a 6-d adaptation period, the normal meal on d 7 was replaced with a bolus of maltodextrin (50 g in water; CARB), canned chicken (50 g; PROT), lard (25 g; fat), or water (200 mL). A blood sample (10 mL) was taken at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, and 360 min postprandial. Total ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, and glucose concentrations were measured. Data were analyzed to compare changes from baseline and area under the curve (AUC) among treatments. In Exp. 1, all hormones were quite variable throughout the day, with a few insulin and GLP-1 differences because of feeding frequency. In Exp. 2, CARB produced a marked peak in glucose and insulin concentrations compared with PROT, fat, or water, resulting in increased glucose (P < 0.001) and insulin (P = 0.07) incremental AUC values. On the other hand, the fat treatment led to increased GLP-1 concentrations over time. Ghrelin AUC was not different among treatments. The circulating hormone data were highly

  8. Predicting In vitro Culture Medium Macro-Nutrients Composition for Pear Rootstocks Using Regression Analysis and Neural Network Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, S; Yadollahi, A; Ahmadi, H; Arab, M M; Eftekhari, M

    2016-01-01

    Two modeling techniques [artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) and stepwise regression analysis] were used to predict the effect of medium macro-nutrients on in vitro performance of pear rootstocks (OHF and Pyrodwarf). The ANN-GA described associations between investigating eight macronutrients (NO[Formula: see text], NH[Formula: see text], Ca(2+), K(+), Mg(2+), PO[Formula: see text], SO[Formula: see text], and Cl(-)) and explant growth parameters [proliferation rate (PR), shoot length (SL), shoot tip necrosis (STN), chlorosis (Chl), and vitrification (Vitri)]. ANN-GA revealed a substantially higher accuracy of prediction than for regression models. According to the ANN-GA results, among the input variables concentrations (mM), NH[Formula: see text] (301.7), and NO[Formula: see text], NH[Formula: see text] (64), SO[Formula: see text] (54.1), K(+) (40.4), and NO[Formula: see text] (35.1) in OHF and Ca(2+) (23.7), NH[Formula: see text] (10.7), NO[Formula: see text] (9.1), NH[Formula: see text] (317.6), and NH[Formula: see text] (79.6) in Pyrodwarf had the highest values of VSR in data set, respectively, for PR, SL, STN, Chl, and Vitri. The ANN-GA showed that media containing (mM) 62.5 NO[Formula: see text], 5.7 NH[Formula: see text], 2.7 Ca(2+), 31.5 K(+), 3.3 Mg(2+), 2.6 PO[Formula: see text], 5.6 SO[Formula: see text], and 3.5 Cl(-) could lead to optimal PR for OHF and optimal PR for Pyrodwarf may be obtained with media containing 25.6 NO[Formula: see text], 13.1 NH[Formula: see text], 5.5 Ca(2+), 35.7 K(+), 1.5 Mg(2+), 2.1 PO[Formula: see text], 3.6 SO[Formula: see text], and 3 Cl(-).

  9. Influence of pork and pork by-products on macronutrient and energy digestibility and palatability in large exotic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iske, C J; Morris, C L; Kappen, K L

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos. Ten exotic felids were used including cheetahs (; 3), jaguars (; = 3), leopards (; 2), puma (; 1), and Bengal tiger (; 1). Dietary treatments consisted of 4 raw meat diets: 1 horse-based (Horse), 2 beef-based (B1, B2), and 1 pork-based diet (Pork). Fecal scores also were evaluated (1 = hard to 5 = watery/liquid). This randomized crossover design study consisted of 4 periods, each 10 d for treatment adaptation followed by 4 d of sample collection. Dry matter and crude protein apparent digestibility values were greater ( < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (88.0 and 95.7%) compared with felids fed Horse (83.6 and 92.7%) and B2 (85.6 and 93.1%). Apparent organic matter digestibility was greater ( < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (90.8%) than felids fed Horse (88.5%). Apparent fat digestibility values were high across all treatments but were greater ( < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (98.5%) compared with felids fed B1 (95.5%) or B2 (96.5%). Gross energy digestibility values were greater in felids fed Pork (92.4%) compared with B1 (90.2%). Average fecal scores were 2.30, 2.94, 3.42, and 3.54 for Horse, Pork, B1 and B2, respectively; and were different ( < 0.05) between treatments with exception of B1 and B2 that did not differ. Felids approached the pork

  10. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.

    2002-01-01

    -reporting increased by BMI in both sexes and by age in men. Conclusions: Energy and macronutrient intake data collected under even conditions by either a 7 day food record or a diet history interview may be collapsed and analysed independent of the underlying diet method. Both diet methods, however, appear......Objective: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). Design...... record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages...

  11. Neutronic design of an ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintas, A; Lopasso, E.M; Marquez Damian, J.I

    2009-01-01

    We present a LEU-ADS design based on an existing Argentine experimental facility, the RA-8 pool type zero power reactor. The versatility of this reactor allows measurement of different core configurations using different fuel enrichment, burnable poison rods, water perturbations and different control rods types in critical or subcritical configurations with an external source. To assess the feasibility of the LEU-ADS, multiplication factors, kinetic parameters, spectra, and time flux evolution were computed. Two external sources were considered: an isotopic 252 C f source, and a D-D pulsed neutron source. Parameters for different core configurations were calculated, and the feasibility of using continuous and pulsed neutron sources was verified. [es

  12. The Effects of a Normal Rate versus a Slow Intervalled Rate of Oral Nutrient Intake and Intravenous Low Rate Macronutrient Application on Psychophysical Function – Two Pilot Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Denzer-Lippmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stomach distension and energy per time are factors influencing satiety. Moreover, different rates of nutrient intake induce different stomach distension. The goal of our studies was to elucidate the influence of different oral rates of nutrient intake (normal rate versus slow intervalled rate; study I and intravenous low rate macronutrient application (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo (study II on psychophysical function. The pilot studies investigated the effects of 1 study I: a mixed nutrient solution (1/3 protein, 1/3 fat, 1/3 carbohydrates 2 study II: intravenous macronutrient infusions (protein, carbohydrate, fat or placebo on psychophysical function (mood, hunger, food craving, alertness, smell intensity ratings and hedonic ratings in human subjects. In study I 10 male subjects (age range: 21–30 years completed the study protocol participating in both test conditions and in study II 20 male subjects (age range: 19–41 years completed the study protocol participating in all test conditions. Additionally, metabolic function was analyzed and cognitive and olfactory tests were conducted twice starting 100 min before the beginning of the intervention and 240 min after. Psychophysical (mood, hunger, fat-, protein-, carbohydrate-, sweets- and vegetable-craving, alertness and metabolic function tests were performed seven times on each examination day. Greater effects on hunger and food cravings were observed for normal rate of intake compared to slow intervalled rate of intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application. Our findings potentially confirm that volume of the food ingested and a higher rate of energy per time contribute to satiety during normal rate of food intake, while slow intervalled rate of food intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application showed no effects on satiation. Our results motivate the view that a certain amount of volume of the food ingested and a certain energy per time ratio are necessary

  13. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  14. The excesive intake of macronutrients: does it influence the sportive performances of young cyclists? La excesiva ingesta de macronutrientes: ¿influye en el rendimiento deportivo de jóvenes ciclistas?

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Sánchez-Benito; E. Sánchez Soriano

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to determine whether 34 young Spanish males belonging to a cyclist team, follows the optimal macronutrients intake based on the ecommended dietary guidelines. The deficits in nutrition jeopardise the sportive performances, but what about the diets with excessive intake of macronutrients? Furthermore, is there an association between their sportive achievements and the psychological profile? Surely, but the problem is to determine which psychological variables are involved. Meth...

  15. Predicting Species-Resolved Macronutrient Acquisition during Succession in a Model Phototrophic Biofilm Using an Integrated ‘Omics Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, Stephen R.; Mobberley, Jennifer M.; Cole, Jessica K.; Markillie, L. M.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Huang, Eric; Chrisler, William B.; Wiley, H. S.; Lipton, Mary S.; Nelson, William C.; Fredrickson, James K.; Romine, Margaret F.

    2017-06-13

    The principles governing acquisition and interspecies exchange of nutrients in microbial communities and how those exchanges impact community productivity are poorly understood. Here, we examine energy and macronutrient acquisition in unicyanobacterial consortia for which species-resolved genome information exists for all members, allowing us to use multi-omic approaches to predict species’ abilities to acquire resources and examine expression of resource-acquisition genes during succession. Metabolic reconstruction indicated that a majority of heterotrophic community members lacked the genes required to directly acquire the inorganic nutrients provided in culture medium, suggesting high metabolic interdependency. The sole primary producer in consortium UCC-O, cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. OSCR, displayed declining expression of energy harvest, carbon fixation, and nitrate and sulfate reduction proteins but sharply increasing phosphate transporter expression over 28 days. Most heterotrophic members likewise exhibited signs of phosphorus starvation during succession. Though similar in their responses to phosphorus limitation, heterotrophs displayed species-specific expression of nitrogen acquisition genes. These results suggest niche partitioning around nitrogen sources may structure the community when organisms directly compete for limited phosphate. Such niche complementarity around nitrogen sources may increase community diversity and productivity in phosphate-limited phototrophic communities.

  16. Toxic metal, micro and macronutrient assessment in fish most consumed by Iguape community, Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Vieira, Andre S.; Bordon, Isabella C.A.C.; Farias, Luciana A.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that, fish is an important source of protein for populations around the world. As such, fish consumption has increased because it is a healthy and low cholesterol source of protein and other nutrients. The city of Iguape, in the extreme south of the Sao Paulo State coast, is located in a well-preserved Atlantic Forest region. During the last two centuries the city suffered from drastic environmental changes, reinforcing the importance of environmental monitoring in this region. In the present study, 23 samples of the three most consumed fish species by the Iguape city population were analyzed. Fish samples were bought at local markets, conditioned in isothermic boxes in crushed ice (-4 deg C) and then identified before registering the biometric information (total length, total weight and body weight). The following micro and macronutrients As, Br, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn concentration in muscle from 02 predatory fish species Macrodon ancylodon (King weakfish - Pescada) and Centropomus parallelus (Fat snook - Robalo peba) and one detritivorus species: Anchoviella lepidentostole (Broadband anchovy - Manjuba) were assessed by INAA. Toxic metals Cd, Hg and Pb were also evaluated by AAS. Statistical correlation between element concentrations and fish species were tested. (author)

  17. Toxic metal, micro and macronutrient assessment in fish most consumed by Iguape community, Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Vieira, Andre S.; Bordon, Isabella C.A.C., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br, E-mail: isabella.bordon@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Farias, Luciana A., E-mail: lufarias2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2013-07-01

    It is well-known that, fish is an important source of protein for populations around the world. As such, fish consumption has increased because it is a healthy and low cholesterol source of protein and other nutrients. The city of Iguape, in the extreme south of the Sao Paulo State coast, is located in a well-preserved Atlantic Forest region. During the last two centuries the city suffered from drastic environmental changes, reinforcing the importance of environmental monitoring in this region. In the present study, 23 samples of the three most consumed fish species by the Iguape city population were analyzed. Fish samples were bought at local markets, conditioned in isothermic boxes in crushed ice (-4 deg C) and then identified before registering the biometric information (total length, total weight and body weight). The following micro and macronutrients As, Br, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn concentration in muscle from 02 predatory fish species Macrodon ancylodon (King weakfish - Pescada) and Centropomus parallelus (Fat snook - Robalo peba) and one detritivorus species: Anchoviella lepidentostole (Broadband anchovy - Manjuba) were assessed by INAA. Toxic metals Cd, Hg and Pb were also evaluated by AAS. Statistical correlation between element concentrations and fish species were tested. (author)

  18. Determination of toxic metals, trace and essentials, and macronutrients in Sarpa salpa and Chelon labrosus: risk assessment for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Aridani; Gutiérrez, Angel J; Lozano, Gonzalo; González-Weller, Dailos; Rubio, Carmen; Caballero, José M; Hardisson, Arturo; Revert, Consuelo

    2017-04-01

    Due to increased environmental pollution, monitoring of contaminants in the environment and marine organisms is a fundamental tool for assessing the existence of risk from their consumption to human health. The levels of toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Al), trace and essential metals (B, Ba, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, V, and Zn), and macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg, Na) in two species of fish for human consumption were quantified in the present study. Eighty samples of muscle tissue and 80 samples of liver tissue belonging to two species of Osteichthyes fish; Sarpa salpa and Chelon labrosus were analyzed. The studied specimens were caught on the northern coast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) with fishing rods. As they caught from the shore, they are suitable samples for assessing the toxic levels of representative species caught by local amateur fishermen. The results show that both species are fit for human consumption since they have toxic levels of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Al) which are below the maximum established levels; however, the toxic levels of the liver samples are several orders of magnitude higher than the muscle samples, so we discourage their regular consumption. The risk assessment indicated that the two species of fish are safe for the average consumer; however, if the livers of these species are consumed, there could be risks because they exceed the PTWI for Pb and the TWI for Cd.

  19. [Relationship between macronutrient and micronutrient intake and nutritional status of active older adults in Chillán, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón, Verónica; Rodríguez, Alejandra; Cuadra, Ivonne; Flores, Carolina; Sandoval, Paulina

    Social participation by older adults is a health-protective element that promotes a normal nutritional status through the intake of appropriate nutrients that favour successful aging. A cross-sectional analytical study was performed on a sample of 118 older adults. Food intake was measured using a 24-h recall questionnaire. The body mass index was used to evaluate the nutritional status. The information was analysed using uni- and bivariate descriptive statistics. Given the abnormal distribution of the responses, the Mann-Whitney and Kolgomorov-Smirnov statistical test were used to compare data at the significance level α=0.05. More than half (55%) of the women and 61% of men had a normal nutritional status. The calories and macronutrient intake were within the recommended ranges and unrelated to the nutritional status (P>.05). The micronutrients showed significant differences in relation to the nutritional status, broken down by gender and age, in the majority of vitamins and minerals. (P>.01). The group between 75-90 years old accomplished the recommended dietary allowance in every case. The active participation in organised community groups, the educational level of the older adults, and higher income, could be key factors to explain the good nutritional status of the group, and appears to be a good indicator of healthy aging. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Population variance in prey, diets and their macronutrient composition in an endangered marine predator, the Franciscana dolphin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denuncio, Pablo; Paso Viola, Maria N.; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.; Raubenheimer, David; Blasina, Gabriela; Machado, Rodrigo; Polizzi, Paula; Gerpe, Marcela; Cappozzo, Humberto L.; Rodriguez, Diego H.

    2017-11-01

    Disentangling the intricacies governing dietary breadth in wild predators is important for understanding their role in structuring ecological communities and provides critical information for the management and conservation of ecologically threatened species. Here we combined dietary analysis, nutritional composition analysis of prey, literature data and nutritional geometry (right-angled mixture triangle models -RMT-) to examine the diet of the most threatened small cetacean in the western South Atlantic Ocean, the Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei). We applied a recently developed extension of niche theory based on the RMT to help understand the dietary strategies of this species. Our results showed that across their range the Franciscanas consumed prey with variable protein-to-lipid energy ratios (LMM, p dolphins sub-populations, which recent genetic evidence suggest should be differentiated into three management units, have diets with different protein energy and water mass compositions, but similar protein-to-lipid energy ratios. Furthermore, dolphins from the three areas mixed different combinations of prey in their diets to achieve the observed macronutrient ratios. These results suggest that the different habitats that each sub-population occupies (estuarine, north marine area and south marine) might be associated with different prey composition niches, but similar realized nutritional niches. Future priorities are to better comprehend possible geographical and long-term seasonal effects on prey consumption and dietary breadth of the different Franciscana populations to identify potential impacts (environmental and human-related), enhance the current management strategies to protect this endangered marine predator.

  1. Predicting Species-Resolved Macronutrient Acquisition during Succession in a Model Phototrophic Biofilm Using an Integrated ‘Omics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Lindemann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The principles governing acquisition and interspecies exchange of nutrients in microbial communities and how those exchanges impact community productivity are poorly understood. Here, we examine energy and macronutrient acquisition in unicyanobacterial consortia for which species-resolved genome information exists for all members, allowing us to use multi-omic approaches to predict species’ abilities to acquire resources and examine expression of resource-acquisition genes during succession. Metabolic reconstruction indicated that a majority of heterotrophic community members lacked the genes required to directly acquire the inorganic nutrients provided in culture medium, suggesting high metabolic interdependency. The sole primary producer in consortium UCC-O, cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. OSCR, displayed declining expression of energy harvest, carbon fixation, and nitrate and sulfate reduction proteins but sharply increasing phosphate transporter expression over 28 days. Most heterotrophic members likewise exhibited signs of phosphorus starvation during succession. Though similar in their responses to phosphorus limitation, heterotrophs displayed species-specific expression of nitrogen acquisition genes. These results suggest niche partitioning around nitrogen sources may structure the community when organisms directly compete for limited phosphate. Such niche complementarity around nitrogen sources may increase community diversity and productivity in phosphate-limited phototrophic communities.

  2. Fiber fermentability effects on energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal traits, postprandial metabolite responses, and colon histology of overweight cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M M; Kessler, A M; de Sá, L R M; Vasconcellos, R S; Filho, F O Roberti; Nogueira, S P; Oliveira, M C C; Carciofi, A C

    2012-07-01

    Considering the different potential benefits of divergent fiber ingredients, the effect of 3 fiber sources on energy and macronutrient digestibility, fermentation product formation, postprandial metabolite responses, and colon histology of overweight cats (Felis catus) fed kibble diets was compared. Twenty-four healthy adult cats were assigned in a complete randomized block design to 2 groups of 12 animals, and 3 animals from each group were fed 1 of 4 of the following kibble diets: control (CO; 11.5% dietary fiber), beet pulp (BP; 26% dietary fiber), wheat bran (WB; 24% dietary fiber), and sugarcane fiber (SF; 28% dietary fiber). Digestibility was measured by the total collection of feces. After 16 d of diet adaptation and an overnight period without food, blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride postprandial responses were evaluated for 16 h after continued exposure to food. On d 20, colon biopsies of the cats were collected under general anesthesia. Fiber addition reduced food energy and nutrient digestibility. Of all the fiber sources, SF had the least dietary fiber digestibility (P fiber solubility and fermentation rates, fiber sources can induce different physiological responses in cats, reduce energy digestibility, and favor glucose metabolism (SF), or improve gut health (BP).

  3. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  4. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Isaksson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day and a nibbling (seven meals per day meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  5. Secular Trends in Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Distribution among Adult Females (1991–2015: Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid nutrition transition in China, dietary intake and nutritional status of women has gained more and more attention in the past decades. This study aimed to investigate temporal trends of total energy and macronutrient intakes among Chinese adult females. The longitudinal data are from the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS, 1991–2015. Information on the intake of energy and macronutrient was obtained from consecutive three-day dietary recall techniques and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI. Mixed-effect models were performed to evaluate temporal trends of total energy and macronutrient intake. From 1991 to 2015, a significant reduction in daily energy, protein and carbohydrate intakes was seen among all adult females (p < 0.001. Daily fat intake, the proportion of energy from fat, the proportion of females consuming more than 30% of energy from fat and less than 50% of energy from carbohydrate were observed significant increment in the present study (p < 0.001. In 2015, the proportion met the DRI for energy and protein intakes were 47.0% and 48.0%, respectively; the proportion with lower carbohydrate and higher fat intakes compare with the DRI were 45.5% and 66.9%, respectively. Further nutritional education and policy interventions still needed to improve nutrition status for Chinese females.

  6. Food Sources of Energy and Macronutrient Intakes among Infants from 6 to 12 Months of Age: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Xuan Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother–offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760, 9 (n = 893 and 12 (n = 907 months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology. Energy intakes per day (kcal; mean (standard deviation, SD of these infants were 640 (158 at 6 months, 675 (173 at 9 months, and 761 (208 at 12 months. Infant formula, breastmilk and infant cereals were the top three food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes in infants through the period 6 to 12 months. Other main energy and carbohydrate sources at 9 and 12 months of age were rice porridge, infant biscuits and fresh fruits, while fish, red meat and eggs were the other main protein and total fat sources. Breast-fed and mixed-fed infants had a more varied diet as compared to formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants had consistently higher protein and lower total fat consumption compared to those who were breastfed. An understanding of these main food sources during complementary feeding can inform local dietary recommendations and policies.

  7. Food Sources of Energy and Macronutrient Intakes among Infants from 6 to 12 Months of Age: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shan-Xuan; Toh, Jia-Ying; Han, Wee-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Yap, Fabian; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2018-01-01

    Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother–offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology. Energy intakes per day (kcal; mean (standard deviation, SD)) of these infants were 640 (158) at 6 months, 675 (173) at 9 months, and 761 (208) at 12 months. Infant formula, breastmilk and infant cereals were the top three food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes in infants through the period 6 to 12 months. Other main energy and carbohydrate sources at 9 and 12 months of age were rice porridge, infant biscuits and fresh fruits, while fish, red meat and eggs were the other main protein and total fat sources. Breast-fed and mixed-fed infants had a more varied diet as compared to formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants had consistently higher protein and lower total fat consumption compared to those who were breastfed. An understanding of these main food sources during complementary feeding can inform local dietary recommendations and policies. PMID:29534442

  8. Total Energy Intake May Be More Associated with Glycemic Control Compared to Each Proportion of Macronutrients in the Korean Diabetic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Mi Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMajor macronutrients for energy intake vary among countries and cultures. Carbohydrates, including rice, are the major component of daily energy intake in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the association of daily energy intake or each proportion of macronutrients, especially carbohydrates, with glycemic control in diabetic Koreans.MethodsA total of 334 individuals with diabetes (175 men, age 57.4±0.8 years; 159 women, age 60.9±0.9 years who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. Glycemic control was categorized based on concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; HbA1c ≤6.5%; 6.6% to 8.0%; ≥8.1%. Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24-recall item questionnaire.ResultsHigh total energy intake was associated with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≤6.5%, 1,824±75 kcal; 6.6% to 8.0%, 1,990±57 kcal; ≥8.1%, 2,144±73 kcal; P value for trend=0.002. Each proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate was not associated with glycemic control. Even after adjusting for several parameters, the association of daily energy intake with glycemic control still persisted.ConclusionTotal energy intake may be more closely related to glycemic control than each proportionof macronutrients in Korean diabetics.

  9. F-theory and AdS3/CFT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzens, Christopher; Lawrie, Craig; Martelli, Dario; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Wong, Jin-Mann

    2017-08-01

    We construct supersymmetric AdS3 solutions in F-theory, that is Type IIB supergravity with varying axio-dilaton, which are holographically dual to 2d N=(0,4) superconformal field theories with small superconformal algebra. In F-theory these arise from D3-branes wrapped on curves in the base of an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefold Y 3 and correspond to self-dual strings in the 6d N=(1,0) theory obtained from F-theory on Y 3. The non-trivial fibration over the wrapped curves implies a varying coupling of the N=4 Super-Yang-Mills theory on the D3-branes. We compute the holographic central charges and show that these agree with the field theory and with the anomalies of self-dual strings in 6d. We complement our analysis with a discussion of the dual M-theory solutions and a comparison of the central charges.

  10. Usual Intake of Added Sugars and Saturated Fats Is High while Dietary Fiber Is Low in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olmedo, Nancy; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Espinosa-Montero, Juan; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Campirano, Fabricio; Martínez-Tapia, Brenda; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) was carried out in 2012. Information from the survey is used to design and evaluate food and nutrition policies in Mexico. The objective of this study was to estimate the usual intake of energy and macronutrients in the Mexican population by using the ENSANUT 2012. Twenty-four-hour recall interviews were administered to a nationally representative subsample of 10,096 individuals aged ≥1 y from the ENSANUT 2012. Usual intake distributions and the prevalence of inadequate intakes were estimated by using the Iowa State University method. Student's t tests and tests on the equality of proportions were used to compare usual intakes and prevalence of inadequacy across socioeconomic status, area (rural or urban), and region of residence (North, Center, or South). Energy and macronutrient intakes and indicators of dietary adequacy are presented for children (ages 1-4 y and 5-11 y), adolescents (12-19 y), and adults (≥20 y). At the national level, the estimated mean fiber intake was below the Adequate Intake for all population subgroups, suggesting inadequacies. The estimated proportion with a usual added sugars intake of >10% of total energy intake was >64% in all age groups. The proportion with a usual saturated fat intake of >10% of total energy intake was estimated to be >78% in children, >66% in adolescents, and >50% in adults. Overall, fiber intake was lower and intakes of saturated fat and added sugars were higher in urban compared with rural areas, in the North compared with South regions, and among those with high compared with low socioeconomic status (P 50% of the Mexican population aged ≥1 y. These results highlight the importance of improving the diets of the overall population to reduce the risk of noncommunicable chronic diseases. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Entanglement Entropy of AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Melis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in understanding the entanglement entropy of gravitational configurations for anti-de Sitter gravity in two and three spacetime dimensions using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive simple expressions for the entanglement entropy of two- and three-dimensional black holes. In both cases, the leading term of the entanglement entropy in the large black hole mass expansion reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, whereas the subleading term behaves logarithmically. In particular, for the BTZ black hole the leading term of the entanglement entropy can be obtained from the large temperature expansion of the partition function of a broad class of 2D CFTs on the torus.

  12. Sputnik: ad hoc distributed computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Gunnar; Lausser, Ludwig; Schmid, Florian; Kraus, Johann M; Kestler, Hans A

    2015-04-15

    In bioinformatic applications, computationally demanding algorithms are often parallelized to speed up computation. Nevertheless, setting up computational environments for distributed computation is often tedious. Aim of this project were the lightweight ad hoc set up and fault-tolerant computation requiring only a Java runtime, no administrator rights, while utilizing all CPU cores most effectively. The Sputnik framework provides ad hoc distributed computation on the Java Virtual Machine which uses all supplied CPU cores fully. It provides a graphical user interface for deployment setup and a web user interface displaying the current status of current computation jobs. Neither a permanent setup nor administrator privileges are required. We demonstrate the utility of our approach on feature selection of microarray data. The Sputnik framework is available on Github http://github.com/sysbio-bioinf/sputnik under the Eclipse Public License. hkestler@fli-leibniz.de or hans.kestler@uni-ulm.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Antismoking Ads at the Point of Sale: The Influence of Ad Type and Context on Ad Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Nonnemaker, James; Guillory, Jamie; Shafer, Paul; Parvanta, Sarah; Holloway, John; Farrelly, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Efforts are underway to educate consumers about the dangers of smoking at the point of sale (POS). Research is limited about the efficacy of POS antismoking ads to guide campaign development. This study experimentally tests whether the type of antismoking ad and the context in which ads are viewed influence people's reactions to the ads. A national convenience sample of 7,812 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 39 conditions. Participants viewed one of the four types of antismoking ads (negative health consequences-graphic, negative social consequences-intended emotive, benefits of quitting-informational, benefits of quitting-graphic) in one of the three contexts (alone, next to a cigarette ad, POS tobacco display). We assessed participants' reactions to the ads, including perceived effectiveness, negative emotion, affective dissonance, and motivational reaction. Graphic ads elicited more negative emotion and affective dissonance than benefits of quitting ads. Graphic ads elicited higher perceived effectiveness and more affective dissonance than intended emotive ads. Antismoking ads fared best when viewed alone, and graphic ads were least influenced by the context in which they were viewed. These results suggest that in developing POS campaigns, it is important to consider the competitive pro-tobacco context in which antismoking ads will be viewed.

  14. Macronutrients leaf contents of corn in intercropping with forages of genus Panicum and Urochloa in simultaneous seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tsuzukibashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The planting of crops in degraded pasture areas is a formula used for decades by farmers to recover the productive capacity of pastures and soils. The integrated crop-livestock (ICL consists of different production systems of grains, fibers, wood, meat, milk and agro-deployed in the same area, in intercrop, rotation or succession. Typically this integration mainly involves the planting of grain and pasture in the recovery or deployment. This work aimed to evaluate the macronutrients leaf contents of irrigated corn intercropped with forages of the genus Panicum and Urochloa simultaneously to sown corn. The experiment was conducted at the Farm for Teaching, Research and Extension, Faculty of Engineering - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in Savannah conditions, in experimental area that had a history of no-tillage to 8 years (previous crop corn. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown simultaneously (CTS corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown simultaneously (CMS to corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraes sown simultaneously (CBS corn; Urochloa ruziziensis sown simultaneously (CRS to corn, and corn without intercropping (CWI. The seeds of grasses were sown in spacing of 0.34 m, being sown with a seed drill with disc coulters mounted mechanism for no-tillage system at a depth of 0.03 m. There was no significant difference between the single corn tillage and intercropping with different modalities of forage genus Panicum and Urochloa to the leaf contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg, demonstrating the non-compete forages with corn in a intercrop on the absorption of these nutrients. In respect to S, CTS presented higher content of S foliar when compared to CWI (Table 1. The absorption of nutrients by corn are not affect by the intercrop with forages of the genus Panicum and Urochloa, in simultaneously sown.

  15. Simultaneous determination of macronutrients, micronutrients and trace elements in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Souza, Sidnei; da Costa, Silvânio Silvério Lopes; Santos, Dayane Melo; dos Santos Pinto, Jéssica; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method for simultaneous determination of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Na and P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Pb and V) in mineral fertilizers was optimized. Two-level full factorial design was applied to evaluate the optimal proportions of reagents used in the sample digestion on hot plate. A Doehlert design for two variables was used to evaluate the operating conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer in order to accomplish the simultaneous determination of the analyte concentrations. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.0 mg kg- 1 for Mn to 77.3 mg kg- 1 for P. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were evaluated by analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs) of Western phosphate rock (NIST 694), Florida phosphate rock (NIST 120C) and Trace elements in multi-nutrient fertilizer (NIST 695), considered to be adequate for simultaneous determination. Twenty-one samples of mineral fertilizers collected in Sergipe State, Brazil, were analyzed. For all samples, the As, Ca, Cd and Pb concentrations were below the LOQ values of the analytical method. For As, Cd and Pb the obtained LOQ values were below the maximum limit allowed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento - MAPA). The optimized method presented good accuracy and was effectively applied to quantitative simultaneous determination of the analytes in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES).

  16. Malaria and macronutrient deficiency as correlates of anemia in young children: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuskee, Sarah; Brickley, Elizabeth B; Wood, Angela; Mossialos, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is a leading cause of pediatric mortality and impaired development and is highly prevalent in young children in sub-Saharan Africa. Populations most affected by anemia also often are at high risk for malaria and macronutrient deficiency, conditions that may exacerbate anemia. Due to its multifactorial etiology, anemia presents a significant global health challenge, and successful interventions targeting anemia require a greater understanding of the relative and interacting contributions of malaria and undernutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of malaria and undernutrition, indicated by stunting and wasting, with anemia in young children using a systematic review of observational studies. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE and Scopus. Articles were screened and reviewed for inclusion by two reviewers. Studies published after 1990 that measured anemia, Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and stunting or wasting in children aged 5 years or under were included. Of 620 articles reviewed, 15 studies from 9 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were included. Statistical approaches and anemia measurement varied widely, so synthesis was qualitative. Thirteen studies found that malaria infection was associated with anemia or lowered hemoglobin; in these studies, malaria accounted for more of the variation in anemia than nutritional status. In contrast, only 7 of the 13 studies investigating stunting and 3 of the 6 studies investigating wasting as correlates of anemia observed statistically significant associations at α = 0.05. The role of nutrition in anemia may differ by country. Observational epidemiologic studies consistently demonstrate that malaria is an important correlate of anemia in young children; however, the roles of stunting and wasting and interactions between malaria and nutrition require further investigation. Based on the current evidence, these findings suggest that global health strategies to reduce the burden of anemia should

  17. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Real-world industries are composed from heterogeneous firms and substantial intra-industry reallocations take place, i.e. high productivity firms squeeze out low productivity firms. Previous tax-tool comparisons have not included these central forces of industry structure. This paper examines...... taxes distort relative prices, which in turn reduces average industry productivity through reallocations (the survival and increased market share of lower productivity firms). Importantly, numerical solutions of the model reveal that the relative welfare loss from using the unit tax increases...... a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...

  18. Adding timing to the VELO

    CERN Document Server

    Mitreska, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high precision measurements of matter-antimatter asymmetries and searches for rare and forbidden decays, with the aim of discovering new and unexpected particles and forces. In 2030 the LHC beam intensity will increase by a factor of 50 compared to current operations. This means increased samples of the particles we need to study, but it also presents experimental challenges. In particular, with current technology it becomes impossible to differentiate the many (>50) separate proton-proton collisions which occur for each bunch crossing.\\\\ In this project a Monte Carlo simulation was developed to model the operation of a silicon pixel vertex detector surrounding the collision region at LHCb, under the conditions expected after 2030, after the second upgrade of the Vertex Locator(VELO).The main goal was studying the effect of adding '4D' detectors which save high-precision timing information, in addition to the usual three spatial coordinates, as charged particles pas...

  19. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  20. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P importance of food matrix and food processing.

  1. The reliability of puff topography and subjective responses during ad lib smoking of a single cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Giedgowd, Grace E; Conklin, Cynthia A

    2012-04-01

    Acute smoking behavior (i.e., puff topography) and subjective responses during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette in the laboratory may provide useful measures of smoking reinforcement and reward, respectively. However, the reliability of such measures is not clear, leaving uncertain the utility of a single assessment of smoking behavior as an individual difference measure. Dependent smokers (N = 94) smoked normally prior to each of 4 laboratory sessions during which they were instructed to smoke 1 cigarette of their preferred brand in ad libitum and unblinded fashion and then rate it for subjective effects. Puff topography (puff number, total volume, and maximum volume) was assessed via portable Clinical Research Support System device. Subjective reward and perception were assessed by visual analog scales of "liking" and "how strong," respectively. The reliability of puff topography and subjective measures was determined across days by intra-class correlations (ICCs). Differences due to sex and nicotine dependence (high and low Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score) were also examined. Reliability was highly significant for each measure. ICCs were .70 for total puff volume, .60 for maximum puff volume, .73 for puff number, .64 for liking, and .78 for how strong. Reliability generally did not differ by sex or dependence, but absolute values for total volume and maximum puff volume were greater in men and in high dependent smokers. Liking was also greater in high dependent smokers. Puff topography and subjective measures during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette are highly reliable. Smoking responses during a single ad lib smoking session may be useful in identifying stable individual differences in smoking reinforcement and reward.

  2. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2013-10-25

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 minutes for 240 minutes followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter

    2011-01-01

    consuming the diets ad libitum for 10 wk. Two groups of a total of 29 healthy, overweight women (age: 30.5 ± 6.6 y; BMI: 27.6 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in the 10-wk intervention and a subsequent 4-h meal test. The breakfast test meals differed in GI but were equal in total energy, macronutrient...

  4. Thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

    2014-01-01

    We study thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. These include the BTZ black hole in new massive gravity, Schwarzschild-AdS black hole, and higher-dimensional AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. All thermodynamic quantities which are computed using the Abbot-Deser-Tekin method are used to study thermodynamic instability of AdS black holes. On the other hand, we investigate the s-mode Gregory-Laflamme instability of the massive graviton propagating around the AdS black holes. We establish the connection between the thermodynamic instability and the GL instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. This shows that the Gubser-Mitra conjecture holds for AdS black holes found from fourth-order gravity

  5. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake—A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone V. Nielsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs. Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ 19% of energy from protein, based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber, pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber, or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05. Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05. Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations.

  6. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake-A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lone V; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars; Ritz, Christian; Belza, Anita; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2018-01-16

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals ( p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations.

  7. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake—A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lone V.; Kristensen, Marlene D.; Klingenberg, Lars; Belza, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations. PMID:29337861

  8. Which AdS3 configurations contribute to the SCFT2 elliptic genus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murthy, S.V.; Nawata, S.

    2011-01-01

    According to the AdS=CFT duality, the superconformal index of a superconformal eld theory should have an AdS interpretation as a Euclidean functional integral with periodic boundary conditions on the fermions. Unlike the thermal case, the Euclidean continuation of the supersymmetric AdS black hole

  9. Adult Cranberry Beverage Consumers Have Healthier Macronutrient Intakes and Measures of Body Composition Compared to Non-Consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyah J. Duffey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (≥19 years, n = 10,891 were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES Survey 2005–2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581 were older (>50 year non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001, but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001 and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001. Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001 and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001. Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers.

  10. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566–2985 kcal and 1997–2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg−1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%–80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg−1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 min per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg−1. However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation. PMID:28208581

  11. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-10

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg -1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg -1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg -1 . However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.

  12. Liraglutide suppression of caloric intake competes with the intake-promoting effects of a palatable cafeteria diet, but does not impact food or macronutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Kellie M; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2017-08-01

    Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is used as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity because it improves glycemia and decreases food intake. Here, we tested whether chronic activation of the GLP-1 receptor system with liraglutide would induce decreases in intake accompanied by changes in proportional food or macronutrient intake similar to those seen following RYGB in rats when a variety of palatable food options are available. A "cafeteria diet" was used that included: laboratory rodent chow, refried beans (low-fat/low-sugar), low-fat yogurt (low-fat/high-sugar), peanut butter (high-fat/low-sugar) and sugar-fat whip (high-fat/high-sugar). Liraglutide (1mg/kg daily, sc, n=6) induced significant reductions in body weight and total caloric intake compared to saline-injected control rats (n=6). Although access to a cafeteria diet induced increases in caloric intake in both groups relative to chow alone, liraglutide still effectively decreased intake compared with saline-injected rats suggesting that chronic GLP-1 activation competes with the energy density and palatability of available food options in modulating ingestive behavior. Even with the substantial effects on overall intake, liraglutide did not change food choice or relative macronutrient intake when compared to pre-treatment baseline. When drug treatment was discontinued, the liraglutide group increased caloric intake and rapidly gained body weight to match that of the saline group. These results demonstrate that, while liraglutide effectively decreases caloric intake and body weight in rats, it does not cause adjustments in relative macronutrient consumption. Our data also show that drug-induced decreases in intake and body weight are not maintained following termination of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Macronutrient Intake-Associated FGF21 Genotype Modifies Effects of Weight-Loss Diets on 2-Year Changes of Central Adiposity and Body Composition: The POUNDS Lost Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heianza, Yoriko; Ma, Wenjie; Huang, Tao; Wang, Tiange; Zheng, Yan; Smith, Steven R; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2016-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is involved in the regulation of energy balance and adipose metabolism. Our previous genome-wide association study identified genetic variants in the FGF21 region associated with macronutrient intake preference. We investigated whether the FGF21 genotype modified effects of weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient intake on changes in adiposity in a 2-year randomized diet intervention trial. We genotyped FGF21 rs838147 in 715 overweight or obese individuals who were assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient contents. A DEXA scan was performed to evaluate body composition. We observed a significant interaction between the FGF21 genotype and carbohydrate/fat intake on 2-year changes in waist circumference (WC), percentage of total fat mass, and percentage of trunk fat (P = 0.049, P = 0.001, and P = 0.003 for interaction, respectively). In response to the low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, carrying the carbohydrate intake-decreasing C allele of rs838147 was marginally associated with less reduction in WC (P = 0.08) and significantly associated with less reduction of total fat mass (P = 0.01) and trunk fat (P = 0.02). Opposite genetic associations with these outcomes were observed among the high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet group; carrying the C allele was associated with a greater reduction of WC, total body fat mass, and trunk fat. Our data suggest that FGF21 genotypes may interact with dietary carbohydrate/fat intake on changes in central adiposity and body fat composition. A low-calorie, high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet was beneficial for overweight or obese individuals carrying the carbohydrate intake-decreasing allele of the FGF21 variant to improve body composition and abdominal obesity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  15. Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Overview: ReADS can analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and problem or maintenance records. ReADS uses text clustering algorithms to group loosely related...

  16. Added masses of ship structures (russian)

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  17. TASI lectures on AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, Joao

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the AdS/CFT correspondence as a natural extension of QFT in a fixed AdS background. We start by reviewing some general concepts of CFT, including the embedding space formalism. We then consider QFT in a fixed AdS background and show that one can define boundary operators that enjoy very similar properties as in a CFT, except for the lack of a stress tensor. Including a dynamical metric in AdS generates a boundary stress tensor and completes the CFT axioms. We also discuss some applications of the bulk geometric intuition to strongly coupled QFT. Finally, we end with a review of the main properties of Mellin amplitudes for CFT correlation functions and their uses in the context of AdS/CFT.

  18. Direct rapid analysis of trace bioavailable soil macronutrients by chemometrics-assisted energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniu, M.I., E-mail: ikaniu@uonbi.ac.ke [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100 Nairobi (Kenya); Angeyo, K.H. [Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100 Nairobi (Kenya); Mwala, A.K. [Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100 Nairobi (Kenya); Mangala, M.J. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100 Nairobi (Kenya)

    2012-06-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemometrics-assisted EDXRFS spectroscopy realizes direct, rapid and accurate analysis of trace bioavailable macronutrients in soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is minimally invasive, involves little sample preparation, short analysis times and is relatively insensitive to matrix effects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This opens up the ability to rapidly characterize large number of samples/matrices with this method. - Abstract: Precision agriculture depends on the knowledge and management of soil quality (SQ), which calls for affordable, simple and rapid but accurate analysis of bioavailable soil nutrients. Conventional SQ analysis methods are tedious and expensive. We demonstrate the utility of a new chemometrics-assisted energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectroscopy method we have developed for direct rapid analysis of trace 'bioavailable' macronutrients (i.e. C, N, Na, Mg, P) in soils. The method exploits, in addition to X-ray fluorescence, the scatter peaks detected from soil pellets to develop a model for SQ analysis. Spectra were acquired from soil samples held in a Teflon holder analyzed using {sup 109}Cd isotope source EDXRF spectrometer for 200 s. Chemometric techniques namely principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were utilized for pattern recognition based on fluorescence and Compton scatter peaks regions, and to develop multivariate quantitative calibration models based on Compton scatter peak respectively. SQ analyses were realized with high CMD (R{sup 2} > 0.9) and low SEP (0.01% for N and Na, 0.05% for C, 0.08% for Mg and 1.98 {mu}g g{sup -1} for P). Comparison of predicted macronutrients with reference standards using a one-way ANOVA test showed no statistical difference at 95% confidence level. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that an XRF method has demonstrated

  19. Interferência de Euphorbia heterophylla no crescimento e acúmulo de macronutrientes da soja Interference of Euphorbia heterophylla in the growth and macronutrient accumulation of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O grau de interferência depende da densidade de plantas daninhas que infestam a soja. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características de crescimento e nutrição mineral da soja mantida em convivência com densidades crescentes de Euphorbia heterophylla. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, entre outubro e dezembro de 2008, em vasos mantidos em campo aberto. Os tratamentos consistiram em submeter uma planta de soja por vaso à convivência com 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 plantas de E. heterophylla por vaso, da semeadura até o início do florescimento. Nesse período, avaliaram-se, apenas na soja, a altura e o número de trifólios, e em ambas as espécies, a matéria seca e o acúmulo de macronutrientes. Observou-se variação na altura de plantas e redução no número de trifólios e no acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes da soja devido ao maior acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes por densidades crescentes de E. heterophylla. Conclui-se que a soja mantida em convivência com E. heterophylla teve o crescimento e o acúmulo de macronutrientes reduzidos em razão da interferência imposta pela planta daninha.The degree of weed interference depends on the density of the weeds infesting the soybean crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and mineral nutrition characteristics in soybean maintained in coexistence with increasing densities of Euphorbia heterophylla. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, from October through December 2008, in pots maintained under open field conditions. The treatments consisted in submitting one soybean plant per pot to coexistence with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 plants of E. heterophylla per pot, from sowing until the beginning of soybean flowering. At this period, only height and number of leaves were evaluated in soybean, while dry matter and macronutrient accumulation were evaluated in both species. Variation in plant height and reduction in the

  20. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  1. Intake of added sugars and selected nutrients in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Bernadette P; Olsho, Lauren; Hadden, Louise; Connor, Patty

    2010-03-01

    In the Institute of Medicine (IOM) macronutrient report the Committee recommended a maximal intake of added sugars. The primary objectives of this study were to utilize National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to update the reference table data on intake of added sugars from the IOM report and compute food sources of added sugars. We combined data from NHANES with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPyramid Equivalents Database (MPED) and calculated individual added sugars intake as percent of total energy then classified individuals into 8 added sugars percent energy categories, calculated usual intake with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method, and compared intakes to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Nutrients at most risk for inadequacy based on the Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) were vitamins E, A, C, and magnesium. Nutrient intake was less with each 5% increase in added sugars intake above 5-10%. Thirteen percent of the population had added sugars intake > 25%. The mean g-eq added sugars intake of 83.1 g-eq/day and added sugars food sources were comparable to the mid-1990s. Higher added sugars intakes were associated with higher proportions of individuals with nutrient intakes below the EAR, but the overall high calorie and the low quality of the U.S. diet remained the predominant issue. With over 80% of the population at risk for select nutrient inadequacy, guidance may need to focus on targeted healthful diet communication to reach the highest risk demographic groups for specific life stage nutrient inadequacies.

  2. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the...

  3. Automated Experiments on Ad Privacy Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datta Amit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To partly address people’s concerns over web tracking, Google has created the Ad Settings webpage to provide information about and some choice over the profiles Google creates on users. We present AdFisher, an automated tool that explores how user behaviors, Google’s ads, and Ad Settings interact. AdFisher can run browser-based experiments and analyze data using machine learning and significance tests. Our tool uses a rigorous experimental design and statistical analysis to ensure the statistical soundness of our results. We use AdFisher to find that the Ad Settings was opaque about some features of a user’s profile, that it does provide some choice on ads, and that these choices can lead to seemingly discriminatory ads. In particular, we found that visiting webpages associated with substance abuse changed the ads shown but not the settings page. We also found that setting the gender to female resulted in getting fewer instances of an ad related to high paying jobs than setting it to male. We cannot determine who caused these findings due to our limited visibility into the ad ecosystem, which includes Google, advertisers, websites, and users. Nevertheless, these results can form the starting point for deeper investigations by either the companies themselves or by regulatory bodies.

  4. Understanding in-stream temporal coupling of macronutrients based on high-frequency monitoring in groundwater dominated rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieroza, M. Z.; Heathwaite, A. L.

    2012-04-01

    Developments in high-frequency water quality measurements enable capturing of fine structure of temporal variations in river biogeochemistry. Understanding of the temporal variation in the nutrient source and in-stream processes is critical in restoration of the good ecological and chemical status of river ecosystems. However, to date the in-stream temporal variability of macronutrients captured by high-frequency sampling is poorly understood (Scholefield et al., 2005; Milne et al., 2009; Harris and Heathwaite, 2011). Typically, river water quality monitoring is based on coarse sampling or storm event targeting strategies that miss the low flow water quality dynamics when in-stream processes and chemical-biological interactions may be of the greatest importance. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics and interdependencies between multiple high-frequency (hourly) nutrient and water quality time series collated for the River Leith, a tributary of the River Eden (Cumbria, UK). In-stream nutrients (total phosphorus TP, soluble reactive phosphorus SRP, nitrate nitrogen NO3N) and water quality parameters (turbidity, specific conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, redox potential) were measured by an automated remote mobile lab. A 54 km2 catchment of the River Leith is of mixed geology with Carboniferous limestone overlain by Penrith Sandstone and glacial till deposits. Permeable riverbed deposits create an active groundwater-surface water interface with hyporheic processes potentially exerting control over nutrient cycling. The temporal variation in in-stream nutrients and water quality variables was analysed. Diurnal patterns were observed during low flow conditions for both nutrients and water quality time series. Possible physical and biogeochemical controls on nutrients short-term dynamics were discussed. Antecedent and contemporaneous interdependencies between nutrients, water quality and hydrometric time series were explored in more detail using

  5. Simultaneous determination of macronutrients, micronutrients and trace elements in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Souza, Sidnei de [Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental (LQA), Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), 49100-000, São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Silvério Lopes da Costa, Silvânio [Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental (LQA), Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), 49100-000, São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Coordenação de Química, Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Campus Arapiraca, 57309-005, Arapiraca, AL (Brazil); Santos, Dayane Melo; Santos Pinto, Jéssica dos; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges [Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental (LQA), Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), 49100-000, São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); and others

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method for simultaneous determination of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Na and P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Pb and V) in mineral fertilizers was optimized. Two-level full factorial design was applied to evaluate the optimal proportions of reagents used in the sample digestion on hot plate. A Doehlert design for two variables was used to evaluate the operating conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer in order to accomplish the simultaneous determination of the analyte concentrations. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.0 mg kg{sup −1} for Mn to 77.3 mg kg{sup −1} for P. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were evaluated by analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs) of Western phosphate rock (NIST 694), Florida phosphate rock (NIST 120C) and Trace elements in multi-nutrient fertilizer (NIST 695), considered to be adequate for simultaneous determination. Twenty-one samples of mineral fertilizers collected in Sergipe State, Brazil, were analyzed. For all samples, the As, Ca, Cd and Pb concentrations were below the LOQ values of the analytical method. For As, Cd and Pb the obtained LOQ values were below the maximum limit allowed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento — MAPA). The optimized method presented good accuracy and was effectively applied to quantitative simultaneous determination of the analytes in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). - Highlights: • Determination of inorganic constituents in mineral fertilizers was proposed. • Experimental design methodology was used to optimize analytical method. • The sample preparation procedure using diluted reagents (HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was employed. • The analytical method was satisfactorily to the determination of thirteen elements. • The

  6. Julian's strategy in AD 361

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanić Slobodan S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Both Roman generals and modern historians have tended to find Julian's moves in the civil war of AD 361 hazardous as well as difficult to understand. This is especially true of his long, ultra-rapid and semi-clandestine journey down the Danube, which was carried out by a dangerously small corps (under the command of the Usurper himself ! and ended with a very brief visit to Sirmium. A competent and, otherwise, cautious general, Julian must have had strong reasons for the risky haste that led him to Sirmium. These reasons were not primarily of a military nature, though enlistment of fresh troops and formation of vexillationes was among the measures he undertook/ initiated in the Pannonian metropolis. A (neglected passage (13. 287 a of his Letter to the Athenians (? mainly written during the river journey but sent from Sirmium itself implies that his visit to Sirmium was chiefly caused by his urgent need to secure the rich mines of precious metals managed by that city (mines situated in the Drinus valley and the Mt. Cer area, as well as silver and gold objects (coins, ingots, plates etc. stored in Sirmium, which had a mint and the metal officinae of its own. All this would help him i.a. distribute the donativa, already promised to his soldiers and officers. Analogous strategies, inspired by the old experience that the pecunia and/or metalla is/are nervus belli civilis, left traces in the sources describing the wars between Constantine I and Licinius, Vitellius and Vespasian, Otho and Vitellius — to cite the most illustrative examples only.

  7. Organoleptic and physico-chemical evaluation of capretto baladi goats: a value-added meat alternative in an extensive rearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abi Saab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abi Saab, S. Esseily, F. Saliba, M. and Aad P. 2017. Organoleptic and physico-chemical evaluation of capretto baladi goats: a value-added meat alternative in an extensive rearing system. Lebanese Science Journal. 18(1: 73-80. The local Baladi breed is considered a common source of fresh meat in Lebanon. Due to the extensive rearing system and the scarcity of pasture, kids resulting from multiple births are not reared, though cultural preference for young meat may valorize these twin kids as an expensive delicacy. Few studies observed growth parameters, physical-chemical and sensory properties of meat in Baladi kids. Therefore, 24 male Baladi kids were fed milk ad libitum post-natally for 24 days, after which 9 were randomly selected and fed pasture grass ad libitum and goat milk (Control, and 15 were fed only milk (Capretto twice per day. Animals were slaughtered at 4, 6 and 8 weeks of age and body organs compared. Feed intake was measured by weighing kids pre- and post- feeding, and body weight measured twice per week. Meat chemical properties were total ether-extracted fat, kjeldhal protein, and minerals. Meat organoleptic properties were evaluated by consumers for color, taste, odor, richness, juiciness, tenderness and overall appreciation, as cooked by housewives or professionals. Data were analyzed as a CRD using SPSS 10.0 and presented as LSMeans ± SEM. Results showed that Capretto consumed increasing levels of milk from 4 to 8 weeks, with ADG decreasing (P 0.05 between Capretto and control, although capretto showed lower (p<0.05 meat fat content than control kids. Meat organoleptic characteristics were desirable at weeks 4 and 6 for both Capretto and control kids, whereas only Capretto meat stayed desirable at week 8. To conclude, Capretto kids have similar properties to their traditional counterparts, with added desirable properties for a longer growing period, in addition to the increased health benefit of lower fat content.

  8. Glueball Masses from ADS6 Gravity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bengeng; Wen, Congkao; Yang, Huanxiong

    In view of the general holographic principle between gauge theories and gravity, We calculate the mass spectra of several typical QCD4 glueballs in term of AdS6 AdS-Schwarzschild black hole metric of Einstein gravity theory. The obtained mass spectra are numerically in consistent with those from the AdS7 × S4 black hole metric of the 11-dimensional supergravity. Besides, by separating the thermal circle from the extra dimensions, we find a novel exact Dp-brane solution of Type IIB supergravity, which might provide a scenario for studying the non-perturbative dynamics of QCD4 from the perspective of Type IIB supergravity.

  9. An Empirical Study of Mobile Ad Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Book, Theodore; Wallach, Dan S.

    2015-01-01

    Advertising, long the financial mainstay of the web ecosystem, has become nearly ubiquitous in the world of mobile apps. While ad targeting on the web is fairly well understood, mobile ad targeting is much less studied. In this paper, we use empirical methods to collect a database of over 225,000 ads on 32 simulated devices hosting one of three distinct user profiles. We then analyze how the ads are targeted by correlating ads to potential targeting profiles using Bayes' rule and Pearson's ch...

  10. Ad-hoc networking towards seamless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilovska, Liljana

    2006-01-01

    Ad-Hoc Networking Towards Seamless Communications is dedicated to an area that attracts growing interest in academia and industry and concentrates on wireless ad hoc networking paradigm. The persistent efforts to acquire the ability to establish dynamic wireless connections from anywhere to anyone with any device without prerequisite imbedded infrastructure move the communications boundaries towards ad-hoc networks. Recently, ad hoc networking has attracted growing interest due to advances in wireless communications, and developed framework for running IP based protocols. The expected degree of penetration of these networks will depend on the successful resolution of the key features. Ad-hoc networks pose many complex and open problems for researchers. Ad-Hoc Networking Towards Seamless Communications reveals the state-of-the-art in wireless ad-hoc networking and discusses some of the key research topics that are expected to promote and accelerate the commercial applications of these networks (e.g., MAC, rout...

  11. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  12. Non-relativistic AdS branes and Newton-Hooke superalgebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2006-01-01

    We examine a non-relativistic limit of D-branes in AdS 5 x S 5 and M-branes in AdS 4/7 x S 7/4 . First, Newton-Hooke superalgebras for the AdS branes are derived from AdS x S superalgebras as Inoenue-Wigner contractions. It is shown that the directions along which the AdS-brane worldvolume extends are restricted by requiring that the isometry on the AdS-brane worldvolume and the Lorentz symmetry in the transverse space naturally extend to the super-isometry. We also derive Newton-Hooke superalgebras for pp-wave branes and show that the directions along which a brane worldvolume extends are restricted. Then the Wess-Zumino terms of the AdS branes are derived by using the Chevalley-Eilenberg cohomology on the super-AdS x S algebra, and the non-relativistic limit of the AdS-brane actions is considered. We show that the consistent limit is possible for the following branes: Dp (even,even) for p = 1 mod 4 and Dp (odd,odd) for p = 3 mod 4 in AdS 5 x S 5 , and M2 (0,3), M2 (2,1), M5 (1,5) and M5 (3,3) in AdS 4 x S 7 and S 4 x AdS 7 . We furthermore present non-relativistic actions for the AdS branes

  13. The distribution of macronutrients, anti-nutrients and essential elements in nettles, Laportea peduncularis susp. peduncularis (River nettle) and Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangeni, Nomfundo T; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-01-01

    Laportea peduncularis and Urtica dioica, which are popularly known as "Nettles" belong to the plant family Urticaceae and are consumed as green vegetables or used for their medicinal benefit in many countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and America. This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooking on the macronutrient, anti-nutrient and elemental composition of L. peduncularis and U. dioica leaves. The results showed a decrease in the crude fat, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C content with cooking, but an increase in the vitamin E content. The anti-nutrient content (cyanides, phytates and saponins) increased slightly with cooking, while the oxalate content has decreased. The concentration of essential elements in cooked L. peduncularis leaves were found to be in decreasing order of Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Co. Both raw and cooked leaves of nettles were found to be rich sources of macronutrients and essential elements and may be used as alternatives to commercially available nutrient supplements. Statistical analyses (principal component analysis and correlations) indicated that certain elements taken up by these plants were from common sources. Both positive and negative relationships between nutrients, anti-nutrients and elements were observed in the plant leaves.

  14. Changes in total energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery predict long-term weight outcome: findings from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Noora; Larsson, Ingrid; Peltonen, Markku; Lindroos, Anna-Karin; Carlsson, Lena M

    2017-07-01

    Background: Approximately 20-30% of obese patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes after bariatric surgery. Objective: We examined whether short-term changes (≤0.5 y postsurgery) in energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery could predict 10-y weight change. Design: Participants were recruited from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study, which was a matched (nonrandomized) prospective trial that compared bariatric surgery with usual care for obese patients. A total of 2010 patients who underwent bariatric surgery were included in the study. Physical examinations (e.g., weight) and questionnaires (e.g., dietary questionnaire) were completed before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 y after surgery. For the main analytic strategy, a linear mixed model was implemented, which included repeated measures with a random intercept and an unstructured covariance matrix. Results: Short-term changes in energy intake ( P bariatric surgery. At the 10-y follow-up, men and women with the largest reductions in energy intake had lost 7.3% and 3.9% more weight, respectively, compared with that of subjects with the smallest intake reductions ( P bariatric surgery predicts long-term weight loss. Weight loss is also associated with a changing dietary macronutrient composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01479452. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. LITTER AND MACRONUTRIENT DEPOSITION IN A STAND OF BLACK WATTLE (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. IN THE STATE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated litter and macronutrient deposition in a six year-old black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. stand, in Butia-RS. Five plots (18mx24m of litter were systematically allocated, each one with four trap collectors of 1 m2. The litter intercepted was collected monthly between January 2002 and December 2003. After collection, litter was divided into leaves, flowers, fruits and caterpillar (Adeloneivaia subangulata feces, oven dried, weighed, milled and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents. The average annual litter deposition reached 4.32 Mg ha-1, and was composed of 75.5, 11.1, 11.2 and 2.2% of leaves, flowers, fruits and feces, respectively. Litter deposition was more concentrated in the spring. The higher deposition of nutrients was through the leaf fraction, which contributed annually with a great amount of litter biomass, although not showing the highest nutrient concentrations. The supply of total amount of macronutrients to the soil was of 74.8 of N, 26.8 of K, 23.1 of Ca, 7.9 of Mg and 2.4 of P (kg ha-1.

  16. III Adli Bilimler Kongresi - Posterler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available POSTER ÖZETLERİ ADLİ ÇOCUK OTOPSİLERİ Y.Mustafa KARAGÖZ*, Mehmet ATILGAN*, Sema (Demirçin KARAGÖZ**, Refik AKMAN*. ÖZET Çocukluk döneminde meydana gelen ölümlerin aydınlatılması, sağlık hizmetlerinin yönlendirilmesinde olduğu kadar, yasal açıdan da farklı yaklaşımları gerektirdiğinden büyük önem taşımaktadır. Bu çalışmada çocuk otopsilerine ait verilerden yararlanılarak özellikle ölüm orijinleri ve yöresel farklılıklar açısından çocuk ölümlerinin irdelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. 1987-1996 yılları arasındaki 10 yıllık süre içinde Adli Tıp Kurumu Antalya Şube Müdürlüğü’nde otopsisi yapılan 940 olgudan 18 yaş ve altındaki 172 olgu çalışma kapsamına alınarak yaş grupları, cinsiyet, ölüm nedenleri ve orijinler açısından değerlendirilmiştir. Olguların % 58.1’i erkek, % 4l.9’u kadındır. Ölüm orijinleri arasında ilk sırada kazalar (%34.3 bulunmakta, ardından intiharlar (% 19.2 gelmektedir. Kazalarda % 40.6, intiharlarda % 72.8 olmak üzere her iki gruptaki ölüm nedenleri arasında da pestisit intoksikasyonları ilk sıradadır. Doğal ölümler % 16.9 oranında olup solunum sistemi hastalıkları ön plandadır. 0-4, 5-9, ve 10-14 yaş gruplarında kazalar, 15-18 yaş grubunda ise % 36.7 lik bir oranla intihar orijinli ölümler ilk sırada yer almıştır. GÖĞÜS VE BATINA NAFİZ KESİCİ DELİCİ ALET YARALANMALARINA BAĞLI ÖLÜMLERİN RETROSPEKTİF OLARAK DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ Süleyman GÖREN, Yaşar TIRAŞÇI. ÖZET Kesici delici aletler günümüzde çok yaygın olarak, çeşitli tip ve nitelikte evlerde ve birçok iş yerinde meslek ve sanat icrası için kullanılmaktadır. Bu aletlerin tip ve nitelikleri salt saldırı ve savunma silahı olarak kullanılan aletleri aratmayacak özelliktedir. Bu nedenle bölgedeki kesici delici alet yaralanması ile ölümler ve demografik özellikleri araştırılmaya değer görülmüştür. 1989 - 1996 y

  17. Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed.

  18. LWR [Light Water Reactor] power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. The capsaicin analog nonivamide decreases total energy intake from a standardized breakfast and enhances plasma serotonin levels in moderately overweight men after administered in an oral glucose tolerance test: a randomized, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkogler, Christina M; Rohm, Barbara; Hojdar, Karin; Pignitter, Marc; Widder, Sabine; Ley, Jakob P; Krammer, Gerhard E; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Since bolus administration of capsaicin has been shown to reduce appetite and ad libitum energy intake, this study elucidated the satiating effect of the less pungent capsaicin analog, nonivamide, on subjective feelings of hunger, ad libitum food intake, and satiating hormones in moderately overweight male subjects. Following a randomized, crossover design, 24 male subjects (BMI 27.5 ± 1.53 kg/m(2) ) received either 75 g glucose in 300 mL water (control treatment, CT) or the same glucose solution supplemented with 0.15 mg nonivamide (nonivamide treatment, NT). Ratings of hunger were assessed before and 2 h after each intervention by means of visual analog scales. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes from a standardized breakfast 2 h postintervention were calculated. Plasma glucose, insulin, peptide YY (3-36), glucagon-like peptide 1, and serotonin were quantified in blood samples drawn before and 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each intervention. NT reduced subjective feelings of hunger and ad libitum energy and carbohydrate intakes from a standardized breakfast compared to CT. Plasma analysis revealed higher mean plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and serotonin concentrations after NT versus CT. Addition of 0.15 mg nonivamide to a glucose solution reduced ad libitum energy intake from a standardized breakfast in moderately overweight men. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Dimensional degression in AdSd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artsukevich, A. Yu.; Vasiliev, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the pattern of fields in (d+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in terms of those in d-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The procedure, which is neither dimensional reduction nor dimensional compactification, is called dimensional degression. The analysis is performed group theoretically for all totally symmetric bosonic and fermionic representations of the anti-de Sitter algebra. The field-theoretical analysis is done for a massive scalar field in AdS d+d ' and massless spin-one-half, spin-one, and spin-two fields in AdS d+1 . The mass spectra of the resulting towers of fields in AdS d are found. For the scalar field case, the obtained results extend to the shadow sector those obtained by Metsaev [Nucl. Phys. B, Proc. Suppl. 102, 100 (2001)] by a different method.

  1. A mosaic adenovirus possessing serotype Ad5 and serotype Ad3 knobs exhibits expanded tropism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Koichi; Reynolds, Paul N.; Short, Joshua J.; Kawakami, Yosuke; Adachi, Yasuo; Glasgow, Joel N.; Rots, Marianne G.; Krasnykh, Victor; Douglas, Joanne T.; Curiel, David T.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of cancer gene therapy with recombinant adenoviruses based on serotype 5 (Ad5) has been limited partly because of variable, and often low, expression by human primary cancer cells of the primary cellular-receptor which recognizes the knob domain of the fiber protein, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR). As a means of circumventing CAR deficiency, Ad vectors have been retargeted by utilizing chimeric fibers possessing knob domains of alternate Ad serotypes. We have reported that ovarian cancer cells possess a primary receptor for Ad3 to which the Ad3 knob binds independently of the CAR-Ad5 knob interaction. Furthermore, an Ad5-based chimeric vector, designated Ad5/3, containing a chimeric fiber proteins possessing the Ad3 knob, demonstrates CAR-independent tropism by virtue of targeting the Ad3 receptor. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that a mosaic virus possessing both the Ad5 knob and the Ad3 knob on the same virion could utilize either primary receptor, resulting in expanded tropism. In this study, we generated a dual-knob mosaic virus by coinfection of 293 cells with Ad5-based and Ad5/3-based vectors. Characterization of the resultant virions confirmed the incorporation of both Ad5 and Ad3 knobs in the same particle. Furthermore, this mosaic virus was able to utilize either receptor, CAR and the Ad3 receptor, for virus attachment to cells. Enhanced Ad infectivity with the mosaic virus was shown in a panel of cell lines, with receptor profiles ranging from CAR-dominant to Ad3 receptor-dominant. Thus, this mosaic virus strategy may offer the potential to improve Ad-based gene therapy approaches by infectivity enhancement and tropism expansion

  2. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    OpenAIRE

    E. I. Ponomareva; A. V. Odintsova; V. Yu. Kustov

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour a...

  3. Phase transition and thermodynamical geometry for Schwarzschild AdS black hole in $AdS_5\\times{S^5}$ spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jia-Lin; Cai, Rong-Gen; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black hole in AdS 5 × S 5 spacetime by treating the cosmological constant as the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. It is found that the chemical potential is always negative in the stable branch of black hole thermodynamics and it has a chance to be positive, but appears in the unstable branch. We calculate the scalar curva...

  4. Ad-Coop Positioning System (ACPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frattasi, Simone; Monti, Marco

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative solution for positioning determination in 4G wireless networks by introducing the Ad-Coop Positioning System (ACPS). The ACPS is supported by a hybrid cellular ad-hoc architecture, where the cellular network has a centralized control over the ad......-hoc connections among pairs of mobiles. Specifically, peer-to-peer (P2P) communications are exploited in a mesh fashion within cellular-established clusters for cooperation-aided localization purposes (from that, the word ad-coop is derived). The major contribution of this work is the design of the data fusion...... to conventional hybrid positioning techniques in cellular networks....

  5. Half BPS states in AdS5 x Yp,q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gava, Edi; Narain, K.S.; Milanesi, Giuseppe; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study a class of solutions of IIB supergravity which are asymptotically AdS 5 x Y p,q . They have an R x SO(4) x SU(2) x U(1) isometry and preserve half of the 8 supercharges of the background geometry. They are described by a set of second order differential equations that we have found and analysed in a previous paper, where we studied 1/8 BPS states in the maximally supersymmetric AdS 5 x S 5 background. These geometries correspond to certain chiral primary operators of the N = 1 superconformal quiver theories, dual to IIB theory on AdS 5 x Y p,q . We also show how to recover the AdS 5 x Y p,q backgrounds by suitably doubling the number of preserved supersymmetries. We then solve the differential equations perturbatively in a large AdS 5 radius expansion, imposing asymptotic AdS 5 x Y p,q boundary conditions. We compute the global baryonic and mesonic charges, including the R-charge. As for the computation of the mass, i.e. the conformal dimension Δ of the dual field theory operators, which is notoriously subtle in asymptotically AdS backgrounds, we adopt the general formalism due to Wald and collaborators, which gives a finite result, and verify the relation Δ = 3R/2, demanded by the N = 1 superconformal algebra

  6. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mike D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON a no diet + exercise control (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP] in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non

  7. Uso da fertirrigação e teores de macronutrientes em planta de pimentão Fertigation application and macronutrients concentrations in plant of bell pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F. N. Marcussi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de determinar os teores de macronutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S nos diferentes órgãos do híbrido de pimentão Elisa, sob fertirrigação e ambiente protegido, por meio de coletas de plantas durante o ciclo. Ao final do experimento, obtiveram-se os teores dos macronutrientes no fruto, folha, caule, raiz e na planta como um todo, em cada etapa de crescimento. A fertilização no ciclo estudado, 140 dias, foi feita via irrigação localizada (gotejamento. O experimento foi desenvolvido nas dependências do Departamento de Recursos Naturais - Ciência do Solo, FCA-UNESP, Câmpus de Botucatu - SP, e constou de oito tratamentos (épocas de coleta de planta: 0; 20; 40; 60; 80; 100; 120 e 140 dias após o transplante das mudas e quatro repetições, sendo cada repetição formada por quatro plantas. Os resultados mostram que os teores de macronutrientes encontrados na planta de pimentão seguem, na média, a seguinte ordem decrescente: K (39,9 g kg-1 > N (28,3 g kg-1 > Ca (12,8 g kg-1 > Mg (5,9 g kg-1 > S (4,1 g kg-1 > P (3,7 g kg-1.In this study, it was aimed the determination of macronutrients contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in different organs of the hybrid of bell pepper Elisa, under fertigation and protected atmosphere, through eight times of plant extraction. At the end of the experiment it was obtained the contents of macronutrients in the fruit, leaf, stem and root and in the plant as a whole, in each growth stage. The fertilization in the studied cycle, 140 days, was done through localized fertigation (drip system. The experiment was developed in the Department of Natural Resources - Soil Science, FCA-UNESP, Botucatu - SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of eight treatments (time of plant extraction: 0; 20; 40; 60; 80; 100; 120, and 140 days after the transplant of the seedlings and four repetitions, being each repetition formed by four plants. The macronutrients contents found in the plant have the following

  8. On deformations of AdS n × S n supercosets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, B.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    We study the deformed AdS 5 × S 5 supercoset model of arXiv:1309.5850 which depends on one parameter κ and has classical quantum group symmetry. We confirm the conjecture that in the "maximal" deformation limit, κ → ∞, this model is T-dual to "flipped" double Wick rotation of the target space AdS 5 × S 5, i.e. dS 5 × H 5 space supported by an imaginary 5-form flux. In the imaginary deformation limit, κ → i, the corresponding target space metric is of a pp-wave type and thus the resulting light-cone gauge S-matrix becomes relativistically invariant. Omitting non-unitary contributions of imaginary WZ terms, we find that this tree-level S-matrix is equivalent to that of the generalized sine-Gordon model representing the Pohlmeyer reduction of the undeformed AdS 5 × S 5 superstring model. We also study in some detail similar deformations of the AdS 3 × S 3 and AdS 2 × S 2 supercosets. The bosonic part of the deformed AdS 3 × S 3 model happens to be equivalent to the symmetric case of the sum of the Fateev integrable deformation of the SL(2) and SU(2) principal chiral models, while in the AdS 2 × S 2 case the role of the Fateev model is played by the 2d "sausage" model. The κ = i limits are again directly related to the Pohlmeyer reductions of the corresponding AdS n × S n supercosets: (2,2) super sine-Gordon model and its complex sine-Gordon analog. We also discuss possible deformations of AdS 3 × S 3 with more than one parameter.

  9. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - OTÁP2014. II. Energy and macronutrient intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi Nagy, Eszter; Bakacs, Márta; Illés, Éva; Nagy, Barbara; Varga, Anita; Kis, Orsolya; Schreiberné Molnár, Erzsébet; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess and monitor the dietary habits and nutrient intake of Hungarian adults. Three-day dietary records were used for dietary assessment, the sample was representative for the Hungarian population aged ≥18ys by gender and age. The mean proportion of energy from fat was higher (men: 38 energy%, women: 37 energy%), that from carbohydrates was lower (men: 45 energy%, women: 47 energy%) than recommended, the protein intake is adequate. Unfavorable change compared to the previous survey in 2009 was the increase of fat and saturated fatty acid energy percent in women, the decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption, which explains the decreased fiber intake. An increasing trend in added sugar energy percent in each age groups of both genders was observed compared to 2009. Interventions focusing on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption and decreasing of saturated fat and added sugar intake are needed. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(15), 587-597.

  10. Context discovery in ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless technology and portable devices, mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are more and more present in our daily life. Ad-hoc networks are often composed of mobile and battery-supplied devices, like laptops, mobile phones, and PDAs. With no requirement for

  11. Copywriting, Internships Lead Ad Curricula Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Warren K.

    1979-01-01

    Findings from a national study of 113 schools show that more copywriting and internship courses have been added to advertising school programs than courses in any other subject areas. Among supporting courses, marketing has been most frequently added as a requirement. (RL)

  12. Queueing Models for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Roland

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents models for the performance analysis of a recent communication paradigm: \\emph{mobile ad hoc networking}. The objective of mobile ad hoc networking is to provide wireless connectivity between stations in a highly dynamic environment. These dynamics are driven by the mobility of

  13. Reductio ad Contradictionem: An Algebraic Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přenosil, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 3 (2016), s. 389-415 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : de Morgan algebras * contradiction * reductio ad contradictionem * reductio ad absurdum * four-valued logic * paraconsistent logic * inconsistency * completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016

  14. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Mazhari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  15. Google Advertising Tools Cashing in with AdSense and AdWords

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Harold

    2010-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how to take full advantage of Google AdWords and AdSense, the sophisticated online advertising tools used by thousands of large and small businesses. This new edition provides a substantially updated guide to advertising on the Web, including how it works in general, and how Google's advertising programs in particular help you make money. You'll find everything you need to work with AdWords, which lets you generate text ads to accompany specific search term results, and AdSense, which automatically delivers precisely targeted text and image ads to your website.

  16. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhari, N.S., E-mail: najmemazhari86@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Bahamonde, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.beltran.14@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia - Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2017-03-10

    The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  17. On the covariant quantization of tensionless bosonic strings in AdS spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, Giulio [Physique Theorique et Mathematique - Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)]. E-mail: gbonelli@ulb.ac.be

    2003-11-01

    The covariant quantization of the tensionless free bosonic (open and closed) strings in AdS spaces is obtained. This is done by representing the AdS space as an hyper- boloid in a flat auxiliary space and by studying the resulting string constrained hamiltonian system in the tensionless limit. It turns out that the constraint algebra simplifies in the tensionless case in such a way that the closed BRST quantization can be formulated and the theory admits then an explicit covariant quantization scheme. This holds for any value of the dimension of the AdS space. (author)

  18. Anyonic strings and membranes in AdS space and dual Aharonov-Bohm effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hartnoll, Sean A.

    2006-01-01

    It is observed that strings in AdS_5 x S^5 and membranes in AdS_7 x S^4 exhibit long range phase interactions. Two well separated membranes dragged around one another in AdS acquire phases of 2\\pi/N. The same phases are acquired by a well separated F and D string dragged around one another. The phases are shown to correspond to both the standard and a novel type of Aharonov-Bohm effect in the dual field theory.

  19. The concept of added value of FM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This chapter presents research perspectives and theoretical reflections on the concept of added value of FM from a variety of academic fields. Methodology: A literature review of the most influential journals within the academic fields of Facilities Management (FM), Corporate Real Estate...... conceptualization of the concept of added value of FM is of utmost importance for further research into the added value of FM and well-considered, evidence- based Value Adding Management in practice. Research limitations: Due to limited time not all FM-related journals could be included in the literature review...... Management (CREM) and Business to Business Marketing (B2B Marketing). Findings: The research shows different definitions and focus points, dependent on the academic field and the area of application. The different research perspectives explored a holistic view on the added value of FM by the integration...

  20. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freivogel, Ben; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /LBL, Berkeley; Hubeny, Veronika E.; /LBL, Berkeley /Durham U., Dept. of Math.; Maloney, Alexander; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Myers, Rob; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys. /Waterloo U.; Rangamani, Mukund; /LBL, Berkeley /Durham U., Dept. of Math.; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  1. [General profile of the nutrition surplus in Mexico from 1990-2013: An approach using the energy supplied by macronutrients and food groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Ramírez, José Cutberto; Ortega Canto, Judith Elena

    2016-01-01

    This text analyzes the evolution of the excessive food energy supply in Mexico from 1990 to 2013. For each year, the energy and macronutrient requirements of the Mexican population were estimated and contrasted with the per capita energy supply. Discrepancies between requirement and supply were analyzed as a time series. The energy surplus ranged from 700 to 800 kcal per capita per day throughout the studied period and sugar/sweeteners contributed the highest above-requirement energy supply. Lipids excess increased steadily and intensely, mainly due to lipid increases from poultry and pork. Excess energy from alcoholic beverages tended to be concentrated into growing beer consumption. In summary, the energy supply and the corresponding surplus tended to be made up mainly of sugar/sweeteners and meat. This has direct implications for the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases as well as unsustainable use of land, water and energy.

  2. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background:Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high......-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread...... (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h...

  3. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). Design......: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Population study, Denmark. Subjects: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. Interventions: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food...... record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages...

  4. Efeito do composto orgânico e compactação do solo no milho e nutrientes do solo Effect of compaction and organic compost application on corn biomass and macronutrient contents in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro N. F. Rodrigues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Quando bem aproveitados, os resíduos orgânicos conduzem a grandes benefícios disponibilizando matéria orgânica e nutriente ao solo. Neste contexto, objetivou-se, no presente estudo, verificar o efeito da aplicação de doses de composto orgânico em dois solos submetidos a diferentes compactações na biomassa seca do milho. Para isto se aplicaram, em 54 vasos, três doses de composto orgânico nas quantidades 0 (testemunha, 40 e 80 g dm-3, em um Argissolo Vermelho Escuro e em um outro Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, coletados no horizonte Ap, no perfil de 0 a 0,20 m, conduzidos em três diferentes densidades (1,3; 1,5 e 1,7 kg dm-3 e três repetições. A cultura utilizada no experimento foi o milho (Zea mays, cultivar Itapuã 700. As variáveis avaliadas foram biomassa seca da parte aérea do milho (MS e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e carbono orgânico total (COT do solo. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a aplicação do composto orgânico causou efeito significativo sobre os teores dos macronutrientes disponíveis e COT e a compactação do solo pouco afetou as variáveis estudadas.When well utilized, organic residues lead to great benefits making organic matter and nutrients available in soils. In this context, the present study had the objective to evaluate the effect of organic compost doses on two soils submitted to different compactions and on corn biomass. Thus, in 54 pots were added three doses 0, 40 or 80 g dm-3 of organic compost in a Dark Red Argisoil or Red Yellowish Argisoil, collected from the Ap horizon (depth of 0 to 0.20 m, submitted to three compaction degrees (1.3, 1.5 and 1.7 kg dm-3, with three replications. The crop used in the experiment was corn (Zea mays, cultivar Itapuã 700. The plant growth, and content of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and organic carbon (TOC in soil were evaluated. The results point out that the organic compost application significantly affected soil OC and macronutrients, but little effect was induced by

  5. Effect of calorie or exercise labels on menus on calories and macronutrients ordered and calories from specific foods in Hispanic participants: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Bouza, Brooke; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Jaffery, Manall; Esposito, Phil; Dart, Lyn

    2016-12-01

    The effect of menu labels on food choices is unknown in Hispanics. This study evaluated the impact of menu labels on calories and macronutrients ordered in Hispanics. 372 Hispanics (18-65 years) were randomly assigned to menus with no labels (NL) (n=127), rank-ordered calorie labels plus a statement on energy needs per meal (CL) (n=123), or rank-ordered exercise labels showing minutes of brisk walking necessary to burn the food calories (EL) (n=122). The menus had identical food choices. Participants were instructed to select foods from the assigned menu as if having lunch in a fast food restaurant. One-way analysis of variance found no difference in calories ordered (median (25th and 75th centiles)) by menu condition (NL: 785.0 (465.0, 1010.0) kcal; CL: 790.0 (510.0, 1020.0) kcal; EL: 752.5 (520.0, 1033.8) kcal; p=0.75). Calories from specific foods and macronutrient intake were not different by menu condition. Menu label use was 26.8% in the CL and 25.4% in the EL condition. Calories ordered were not different between those who used and those who did not use the labels. Regression analysis showed that perception of being overweight (p=0.02), selecting foods based on health value (pcalories ordered. Logistic regression showed that selecting foods based on health value (p=0.01) was associated with higher food label use. Menu labels did not affect food choices in Hispanic participants. Future studies should determine if nutrition, exercise, and weight perception counseling prior to menu labels intervention would result in better food choices. NCT02804503; post-results. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Macronutrient Profiles on Weight, Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Truby

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is difficult to treat and the optimal dietary pattern, particularly in relation to macronutrient composition, remains controversial. This study tested the effect of two structured diets with differing macronutrient composition versus control, on weight, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese adolescents.A randomized controlled trial conducted in a children's hospital.Eighty seven obese youth (means: age 13.6 years, BMI z-score 2.2, waist: height ratio 0.65, 69% female completed a psychological preparedness program and were then randomized to a short term 'structured modified carbohydrate' (SMC, 35% carbohydrate; 30% protein; 35% fat, n = 37 or a 'structured low fat' (SLF, 55% carbohydrate; 20% protein; 25% fat, n = 36 or a wait listed control group (n = 14. Anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured at randomization and after 12 weeks, and analyzed under the intention to treat principle using analysis of variance models.After 12 weeks, data was collected from 79 (91% participants. BMI z-scores were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared to control after adjusting for baseline values, SLF vs. control, mean difference = -0.13 (95%CI = -0.18, -0.07, P<0.001; SMC vs. control, -0.14 (-0.19, -0.09, P<0.001, but there was no difference between the two intervention diet groups: SLF vs. SMC, 0.00 (-0.05, 0.04, P = 0.83.Both dietary patterns resulted in similar changes in weight, body composition and metabolic improvements compared to control. The use of a structured eating system which allows flexibility but limited choices can assist in weight change and the rigid application of a low fat eating pattern is not exclusive in its efficacy.International Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN49438757.

  7. [Total energy value and percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients in the diet of elderly individuals from Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Tarciana Nobre de; Marucci, Maria de Fátima Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Describe the total energy value and percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients in the diet of elderly individuals living in Fortaleza/CE. This is a population-based, cross-sectional domiciliary study, which included 458 elderly individuals (66.6% women). The variables evaluated were total energy value (TEV) and the percentage contribution of calories from proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The results are shown as mean, standard deviation, and percentile distribution (P5, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P95). The Student's t-test and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) with LSD post-hoc tests were used to determine the statistical significance of means between two groups and among three or more groups, respectively. When comparing the mean values of TEV among categories of socioeconomic and demographic variables, statistically significant differences were found between women for ethnicity, years of schooling and socioeconomic level. Among men, differences were found for years of schooling and socioeconomic level. The mean energy value of men's diet was significantly higher than that of women (1475.8 kcal and 1236.4 kcal, respectively). The mean values of calorie percentage contribution from proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids were similar between men and women. The elderly of this study showed significant differences in mean values of TEV between sexes and between the categories years of schooling and socioeconomic level. Women also showed significant differences between the ethnic categories. The mean relative contribution of macronutrients in TEV was similar between genders and age groups.

  8. Collapse and Nonlinear Instability of AdS Space with Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choptuik, Matthew W.; Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson

    2017-11-01

    We present a numerical study of rotational dynamics in AdS5 with equal angular momenta in the presence of a complex doublet scalar field. We determine that the endpoint of gravitational collapse is a Myers-Perry black hole for high energies and a hairy black hole for low energies. We investigate the time scale for collapse at low energies E , keeping the angular momenta J ∝E in anti-de Sitter (AdS) length units. We find that the inclusion of angular momenta delays the collapse time, but retains a t ˜1 /E scaling. We perturb and evolve rotating boson stars, and find that boson stars near AdS space appear stable, but those sufficiently far from AdS space are unstable. We find that the dynamics of the boson star instability depend on the perturbation, resulting either in collapse to a Myers-Perry black hole, or development towards a stable oscillating solution.

  9. Impaired cognition in depression and Alzheimer (AD: a gradient from depression to depression in AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narahyana Bom de Araujo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess cognition in major depressed (MD, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and depression in AD elderly. Method Subjects were evaluated by Mini Mental, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Rey Complex Figure, Digit Span, Similarities, Trail Making A/B, Verbal Fluency and Stroop. One-way ANOVA and multivariate models were used to compare the performance of each group on neuropsychological tests. Results We evaluated 212 subjects. Compared to MD, attention, working memory, processing speed and recall showed significantly better in controls. Controls showed significantly higher performance in all cognitive measures, except in attention compared to AD. Verbal fluency, memory, processing speed and abstract reasoning in MD was significantly higher compared to AD. AD was significantly better in general cognitive state than depression in AD. All other cognitive domains were similar. Conclusion A decreasing gradient in cognition appeared from the control to depression in AD, with MD and AD in an intermediate position.

  10. Marcha de absorção de macronutrientes na cultura do girassol Macronutrient uptake of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Saes Zobiole

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer curvas de acúmulo de macronutrientes na cultura do girassol. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento em campo sobre Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura muito argilosa, localizado na fazenda experimental da Embrapa Soja, em Londrina/PR. As parcelas foram constituídas de 14 linhas com 25 m de comprimento cada e espaçamento entrelinhas de 0,70 m, resultando em área total de 245 m². Cada parcela foi repetida quatro vezes. A adubação de semeadura foi de 300 kg ha-1 da fórmula 5-20-20, aplicada a lanço, antes do plantio. A adubação de cobertura foi parcelada em duas aplicações: 25 e 1 kg ha-1 de N e B, respectivamente, sendo a primeira aos 21 e a segunda aos 35 dias após a semeadura. O híbrido utilizado foi o BRS-191, e a densidade final de plantas foi de 40.000 plantas ha-1. Amostras de plantas foram coletadas em intervalos de 14 dias após a emergência e separadas em pecíolos, folhas, caules e, quando existentes, em capítulo e em aquênios. Após secagem, cada parte da planta foi pesada e moída para, em seguida, determinarem-se os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. A partir desses nutrientes e da matéria seca de cada parte da planta, foram obtidas as curvas de acúmulo. Verificou-se que, para obtenção de produtividades superiores a 3.000 kg ha-1, o híbrido BRS 191 extrai aproximadamente 150, 24, 286, 116, 42 e 24 kg ha-1 de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S, respectivamente, resultando na seguinte ordem de extração: K > N > Ca > Mg > P = S. Em relação à exportação, a ordem dos nutrientes foi a seguinte: N > P = K > Mg = S > Ca. Portanto, atenção especial deve ser dada à manutenção da adequada disponibilidade de N, K e Ca, devido à alta demanda da cultura por esses nutrientes.This study aimed to establish curves of macronutrient accumulation in sunflower. The experiment was conducted in the field on a Typic Hapludox, at the experimental station of Embrapa Soja in Londrina, State

  11. Quantum spectral curve for the η-deformed AdS5 × S5 superstring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabbers, Rob; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2017-12-01

    The spectral problem for the AdS5 ×S5 superstring and its dual planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be efficiently solved through a set of functional equations known as the quantum spectral curve. We discuss how the same concepts apply to the η-deformed AdS5 ×S5 superstring, an integrable deformation of the AdS5 ×S5 superstring with quantum group symmetry. This model can be viewed as a trigonometric version of the AdS5 ×S5 superstring, like the relation between the XXZ and XXX spin chains, or the sausage and the S2 sigma models for instance. We derive the quantum spectral curve for the η-deformed string by reformulating the corresponding ground-state thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations as an analytic Y system, and map this to an analytic T system which upon suitable gauge fixing leads to a Pμ system - the quantum spectral curve. We then discuss constraints on the asymptotics of this system to single out particular excited states. At the spectral level the η-deformed string and its quantum spectral curve interpolate between the AdS5 ×S5 superstring and a superstring on "mirror" AdS5 ×S5, reflecting a more general relationship between the spectral and thermodynamic data of the η-deformed string. In particular, the spectral problem of the mirror AdS5 ×S5 string, and the thermodynamics of the undeformed AdS5 ×S5 string, are described by a second rational limit of our trigonometric quantum spectral curve, distinct from the regular undeformed limit.

  12. Financial and health literacy predict incident AD dementia and AD pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.; Boyle, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Domain specific literacy is a multidimensional construct that requires multiple resources including cognitive and non-cognitive factors. Objective We test the hypothesis that domain specific literacy is associated with AD dementia and AD pathology after controlling for cognition. Methods Participants were community based older persons who completed a baseline literacy assessment, underwent annual clinical evaluations for up to 8 years and agreed to organ donation after death. Financial and health literacy was measured using 32 questions and cognition was measured using 19 tests. Annual diagnosis of AD dementia followed standard criteria. AD pathology was examined post-mortem by quantifying plaques and tangles. Cox models examined the association of literacy with incident AD dementia. Performance of model prediction for incident AD dementia was assessed using indices for integrated discrimination improvement and continuous net reclassification improvement. Linear regression models examined the independent association of literacy with AD pathology in autopsied participants. Results All 805 participants were free of dementia at baseline and 102 (12.7%) developed AD dementia during the follow-up. Lower literacy was associated with higher risk for incident AD dementia (pliteracy measure had better predictive performance than the one with demographics and cognition only. Lower literacy also was associated with higher burden of AD pathology after controlling for cognition (β=0.07, p=0.035). Conclusion Literacy predicts incident AD dementia and AD pathology in community-dwelling older persons, and the association is independent of traditional measures of cognition. PMID:28157101

  13. Covariant anomalies and Hawking radiation from Kaluza–Klein AdS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, Hawking radiation is studied from four-dimensional (4D) Kaluza–Klein. (KK) AdS black holes via the method of anomaly cancellation. The KK-AdS black hole considered is a non-extremal charged rotating solution in the theory of 4D gauged supergravity. Its Hawking fluxes of electric charge, angular ...

  14. 27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... proprietor shall submit a flow diagram of the intended process or method of adding denaturants. (Sec. 201... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and Manufacture of Articles...

  15. Model checking mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassemi, Fatemeh; Fokkink, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Modeling arbitrary connectivity changes within mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) makes application of automated formal verification challenging. We use constrained labeled transition systems as a semantic model to represent mobility. To model check MANET protocols with respect to the underlying

  16. The contribution of technology to added value

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, António S C

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide consensus that introduction of technology to the production process contributes to an overall economic value, however, confusion between technology, knowledge and capital often makes value calculations ambiguous and non-objective. The Contribution of Technology to Added Value addresses not only this issue of definition but also provides a production model to assess the value contribution of technology within the production process. A clarification  of fundamental semantics  provides a significant taxonomy for technology dependence, and allows understanding and modeling of how knowledge, technology and capital individually contribute to production and to value adding. A new technology dependence taxonomy is proposed and assessed following chapters explaining growth models, the KTC model and technology index values. Balancing theoretical knowledge with real-world data and applications The Contribution of Technology to Added Value clarifies the issue of value adding for a range of different vie...

  17. Open string fluctuations in AdS space with and without torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.L.; Lomholt, Michael Andersen

    2003-01-01

    The equations of motion and boundary conditions for the fluctuations around a classical open string, in a curved space-time with torsion, are considered in compact and world-sheet covariant form. The rigidly rotating open strings in anti-de Sitter space with and without torsion are investigated...... dangerous than expected in these cases. The general formalism can be straightforwardly used also to study the (bosonic part of the) fluctuations around the closed strings, recently considered in connection with the AdS/conformal field theory duality, on AdS ×S and AdS ×S ×T ....

  18. The Tetrahedral Zamolodchikov Algebra and the {AdS_5× S^5} S-matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Vladimir; Staudacher, Matthias; Tsuboi, Zengo

    2017-08-01

    The S-matrix of the {AdS_5× S^5} string theory is a tensor product of two centrally extended su{(2|2)\\ltimes R^2 S-matrices, each of which is related to the R-matrix of the Hubbard model. The R-matrix of the Hubbard model was first found by Shastry, who ingeniously exploited the fact that, for zero coupling, the Hubbard model can be decomposed into two XX models. In this article, we review and clarify this construction from the AdS/CFT perspective and investigate the implications this has for the {AdS_5× S^5} S-matrix.

  19. ADS with HEU in the Vinca Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Sobolevsky, N.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Conceptual design of ADS' is a new project proposed in the Vin.a Institute for the next three years. In this paper, an option in the project - an idea of high-enriched uranium (HEU) - H 2 O low-flux ADS is shown. Preliminary results of design study and calculations of the beam-target interaction and neutronics of proposed sub-critical system are given. (author)

  20. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    2004-12-01

    The ADS now provides a search system for close to 4 million records. The data are organized in 4 databases, Astronomy/Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, Instrumentation, and ArXiv Preprints. The ADS is a NASA funded project and is free to use for everybody world-wide. We have recently extracted a large number of references from article reference lists. We now have over 16 million citing/cited reference pairs. This provides a very comprehensive citation database. During the last year we implemented a full text search system. This allows you to search the full text of all journals that we have scanned. This provides a unique way to find information, especially from the older literature. We recently implemented a customized notification service, called myADS. This service lets you specify several queries that are executed against new entries in the database whenever the database is updated. It also informs about new citations to your articles and new preprints, as well as what other articles are of interest to the users of the ADS. The ADS can be accessed at http://ads.harvard.edu