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Sample records for ad libitum diets

  1. Eating ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    in the context of the 'ad libitum meal'. The analytical interest is thus what kind of eaters and bodies are enacted in the meal test and what ideas of prevention and treatment are embedded in their standards. Drawing from ongoing empirical work among Danish obesity researchers performing scientific meal tests I...... ask what make up food stuff and eaters in the meal tests? More specifically I explore a scientific testing of changes in taste preferences before and after weight-loss surgery using an ad libitum buffet with a selection of different foods and another testing the effect of exercise on appetite also...

  2. Influence of a high-protein diet on energy balance in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, A; Fascetti, A J; Liu, K J; Villaverde, C; Green, A S; Manzanilla, E G; Havel, P J; Ramsey, J J

    2011-06-01

    The influence of a high-protein [HP, 47% of metabolizable energy (ME)] diet on energy balance was evaluated in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food. Energy intake, body weight, body composition, energy expenditure, and concentrations of hormones and metabolites associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and leptin) were measured in cats after consuming either a moderate protein (MP, 27% of ME) or HP diet for 4 months. Indirect respiration calorimetry showed that resting and total energy expenditure (kJ/day) adjusted for either body weight or lean body mass was increased in cats consuming the HP in relation to MP diets. However, voluntary energy intake also was increased in the HP treatment and, thus, there was no difference in body weight between animals consuming the two diets. Body composition measurements using deuterium oxide dilution showed that dietary protein content did not alter amounts of either lean body mass or fat mass. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the two treatment groups for blood glucose, free fatty acid or leptin concentrations, although there was a trend (p = 0.054) towards an increase of serum insulin concentrations in the cats eating the HP diet. This study showed that short-term ad libitum feeding of an HP diet did not reduce food intake or promote weight loss in obese cats. However, energy expenditure was increased in the HP diet group and it is possible that this effect of HP might help promote weight loss when energy intake is restricted. PMID:21039925

  3. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe Marie;

    2013-01-01

    Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European...... centers. Families were randomized to 1 of 5 diets consumed ad libitum: high protein (HP) or low protein (LP) combined with high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI), or a control diet. At 6 centers, families received dietary instruction (instruction centers); at 2 centers, free foods were also provided (supermarket...... centers). Diet, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cardiovascular markers (lipid profile, glucose regulation, and inflammation) were measured in 253 children at baseline, 1 mo, and/or 6 mo. Protein intake was higher in the HP groups (19.9 ± 1.3% energy) than in the LP groups at 6 mo (16.8 ± 1...

  4. The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Mu, Huiling;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. METHODS: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) men (n.......23 ± 0.11 in LF (P diets over 18 months. No effects on risk markers for T2D or CVD were found, with the exception of an improvement in the LDL/HDL ratio by the MUFA diet compared...... to the CTR diet. The LF diet was generally more satisfactory and the MUFA diet seemed more difficult to follow....

  5. Performance and individual feed intake characteristics of group-housed sows fed a nonstarch polysaccharides diet ad libitum during gestation over three parities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Plagge, J.G.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding group-housed gestating sows a diet with a high level of fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; approximately 45% sugar beet pulp as fed) ad libitum on the development in individual feed intake characteristics and reproductive

  6. Effects of 7 days on an ad libitum low-fat vegan diet: the McDougall Program cohort

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, John; Thomas, Laurie E; McDougall, Craig; Moloney, Gavin; Saul, Bradley; Finnell, John S; Richardson, Kelly; Petersen, Katelin Mae

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic evidence, reinforced by clinical and laboratory studies, shows that the rich Western diet is the major underlying cause of death and disability (e.g, from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes) in Western industrialized societies. The objective of this study is to document the effects that eating a low-fat (≤10% of calories), high-carbohydrate (~80% of calories), moderate-sodium, purely plant-based diet ad libitum for 7 days can have on the biomarkers of cardiova...

  7. Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aller, E E J G; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Holst, Claus;

    2014-01-01

    or obese adults in 8 centers across Europe. This study reports the 1-year results in 2 of the centers that extended the intervention to 1 year.Method:After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD), 256 adults (BMI>27 kg/m(2)) were randomized to 5 ad libitum diets for 12 months: high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P......-month intervention period.Results:During the LCD period subjects lost 11.2 (10.8, 12.0) kg (mean (95% CI)). Average weight regain over the 12-month intervention period was 3.9 (95% CI 3.0 to 4.8) kg. Subjects on the HP diets regained less weight than subjects on the LP diets. The difference in weight...

  8. Exercise Does Not Protect against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad libitum in Old ApoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Géloën, Alain; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Chauveau, Fabien; Thézé, Benoît; Hubert, Violaine; Wiart, Marlène; Chirico, Erica N.; Rieusset, Jennifer; Vidal, Hubert; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE−/− mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE−/− mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta, and brain were then assessed. Results: In EX ApoE−/− mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE−/− EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during 12 weeks), brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.049) with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE−/−mice. Conclusion: We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE−/− animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status) but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation) did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE−/− mice.

  9. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: A 6-mo randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effects of 3 ad libitum diets on the maintenance of an initial weight loss of >or=8% and risk factors for CVD and diabetes during...... as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet; n = 54), to a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet; n = 51), or to a control diet (35% of energy as fat; n = 26). Protein constituted 10-20% of energy in all 3 diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: More subjects dropped...... a 6-mo controlled dietary intervention. DESIGN: Nondiabetic overweight or obese [mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.5 +/- 2.6] men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 +/- 4.8 y were randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45% of energy) and >20% of fat...

  10. Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status.......We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status....

  11. Carcass traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two concentrate levels in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira; Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Edenio Detmann; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Lúcio Alberto de Miranda Gomide; Marcio de Souza Duarte; Victor Rezende Moreira Couto

    2011-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the quantitative carcass traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance level or ad libitum with 1% and 2% of the body weight in concentrate. The animals were allotted to the treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. The animals fed the ad libitum diet with more concentrate had greater cold carcass weight, cold carcass yield and longissimus muscle area/100 kg of ...

  12. Carcass traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two concentrate levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted to evaluate the quantitative carcass traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance level or ad libitum with 1% and 2% of the body weight in concentrate. The animals were allotted to the treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. The animals fed the ad libitum diet with more concentrate had greater cold carcass weight, cold carcass yield and longissimus muscle area/100 kg of cold carcass weight when compared with animals fed the diet with low concentrate allowance. There was no difference between the ad libitum diets for all of the carcass cuts yields, except for top sirloin. Crossbred animals had cold carcass yield larger than the Nellore animals. F1 Angus × Nellore animals had greater rib fat thickness and smaller longissimus muscle area/100 kg than the F1 Simmental × Nellore cattle. The yield of commercial carcass cuts was not influenced by genetic group, except for the shoulder clod yield, which was smaller in crossbred animals compared with Nellore animals. The longissimus muscle area, rib fat thickness and rump fat, taken by ultrasound were influenced by the body weight of the animals. Crossbred animals fed diets with higher concentrate level produce carcasses most suitable for the requirements of the market.

  13. Local e extensão da digestão em terneiros desmamados alimentados "Ad Libitum" com dietas ricas em concentrado contendo diferentes fontes de proteína suplementar Site and extent of digestion by weaned calves fed "Ad Libitum" on high concentrate-rich diets with different supplemental protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vilmar Kozloski

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados nove terneiros da raça Holandesa (139 ± 2,4kg, fistulados no duodeno, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado para estudar o efeito da suplementação com diferentes fontes protéicas (2% de uréia ou 10% de farinha de carne na dieta total de dietas ricas em concentrado (milho e farelo de soja sobre o local e extensão da digestão do alimento, em condições de consumo ad libitum. A relação volumoso:concentrado das dietas foi de 30:70. A digestibilidade ruminal e total da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e nitrogênio, assim como o fluxo duodenal de nitrogênio microbiano e residual do alimento, e a eficiência da síntese protéica microbiana foram semelhantes nos dois tratamentos (P>0,10. A digestibilidade ruminal do amido também foi semelhante, mas a digestibilidade total foi menor no tratamento com uréia (PNine weaned Holstein calves (139 ± 2.4kg fitted with duodenal cannulas were used in a completly ramdomized design to study the effects of supplemental protein sources (2% of urea or 10% of meat meal of high concentrate diets (corn and soybean meal on site and extent of digestion of feed, in ad libitum feeding conditions. The forage:concentrate ratio was 30:70. The ruminal and total digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and nitrogen, as well as microbial and feed residual nitrogen duodenal flow, and the microbial protein synthesis efficiency were similar for both treatments (P>0.10. The ruminal digestibility of starch was also similar, but total digestibility was lower for urea treatment (P<0.10. However, this is probably due more to the limited capacity of ruminants to digest starch in the intestines than to an effect of the protein supplement. The use of urea or meat meal, as supplemental protein sources for corn and soybean meal based diets, formulated to supply the growth requirements of calves fed ad libitum, did not affect the digestion process.Thus, the choise of the protein

  14. Adaptive changes in the appetite, growth and feeding behaviour of pony mares offered ad libitum access to a complete diet in either a pelleted or chaff-based form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argo, C.M.; Cox, J.E.; Lockyer, C.;

    2002-01-01

    Seven, 3-year-old pony mares (similar to230 kg) were used in a cross-over study to compare the appetite, energy and nutrient digestibilities, growth rate and feeding behaviour, when a complete diet was offered ad libitum in either the original loose-chaff mix (C), or as a more convenient, milled....... Following transfer from pellets to chaff, DEI decreased (P end of period 2. In contrast, DEI of animals which progressed from chaff to pellets remained relatively constant between periods. Oestrous behaviour caused no detectable change in the appetite...

  15. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.

  16. Pattern of tissue deposition, gain and body composition of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two levels of concentrate in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty 18-month-old steers (20 Nellore, 20 F1 Simmental × Nellore and 20 F1 Angus × Nellore with average body weight of 265.6±6.4 kg; 325.3±4.7 kg and 324.6±6.0 kg, respectively were used. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on physical carcass composition, empty body composition, composition of the gain, as well as the pattern of tissue deposition were evaluated in this trial. The interaction between genetic group and feeding regime was not significant for any variable evaluated. Animals fed at the maintenance level produced carcass with larger proportions of bones and muscle than the animals fed ad libitum and Nellore animals had larger muscle portion and smaller adipose tissue portion on the carcass than the crossbred animals. Nellore animals and those fed at maintenance had smaller amount of total fat in the carcass than the crossbred animals and those fed ad libitum, respectively. Fat was deposited more pronouncedly in the intermuscular depot, followed by the visceral depot. The rate of deposition of the carcass tissues was smaller in the Nellore animals and in the animals fed the diet with concentrate allowance equivalent to 1% body weight (except for subcutaneous fat tissue, when compared with the crossbred animals and those fed the diet with 2% BW on concentrate, respectively. The rate of fat deposition on the visceral depot was larger in the F1 Angus × Nellore animals and on those fed the 2% of BW of concentrate diet when compared with F1 Simmental × Nellore animals and those fed the diet with the lowest concentrate allowance (1% BW.

  17. Effects on markers of inflammation and endothelial cell function of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia;

    2011-01-01

    Diet is important for the prevention of CVD, and diets high in MUFA might be more cardioprotective than low-fat diets. We hypothesise that inflammation and endothelial cell function will be improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) assigned to a diet moderate in the amount of fat (35-45% of energy; >20% of fat as MUFA; MUFA diet, n 39), a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet, n 43) or a control diet (35 % of energy as fat, n 24) for 6 months after...... weight loss. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all diets. Food was provided free of charge. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the intervention and analysed for C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and tissue factor pathway...

  18. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia;

    2010-01-01

    Diet is important in the prevention of CVD, and it has been suggested that a diet high in MUFA is more cardioprotective than a low-fat diet. We hypothesised that the thrombotic risk profile is improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45 % of energy; >20 % of fat as MUFA) (MUFA diet; n 39), to a low-fat (LF; 20-30 % of energy) diet (n 43), or to a control diet (35 % of energy as fat; n 24......) for 6 months after a weight loss of about 10 %. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all three diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after intervention and analysed for factor VII coagulant activity (FVII...

  19. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Genoni; Philippa Lyons-Wall; Johnny Lo; Amanda Devine

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to either ...

  20. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) METHODS: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) RESULTS: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (-1.99 kg, 95% CI -2.9, -1.0), p Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (-14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI -19.5, -9.7), sodium (-1055 mg/day, 95% CI -1593, -518), calcium (-292 mg/day 95% CI -486.0, -99.0) and iodine (-47.9 μg/day, 95% CI -79.2, -16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  1. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Genoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2 Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2 were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22 or AGHE diet (n = 17 for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3 Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0, p < 0.001. There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E, 95% CI −19.5, −9.7, sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518, calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0 and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5 and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1 and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410 (all p < 0.01; (4 Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations.

  2. Ad libitum feeding following ovariectomy in female Beagle dogs: effect on maintenance energy requirement and on blood metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeusette, I; Detilleux, J; Cuvelier, C; Istasse, L; Diez, M

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the effect of ovariectomy on daily energy requirement in Beagle dogs, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of ad libitum feeding with a high energy diet on energy consumption, body weight gain and blood metabolites in these spayed dogs. Four young adult female Beagle dogs were used. Ovariectomy induced a significant decrease of daily energy requirement in dogs. Ad libitum feeding, initiated 6 months after spaying, induced a significant increase in consumption in spayed dogs. This overconsumption was greatest during the first month of ad libitum feeding but continued for the entire 4 months of this period. When fed ad libitum, dogs gained excess body weight without significant effect on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin, at short term. These data suggest that energy intake should be strictly controlled to avoid excess weight gain in spayed dogs. PMID:15059235

  3. Reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Susanne B; Franks, Paul W; Krakoff, Jonathan; Salbe, Arline D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Accurate assessment of energy intake is difficult but critical for the evaluation of eating behavior and intervention effects. Consequently, methods to assess ad libitum energy intake under controlled conditions have been developed. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system. Design: Twelve individuals (mean ± SD: 36 ± 8 y old; 41 ± 8% body fat) consumed a weight-maintaining diet for 3 d; subsequently, they self-selected all food with the use of a computerized vending machine system for an additional 3 d. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the actual weight of foods consumed and expressed as a percentage of weight-maintenance energy needs (%WMEN). Subjects repeated the study multiple times during 2 y. The within-person reproducibility of energy intake was determined through the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between visits. Results: Daily energy intake for all subjects was 5020 ± 1753 kcal during visit 1 and 4855 ± 1615 kcal during visit 2. There were no significant associations between energy intake and body weight, body mass index, or percentage body fat while subjects used the vending machines, which indicates that intake was not driven by body size or need. Despite overconsumption (%WMEN = 181 ± 57%), the reproducibility of intake between visits, whether expressed as daily energy intake (ICC = 0.90), %WMEN (ICC = 0.86), weight of food consumed (ICC = 0.87), or fat intake (g/d; ICC = 0.87), was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although ad libitum energy intake exceeded %WMEN, the within-person reliability of this intake across multiple visits was high, which makes this a reproducible method for the measurement of ad libitum intake in subjects who reside in a research unit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342732. PMID:19923376

  4. Reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system123

    OpenAIRE

    Venti, Colleen A; Votruba, Susanne B; Franks, Paul W.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Salbe, Arline D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Accurate assessment of energy intake is difficult but critical for the evaluation of eating behavior and intervention effects. Consequently, methods to assess ad libitum energy intake under controlled conditions have been developed.

  5. Effect of maize silage supplementation to grass silage harvested at different maturity stages on ad libitum intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to determine ad libitum intake of fresh ration, dry matter (DM and the organic matter (OM of grass silage from the primary growth harvested at different maturity stages in interaction with maize silage (33 % and 67 %, DM based in g kg-1 of the metabolic body weight (M0.75. Grass silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. that was dominant grass in the sward (late vegetative, internode elongation, flowering. The study consisted of ten feeding treatments with 10 whether Charolais sheep in incomplete changeover design. Dry matter content of I, II and III cutting term was 396, 408 i 463 g kg-1 of the fresh sample, respectively, while crude protein (CP content was 119.6, 98.0 and 93.0 g kg-1 of DM respectively. Dry mater and starch concentration in maize silage was 264 g kg-1 of fresh sample and 211 g kg-1 of DM respectively. Inclusion of 67 % of maize silage in the grass silage of the and grass silage of the II cutting term based ration significantely increased (P<0.05 fresh ration ad libitum intake, while with the III cutting term of grass silage both levels of the maize silage (33 % vs. 67 % significantely increased (P<0.05 fresh ration ad libitum intake. Inclusion of maize silage to grass silage of the I, II or III cutting term based ration (33 % vs. 67 % did not have a significant influence on DM or OM ad libitum intake. It was concluded that a positive response of maize silage inclusion in the grass silage based diet is dependent on the quality of both, the maize silage (DM and starch concentration and the grass silage (maturity stage at harvesting. The maize silage was probably of lower quailty then required for improved ad libitum DM and OM intake of the grass silage based ration.

  6. Bone Composition in Male and Female Göttingen Minipigs Fed Variously Restrictedly and near ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P. J. A.; Lemmens, A. G.; Beynen, A. C.;

    2006-01-01

    The current study evaluated the influence of restricted feeding at low and medium levels versus near ad libitum food intake, on the growth and bone development in male and female Göttingen minipigs aged 8 to 43 weeks fed two different types of diets. Diet 1 was a low fat, high fibre diet, whereas...... diet 2 was a high fat, low fibre diet. A higher level of feed intake led to a significant increase in the following parameters: body weight development, bone size (length and width of rib and femur), bone volume (rib), bone (rib) dry matter and ash content (mg), as well as bone density (femur...... development, bone volume, and dry matter and ash content of the rib (mg) as compared to males. Also bone mineral concentrations in the femur, expressed as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in mg/cm3, were significantly higher in females as compared to males, as was the Ca:Pi ratio. Bone density measurements...

  7. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkulo, M.A.R.; Bol, S.; Levels, K.; Lamberts, R.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Noakes, T.D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and tw

  8. The Ratio of Macronutrients, Not Caloric Intake, Dictates Cardiometabolic Health, Aging, and Longevity in Ad Libitum-Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M.; McMahon, Aisling C.; Ballard, J. William O.; Ruohonen, Kari; Wu, Lindsay E.; Cogger, Victoria C.; Warren, Alessandra; Huang, Xin; Pichaud, Nicolas; Melvin, Richard G.; Gokarn, Rahul; Khalil, Mamdouh; Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J.; Sinclair, David A.; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The fundamental questions of what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet and how this maintains health and longevity remain unanswered. Here, the Geometric Framework, a state-space nutritional modeling method, was used to measure interactive effects of dietary energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate on food intake, cardiometabolic phenotype, and longevity in mice fed one of 25 diets ad libitum. Food intake was regulated primarily by protein and carbohydrate content. Longevity and health were optimized when protein was replaced with carbohydrate to limit compensatory feeding for protein and suppress protein intake. These consequences are associated with hepatic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and mitochondrial function and, in turn, related to circulating branched-chain amino acids and glucose. Calorie restriction achieved by high-protein diets or dietary dilution had no beneficial effects on lifespan. The results suggest that longevity can be extended in ad libitum-fed animals by manipulating the ratio of macronutrients to inhibit mTOR activation. PMID:24606899

  9. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate: a 6-month randomised study in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas M; Due, Anette;

    2010-01-01

    Diet is important in the prevention of CVD, and it has been suggested that a diet high in MUFA is more cardioprotective than a low-fat diet. We hypothesised that the thrombotic risk profile is improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45 % of energy; >20 % of fat as MUFA) (MUFA diet; n 39), to a low-fat (LF; 20-30 % of energy) diet (n 43), or to a control diet (35 % of energy as fat; n 24......) for 6 months after a weight loss of about 10 %. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all three diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after intervention and analysed for factor VII coagulant activity (FVII...

  10. Brisk walking reduces ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters during a workplace simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2012-02-01

    Workplace snacking can contribute to obesity. Exercise reduces chocolate cravings but effects on chocolate consumption are unknown. This study investigated the effect of brief exercise on ad libitum consumption during breaks in a computerised task. Seventy-eight regular chocolate eaters, age: 24.90±8.15 years, BMI: 23.56±3.78 kg/m(2) abstained for 2 days. They were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, involving either a 15 min brisk walk or quiet rest, and then computerised Stroop tasks with low or high demanding conditions, in three 180 s blocks with a 90 s interval. Throughout, a pre-weighed bowl of chocolates was available for ad libitum eating. A two-way ANOVA revealed no interaction effect of exercise and stress on total chocolate consumption, or main effect of stress, but a main effect of exercise [F(1, 74)=7.12, pexercise (15.6 g) than control (28.8 g) group. Exercise also increased affective activation, but there was no mediating effect of change in affect on chocolate consumption. A brief walk may help to reduce ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters. PMID:22100187

  11. Beef quality traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at the maintenance level or ad libitum with two concentrate levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted to evaluate some beef quality attributes of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers finished on feedlot. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on shear force, thawing losses, cooking (leak + evaporation losses, total losses and muscle fiber type, as well as carcass pH and temperature during 24 h of chilling were evaluated. There was a genetic group effect on shear force, where the beef from F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore animals had lower values than Nellore animals. Beef of the animals fed the diets with 1% and 2% of body weight on concentrated lost more liquid than the meat of the animals fed at maintenance during thawing and when considering total losses. During cooking there was a difference among the feeding regimes for drip losses which were greater on the animals fed the diet of 1% of body weight on concentrate, followed by the 2% diet and, finally, by the animals fed at maintenance. The muscle of the Nellore steers had larger proportion of intermediate fibers and lower proportion of oxidative fibers than the crossbred animals. The proportion of glycolytic fibers was not influenced by genetic group. The Nellore animals had larger proportion of fibers of fast contraction and smaller proportion of fibers of slow contraction when compared with the crossbred animals. Feeding regime did not influence the proportion of muscular fibers or shear force. Nellore cattle produce tougher beef than crossbred Simmental × Nellore or Angus × Nellore, although all of them have the potential to produce an acceptable beef when slaughtered at young age. Feed restriction up to 90 days is not enough to cause modification on muscle fiber frequencies, then not affecting beef quality.

  12. Organic dairy production based on rapeseed, rapeseed cake or cereals as supplement to silage ad libitum

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Ingvartsen, Klaus L; Kristensen, Troels; Seested, Susanne; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment presents the effect of 100% organic feed rations grown at an equal area per cow on milk production performance and metabolic responses. A total of 174 Danish Holstein cows were included in two experiments on two commercial organic dairy farms during the winter 2000/2001. Three types of supplementary feed were examined: 5 kg cereals, 3 kg rapeseed/cereal pellet or 1 kg rapeseed cake fed with a mixture of clover grass silage, whole crop silage and grass pellets ad libitum. The s...

  13. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle.

  14. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle. PMID:9535321

  15. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (pexercise condition (pexercise condition (pExercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise.

  16. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (pexercise condition (pexercise condition (pExercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. PMID:24971700

  17. Meat quality of rabbits reared with two different feeding strategies: with or without fresh alfalfa ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Capra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate production performance, carcass characteristics and nutritive value of meat of rabbits reared under the 2 prevailing feeding strategies in Uruguay. One week after weaning, 96 purebred V line rabbits were randomly distributed between 2 treatments: (T1 commercial pelleted food ad libitum and (T2 commercial pelleted food ad libitum plus fresh alfalfa ad libitum. Each treatment included 12 cages containing 4 individuals each (2 males and 2 females. Growth performance characteristics (live weight evolution, commercial food consumption and food/gain ratio were evaluated. The consumption of alfalfa was not measured. Rabbits were slaughtered at a live weight of 2500 g and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Samples of meat and dissectible fat were analysed to determine intramuscular fat content at muscle L. dorsi, dissectible fat and intramuscular fat composition, minerals (Zn, Fe, Mg and Na, vitamin E and purines. Sensory evaluations were conducted to assess the effect of treatments on the consumer’s perception of differences and the existence of attributes determining preferences. Differences between treatments were significant for total commercial food intake (23 356 vs. 20 930 g/cage; P<0.001 and feed conversion ratio (3.82 vs. 3.41; P<0.01 for T1 and T2 respectively. No significant differences were found in average daily gain, age at slaughter and carcass characteristics. There were no significant differences in the intramuscular fat content. The fatty acid composition of dissectible and intramuscular fat was affected the inclusion of alfalfa in the diet increasing the linolenic acid content (1.82 vs. 3.28% and 2.29 vs. 5.15% for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001, and improving the n-6/n-3 relationship (8.60 vs. 5.82 and 11.58 vs. 5.64 for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001. There were no significant differences in vitamin E

  18. Ractopamine for finishing barrows fed restricted or ad libitum diets: performance and nitrogen balance Ractopamina para suínos em terminação recebendo ração restrita ou à vontade: desempenho e balanço de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius de Souza Cantarelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation of 5 ppm of ractopamine, associated or not to feed restriction in diets with a high total lysine content (1.04% was evaluated on performance and nitrogen balance. In experiment 1, 60 hybrid castrated male swine (76.2 ± 2.3 kg were housed in pairs according to a randomized complete block design in a factorial treatment arrangement (2 ×2 + 1 with or without ractopamine supplementation, two forms of feeding, ad libitum and feed restriction with 1.04% lysine, and an additional treatment (control, with ad libitum feed without ractopamine with 0.8% lysine, amounting to five treatments and six replications. The final live weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed conversion for 28 days were evaluated. There were improvements in supplementation with ractopamine for final live weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion. The ad libitum feeding improved both final live weight and daily weight gain compared with ractopamine. Compared with the control, there was a decrease in feed conversion with ractopamine supplementation and improvement for final weight (FW in the treatment with the ractopamine and ad libitum feed. In experiment 2, 30 hybrid castrated male swine (74.1 ± 2.5 kg were housed in metabolism cages and fed the same experimental treatments to evaluate the percentages of absorbed nitrogen (Nabs, retained nitrogen (Nret, nitrogen retained from the absorbed nitrogen (Nret/Nabs and the plasma urea concentration at 14 and 28 days. At 14 days, there was an increase in the Nret/Nabs and plasma urea concentration with ractopamine supplementation. Compared with the control, there was a decrease in the plasma urea concentration for feed restriction with ractopamine. At 28 days, there was an increase in the Nret/Nabs with ractopamine supplementation. Thus supplementation with 5 ppm ractopamine improved the performance and efficiency of swine nitrogen use. Feed restriction interfered negatively in weight gain, but it

  19. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. Objective: To investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8-11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic...... markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods: For two consecutive three-month periods this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured...... simultaneously for seven consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short and long sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured...

  20. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which is associated with increased body weight. This report describes the influence of diet and body weight on the acute toxicity, hepatic enzyme response, and toxickinetics of chloral hydrate as part of a larger study investigating the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed and dietary controlled mice. Dietary control involves moderate food restriction to maintain the test animals at an idealized body weight. Mice were dosed with chloral hydrate at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week, by aqueous gavage for 2 weekly dosing cycles. Three diet groups were used: ad libitum, dietary control, and 40% caloric restriction. Both dietary control and caloric restriction slightly reduced acute toxicity of high doses of chloral hydrate and potentiated the induction of hepatic enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Chloral hydrate toxicokinetics were investigated using blood samples obtained by sequential tail clipping and a microscale gas chromatography technique. It was rapidly cleared from serum within 3 h of dosing. Trichloroacetate was the major metabolite in serum in all three diet groups. Although the area under the curve values for serum trichloroacetate were slightly greater in the dietary controlled and calorically restricted groups than in the ad libitum-fed groups, this increase did not appear to completely account for the potentiation of hepatic enzyme induction by dietary restriction

  1. Use of nicotine substitute prescribed at hourly plus ab libitum intake or ad libitum for heavy smokers willing to quit: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zellweger Jean-Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the impact of instructional guidance in the regular use of use nicotine nasal spray (NNS on the true use of NNS during the first three weeks of smoking cessation for heavy smokers who are willing to quit. Methods This randomized, open, controlled trial included 50 patients who were heavy smokers, were willing to quit, and attending an academic outpatient clinic in Western Switzerland. Patients were randomised to instruction on NNS use as "ad libitum" (administration whenever cravings appear; control group or to use NNS when craving appears and at least every hour when awake (intervention group. Intakes were monitored using an electronic device fixed in the spray unit (MDILog™ during the first three weeks of use. Self reported abstinence from smoking at six months was confirmed by expired-air carbon monoxide. Using intention-to-treat analysis, random-effect GLS regression was used to calculate the mean difference of daily doses between groups controlling for lack of independence between measures from the same individual. Results One patient was lost to follow-up. At baseline randomization, the group receiving instruction to use NNS hourly included more women, patients with previous desires to quit, and patients with more psychiatric comorbidities and less somatic complaints compared to the group instructed to use NNS with cravings (group imbalance. Both groups self-administered more than the daily recommended dosage of 8 uses. Mean daily usage was 13.6 dose/day and 11.1 dose/day for the group instructed to use NNS hourly and with cravings, respectively. Adjusting for baseline imbalance, the increased daily doses in the intervention group (hourly use remained nonsignificant compared to ad libitum use (-0.5 dose/day; CI 95% -6.2; 5.3, from day 1 to day 7; and 2.3 dose/day; CI 95% -5.4; 10.0, from day 8 to day 21. Instructing patients to use the NNS daily had no effect on smoking cessation at six months (RR = 0.69; CI

  2. Quantifying hepatic glycogen synthesis by direct and indirect pathways in rats under normal ad libitum feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana F; Viega, Francisco J; Carvalho, Rui A; Jones, John G

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic glycogen synthesis from intact hexose (direct pathway) relative to that from gluconeogenic precursors (indirect pathway) was quantified in ad libitum-fed rats. Following (2)H(2)O administration and overnight feeding, the livers were removed and glycogen (2)H-enrichment was measured by (2)H NMR. Six controls and six rats rendered hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (STZ; fasting blood glucose = 385 +/- 31 mg/dl) were studied. The indirect pathway contribution, estimated as glycogen hydrogen 5 relative to hydrogen 2 enrichment, was 54% +/- 4% for control rats-similar to values from healthy, meal-fed humans. In STZ-treated rats, the indirect pathway contribution was significantly higher (68% +/- 4%, P diabetic (T1D) patients. In conclusion, sources of hepatic glycogen synthesis in rats during ad libitum nocturnal feeding were quantified by analysis of glycogen enrichment from (2)H(2)O. STZ caused alterations resembling the pathophysiology of hepatic glycogen synthesis in T1D patients.

  3. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the...

  4. Reappraise the situation but express your emotions:Impact of emotion regulation strategies on ad libitum food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Diana eTaut; Britta eRenner; Adriana eBaban

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and emotion regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the firs...

  5. Effect of maize silage supplementation to grass silage harvested at different maturity stages on ad libitum intake

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Vranić; Mladen Knežević; Goran Perčulija; Ivana Matić; Damir Turčin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to determine ad libitum intake of fresh ration, dry matter (DM) and the organic matter (OM) of grass silage from the primary growth harvested at different maturity stages in interaction with maize silage (33 % and 67 %, DM based) in g kg-1 of the metabolic body weight (M0.75). Grass silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) that was dominant grass in the sward (late vegetative, internode elongation, flowering)....

  6. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system ...

  7. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    MonikaPischetsrieder; AndreasHess

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger.Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system o...

  8. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  9. Effect of hydration status and fluid availability on ad-libitum energy intake of a semi-solid breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corney, Robert A; Horina, Anja; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis J

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of hydration status and fluid availability on appetite and energy intake. Sixteen males completed four 24 h trials, visiting the laboratory overnight fasted on two consecutive days. Standardised foods were provided during the 24 h and on day two an ad-libitum semi-solid porridge breakfast was provided. Water intake during the 24 h (0 or 40 mL⋅kg(-1)) and fluid provision during the ad-libitum breakfast were manipulated so subjects were euhydrated with (EU-F) and without fluid (EU-NF) available at breakfast; and hypohydrated with (HYPO-F) and without fluid (HYPO-NF) available at breakfast. Blood samples (0 and 24 h), urine samples (0-24 h) and subjective responses (0, 24 and 24.5 h) were collected. HYPO trials decreased body mass by ~1.8%. Serum and urine osmolality increased and plasma volume decreased during HYPO trials (P semi-solid breakfast, at least in healthy young males. PMID:25953599

  10. Leptin receptor in the chicken ovary: potential involvement in ovarian dysfunction of ad libitum-fed broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Anne

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hens, the ovarian follicles committed to ovulation are arranged in an ordered follicular hierarchy. In standard broiler breeders hens genetically selected for high growth rate the reproductive function is clearly dysfunctional. Feed restriction is needed during reproductive development to limit the formation of excessive numbers of ovarian yellow follicles arranged in multiple hierarchies. To determine whether leptin is involved in the nutritional and reproductive interactions controlling follicular hierarchy in hens, blood leptin levels and ovarian expression of the leptin receptor mRNA were determined during follicle maturation in three chicken lines; a slow growing broiler "Label" genotype without reproductive dysfunction, a fast growing "Standard" genotype fed ad libitum or restricted and a fast growing "Experimental" line with intermediate reproductive performance levels. Whereas expression of the leptin receptor mRNA did not change in the theca, it clearly decreased with follicular differentiation in the granulosa of slow growing hens. In fast growing standard hens fed ad libitum and presenting significant reproductive dysfunction, the decrease was disrupted and dramatic up-regulation of granulosa cell expression of the leptin receptor was observed. On the other hand, feed restriction decreased the overall level of expression of the leptin receptor mRNA and restored the decrease with follicular growth. The level of expression of the leptin receptor probably modulates the action of leptin on follicular differentiation. Since blood leptin and other metabolic factors were not affected by the genotype or by nutritional state, the factors involved in the regulation of leptin receptor gene expression remain to be determined. This study demonstrates the involvement of leptin in the nutritional control of reproduction in birds. Leptin action on the ovary probably controls follicular hierarchy through the regulation of steroidogenesis.

  11. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eHoch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger.Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for ten minutes each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test.In summary, fat (F, carbohydrates (CH, and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chips (PC were highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite their low energy density, fat-free potato chips (ffPC were also highly significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH and PC.Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  12. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  13. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hopkins, William

    2009-01-31

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ("Ad lib") larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ("Ration") larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V(total) (Control, "C"), 109 ppm (Low, "L"), and 363 ppm (High, "H"). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at alpha=0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources are typically more limited.

  14. Serum lipase activity and concentration during intravenous infusions of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 and after ad libitum meal ingestion in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Stevner, Lene Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect on serum lipase activity and protein concentration of intravenous infusions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY3-36) and of an ad libitum meal in healthy overweight men. Twenty-five healthy, male subjects participated in this randomized, double...... the infusion and after intake of an ad libitum meal for measurement of serum lipase. Serum lipase levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following mono-infusions of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 were comparable to serum lipase levels following placebo (P = 0.054 and P = 0.873, respectively...

  15. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Jensen, M.G.; Riboldi, G.;

    2010-01-01

    based oil wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP......) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and El measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly...

  16. Both Longer Oral Sensory Exposure to and Higher Intensity of Saltiness Decrease Ad Libitum Food Intake in Healthy Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    Orosensory exposure to sweetness has been shown to be important in satiation, whereas the effect of exposure to a salty taste on satiation is not known. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of orosensory exposure time to and intensity of saltiness in soup on ad libitum intake. The sec

  17. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-12-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data were clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilisation of energy was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterised as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species was highest after four days of ad libitum feeding suggesting a short term imbalance in the transport or metabolism of these metabolites when changing the feeding level. PMID:23123310

  18. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-01-01

    was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterized as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species...

  19. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from

  20. Reappraise the situation but express your emotions:Impact of emotion regulation strategies on ad libitum food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eTaut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect and emotion regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165 could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of 1 whether eating (yes/no is used as a secondary emotion regulation strategy and 2 whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the emotion regulation strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, emotion regulation strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion-induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without emotion regulation instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no emotion regulation instruction then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no emotion regulation instruction and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted emotion regulation is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive emotion regulation such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when emotion regulation is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  1. Ad libitum fluid intake leads to no leg swelling in male Ironman triathletes – an observational field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Michael

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between fluid intake and limb swelling has been described for 100-km ultra-marathoners. We investigated a potential development of peripheral oedemata in Ironman triathletes competing over 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.2 km running. Methods In 15 male Ironman triathletes, fluid intake, changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, limb volumes and skinfold thickness were measured. Changes in renal function, parameters of skeletal muscle damage, hematologic parameters and osmolality in both serum and urine were determined. Skinfold thicknesses at hands and feet were measured using LIPOMETER® and changes of limb volumes were measured using plethysmography. Results The athletes consumed a total of 8.6 ± 4.4 L of fluids, equal to 0.79 ± 0.43 L/h. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass and the volume of the lower leg decreased (p p >0.05. The decrease in skeletal muscle mass was associated with the decrease in body mass (p p >0.05. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum sodium remained unchanged (p >0.05. Osmolality in serum and urine increased (p +] (r = −0.52, p r = −0.60, p Conclusions In these Ironman triathletes, ad libitum fluid intake maintained plasma [Na+] and plasma osmolality and led to no peripheral oedemata. The volume of the lower leg decreased and the decrease was unrelated to fluid intake. Future studies may investigate ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running to find an association between fluid intake and the development of peripheral oedemata.

  2. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated with the intake of snack food in ad libitum fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hoch

    Full Text Available Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet's molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl2 solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g., dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus or to the satiety system (e.g., arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract; 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen. Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn2+ -accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn2+ -accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior.

  3. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  4. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  5. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    Kontrollgruppe eher der amerikanischen Idealgruppe entsprach. In der Pilot-Studie waren die Unterschiede in der Nährstoffzufuhr zwischen den beiden Gruppen viel geringer als in der DASH-Studie; für eine blutdrucksenkende Ernährungsumstellung bestand somit nur ein geringer Spielraum. Eine weitere Erklärung besteht in der unterschiedlichen Zusammensetzung der Studienpopulation. Bei DASH wurden vorwiegend farbige Probanden (40% höhere Hypertonieprävalenz) untersucht. Die Studienergebnisse lassen also den Schluss zu, dass Ernährungs- und Lebensstilgewohnheiten sowie der genetische Hintergrund der entsprechenden Bevölkerungsgruppe bei der Formulierung von nährstoff- oder lebensmittelbezogenen Empfehlungen zur Senkung des Bluthochdruckes Berücksichtigung finden müssen. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial (DASH), a randomized well-controlled feeding study conducted at 4 medical centers, demonstrated that a low-fat diet, rich in fruits, vegetables and dairy products is able to lower blood pressure of borderline-hypertensive people significantly. Body weight, sodium intake and alcohol consumption were kept constant during the whole study period, due to the known influence on hypertension. Aim of our study project was to investigate whether the results of the DASH study can be confirmed by (i) using a German hypertensive population and (ii) replacing the well-controlled feeding design by allowing ad libitum intake according to dietary ad-vice. The participants were asked to keep their body weight, sodium urine excretion (un-der this study design more valid than sodium intake) and their alcohol consumption con-stant. Our pilot study population consisted of 53 mainly overweight participants with borderline hypertension and without medication or any metabolic disorders. They were randomly assigned to either an ideal diet low in fat and rich in dairy products, fruits and vegetables (similar to the DASH I-group) or a habitual diet as control (C-group). During five

  6. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  7. Total Body Water, Electrolyte, and Thermoregulatory Responses to Ad Libitum Water Replacement Using Two Different Water Delivery Systems During a 19-km Route March.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Nolte, Kim; van der Meulen, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Hands-free hydration systems are often advocated for improved hydration and performance in military populations. The aim was to assess whether such systems indeed result in improved hydration in exercising soldiers. Subjects were required to complete a route march while consuming water ad libitum from either a hydration bladder (BG) or traditional canteen (CG). Water intakes of 538 ml·h⁻¹ (BG) and 533 ml·h⁻¹ (CG) resulted in no differences for changes in body mass, serum [Na], plasma osmolality, total body water, or time required to complete the march. There were no differences between peak exercise core temperature of the BG (38.9° C) and CG (38.7° C) groups. There were no differences between the groups for fluid balance, thermoregulation, or performance. This is a not a surprising finding because the amount of fluid consumed ad libitum is determined by changes in serum osmolality and not the fluid delivery system as often proposed. PMID:26506205

  8. Bone Composition in Male and Female Göttingen Minipigs Fed Variously Restrictedly and near ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P. J. A.; Lemmens, A. G.; Beynen, A. C.;

    2006-01-01

    measured by X-ray absorption. Diet 2 gave a significantly higher body weight, bone volume and bone density of the femur shaft (cortical bone density) as compared to diet 1, whereas feed conversion was significantly lower on diet 2. On either diet, female minipigs had a significantly higher body weight...... of the femur’s proximal and distal segment, and total femur bone density (g/cm2) were significantly higher in females as compared to males. Feed conversion in females was significantly lower than in males. This study illustrates that female and male minipigs show distinct differences in body and bone...... metabolism. Bone densities, in contrast to bone mineral concentrations, were related to the level of feed restriction and may therefore be useful biomarkers to study the influence of nutrient intake on bone metabolism in Göttingen minipigs....

  9. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  10. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P < 0.0001) respectively; however, the relative intake of fluid to food (mL/kcal) increased (P < 0.0001). Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P < 0.001) and diet cola (P < 0.0001). Baseline thirst correlated positively with both fluid (r = 0.28; P < 0.001) and food (r = 0.16; P < 0.05) intakes at the meal, whereas baseline appetite associated positively only with mealtime food intake (r = 0.23; P<0.01). In conclusion, mealtime fluid and food intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. PMID:25700893

  11. Influencia de la ingesta ad libitum de bebidas con diferente osmolaridad sobre algunas variables fisiológicas durante una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración. Influence of ad libitum intake of beverages with different osmolarities on some physiological parameters during a high-intensity, long-duration physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: establecer la influencia de la ingesta ad libitum de diferentes bebidas hidratantes sobre el porcentaje de pérdida del peso corporal (%PC, el aumento de la frecuencia cardíaca (FC y la reducción porcentual del volumen plasmático (%VP en deportistas sometidos a una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración. Metodología: luego de nueve minutos de calentamiento, en banda rodante con velocidad equivalente al 50% de la frecuencia cardíaca de reserva (FCR, siguieron 88 minutos de carrera, durante la cual la velocidad se incrementó al 80% de la FCR; al final, 90 minutos de recuperación. No se hizo reposición hídrica durante el tratamiento deshidratado (DH; durante los tratamientos con hidratación se emplearon volúmenes similares, ingeridos ad libitum, de cada una de tres bebidas, a saber: hiperosmolar (Hiper, hipoosmolar (Hipo e isoosmolar (Iso. Resultados: se observó en cada uno de los tratamientos un aumento del porcentaje de pérdia del peso corporal (%PC (p<0,001 y de la FC (p< 0,05 al igual que una correlación entre el %PC y el incremento de la FC (p<0,000; en los tratamientos DH e Hiper hubo una reducción del volumen plasmático (%VP (p<0,05. Se observó interacción tiempo-tratamiento con el %PC. Conclusiones: la ingesta ad libitum fue menor que la cantidad recomendada en la literatura internacional, por lo que, probablemente, no se pudieron establecer los efectos de la osmolaridad de las bebidas hidratantes sobre las variables estudiadas. La magnitud del %PC, del incremento de la FC y de la reducción del %VP fueron proporcionales a la duración de la actividad física; la relación existente entre el %PC y la %VP se modificó por la osmolaridad de la bebida. Objetive: To establish the influence of ad libitum intake of hydrating beverages with different osmolarities on the percentage of body weight loss (%BW, the increase of heart rate (HR, and the percentage of plasma volume decrease (%PV in athletes

  12. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Gao, Zhiling, E-mail: zhilinggao@hotmail.com [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo [College of Animal Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Cai, Zhenjiang [Mechanical and Electric Engineering College, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China)

    2015-04-15

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were

  13. CH4 and N2O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N2O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH4 from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N2O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH4 emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH4 animal−1 d−1 and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH4 conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N2O emission rates (21.2 g N2O animal−1 d−1) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N2O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N2O animal−1 d−1 and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N2O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH4 conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH4 and N2O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were provided in the first time. • Feeding strategies determined the diurnal pattern of feedlot CH4 emission. • Frequency of manure

  14. THE CONSEQUENCES ON BLOOD GSH DYNAMICS ON WISTAR FEMALE RATS AT AD LIBITUM CHROMIUM (VI ADMINISTRATION DURING THE GESTATION AFTER THE WEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA GRĂVILĂ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (VI is a widely used industrial chemical, extensively used in paints, metal finishes, steel including stainless steel manufacturing, alloy cast irons, chrome, and wood treatment. In nature chromium occurs in divalent, trivalent and hexavalent forms. Hexavalent chromium predominates over the trivalent form in natural waters. We have studied the influence of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 on blood GSH values in rats. This study was carried out on 28 Wistar adult female rats, divided in 3 experimental groups (E and one control group (C. The rats were feed with 25ppm (LOAEL, 50ppm and 75ppm potassium dichromate, ad libitum, in drinking water, during the gestation. The control batch received tap water. Reduced glutathione (GSH was measured quantitatively after the wean using a Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer, through Beutler et al. method, at 412nm. This study reports that potassium dichromate exposure induced the depletion of blood GSH because Cr(VI can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS. It can induce oxidative stress and toxicity.

  15. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4–6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S.; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4–6-year-old children’s self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n = 70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (EDfood+drink) and ED for foods only (EDfoods) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood+drink. In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood. There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children. PMID:20594990

  16. Effects of diet history on energy metabolism and physiological parameters in C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Keijer, J.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Snaas-Alders, S.H.; Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, M.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding body weight regulation is essential to fight obesity. Mouse studies, using different types of diets, showed conflicting results in terms of body weight persistence after changing from an ad libitum high-fat diet to an ad libitum low-fat diet. In this study, we questioned specifically w

  17. Comportamento ingestivo de caprinos Moxotó e Canindé submetidos à alimentação à vontade e restrita = Ingestive behavior of Moxotó and Canindé goats submitted to ad libitum and restricted feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Louro Ribeiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de caprinos das raças Moxotó e Canindé, submetidos a dois níveis de alimentação. Foram utilizados 24 cabritos inteiros (12 Moxotó e 12 Canindé com idade média de quatro meses e peso vivo inicial médio de 15 kg, alojados em baias individuais, distribuídos no delineamentointeiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2x2 (duas raças e dois níveis de alimentação e seis repetições. Os níveis de alimentação foram: à vontade (T1 e 30% de restrição em relação ao animal que recebia alimentação à vontade (T2. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais das raças Moxotó e Canindé não apresentaram diferença significativa (P>0,05 para as variáveis comportamentaisobservadas. Alimentação à vontade proporcionou maior atividade de alimentação e ruminação e menor tempo em ócio. As atividades de micção, defecação e procura por água foram influenciadas pela hora do dia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake behavior of Moxotóand Canindé breed goats when offered a diet at two levels of intake. Twenty-four noncastrated goats (12 Moxotó and 12 Canindé were used, with an average age of four months and an initial average weight of 15 kg. The goats were housed in individual pens, distributed using a completely randomized design, in a 2x2 factorial arrangement (two breeds and two levels of intake with six repetitions. The levels of intake offered were: ad libitum (T1 and 30% restriction (T2. The level of restriction was determined in relation to the amount consumed by animals on ad libitum intake. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24hr period. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the observed behavioral variables between animals of the Moxotó and Canindé breeds. Feeding at the level of free-choice intake resulted in greater feeding and

  18. Effects of different protein content and glycemic index of ad libitum diets on diabetes risk factors in overweight adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H.M.;

    2011-01-01

    Dpt. Physiology and Nutrition, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (EG, JAM); Institute of Preventive Medicine, Centre for Health and Society, Copenhagen, Denmark (CH), Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the N...

  19. Impact of adding nitrate or increasing the lipid content of two contrasting diets on blood methaemoglobin and performance of two breeds of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Troy, S; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Waterhouse, A; Roehe, R

    2016-05-01

    Adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the concentration of dietary lipid are effective strategies for reducing enteric methane emissions. This study investigated their effect on health and performance of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a two×two×three factorial design comprising two breeds (CHX, crossbred Charolais; LU, Luing); two basal diets consisting of (g/kg dry matter (DM), forage to concentrate ratios) 520 : 480 (Mixed) or 84 : 916 (Concentrate); and three treatments: (i) control with rapeseed meal as the main protein source replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (18 g nitrate/kg diet DM) or (iii) rapeseed cake (RSC, increasing acid hydrolysed ether extract from 25 to 48 g/kg diet DM). Steers (n=84) were allocated to each of the six basal diet×treatments in equal numbers of each breed with feed offered ad libitum. Blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentrations (marker for nitrate poisoning) were monitored throughout the study in steers receiving nitrate. After dietary adaptation over 28 days, individual animal intake, performance and feed efficiency were recorded for a test period of 56 days. Blood MetHb concentrations were low and similar up to 14 g nitrate/kg diet DM but increased when nitrate increased to 18 g nitrate/kg diet DM (P0.05). Neither basal diet nor treatment affected carcass quality (P>0.05), but CHX steers achieved a greater killing out proportion (Pbeef steers when used within the diets studied. PMID:26627142

  20. Desempenho produtivo e eficiência bioeconômica de bovinos Nelore e Caracu selecionados para peso aos 378 dias de idade recebendo alimentação à vontade ou restrita Production and bioeconomic efficiency of Nellore and Caracu bulls selected to weight gain and fed ad libitum or restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gesualdi Júnior

    2006-04-01

    genetically selected Caracu with initial average weights of 404, 345 and 434 kg, respectively, were assigned to a completely randomized design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two feeding levels and three genetic groups. The dietary levels were either restricted (65 g DM/BW0.75 or ad libitum intake with animals fed twice a day. Corn silage was used as the forage portion of the diet while the concentrate contained ground corn, cottonseed meal, urea, monensin, and mineral mixture in a forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50. The slaughter criterion was four millimeters of subcutaneous fat measured by ultrasound at the 12th rib area. Bulls from the different genetic groups showed similar average daily weight gain, empty body weight gain, and carcass weight gain. However, these same variables were higher on animals fed ad libitum than on those restricted fed. No significant interaction between genetic group and feeding level was observed in this trial. Dry matter intake was affected not only by feeding level but also by genetic group and it was highest on genetically selected Caracu. Ordinary Nellore showed greater bionutritional efficiency and lower production cost compared to bulls from the other two genetic groups.

  1. Tamanho relativo dos órgãos internos de zebuínos sob alimentação restrita e Ad libitum Relative size of internal organs of zebu cattle under restricted and full fed feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Jorge

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do nível nutricional e da raça sobre o tamanho relativo dos órgãos internos foram estudados. Sessenta e três machos não-castrados, sendo 16 da raça Gir, 16 Guzerá, 16 Mocho de Tabapuã e 15 da raça Nelore, com idade média de 24 meses e pesos vivos médios iniciais de 376,4; 357,6; 362,0; e 368,6 kg, respectivamente, foram usados. Os animais de cada raça foram divididos, aleatoriamente, em cinco categorias. Uma categoria foi abatida imediatamente (AB; três categorias receberam ad libitum ração contendo 50% de concentrado na matéria seca (categoria 1, 2 e 3, em baias individuais; e uma categoria recebeu a mesma ração, em quantidade restrita, suprindo níveis de proteína e energia 15% acima da mantença (AR. Os animais das categorias 1, 2 e 3 foram abatidos ao atingirem pesos vivos individuais de 405, 450 e 500 kg, respectivamente. No abate, o peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ foi determinado e os pesos dos órgãos internos e víscera foram registrados. Não houve diferenças entre raças nos pesos de fígado, baço, intestinos delgado e grosso, rúmen-retículo, omaso, estômagos e trato gastrintestinal (TGI, quando expressos em 100 kg de PCVZ. A restrição alimentar não influiu nos pesos do coração e dos pulmões, mas reduziu o peso do fígado e os componentes do TGI.The effects of genetic group and nutritional level on relative size of internal organs were studied. Sixty-three bulls, 16 Gyr, 16 Guzera, 15 Nellore and 16 Mocho de Tabapuã, averaging twenty four months of age, and initial live weight of 376.4, 357.6, 362.0, and 368.6 kg, respectively were used. The animals from each breed were randomly assigned to five groups. One group was immediately slaughtered (AB, three groups were full fed, in individual free stall, a diet containing 50% of concentrate on dry matter basis (group1, 2 and 3, and one group was fed with a restricted amount of the same diet to supply the levels of protein and energy 15% above maintenance

  2. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    The health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) are investigated in a six month randomized controlled intervention, in which the NND was compared to the average Danish diet (ADD) among 181 adult participants. Foods were handed out free of charge from a study shop according to the ad libitum...... has a potential as a healthy and highly satisfying diet for the general population....

  3. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.;

    2013-01-01

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard...... randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard...

  4. Protection from radiation injury by elemental diet: does added glutamine change the effect?

    OpenAIRE

    McArdle, A. H.

    1994-01-01

    The feeding of a protein hydrolysate based 'elemental' diet supplemented with added glutamine did not provide superior protection to the small intestine of dogs subjected to therapeutic pelvic irradiation. Comparison of diets with and without the added glutamine showed significant protection of the intestine from radiation injury. Both histological examination and electron microscopy showed lack of tissue injury with both diets. The activity of the free radical generating enzymes, scavengers,...

  5. Beneficial effects of adding lipase enzyme to broiler diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total number of 300 Ross broiler chicks were obtained from commercial hatchery at one day of age. The chicks were divided into three groups (50 males and 50 females in each). The first and second groups were supplemented with 3000 and 2000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme, respectively, while the third group served as control and fed on basal diet. Birds fed on diets that supplemented with lipase enzyme showed significant increase in body weight and dry matter intake, as well as fats and protein content dry matters. The serum lipase activity showed significant increase in treated groups compared to the control. Non-significant changes were determined in serum total lipids, T3, T4 and ash content. Birds supplemented with lipase showed significant decrease in cholesterol concentration. It could be concluded that birds fed diets containing 2000 or 3000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme exhibited improvement in broiler performance

  6. Farm Policies and Added Sugars in US Diets

    OpenAIRE

    John C. Beghin; Jensen, Helen H.

    2008-01-01

    Major changes in the use of US sweeteners have occurred since 1970, in both the amount and composition. Increased consumption of caloric sweeteners, especially in beverages, has been linked to excess energy intake and lower-quality diets. We examine how US farm policies (specifically agricultural research and development [R&D] expenditures and commodity programs) have affected the consumption and composition of sweeteners in the US diet. R&D expenditures have lowered the unit cost of most com...

  7. Human diet and subsistence patterns in Norse Greenland AD c.980-AD c.1450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arneborg, J.; Lynnerup, Niels; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Greenlanders became more dependent on marine resources over time. The isotope data provide information at the level of the individual, and the study indicates that the Norse Greenlanders had an isotopically varied diet; there is no evidence that these differences were linked to sex or age. The shift in diet...

  8. Adding glycaemic index and glycaemic load functionality to DietPLUS, a Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Sangeetha; Wai, Tony Ng Kock; Arshad, Fatimah

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the methodology to add glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) functionality to food DietPLUS, a Microsoft Excel-based Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator. Locally determined GI values and published international GI databases were used as the source of GI values. Previously published methodology for GI value assignment was modified to add GI and GL calculators to the database. Two popular local low GI foods were added to the DietPLUS database, bringing up the total number of foods in the database to 838 foods. Overall, in relation to the 539 major carbohydrate foods in the Malaysian Food Composition Database, 243 (45%) food items had local Malaysian values or were directly matched to International GI database and another 180 (33%) of the foods were linked to closely-related foods in the GI databases used. The mean ± SD dietary GI and GL of the dietary intake of 63 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, calculated using DietPLUS version3 were, 62 ± 6 and 142 ± 45, respectively. These values were comparable to those reported from other local studies. DietPLUS version3, a simple Microsoft Excel-based programme aids calculation of diet GI and GL for Malaysian diets based on food records.

  9. Adding guarana powder to medfly diets: an alternative for improving the Sterile Insect Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Câmara de Aquino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ceratitis capitata (medfly is a globally important horticultural pest that can be controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT, but the success of SIT depends on the sexual performance of mass-reared males when released into the field. We added “guarana” (Paullinia cupana powder (derived from an Amazonian fruit that is considered to be a stimulant with aphrodisiac effects, capable of improving human physical stamina to the diets of adult male medflies to determine whether it increased their sexual performance. The basic diet of a protein extract + sucrose (1:3 was enriched with guarana powder (3 % on a volume basis. Experiments examining sexual competitiveness were performed using lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. lab-reared males fed on the basic diet (and lab-reared females fed on the basic diet, as well as lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. wild males fed on the basic diet (and wild females fed on the basic diet. The results of both experiments indicated that males maintained on diets enriched with guarana powder showed higher copulation successes than males fed only with the basic diet. Guarana powder therefore contributed to the greater mating success of lab-reared males (probably because of its stimulant properties, and may represent a new and viable option for increasing SIT effectiveness.

  10. Adélie penguin population diet monitoring by analysis of food DNA in scats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Simon N; McInnes, Julie C; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches.

  11. Comportamento ingestivo de caprinos Moxotó e Canindé submetidos à alimentação à vontade e restrita - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.50 Ingestive behavior of Moxotó and Canindé goats submitted to ad libitum and restricted feeding - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de caprinos das raças Moxotó e Canindé, submetidos a dois níveis de alimentação. Foram utilizados 24 cabritos inteiros (12 Moxotó e 12 Canindé com idade média de quatro meses e peso vivo inicial médio de 15 kg, alojados em baias individuais, distribuídos no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2x2 (duas raças e dois níveis de alimentação e seis repetições. Os níveis de alimentação foram: à vontade (T1 e 30% de restrição em relação ao animal que recebia alimentação à vontade (T2. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais das raças Moxotó e Canindé não apresentaram diferença significativa (P>0,05 para as variáveis comportamentais observadas. Alimentação à vontade proporcionou maior atividade de alimentação e ruminação e menor tempo em ócio. As atividades de micção, defecação e procura por água foram influenciadas pela hora do diaThe aim of this study was to evaluate the intake behavior of Moxotó and Canindé breed goats when offered a diet at two levels of intake. Twenty-four noncastrated goats (12 Moxotó and 12 Canindé were used, with an average age of four months and an initial average weight of 15 kg. The goats were housed in individual pens, distributed using a completely randomized design, in a 2x2 factorial arrangement (two breeds and two levels of intake with six repetitions. The levels of intake offered were: ad libitum (T1 and 30% restriction (T2. The level of restriction was determined in relation to the amount consumed by animals on ad libitum intake. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24hr period. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the observed behavioral variables between animals of the Moxotó and Canindé breeds. Feeding at the level of free-choice intake resulted in greater feeding and

  12. A Healthy Nordic Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors : Intervention Studies with Special Emphasis on Plasma Lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Adamsson, Viola

    2013-01-01

    A healthy diet is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several risk factors, modifiable by diet, are involved in the development of CVD, e.g. hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, obesity and hypertension. Little data however exist on diets composed of foods originating from the Nordic countries, and their potential to reduce CVD risk. This thesis aimed to investigate whether an ad libitum healthy Nordic diet (ND), either provided as a whole diet, or as ...

  13. Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, A.R.; Toubro, Søren; Bulow, J;

    1999-01-01

    -reduced diets. DESIGN: Randomized 6 months dietary intervention study comparing two controlled ad libitum diets with 30 energy (E%) fat content: high-protein (HP; 25 E%) or low-protein, (LP, 12 E% protein). All food was provided by self-selection in a shop at the department, and high compliance to the diet...

  14. Adding guarana powder to medfly diets: an alternative for improving the Sterile Insect Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jamile Câmara de Aquino; Cassius Fabian Costa Souza; Jânio Rodrigo de Jesus Santos; Iara Sordi Joachim-Bravo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ceratitis capitata (medfly) is a globally important horticultural pest that can be controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT), but the success of SIT depends on the sexual performance of mass-reared males when released into the field. We added “guarana” (Paullinia cupana) powder (derived from an Amazonian fruit that is considered to be a stimulant with aphrodisiac effects, capable of improving human physical stamina) to the diets of adult male medflies to determine whether i...

  15. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Geiker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day......The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes...... for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups...

  16. Isoenergetic Feeding of Low Carbohydrate-High Fat Diets Does Not Increase Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenic Capacity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, Matthias J.; Maximilian Bielohuby; Brigitte Mauracher; William Abplanalp; Hans-Helge Müller; Korbinian Pieper; Juliane Ramisch; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Felix Beuschlein; Martin Bidlingmaier; Marc Slawik

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4...

  17. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, Matthias J.; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Mauracher, Brigitte; Abplanalp, William; Müller, Hans-Helge; Pieper, Korbinian; Ramisch, Juliane; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Beuschlein, Felix; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Slawik, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks...

  18. Effects of Adding Essential Oil to the Diet of Weaned Pigs on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Immune Response and Intestinal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Pengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Han, Xu; Xue, Lingfeng; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs (8.37±1.58 kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet s...

  19. Diet Fosfor Tinggi Penyebab Osteodistrofia Fibrosa pada Tikus (HIGH PHOSPHOROUS DIET CAUSED OSTEODISTROFIA FIBROSA IN RATS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hartiningsih .; Raden Wasito

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the impact of high phosphor diet on the femur of ratsconsuming soybean. Ten female rats at 4 weeks of age were randomly divided into two groups of five, NP(rats fed with normal phosphor diet) and HP (rat fed with high phosphor diet). Each rats was placed intoindividual cages at 22-25°C. All  rats were given normal diet and water which were  provided ad libitum.The rats were also adaptation for three weeks before the treatment was given.  At seven we...

  20. Efectos de la ingesta ad libitum de bebidas hidratantes sobre el peso corporal, la frecuencia cardíaca y el volumen plasmático durante una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración -Informe preliminar- Body weight, the heart rate, and the plasma volume during a high-intesity, long-duration run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiela Flórez Manrique

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la magnitud de la ingesta ad libitum de tres bebidas hidratantes de diferente osmolaridad y establecer sus efectos sobre el porcentaje de pérdida del peso corporal (PC, el aumento de la frecuencia cardíaca (FC y la reducción porcentual del volumen plasmático (VP en nueve deportistas con entrenamiento aeróbico, sometidos, bajo condiciones ambientales neutras, a una actividad física de alta intensidad 80% de la FC de reserva (FCR80 y larga duración 88 minutos. Metodología: el protocolo experimental se realizó en banda rodante, luego de nueve minutos de calentamiento, a una velocidad equivalente al 50% de la FCR y con una pendiente del 1%; siguieron 88 minutos de carrera, en tres intervalos, los dos iniciales de 29 minutos y el último de 30; la pendiente se mantuvo y la velocidad se incrementó al 80% de la FCR; finalmente, 90 minutos de recuperación, en tres intervalos de 30 minutos cada uno. No se hizo reposición hídrica durante el tratamiento deshidratado (DH; durante los tratamientos con hidratación se empleó un volumen similar de tres bebidas de diferente osmolaridad (H-I, H-II, H-III, el cual fue ingerido ad libitum. Resultados: durante la etapa de ejercicio la pérdida hídrica fue de 1.440 ml/h mientras que el volumen ingerido fue de 407 ml/h. Se observó, en cada uno de los tratamientos, una pérdida porcentual del PC (p<0,001; un incremento de la FC (p<0,05, y excepto con H-II y H-III una reducción porcentual del VP (p<0,05. No hubo diferencias intertratamientos en el porcentaje de la pérdida del PC, en el aumento de la FC ni en la reducción porcentual del VP. Conclusiones: la ingesta ad libitum fue menor que la cantidad recomendada internacionalmente por lo que, probablemente, no se pudieron establecer los efectos de la osmolaridad de las bebidas hidratantes sobre las variables estudiadas. Estos hallazgos nos obligan a revisar las prácticas de hidratación de nuestros deportistas ya que, al parecer

  1. Use of enzymes in diets with different percentages of added fat for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.P. Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the extent to which the removal of fat source, and consequently its compounds, such as linoleic acid, can affect the performance of broilers. We used 600 male Cobb 500 day old chicks. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and six replicates of 20 birds each. The treatments were: (T1 diet - positive control (PC, which met the nutritional needs; (T2 diet - negative control (CN, a reduction of 100kcal/kg and low linoleic acid content; (T3: diet - negative control reformulated for low linoleic acid content and a set of Quantum phytase XT and Econase XT 25 (BAL + QFit-Eco, (T4: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to an intermediate value between the value of the diet and diet CP and CN to use a set of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (IAL + QFit-Eco and (T5: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to a value similar to that of the positive control diet and joint use of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (AAL + QFit-Eco. The joint use of Quantum Phytase and Econase promoted improvement in the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days. The greatest weight gain was obtained with diets containing percentages of total fat and linoleic acids. Dietary supplementation with enzymes resulted in higher levels of calcium in the tibia, whatever the percentage of linoleic studied.

  2. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Moura Leandro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg (ALP, restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP, ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg (ALD and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD. The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises.

  3. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristin D. Brisbois

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  4. Influence of the intake and composition of elemental diets on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L M; Russell, R I

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the elemental diets Vivonex (V) and Flexical (F) on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat has been investigated both with ad libitum feeding and when calorie intake was limited to that of control rats (C) fed a standard diet (Oxoid 41B). Ad libitum feeding of V and F for 9 weeks resulted in a weight gain in excess of that for the control diet. After 9 weeks of isocaloric feeding the V-fed rats were significantly lighter than those fed F and C. Fecal bile acid excretion (FBA) and the fractional turnover rates for cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC) were measured. The elemental diets significantly reduced FBA when fed both ad libitum and isocalorically compared with the control diet, the reduction with V being significantly greater than for F. In the isocaloric feeding study both elemental diets significantly increased the half life of CA and CDC. The increase for CA was significantly greater for V than F but for CDC the effect of the two diets was the same. Thus the percentage of CDC-derived 6 substituted bile acids was greater with V than F feeding. There was a strong negative correlation between bile acid half-life and fecal excretion of metabolites for the three dietary groups indicating that bile acid pool size was unchanged by the elemental diets. A gross increase in liver lipid both histologically and chemically was found for the ad libitum fed V rats with a marked but lesser increase for F.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3755773

  5. Maternal high-fat diet worsens memory deficits in the triple-transgenic (3xTgAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A L Martin

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is not normally diagnosed until later in life, although evidence suggests that the disease starts at a much earlier age. Risk factors for AD, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, are known to have their affects during mid-life, though events very early in life, including maternal over-nutrition, can predispose offspring to develop these conditions. This study tested whether over-nutrition during pregnancy and lactation affected the development of AD in offspring, using a transgenic AD mouse model. Female triple-transgenic AD dam mice (3xTgAD were exposed to a high-fat (60% energy from fat or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks of age, female offspring were placed on a control diet and monitored up until 12 months of age during which time behavioural tests were performed. A transient increase in body weight was observed in 4-week-old offspring 3xTgAD mice from dams fed a high-fat diet. However, by 5 weeks of age the body weight of 3xTgAD mice from the maternal high-fat fed group was no different when compared to control-fed mice. A maternal high-fat diet led to a significant impairment in memory in 2- and 12-month-old 3xTgAD offspring mice when compared to offspring from control fed dams. These effects of a maternal high-fat diet on memory were accompanied by a significant increase (50% in the number of tau positive neurones in the hippocampus. These data demonstrate that a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation increases memory impairments in female 3xTgAD mice and suggest that early life events during development might influence the onset and progression of AD later in life.

  6. Sex-Based Differences in Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) Chick Growth Rates and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Katie M; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d(-1) faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species--one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  7. Dietary fibre added to very low calorie diet reduces hunger and alleviates constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Vrist, E; Quaade, F

    1990-01-01

    ), and dietary fibre did not improve this result. During VLCD with fibre hunger ratings were significantly lower than during VLCD without fibre (fibre effect, ANOVA; P less than 0.01). Bowel movements decreased from 1.9/day on habitual diet to 0.7/day on VLCD without fibre, but increased to 1.0/day by fibre...... supplement (fibre effect, P less than 0.01). No effect of fibre supplementation to VLCD was found on satiety, consistency of faeces and flatulence. The supplement of dietary fibre did not influence plasma concentrations of divalent cations as calcium, iron or magnesium, nor did it add any lowering effect...... on plasma glucose, cholesterol or triglyceride to that of VLCD. In conclusion, the supplement of dietary fibre to VLCD may improve compliance by reducing hunger and increasing the number of bowel movements, without impairment of absorption of divalent cations....

  8. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8%) significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor ...

  9. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  10. Hunger in pregnant sows: Effects of a fibrous diet and free access to straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous diets and the provision of straw have been suggested to reduce feeding motivation in pregnant sows. The present experiment investigated the separate and interactive effects of a fibrous diet and ad libitum access to straw on feeding motivation, oral behaviour and plasma levels...... periods. Furthermore, the sows’ feeding motivation was assessed during behavioural tests, and blood samples were draw via a jugular vein catheter, at 0700, 0900, 1200 and 1900 h in a balanced design. Feeding motivation was not affected by diet or straw. However, feeding motivation was highest 1 h before...... morning feeding indicated by a higher number of rewards earned during the entire test (P

  11. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  12. Insulin sensitivity is normalized in the third generation (F3 offspring of developmentally programmed insulin resistant (F2 rats fed an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin John F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims The offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy and lactation, but fed nutritionally adequate diets thereafter, have been shown to exhibit altered insulin sensitivity in adulthood. The current study investigates the insulin sensitivity of the offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy, and then maintained on energy-restricted diets post weaning over three generations. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats (F0 were mated with control males and protein malnourished during pregnancy/lactation. F1 offspring were then weaned to adequate but energy-restricted diets into adulthood. F1 dams were fed energy-restricted diets throughout pregnancy/lactation. F2 offspring were also fed energy-restricted diets post weaning. F2 pregnant dams were maintained as described above. Their F3 offspring were split into two groups; one was maintained on the energy-restricted diet, the other was maintained on an adequate diet consumed ad libitum post weaning. Results F2 animals fed energy-restricted diets were insulin resistant (p ad libitum postweaning diets (p Conclusion Maternal energy-restriction did not consistently program reduced insulin sensitivity in offspring over three consecutive generations. The reasons for this remain unclear. It is possible that the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed insulin resistance is determined in part by the relative insulin sensitivity of the mother during pregnancy/lactation.

  13. Urea-molasses liquid diet feeding for growth produion in cattle and buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the study to find the utilization of urea-molasses liquid for growth and maintenance in cattle and buffaloes, production rate of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was measured by single injection isotope dilution technique using 1-214C-acetate in adult cattle and buffaloes fed ad libitum urea-molasses diet with restricted wheat straw and intact protein. (M.G.B.)

  14. Effect of adding macro and micro minerals in pig feces fed diets with different levels of probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Alcides Robles Huaynate

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the effect of diets with different doses (0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of probiotic on daily fecal production (DFP and level of macro and micro minerals in feces of nursing (1st and 2nd initial phases and growing pigs and during total period. The DFP, as percentage of body weight, was different (P0.05 among treatments, with exception of calcium and sodium excretion at 1st initial phase and calcium, zinc and nickel during total period. The addition of a poliprobiotic to diets do not affect fecal production of nursing and growing pigs. However, the presence of microorganisms, added (levels of 200 and 300 ppm in diets for nursing and growing pigs reduced fecal excretion of calcium, zinc and nickel.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dietas contendo diferentes doses (0, 100, 200 e 300 ppm de probiótico sobre a produção diária de fezes (PDF e teor de macro e microminerais nas fezes de suínos, nas fases de creche e de crescimento e no período total. A PDF, como porcentagem do peso vivo, somente apresentou diferença estatística (P0,05 entre tratamentos, a exceção de cálcio e sódio na fase inicial 1 e cálcio, zinco e níquel no período total. A adição de um poliprobiótico às dietas, não afetou a produção de fezes dos suínos nas fases de creche e de crescimento. Entretanto, a presença de microrganismos, adicionados (níveis de 200 e 300 ppm às dietas reduziu a excreção fecal de cálcio, zinco e níquel.

  15. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter;

    2011-01-01

    investigated the effects of 2 high-carbohydrate (55%) diets with low GI (LGI; 79) or high GI (HGI; 103) on postprandial blood profile, subjective appetite sensations, energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) from a corresponding test meal (LGI or HGI) after......At present, it is difficult to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is an important tool in the prevention of lifestyle diseases, and long-term studies investigating GI with diets matched in macronutrient composition, fiber content, energy content, and energy density are still scarce. We...... consuming the diets ad libitum for 10 wk. Two groups of a total of 29 healthy, overweight women (age: 30.5 ± 6.6 y; BMI: 27.6 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in the 10-wk intervention and a subsequent 4-h meal test. The breakfast test meals differed in GI but were equal in total energy, macronutrient...

  16. Effects of a lactoperoxidase system and lactoferrin, added to a milk replacer diet, on severity of diarrhoea, intestinal morphology and microbiology of digesta and faeces in young calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Oosting, S.J.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of the combination of a lactoperoxidase system (LP-s) and lactoferrin (LF) added to a milk replacer diet on severity of diarrhoea, the morphology of the small intestinal mucosa, and the microbiology of digesta and faeces in young calves

  17. Effect of a lactoperoxydase system and lactoferrin, added to a milk replacer diet, on severity of diarrhoea, intestinal morphology and microbiology of digesta and faeces in young calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.; Oosting, S.J.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of the combination of a lactoperoxidase system (LP-s) and lactoferrin (LF) added to a milk replacer diet on severity of diarrhoea, the morphology of the small intestinal mucosa, and the microbiology of digesta and faeces in young calves

  18. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29% the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS, fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05 for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05 in fugitive CH4 emissions.

  19. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (Playing hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (Playing hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid peroxidation and enhancing of antioxidant defense systems. PMID:26837542

  20. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (Psunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (Psunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (Poil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (Poil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid

  1. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics. PMID:24795312

  2. Defensive effect of lansoprazole in dementia of AD type in mice exposed to streptozotocin and cholesterol enriched diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder K Sodhi

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor and agonist of liver x receptors in experimental dementia of AD type. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3 mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v, and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days] were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss mice. Morris water maze (MWM test was performed to assess learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies were also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS. Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ and HFD produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH levels. Further, the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Lansoprazole treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD -induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. It also prevented HFD-induced rise in the cholesterol level. Therefore, the findings demonstrate potential of lansoprazole in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, both cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects of lansoprazole appear to play a role. In addition study indicates the role of liver x receptors in dementia.

  3. Effects of adding various oils to the diet on growth, feed conversion and chemical composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W; Wirth, M; Rennert, B

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of various vegetable and fish oils was tested as feed components for one-summer-old carp fingerlings. Five diets were used: a basal diet, which served as control feed, was supplemented with 10% corn-germ oil, 10% sunflower oil, 10% fish oil or 10% rapeseed oil, respectively. By means of the lipid supplementation the crude protein content decreased from 35.5% in the basal diet to 31.9% in the test diets, whereas the gross energy level increased from 16.3 to 18.9 MJ/kg. The diets were fed over a period of 84 feeding days and water temperature was 23 degrees C. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein utilization were superior in all groups of carp which received the fat-enriched high energy diets. Considering the gain in % of the initial weight, the control fish reached less than 400% whereas all carp in the test groups, which consumed the oil-enriched diets, reached 455 to 485%. A significant influence of the kind of lipid on growth and feed conversion could not be recognized. The lipid-enriched diets with higher energy content resulted in increased fat levels of the carp. Fatty acid composition of the carp reflected that of the diets. In the control group and the fish oil group the levels of palmitic, palmitoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were especially high corresponding to the fatty acid profile of the diets. In carp fed the diets supplied with corn-germ oil and sunflower oil linoleic acid was dominant whereas the carp fed the rapeseed diet were characterized by a high level of oleic acid.

  4. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... in monounsaturated fatty acids ( > 20% of energy); 2) LF diet (n = 18): low-fat diet (20-30% of energy), and 3) control diet (n = 12): 35% of energy as fat ( > 15% of energy as saturated fatty acids). Protein accounted for 15% of energy in all 3 diets. A 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before......, in the Matsudas index, in body weight, or in body composition. CONCLUSION: A diet high in monounsaturated fat has a more favorable effect on glucose homeostasis than does the typical Western diet in the short term and may also be more beneficial than the official recommended low-fat diet during a period of weight...

  5. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P egg quality characteristics.

  6. Identification of N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate amyloid-β in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit and AD brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garmendia, Roxanna; Hernandez-Zimbron, Luis Fernando; Morales, Miguel Angel; Luna-Muñoz, José; Mena, Raul; Nava-Catorce, Miriam; Acero, Gonzalo; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Viramontes-Pintos, Amparo; Cribbs, David H; Gevorkian, Goar

    2014-01-01

    The main amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) variants detected in the human brain are Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42; however, a significant proportion of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain also consists of N-terminal truncated/modified species. AβN3(pE), Aβ peptide bearing amino-terminal pyroglutamate at position 3, has been demonstrated to be a major N-truncated/modified constituent of intracellular, extracellular, and vascular Aβ deposits in AD and Down syndrome brain tissue. It has been previously demonstrated that rabbits fed a diet enriched in cholesterol and given water containing trace copper levels developed AD-like pathology including intraneuronal and extracellular Aβ accumulation, tau hyperphosphorylation, vascular inflammation, astrocytosis, microgliosis, reduced levels of acetylcholine, as well as learning deficits and thus, may be used as a non-transgenic animal model of sporadic AD. In the present study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of AβN3(pE) in blood vessels in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit brain. In addition, we detected AβN3(pE) immunoreactivity in all postmortem AD brain samples studied. We believe that our results are potentially important for evaluation of novel therapeutic molecules/strategies targeting Aβ peptides in a suitable non-transgenic animal model.

  7. Adding Medicinal Herbs Including Garlic (Allium sativum and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris to Diet of Laying Hens and Evaluating Productive Performance and Egg Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In trying to finding phytogenic antibiotic-substitutes this study was done and effects of adding graded levels of Medicinal Herbs (MH including garlic (Allium sativum and thyme (Thymus vulgaris to laying hens’ diet on productive performance investigated. Approach: A total number of 108 Lohmann LSL-Lite hens after production peak were randomly divided in 18 cages (n = 6. Three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets (ME = 2720 Kcal Kg-1 and CP = 154.2 g Kg-1 including three levels (0, 1 and 2 g kg-1 of ground mixture of garlic and thyme (1:1 were fed to hens with 6 replicates per diet during 6 week trial period. Collected data of Feed Intake (FI, Egg Production (EP, Egg Mass (EM and calculated Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR as well as egg traits were analyzed based on completely randomized design using GLM procedure of SAS. Results: Dietary treatment did not have significant effect on EP, EM and FCR in laying hens (p>0.05. Dietary inclusion of MH decreased FI in weeks 1-6 (p≤0.05. Including diet with 0.1% MP improved means of egg weight (g comparing to the other two experimental diets. Adding 0.2% MH to diet increased egg yolk color as well as blood lymphocyte counts and decreased egg shell weight comparing to other dietary treatments (p≤0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, dietary inclusion of garlic and thyme can have beneficial effects on performance of laying hens in terms of improving egg weight and yolk color.

  8. Prediction of the effect of enzymes on chick performance when added to cereal-based diets: use of a modified log-linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Marquardt, R R; Guenter, W; Cheng, J; Han, Z

    2000-12-01

    A previous study demonstrated that a log equation could be used to predict the relationship between the amount of a crude enzyme added to a diet and chick performance. The objective of the current study was to determine if a modification of the original equation, in conjunction with a computer program, would overcome some of its limitations. The modified equation was Y = A + B log (CX + 1), where Y is the estimated performance value; A is the intercept that represents the performance without enzyme supplementation; B, the slope of the equation (performance change per log unit of an enzyme in the diet), is a measure of an enzyme efficacy; C is an amplified factor; and X is the amount of enzyme in the diet. The results demonstrated that the new model more accurately predicted chick performance than that of the original equation with correlations (r) between chick performance and amount of different enzymes added to the diet ranging from r = 0.80 to 0.99 (P livestock producers to establish the best combination of different cereals and enzymes so as to maximize net returns. PMID:11194038

  9. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  10. Consumption of a High-Fat Diet Induces Central Insulin Resistance Independent of Adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Clegg, Deborah J.; Gotoh, Koro; Kemp, Christopher; Wortman, Matthew D.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Brown, Lynda M.; D’Alessio, David; Tso, Patrick; Seeley, Randy J.; Woods, Stephen C

    2011-01-01

    Plasma insulin enters the CNS where it interacts with insulin receptors in areas that are related to energy homeostasis and elicits a decrease of food intake and body weight. Here, we demonstrate that consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet impairs the central actions of insulin. Male Long-Evans rats were given chronic (70-day) or acute (3-day) ad libitum access to HF, low-fat (LF), or chow diets. Insulin administered into the 3rd-cerebral ventricle (i3vt) decreased food intake and body weight of...

  11. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Britt Tranberg; Hellgren, Lars I; Jens Lykkesfeldt; Kristen Sejrsen; Aymeric Jeamet; Ida Rune; Merete Ellekilde; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Axel Kornerup Hansen

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were ...

  12. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with

  13. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with

  14. Home Range, Diet, and Activity Patterns of Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in Very Small and Isolated Fragments of the Atlantic Forest of Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert Leonardo Nascimento Pinheiro; Antonio Rossano Mendes Pontes

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of very small and isolated forest fragments on the common marmosets home range, diet, and activity patterns, in the northeastern Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Three groups were studied in three forest fragments, from January to October 2010, totaling 360 hours of observations and 1,080 field-hours. Systematic observations were recorded using Instantaneous Scan Sampling, and a checklist of the items exploited was built through ad libitum observations. We recorded location o...

  15. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy. PMID:26653760

  16. Effects of cadmium in herbage on the apparent absorption of elements by sheep in comparison with inorganic cadmium added to their diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meta-analysis of existing scientific literature recently suggested that Cd is absorbed more efficiently by sheep if it is in the organic form in grass, than if it is added as an inorganic supplement to the diet. We tested this experimentally by feeding sheep grass from contaminated soil, compared with uncontaminated grass and with Cd added to the diet. To produce contaminated herbage, Cd nitrate was added to soil in 11 lysimeters sown with perennial ryegrass, with a further 11 lysimeters receiving no Cd to produce uncontaminated herbage. In the Cd-treated lysimeters, soil had increased exchangeable K, Mg, and Ca, leachate had increased K, Mg, Ca, Na, and P, grass had increased Cd and reduced Mg, Na, P, Mn, Fe, Cr, Al, and Ni, and there was some reduction in grass yield compared with untreated lysimeters. Grass from Cd-treated or untreated lysimeters was fed to groups of 12 ewes for 2 days, with Cd intake equated by adding Cd nitrate to the concentrate feed of ewes receiving the uncontaminated grass. The apparent absorption of Cd, Zn, Mo, Cr, and Al was increased for ewes receiving Cd-enriched grass, and apparent absorption of Cu was reduced, compared to those receiving supplementary inorganic Cd. Most of the unabsorbed Cd was excreted in feces within 4 days of feeding. The ewes consuming Cd in grass had increased B concentrations in their urine, possibly due to adverse effects of Cd on kidney function. Finally, the ewes were offered a choice of the two herbages and they ate significantly more of the uncontaminated grass. It is concluded that the apparent absorption of Cd and other heavy metals by sheep in a short-term experiment was greater when Cd was in the grass than when the Cd was added in in an inorganic form and that sheep partially avoided herbage with a high Cd concentration

  17. Improved production of postlarval white shrimp through supplementation of L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate in their diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kontara, E.K.M.; Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Robles, R; Nelis, H.; De leenheer, A P; Sorgeloos, P.

    1997-01-01

    L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (ApP) was used as a vitamin C source to study the ascorbic acid (AA) requirements for the early postlarval stages of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). First the stability of ApP in the diets was determined: ApP losses after pelletizing and 10 min immersion in seawater were 25-35% and 30%, respectively. Semipurified diets with five levels of ApP (0, 20, 40, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 expressed as active AA were fed ad libitum to P. vannamei (PL-14 stage, mean dry weight 0.73...

  18. Proportion of corn silage in diets of feedlot steers fed to achieve stepwise increases in growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, J E; Loerch, S C

    2001-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of proportion of dietary corn silage during periods of feed restriction on performance of steers. In Exp. 1, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 107; initial BW = 273 +/- 3.8 kg) were allotted to 12 pens with eight or nine steers/pen and four pens/treatment. Periods of growth were 273 to 366 kg BW (Period 1), 367 to 501 kg BW (Period 2), and 502 to 564 kg BW (Period 3). In two of the dietary regimens, steers were given ad libitum access to feed throughout the experiment and were fed either a 15% corn silage diet in each period or an 85, 50, and 15% corn silage diet in Periods 1, 2, and 3; respectively. In the third feeding regimen, a programmed intake feeding regimen was used. Steers were fed a 15% corn silage diet in each period. However, feed intake was restricted to achieve a predicted gain of 1.13 kg/d in Period 1 and 1.36 kg/d in Period 2, and feed was offered for ad libitum consumption in Period 3. For the entire experiment, ADG was similar (P = 0.41) among treatments and feed efficiency was lower (P Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 106; initial BW = 233 +/- 2 kg) were allotted by BW to 12 pens (three pens/treatment) and fed in three periods similar to those described in Exp. 1. Four feeding regimens were investigated: 1) AL; steers were offered a 15% corn silage diet for ad libitum consumption in all three periods; 2) PI; DMI was programmed to achieve gains as described in Exp. 1; 3) CS-HLL; programmed intake as described above except diets contained 85, 15, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and 4) CS-HIL; same feeding regimens as CS-HLL, except diets contained 85, 50, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers were given ad libitum access to feed in Period 3. Overall ADG was lower (P carcass characteristics were observed. PMID:11424675

  19. Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment Análisis del comportamiento de ratas Wistar alimentadas con una dieta a base de linaza añadidos a un enriquecimiento ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Azevedo de Meneses

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6: FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.La linaza posee una gran cantidad de ácidos grasos n-3 y su consumo asociado a ambiente enriquecido, puede promover diferentes resultados comportamentales sobre el animal y su habituación. Este trabajo tubo por objetivo evaluar el comportamiento animal utilizando dos herramientas en el Open Field Test. Treinta y seis ratón Wistar fueron divididos en 6 grupos (n=6: FEEG, que recibi

  20. The effect of high-fat diet on the composition of the gut microbiota in cloned and non-cloned pigs of lean and obese phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise; Stagsted, Jan; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-far-high-energy diet on cloned and non-cloned domestic pigs of both lean and obese phenotype and to evaluate if the lean cloned pigs had a lower inter-individual variation as compared with non-cloned pigs. The microbiota of colon and terminal ileum was investigated in cloned and non-cloned pigs that received a high-far-high-energy diet with either restricted or ad libitum access to feed, resulting in lean and obese phenotypes, respec...

  1. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Wang, Yajing; Simayi, Aminamu; Yasheng, Amingguli; Wu, Zhaohai; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13...

  2. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCH...

  3. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF) diet (63.1%). Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) normal group (normal); (2) HF group; (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was ...

  4. A stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) perspective on human diet on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) ca. AD 1400-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendador, Amy S; Dudgeon, John V; Finney, Bruce P; Fuller, Benjamin T; Esh, Kelley S

    2013-10-01

    Ecological and environmental evidence suggests that Rapa Nui was among the most marginally habitable islands in Eastern Polynesia, with only a fraction of the biotic diversity found on archipelagos to the west, and capable of sustaining many fewer cultigens traditionally transported by Polynesian colonizers. However, archaeological evidence for human dietary adaptations under such restrictions is limited. Little is known about the particulars of the subsistence base and dietary changes on Rapa Nui that may be associated with a hypothesized late prehistoric decline in the quality and diversity of food sources. To better understand prehistoric Rapa Nui diet we examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of human teeth along with archaeological faunal material thought to comprise the Rapa Nui food web. Our results indicate that contrary to previous zooarchaeological studies diet was predominantly terrestrial throughout the entire sequence of occupation, with reliance on rats, chickens and C3 plants. While a few individuals may have had access to higher trophic level marine resources, this is evident only later in time (generally post-AD 1600). A decline in (15)N through time was observed, and may be attributed to declines in available terrestrial proteins; however, presently we cannot rule out the effect of changing soil and plant baseline δ(15)N. Our results also suggest differential access to higher trophic level marine resources among contemporaneous populations, but more research is required to clarify this observation. PMID:23996514

  5. The Impact of Adding the Mixture of Medicinal Herbs to the Diet on the Qualitative Characteristics of Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Like other creatures, the human life depends on the phenomena of surrounding environment and the medicinal herbs are always applied in the human and livestock and poultry's foods as well as the pharmaceutical industry in order to protect the health and treat the diseases. The impact of medicinal herbs on the livestock and poultry's performance, their characteristics and enhanced immunity can be measured and applied as well. In this regard, an experiment in the form of completely randomized design was conducted for investigating the impact of the mixture of medicinal herbs (Thyme, oregano, cumin, Alhagi, garlic and eucalyptus in the diet on the performance, the quality of egg and the commercial laying hens' immune responses. The qualitative characteristics of egg including Haugh Unit, egg specific gravity, egg shell weight and shell thickness were measured and recorded at the end of each stage. The functional properties such as Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, production percentage, egg mass weight and feed intake were recorded and measured weekly and the egg weight two times a week. The obtained data analysis was done through the statistical software SPSS 20 and Duncan test was utilized in order to compare the average traits. Different levels of medicinal herbs had no impact on the improved Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, production percentage and egg mass weight in the whole period, but the medicinal herbs 2 and 3% significantly reduced the total feed intake and egg weight during the period compared to the control and probiotic treatment (p<0.05. The application of medicinal herbs at the level of 1% reduced the egg weight compared to the control treatment (p<0.05. There was no significant difference with the control treatment in any tested treatments in terms of qualitative characteristics of egg including the egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh Unit, egg specific gravity, antibody titer against red blood cells, Lymphocytes, hematocrit, red

  6. Growth differences of male and female Gottingen minipigs during ad libitum feeding: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P.J.A.; Madsen, L.W.; Meyer, Otto A.;

    2005-01-01

    Even though minipigs have been used in biomedical research for nearly half a century now, no specific nutrient requirements are available. For that reason a series of studies into the nutrient requirements of Gottingen minipigs were carried out. Firstly, a pilot study was carried out to determine...

  7. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake among male university students in an ad libitum buffet setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Ida; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Nielsen, Brit Køpke;

    2016-01-01

    due to the complexity of determinants for food choices and more research is therefore needed. This study assessed the of a choice architectural intervention aimed at reducing energy density of meals consumed by male university students, by proportionally increasing their vegetable consumption.A single......-served fruit and vegetables and decrease consumption of other meal components among male university students. Such simple choice architecture interventions could be used as a supplement to already existing strategies in the promotion of healthy eating....

  8. Improved single pellet grasping using automated ad libitum full-time training robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenrich, Keith K; May, Zacnicte; Hurd, Caitlin; Boychuk, Carolyn E; Kowalczewski, Jan; Bennett, David J; Whishaw, Ian Q; Fouad, Karim

    2015-03-15

    The single pellet grasping (SPG) task is a skilled forelimb motor task commonly used to evaluate reaching and grasp kinematics and recovery of forelimb function in rodent models of CNS injuries and diseases. To train rats in the SPG task, the animals are usually food restricted then placed in an SPG task enclosure and presented food pellets on a platform located beyond a slit located at the front of the task enclosure for 10-30 min, normally every weekday for several weeks. When the SPG task is applied in studies involving various experimental groups, training quickly becomes labor intensive, and can yield results with significant day-to-day variability. Furthermore, training is frequently done during the animals' light-cycle, which for nocturnal rodents such as mice and rats could affect performance. Here we describe an automated pellet presentation (APP) robotic system to train and test rats in the SPG task that reduces some of the procedural weaknesses of manual training. We found that APP trained rats performed significantly more trials per 24 h period, and had higher success rates with less daily and weekly variability than manually trained rats. Moreover, the results show that success rates are positively correlated with the number of dark-cycle trials, suggesting that dark-cycle training has a positive effect on success rates. These results demonstrate that automated training is an effective method for evaluating and training skilled reaching performance of rats, opening up the possibility for new approaches to investigating the role of motor systems in enabling skilled forelimb use and new approaches to investigating rehabilitation following CNS injury.

  9. Endogenous nociceptin modulates diet preference independent of motivation and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Miwako; Cagniard, Barbara; Murphy, Niall P

    2009-04-20

    Previous studies show that the opioid peptide nociceptin stimulates food intake. Here, we studied nociceptin receptor knockout (NOP KO) mice in various behavioral paradigms designed to differentiate psychological and physiological loci at which endogenous nociceptin might control feeding. When presented a choice under food restriction, NOP KO mice displayed reduced preference for high sucrose diet, but lower intake of high fat diet under no-choice conditions. These responses were absent under ad libitum feeding conditions. Conditioned place preference to high fat diet under food-deprived conditions was unaltered in NOP KO mice, suggesting no difference in reward responses. Furthermore, operant food self-administration under a variety of conditions showed no genotype-dependent differences, suggesting no differences in the motivational properties of food. Taste reactivity to sucrose was unchanged in NOP KO mice, though NOP KO mice had altered aversive reactions to quinine solutions under ad libitum feeding, suggesting minor differences in the affective impact of palatable and unpalatable tastants. Although NOP KO mice re-fed following food-deprivation showed normal increases in plasma glucose and insulin, multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the relationship between these measures, body weight and plasma leptin was substantially disrupted in NOP KO, particularly in fasted mice. Additionally, the typical positive relationship between body weight and plasma leptin was considerably weaker in NOP KO mice. Together, these findings suggest that endogenous nociceptin differentially modulates diet preference depending on macronutrient content and homeostatic state, independently of the motivating, rewarding or orosensory properties of food, but may involve metabolic or postingestive processes. PMID:19138695

  10. Plaguicidas en la dieta: aportando piezas al rompecabezas Pesticides in the diet: adding pieces to the puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vicente

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Mejorar la información sobre la exposición a plaguicidas mediante la dieta en nuestro país con la presentación de los resultados de detección de 88 parámetros de plaguicidas en 1.109 muestras de alimentos, obtenidas entre 1998 y 2003 para el programa de Investigación de la Calidad Sanitaria de los Alimentos (ICSA de Barcelona. Material y método: Se presentan los resultados por grupos de alimentos y se comparan con la situación en el período anterior para frutas y hortalizas. La significación de las diferencias observadas se estima mediante la prueba de la χ². Resultados: En las 1.109 muestras analizadas se obtuvieron 116 resultados positivos para plaguicidas (10,5%. En el 1,5% de las muestras se detectaron halogenados persistentes y en el 14,4%, otros plaguicidas. Los positivos se concentran en frutas, hortalizas, especias y cereales y sus derivados. No hay positivos entre los aceites vegetales, los huevos ni los productos de la pesca, y casi no hay en los lácticos ni en los cárnicos. Las frutas concentran la mayor presencia de plaguicidas, en todos los casos no persistentes. Las hortalizas tienen menos plaguicidas, pero en ellas se detecta algún tipo de organoclorado. Al comparar los valores en las frutas y verduras con los de 1989-1997 no se aprecian diferencias que alcancen la significación estadística. Conclusiones: Aunque el volumen de muestras con plaguicidas es relevante, en su mayoría no son por productos halogenados persistentes. Destaca la elevada presencia de plaguicidas en la fruta.Objectives: To improve information on exposure to pesticides through diet in Spain by reporting the results on 88 pesticide parameters in 1,109 food samples obtained between 1998 and 2003 as part of the Barcelona program for research on the health quality of foods. Material and method: The results are presented by food groups. For fruits and vegetables, the results were compared with those for the previous period. Statistical

  11. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Huth, Peter J.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R; Park, Keigan; Auestad, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution ...

  12. High Fiber Diet Effect On Haemopoietic And Endocrine System In Irradiated Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat bran was mixed with standard rat diet in order to assess the role of high fiber diet on the damage induced by 4 Gy gamma irradiation in male rats. Immediately after exposure to irradiation, the male albino rats were fed on diet containing 10% wheat bran ad libitum. After 15 days, the rats were decapitated then blood picture, levels of calcium, glucose, folic acid, vitamin B12 , triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone and insulin hormones were determined. The results denoted that wheat bran had an improvement effect on the radiation damage on blood picture, calcium level, vitamin B12 , folic acid and testosterone hormone, which most probably due to the effect of the high antioxidant action of wheat bran that might improve the gastro intestinal metabolism.

  13. The effect of three different diets on risk factors for CVD. With focus on whole grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Tenna

    2009-01-01

    Background: More intervention studies are needed to clarify the effect of diets different in types and amounts of fats and carbohydrates on risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as to clarify a possible beneficial effect of whole grain (WG) intake. Objective: The aim...... was to investigate the effect of three ad libitum diets; MUFA: moderate-fat (40E%) with 20E% MonoUnsaturated-Fatty-Acids, LF: Low Fat (25E%), and ConTRol: CTR (35E% fat), all different in glycemic index, on risk factors for CVD, including body weight (BW) and –composition, insulin resistance, plasma lipids, high...... sensitivty C-reactive protein (hsCRP), blood pressure (BP), and flow mediated vasodilation, after a weight loss of ≥8% of BW. Further, the aim was to assess intake of WG, dietary fiber (DF), folate, vitamin E, magnesium and potassium in the three diets, and to investigate the effect of these dietary...

  14. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  15. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  16. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition. PMID:26471188

  17. Efeito da adição dietética de milho de alta qualidade protéica em camundongos Effect of adding high-quality protein maize to the diet of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Castro Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo consistiu em avaliar os efeitos da adição de milho quality protein maize BR473 sobre aspectos bioquímicos e fisiológicos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos Swiss, fêmeas, 6-7 semanas, foram alimentados com rações comerciais, rações comerciais com milho híbrido (1:1, rações comerciais com milho de alta qualidade protéica (1:1. Foram avaliados, durante 3 meses, o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e de tecido adiposo retroperitoneal e os valores plasmáticos de proteínas, triglicerídeos, colesterol e glicose. RESULTADOS: A adição dietética de milho quality protein maize BR473 reduziu o consumo alimentar e o tecido adiposo retroperitoneal, porém manteve a glicemia e trigliceridemia em relação à adição de milho híbrido na ração comercial. CONCLUSÃO: A melhor eficiência alimentar e os impactos sobre os parâmetros bioquímicos do sangue sugerem o potencial do uso do milho quality protein maize BR473 como um importante complemento para garantir a segurança alimentar e nutricional.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the biochemical and physiological effects of adding quality protein maize BR473 to the diet of mice. METHODS:Female Swiss mice, 6-7 weeks old, were fed commercial diet alone or supplemented with either hybrid maize (1:1 or quality protein maize (1:1. Food intake, weight gain, abdominal obesity and plasma glucose, proteins, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were evaluated for 3 months. RESULTS: Dietary addition of the quality protein maize BR473 reduced food intake and abdominal fat, yet plasma glucose and triglycerides remained the same when compared with the addition of hybrid maize to the commercial feed. CONCLUSION: A better dietary efficiency and the impacts on the biochemical parameters of the blood suggest that the quality protein maize BR473 is an important complement to guarantee dietary and nutritional security.

  18. Obesity induced by cafeteria diet disrupts fertility in the rat by affecting multiple ovarian targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, M V; Torelli, C; Pustovrh, M C; Paz, D A; Elia, E M

    2015-11-01

    Obesity constitutes a health problem of increasing worldwide prevalence. Among the health detriments caused by obesity, reproduction is disrupted. However, the mechanisms involved in this disruption are not fully understood. Animals fed a cafeteria diet constitute the model for the study of obesity that most closely reflects Western diet habits. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a cafeteria diet affects ovarian function and to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved. For that purpose, 22-day-old female Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with a standard diet (control group; n = 20) or cafeteria diet (CAF group; n = 20). The cafeteria diet induced obesity and hyperglycaemia, without altering serum triglycerides, cholesterol or C-reactive protein concentrations. This diet also altered ovarian function: the rats showed prolonged dioestrous phases, decreased serum oestradiol concentrations and increased number of antral atretic follicles. Moreover, follicular cysts were detected in the CAF group, concomitantly with a decrease in the number of anti-Müllerian hormone immunoreactive pre-antral follicles and COX-2-positive antral and pre-ovulatory follicles. The authors conclude that a cafeteria diet reduces ovarian reserve, induces the presence of follicular cysts and disturbs the ovulatory process, leading to the delayed pregnancy observed in these animals.

  19. Survival and cardioprotective benefits of long-term blueberry enriched diet in dilated cardiomyopathy following myocardial infarction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismayil Ahmet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering, and effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD attenuated necroapoptosis and inflammation in periinfarct area in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that BD will attenuate the course of CHF, including mortality and cardiac remodeling during the first year after induction of MI in rats. METHOD AND RESULTS: Two weeks after coronary artery ligation, rats were divided into two groups of similar average MI size, measured by echocardiography, and then 12-mo dietary regimens were initiated as follows: ad libitum regular diet (control, CD, n = 27 and isocaloric food with 2% blueberry supplement (BD, n = 27 also available ad libitum. These dietary groups were compared to each other and to sham group (SH. Mortality over the 12 mo was reduced by 22% in BD compared with CD (p<0.01. In the course of developing CHF, BD had no effect on the body weight, heart rate or blood pressure. Bi-monthly Echo revealed significant attenuation of the LV chamber remodeling, LV posterior wall thinning, and MI expansion in BD compared with CD. In fact, BD arrested the MI expansion. CONCLUSION: This is the first experimental evidence that a blueberry-enriched diet has positive effects on the course of CHF and thus warrants consideration for clinical evaluation.

  20. Effects of proportions of dietary macronutrients on glucocorticoid metabolism in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland H Stimson

    Full Text Available Tissue glucocorticoid levels in the liver and adipose tissue are regulated by regeneration of inactive glucocorticoid by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1 and inactivation by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases. A low carbohydrate diet increases hepatic 11beta-HSD1 and reduces glucocorticoid metabolism during weight loss in obese humans. We hypothesized that similar variations in macronutrient proportions regulate glucocorticoid metabolism in obese rats. Male Lister Hooded rats were fed an obesity-inducing ad libitum 'Western' diet (37% fat, n = 36 for 22 weeks, then randomised to continue this diet (n = 12 or to switch to either a low carbohydrate (n = 12 or a moderate carbohydrate (n = 12 diet for the final 8 weeks. A parallel lean control group were fed an ad libitum control diet (10% fat, n = 12 throughout. The low and moderate carbohydrate diets decreased hepatic 11beta-HSD1 mRNA compared with the Western diet (both 0.7+/-0.0 vs 0.9+/-0.1 AU; p<0.01, but did not alter 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue. 5Alpha-reductase mRNA was increased on the low carbohydrate compared with the moderate carbohydrate diet. Compared with lean controls, the Western diet decreased 11beta-HSD1 activity (1.6+/-0.1 vs 2.8+/-0.1 nmol/mcg protein/hr; p<0.001 and increased 5alpha-reductase and 5beta-reductase mRNAs (1.9+/-0.3 vs 1.0+/-0.2 and 1.6+/-0.1 vs 1.0+/-0.1 AU respectively; p<0.01 in the liver, and reduced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity (both p<0.01 in adipose tissue. Although an obesity-inducing high fat diet in rats recapitulates the abnormal glucocorticoid metabolism associated with human obesity in liver (but not in adipose tissue, a low carbohydrate diet does not increase hepatic 11beta-HSD1 in obese rats as occurs in humans.

  1. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (Psows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (Psows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  2. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. PMID:25475789

  3. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health.

  4. 日粮中添加生物发酵饲料对生长育肥猪生产性能的影响%Effects of diet adding fermented feed on production performance of finishing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊锋; 陈斌; 程丰

    2011-01-01

    The experiment selected 30 healthy three-line crossbred(Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) finishing pigs,which were assigned randomly to three groups by weight and cote and were used to study the effects of diet adding 0%、20% and 30% fermented feed on production performance of finishing pigs.The results showed that adding fermented feed to finishing pigs diet can improve the average daily gain and feed conversion of finishing pigs,and adding 30% fermented feed to finishing pigs diet was better.%本试验选用杜洛克×长白×大约克三元杂交健康生长育肥猪30头,按体重、窝别等随机分为3组,分别饲喂含0%、20%和30%发酵饲料的全价日粮,对育肥猪的生产性能进行研究。结果表明:在生长育肥猪的基础日粮中添加发酵饲料能提高育肥猪的日增重和饲料转化率,发酵饲料以30%的添加量效果较佳。

  5. Impact of wheat aleurone structure on metabolic disorders caused by a high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Natalia Nicole; Pekkinen, Jenna; Zavala, Karla; Fouret, Gilles; Korkmaz, Ayhan; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Atalay, Mustafa; Hanhineva, Kati; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; Micard, Valérie

    2014-10-15

    The present study investigated the potential of native and structurally modified wheat aleurone, by dry-grinding or enzymatic treatments, to counteract metabolic disorders in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). C57BL6/J mice were first fed ad libitum with a high-fat diet for 9 weeks to induce obesity, after which the native or treated aleurone fractions were added (13% (w/w)) in the high-fat diets for an additional 8 weeks. The effects of the aleurone-enriched diets were evaluated by assessing body weight gain, adiposity, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and leptin, and anti-inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Enrichment of the diet with native or finely ground aleurone did not improve any parameter analyzed; finely ground aleurone even slightly increased (p = 0.03) body weight gain. Enrichment of the diet with enzymatically treated aleurone only had a tendency toward lower body weight gain, visceral adipose tissue accumulation, fasting plasma insulin, and leptin levels.

  6. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  7. n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awada Manar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF diet or high-fat (HF, 20% diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG. Results Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6, (ii leptin and (iii 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution. Conclusion Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing

  8. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Wang, Yajing; Simayi, Aminamu; Yasheng, Amingguli; Wu, Zhaohai; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13; 6.8 MJ of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg; 14.0% crude protein (CP) ], or a middle energy density diet (MD, n = 13; 6.2 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP), or a low energy density diet (LD, n = 13; 5.4 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP) from d 21 before expected day of calving. After parturition, all cows were fed the same lactation diet to d 70 in milk (DIM). The DMI and NEL intake prepartum were decreased by the reduced energy density diets (P energy density diet prepartum (P energy consumption for HD, MD and LD groups were 149.8%, 126.2% and 101.1% of their calculated energy requirements prepartum (P energy density prepartum diet was effective in controlling NEL intake prepartum, and was beneficial in increasing DMI and milk yield, and alleviating negative EB postpartum.

  9. Baseline growth and reproductive parameters in Lymnaea stagnalis for OECD test guideline development: optimization of diets and culturing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Tom

    The OECD has successfully validated reproductive toxicity test guidelines with fish and frogs for diverse chemicals (including endocrine disrupters). Since molluscs are especially sensitive to chronic exposure to a number of chemicals, the OECD supports the complementary development and validation...... (snails fed lettuce ad libitum (0.09 mm/snail/day) followed by snails fed fish flake>sweet potato>cabbage leave diets (0.03 mm/snail/day). Similarly, in a 56-d ring-test study with 7 laboratories, the lettuce diet gave...... mean specific growth rates of 0.06-0.09 mm/snail/day. Fecundity in the same test ranged from 519-1424 total embryos per snail. These data will be used towards developing a reference database of growth and reproduction for L. stagnalis and to aid the statistical optimization of the draft OECD test...

  10. Nutrients and Cholesterol of Eggs Affected by Dried Tomato Meal in Laying Hens Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jein R. Leke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred MB 402 laying hens (36 weeks of age were used for the study. The birds were divided into five experimental diets and each was divided into four replicate groups of five birds per replicate. The control diet (based diet was formulated to contain 51% corn, 14% rice bran, 7% fish meal, 6% CaCO3, and 22% commercial diet. Tomato meal was included in four experimental diets at levels of 2, 4, 6, 8% to substitute based diet. The treatments were: R0 = 100% based diet (BD + 0% tomato meal (TM; R1 = 98% BD + 2% TM; R2 = 96% BD + 4% TM; R3 = 94% BD + 6% TM; and R4 = 92% BD + 8% TM. Chemical composition of tomato meal were: 16.73% crude protein, 1.53% fat, 30.94% crude fiber, 0.98% Ca, 1.20% P, and 2416 Kcal/kg ME. Feed and water were provided for ad libitum. The study was conducted over a period of 8 weeks, and data were collected on nutrients of eggs: crude protein, fat, carbohydrate, and cholesterol of eggs. Proximate analysis eggs was determined by the methods of AOAC (1990, and cholesterol was determined by Libermann and Burchad method. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The treatment means were compared using Duncan’s multiple range test. The results showedthat no differences in hen egg nutrients and cholesterol between treatments R1, R2, R3, and R4 compared to treatment R0 (control. It can be concluded that tomato meal can be used as an alternative feedstuff in laying hen diets to substitute based diet, at inclusion levels up to 8% without negative effects on egg quality.

  11. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    diet. Still, the relevance of GI in preventing the metabolic syndrome is controversial. Objectives The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks intake of a low glycemic index vs. a high glycemic index high-carbohydrate, low fat ad libitum diet on plasma PAI-1 activity...... to decrease during weight loss. However, the beneficial effects of healthy diets on PAI-1 levels may not solely depend on weight loss, but other factors may also play a role. For example better glycemic control has been observed in diabetic patients after a low glycemic index (GI) diet compared to a high GI...... and antigen levels in overweight women. Methods 45 healthy overweight women (BMI 27.6 ± 0.2 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to a parallel 10 week intervention with a low GI (n=23) or high GI (n=22) diet. Fasting blood samples were obtained before and after the 10 weeks. To study the postprandial effect of LGI...

  12. Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective: To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks.Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (∼2 g/kg body weight (n = 12 or artificial sweeteners (n = 11 as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (∼80 weight% and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits. The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0 and after the intervention (week 10 fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch.After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10, postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet.A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects.

  13. Effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs to the diet of young pigs on growth performance, intestinal cytokines, and circulating acute phase proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs on growth performance, intestinal cytokine expression, markers of inflammation, abundance of phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), and the expression of genes that control intestinal growth was evaluated in weanling pigs. Pigs (n = 120; 5.2 kg and 24 d of age) wer...

  14. The effects of diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nadino; das Neves, José Henrique; Nazato, Carina; Louvandini, Helder; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the effects of Diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus, 28 lambs were allocated to one of four groups treated as follows: Group Basal Diet - Normal; Group Basal Diet - Immune-Suppressed; Group Supplemented Diet - Normal; and Group Supplemented Diet - Immune-Suppressed. The Basal Diet contained Cynodon dactylon (cv. coast cross) hay with 82 g crude protein (CP)/kg dry matter (DM), which was provided to the lambs in all groups ad libitum. In addition, animals on the Supplemented Diet received daily a commercial concentrate containing 171 g CP/kg DM, which was offered in an amount corresponding to 3% of the animal's live weight. The Immune-Suppressed groups received treatments with the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone sodium succinate (1.33 mg/kg of body weight), administered weekly. All lambs received a single infection with 4000 H. contortus infective larvae (L3) and were euthanised 28 days post-infection. Differences in pH and in the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations occurred in rumen as a result of the distinct Diets offered to lambs. Such changes, however, did not have any apparent effect on larvae exsheathment and/or larvae survival inside the rumen, with all groups presenting similar worm burdens. However, animals on the Supplemented Diet presented reductions in worm growth and faecal egg counts. There was a significant effect of the Diet on the IgG levels against total antigens of H. contortus L3 from 7 to 27 days post-infection, with supplemented animals showing higher overall mean values (PDiet; however, only the length of males was significantly affected (P<0.05). In conclusion, the changes caused in the rumen contents by supplementation with concentrate did not impair H. contortus establishment.

  15. Weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine as response criteria in evaluating supplements of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan to deficient diets for rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, Z; Heger, J

    1986-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted on growing male SPF-rats to compare weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine concentration as response criteria in evaluating adequacy of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan supplements to the deficient diets. Two basal semisynthetic diets were prepared limiting in lysine and threonine (Expt. 1) and lysine and tryptophan (Expt. 2). The addition of graded supplements to the basal diets of L-lysine X HCl alone (0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0% of diet) induced imbalance of amino acids resulting in low level of daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Plasma free lysine concentration started to grow linearly from the first supplement of L-lysine X HCl. If rats were fed the diets containing identical supplements of L-lysine X HCl in combination with two supplements of L-threonine (0.2 and 0.4% of diet, Expt. 1) or L-tryptophan (0.05 and 0.1% of diet, Expt. 2), plasma free lysine started to increase before supplements of amino acids were adequate to support maximum weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. this difference in response seems to be caused by different feeding regiment during the growth period of the experiments (ad libitum) and training period prior to blood sampling (feeding twice daily). PMID:3098208

  16. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  17. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Genoni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background/Objectives: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2 Subjects/Methods: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2 were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22 or AGHE diet (n = 17 for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3 Results: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03. Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046, costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01 and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01; (4 Conclusions: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility.

  18. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) SUBJECTS/METHODS: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) RESULTS: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  19. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Kjetil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. Methods Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study. There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. Severity of arthritis was determined using a clinical scoring system. Arthritis joints were analysed by histopathology and graded. Serum samples were obtained at the end of the study and the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-β were determined by a Luminex™ assay system. Results Consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control. Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score. Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-1α and IL-13. Conclusions The study suggests that krill oil may be a useful intervention strategy against the clinical and histopathological signs of inflammatory arthritis.

  20. Effects of Adding Microbial Phytase in Low-Available-Phosphorus Diet on Mineral Metabolism of Broilers%低有效磷饲粮添加植酸酶对肉仔鸡矿物质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彩然; 杨宗泽; 张建文

    2001-01-01

    100只艾维因肉仔鸡随机分为5组,每个组设4个重复。第1组喂标准饲粮;第2,3,4,5组喂低有效磷(0.20%)饲粮,分别加植酸酶0,350,500,650 FTU/kg,饲养试验分两个阶段:0~3周,4~6周。试验期为5周,观察各组肉鸡的营养物质表观利用率、胫骨质量、血清化学指标的变化,研究低有效磷饲粮中添加植酸酶对矿物质代谢的影响及作用机制。试验结果表明:在低有效磷饲粮中添加植酸酶对矿物代谢有一定积极影响,以植酸酶最大添加量650 FTU/kg组的效果为最佳。%100 four-day-old birds were randomly divided into five groups, each with four replications. In group 1, broilers were fed on basal diets with inorganic phosphorous as control. While in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, broilers were fed on low-P basal diets, in which microbial phytase was added at the concentrations of 0, 350, 500 and 650 phytase units per kilogram of the diets respectively. In the five-weeks trial duration, the balance of phosphorous, calcium and crude protein, tibia strength and its mineral composition, and the mineral concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity in serium were measured to decide the efficacy of phytase added in low-P diets. The efficacy of the 650 FTU/kg group was the best in all low-P groups.

  1. Effects of diet type on establishment of pregnancy and embryo development in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gath, V P; Crowe, M A; O'Callaghan, D; Boland, M P; Duffy, P; Lonergan, P; Mulligan, F J

    2012-08-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of elevated blood urea concentrations on: (i) the response to superovulation, fertilisation rate, and early embryonic development in beef heifers, and (ii) embryo survival from days 7 to 35 of gestation. In Experiment 1, heifers (18-24 months) were allocated at random (n=20 per treatment) to one of the following diets: (i) ad libitum grass silage plus 5 kg commercial beef concentrates per day (controls); (ii) ad libitum grass silage plus 5 kg concentrates and 250 g feed grade urea per day (HE/HU); or (iii) ad libitum wheaten straw plus 250 g feed grade urea and 50 g vitamin/mineral mix per day (LE/HU). Serum urea concentrations were monitored throughout the experiment. Oestrus in heifers was synchronised using an intravaginal releasing device (CIDR(®), InterAg, New Zealand). Oestrus was detected and in vitro produced blastocysts (day 7, morphological grades 1 and 2) were transferred to the heifers 7 days later (19 days after start of treatment diets). The heifers were maintained on the dietary treatments for a further 28 days, when pregnancy status was determined by transrectal ultrasonography. Detected pregnancies were terminated using 15 mg luprostiol and recycled for Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, following a 14-day dietary rest period, the heifers were re-allocated at random to the three dietary treatments above. Heifers were treated with a CIDR for 8 days and 15 mg luprostiol was given 12h before pessary withdrawal. They received 144 mg pFSH (Folltropin(®)-V, Vetrepharm, Canada) given as 8 injections over 4 days commencing on day 6 of CIDR/dietary treatment. Heifers were artificially inseminated 48 h after progesterone pessary withdrawal using commercial semen of proven fertility by a competent inseminator. The heifers were maintained on their diets until slaughter, 3 days post insemination when corpora lutea numbers were determined and embryos were recovered and cell numbers determined visually. Serum urea

  2. Dietary Protein in the Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity and Co-Morbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup

    mice were fed obesity‐promoting diets with protein from different sources, in different forms and at different levels to evaluate the affect on development of obesity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Results: In the present study the dietary level of protein, 16 versus 32 percent energy from...... protein, was found to be negligible in development of obesity and co‐morbidities in mice. Seafood protein with high endogenous taurine and glycine contents was found to prevent diet‐induced adiposity and dyslipidemia, both in ad libitum and pair‐fed settings. The ability of seafood proteins to prevent...... that the source and form of protein has great impact on development and prevention of diet‐induced adiposity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia and impairment of glucose tolerance through modulations of voluntary locomotor activity, energy expenditure and energy substrate metabolism in mice...

  3. Cholesterol: an antidiarrheal agent in rats with short-bowel syndrome fed elemental diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huk, I; Schulz, F; Abrahamian, V; Kaminski, M V

    1986-01-01

    Studies show that bile acids and long-chain fatty acids are responsible for diarrhea in certain malabsorption syndromes. Recent reports indicate that substances such as dietary cholesterol, when moderately consumed, can reduce bile-induced excessive mucosal fluid and electrolyte output. This study explores the antidiarrheal effect and dosage of dietary cholesterol in rats following massive bowel resection, co-fed elemental diet. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 248-253 g underwent 75% resection of the small bowel and were fed ad libitum for 21 days with 1 of 5 diets (n = 7) of Vivonex HN, supplemented by 0, 2.5, 5, 10 or 15 mM cholesterol/1,000 g of the powdered elemental diet. Parameters measured included daily food and water consumption, daily changes in weight, volume of excrement and stool consistency graded by the same individual (water, semiformed or formed). It was found that 5 mM dietary cholesterol in 1,000 g of the elemental diet produced the most formed stool and significantly improved weight gain in rats with short-bowel syndrome. PMID:3780788

  4. A comparison of hyperhydration versus ad libitum fluid intake strategies on measures of oxidative stress, thermoregulation, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Angela R; Turner, Mark C; Peart, Daniel J; Bray, James W; Taylor, Lee; McNaughton, Lars R; Siegler, Jason C

    2013-01-01

    Dehydration has been shown to augment cellular stress. Glycerol hyperhydration can delay dehydration, which may decrease the level of pre- and post-exercise oxidative stress. This study aimed to compare the effects of glycerol (G) or water (W) hyperhydration with no hyperhydration (C) on oxidative stress, thermoregulation, and cycle performance. Seven trained males consumed 1.2 g of glycerol·kg⁻¹ body mass (BM) in 26 ml·kg⁻¹ BM water or equal volume water to achieve hyperhydration followed by a 90 min time trial. Total glutathione increased post exercise (PE) in all trials (p < 0.01), while oxidized glutathione (p < 0.05) and protein carbonyl concentrations (p < 0.001) were increased PE for the C trial only. Mean body temperature and heart rate increased with exercise but were not different between interventions. Total distance covered and power outputs were not different between interventions. Fluid intake attenuated oxidative stress but did not enhance thermoregulation or performance. PMID:24067117

  5. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  6. Facing temptation in the bar: counteracting the effects of self-control failure on young adults' ad libitum alcohol intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Cladder-Micus, M.B.; Pouwels, J.L.; Hennig, M.; Schuurmans, A.T.; Hermans, R.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The self-control strength model suggests that exertion of self-control leads to poorer subsequent self-control performance. Failure of self-control has been suggested as an important underlying mechanism of excessive drinking. This study tested the effects of self-control failure

  7. Anterior Cingulate Taste Activation Predicts Ad Libitum Intake of Sweet and Savory Drinks in Healthy, Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    After food consumption, the motivation to eat (wanting) decreases and associated brain reward responses change. Wanting-related brain responses and how these are affected by consumption of specific foods are ill documented. Moreover, the predictive value of food-induced brain responses for subsequen

  8. Pen-mate directed behaviour in ad libitum fed pigs given different quantities and frequencies of straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdi, C.; Lahrmann, H.P.; Oxholm, L.C.;

    2015-01-01

    is expensive. In addition, straw needs to remain fresh in order to have a degree of novelty. The aim of this study was to investigate pen-mate directed behaviour in pigs given different straw treatments. Pigs were assigned to one of five treatments testing either quantity or frequency of chopped......-mate directed behaviour were recorded. In addition, residual straw in the pens was assessed using four categories ranging from straw in a thin layer; little straw; few straws; and soiled straw. Pigs were active for about 30% of the registered time, but overall no differences in total pen-mate directed behaviour...... pigs were active for about 30% of the day corresponding to less than 5 h per day. Of the active time, an average of 17 min was spent on pen-mate directed behaviour. Only minor differences were found in the residual straw assessment, T25 had a higher percentage of little straw left compared to T50 and T...

  9. Consumption of clarified grapefruit juice ameliorates high-fat diet induced insulin resistance and weight gain in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostislav Chudnovskiy

    Full Text Available To determine the metabolic effects of grapefruit juice consumption we established a model in which C57Bl/6 mice drank 25-50% sweetened GFJ, clarified of larger insoluble particles by centrifugation (cGFJ, ad libitum as their sole source of liquid or isocaloric and sweetened water. cGFJ and control groups consumed similar amounts of liquids and calories. Mice fed a high-fat diet and cGFJ experienced a 18.4% decrease in weight, a 13-17% decrease in fasting blood glucose, a three-fold decrease in fasting serum insulin, and a 38% decrease in liver triacylglycerol values, compared to controls. Mice fed a low-fat diet that drank cGFJ experienced a two-fold decrease in fasting insulin, but not the other outcomes observed with the high-fat diet. cGFJ consumption decreased blood glucose to a similar extent as the commonly used anti-diabetic drug metformin. Introduction of cGFJ after onset of diet-induced obesity also reduced weight and blood glucose. A bioactive compound in cGFJ, naringin, reduced blood glucose and improved insulin tolerance, but did not ameliorate weight gain. These data from a well-controlled animal study indicate that GFJ contains more than one health-promoting neutraceutical, and warrant further studies of GFJ effects in the context of obesity and/or the western diet.

  10. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Betz

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein: control (64.3/16.7/19, LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5, LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1, and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7. RESULTS: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint, explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. CONCLUSION: All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by

  11. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may ...

  12. 饲粮中添加风味剂对猪采食量的影响及其作用机理%Effects and Mechanisms of Feed Flavor Added into Pig’ s Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 李方方; 朱宇旌; 郑丽莉; 张勇

    2016-01-01

    调控猪各个阶段的采食量是动物营养研究的热点问题。风味剂主要有香味剂、甜味剂、鲜味剂,可以改善饲粮的适口性,提高猪对饲粮的喜爱程度,也可以缓解因环境变化、饲料原料改变等应激反应导致的采食量下降。猪的嗅觉系统特别发达,灵敏度很高,味觉也要比人类敏感,因此在饲粮中添加风味剂主要通过刺激猪的嗅觉和味觉来使摄食中枢兴奋,进而促进猪采食。本文综述了饲粮中添加风味剂对猪采食量的影响及其作用机理,为相关试验提供理论依据。%Regulating pigs feed intake is a hot issue in animal nutrition research. Feed flavor mainly include fla⁃vor, sweet taste and umami taste. They can improve feed palatability and make pigs preference, also can allevi⁃ate stress due to environmental changes and feed ingredients change leading to decrease of feed intake. The pigs have a good nose and olfactory system which are highly developed, and the taste is more sensitive than human. Therefore the mechanisms of feed flavor added into pig ’ s diets mainly by stimulating olfaction and taste through feeding center excitation and finally increasing feed intake. This paper reviewed the effects and mecha⁃nisms of feed flavor added into pig’ s diets in order to providing a theoretical basis for further research.

  13. Performance of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, R A; Belmar-Casso, R

    2002-05-01

    The performance and gut measurements of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal (CLM) were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment, 60 Hubbard chickens (30 males and 30 females; 2 weeks old) were fed on five maize diets; these were formulated using 0, 150 (CLM150), 250 (CLM250) or 350 (CLM350) g CLM/kg, and the fifth diet contained soyabean. In the second experiment, 148 Ross male chicks, 1 day old, were fed on three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic maize-soyabean-based diets, which included 0 (control), 150 (C150) or 250 (C250) g CLM/kg. The diets were offered ad libitum for 2 or 3 weeks in the first and second experiments, respectively. Food intake, weight gain and the food:weight gain ratio were recorded. The weight of the gizzard and intestine and the weight and length of the caeca were also determined in the second experiment. In experiment 1, the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet had a higher (p < 0.05) weight gain and final weight than birds fed on maize only or on the CLM150 diets. There were no differences for any of the variables studied between the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet and those fed on the CLM250, nor between males and females. In the second experiment, weight gain, food intake and the food:weight gain ratio for birds fed on C250 were lower (p < 0.05) than those in birds fed on either the control or C150 diets. The weights of the gizzard and intestine were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in birds fed on C250 (p < 0.05). The length and weight of the caecum from birds fed on the control diet were lower (p < 0.05) than those of birds fed on either the C150 or C250 diets. The results from this study suggest that CLM may be included up to 150 g/kg in commercial diets without having an adverse effect on poultry performance, and may also be mixed with maize up to 250 g/kg to improve the performance of chickens fed on low-protein diets. PMID:12094681

  14. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips to keep from becoming thirsty include: Avoid salty foods Freeze some juice in an ice cube ... diet. Look for these words on food labels: Low-sodium No salt added Sodium-free Sodium-reduced Unsalted ...

  15. [Volatile fatty acids in the rumen of sheep fed a synthetic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, M; Bod'a, K; Jalc, D; Piatková, M; Kalacnjuk, G I; Várady, J

    1983-08-01

    A trial was conducted with wethers to study the effect of the administration of a synthetic diet (composition: 30.125% starch, 30.125% sucrose, 25% cellulose, 5.25% urea, 8.125% mineral supplement, 1.25% maize oil and 0.125% cholinechloride) upon rumen fermentation. The adaptation to the synthetic diet lasted three months, the proportion of the synthetic diet increasing every week (by 10%) to the detriment of a traditional diet (composition: 0.5 kg meadow hay, 0.3 kg barley, 0.2 kg wheat bran, salt and straw ad libitum). In the 10th week the animals consumed 0.5 kg granular synthetic diet, 0.2 kg cellulose flakes and 0.01 kg polystyrene. After three weeks of the administration of the fully synthetic diet, the rumen fluid was sampled after morning feeding in intervals of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 hours. In the dynamics of fermentation, statistically significant differences were found only in isobutyric and isovaleric acid between the 0th and 1st and between the 5th and 7th hours (P less than 0.05--P less than 0.001). The data for all the time intervals were recalculated to average values. These were as follows: total volatile fatty acids 63.03 mmol/l, acetic acid 51.00 mol%, propionic acid 26.75 mol%, butyric acid 19.43 mol%, isobutyric acid 0.91 mol%, isovaleric 1.27 mol%, valeric acid 0.62 mol%, energy efficiency of VFA production 78.23%. The obtained data are confronted with literary data on synthetic diets which contained urea and various energy sources. PMID:6414150

  16. Maternal Manganese Restriction Increases Susceptibility to High-Fat Diet-Induced Dyslipidemia and Altered Adipose Function in WNIN Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Ganeshan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth in utero is largely a reflection of nutrient and oxygen supply to the foetus. We studied the effects of Mn restriction per se, maternal Mn restriction, and postnatal high-fat feeding in modulating body composition, lipid metabolism and adipocyte function in Wistar/NIN (WNIN rat offspring. Female weanling, WNIN rats received ad libitum for 4 months, a control or Mn-restricted diet and were mated with control males. Some restricted mothers were rehabilitated with control diet from conception (MnRC or parturition (MnRP, and their offspring were raised on control diet. Some restricted offspring were weaned onto control diet (MnRW, while others continued on restricted diet throughout (MnR. A set of offspring from each group was fed high-fat diet from 9 months onwards. Body composition, adipocytes function, and lipid metabolism were monitored in male rat offspring at regular intervals. Maternal manganese restriction increased the susceptibility of the offspring to high-fat-induced adiposity, dyslipidaemia, and a proinflammatory state but did not affect their glycemic or insulin status.

  17. Efficiency of different xylanase preparations in diets for pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmler, R; Rodehutscord, M

    2001-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with a total of 2288 pekin ducks. Day-old ducklings were group-penned on straw bedding and were fed complete, pelleted diets ad libitum for up to 49 days depending on experiment. In each experiment, starter diets (until day 21) and grower diets (from day 22) were used adequate in ME content and nutrient content. The sum of wheat, rye, and triticale amounted to at least 57% (starter diet) and 63% (grower diet), respectively. The inclusion level of wheat, rye, and triticale was different between experiments, with a maximum rye inclusion of 45%. Five different enzyme preparations all having, 1,4-beta-xylanase as the main activity were considered in this study with either one (2 preparations) or three (3 preparations) levels of supplementation. The effect of enzyme supplementation on ileal digesta viscosity was studied at the end of two experiments comprising 4 enzyme preparations. A significant reduction in digesta viscosity was determined for all preparations. The viscosity of digesta was higher in birds that were fed 45% rye in their diet as compared to those fed a diet based on triticale and wheat, even with enzyme supplementation. Differences in digesta viscosity were not reflected in growth or feed conversion data. In one experiment, the body weight of ducks on day 21 was significantly improved by enzyme supplementation. This effect disappeared with progress in experiment. In another experiment, feed intake was significantly improved with enzyme supplementation. Apart from this, no statistically significant improvement in performance could be detected. On overall average, the final BW of ducks fed an enzyme was (as compared to the unsupplemented control = 100), 100, and the feed conversion ratio was 101. There is no indication from the growth and feed conversion data that an enzyme effect becomes more pronounced with increasing inclusion rate of soluble NSP by rye. It is concluded that supplementary xylanases are efficient in

  18. Modern 'junk food' and minimally-processed 'natural food' cafeteria diets alter the response to sweet taste but do not impair flavor-nutrient learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palframan, Kristen M; Myers, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Animals learn to prefer and increase consumption of flavors paired with postingestive nutrient sensing. Analogous effects have been difficult to observe in human studies. One possibility is experience with the modern, processed diet impairs learning. Food processing manipulates flavor, texture, sweetness, and nutrition, obscuring ordinary correspondences between sensory cues and postingestive consequences. Over time, a diet of these processed 'junk' foods may impair flavor-nutrient learning. This 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis was tested by providing rats long-term exposure to cafeteria diets of unusual breadth (2 or 3 foods per day, 96 different foods over 3 months, plus ad libitum chow). One group was fed processed foods (PF) with added sugars/fats and manipulated flavors, to mimic the sensory-nutrient properties of the modern processed diet. Another group was fed only 'natural' foods (NF) meaning minimally-processed foods without manipulated flavors or added sugars/fats (e.g., fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains) ostensibly preserving the ordinary correspondence between flavors and nutrition. A CON group was fed chow only. In subsequent tests of flavor-nutrient learning, PF and NF rats consistently acquired strong preferences for novel nutrient-paired flavors and PF rats exhibited enhanced learned acceptance, contradicting the 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis. An unexpected finding was PF and NF diets both caused lasting reduction in ad lib sweet solution intake. Groups did not differ in reinforcing value of sugar in a progressive ratio task. In lick microstructure analysis the NF group paradoxically showed increased sucrose palatability relative to PF and CON, suggesting the diets have different effects on sweet taste evaluation.

  19. Effect of diet composition and lysine supply on growth and body composition in juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeckel, Saskia; Dietz, Carsten; Schulz, Carsten; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding level and dietary lysine concentration on growth, protein and lysine retention, and body composition in juvenile turbot. Maintenance requirement for lysine and the efficiency of lysine utilisation were determined as well. Two experimental diets were formulated based on fishmeal or wheat gluten as main protein sources, containing 6.4 g (Diet A, control) and 4.5 g lysine per 100 g CP (Diet B), respectively. Diets were fed once daily at six feeding levels (per day 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, 1.2%, and 1.5% of body weight [BW] and ad libitum) to a total of 432 fish of 48 g initial BW. No differences in the growth parameters were observed between diets at the same feeding level, except a lower feed to gain ratio (p level at Diet B. Whole-body composition was not affected by diet, whereas muscle protein concentration was significantly lower for fish fed Diet B. Amino acid concentration in whole-body protein was affected by dietary treatment and fish fed Diet B showed lower concentrations of all essential amino acids. In fish muscle protein, lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine concentrations were significantly lower in Diet B. Efficiency of lysine utilisation for growth (klys) was determined by linear regression analysis and amounted for 0.69 for Diet B. The maintenance lysine requirement defined at zero lysine retention was 6.5 mg · kg(-0.8) · d(-1). Lysine intakes at zero protein retention were 13.0 mg and 12.9 mg · kg(-0.8) · d(-1) for Diet A and B, respectively. Growth and nutrient retention were similar for both diets and, therefore, a lysine deficiency in Diet B did not occur. In conclusion, a proportion of 330 g wheat gluten per kg feed did not influence growth performance and maintenance requirement for lysine in juvenile turbot. However, the effect of diet composition on the amino acid profile of body protein might be relevant for the derivation of the amino acid requirement

  20. Effect of Antioxidants Supplementation or Restricted Diet on Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Vahidinia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine the preventive effect of antioxidant supplements and/or restricted diet on the stress oxidative index (8-Iso-PGF2α and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in obese rats induced by a high-fat (HF diet. Material and Methods: In this experimental study forty-eight male Wister rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Their daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. Serum 8-Iso-PGF2α and TAC measured by EIA methods. Results: Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Serum 8-Iso-PGF2α in HF was 1416.2±443.5 and in HF restricted was 1209.4±424.4pg/ml (p>0.05 and equal for other groups. The lowest TAC was seen in HF and highest was in HFS (0.36±0.43 and 3.0±1.13 mM, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusions: These results suggest that antioxidant supplements and caloric restriction may improved TAC and partially suppress stress oxidative index in high fat diet induced obese rats. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(1:48-56

  1. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. PMID:26525915

  2. Diet quality assessment indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I, II or III' added to their names. Even validated indices usually find only modest associations between diet and risk of disease or death, raising questions about their limitations and the complexity associated with measuring the causal relationship between diet and health parameters. The objective of this review is to describe the main instruments used for assessing diet quality, and the applications and limitations related to their use and interpretation.

  3. Persistent diet-induced obesity in male C57BL/6 mice resulting from temporary obesigenic diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Does diet-induced obesity persist after an obesigenic diet is removed? We investigated this question by providing male C57BL/6 mice with free access to two different obesigenic diets followed by a switch to chow to determine if obesity was reversible. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to five weight-matched groups: 1 C group that continuously received a chow diet; 2 HF group on a 60% high fat diet; 3 EN group on the high fat diet plus liquid Ensure; 4 HF-C group switched from high fat to chow after 7 weeks; 5 EN-C group switched from high fat plus Ensure to chow after 7 weeks. All food intake was ad libitum. Body weight was increased after 7 weeks on both obesigenic diets (44.6+/-0.65, 39.8+/-0.63, and 28.6+/-0.63 g for EN, HF, and C groups, respectively and resulted in elevated concentrations of serum insulin, glucose, and leptin and lower serum triglycerides. Development of obesity in HF and EN mice was caused by increased energy intake and a relative decrease of average energy output along with decreased ambulatory activity. After the switch to chow, the HF-C and EN-C groups lost weight but subsequently maintained a state of persistent obesity in comparison to the C group (34.8+/-1.2, 34.1+/-1.2 vs. 30.8+/-0.8 g respectively; P<0.05 with a 40-50% increase of body fat. All serum hormones and metabolites returned to control levels with the exception of a trend for increased leptin. The HF-C and EN-C groups had an average energy output in line with the C group and the persistent obesity was maintained despite a non-significant increase of energy intake of less than 1 kcal/d at the end of the study. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate the importance of considering the history of energy imbalance in determining body weight and that a persistent elevation of body weight after removal of obesigenic diets can result from very small increases of energy intake.

  4. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows. PMID:26888487

  5. Analysis of time-dependent adaptations in whole-body energy balance in obesity induced by high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghdoori Babak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet has been extensively used as a model to study metabolic disorders of human obesity in rodents. However, the adaptive whole-body metabolic responses that drive the development of obesity with chronically feeding a HF diet are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated the physiological mechanisms by which whole-body energy balance and substrate partitioning are adjusted in the course of HF diet-induced obesity. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum either a standard or a HF diet for 8 weeks. Food intake (FI and body weight were monitored daily, while oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE were assessed weekly. At week 8, fat mass and lean body mass (LBM, fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 content in brown adipose tissue (BAT, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC content in liver and epidydimal fat were measured. Results Within 1 week of ad libitum HF diet, rats were able to spontaneously reduce FI to precisely match energy intake of control rats, indicating that alterations in dietary energy density were rapidly detected and FI was self-regulated accordingly. Oxygen consumption was higher in HF than controls throughout the study as whole-body fat oxidation also progressively increased. In HF rats, EE initially increased, but then reduced as dark cycle ambulatory activity reached values ~38% lower than controls. No differences in LBM were detected; however, epidydimal, inguinal, and retroperitoneal fat pads were 1.85-, 1.89-, and 2.54-fold larger in HF-fed than control rats, respectively. Plasma leptin was higher in HF rats than controls throughout the study, indicating the induction of leptin resistance by HF diet. At week 8, UCP-1 content and palmitate oxidation in BAT were 3.1- and 1.5-fold higher in HF rats than controls, respectively, while ACC content in liver and epididymal fat was markedly reduced

  6. Diet-Induced Swine Model with Obesity/Leptin Resistance for the Study of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Torres-Rovira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the suitability of a swine breed with leptin resistance and predisposition to obesity (the Iberian pig as model for studies on metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Thus, six Iberian sows had ad libitum access to food enriched with saturated fat (SFAD group; food consumption was estimated to be 4.5 kg/animal/day whilst four females acted as controls and were fed with 2 kg/animal/day of a commercial maintenance diet. After three months of differential feeding, SFAD animals developed central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, and elevated blood pressure; the five parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome. Thus, the current study characterizes the Iberian pig as a robust, amenable, and reliable translational model for studies on nutrition-associated diseases.

  7. Body composition and energy utilization by steers of diverse genotypes fed a high-concentrate diet during the finishing period: II. Angus, Boran, Brahman, Hereford, and Tuli sires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    1998-02-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine the influence of Angus (A), Boran (BO), Brahman (BR), Hereford (H), or Tuli (T) sires on body composition, composition of gain, and energy utilization of crossbred steers during the finishing period. Beginning at 300 kg, 96 steers were adjusted to a high-corn diet and individual feeding. Steers were assigned, by sire breed, to be killed as an initial slaughter group or fed either a limited amount or ad libitum for 140 d then killed. Organ weights, carcass traits, and body composition were evaluated. The statistical model included sire breed (S), treatment (Trt), and the S x Trt interaction. Ad libitum feed intake was least for BO- and T-, intermediate for BR- and H-, and greatest for A-sired steers. Rates of weight, fat, and energy gains were similar for A-, H-, and BR-sired steers but less (P .12). Rates of water, fat, and protein gain increased linearly with increased rate of BW gain, but relationships differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Linear regression analyses indicated energy requirements for maintenance and efficiency of energy use for energy gain differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Evaluation by nonlinear regression indicated that heat production increased exponentially and energy gain increased asymptotically as feed intake increased above maintenance.

  8. Body composition and energy utilization by steers of diverse genotypes fed a high-concentrate diet during the finishing period: II. Angus, Boran, Brahman, Hereford, and Tuli sires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    1998-02-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine the influence of Angus (A), Boran (BO), Brahman (BR), Hereford (H), or Tuli (T) sires on body composition, composition of gain, and energy utilization of crossbred steers during the finishing period. Beginning at 300 kg, 96 steers were adjusted to a high-corn diet and individual feeding. Steers were assigned, by sire breed, to be killed as an initial slaughter group or fed either a limited amount or ad libitum for 140 d then killed. Organ weights, carcass traits, and body composition were evaluated. The statistical model included sire breed (S), treatment (Trt), and the S x Trt interaction. Ad libitum feed intake was least for BO- and T-, intermediate for BR- and H-, and greatest for A-sired steers. Rates of weight, fat, and energy gains were similar for A-, H-, and BR-sired steers but less (P .12). Rates of water, fat, and protein gain increased linearly with increased rate of BW gain, but relationships differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Linear regression analyses indicated energy requirements for maintenance and efficiency of energy use for energy gain differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Evaluation by nonlinear regression indicated that heat production increased exponentially and energy gain increased asymptotically as feed intake increased above maintenance. PMID:9498376

  9. Hairy AdS Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Anabalon, Andres; Choque, David

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for planar hairy black holes within these theories.

  10. Applied research of ferrous glycine complex adding in sow and porket diets%母、乳猪日粮中添加甘氨酸铁络合物的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The test was to investigate the application effect of iron-glycine on sow and porket. The experiment result indicated that the production performance of sow and porket increased. The application prospect of the amino acid of microelements is wide. Adding ferrous glycine complex 60 mg/kg in sow diet,adding ferrous glycine complex 100 mg/kg in porket diet, total number born, live litter size, litter weight at birth and birth weight were increased 5.14% (P>0.05), 6.30%(P>0.05), 7.50%(P0.05) compared with the control group. Ex⁃perimental group ADG increased 8.12% compare with the control group(P0.05).Sow colostrum iron content, the iron content placenta, umbili⁃cal cord piglets suckling pig iron content and iron content of the blood were increased 39.09%(P0.05).The test group's nursing newborn pig injection iron preparation or not, pig's skin color, coat color, the visible mucous membrane outward appearance representation and weight gain does not have the significant different seriously, but the control group has the significant difference.%  试验研究了母、乳猪日粮中添加甘氨酸铁络合物的应用效果。母猪日粮中添加甘氨酸铁络合物60 mg/kg,乳猪日粮中添加甘氨酸铁络合物100 mg/kg,总产仔数、活仔数、初生窝重和初生均重分别比对照组提高了5.14%(P>0.05)、6.30%(P>0.05)、7.50%(P0.05)。试验组仔猪日增重比对照组提高8.12%(P0.05)。母猪初乳铁含量、胎盘铁含量、乳猪脐带铁含量和乳猪血液铁含量分别比对照组提高了39.09%(P0.05)。试验组的哺乳仔猪注射铁制剂与否,猪的肤色、毛色、可视黏膜的外观表象及增重没有显著性的差异,而对照组则有显著性的差异。

  11. Effect of commercially available chemically defined liquid diets on the intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation from the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverdy, J C; Aoys, E; Moss, G S

    1990-01-01

    The effect of chemically defined liquid diets on the intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation from the gut was studied in the rat. Seventy-five female Fischer rats were randomized to five groups of 15 animals each. Group I was fed rat chow and water, group II was fed Vivonex TEN, group III was fed Ensure, group IV was fed Enrich, and group V was fed Ensure plus ground corn cobs, a crude fiber source. Animals were fed their respective diets ad libitum for 1 week and then killed. Quantitative culture of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and cecum was performed to determine bacterial translocation from the gut. A 66% translocation rate (10/15) of bacteria to MLN was observed in the animals fed Ensure and Enrich compared to 21% in the Vivonex TEN group (3/14) and 20% in the animals fed Ensure plus ground corn cobs (3/15). None of the animals in the control group eating their normal diets of rat chow and water developed positive MLN. Statistical significance (p less than 0.001) was achieved between the Ensure and Enrich groups when compared to controls but not between the Vivonex TEN and Ensure plus corn cobs. Cecal culture revealed a statistically significant rise in cecal bacteria in all groups when compared to the control group (group I). These results indicate that chemically defined liquid diets result in altered intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation from the gut. PMID:2325237

  12. Effects of inclusion Aspergillus niger fermented shrimp waste meal in broiler diets on live performance and digestive organ weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan H. Djunaidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels of shrimp waste meal fermented with Aspergillus niger (LUF in diets on growth performance and digestive organ weight of broilers. A total of 75 d-old chicks were randomly allocated to 5 (five treatments in 3 replication pens of 5 birds each. Treatments consisted of LUF inclusion of 0 (control, and 5, 7.5, 10 and 12,5% (P0, P1, P2, P3 and P4 in the diets. Birds were raised under standard condition and provided with feed and water ad-libitum. Feed and birds were weighed weekly up to 35 days to determine body weight, feed intake and feed conversion. At the end of experimental period, the birds were slaughatered and dressed up to determine carcass percentage and digestive organ weight. There was a significant negative linear response in body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion with increase of LUF more than 7.5% in the diets until 35 days of age, but % carcass was almost the same for all treatment. There was no significant response in digestive organ weight with increasing levels of LUF. The present result indicated that LUF could be considered as a potential feed ingredient as protein source of broiler but its inclusion should be limited until 7.5% of the diet to maintain growth performance and digestive organ weight.

  13. A high-fat diet containing whole walnuts (Juglans regia) reduces tumour size and growth along with plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul A; Vasu, Vihas T; Gohil, Kishorchandra; Kim, Hyunsook; Khan, Imran H; Cross, Carroll E; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2012-11-28

    Prostate cancer (PCa) has been linked to fat intake, but the effects of both different dietary fat levels and types remain inconsistent and incompletely characterised. The effects on PCa in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) cancer model of an elevated fat (20 % of energy as fat) diet containing 155 g of whole walnuts were compared to those of an elevated fat (20 % of energy as soyabean oil) diet with matched macronutrients, tocopherols as well as a low-fat (8 % of energy as soyabean oil) diet. Mice, starting at 8 weeks of age, consumed one of the three different diets ad libitum; and prostates, livers and blood were obtained after 9, 18 or 24 weeks of feeding. No differences were observed in whole animal growth rates in either high-fat (HF) diet group, but prostate tumour weight and growth rate were reduced in the walnut diet group. Walnut diet group prostate weight, plasma insulin-like growth factor 1, resistin and LDL were lower at 18 weeks, while no statistically significant prostate weight differences by diet were seen at 9 or 24 weeks. Multiple metabolites in the livers differed by diet at 9 and 18 weeks. The walnut diet's beneficial effects probably represent the effects of whole walnuts' multiple constituents and not via a specific fatty acid or tocopherols. Moreover, as the two HF diets had dissimilar effects on prostate tumour growth rate and size, and yet had the same total fat and tocopherol composition and content, this suggests that these are not strongly linked to PCa growth.

  14. Fungal Fermented Protein (FFP : Alternative Ingredient to be Used in Muscovy Duck Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usaneeporn Soipeth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal fermented protein (FFP was the alternative feedstuff from Aspergillus niger and can be an interesting choice in poultry diets because these product was containing 20.49 % of crude protein and high leucine (0.58 %, phenylalanine (0.58 % and lysine (0.38 % and contained no aflatoxin. The experiments were performed using a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 3 replications employing eight 1-day-old, mixed sex muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata per experimental unit. The control birds were fed with a basal diet whereas the test birds were fed with FFP at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % of diet. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The feed intake of the starter showed no significant difference while the grower and finisher had higher feed intake with higher levels of FFP. In contrast, the high level of FFP yielded the lower final body weight and body weight gain, resulting in the high feed conversion ratio (4.38. For the performance of overall period, the ducks fed with 20 % FFP had higher average daily gain (29.40 g/b/d, body weight gain (2,471 g/b and feed conversion ratio (3.63. No deaths were found in any pens and the ducks remained in good health.

  15. Evaluation of procedures for estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility in ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures used in estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility were evaluated in a series of independent experiments. Experiment 1 and 2 evaluated the influence of sampling site, mathematical model and intraruminal mixing on estimates of ruminal particle turnover in beef steers grazing crested wheatgrass or offered ad libitum levels of prairie hay once daily, respectively. Particle turnover rate constants were estimated by intraruminal administration (via rumen cannula) of ytterbium (Yb)-labeled forage, followed by serial collection of rumen digesta or fecal samples. Rumen Yb concentrations were transformed to natural logarithms and regressed on time. Influence of sampling site (rectum versus rumen) on turnover estimates was modified by the model used to fit fecal marker excretion curves in the grazing study. In contrast, estimated turnover rate constants from rumen sampling were smaller (P < 0.05) than rectally derived rate constants, regardless of fecal model used, when steers were fed once daily. In Experiment 3, in vitro residues subjected to acid or neutral detergent fiber extraction (IVADF and IVNDF), acid detergent fiber incubated in cellulase (ADFIC) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were evaluated as internal markers for predicting diet digestibility. Both IVADF and IVNDF displayed variable accuracy for prediction of in vivo digestibility whereas ADL and ADFIC inaccurately predicted digestibility of all diets

  16. Influence of different histidine sources and zinc supplementation of broiler diets on dipeptide content and antioxidant status of blood and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, W; Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate how a diet containing spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) (4%) with or without zinc (Zn) would affect the concentration of two histidine heterodipeptides and the antioxidant status of broiler blood and breast muscles. 2. The study was carried out on 920 male Flex chickens randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: I - control, II - diet I with SDBC, III - diet I with SDBC and supplemented with Zn and IV - diet I supplemented with L-histidine. Birds were raised on floor littered with wood shavings, given free access to water and fed ad libitum. Performance indices were measured on d 1, 21 and 42. 3. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was analysed in plasma, erythrocytes and muscle tissue. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma and breast muscles was measured by 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, as well as by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Carnosine/anserine content of meat and plasma were determined using HPLC. Diets and breast muscles were analysed for amino acid profile and selected microelement content. 4. Histidine supplementation of the diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, the addition of SDBC or pure histidine in the diet increased histidine dipeptide content and activated enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chicken blood and muscles. However, it led to lower growth performance indices. 5. The enrichment of broiler diets with Zn increased the antioxidant potential and the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma, which was independent of the histidine dipeptide concentration. Zn supplementation combined with SDBC in a broiler diet led to the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, but it did not affect the radical

  17. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 ± 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 ± 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those offered

  18. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  19. Performance and carbon turnover in fast- and slow-growing broilers submitted to cyclic heat stress and fed on high-protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, D M B; Macari, M; Fernadez-Alarcon, M F; Nogueira, W C L; de Souza, F A; Hada, F H; Lunedo, R; Denadai, J C

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that when using similar protein/amino acid diets and environment temperature conditions, the performance and carbon turnover in muscle and liver tissues, as measured by the incorporation of stable isotopes ((13)C/(12)C), must be different between fast-growing Cobb 500® and slow-growing Label Rouge broilers. For both experiments (Cobb and Label Rouge), 21-d-old birds were distributed in a completely randomised, 3 × 3 factorial design; three environmental temperatures (cyclic heat stress ad libitum, 22°C ad libitum, and 22°C restricted) and three crude protein concentrations (189.1, 210 and 220 g/kg CP) were used. The Cobb 500® had better performance with higher concentrations of crude protein. Cyclic heat stress (a temperature factor), negatively affected this genetic strain's performance. For the Label Rouge birds, the crude protein concentrations in the diet presented inconsistent results and cyclic heat stress did not affect the performance. The carbon turnover rate was affected in the Cobb 500® strain, with a high protein content reducing carbon turnover in the evaluated tissues (liver and muscles). Feed intake had a greater impact on carbon turnover rates than cyclic heat stress. The Label Rouge birds were not affected by the evaluated factors, suggesting that genetic improvement has a leading role on tissue carbon turnover. There is a genetic influence on carbon turnover in the liver and muscle tissues of broiler chickens. In addition, genetically fast-growing broilers are more susceptible to variations in diet composition and environmental temperature than less rapidly growing animals. PMID:26634283

  20. Performance and linear body measurements of Red Sokoto male goats on replacement levels of corn cobs for maize bran with cowpea husk basal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babale D. M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four (24 Red Sokoto bucks with average age of 12 months and weight of 12 kg were randomly allocated to six (6 treatments with four (4 animals each in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. The animals in treatment T1 were given 90% maize bran combined with 10% cotton seed cake. Treatments T2 to T6 were fed concentrates consisting of raw corn cobs replacing maize bran at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively. All groups had 10% cotton seed cake, while cowpea husk was fed to all animals ad libitum as basal diet. Clean water was provided to the animals ad libitum. After adjustment period of 14 days, parameters determined were feed intake, daily weight changes, fecal outputs, urinary outputs, linear body measurements such as height at withers, height at rump, girth circumference, abdominal circumference, animal length, neck circumference and neck length for a period of 84 days. Fecal output and urine were analyzed for proximate composition using standard procedures. Data obtained were subjected to analyses of variance (ANOVA, multiple correlations and regression. Duncan Multiple Range Test was used to separate the means where significant differences occurred. Results showed no significant (P > 0.05 differences in dry matter intake, weight gained and feed conversion ratio with up to 20% corn cob inclusion in the diet (T2 and T3. However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in daily weight gain for treatments T4 to T6. All the body dimensions had positive correlations with live weights. Regression results showed R2-value of 14% and F-ratio of 6.502 which are significant (P < 0.05. It was found that best level of corn cob inclusion in the diet is 20%. However, it could still replace the bran at up to 50% level with much improvement in live weight gain and linear dimensions.

  1. Substitution of saturated with monounsaturated fat in a 4-week diet affects body weight and composition of overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piers, L S; Walker, Karen Z; Stoney, Rachel M; Soares, Mario J; O'Dea, Kerin

    2003-09-01

    A randomised crossover study of eight overweight or obese men (aged 24-49 years, BMI 25.5-31.3 kg/m(2)), who followed two diets for 4 weeks each, was performed to determine whether substitution of saturated fat with monounsaturated fat affects body weight and composition. Subjects were provided with all food and beverages as modules (selected ad libitum) of constant macronutrient composition, but differing energy content. The % total energy from saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat was 24, 13 and 3 % respectively on the saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich diet and 11, 22 and 7 % respectively on the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet. MUFA accounted for about 80 % of the unsaturated fats consumed on both diets. Body composition, blood pressure, energy expenditure (resting and postprandial metabolic rates, substrate oxidation rate, physical activity), serum lipids, the fatty acid profile of serum cholesteryl esters and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before and after each diet period. Significant (Psaturated with unsaturated fat, predominantly MUFA, can induce a small but significant loss of body weight and fat mass without a significant change in total energy or fat intake.

  2. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  3. Diet and macronutrient optimization in wild ursids: A comparison of grizzly bears with sympatric and allopatric black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; Cain, Steven L; Pils, Shannon R; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004–2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46–47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in

  4. Methane emissions from two breeds of beef cows offered diets containing barley straw with either grass silage or brewers' grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Hyslop, J J; Waterhouse, A

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the concentration of dietary lipid is a promising strategy for reducing methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of replacing grass silage with brewers' grains on CH4 emissions of pregnant, non-lactating beef cows of two breeds. The experiment was a two×two factorial design comprising two breeds (LIMx, crossbred Limousin; and LUI, purebred Luing) and two diets consisting of (g/kg diet dry matter (DM)) barley straw (687) and grass silage (301, GS), or barley straw (763) and brewers' grains (226, BG), which were offered ad libitum. Replacing GS with BG increased the acid-hydrolysed ether extract concentration from 21 to 37 g/kg diet DM. Cows (n=48) were group-housed in equal numbers of each breed across two pens and each diet was allocated to one pen. Before measurements of CH4, individual dry matter intake (DMI), weekly BW and weekly body condition score were measured for a minimum of 3 weeks, following a 4-week period to acclimatise to the diets. CH4 emissions were subsequently measured on one occasion from each cow using individual respiration chambers. Due to occasional equipment failures, CH4 measurements were run over 9 weeks giving 10 observations for each breed×treatment combination (total n=40). There were no differences between diets for daily DMI measured in the chambers (9.92 v. 9.86 kg/day for BG and GS, respectively; P>0.05). Cows offered the BG diet produced less daily CH4 than GS-fed cows (131 v. 156 g/day: P0.05). However, when expressed as a proportion of metabolic BW (BW0.75), LUI cows had greater DMI than LIMx cows (84.5 v. 75.7 g DMI/kg BW0.75, Pbeef cows, with no suppression of DMI. PMID:26145179

  5. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; Cain, Steven L; Pils, Shannon; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A; van Manen, Frank T

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004-2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46-47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in this

  6. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecily M Costello

    Full Text Available When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos and black bears (Ursus americanus in Grand Teton National Park during 2004-2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates, which accounted for 46-47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1 daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2 diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3 mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4 allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among

  7. Effects of five southern California macroalgal diets on consumption, growth, and gonad weight, in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer growth and reproductive capacity are direct functions of diet. Strongylocentrotid sea urchins, the dominant herbivores in California kelp forests, strongly prefer giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera, but are highly catholic in their ability to consume other species. The biomass of Macrocystis fluctuates greatly in space and time, and the extent to which urchins can use alternate species of algae or a mixed diet of multiple algal species to maintain fitness when giant kelp is unavailable is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of single and mixed species diets on consumption, growth and gonad weight in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Urchins were fed single species diets consisting of one of four common species of macroalgae (the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica, and the red algae Chondracanthus corymbiferus and Rhodymenia californica (hereafter referred to by genus or a mixed diet containing all four species ad libitum over a 13-week period in a controlled laboratory setting. Urchins fed Chondracanthus, Macrocystis and a mixed diet showed the highest growth (in terms of test diameter, wet weight and jaw length and gonad weight, while urchins fed Pterygophora and Rhodymenia showed the lowest. Urchins consumed their preferred food, Macrocystis, at the highest rate when offered a mixture, but consumed Chondracanthus or Macrocystis at similar rates when the two algae were offered alone. The differences in urchin feeding behavior and growth observed between these diet types suggest the relative availability of the algae tested here could affect urchin populations and their interactions with the algal assemblage. The fact that the performance of urchins fed Chondracanthus was similar or higher than those fed the preferred Macrocystis suggests that the availability of the former could could sustain growth and reproduction of purple sea urchins during times of low Macrocystis abundance as is

  8. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supplements for weight loss. These sites are a marketing ploy created to sell acai berry supplements.  Tainted ... on health claims? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  9. Evaluation of Digestible lysine levels in diets with high energy density for finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Colina R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. To evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine in diets with high energy density on productive performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Materials and Methods. Seventy crossbred barrows (initial body weight of 83.36 kg were used and allotted in a randomized block design with five treatments, seven replications and two pigs per experimental unit. Pigs were fed ad libitum with diets containing 3.5 kcal/kg of ME and five levels of digestible lysine (0.46, 0.52, 0.58, 0.64 and 0.70% during four weeks. Final live weight (FLW, daily feed intake (DFI, daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion (FC, daily lysine intake (DLI, and the amount of lysine per body weight gain (DLI/DWG, were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken from each pig to determine urea nitrogen concentration (UN in serum and slaughtered to evaluate quantitative and qualitative carcass characteristics. Results. The FLW increased linearly (p<0.05.There were no differences among treatments for DFI, DWG, FC, carcass characteristics and UN. The DLI and DLI/DWG varied significantly (p<0.001 and increased linearly (p<0.001 with each lysine level. Pigs that consumed the limiting diet in lysine (0.46% showed less DLI and DLI/DWG (p<0.001 than pigs fed the other diets. Conclusions. The amount of DLI/DWG increased with the evaluated levels of digestible lysine in diets with high energy density, without effects on productive performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs.

  10. A diet-induced animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharpour, Amon; Cazanave, Sophie C.; Pacana, Tommy; Seneshaw, Mulugeta; Vincent, Robert; Banini, Bubu A.; Kumar, Divya Prasanna; Daita, Kalyani; Min, Hae-Ki; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Bedossa, Pierre; Sun, Xiaochen; Hoshida, Yujin; Koduru, Srinivas V.; Contaifer, Daniel; Warncke, Urszula Osinska; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims The lack of a preclinical model of progressive non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that recapitulates human disease is a barrier to therapeutic development. Methods A stable isogenic cross between C57BL/6J (B6) and 129S1/SvImJ (S129) mice were fed a high fat diet with ad libitum consumption of glucose and fructose in physiologically relevant concentrations and compared to mice fed a chow diet and also to both parent strains. Results Following initiation of the obesogenic diet, B6/129 mice developed obesity, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and increased LDL-cholesterol. They sequentially also developed steatosis (4–8 weeks), steatohepatitis (16–24 weeks), progressive fibrosis (16 weeks onwards) and spontaneous hepatocellular cancer (HCC). There was a strong concordance between the pattern of pathway activation at a transcriptomic level between humans and mice with similar histological phenotypes (FDR 0.02 for early and 0.08 for late time points). Lipogenic, inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways activated in human NASH were also activated in these mice. The HCC gene signature resembled the S1 and S2 human subclasses of HCC (FDR 0.01 for both). Only the B6/129 mouse but not the parent strains recapitulated all of these aspects of human NAFLD. Conclusions We here describe a diet-induced animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (DIAMOND) that recapitulates the key physiological, metabolic, histologic, transcriptomic and cell-signaling changes seen in humans with progressive NASH. Lay summary We have developed a diet-induced mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatic cancers in a cross between two mouse strains (129S1/SvImJ and C57Bl/6J). This model mimics all the physiological, metabolic, histological, transcriptomic gene signature and clinical endpoints of human NASH and can facilitate preclinical development of therapeutic targets for NASH. PMID:27261415

  11. Now Pasta Is Good for Your Diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has touted the heart-healthy benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, which is a way of eating rather than ... from this study, Iacovielli added, is that the Mediterranean diet, consumed in moderation and including pasta, "is good ...

  12. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group: high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%, acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively, and butyrate only by pea protein (309%. Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78% but increased by pea protein (164%. Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat loss in obesity.

  13. A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease

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    Ahrén Bo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We found marked improvement of glucose tolerance and lower dietary energy intake in ischemic heart disease (IHD patients after advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a Mediterranean-like diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meals and data on the satiety hormone leptin and the soluble leptin receptor from the same study. Methods Twenty-nine male IHD patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes type 2, and waist circumference > 94 cm, were randomized to ad libitum consumption of a Paleolithic diet (n = 14 based on lean meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs, and nuts, or a Mediterranean-like diet (n = 15 based on whole grains, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruit, fish, and oils and margarines during 12 weeks. In parallel with a four day weighed food record the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety Quotients were calculated, as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. Leptin and leptin receptor was measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. Free leptin index was calculated as the ratio leptin/leptin receptor. Results The Paleolithic group were as satiated as the Mediterranean group but consumed less energy per day (5.8 MJ/day vs. 7.6 MJ/day, Paleolithic vs. Mediterranean, p = 0.04. Consequently, the quotients of mean change in satiety during meal and mean consumed energy from food and drink were higher in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.03. Also, there was a strong trend for greater Satiety Quotient for energy in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.057. Leptin decreased by 31% in the Paleolithic group and by 18% in the Mediterranean group with a trend for greater relative decrease of leptin in the Paleolithic group. Relative changes in leptin and changes in weight and waist circumference correlated significantly in the Paleolithic group (p Conclusions A

  14. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production. PMID:25431274

  15. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13; 6.8 MJ of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg; 14.0% crude protein (CP) ], or a middle energy density diet (MD, n = 13; 6.2 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP), or a low energy density diet (LD, n = 13; 5.4 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP) from d 21 before expected day of calving. After parturition, all cows were fed the same lactation diet to d 70 in milk (DIM). The DMI and NEL intake prepartum were decreased by the reduced energy density diets (P milk yield and the postpartum DMI were increased by the reduced energy density diet prepartum (P BCS and BW prepartum and postpartum were not affected by prepartum diets. HD group had higher milk fat content and lower lactose content compared with LD group during the first 3 wk of lactation (P milk yield, and alleviating negative EB postpartum. PMID:24976969

  16. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  17. Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, ...

  18. Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozanildo V Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian Camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh has attracted interest from food and cosmetics industries because of its rich content of vitamin C, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The goal of this study was investigates the antiobesity action of the ingestion of the Camu-camu pulp in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Wistar rats with obesity induced by subcutaneous injection of monosodium glutamate receiving diet ad libitum. The rats were divided in two groups: an experimental group that ingested 25 mL/day of Camu-camu pulp (CCG and a non treated group (CG. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Blood, liver, heart, white adipose tissues were collected and weighted, biochemical and inflammatory profiles were determinate as well. Animals that received the pulp of Camu-camu reduced their weights of the fat in white adipose tissues, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and insulin blood levels. There was an increase in HDL-c levels. No change was observed in inflammatory markers and liver enzymes. Camu-camu pulp was able to improve the biochemical profile of obesity in rats suggesting that this Amazonian fruit can be further used such a functional food ingredient in control of chronic diseases linked to obesity.

  19. Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh) fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ozanildo V; Boleti, Ana P A; Yuyama, Lucia K O; Lima, Emerson S

    2013-03-01

    Amazonian Camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh) has attracted interest from food and cosmetics industries because of its rich content of vitamin C, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The goal of this study was investigates the antiobesity action of the ingestion of the Camu-camu pulp in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Wistar rats with obesity induced by subcutaneous injection of monosodium glutamate receiving diet ad libitum. The rats were divided in two groups: an experimental group that ingested 25 mL/day of Camu-camu pulp (CCG) and a non treated group (CG). After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Blood, liver, heart, white adipose tissues were collected and weighted, biochemical and inflammatory profiles were determinate as well. Animals that received the pulp of Camu-camu reduced their weights of the fat in white adipose tissues, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and insulin blood levels. There was an increase in HDL-c levels. No change was observed in inflammatory markers and liver enzymes. Camu-camu pulp was able to improve the biochemical profile of obesity in rats suggesting that this Amazonian fruit can be further used such a functional food ingredient in control of chronic diseases linked to obesity. PMID:23460435

  20. GLUCOMANNAN AND GLUCOMANNAN PLUS SPIRULINA-ENRICHED SQUID-SURIMI ADDED TO HIGH SATURATED DIET AFFECT GLYCEMIA, PLASMA AND ADIPOSE LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN GROWING FA/FA RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, M José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease. Among dietary factors for its prevention and treatment, interest has grown in satiating fibre (konjac glucomannan) and spirulina. Our previous studies suggest that glucomannan itself and/or in conjunction to spirulina displayed hypolipemic and antioxidant effects when incorporated to squid surimi as functional ingredients. The present study aims to determine whether glucomannan- enriched or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi improve plasma glucose and insulin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Twenty four growing rats, divided into three groups, were given modified AIN-93M diets for seven weeks: 30% squid-surimi control diet (C), 30% glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi diet (G) and 30% glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi diet (GS). All rats became hyperglycemics and hyperinsulinemics, but G and GS diets induced significantly lower glucose levels (20%; p diet. GS animals showed higher HOMA-D (p rats (16-20 times, p diets were able to reduce hyperglycemia and increase adipose tissue adiponectin levels in fa/fa rats, suggesting an anti-hypertrophic and insulin-sensitizing adipokine effect in this tissue. Spirulina inclusion increased insulin availability. Although results are promising, the utility of consuming glucomannan surimis as part of usual diets demands future studies. PMID:26667726

  1. Black beams (Phaseolus vulgaris) diets' effects heating in different ways and times with or without methionine addition, in growth, liver and mice thyroid, using oleic acid 125 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weanling rats were divided into 13 groups of six animals and were fed 'ad libitum' for four weeks with diets containing casein as protein source for the control group and bean cooked in an autoclave at 1200 C for 30, 45 and 60 minutes or cooked in an ordinary pot for 60, 120 and 180 minutes, with and without addition of methionine. Oleic acid 125 l, mixed with other nutrients, was added to the diets in order to study the distribution of radioactivity in the animal body and its excretion. The influence of heating the beans by different ways and times, with and without addition of methionine, on the growth of the animals was verified by means of the gain in weight, food efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER). Studies in animal feces, urine and carcass were carried out. The quantity of lipids in the feces and carcass was determined. The influence of the diets on the liver and thyroid was verified by means of their weights and the quantity of radioactivity in these organs. (author)

  2. Physiological effects of chicory root preparations with various levels of fructan and polyphenolic fractions in diets for rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zary-Sikorska, Ewa; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Król, Bogusław; Jurgoński, Adam

    2011-02-01

    The experiment was aimed at studying the effects of easily fermentable oligosaccharides and phenolic compounds from chicory root meal (CRM) on the fermentative processes in the caecum, the antioxidative status and the lipoprotein profile of rats. Five different diets were fed ad libitum to 40 Wistar rats (eight animals per group, individually housed): a control group (C); group PCM (10% processed CRM, deprived of polyphenolic fraction); group PCMO (8% processed CRM and 1.6% oligofructose); group UCM (10% unprocessed CRM); and group FP (8.3% fructan-polyphenol concentrate from CRM). Diets PCM, PCMO, UCM and FP induced favourable metabolic changes in the caecum, blood lipid profile and the antioxidative status of the body. In the caecum, the experimental diets increased the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and acidification of digesta as well as a decrease in the ammonia concentration and bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity. In blood serum, the total cholesterol concentration was reduced and, simultaneously, the proportion of HDL in the total cholesterol concentration was increased. The presence of the polyphenolic fraction in the unprocessed meal (diets UCM and FP) evoked a significant increase in the total antioxidative status in blood serum. Dietary fibre and the polyphenolic fraction present in diet UCM and the FOS-polyphenol concentrate in diet FP did not exhibit an antagonistic activity regarding the physiological parameters analysed, except for in the intensity of caecal fermentation. The results of the experiment point to the benefits of dietary supplementation with chicory preparations containing both prebiotic saccharides and polyphenolic compounds, which enable us to take advantage of the physiological traits of both components. PMID:21452615

  3. Eight week exposure to a high sugar high fat diet results in adiposity gain and alterations in metabolic biomarkers in baboons (Papio hamadryas sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejero M Elizabeth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Baboons (Papio hamadryas Sp. develop features of the cardiometabolic syndrome and represent a clinically-relevant animal model in which to study the aetiology of the disorder. To further evaluate the baboon as a model for the study of the cardiometabolic syndrome, we developed a high sugar high fat diet and hypothesized that it could be used to induce adiposity gain and affect associated circulating biomarkers. Methods We developed a diet enriched with monosaccharides and saturated fatty acids that was composed of solid and liquid energy sources. We provided a group of baboons (n = 9 ad libitum access to this diet for 8 weeks. Concurrently, a control group (n = 6 was maintained with ad libitum access to a low sugar low fat baseline diet and normal water for 8 weeks. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and circulating metabolic biomarkers were measured using standard methodology before and after the 8 week study period. Results Neither body composition nor circulating biomarkers changed in the control group. Following the 8 weeks, the intervention group had a significant increase in fat mass (1.71 ± 0.98 vs. 3.23 ± 1.70 kg, p = 0.004, triglyceride (55 ± 13 vs. 109 ± 67 mg/dL, p = 0.006,, and leptin (1.19 ± 1.40 vs. 3.29 ± 2.32 ng/mL, p = 0.001 and a decline in adiponectin concentrations (33530 ± 9744 vs. 23330 ± 7863 ng/mL, p = 0.002. Percentage haemoglobin A1C (4.0 ± 0.3 vs. 6.0 ± 1.4, p = 0.002 also increased in the intervention group. Conclusions Our findings indicate that when exposed to a high sugar high fat diet, young adult male baboons develop increased body fat and triglyceride concentrations, altered adipokine concentrations, and evidence of altered glucose metabolism. Our findings are in keeping with observations in humans and further demonstrate the potential utility of this highly clinically-relevant animal model for studying diet-induced metabolic dysregulation.

  4. Effects of diets with Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. on performance and digestibility of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Molina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects on performance and digestibility in growing rabbits were studied by comparing 3 diets containing increasing inclusion rates of amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.: 0 (A0, 160 (A16 and 320 g/kg (A32 diet. Diets were formulated isoproteic and isocaloric to meet the nutrient requirements of growing rabbits. One hundred and thirteen weaned New Zealand White rabbits (mean±standard deviation weight: 760±102 g, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of the 3  experimental diets. Rabbits were fed ad libitum from 35 to 87 d of age, and health status and performance traits were  onitored. The coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility of the diets were measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 12 rabbits per treatment. Amaranthus dubius contained 209 g/kg dry matter (DM of crude protein and 398 g/kg DM of neutral detergent fibre. There were no significant differences between treatments in weight gain (mean 21.6 g/d and live weight at the end of the fattening period (mean 1883 g. Daily feed intake was higher (P<0.05 in A0 than in A16 and A32 diets (85.4 vs. 73.7 and 69.9 g/d, respectively, and feed conversion rate improved with increased inclusion of A. dubius in the diet (from 3.84 to 3.28 for A0 and A32 diets, respectively; P<0.05. Health status was not affected by the amaranth inclusion rate. Total tract apparent digestibility showed high values, with no differences among diets except for ether extract. Thus, A. dubius could be considered as an alternative source of protein and fibre for rabbit feeding in tropical and subtropical regions.

  5. Wormholes in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Maldacena, Juan; Maoz, Liat

    2004-01-01

    We construct a few Euclidean supergravity solutions with multiple boundaries. We consider examples where the corresponding boundary field theory is well defined on each boundary. We point out that these configurations are puzzling from the AdS/CFT point of view. A proper understanding of the AdS/CFT dictionary for these cases might yield some information about the physics of closed universes.

  6. Performance, intestinal histomorphometry, and blood parameters of post-weaning piglets receiving different levels of soy protein concentrate in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Queiroz Resende

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seventy-two barrows were used to evaluate the effects of the use of soy protein concentrate (SPC in diets of post-weaning piglets on their performance, intestinal histomorphometry, and blood parameters. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age and distributed in a randomized-block experimental design with four treatments (0, 3, 6, and 9% SPC, six replications, and three piglets per replication. Diets were formulated to meet the requirement of the piglets according to phases of 21 to 32, 33 to 42, and 43 to 66 days of age. Both feed and water were provided ad libitum during the entire experiment. The feed of the phase of 43 to 66 days was based on corn and soybean meal. In the period between 21 and 32 days of age, the use of SPC in the diet did not impact the daily weight gain (DWG or the daily feed intake (DFI of the piglets, whereas there was a linear effect on feed conversion (FC, which decreased as the levels of SPC in the feed were increased. In the period between 33 and 42 days of age, a linear effect was observed on FC, which increased as the level of SPC in the feed was increased. In this period, no effects of SPC were observed on DWG or DFI. Inclusion of SPC in the diets does not influence performance, intestinal histomorphometry, or blood parameters of piglets in the period between 21 and 66 days of age.

  7. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets.

  8. FALSE YAM (Icacina Oliviformis LEAF MEAL AS AN INGREDIENT IN THE DIET OF WEANER RABBITS (Oryctolagus Cuniculus TO IMPROVE BLOOD PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ANSAH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of Icacina oliviformis leaf (IOL as a feed ingredient on the hematology of weaner rabbits. There were arranged in three treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. The control diet (T0 contained 0% Icacina oliviformis leaf (IOL while the treatment diets (T1and T2 contained 5% and 10% IOL, respectively. An amount of 200 g of the experimental diet was given to the animals each day while water was given ad-libitum. Initial blood samples were collected two days earlier before experimental diet was fed. Data were analyzed using Genstat Discovery Edition 3. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in (Haemoglobin Hb concentration, PCV, RBC however all the erythrocytes values increased from the initial low values to higher values. The margin of increase was higher for T1. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the treatment means for WBC, Neutrophiles, Eosinophiles, Monocytes counts in the final readings. The hematology values recorded for all the treatments fell within the normal ranges for rabbits. Feeding 5% and 10% IOL to a weaner rabbits led to an increase in erythrocytes values and could be used in feeding without any detrimental effect.

  9. Carcass and Internal Organs Characteristics of Growing-Finishing Pigs Fed Diets Containing Four Different Maize Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rahaman Saibu Salifu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the carcass and internal organ characteristics of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing four different maize varieties. Twenty individually-housed, Large White pigs (12 males and 8 females with an average initial body weight of 13.2 kg were allotted to four dietary treatments labeled, Local Normal maize (LNM, Imported Normal Yellow maize (INYM, Golden Jubilee maize (GJM and Etubi maize (ETM in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The last two treatments were approved Quality Protein Maize (QPM based diets. Each treatment was replicated five times, with a pig representing a replicate. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Values for the final weight, dressing percentage, shoulder, loin, belly, thigh, carcass length, backfat thickness, head and trotters were statistically similar (P>0.05. However, the values for heart, liver, kidney and respiratory tract were statistically different (P>0.05. The values for the liver (LNM=1.34, IMYM=1.26, GJM=1.51 and ETM=1.52 and the kidney (LNM=0.20, IMYM=0.17, GJM=0.21 and ETM=0.20 were significantly higher in favour of QPM-based diets. The results showed that using GJM and ETM varieties could be more profitable due to premium price placed on liver and lean pork in Ghana.

  10. Evaluation of palatability, protein and energi consumtion of adult lizard (Mabouya multifasciata by feed them of with many diet variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONI RIDWAN

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lizard (Mabouya multifasciata, one of natural resources that spreads almost all Indonesian islands. The animals can potentially be used as a source of protein and medicine as well as a pet. The objectives of the research were therefore to investigate the preference of certain kind of diet, measure the protein and energy consumption, and also to observe the weight gain of the lizard. Seventy two lizards consisting of 36 females that each having weight of 29.7 + 2.6 grams and 36 male that having weight of 30.0 + 2.9 grams were used in this study. These lizards were captured from their wild nature around Bogor, Ciamis, Sumedang and Cianjur of West Java. Block experimental design was used, with 4 diet treatments and two grouping based on sex, (male and female. The diets were crickets, mealworm, red ant larva and artificial diet. Each tree lizards was put on 0.30m x 0.30m x 0.50m nets made from glass. Diets were given 3% dry matter of lizard body weight and water has given ad libitum. Parameter measured was dry matter consumption, protein consumption, energy consumption and body weight gain. ANOVA used for the data analysis, followed with Duncan range-test. The result showed that dry matter consumption of crickets, red ant larva and artificial diet was significantly (P<0.01 higher than mealworms. Consumption of crickets crude-protein was significantly (P<0.01 higher than mealworms, red ant larva and artificial diet. Mealworm crude-protein consumption was significantly (P<0.01 lower compared with both red ant larva and artificial diet. Crickets and red ant larva showed higher affect (P<0.01 on body weight gain than artificial diet. However, there were no significant effect of all diet on consumption, brute energy and relatively metabolic energy. Grouping based on sex also did not show any significant affect to all parameters observed. It can be concluded that lizards prefer eating crickets, red ant larva and diet than mealworms.

  11. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  12. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  13. The effect of Ad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳

    2010-01-01

    There is the trend that now people appreciate those who are slim and regard slim even thin people beautiful. The thinner a person is, the more beautiful. Women, born to pursuit beauty, try various means to follow the trend. We all watch TV, and find a lot of advertisements on diet. The effect of them is tremendous. We all know the fact that it is not at all the better mouse trap will catch mouse. The sales methods are more important. If an advertisement is very interesting and seemingly effective, people will be lured by the ad and then try some of the products.

  14. Fattening performance, metabolic indicators, and muscle composition of bulls fed fiber-rich versus starch-plus-lipid-rich concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, M M; Renand, G; Ortigues-Marty, I; Bauchart, D; Hocquette, J F; Mounier, L; Noël, T; Micol, D; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the responses in fattening performance and meat composition for high-concentrate diets rich in either starch and lipids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) or fibrous by-products. A total of 140 Charolais bulls (initially 319 ± 27 kg BW) were allocated to 3 high-concentrate diets and were fattened for up to 18 mo. The diet treatments included concentrate mixtures rich in either fiber (FR; n = 56) or starch plus linseed (diets SL and SLR; n = 56 and n = 28, respectively) and barley straw. The concentrate mix was offered ad libitum in SL and FR diets but was kept isoenergetic to the FR diet in the SLR diet. Bulls were weighed every 15 d. Feed intake was measured daily. Carcass composition was assessed for all animals slaughtered at 699 ± 65 kg BW. Meat nutritional quality traits (e.g., fat content and fatty acid composition focusing on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) were measured on the longissimus thoracis, rectus abdominis, and semitendinosus muscles. Metabolic enzyme activity (phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome-c oxidase) was measured on these muscles and on liver. The SL diet bulls had greater fattening performance, BW gain (P = 0.006), and efficiency for growth (P = 0.025) at an energy intake similar to that of FR diet bulls. They also had heavier carcasses with a greater proportion of fat. However, liver samples showed no difference in specific metabolic activity. Compared to bulls fed the SL diet, bulls fed SLR consumed 15% less energy and had lower BW gain (P < 0.001) but were slightly more efficient for growth (P = 0.010). They had lower carcass weight but a greater muscle-to-fat ratio. Compared to bulls fed the FR diet, SLR bulls had lower than planned NEg intake and lower BW gain but did not have differences in body composition. Compared to the FR diet, the SL diet led to a greater omega-3 fatty acid content because of a greater supply of dietary linoleic acid, especially in lean muscle

  15. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Rivas, Donato A; Ezzyat, Yassine; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Andrew J; McClung, James P; Fielding, Roger A; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or CR (40% restriction), adequate (10%), or high (32%) protein (PRO) milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g(-1) lower (p protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p health benefits associated with CR-specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content-may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet. PMID:27649241

  16. Different sodium levels and electrolyte balances in pre-starter diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46% and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.

  17. Growth performance, digestibility and faecal coliform bacteria in weaned piglets fed a cereal-based diet including either chicory (Cichorium intybus L) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L) forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, E; Frankow-Lindberg, B E; Andersson, H K; Lindberg, J E

    2011-02-01

    Twenty-five weaned 35-day-old piglets were used in a 35-day growth experiment to evaluate the effect of inclusion of chicory and ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility and shedding of faecal coliform bacteria. A total of seven experimental diets were formulated, a cereal-based basal diet (B), and six diets with inclusion of 40, 80 and 160 g/kg chicory (C40, C80 and C160) or ribwort (R40, R80 and R160). Piglets had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Three and five weeks post-weaning faeces samples for determination of digestibility were collected once a day for five subsequent days. Additional faeces samples for determination of coliform counts were collected at days 1, 16 and 35 post-weaning. Piglets fed diet R160 had the lowest average daily feed intake (DFI) and daily weight gain (DWG), and differed (P ribwort had a minor negative impact on the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein, whereas inclusion of both chicory and ribwort resulted in higher CTTAD of non-starch polysaccharides and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The CTTAD of arabinose were higher for diets C160 and R160 than for diet B (P ribwort have a negative impact on feed consumption and consequently on growth rate. Both herbs have a higher digestibility of fibre compared to cereal fibre. Chicory and ribwort are both promising as feedstuffs to weaned piglets, but the low palatability of ribwort limits the inclusion level. PMID:22439952

  18. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles. PMID:26574038

  19. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  20. Microbial reprogramming inhibits Western diet-associated obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutahidis, Theofilos; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Smillie, Christopher; Levkovich, Tatiana; Perrotta, Alison; Bhela, Siddheshvar; Varian, Bernard J; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Lakritz, Jessica R; Kearney, Sean M; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Hafler, David A; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    A recent epidemiological study showed that eating 'fast food' items such as potato chips increased likelihood of obesity, whereas eating yogurt prevented age-associated weight gain in humans. It was demonstrated previously in animal models of obesity that the immune system plays a critical role in this process. Here we examined human subjects and mouse models consuming Westernized 'fast food' diet, and found CD4(+) T helper (Th)17-biased immunity and changes in microbial communities and abdominal fat with obesity after eating the Western chow. In striking contrast, eating probiotic yogurt together with Western chow inhibited age-associated weight gain. We went on to test whether a bacteria found in yogurt may serve to lessen fat pathology by using purified Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 in drinking water. Surprisingly, we discovered that oral L. reuteri therapy alone was sufficient to change the pro-inflammatory immune cell profile and prevent abdominal fat pathology and age-associated weight gain in mice regardless of their baseline diet. These beneficial microbe effects were transferable into naïve recipient animals by purified CD4(+) T cells alone. Specifically, bacterial effects depended upon active immune tolerance by induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and interleukin (Il)-10, without significantly changing the gut microbial ecology or reducing ad libitum caloric intake. Our finding that microbial targeting restored CD4(+) T cell balance and yielded significantly leaner animals regardless of their dietary 'fast food' indiscretions suggests population-based approaches for weight management and enhancing public health in industrialized societies. PMID:23874682

  1. Microbial reprogramming inhibits Western diet-associated obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available A recent epidemiological study showed that eating 'fast food' items such as potato chips increased likelihood of obesity, whereas eating yogurt prevented age-associated weight gain in humans. It was demonstrated previously in animal models of obesity that the immune system plays a critical role in this process. Here we examined human subjects and mouse models consuming Westernized 'fast food' diet, and found CD4(+ T helper (Th17-biased immunity and changes in microbial communities and abdominal fat with obesity after eating the Western chow. In striking contrast, eating probiotic yogurt together with Western chow inhibited age-associated weight gain. We went on to test whether a bacteria found in yogurt may serve to lessen fat pathology by using purified Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 in drinking water. Surprisingly, we discovered that oral L. reuteri therapy alone was sufficient to change the pro-inflammatory immune cell profile and prevent abdominal fat pathology and age-associated weight gain in mice regardless of their baseline diet. These beneficial microbe effects were transferable into naïve recipient animals by purified CD4(+ T cells alone. Specifically, bacterial effects depended upon active immune tolerance by induction of Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells (Treg and interleukin (Il-10, without significantly changing the gut microbial ecology or reducing ad libitum caloric intake. Our finding that microbial targeting restored CD4(+ T cell balance and yielded significantly leaner animals regardless of their dietary 'fast food' indiscretions suggests population-based approaches for weight management and enhancing public health in industrialized societies.

  2. Feeding a diet containing resistant potato starch influences gastrointestinal tract traits and growth performance of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, J M; Agyekum, A K; Yin, Y L; Rideout, T C; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of feeding resistant potato starch (RPS) as a natural source of resistant starch to weaned pigs for 28 d immediately after weaning. Sixty piglets (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc) weaned at 21 ± 2 d (1:1 male:female) with an initial BW of 7.2 ± 0.78 kg were assigned in a completely randomized design to 1 of 5 dietary treatments to give 6 observations per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a negative control corn-soybean meal-wheat-wheat middlings-based diet (NC; no antimicrobial agents added) or the NC supplemented with RPS either as powder or in capsules and each included at 0.5 or 1.0% as a top-dressing on each day. Diets were formulated to meet 1998 NRC specifications. Pigs were offered the experimental diets on an ad libitum basis for 28 d and water was available at all times. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were determined weekly. Fecal score was determined daily for 14 d after weaning. At the conclusion of study, 1 pig from each pen was randomly selected and euthanized (n = 6 per treatment) to determine visceral organ weight, digesta pH, VFA, and ammonia N (NH3-N) concentrations. Resistant potato starch supplementation improved (P potato starch supplementation decreased (P 0.10) in visceral organ weights, growth performance, and digestibilities of DM, CP, Ca, and P among treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that supplementing a weaner pig diet with at least 0.5% RPS independent of mode of delivery has the potential to enhance outcomes characteristic of a functional gut in weaned pigs without adverse effects on growth.

  3. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet.

  4. Consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets alters biochemical indices in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Osmund Falade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is thermally oxidized to increase its palatability and this has been a usual practice in most homes. This study sought to assess the biochemical responses of rats to thermally oxidized palm oil diets. Therefore, Wistar strain albino rats (Rattus norveigicus were fed with fresh palm oil (control and thermally oxidized palm oil (test groups diets and water ad libitum for 30 days. Then, the malondialdehyde (MDA contents and total protein of the plasma and liver were determined. Subsequently, the plasma liver function markers [alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin (ALB and total bilirubin (TBIL ] and the lipid profile [triglyceride (TRIG, total cholesterol (T-CHOL, high density lipoprotein (HDL-CHOL and low density lipoprotein (LDL-CHOL ] were assayed. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the plasma and liver total protein, ALB, TRIG and HDL-CHOL of the test groups when compared with the control. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05 in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP, TBIL, T-CHOL, LDL-CHOL and plasma/liver MDA of the test groups when compared with the control. These effects were most pronounced in rats fed with 20 min-thermally oxidized palm oil diet. Hence, consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets had deleterious effects on biochemical indices in rats. Therefore, cooking with and/or consumption of palm oil subjected to heat treatment for several long periods of time should be discouraged in our homes as this might have deleterious effects on human health.

  5. The use of probiotic in the diet to improve carcass characteristics and meat quality of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been carried out to investigate the effect of probiotic and ruminally less-degradable protein supplementation on the growth and efficiency of feed utilization in sheep. Thirty two male sheep with an average liveweight of 23 kg were divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals to test four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were a basal concentrate diet, b basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein in proportion of 90:10%, c basal concentrate supplemented with probiotic at 0.5%, and d basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein and probiotic in proportion of 89.5:10:0.5% consequtively. The concentrate was fed at 1.5% of the liveweight, and adjusted every week after weighing the individuals. Napier grass was fed ad libitum after being chopped into 5 cm length. Drinking water was available adequately. The animals were individually caged. The experiment was carried out for 7-day adaptation to the dietary treatments and 42-day period of feeding trials. The parameters being observed include weekly liveweight changes, slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass characteristics. The results indicated that the liveweight changes were relatively the same for all treatment groups, which ranged from 89 to 94 g/d. However, the dry matter intakes ranged from 856 to 925 g/d. The slaughter weight ranged from 26.9 to 27.3 kg with carcass weight ranged from 12.0 to 12.8 kg indicating that the carcass percentage were in the range from 55.8 to 57.1% of the empty body weight. Probiotic supplement resulted in reduction of fat content in the meat from these observation, it is reasonable to assume that the use of probiotic in the diet reduced the carcass fat without affecting the daily weight gain.

  6. Effects of Exogenous NSP Enzymes(Xylanase, β-glucanase and Cellulase) on Morphology and Functions of Digestive Tract in Growing Pigs Fed with Paddy-Based Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zi-rong; LU Jian-jun

    2003-01-01

    Ninety Landrace X Jia 35±0.40 kg weight growing pigs were randomly allotted to three treatments, each of which was replicated three times with ten pigs per replicate. The pigs were reared on either a conventional corn-based diet (control Ⅰ ) or a paddy-based diet (control Ⅱ ) or a paddy diet supplemented with 0.2% NSP enzymes (test group). All pigs were given ad libitum access to both feed and water. The results of feeding trial showed that supplementation of NSP enzymes significantly increased ADG by 8.78 % (P<0.05) and decreased F/G by 9.42% (P<0.05) over the control group Ⅱ. No significant differences were found in ADG and F/G between control group I and the test group. The digestive trial showed that adding NSP enzymes significantly improved apparent digestibility of CP, EE and CF by 18.76 (P<0.01), 16.04 (P <0.05) and 108.57%(P<0.05), respectively, compared to control Ⅱ. The activities of proteolytic enzyme and α-amylase in duodenal contents were increased by 99.07 (P<0.01) and 18.41% (P<0. 05) with the addition of NSP enzymes. No significant differences between test and control Ⅱ group were found in activities of the pepsin in the gastric content, the trypsin and lipase in duodenal contents, the disaccharidase and γ-glutany transferase (γ-GT) in intestinal mucosa, but there was a tendency towards higher activities associated with the NSP enzymes diet (P>0. 05). The lengths of the villi within the duodenal, jejunal and ileal sections of the small intestine of pigs receiving the NSP enzymes diet were increased by 23.68 (P<0. 05), 56.00 (P<0. 01)and 76.90%(P<0.01) respectively, relative to the pigs in control Ⅱ.

  7. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Ginger C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats. Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3% or high (5.9% levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences.

  8. Influence of High-fat and High-cholesterol Diet on Major CYP Activities in the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sachina; Sato, Yoko; Umegaki, Keizo; Chiba, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet for 12 weeks induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and influenced major CYP subtype gene expression levels and activities in a mouse model. In the present study, we determined the effects of the HFHC diet on CYP expression levels and activities prior to the establishment of NASH. When male C57BL/6J mice were fed the HFHC or a normal chow diet (Control) ad libitum for 4 weeks, body weights were significantly lower, whereas liver weights and hepatic lipid contents were significantly higher in the HFHC group than in the Control group. Under these conditions, hepatic microsomal luciferin-H (human CYP2C9 substrate) hydroxylation activity was significantly lower in the HFHC group than in the Control group. In order to investigate drug efficacy in mice fed the HFHC diet, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was conducted with or without a pretreatment with tolbutamide (a CYP2C substrate) after 4 weeks of feeding. The plasma glucose-lowering effects of tolbutamide were attenuated in the HFHC group even though luciferin-H hydroxylation activity was suppressed in this group. The reason for this discrepancy was attributed to the mRNA expression levels of Cyp2c44 being lower and those of Cyp2c29 and Cyp2c66, which are involved in the metabolism of tolbutamide, being higher in the HFHC group than in the Control group. These results indicate that the expression of Cyp2c in the liver is influenced by the HFHC diet prior to the establishment of NASH and its regulation differed among the subtypes examined. PMID:27592832

  9. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows.

  10. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  11. Effect of bean diets (Phaseolus vulgaris) heated in different modes and times, with and without addition of methionine, on the growth, on the liver and on the thyroid of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weanling rats were divided into 13 groups of six animals and were fed 'ad libitum' for four weeks with diets containing casein as protein source for the control group and bean cooked in an autoclave at 1200C for 30, 45 and 60 minutes or cooked in an ordinary pot for 60, 120 and 180 minutes, with and without addition of methionine. Oleic acid 125i, mixed with other nutrients, was added to the diets in order to study the distribution of radioactivity in the animal body and its excretion. The influence of heating the beans by different ways and times, with and without addition of methionine, on the growth of the animals was verified by means of the gain in weight, food efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER). Studies in animal feces, urine and carcass were carried out. The quantity of lipids in the feces and carcass was determined. The influence of the diets on the liver and thyroid was verified by means of their weights and the quantity of radioactivity in these organs. The quantity of radioactivity was greater in the liver and smaller in the thyroid gland in animals fed with beans without addition of methionine. Higher fecal excretion and radioactivity in the urine were also observed in these animals. The nutritive value of beans increases with the addition of methionine. (Author)

  12. Methyl donor-deficient diet during development can affect fear and anxiety in adulthood in C57BL/6J mice.

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    Daisuke Ishii

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is one of the essential factors in the control of gene expression. Folic acid, methionine and choline (methyl donors--all nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism--are known as important mediators of DNA methylation. A previous study has shown that long-term administration of a diet lacking in methyl donors caused global DNA hypermethylation in the brain (Pogribny et al., 2008. However, no study has investigated the effects of a diet lacking in methyl donors during the developmental period on emotional behaviors such as fear and anxiety-like behavior in association with gene expressions in the brain. In addition, it has not been elucidated whether a diet supplemented with methyl donors later in life can reverse these changes. Therefore, we examined the effects of methyl donor deficiency during the developmental period on fear memory acquisition/extinction and anxiety-like behavior, and the relevant gene expressions in the hippocampus in juvenile (6-wk and adult (12-wk mice. We found that juvenile mice fed a methyl-donor-deficient diet had impaired fear memory acquisition along with decreases in the gene expressions of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. In addition, reduced anxiety-like behavior with decreased gene expressions of Grin2b and Gabar2 was observed in both the methyl-donor-deficient group and the body-weight-matched food-restriction group. After being fed a diet supplemented with methyl donors ad libitum, adult mice reversed the alteration of gene expression of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Grin2b and Gabar2, but anxiety-like behavior became elevated. In addition, impaired fear-memory formation was observed in the adult mice fed the methyl-donor-deficient diet during the developmental period. Our study suggested that developmental alterations in the one-carbon metabolic pathway in the brain could have effects on emotional behavior and memory formation that last into adulthood.

  13. Multislice quantitative computed tomography allows early detection of bone mineral density alterations induced by atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To demonstrate the utility of Multislice Quantitative Computed Tomography (MS-QCT) in the early detection of mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) alterations induced by an atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model. Materials and Methods. Male weanling Wistar rats (n =16) were divided by body weight (Wt) into 2 groups: control (C) and experimental (E), with no significant differences in the mean initial Wt (p>0.05). C was fed rodent stock diet ad libitum, and E an atherogenic diet for 3 weeks (3w). Zoometry (body weight and length) and diet intake (g/100g rat/day) were monitored. At 3 w in serum (mg/dL) lipidlipoprotein profile was studied: total cholesterol (t-C), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and MSQCT (Philips 64 CT, quantified with the eFilm Workstation 2.1) in seven mandibular areas (MA): n. 1 to 4: from chin to mandibular foramen, n. 5: coronoid process, n. 6: condylar process, n. 7: angular process. Statistics: Pearson's correlation between BMD in each MA and serum t-C. p0.05). Correlation coefficients (r) and their significance levels (p) were relevant in 5/7 MA. MA1:-0.580 (p=0.019), MA2:-0.709 (p=0.002), MA3:-0.635 (p=0.008), MA5:-0.674 (p=0.004), MA6:-0.564 (p=0.023). Conclusions. These results suggest that MS-QCT is an imaging diagnostic method that allows the early detection of mandible bone architecture alterations induced by an atherogenic diet. Inverse correlation between BMD and t-C would indicate an association between an atherogenic diet intake and potential temporomandibular disorders. (authors)

  14. The Use of Steered Ileo-cecal Valve Cannulated Pigs to Evaluate the Effects of Adding Phytase or Beta-mannanase to the Diet on Amino Acid, Mineral and Energy Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, John Scott

    2000-01-01

    Forty-six barrows fitted with steered ileo-cecal valve cannulas were used in four experiments to evaluate the effects of supplementing swine diets with microbial phytase or beta-mannanase on the apparent ileal (AID) and/or apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of amino acids, N, Ca, P, DM and energy. In Exp. 1, the addition of phytase to low CP corn-soybean meal based diets increased the AID of Ca (P < .01), P (P < .001), and all amino acids (P < .10) measured except Leu, Ser, Pro, Met, ...

  15. Raw, extruded and expanded pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cows diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritive value of raw, extruded or expanded peas relative to soybean meal in lactating dairy cows feeding. Twenty four Italian Holstein cows (8 primiparous and 16 pluriparous, 604 ± 109 kg body weight, 34.5 ± 2.5 kg/d milk yield, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a 4x4 Latin square arrangement with periods of four weeks and washout period of seven days. Diets were fed ad libitum(5% orts. The bulk of the base diet on a dry matter basis was corn silage (31.2%, alfalfa hay (16.7%, grass hay (4.1%, protein supplement (10.3%, whole cotton seed (8.5%, corn and barley mix (24.9%, soybean meal (3.4% and calcium soap (0.9%. The pea (2.5 kg/cow/day partially replaced the soybean meal and totally replaced the barley meal of the base diet. The unprocessed or differently processed pea did not affect the dry matter intake. The extruded pea group had a 3.2% increase (P< 0.05 of the milk yield compared to the control group. When estimated as contrast analysis, the technological treatment (extruded or expanded on peas did not modify the milk yield and composition. Among pea diets, animal fed the extruded pea had the higher (P< 0.05 milk protein content, although not different than that of the control group. The rumen acetate was reduced (P< 0.05 and the butyrate and valerate were increased (P< 0.05 in animals fed extruded pea compared to the control. No differences were observed among feeding groups on blood parameters except for the cholesterol level higher (P< 0.05 in animals fed the expanded pea diet. There were no effects of diets on milk rennet coagulation characteris- tics. Results support the partial substitution of soybean meal and the total substitution of barley meal with peas in diets for lactating cows with no negative effects on milk yield and composition.

  16. Effect of calcium, copper, and zinc levels in a rapeseed meal diet on mineral and trace element utilization in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T; Sandström, B

    1992-11-01

    Mineral and trace element interactions were studied in a balance trial with rats. Calcium, copper, and zinc were supplied to a rapeseed meal diet in a factorial design. Animals were fed ad libitum, and absorption, excretion, and retention of the elements were evaluated either as fractions of total intake or in relation to nitrogen retention to account for differences in food intake and lean body mass increment. The intrinsic content of minerals and trace elements was sufficient to support growth at a rate that could be expected from the rapeseed protein quality. However, when calcium was included in the diet, the intrinsic dietary level of zinc appeared to be limiting, despite the fact that the zinc level was twice the recommended level. Additional zinc supply reversed growth impairment. This calcium-zinc interaction is believed to be owing to the formation of phytate complexes. Calcium addition influenced the calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and iron--but not the copper--balances. The addition of calcium reduced the availability of the intrinsic zinc, whereas no effect was seen in the zinc-fortified groups. The availability of intrinsic copper was in a similar way significantly impaired by addition of dietary zinc, whereas copper-supplied groups were unaffected by zinc addition. Intrinsic iron availability was also dependent upon zinc addition, although in a more ambiguous way. Thus, addition of extrinsic minerals to a diet high in phytate can result in significant impairments of growth and mineral utilization.

  17. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  18. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based backgrounding diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to characterize the effects of CP concentration and ruminal degradability of barley-based backgrounding diets on route and chemical form of N excretion, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and nutrient digestion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (479 ± 14.6 kg average BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square. The basal diet consisted of 54% barley silage and 46% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (12% CP) or diets formulated to contain 14% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). The amount of feed offered was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. There was no effect of the diets on DMI (P = 0.38), and therefore, N intake was less (P 0.10) on the amount of urine N output. Urine N output was 38.9 and 45.1 ± 5.50% of N intake in heifers fed the 12% CP and 14% CP diets (P < 0.05), respectively. Urea N, the form of N most susceptible to NH3-N volatilization and loss, was the major form of N in urine (75.5% in heifers fed the 12% CP diet and 81.4 ± 1.7% in heifers fed the 14% CP diets; P < 0.05). Supplemental RDP (UREA+CM) and RUP combined with urea (UREA+CGM+xSBM) to provide 14% CP increased (P < 0.05) ruminal NH3-N but had no effect on ruminal peptide N (P = 0.62) and free AA N (P = 0.18) concentration, the flow of microbial (P = 0.34) and feed (P = 0.55) N, and ruminal (starch, P = 0.11; NDF, P = 0.78) and total tract nutrient digestibility (OM, P = 0.21; starch, P = 0.16). Supplementation of barley-based backgrounding diets containing 12% CP with NPN alone or combined with ruminally degradable and undegradable true protein to attain 14% CP had no effect on fecal N output, but urine N and urea N increased irrespective of protein source. In addition, the ruminal degradability of

  19. The Prevention of WEight Regain in diabetes type 2 (POWER) study : The effectiveness of adding a combined psychological intervention to a very low calorie diet, design and pilot data of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Berk (Kirsten Ac); H. Buijks (Hanneke); B. Özcan (Behiye); A. van 't Spijker (Adriaan); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Obesity is of major pathogenetic importance to type 2 diabetes, it contributes to poor glycemic control and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Over 80% of patients with diabetes type 2 are overweight. To achieve a more favourable risk profile, changes in diet and l

  20. Low-protein diets affect ileal amino acid digestibility and gene expression of digestive enzymes in growing and finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liuqin; Wu, Li; Xu, Zhiqi; Li, Tiejun; Yao, Kang; Cui, Zhijie; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of dietary crude protein (CP) intake on ileal amino acid digestibilities and expression of genes for digestive enzymes in growing and finishing pigs. In Experiment 1, 18 growing pigs (average initial BW = 36.5 kg) were assigned randomly into one of three treatments (n = 6/treatment group) representing normal (18 % CP), low (15 % CP), and very low (12 % CP) protein intake. In Experiment 2, 18 finishing pigs (average initial BW = 62.3 kg) were allotted randomly into one of three treatments (n = 6/treatment group), representing normal (16 % CP), low (13 % CP) and very low (10 % CP) protein intake. In both experiments, diets with low and very low CP were supplemented with crystalline amino acids to achieve equal content of standardized ileal digestible Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, and were provided to pigs ad libitum. Daily feed intake, BW, and feed/gain ratios were determined. At the end of each experiment, all pigs were slaughtered to collect pancreas, small-intestine samples, and terminal ileal chymes. Samples were used for determining expression of genes for digestive enzymes and ileal amino acid digestibilities. Growing pigs fed the 12 % CP and 15 % CP diets had lower final body weight (P amino acids could reduce the excretion of nitrogen into the environment without affecting weight gain. PMID:26210756

  1. An evaluation of brewery waste as a replacement for concentrates in diets for growing crossbred common ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, N T K; Ogle, R B

    2004-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of feeding brewery waste that replaced different levels of concentrate in diets for growing crossbred common ducks. A total of 300 ducks at 3 weeks of age were allocated in a 2 x 5 factorial experiment. Two feeding systems were compared, with the brewery waste provided separately (S) or mixed (M) with a concentrate. For the first feeding system the concentrate was fed alone (C100M), or replaced successively by brewery waste at ratios of concentrate to brewery waste: 75:25 (C75M), 50:50 (C50M) and 25:75 (C25M) on a dry matter basis, and fed ad libitum. For the second system concentrate and brewery waste were fed separately, with the same levels as in the first system. Total feed intakes for both feeding systems and intakes of brewery waste, total dry matter, crude protein, calcium and phosphorus increased significantly as concentrate was reduced (p growth performance. The highest net profits were from the separate feeding system, and for ducks fed brewery waste only (C0). It is concluded that brewery waste can replace traditional diets for crossbred common ducks based on concentrate.

  2. Effect of feeding carp with fat-supplemented pelleted diets on histological appearance of the intestine and hepatopancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Epler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty two-year-old carps, Cyprinus carpio L. were kept in a closed water circulation system for five months. Fish were assigned to five groups (12 fish per group and fed ad libitum on Aller Classic pelleted feed for carp: standard or standard pelleted mixture supplemented with 6% oils. The control group (IK received standard pellets, group IIS+Rz – sunflower oil + rapeseed oil (50% : 50%; group IIIS+L – sunflower oil + linseed oil (80% : 20%; group IVR – fish oil; and group VSK – pork scratchings at the level of 6%. At the end of the experiment, 10 carps from each group were slaughtered and their body length and weight were measured to calculate mean body weight gains and mean individual gains. Fragments of intestine and hepatopancreas were histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The mean weight gains of fish at the end of the experiment, which were the highest for diet IIIS+L, and the lowest for VSK and IK diets, were fully confirmed by histological analysis, which showed that the lowest gains in biomass and mean individual weight were due to digestive disturbances associated mainly with lipid metabolism. These disturbances did not occur in groups IIS+Rz, IIIS+L and IVR.

  3. Ingestive behavior of Nellore steers in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the feeding behavior of Nellore beef cattle in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids. Twenty-seven animals averaging 350 ± 24 kg of body weight and 24 months of age, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T, where, T1-TDFC: total diet containing flint corn, T2-TDSFC: total diet containing semi-flint corn and T3-TDSDC: total diet containing semi-dent corn, with 9 replicates per treatment. The animals were fed ad libitum twice a day (at 8:00am and 4:00pm with a isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet, with 30% of sugar cane bagasse and 70% concentrate (88% maize, 8% soybean meal, 3% mineral and vitamin supplement and 1% urea for 95 days (14 days of adaptation and 3 experimental periods of 27 days each. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and after each period of 27 days, always in a fasting period of 16 hours. The evaluation of animals feeding behavior occurred at the last day of each period by visual observation every five minutes for full periods of 24 hours. Observations were made in four shifts: morning (06:00 to 12:00, afternoon (12:00 to 18:00, evening (18:00 to 00:00 and early morning (00:00 06:00 to determine the number of ruminal bolus, chewing time, total feeding time, total ruminating standing time, total ruminating lying time, total standing idle time and total lying idle time. During the night’s observations, the stalls received artificial illumination to facilitate the data collection and the animals were adapted with light at night for three days before observations. Animals fed with diets containing semi-dent corn had longer chew time and more ruminal bolus than those fed with flint corn, but did not differ from those that received semi-flint corn in the diet. The chewing time and number of ruminal bolus varied with the observation periods, being higher in the morning and decreasing in the

  4. Effects of different diets on intestinal microbiota and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Ping; Zou, Wen-Li; Chen, Shui-Jiao; Wei, Hong-Yun; Yin, Ya-Ni; Zou, Yi-You; Lu, Fang-Gen

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study the effects of different diets on intestinal microbiota and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development at the same caloric intake. METHODS Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (six rats each). The control diet (CON) group and free high-fat diet (FFAT) group were allowed ad libitum access to a normal chow diet and a high-fat diet, respectively. The restrictive high-fat diet (RFAT) group, restrictive high-sugar diet (RSUG) group, and high-protein diet (PRO) group were fed a high-fat diet, a high-sugar diet, and a high-protein diet, respectively, in an isocaloric way. All rats were killed at 12 wk. Body weight, visceral fat index (visceral fat/body weight), liver index (liver/body weight), insulin resistance, portal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and liver triglycerides were measured. The intestinal microbiota in the different groups of rats was sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology. RESULTS The FFAT group had higher body weight, visceral fat index, liver index, peripheral insulin resistance, portal LPS, serum ALT, serum AST, and liver triglycerides compared with all other groups (P < 0.05). Taking the same calories, the RFAT and RSUG groups demonstrated increased body weight, visceral fat index, peripheral insulin resistance and liver triglycerides compared with the PRO group (P < 0.05). The RFAT group also showed increased portal LPS compared with the PRO group (P < 0.05). Unweighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis of the sequencing data revealed that the intestinal microbiota structures of the CON, FFAT, RSUG and PRO groups were roughly separated away from each other. Taxon-based analysis showed that, compared with the CON group, the FFAT group had an increased abundance of Firmicutes, Roseburia and Oscillospira bacteria, a higher ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, and a decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes

  5. Nutrient and cell wall fraction digestibility of growing WAD ewe fed Mexican sunflower leaf meal (MSLM based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ekeocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After a previous 84-d performance phase on growing WAD ewe, Studies was conducted using sixteen West African dwarf (WAD ewe-lambs weighing between 17.50 and 17.88kg on a basal diet of Panicum maximum were allotted into 4 treatment groups A, B, C and D of 4 replicates each. The MSL replaced Wheat bran (WB gravimetrically at 0, 15, 30 and 45%. Treatment A served as control. The experiment lasted for one week. Digestibility was determined using a 6-d total fecal collection. Ewes were given ad libitum access to feed and water. Parameters measured were voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI, which comprised concentrate dry matter intake (CDMI and grass dry matter intake (GDMI, Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, Organic matter (OM and Energy . Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA .The VDMI (g/d varied from 392.30 - 695.00, CDMI (g/d varied from 181.80 - 536.80 and GDMI (g/d varied from 130.65 - 215.95 for ewe-lambs. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of NDF, ADF, ADL, organic matter (OM and Energy were similar. Approximately 75.5 ±1.1% of the VDMI came from the supplement. Diets containing 15% MSLM was superior to others for CDMI (181.80 – 536.80 g/day, CP intake (17.72 – 32.40 g/day/kgW0.75, Digestible DMI (49.45 - 80.68 g/day/kgW0.75 and Digestible CPI (13.68 - 27.16 g/day/kgW0.75 while GDMI (130.65 – 215.95 g/day for diets containing 30% and 45% MSLM were significant (p Inclusion of up to 45% Mexican Sunflower Leaf in the diets of growing ewe to replace Wheat bran was adequate.

  6. Partial replacement of an artificial nectar diet with native browse for feather-tail gliders (Acrobates pygmaeus) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Ella A; Herrin, Kimberly Vinette; Gleen, Wendy; Davies, Paul; Stapley, Rodd; Stebbings, Vanessa; Wiszniewski, Joanna; Spindler, Rebecca; Faichney, Graham J; Chaves, Alexandre V

    2013-01-01

    Captive-bred feather-tail gliders (Acrobates pygmaeus) housed at Taronga Zoo have had a long history of eye cholesterol plaques that may be associated with a largely sugar-based diet such as artificial nectar. The gliders also have prolonged periods of reduced activity when they are not visible in exhibits. This may be due to the ad libitum supply of an energy rich feed and reduced need to forage. This study examined behavioral and physiological changes associated with supplementing the high sugar-based diet with two species of native browse. The experiment was conducted over two consecutive periods of 3 weeks and consisted of two treatment groups: one group was offered the artificial nectar only, while the other group was offered the artificial nectar supplemented with a variety of native flowers. Live weight was recorded weekly. There was no change (P > 0.10) in artificial nectar intake with the supplementation of native browse in the diet. Blood metabolites (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose) tested for the two groups had no differences (P > 0.10) between treatments. Upon examination, there were no signs of tooth decay or cholesterol plaques in all animals throughout the experiment. Feed intake and behavior were recorded via sensor cameras. There was an increase (P native flowers compared to gliders fed the artificial nectar alone. In conclusion, supplementing to provide a more native diet to A. pygmaeus enhanced their natural foraging behavior, suggesting that it may result in long-term improvements in their health.

  7. Supplemental protein sources for steers fed corn-based diets: II. Growth and estimated metabolizable amino acid supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludden, P A; Jones, J M; Cecava, M J; Hendrix, K S

    1995-05-01

    Seventy Simmental-cross steers (average initial weight 301 +/- 24 kg) were individually fed in a 175-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the effects of source and level of protein in the diet on gain and feed efficiency. Steers were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments (seven steers per treatment) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a urea-supplemented control diet. Main factors were source of supplemental protein (soybean meal [SBM], a high ruminal escape soybean meal [SP; SoyPLUS], or a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal [CB; 50:50 on a nitrogen basis]) and level of each protein source (20, 30, or 40% of total dietary CP). Based on 18-h in situ ruminal incubation, escape N content of the protein sources was 66.0, 82.5, and 90.8% of total N and metabolizable amino acid (MAA) content was 29.1, 33.4, and 67.8 g/100 g of DM for SBM, SP, and CB respectively. The steers were fed 12.5% CP diets based on cracked corn (70%) on d 0 through 70 and were switched to a common 11.5% CP urea-supplemented cracked corn diet (80%) on d 71. The steers were housed in individual confinement stalls and had ad libitum access to feed. Replacing urea with SBM or SP increased (P .05) 28- or 70-d ADG or DMI but did increase (P .05) on 175-d DMI or efficiency; however, feeding SBM increased (P .05) by treatment. Replacing urea with SBM or CB in the first 70 d decreased (P carcass quality grade, dressing percentage, and longissimus muscle area.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7665379

  8. Tantalus, restraint theory, and the low-sacrifice diet: the art of reverse abstraction: 10th International Congress on Obesity; September 4, 2006; Sydney,Australia - Symposium: obesity management: adding art to the science, invited presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair-West, George W

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that clinicians face the unique artistic challenge of taking concrete pieces of data - scientific findings - and abstracting them into effective therapeutic interventions. Moreover, this abstraction has to be modified for different personality types. The process of therapeutic change and how it can be impeded by the traditional medical model are briefly explored. The doctor-patient dyadic treatment relationship, while appropriate and necessary for many medical interventions, can disavow the source of change when it comes to lifestyle conditions such as obesity. Restraint theory and its origins in Greek mythology are briefly reviewed and integrated with Bowlby's attachment theory as precepts in developing a psychologically based dietary approach. By retaining in people's diets foods they have a deep emotional attachment to, the low-sacrifice diet attempts to encourage caloric restriction in a way that does not trigger rebound overeating. PMID:18311368

  9. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M.; Mansfield, Josephine P.; Pluske, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of three diets on diarrhoea, performance (weight change, feed intake and feed conversion ratio), selected bacterial populations and blood measures of weaner pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. The three diets were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds), base diet containing zinc oxide, and base diet containing a feed additive (blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex). Only feeding zinc oxide decreased diarrhoea, with zinc oxide-fed pigs performing better than base diet-fed pigs. Zinc oxide-fed pigs performed similarly to pigs fed the organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex. Significant interactions between treatment and day after weaning were found for some bacterial populations, although the implications of such findings require further examination. Abstract The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO (p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster (p = 0.013) and ate more (p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same (p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets (p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction (p

  10. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically reduced feed intake, but improved feed efficiency up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary intervention, i.e. 16 weeks of age

  11. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing-Hwa Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF diet (63.1%. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 normal group (normal; (2 HF group; (3 chitosan + HF group (HF + C. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8% significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment

  12. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically reduced feed intake, but improved feed efficiency up to 8 weeks after the end of the

  13. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF) diet (63.1%). Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) normal group (normal); (2) HF group; (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 10⁵ Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8%) significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C) ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment of

  14. Prediction of metabolisable energy value of broiler diets and water excretion from dietary chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, B; Lessire, M; Juin, H

    2013-08-01

    Thirty various pelleted diets were given to broilers (8/diet) for in vivo measurements of dietary metabolisable energy (ME) value and digestibilities of proteins, lipids, starch and sugars from day 27 to day 31, with ad libitum feeding and total collection of excreta. Water excretion was also measured. Amino acid formulation of diets was done on the basis of ratios to crude proteins. Mean in vivo apparent ME values corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) were always lower than the AMEn values calculated for adult cockerels using predicting equations from literature based on the chemical analyses of diets. The difference between mean in vivo AMEn values and these calculated AMEn values increased linearly with increasing amount of wheat in diets (P = 0.0001). Mean digestibilities of proteins, lipids and starch were negatively related to wheat introduction (P = 0.0001). The correlations between mean in vivo AMEn values and diet analytical parameters were the highest with fibre-related parameters, such as water-insoluble cell-walls (WICW) (r = -0.91) or Real Applied Viscosity (RAV) (r = -0.77). Thirteen multiple regression equations relating mean in vivo AMEn values to dietary analytical data were calculated, with R² values ranging from 0.859 to 0.966 (P = 0.0001). The highest R² values were obtained when the RAV parameter was included in independent variables. The direct regression equations obtained with available components (proteins, lipids, starch, sucrose and oligosaccharides) and the indirect regression equations obtained with WICW and ash parameters showed similar R² values. Direct or indirect theoretical equations predicting AMEn values were established using the overall mean in vivo digestibility values. The principle of indirect equations was based on the assumption that WICW and ashes act as diluters. Addition of RAV or wheat content in variables improved the accuracy of theoretical equations. Efficiencies of theoretical equations for predicting AMEn

  15. Maternal conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reverses high-fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and inflammation in adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, C A; Segovia, S A; Markworth, J F; Gray, C; Zhang, X D; Milan, A M; Mitchell, C J; Barnett, M P G; Roy, N C; Vickers, M H; Reynolds, C M; Cameron-Smith, D

    2016-03-01

    A high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy and lactation leads to metabolic disorders in offspring concomitant with increased adiposity and a proinflammatory phenotype in later life. During the fetal period, the impact of maternal diet on skeletal muscle development is poorly described, despite this tissue exerting a major influence on life-long metabolic health. This study investigated the effect of a maternal HFD on skeletal muscle anabolic, catabolic, and inflammatory signaling in adult rat offspring. Furthermore, the actions of maternal-supplemented conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on these measures of muscle phenotype were investigated. A purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal fat), a CD supplemented with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal fat, 1% total fat as CLA), a high-fat (HFD; 45% kcal fat from lard), or a HFD supplemented with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal fat from lard, 1% total fat as CLA) was fed ad libitum to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 10 days before mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring received a standard chow diet from weaning, and the gastrocnemius was collected for analysis at day 150. Offspring from HF and HFCLA mothers displayed lower muscular protein content accompanied by elevated monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6, and IL-1β concentrations. Phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 (Ser(536)) and expression of the catabolic E3 ligase muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) were increased in HF offspring, an effect reversed by maternal CLA supplementation. The present study demonstrates the importance of early life interventions to ameliorate the negative effects of poor maternal diet on offspring skeletal muscle development. PMID:26632603

  16. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF. This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption, with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1 and post-intervention testing (day 22 in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05. However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20

  17. Breastfeeding and maternal diet in atopic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Tina Y.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2011-01-01

    Question Many children are affected by atopic dermatitis (AD) at a very young age. I often consider whether nonpharmacologic interventions could prevent or mitigate the development of AD. Do breastfeeding or changes to the maternal diet help prevent the development of childhood AD?

  18. Diet-induced and mono-genetic obesity alter volatile organic compound signature in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Martin; Muntean, Andreea; Szymczak, Wilfried; Rink, Nadine; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hoeschen, Christoph; Klingenspor, Martin; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Rozman, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity is still rising in many countries, resulting in an increased risk of associated metabolic diseases. In this study we aimed to describe the volatile organic compound (VOC) patterns symptomatic for obesity. We analyzed high fat diet (HFD) induced obese and mono-genetic obese mice (global knock-in mutation in melanocortin-4 receptor MC4R-ki). The source strengths of 208 VOCs were analyzed in ad libitum fed mice and after overnight food restriction. Volatiles relevant for a random forest-based separation of obese mice were detected (26 in MC4R-ki, 22 in HFD mice). Eight volatiles were found to be important in both obesity models. Interestingly, by creating a partial correlation network of the volatile metabolites, the chemical and metabolic origins of several volatiles were identified. HFD-induced obese mice showed an elevation in the ketone body acetone and acrolein, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and several unidentified volatiles. In MC4R-ki mice, several yet-unidentified VOCs were found to be altered. Remarkably, the pheromone (methylthio)methanethiol was found to be reduced, linking metabolic dysfunction and reproduction. The signature of volatile metabolites can be instrumental in identifying and monitoring metabolic disease states, as shown in the screening of the two obese mouse models in this study. Our findings show the potential of breath gas analysis to non-invasively assess metabolic alterations for personalized diagnosis. PMID:26860833

  19. Effect of dietary restriction and hay inclusion in the diet of slow-growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla P. Picoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction and inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Coastal hays in the diets of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing male broilers on performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and economic viability. A total of 272 broilers at 21 days old were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments, four replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of ad libitum concentrated feed (control intake, feed restriction (80% of the control intake, and feed restrictions with supplementation of alfalfa hay (80% of the control intake+20% alfalfa or Bermudagrass hay (80% control intake+20% Bermuda. Dietary restriction, with and without hay inclusion, negatively affected (P<0.05 the weight gain of the birds; however, feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 for animals that underwent only restricted feeding, which also had the best economic indices. Birds subjected to dietary restriction and inclusion of hays showed changes (P<0.05 in the gastrointestinal organs and intestinal morphology.

  20. Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...

  1. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Mapping of Whole Brain Activity Patterns Associated with the Intake of Snack Food in Ad Libitum Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet’s molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activ...

  2. Serum concentrations of creatine kinase and of triglycerides during lactation in gilts bred older and in multiparous sows fed ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira R.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the possible variation in blood concentrations of creatine kinase (CK and triglycerides in gilts bred older in comparison with multiparous sows. Ten primiparous and ten Camborough multiparous sows from the fourth to seventh parities were used. Breeding age and weight of gilts averaged respectively 231 days and 149.5kg. All females were moved into individual farrowing crates and were managed under the same conditions. Blood samples were collected by puncturing the coccygeal artery on day 7 before expected farrowing, and on days 2, 7, 14, 21 of lactation and 2 days after weaning. No difference in triglycerides and CK serum concentrations between groups were observed. The CK levels were low before farrowing, increased substantially on days 2 and 7 and decreased toward the end of lactation. The concentrations of triglycerides were slightly high before the parturition, diminished on days 2, 7, 14 and 21 and increased after weaning.

  3. Effects of toasting blue lupins, soybeans or barley as supplement for high-yielding organic dairy cows fed grass-clover silage ad libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Lund, Peter; Kristensen, Troels;

    2008-01-01

    degradability determined in situ for all three supplements. Compared to untreated lupins toasting of lupins tended (P = 0.10) to increase milk yield, whereas toasting of soybeans did not affect milk yield. Toasting of lupins decreased (P = 0.03) milk protein content (32.2 versus 32.7 g/kg), whereas toasting...... of soybeans did not affect milk protein content. ECM yield was significantly higher (P = 0.002) for cows fed toasted soybeans than for cows fed untreated soybeans (28.1 versus 26.4 kg ECM) whereas there was no significant effect on ECM yield from toasting lupins or barley. It can be concluded......The effect of toasted supplement on milk production was examined in three experiments on an organic study farm during the winter 2004/2005. Three types of iso-energetic supplement feed, toasted or untreated, were examined in each experiment, with an untreated cereal mixture as control...

  4. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the Effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms (Pgroups was similar (P>0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  5. Efecto de la intensidad de la música en el rendimiento durante la realización de ejercicio Ad Libitum en cicloergómetro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Aburto Corona

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue determinar si la Frecuencia Cardíaca (FC, el Esfuerzo Percibido (EP y el Trabajo Voluntario Realizado (TVR están influenciados por la intensidad de la música. En este estudio se comprobó si la teoría de ciertos entrenadores de gimnasios es cierta, “a mayor intensidad de sonido (decibeles, el rendimiento físico es mejor”. Aunque de cierta forma “esa intensidad” puede llegar a ser cómplice para una lesión auditiva que puede ser temporal o permanente a corto, mediano o  largo plazo. Se analizó la influencia que tiene la música respecto al rendimiento físico de las personas que se ejercitan en un cicloergómetro en determinadas condiciones musicales: Música del agrado de los sujetos de entre 100 y 130 pulsos por minuto (ppm a 75 (M75 o 95 (M95 decibeles (dB o una condición sin música (SM. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las tres condiciones en la FC (182.8±15.80, 186.5±13.41, 186±13.38 ppm el EP (6.75±2.20, 7.3±2, 7.5±1.9 u.a. ni en el Trabajo Voluntario Realizado (106.8±11.98, 113.2±12.30, 109.6±20.30 KJ para SM, M75 y M95 respectivamente. No hubo interacción significativa entre el tratamiento (SM, M75 y M95 y la medición (T1 y T2 (p>0.05, más sí hubo diferencias significativas entre mediciones, lo cual significa que independientemente de la intensidad, los sujetos realizaron más trabajo en la segunda mitad que en la primera.

  6. Concentrate Mixture, Grass Pellets, Fodder Beets, or Barley as Supplements to Silage ad libitum for High-yielding Dairy Cows on Organic Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Troels, Kristensen

    2003-01-01

    A total of 246 Danish Holstein cows were included in three experiments. In each experiment, Barley (B) was compared with another type of supplementary feeds: a Concentrate mixture (C), Grass pellets (G), or Fodder beets (F). The concentrate mixture resulted in a higher (P = 0.002) milk yield (25.9 vs 23.7 kg), a tendency of a lower (P = 0.07) fat content (4.08 vs 4.25%), and a higher (P = 0.006) ECM yield (25.7 vs 24.1 kg) compared to feeding barley as supplement at the same energy level. Gra...

  7. Genetic parameters and effect of selection for body weight in lines of mink (Neovion vison) on ad libitum and restricted feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Bente Krog;

    2012-01-01

    .60 in females in the FF-, AL-, and RF-line). The results indicate that selection on AL feeding increased appetite and thereby improved feed conversion ratio while selection on RF improved feed utilization. Furthermore, the results suggest that selection for August weight produces lean mink while selection...

  8. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the Effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms (P0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  9. Repeated consumption of a large volume of liquid and semi-solid foods increases ad libitum intake, but does not change expected satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Mars, M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C. de

    2012-01-01

    Food intake and a food’s expected satiating effect initially rely on sensory attributes. People will learn about the food’s satiating capacity by exposure. We investigated whether repeated consumption changed the expected satiety effects and intake of iso-energetic liquid and semi-solid foods. In a

  10. Plasma Cortisol Levels in Response to a Cold Pressor Test Did Not Predict Appetite or Ad Libitum Test Meal Intake in Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D.; Hernandez, Dominica B.; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E.

    2012-01-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2 min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng...

  11. Insulin-like growth factor I and glucagon-like peptide-2 responses to fasting followed by controlled or ad libitum refeeding in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Murali, Sangita G; Liu, Xiaowen;

    2008-01-01

    Luminal nutrients stimulate structural and functional regeneration in the intestine through mechanisms thought to involve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We investigated the relationship between IGF-I and GLP-2 responses and mucosal growth in rats fasted...

  12. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often conflicting advice is available, especially on the Internet. Much of it is associated with a considerable cost. Video with Peter Whorwell, MD Diet, Eating and IBS Symptoms There are a variety of ...

  13. Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... the average American diet. In fact, saturated fat consumption is well within our dietary guidelines. More than ...

  14. Low carbohydrate ketogenic diet prevents the induction of diabetes using streptozotocin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalifa, A; Mathew, T C; Al-Zaid, N S; Mathew, E; Dashti, H

    2011-11-01

    Diabetes continues to be an overwhelmingly prevalent endocrine disorder that leads to several micro- and macrocomplications. It has been widely accepted that changes in dietary habits could induce or prevent the onset of diabetes. It is shown that low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) is effective in the amelioration of many of the deleterious consequences of diabetes. However, its role in preventing the onset of diabetes is not understood. Therefore, this study is focused on the effect of LCKD in preventing the induction of diabetes using streptozotocin (STZ) in rats by biochemical and histological methods. Forty-two Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups: normal diet (ND), low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD), and high carbohydrate diet (HCD). Specific diets ad libitum were given to each group of animals for a period of 8 weeks. Each group was further subdivided into normal control, sham control and diabetic groups. Animals in the diabetic group were given a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg). All the animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after the injection of STZ. Daily measurements of food and water intake as well as weekly measurement of body weight were taken during the whole 12 weeks of the experiment. After injecting with STZ, the blood glucose level of all the groups increased significantly except for the group fed on LCKD (p value<0.01). Also, food intake, water intake and urine output were significantly increased in all groups except for the LCKD group (p value<0.01). There was also a significant decrease in the weight gain of the animals that were fed on a LCKD as compared to other groups (p value<0.05). Although, substantial decrease in the number of β cells was noticed in diabetic rats, there were no change in the number of β cells in the LCKD treated diabetic animals as compared to LCKD control group. The results presented in this study, therefore, suggests that LCKD prevents

  15. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K N; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:27197769

  16. Fontes de Sódio e Relação Sódio: Cloro para Frangos de Corte Sodium Chloride Levels in Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Fischer da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 2.880 pintos de corte, para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes fontes de sódio (Na+ e relações sódio:cloro (Na+:Cl- na ração. As aves receberam ração e água ad libtum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade não foram influenciados (p>0,05 pela substituição da fonte tradicional de Na e pelas diferentes relações Na:Cl. A umidade da cama foi afetada pela fonte e níveis de Na na ração. Os resultados mostraram que pode-se utilizar o NaHCO3 como fonte parcial à exigência de Na para frangos de corte de 1 a 47 dias de idade.A trial was carried out with 2,880 day old chicks to evaluate different sources of sodium (Na+ and Na+:Cl- ratio in diets. Water and diets were available in "ad libitum" feeding. Experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and six repetitions. The performance (feed intake, body weight, feed conversion and mortality was not affected (P>0.05 by treatments, but different levels and sources of Na+ increased litter moisture. The NaHCO3 can be used in chicken broilers diets in partial substitution of Na for day 1 to 47.

  17. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression: impact of diet, sex, metabolic status, and cis genetic regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Viguerie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification of environmental and individual factors controlling AT adaptation is therefore essential. Here, expression of 271 transcripts, selected for regulation according to obesity and weight changes, was determined in 515 individuals before, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced weight loss, and after 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases.

  18. Polarised black holes in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  19. The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Poff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Abnormal cancer metabolism creates a glycolytic-dependency which can be exploited by lowering glucose availability to the tumor. The ketogenic diet (KD is a low carbohydrate, high fat diet which decreases blood glucose and elevates blood ketones and has been shown to slow cancer progression in animals and humans. Abnormal tumor vasculature creates hypoxic pockets which promote cancer progression and further increase the glycolytic-dependency of cancers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO₂T saturates tumors with oxygen, reversing the cancer promoting effects of tumor hypoxia. Since these non-toxic therapies exploit overlapping metabolic deficiencies of cancer, we tested their combined effects on cancer progression in a natural model of metastatic disease. METHODS: We used the firefly luciferase-tagged VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer to compare tumor progression and survival in mice fed standard or KD ad libitum with or without HBO₂T (2.5 ATM absolute, 90 min, 3x/week. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. RESULTS: KD alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While HBO₂T alone did not influence cancer progression, combining the KD with HBO₂T elicited a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: KD and HBO₂T produce significant anti-cancer effects when combined in a natural model of systemic metastatic cancer. Our evidence suggests that these therapies should be further investigated as potential non-toxic treatments or adjuvant therapies to standard care for patients with systemic metastatic disease.

  20. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  1. Available phosphorus requirement of sex-reversed red tilapia fed all-plant diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udomnan Udom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum requirement of dietary phoshporus (P for sex-reversed red tilapia in glass aquaria (50x100x47cm. Six practical diets were formulated to contain graded levels (0.58, 0.66, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.82% of available P from all-plant raw ingredients and dicalcium phosphate (DCP. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish, and each group was stocked with 20 fish (initial body weight, 25.16g 0.13. Fish were fed twice daily (08:00 and 16:00 ad libitum for 8 weeks. Average body weight and weight gain significantly increased with increasing available P (P<0.05. The whole body composition analysis showed that lipid and protein as well as P contents in whole body, vertebrae ash and vertebrae p, were significantly affected by available P (P<0.05. The blood biochemistry analysis showed that serum P and serum alkaline phosphatase activity increased with the increase of dietary available P levels (P<0.05. Data for weight gain, FCR, whole body P, vertebrae ash, vertebrae P, muscle protein, muscle fat and visceral fat were subjected to regression analysis to determine effects of the dietary levels of available P on these responses. Employing quadratic non-linear regression model of the relationship between available dietary P and P in vertebrae and whole body to study the P requirement, it was found that available dietary P requirement for sex-reversed red tilapia from the current study were of 0.76 and 0.79%, respectively. Increasing the dietary available P to higher concentration appears to reduce muscle fat while muscle protein increases.

  2. Effect of adding chrome in diets on structure and oxidation prevention function in kidney tissue of rabbit under heat stress%日粮铬对热应激獭兔肾脏组织结构及抗氧化功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玉芳; 高志花; 白雪梅; 邢立强; 李海峰; 张晓丽; 杨翠军; 王鹏欢; 张盼盼

    2012-01-01

    为了研究三氯化铬对热应激獭兔肾脏结构及组织中抗氧化功能的影响,本试验选用3月龄健康獭兔72只,随机分为6组,每组12只,对照组饲喂基础日粮,分别在基础日粮中添加0.2、0.4、0.6、0.8、1.0mg/kg铬量的三氯化铬,作为试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ组,在热应激条件下(獭兔饲养于人工气候仓内,气温设定为30~35℃,24h循环变温,35℃维持4h,)饲养30d。显示,热应激条件下,在獭兔基础日粮中添加一定量的三氯化铬不仅能有效降低热应激对獭兔肾脏组织结构的损伤,还可显著提高肾脏组织中GSH—Px、SOD和CAT活性,降低肾脏组织中MDA含量(P〈0.05或0.01)。结果提示,夏季高温环境下,在獭兔基础日粮中添加0.6~1.0mg/kg铬量的三氯化铬可通过增强机体的抗氧化功能,抑制机体内自由基和脂质过氧化物的产生,保护机体肾脏组织结构完整,维持机体正常生理功能。%The design was used to study the effect of adding chrome in diets on structure and oxidation prevention in kidney tissue of rabbit under heat stress. Seventy two rabbits,3 month-old,were divided randomly into 6 groups. The control group was fed the basal diet, and the treatment groups were given the diet supplemented with 0.2,0.4, 0. 6, 0.8,1.0 mg/kg chrome, respectively. The rabbits were raised under heat stress (raised in artificial climate laboratory,with temperature 30-35℃, a cycling 24 hour, 35℃ for 4 hours)for 30 days. The results showed that the diet adding proper chrome not only can efficiently respite damage of on kidney tissue structure caused by heat stress, but also rises activity of GSH-Px.SOD and CAT,decreases content of MDA in kidney tissue (P〈0.05 or P〈0.01) ,indicating that in high temperature condition, the diet adding 0.6-1.0 mg/kg chrome could strengthen body oxidation prevention function, restraint ROS, protect kidney

  3. A low protein diet during pregnancy provokes a lasting shift of hepatic expression of genes related to cell cycle throughout ontogenesis in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oster Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. Adverse environmental conditions during fetal development provoke an intrauterine adaptive response termed 'fetal programming', which may lead to both persistently biased responsiveness to extrinsic factors and permanent consequences for the organismal phenotype. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome exhibits short-term and long-term changes, depending on the maternal diet. In order to contribute to a comprehensive inventory of genes and functional networks that are targets of nutritional programming initiated during fetal life, we applied whole-genome microarrays for expression profiling in a longitudinal experimental design covering prenatal, perinatal, juvenile, and adult ontogenetic stages in a porcine model. Pregnant sows were fed either a gestational low protein diet (LP, 6% CP or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP. All offspring was nursed by foster sows receiving standard diets. After weaning, all offspring was fed standard diets ad libitum. Results Analyses of the hepatic gene expression of the offspring at prenatal (94 dies post conceptionem, dpc and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dies post natum, dpn included comparisons between dietary groups within stages as well as comparisons between ontogenetic stages within diets to separate diet-specific transcriptional changes and maturation processes. We observed differential expression of genes related to lipid metabolism (e.g. Fatty acid metabolism, Biosynthesis of steroids, Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, FA elongation in mitochondria, Bile acid synthesis and cell cycle regulation (e.g. Mitotic roles of PLK, G1/S checkpoint regulation, G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation. Notably, at stage 1 dpn no regulation of a distinct pathway was found in LP offspring. Conclusions The transcriptomic

  4. 玉米-菜粕型日粮中添加钠化合物对蛋鸡生产性能的影响%Effects of adding sodium compounds to corn-rape seed meal type diet on production performance of laying hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹兆正; 宣士荣; 潘根长

    2001-01-01

    Adding 0.3% sodium sulphate or 0.3% sodium bicarbonate tocorn-rape seed meal type diet with low levels of sulphur-containing amino acid and lysine for ISA brown laying hens, egg laying rate, egg weight and feed efficiency increased, profit per hen also increased obviously, whereas hen mortality was not influenced. When laying hens were fed diet supplemented with sodium bicarbonate, eggshell thickness and strength improved significantly (P<0.05). It was found that addition of sodium sulphate and sodium bicarbonate both in diet was more beneficial to egg laying performance than any single supplement.%在含硫氨基酸和赖氨酸水平较低的玉米-菜粕型日粮中分别添加0.3%硫酸钠、0.3%碳酸氢钠、0.3%硫酸钠+0.3%碳酸氢钠,能提高伊莎褐蛋鸡产蛋率、蛋重及饲料利用率,使产蛋饲料成本下降,盈利值明显增加,对存活率则无影响。其中尤以混合添加组效果最佳,其次分别为碳酸氢钠组和硫酸钠组。研究还发现,日粮中添加碳酸氢钠,能明显增加蛋鸡的蛋壳厚度(P<0.05),蛋壳强度也有显著提高(P<0.05)。

  5. Effects of calcium soap of rice bran oil fatty acids supplementation alone and with DL-α-tocopherol acetate in lamb diets on performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R S; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A; Agrawal, A R

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-six Malpura lambs (28 day old and 6.7 ± 0.25 kg BW) were distributed equally in three groups having six males and six female. They were ad libitum fed individually three different experimental diets containing calcium soap of fatty acids (CA-FA) at 0 (T1 ) and 40 (T2 and T3 ) g/kg concentrate up to six months of age. Animals in T3 were supplemented additionally with 40 mg DL-α-tocopherol acetate/kg of concentrate. The roughage moiety included ad libitum dry Prosopis cineraria and fresh Azadirachata indica leaves. All the lambs were allowed to suckle from their dam up to weaning (90 day of age). Supplementation of Ca-FA improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio during both pre- (28-90 days) and post-weaning (91-180 days) phases; however, no effect of DL-α-tocopherol was observed. Metabolic parameters during post-weaning phase revealed non-significant effect on digestibility but improved nitrogen balance in the test groups. The effect on biochemical attributes did not show any significant alteration in ruminal parameters, blood biochemicals and urinary purine derivatives. Carcass traits revealed higher (p grade rice bran oil in lamb ration provided additional energy intake, improved N utilization, gain and feed conversion ratio besides improving dressing yield and meat quality with CLA enriched fatty acid profile. DL-α-tocopherol acetate when supplemented at 40 mg/kg feed reduced lipid oxidation of meat products thus improving its keeping quality. PMID:26211674

  6. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joo-Yeon Kim,1,* Mak-Soon Lee,1,* Sunyoon Jung,1 Hyunjin Joo,1 Chong-Tai Kim,2 In-Hwan Kim,3 Sangjin Seo,1 Soojung Oh,1 Yangha Kim11Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC and nanoemulsion OC (NOC on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks.Results: NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not.Conclusion: From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.Keywords: oleoresin capsicum

  7. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9-desaturation of [13C]vaccenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frédéric; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo delta9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using 13C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90 g sunflower-seed oil (SO) per d or 60 g sunflower-seed oil and 30 g fish oil per d plus additional starch (SFO), in a grassland hay-based diet given to eight Alpine goats in a 2 x 2 cross-over design with 21 d experimental periods. Milk yield and composition were similar between treatments. Goats fed SFO had higher milk 6 : 0-16 : 0 concentration, lower milk sigmaC18 concentrations and showed no effect on milk VA and RA, compared with SO. At the end of the experiment, intravenous injection of 1.5 g [13C]VA followed by measurements of milk lipid 13C enrichment showed that in vivo 31.7 and 31.6 % of VA was delta9-desaturated into milk RA in the caprine with the SO and SFO treatments, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for delta9-desaturase (or stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SCD1, SCD5) in mammary tissues and four milk delta9-desaturation ratios were similar between treatments. In conclusion, the present study provides the first estimates of in vivo endogenous synthesis of RA (63-73 % of milk RA) from VA in goats, and shows no difference between the two lipid supplements compared.

  8. The Effect of physical and chemical index on sheep with added soybean molassas in diet%饲料中添加大豆糖蜜对肉羊理化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马群山; 陈勇; 唐德江

    2009-01-01

    12 sheep crossbred by Germany merino(♂)and northeast fine wool sheep(♀)(approximate live weight) were selected for a feeding experiment under barn feeding conditions divided into 4 groups. The sheep were fed by different dose of soybean molasses with 0,2%,5% and 8% in basic diet. Their contents of glucose, total protein, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total cholesterol in blood were determined. The results showed: the content of the blood glucose of 5% soybean molasses group was 26.83% higher than the control group's (p0.05). The contents of the alkaline phosphatase and total cholesterol of all experimental groups increased slightly to the control group (p>0.05).%选择4月龄德国美利奴与东北细毛羊杂交羊12只,按体重相近原则平均分为4组,每组3个重复,进行舍饲试验.在基础日粮的基础上分别添加0、2%、5%和8%大豆糖蜜,测定不同添加剂量的大豆糖蜜对绵羊血糖浓度、总蛋白、丙氨酸氨基转移酶、碱性磷酸酶和总胆固醇的变化.结果表明:添加5%大豆糖蜜组血糖浓度比对照组提高了26.83%,显著差异(p0.05).

  9. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9-desaturation of [13C]vaccenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frédéric; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo delta9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using 13C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90 g sunflower-seed oil (SO) per d or 60 g sunflower-seed oil and 30 g fish oil per d plus additional starch (SFO), in a grassland hay-based diet given to eight Alpine goats in a 2 x 2 cross-over design with 21 d experimental periods. Milk yield and composition were similar between treatments. Goats fed SFO had higher milk 6 : 0-16 : 0 concentration, lower milk sigmaC18 concentrations and showed no effect on milk VA and RA, compared with SO. At the end of the experiment, intravenous injection of 1.5 g [13C]VA followed by measurements of milk lipid 13C enrichment showed that in vivo 31.7 and 31.6 % of VA was delta9-desaturated into milk RA in the caprine with the SO and SFO treatments, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for delta9-desaturase (or stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SCD1, SCD5) in mammary tissues and four milk delta9-desaturation ratios were similar between treatments. In conclusion, the present study provides the first estimates of in vivo endogenous synthesis of RA (63-73 % of milk RA) from VA in goats, and shows no difference between the two lipid supplements compared. PMID:20307350

  10. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  11. Increasing linseed supply in dairy cow diets based on hay or corn silage: Effect on enteric methane emission, rumen microbial fermentation, and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C; Ferlay, A; Mosoni, P; Rochette, Y; Chilliard, Y; Doreau, M

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of increasing extruded linseed supply in diets based on hay (H; experiment 1) or corn silage (CS; experiment 2) on enteric methane (CH4) emission, rumen microbial and fermentation parameters, and rumen and total-tract digestibility. In each experiment, 4 lactating Holstein cows fitted with cannulas at the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square design (28-d periods). Cows were fed ad libitum a diet [50:50 and 60:40 forage:concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis for experiments 1 and 2, respectively] without supplementation (H0, CS0) or supplemented with extruded linseed at 5% (H5, CS5), 10% (H10, CS10), and 15% (H15, CS15) of dietary DM (i.e., 1.8, 3.6 and 5.4% total fatty acids added, respectively). All measurements were carried out during the last 8 d of each period. Linseed supply linearly decreased daily CH4 emission in cows fed H diets (from 486 to 289g/d for H0 to H15, on average) and CS diets (from 354 to 207g/d for CS0 to CS15, on average). The average decrease in CH4 per kilogram of DM intake was, respectively, -7, -15, and -38% for H5, H10, H15 compared with the H0 diet, and -4, -8, and -34% for CS5, CS10, and CS15 compared with the CS0 diet. The same dose-response effect was observed on CH4 emission in percent of gross energy intake, per kilogram of nutrient digested, and per kilogram of 4% fat- and 3.3% protein-corrected milk (FPCM) in both experiments. Changes in the composition of rumen volatile fatty acids in response to increasing linseed supply resulted in a moderate or marked linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio for H or CS diets, respectively. The depressive effect of linseed on total protozoa concentration was linear for H diets (-15 to -40%, on average, for H5 to H15 compared with H0) and quadratic for CS diets (-17 to -83%, on average, for CS5 to CS15 compared with CS0). Concentration of methanogens was similar among H or CS diets. The energetic benefits from the decreased CH4 emission

  12. SENSORY EVALUATION OF HUBBARD JV CHICKENS MEAT AFTER PROPOLIS APPLICATION IN THEIR DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, propolis extract was applied in the diet of Hubbard JV broiler chickens and we tested its influence on the sensory quality of breast and thigh muscles prepared by baking at 200 °C for 60 minutes, followed by final baking for 10-15 minutes. Five groups were created: one control (C and four experimental (I, II, III, IV groups. Each group consisted of 100 chickens. Fattening lasted 42 days. Chickens were fed by ad libitum system. The identical starter feed mixture were administered till the 21st day of age. From the 22nd to 42nd day of age, chickens were fed by growth feed mixture in all groups. Feed mixtures were made without antibiotics and coccidiostats. Propolis extract was added to experimental groups at doses of 150 mg.kg-1 (I, 450 mg.kg-1 (II, 600 mg.kg-1 (III and 800 mg.kg-1 (IV. Breast and thigh muscles of 60 chickens from each group were prepared by baking and were anonymously assessed by six-member committee, which evaluated the smell, taste, juiciness and tenderness of meat in five-point scale. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 were found in smell, taste, juiciness and tenderness of breast and thigh muscles between the control and experimental groups. Sensory quality of chicken meat is one of the most important links for its use in food chain. The results of experiment confirmed, that propolis extract in those quantities can be applied in chicken nutrition, because sensory quality of chicken meat has not been worsen after its application.

  13. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  14. Effects of Adding Ipriflavone to Low-calcium Diet on Microstructure and Histomorphometry of Bone in Cage Layers%低钙日粮添加依普黄酮对笼养蛋鸡骨组织显微结构和形态计量学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文亭; 马利芹; 杨永红; 王鹏; 利凯

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of adding Ipriflavone to low-calcium diet on microstructure and histomorphometry of bone in hyline brown laying hens. Two hundred 24-week-old hyline brown laying hens were randomly divided into four groups and fed on diets as follows; control group (containing calcium 3. 55% in basic diet)? low calcium group (containing calcium 1. 27% in low-calcium diet) , test group I (adding 8 mg o kg-1 Ipriflavone to low-calcium diet) and test group II (adding 20 mg o kg-1 Ipriflavone to low-calcium diet) for 60 days. At the end of experiment, 10 hens in each group were killed. Then, demineralized bone sections of the left middle tibias were made for observing the changes of bone microstructure by using OLYMPUS BX41 metalloscope, and some static parameters of bone histomorphometry were measured by Image-Pro Plus 6. 0. Tibia microstructure was observed. Compared with control group, cortical bone of low calcium group had many resorption cavities, there were a large number of osteo-clasts in the resorption cavities, and osteoclasts increased in the surface of medullary bone trabeculas, the effect of bone resorption was more than that of bone formation and led to osteoporosis. Cortical bone of test group I had many resorption cavities, there were more osteoclasts in the resorption cavities and the surface of medullary bone trabeculas, the effect of bone resorption was not inhibited. There were a large number of osteogenic cells and osteoblasts in the outer surface of cortical bone in test group II, the effect of bone formation was increased. And, Static parameters of bone histomorphometry were measured. Compared with low calcium group, Tb. Ar and %Tb. Ar in test group I and II were very significantly increased (P0. 05). In test group II Tb. Sp was significantly decreased (P<0. 05) and Tb. Th was significantly increased (P< 0. 05). The results showed that adding 20 mg ?kg-1 Ipriflavone to low-calcium diet strengthened bone

  15. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Winyard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy...

  16. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  17. Cobalt and vitamin B12 in diets for commercial laying hens on the second cycle of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Kato

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of cobalt and vitamin B12 in diets for commercial laying hens on the second production cycle was studied. Four hundred and eighty light commercial laying hens, Lohmann LSL, were used at initial phase of forced molting laying period. The trial was conducted in a randomized design. The plots were the treatments which were constituted by combination of five cobalt levels (0.00; 0.30; 0.60; 0.90 and 1.20ppm and two vitamin B12 levels (without and with 10µ/kg, and the split-plots were four periods (21, 42, 63 and 84 days during the second period of production, with 4 repetitions and 12 hens per experimental unit. Food and water were provided ad libitum and eggs were collected twice daily. Performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated. At the end of experimental period, two layers from each treatment were slaughtered, and liver and blood samples were taken for analysis. Performance and egg quality were not different (p>0.05 among cobalt supplementation levels, although egg damage data were different (p<0.05. Supplementation with vitamin B12 decreased egg weight. No influence of cobalt or vitamin B12 supplementation was seen on the concentration of cobalt in the liver and yolk as well as on blood analysis (hematrocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, and leukocytes. The results revealed that vitamin B12 supplementation was important for commercial laying hens on the second cycle of production, but not cobalt supplementation.

  18. Diet after gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric banding surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after banding; Weight loss - diet after banding ... about any problems you are having with your diet, or about other issues related to your surgery ...

  19. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  20. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources > Diet and Nutrition Go Back Diet and Nutrition Email Print + Share Diet and nutrition concerns of ... you. NEW!! Test your knowledge of diet and nutrition by taking this self-assessment for an opportunity ...

  1. Eternal Black Holes in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Maldacena, Juan M.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a dual non-perturbative description for maximally extended Schwarzschild Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes. The description involves two copies of the conformal field theory associated to the AdS spacetime and an initial entangled state. In this context we also discuss a version of the information loss paradox and its resolution.

  2. Current status of AdS instability

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    arXiv:1403.6471 and thoroughly developed in arXiv:1407.6273. On the other hand the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of stable, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions of Einstein equations [arXiv:1303.3186].

  3. AdS braneworld with Backreaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bilic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    We review the tachyon model derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the AdS5 bulk. The bulk geometry is based on the Randall-Sundrum II model extended to include the radion. The effective tachyon Lagrangian is modified due to the back-reaction of the brane on the bulk geometry.

  4. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat, a purified high fat (HF diet (45%kcal from fat and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat (HFCLA. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21 until the end of the study (day 150. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory

  5. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT. Methods Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12 or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12 ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume. Results The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Conclusion Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT

  6. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12) or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12) ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume). The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT delayed tumour growth in a mouse xenograft model. Further

  7. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  8. Ganho de peso, hemoglobina e hematócrito de ratos recebendo dieta de Quissamã, RJ, com ou sem suplemento alimentar alternativo Weight gain, hemoglobin and hematocrit of rats receiving the Quissamã's diet with or without an alternative food supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Teles Boaventura

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o suplemento alimentar alternativo adicionado à Dieta de Quissamã, consumida por crianças desnutridas inscritas no Subprograma da Multimistura da Secretaria de Saúde do município de Quissamã, RJ. O ensaio biológico foi desenvolvido durante 28 dias com 42 Rattus norvegicus, Wistar, machos (26 dias, do Laboratório de Nutrição Experimental da Universidade Federal Fluminense, divididos em sete grupos: 1 Grupo Controle (dieta à base de caseína adicionado de vitaminas e minerais; 2 GCvm adicionado do Suplemento Alimentar; 3 Grupo Controle adicionado do Suplemento Alimentar; 4 Grupo Quissamã, à base da Dieta de Quissamã; 5 Grupo Quissamã adicionado de vitaminas e minerais; 6 GQvm adicionado do Suplemento Alimentar; e 7 Grupo Quissamã adicionado do Suplemento Alimentar. Água e ração foram ofertados com livre acesso, e o pesos dos animais e o consumo de ração foram medidos a cada dois dias. O sangue foi coletado no 28º dia para análise. O Grupo Controle adicionado do Suplemento Alimentar apresentou perda de peso significativa (pThis study evaluated an alternative food supplement added to the Quissamã's diet, which is consumed by malnourished children who participate in the Multimixture Subprogram, developed by Quissamã Municipal Health Authority, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The biological assay was carried out during 28 days with 42 male Rattus norvegicus, Wistar, 26 days old, obtained from the Experimental Nutrition Laboratory at the Fluminense Federal University, divided into seven groups: 1 Control Group (diet based on casein added with vitamins and minerals; 2 CGvm added with Food Supplement; 3 Control Group added with Food Supplement; 4 Quissamã Group, based on Quissamã's Diet; 5 QG added with vitamins and minerals; 6 QGvm added with Food Supplement; and 7 QG added with Food Supplement. Water and food were offered ad libitum, and the weight of the animals and the food consumption were measured every two

  9. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based finishing diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives were to characterize the effects of supplemental CP concentration and ruminal degradability in barley-based finishing diets on microbial protein synthesis, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion, and route and chemical form of N excretion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (564 ± 18 kg BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square with four 28-d periods (9 d for diet adaptation and 19 d for measurements). The basal diet consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% barley-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (13% CP) or diets containing 14.5% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). Nutrient digestion was determined using Yb as a digesta flow marker and purine N as a microbial marker with the collection of ruminal, duodenal, and fecal samples over 5 d. The next week, total collections of feces and urine were performed for 5 d to quantify route and chemical form of N excretion. Feed offered was restricted (95% of ad libitum) and there was no effect of the dietary treatments on DMI (P = 0.55); therefore, N intake was less (P < 0.05) in heifers fed the 13% CP diets than the 14.5% CP diets. Supplemental RDP and RUP had no effect on ruminal NH3-N (P = 0.17), peptide N (P = 0.46), and VFA (P = 0.62) concentrations, flow of microbial (P = 0.69) and feed (P = 0.22) N, and ruminal and total tract nutrient digestibility (P ≥ 0.18). Nutrient digestion in the rumen and total tract averaged 75.4 ± 3.8% and 84.6 ± 0.9% for OM, 80.8 ± 3.6% and 95.8 ± 0.8% for starch, and 41.2 ± 7.9% and 60.4 ± 3.3% of intake for NDF, respectively. Daily output of N in feces (P = 0.91) and urine (P = 0.14) were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fecal N output averaged 19.9 ± 1.9% (P = 0.30) and urine N output averaged 44.1 ± 2.8% (P = 0.63) of N intake

  10. Superradiant instability in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of superradiance in the context of asymptotically global AdS spacetimes is investigated with particular accent on its effect on the stability of the systems under consideration. To this end, the concept of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is explained, together with its implications on the boundary conditions at $\\mathcal{I}$, as well as the Newman-Penrose-Teukolsky formalism, whereby the Teukolsky master equation in a most general form for Kerr-AdS is given. Furthermore, work done in the cases of RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS is laid out in a concise manner, putting emphasis on the important steps taken in determining the endpoint of the superradiant instability in the two configurations. For the former this turns out to be a black hole with reduced charge and a static charged scalar condensate around it, whereas for the latter two of the more probable outcomes are presented, both of which imply a violation of one of the cosmic censorships.

  11. 生酮饮食添加治疗难治性癫(癇)36例%Clinical observation of ketogenic diet adding for refractory epilepsy in 36 cases of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱登纳; 谢蒙蒙; 王军; 王俊辉; 王明梅; 张广宇; 马德有; 熊华春; 孙莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy,retention rates,adverse reactions of the ketogenic diet (KD) and their effects on cognitive function in children with refractory epilepsy,and to compare the clinical efficacy and retention rates of in-patient group and out-patient group.Methods This study enrolled 36 patients with refractory epilepsy who received KD therapy in Rehabilitation Center for Children with Cerebral Palsy in Henan Province of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from May 2012 to Oct.2013.They were divided into in-patient group and out-patient group.The in-patient group received classic KD therapy which started with fasting,the ratio of lipid to non-lipid was 4 ∶ 1 ;while the out-patient group was not asked for fasting,and lipid to non-lipid ratio gradually increased to 4 ∶ 1.Seizure frequency before treatment was set as the baseline,the clinical efficiency was evaluated,changes in seizure frequency,type,degree and the duration of each episode were recorded during KD therapy,and Gesell Developmental Scale assessment was respectively performed prior to KD therapy,3,6,12 months after KD therapy.Results The total effective rates in the in-patient group were 60.0%,45.0%,40.0%,respectively after 3,6,12 months of therapy,the retention rates were 80.0%,55.0%,and 40.0%,respectively,and the complete control rate was 30% ;while the total effective rates in out-patient group were 37.5%,25.0%,and 18.8%,respectively after 3,6,12 months of treatment,the retention rates were 62.5 %,37.5 %,18.8%,respectively,and the complete control rate was 12.5 % ;the in-patient group showed a significant difference compared with the out-patient group in the clinical efficacy (P < 0.05),two groups had no significant difference in retention rate (P > 0.05),short-time adverse effects in the in-patient group were mainly gastrointestinal reactions and long-term adverse effects were mainly kidney stones,adverse effects in

  12. Instability corners in AdS space

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrakopoulos, Fotios V; Lippert, Matthew; Yang, I-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether arbitrarily small perturbations in global AdS space are generically unstable and collapse into black holes on the time scale set by gravitational interactions. We argue that current evidence, combined with our analysis, strongly suggests that a set of nonzero measure in the space of initial conditions does not collapse on this time scale. On the other hand, existing results do not provide an equally strong indication whether the unstable solutions also form a set of nonzero measure. We perform an analysis in position space to address this puzzle, and our formalism allows us to directly address the vanishing-amplitude limit. We show that gravitational self-interaction leads to tidal deformations which are equally likely to focus or defocus energy, and we sketch the phase diagram accordingly. We also clarify the connection between gravitational evolution in global AdS and holographic thermalization.

  13. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  14. AdS solutions through transgression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science

    2008-07-15

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  15. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  16. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channel activity in brain cells of adult offspring mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Andrés Orellana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine, the most important neuroteratogen of tobacco smoke, can reproduce brain and cognitive disturbances per se when administered prenatally. However, it is still unknown if paracrine signaling among brain cells participates in prenatal nicotine-induced brain impairment of adult offspring. Paracrine signaling is partly mediated by unopposed channels formed by connexins (hemichannels and pannexins serving as aqueous pores permeable to ions and small signaling molecules, allowing exchange between the intra- and extracellular milieus. Our aim was to address whether prenatal nicotine exposure changes the activity of those channels in adult mice offspring under control conditions or subjected to a second challenge during young ages: high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet. To induce prenatal exposure to nicotine, osmotic minipumps were implanted in CF1 pregnant mice at gestational day 5 to deliver nicotine bitartrate or saline (control solutions. After weaning, offspring of nicotine-treated or untreated pregnant mice were fed ad libitum with chow or HFC diets for 8 weeks. The functional state of Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels was evaluated by dye uptake experiments in hippocampal slices from 11-week-old mice. We found that prenatal nicotine increased the opening of Cx43 hemichannels in astrocytes, and Panx1 channels in microglia and neurons only if offspring mice were fed with HFC diet. Blockade of iNOS, COX2 and EP1, P2X7 and NMDA receptors, showed differential inhibition of prenatal nicotine-induced channel opening in glial cells and neurons. Importantly, inhibition of the above mentioned enzymes and receptors, or blockade of Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels greatly reduced ATP and glutamate release from hippocampal slices of prenatally nicotine-exposed offspring. We propose that unregulated gliotransmitter release through Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels may participate in brain alterations observed in offspring of mothers exposed to tobacco smoke

  17. Circadian Disruption and Diet-Induced Obesity Synergize to Promote Development of β-Cell Failure and Diabetes in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jingyi; Yeh, Bonnie; Rakshit, Kuntol; Colwell, Christopher S; Matveyenko, Aleksey V

    2015-12-01

    There are clear epidemiological associations between circadian disruption, obesity, and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms driving these associations are unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that continuous exposure to constant light (LL) compromises pancreatic β-cell functional and morphological adaption to diet-induced obesity leading to development of type 2 diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we studied wild type Sprague Dawley as well as Period-1 luciferase reporter transgenic rats (Per1-Luc) for 10 weeks under standard light-dark cycle (LD) or LL with concomitant ad libitum access to either standard chow or 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Exposure to HFD led to a comparable increase in food intake, body weight, and adiposity in both LD- and LL-treated rats. However, LL rats displayed profound loss of behavioral circadian rhythms as well as disrupted pancreatic islet clock function characterized by the impairment in the amplitude and the phase islet clock oscillations. Under LD cycle, HFD did not adversely alter diurnal glycemia, diurnal insulinemia, β-cell secretory function as well as β-cell survival, indicating successful adaptation to increased metabolic demand. In contrast, concomitant exposure to LL and HFD resulted in development of hyperglycemia characterized by loss of diurnal changes in insulin secretion, compromised β-cell function, and induction of β-cell apoptosis. This study suggests that circadian disruption and diet-induced obesity synergize to promote development of β-cell failure, likely mediated as a consequence of impaired islet clock function. PMID:26348474

  18. THE INFLUENCE AN EXOGENOUS ENZYMES-PROBIOTICS COMPLEX ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF ALBINO RATS FED DIETS CONTAINING UP TO 60% RICE BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOATENG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzyme™ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzyme™. There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05 for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzyme™ led to an improvement (P>0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzyme™. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05. The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzyme™ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.

  19. Effect of a diet and exercise intervention on oxidative stress, inflammation and monocyte adhesion in diabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christian K; Won, Dean; Pruthi, Sandeep; Lin, San San; Barnard, R James

    2006-09-01

    Diabetes increases the risk of coronary artery disease. We examined the effects of lifestyle modification on key contributing factors to atherogenesis, including oxidative stress, inflammation and cell adhesion. Diabetic men (N=13) were placed on a high-fiber, low-fat diet in a 3-week residential program where food was provided ad libitum and daily aerobic exercise was performed. In each subject, pre- and post-intervention fasting blood was drawn for circulating levels of serum lipids, glucose and insulin, oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha), the inflammatory protein C-reactive protein (CRP), and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 and sE-selectin as indicators of endothelial activation. Using subject sera and human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) culture systems, serum-induced monocyte adhesion, ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and cell surface abundance, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) production were determined. Nitric oxide (NO), superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide production were measured in vitro by fluorometric detection. After 3 weeks, significant reductions (pfasting serum glucose (157.5+/-10.1 mg/dL versus 126.7+/-8.7 mg/dL), insulin (33.8+/-4.0 microU/ml versus 23.8+/-3.4 microU/ml), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, 8-iso-PGF2alpha, CRP, sICAM-1, and sE-selectin were noted. In vitro, serum-stimulated monocyte adhesion, cellular ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05), and fluorometric detection of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production decreased, while a concomitant increase in NO production was noted (all p<0.01). A combination of diet and exercise ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and monocyte-endothelial interaction. Intensive lifestyle modification may improve novel CAD risk factors in men with diabetes. PMID:16616795

  20. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S A Palmnäs

    Full Text Available Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat and further into ad libitum water control (W or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment. Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05. Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  1. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (Paspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  2. Sustained reduction in methane production from long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol to a beef cattle diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) to a beef cattle diet results in a sustained reduction in enteric CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated heifers (637 ± 16.2 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments: Control (0 g/d of NOP) and NOP (2 g/d of NOP). Treatments were mixed by hand into the total mixed ration (60% forage, DM basis) at feeding time. Feed offered was restricted to 65% of ad libitum DMI (slightly over maintenance energy intake) and provided once per day. The duration of the experiment was 146 d, including an initial 18-d covariate period without NOP use; a 112-d treatment period with NOP addition to the diet, divided into four 28-d time intervals (d 1 to 28, 29 to 56, 57 to 84, and 85 to 112); and a final 16-d recovery period without NOP use. During the covariate period and at the end of each interval and the end of the recovery period, CH4 was measured for 3 d using whole animal metabolic chambers. The concentration of VFA was measured in rumen fluid samples collected 0, 3, and 6 h after feeding, and the microbial population was evaluated using rumen samples collected 3 h after feeding on d 12 of the covariate period, d 22 of each interval within the treatment period, and d 8 of the recovery period. Average DMI for the experiment was 7.04 ± 0.27 kg. Methane emissions were reduced by 59.2% when NOP was used (9.16 vs. 22.46 g/kg DMI; P beef cattle caused a sustained decrease of methanogenesis, with no sign of adaptation, and that these effects were reversed once NOP addition was discontinued PMID:26020199

  3. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-04-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (pprotein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation. PMID:25656207

  4. Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Masafumi; Ning, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy on a disk region for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The AdS soliton is dual to a gapped system with an IR fixed-point. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy. We then study the renormalization group (RG) flow of the refinement by tuning the linear size of the chosen disk region. Our main results are (i) the RG flow of the refinement decreases monotonically for most of the cases; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the refinement obeys the volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover; however, the crossover will turn into phase transition by the Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) for the AdS solitons, there are discontinuous phase transitions bet...

  5. Refined holographic entanglement entropy for the AdS solitons and AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss–Bonnet term. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy, the so-called renormalized entanglement entropy which is independent of the choices of UV cutoff. Our main results are: (i) the renormalized entanglement entropies of the AdSd+1 soliton for d=4,5 are neither monotonically decreasing along the RG flow nor positive-definite, especially around the deconfinement/confinement phase transition; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS5 soliton even with Gauss–Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the renormalized entanglement entropy obeys an expected volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover even with Gauss–Bonnet correction; (iv) based on AdS/MERA conjecture, we postulate that the IR fixed-point state for the non-extremal AdS soliton is a trivial product state

  6. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz;

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  7. Suplementação de lisina e metionina em dietas com baixo nível protéico para o crescimento inicial do pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg Lysine and methionine supplementation in diets with low protein level for the initial growth of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Patrícia Muñoz-Ramírez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da suplementação de metionina ou lisina em dietas com baixo teor protéico para o crescimento do pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg (Characiformes, Characidae. Foram formuladas uma dieta basal com 22% de proteína bruta (PB, 4100kcal de energia bruta (EB/kg, 0,42% de metionina e 1,16% de lisina e outras 6 dietas, com a mesma formulação básica, suplementadas com 0,2, 0,4 ou 0,6% de metionina ou lisina. Uma 8ª dieta (controle continha 26% PB, 4100kcal EB/kg, 0,48% metionina e 1,43% de lisina. As dietas foram administradas à vontade a 144 alevinos com 14,98 ± 1,16g de peso médio inicial. As médias de ganho em peso, eficiência de retenção de energia bruta e dos consumos alimentares da dieta controle mostraram-se maiores (P The objective of this research was to study the effects of methionine or lysine supplementation in diets with low protein level for growth of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg (Characiformes, Characidae. Diets were formulated as a basal diet presenting 22% crude protein (CP, 4100 kcal gross energy (GE/kg, 0.42% of methionine and 1.16% of lysine and other six diets, with the same basic formulation, supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% methionine or lysine. An eighth diet (control contained 26% CP, 4100 kcal (GE/kg, 0.48% methionine and 1.43% of lysine. The diets were administered ad libitum to 144 fingerlings with initial medium weight of 14.98 ± 1.16 g. Averages weight gain, gross energy efficiency retention and feed intake for the control treatment were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than those of smaller protein level diets. Averages protein retention efficiency were only higher (P < 0.01 in the diets supplemented with lysine, showing the advantages of lysine supplementation in diets with low crude protein level. A higher growth of pacu was confirmed with diets containing 26% of CP.

  8. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA.

  9. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA. PMID:25865422

  10. A Calcium-Deficient Diet in Rat Dams during Gestation and Nursing Affects Hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 Expression in the Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Junji; Yamanouchi, Sohsaku; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    Background Prenatal malnutrition can affect the phenotype of offspring by changing epigenetic regulation of specific genes. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that calcium (Ca) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome. We hypothesized that pregnant female rats fed a Ca-deficient diet would have offspring with altered hepatic glucocorticoid-related gene expression and that lactation would modify these alterations. Methodology We determined the effects of Ca deficiency during pregnancy and/or lactation on hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (Hsd11b1) expression in offspring. Female Wistar rats consumed either a Ca-deficient (D: 0.008% Ca) or control (C: 0.90% Ca) diet ad libitum from 3 weeks preconception to 21 days postparturition. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered to the same or opposite dams and divided into the following four groups: CC, DD, CD, and DC (first letter: original mother's diet; second letter: nursing mother's diet). All offspring were fed a control diet beginning at weaning (day 21) and were killed on day 200±7. Serum insulin and adipokines in offspring were measured using ELISA kits. Principal Findings In males, mean levels of insulin, glucose, and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were higher in the DD and DC groups than in the CC group. We found no difference in HOMA-IR between the CC and CD groups in either males or females. Expression of Hsd11b1 was lower in male DD rats than in CC rats. Hsd11b1 expression in male offspring nursed by cross-fostered dams was higher than that in those nursed by dams fed the same diet; CC vs. CD and DD vs. DC. In females, Hsd11b1 expression in DC rats was higher than that in CC rats. Conclusions These findings indicated that maternal Ca restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation alters postnatal growth, Hsd11b1 expression, and insulin resistance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:24427280

  11. Winding Strings in AdS_3

    CERN Document Server

    Minces, P; Minces, Pablo; Nunez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Correlation functions of one-unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS_3 are considered. We present a formalism which allows to explicitly find the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes of states in w=1 sectors. We give a precise prescription to solve this system of linear differential equations in cases that are relevant to obtain three and four point functions involving spectral flowed string states. We specifically compute three point functions with two and three one-unit spectral flowed operators and also discuss four point functions.

  12. Utilização de levedura íntegra e seus derivados em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo Utilization of sugar cane yeast and its by-products in Nile tilapia diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Uribe Gonçalves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a adição de células íntegras de levedura e seus derivados em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados 144 juvenis machos de tilápia (peso médio de 52,1g distribuídos em 12 tanques de fibra de vidro (250L, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto por quatro tratamentos e três repetições. Os peixes foram alimentados ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia durante 60 dias, com dietas isoproteicas (28% PB e isocalóricas (2.900kcal de ED kg-1 contendo levedura íntegra de cana-de-açúcar (LI, levedura autolisada (LA e parede celular (PC adicionados na proporção de 25% da proteína bruta total, comparadas com uma dieta controle (CO, sem adição de levedura. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para conversão alimentar aparente e taxa de eficiência protéica. No entanto, o ganho em peso foi melhor nos peixes alimentados com as dietas LA (114,70g e PC (131,03g, assim como em relação à taxa de crescimento específico (LA=1,79 e PC=1,93%, à proteína bruta no ganho de peso (LA=14,45 e PC=15,62% e ao conteúdo corporal proteico (LA=14,89 e PC=15,67g 100g-1. As frações, a parede celular e a levedura autolisada de cana-de-açúcar podem ser utilizadas em dietas para juvenis de tilápia.This study has evaluated the effect of adding dried yeast and its by-products in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia. It was used 144 juveniles of male tilapia (average weight of 52.1g distributed in 12 fiberglass tanks (250L, in completely randomized design, composed by 4 treatments and 3 replicates. The fish were fed ad libitum, 2 times per the day during 60 days, with isoproteic (28% CP and isocaloric diets (2.900kcal ED kg-1 with dried yeast of sugar cane (LI, disrupted yeast cells (LA and yeast cell wall (PC added in the ratio of 25% of the total crude protein, compared with a control diet (CO, without yeast addition. No significant differences were observed for feed conversion and proteic

  13. Fanning in open-topped cowshed and chromium added to diet improving growth performance of heat-stressed beef cattle%敞篷牛舍接力送风及饲粮添加铬改善肉牛生产性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡景义; 冯堂超; 师筑俊; 廖阔遥; 易宗容

    2015-01-01

    of the barn, fanning, and spraying cooling, additive in diet etc, were used to relief the hot stress of livestock. To improving the production properties of cattle, fanning in open-topped cowshed combining with chromium added to diet were investigation. A 2×2 factorial trial was conducted to determine the effects of fanning and chromium added to diet on thermal environment, physiological indexes and growth performance of beef cattle in summer in the Southern China. Thirty-six Simmental crossbred beef cattle ( average body weight 392.8 kg ) were chosen and randomly divided into 4 groups, and were raised in open feedlot barn for 30 days. In treatment 1 (T1), fans were installed and chromium nicotinate was added to beef cattle diet; In treatment 2 (T2), fans were only assembled; In treatment 3 (T3), chromium nicotinate was added to diet; In the control treatment (T4), the beef cattle were raised in feedlot barn without fans and without chromium nicotinate in diet. The dosage of chromium was 800µg/kg. The indexes such as environmental factors, temperature-humidity index, rectal temperature, respiration rate, average daily gain and economic benefits were collected. The results showed as following: 1) Compared with the control barn without fan, average room temperature was lower by 1.9℃ (P < 0.01), wind speed was increased by 5.6 times (P < 0.01), THI reduce by 5.65% (P < 0.01) in 14:00 in treatment barn with fan. 2) For the cattle suffered from the heat stress, the respiration rate was reduced by 2.37 times (P< 0.01), and rectal temperature were reduced by 0.18℃ (P<0.01) by chromium supplementation, and the respiration rate was reduced by 6.97 times (P < 0.01) by fanning. No interaction effects on respiration rate and rectal temperature was obtained between chromium supplementation and fanning. 2) The average daily gain of beef cattle in T1 were increased by 44.16% (P< 0.05), 35.37% (P < 0.05) and 79.03% (P < 0.05) than that in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Gross

  14. Live and formulated diet evaluation through initial growth and survival of jundiá larvae, Rhamdia quelen Alimento vivo e formulado, crescimento inicial e sobrevivência de pós-larvas de jundiá, Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Falanghe Carneiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Live diet (LD dependence and the lack of suitable formulated diets (FD are major constraints for the expansion of larviculture of many fish species. The low digestibility and nutritional quality of FD are factors that might explain their failure as a stand-alone starter food. To determine whether FD in combination with LD (zooplankton may efficiently increase larval growth and survival of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, when compared to fish fed by either types of diet alone, jundiá larvae (5.57 mm; 1.41 mg were initially stocked into 12 10-L aquaria (100 larvae per aquarium. Replicate groups (n=4 were fed ad libitum one of the three diets for 20 (when fed FD or 48 days (when fed LD or the combined diets. Larvae fed FD alone presented significantly lower survival and growth rates as compared to larvae fed LD or a combination of both (co-fed. In addition, co-fed larvae grew better (170 mg in relation to those fed solely with LD (110 mg. Such better performance of combined feeding indicates that most of the required nutrients are in balance when both diet sources are included. More can be learned about fish larvae nutrition by further testing the effect of feeding combined diets, which include zooplankton, than only testing new ingredients or protein sources commonly used in the elaboration of juvenile or adult fish feeds.A larvicultura da maioria das espécies de peixes enfrenta o desafio da dependência do alimento vivo (AL e da falta de dietas formuladas (DF que atendam plenamente às necessidades das larvas. A baixa digestibilidade e a qualidade nutricional das DFs são alguns dos fatores que explicam o insucesso quando as larvas recebem apenas FD. Para avaliar o efeito da combinação da DF com o AL no crescimento e na sobrevivência de larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, comparando com o uso separado da DF ou do AL, larvas recém eclodidas (5,57 mm; 1,41 mg foram estocadas inicialmente em 12 aquários de 10 L (100 larvas por aquário. Quatro r

  15. Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitho, R.J.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Nsahlai, I.V.; Tamminga, S.; Bruchem, J. van; Arts, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150

  16. N-Acetylneuraminic acid attenuates hypercoagulation on high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, a type of sialic acid, has close links with cholesterol metabolism and is often used as a biomarker in evaluating the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, most studies on the health implications of Neu5Ac have focused on its effects on the nervous system, while its effects on cardiovascular risk factors have largely been unreported. Thus, the effects of Neu5Ac on coagulation status in high fat diet (HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats were evaluated in this study. Methods: Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into five different groups and fed with HFD alone, HFD low-dose Neu5Ac, HFD high-dose Neu5Ac, HFD simvastatin (10 mg/kg day, and normal pellet alone. Food was given ad libitum while body weight of rats was measured weekly. After 12 weeks of intervention, rats were sacrificed and serum and tissue samples were collected for biochemistry and gene expression analysis, respectively. Results: The results showed that Neu5Ac could improve lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia-associated coagulation. Neu5Ac exerted comparable or sometimes better physiological effects than simvastatin, at biochemical and gene expression levels. Conclusions: The data indicated that Neu5Ac prevented HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and associated hypercoagulation in rats through regulation of lipid-related and coagulation-related genes and, by extension, induced metabolite and protein changes. The implications of the present findings are that Neu5Ac may be used to prevent coagulation-related cardiovascular events in hyperlipidemic conditions. These findings are worth studying further.

  17. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  18. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  19. Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrapoke, T.; Wanapat, M.; Wanapat, S.

    2012-01-01

    Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS. PMID:25049652

  20. 在日粮中添加葡萄糖氧化酶和植物血凝素防治仔猪早期断奶腹泻症的试验%Control of Piglet Early Weaning Diarrhea by Adding Glucose Oxidase and Phytohemagglutinin to Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田东霞; 张玉坤; 田泉成

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究在日粮中添加葡萄糖氧化酶和植物血凝素防治仔猪早期断奶腹泻症的效果,探讨其对仔猪生产性能和肠道健康等方面所产生的作用。[方法]选用120头断奶仔猪,随机分为对照组、试验组I和试验组Ⅱ3组,分别饲喂常规断奶仔猪基础日粮、添加0.5%的葡萄糖氧化酶日粮以及添加0.5%的葡萄糖氧化酶和0.1%植物血凝素日粮,采用统一的饲养管理模式。记录每日腹泻次数、采食量、死亡数以及试验开始和结束时每头仔猪空腹体重:计算平均日增重、腹泻率、平均日采食量、饲料转化率及死亡率。[结果]试验期内仔猪平均日增重,试验组I和试验组Ⅱ分别比对照组提高25.0%和26.8%.差异极显著(P〈0.01);仔猪料肉比,试验组I和试验组Ⅱ分别比对照组下降17.2%和18.7%,差异板显著(P〈0.01);仔猪腹泻率,试验组I和试验组Ⅱ分别比对照组下降56.0%和65.5%,差异极显著(P〈0.01);仔猪成活率,试验组I比对照组提高7.4%,差异不显著(P〉0.05),试验组Ⅱ比对照组提高13%,差异极显著(P〈0.01)。[结论]在日粮中添加葡萄糖氧化酶和植物血凝素可明显提高饲料转化效率和仔猪成活卒.明显降低仔猪腹泻率。%[Objective] The control effect of piglet early weaning diarrhea (PEWD) by adding glucose oxidase and phytohemagglutinin to diet was studied to explore the effect on performance and intestinal health of piglet. [Method] One hundred and twenty weaned piglets were randomly divided into three groups, that was controlled, group I and group 11. Under the uniform raising management pattern, piglets in control were fed on routine basal diet; piglets in group I were fed on diet with 0.5% glucose oxidase; piglets in group II were fed on diet with 0.5% glucose oxidase and 0.1% phytohemagglutinin. The diarrhea frequency

  1. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... the relevance of the basic concept and provides an important example of how Value Adding Management can be implemented and added value measured. Originality/value: The study develops a concept of Value Adding Management, which is new in FM literature. It is expected to increase the awareness of the impacts...

  2. Nitrogen partitioning and isotopic fractionation in dairy cows consuming diets based on a range of contrasting forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Kim, E J; Merry, R J; Dewhurst, R J

    2011-04-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (initially 97 d in milk), were used in a 3×3 lattice square design experiment with 4-wk periods. All cows received 4 kg/d concentrates and dietary treatments were based on silages offered ad libitum: perennial ryegrass (PRG); timothy (TIM); tall fescue (TF); red clover (RC); red clover/corn silage mixture [40/60 on a dry matter (DM) basis; RCC]; red clover/whole-crop oat silage mixture (40/60 on a DM basis; RCO); or red clover/whole-crop oat silage mixture (25/75 on a DM basis; ORC). The remaining treatments were based on RCO with feed intake restricted to the level of PRG (RCOr) or with a low protein concentrate (50/50 mixture of barley and molassed sugar beet pulp; RCOlp). Experiment objectives were to evaluate diet effects on N partitioning and N isotopic fractionation. Yields of milk and milk protein were consistently high for diets RC, RCC, and RCO and low for the diets based on poorly ensiled grass silages. Restriction of intake (RCOr) and inclusion of a higher proportion of whole-crop oat silage (ORC) and the low-protein concentrate (RCOlp) led to some loss of production. Diet had little effect on milk fat, protein, and lactose concentrations: low concentrations of milk protein and lactose reflect the restricted energy intakes for all treatments. The highest diet digestibilities were measured for RC and PRG, whereas increasing inclusion of the whole-crop oat silage (0, 60, and 75% of forage DM) led to a marked decrease in diet digestibility (0.717, 0.624, and 0.574 g/g, respectively). Urinary excretion of purine derivatives, an indicator for rumen microbial protein synthesis, was significantly higher for RCC than for TIM and TF. Nitrogen intake ranged between 359 and 626 g/d (treatment means). Partitioning of N intake to feces and urine was closely related to N intake, although urinary N losses were less than predicted from N intake for the 60/40 mixtures of cereal silage and red clover silage. The 15N content of milk

  3. Effects of Adding Compound Enzyme with Different Zymogram in Miscellaneous Meal Diets on Laying Performance and Eggs Quality of Laying Hens%杂粕型日粮添加不同酶谱的复合酶对蛋鸡产蛋性能和蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 王玉琳; 李胜利

    2015-01-01

    旨在研究杂粕型日粮中添加不同酶谱的复合酶对蛋鸡产蛋高峰期产蛋性能及蛋品质的影响。选择1440只300日龄、体重和产蛋率相近的海兰褐蛋鸡,随机分为5个处理,每个处理3个重复,每个重复96只鸡。对照1组饲喂玉米—豆粕型日粮,不添加复合酶;对照2组饲喂玉米—杂粕型日粮,不添加复合酶;试验1、2、3组在饲喂玉米—杂粕型日粮的基础上,分别添加复合酶1、2、3。试验期为70 d。记录并比较各处理组蛋鸡的产蛋性能和蛋品质相关指标。结果表明,与对照2组相比,试验1、2、3组的产蛋率、平均蛋重、日采食量和产蛋量均显著提高(P0.05). There were no significant differences of eggs quality related indexes between experimental groups and control groups (P>0.05). Compared with control group 2, an increasing trend in shell thickness in experimental groups was observed, and the increased range of experimental group 3 was the sharpest. It was indicated that the laying performance of laying hens fed with corn-miscellaneous meal diets adding compound enzyme was similar with that of laying hens fed with corn-soybean meal diets. The improvement effects of compound enzyme with different zymogram on laying performance and egg quality of laying hens varied, and the compound enzyme No.3 with higher content of xylanase and protease was preferred in production practice.

  4. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  5. Twistor methods for AdS$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Tim; Williams, Jack

    2016-01-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS$_5$ is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  6. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  7. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  8. 复合菌脱毒菜籽饼粕及其应用Ⅱ.日粮添加脱毒菜粕对三黄鸡生长的影响%Detoxication of Rapeseed Meal with Multi-microbial Solution and Its Application Ⅱ.Effects of Adding Detoxicated Rapeseed Meal to Diet on the Growth of Sanhuang Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玉琴; 李荣林; 张玳华; 周维仁; 邵明诚; 张春云; 李瑛

    2001-01-01

    Diets added with 5%,10%,15%and 18% detoxicated rapeseed meal werefed to Sanhuang chickens for 30 d,respectively.Results were shown as follows.When the proportion of rapeseed meal to chicken feed was less than 15%,the rate of bodyweight gain of Sanhuang chicken approached that of CK(without detoxicated rapeseed meal).While the proportion reached 15%,the rate mentioned above was a little less than CK.It was proved by the dissection of viscera that there was no abnormality in the thyroid glands and livers of the chickens.%将脱毒菜粕按5%、10%、15%和18%的比例添加到粉碎鸡饲料中,饲喂三黄鸡30d时调查表明:添加量小于15%时,鸡的增重率与对照组(不添加脱毒饼粕)基本接近,且生长状况无明显异常;当添加量超过15%时,鸡的增重率比对照略有下降。内脏解剖结果证明:饲喂脱毒菜粕饲料后,鸡的甲状腺均无病变迹象,肝脏切片观察亦未发现异常。

  9. Effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and apparent whole-tract digestibility of beef heifers across three contrasting diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, R P; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Kenny, D A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of divergent phenotypic ranking for residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal CH emissions, diet digestibility, and indices of ruminal fermentation in heifers across 3 commercially relevant diets. Twenty-eight Limousin × Friesian heifers were used and were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI: 14 low-RFI and 14 high-RFI animals. Ruminal CH emissions were estimated over 5 d using the SF tracer gas technique on 3 successive occasions: 1) at the end of a 6-wk period (Period 1) on grass silage (GS), 2) at the end of an 8-wk period (Period 2) at pasture, and 3) at the end of a 5-wk period (Period 3) on a 30:70 corn silage:concentrate total mixed ration (TMR). Animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water at all times. Individual DMI was estimated during CH measurement and rumen samples were taken at the end of each CH measurement period. Diet type affected all feed intake and CH traits measured ( 0.05), but CH yield was greatest in low-RFI heifers ( = 0.03) as a proportion of both DMI and GE intake. Interactions between the main effects were observed ( < 0.05) for CP digestibility (CPD), DM digestibility (DMD), ruminal propionate, and the acetate:propionate ratio. Low-RFI animals had greater ( < 0.05) CPD and DMD than their high-RFI contemporaries when offered GS but not the other 2 diets. Low-RFI heifers also had greater OM digestibility ( = 0.027). Additionally, low-RFI heifers had a lower concentration of propionate ( < 0.05) compared with high-RFI heifers when fed GS, resulting in a greater ( < 0.05) acetate:propionate ratio. However, these differences were not evident for the other 2 diets. Energetically efficient animals do not have a lower ruminal methanogenic potential compared with their more inefficient counterparts and, indeed, some evidence to the contrary was found, which may reflect the greater nutrient digestive potential observed in low-RFI cattle. PMID:27065279

  10. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD...... modifications of the diet are needed in order to make this food concept beneficial regarding phosphorus absorption....

  11. ADS National Programmes: India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial preliminary studies in India on ADS concepts were aimed toward applications such as, one way coupled booster reactor concept, thorium burner concept, enhancement of breeding rate of thorium– fueled fast reactors, and to incinerate Pu and minor actinides discharged from heavy water and fast reactors. These studies led to a roadmap on development of ADS subsystems in India, which was chalked out initially in June 2001. It was realized in these studies that the most challenging subsystem in terms of technology development and capital investment for ADS in India would be the high intensity proton accelerator, and that it must be accomplished in phased manner. Of the two alternative accelerator types, viz. the cyclotron and linear accelerator (linac), it is concluded that only linac would provide the necessary intense beam current for ADS applications. The energy amplifier (EA) scheme, with lead (45.5%) bismuth (55.5%) eutectic (LBE) as target & coolant, which was proposed in the early nineties would be one of the desired configurations of ADS for Indian applications. Additionally, subcritical reactor core of Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), with advantages of its low fission power density, and neutron economy is also a candidate among various ADS reactor configurations. These options of ADS configurations for thorium utilization are based on the neutronic properties of 233U isotope as fissile fuel, which are more or less similar in thermal and in moderately fast neutron spectra

  12. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  13. Rutin ameliorates glycemic index, lipid profile and enzymatic activities in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats fed with a combination of hypercaloric diet and chronic ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Bordon, Juliana G; Pires, Rafaelle B; Braga, Camila P; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption. PMID:25204084

  14. EFFECT OF RICE HULL IN THE DRIED HOTEL FOOD WASTE BASED-DIET ON LIPID CHARACTERISTICS AND MEAT QUALITY OF BARROWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Purnamartha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was constructed to observe the effect of rice hull as a fiber sources in the dried hotelfood waste based-diet on fat and cholesterol level of pork. Twenty four heads of two months old ofLandrace x Yorkshire cross barrows were randomly divided into four treatment groups, i.e. without ricehull (R0, 10% rice hull (R1, 20% rice hull (R2, and 30% rice hull (R3. They placed in individualconcrete pen with 1.9 m in length and 0.5 m in width. Feed and water were given as ad libitum.Observation was done for 10 weeks prior to slaughter. Completely Randomized Design was used in thisstudy. Data obtained was analyzev by anova and mean comparison of Duncan's new Multiple RangeTest. Fat content of R0, R1, R2, dan R3 pork were 14.09±0.31, 13.30±0.44, 12.9±20.30 and11.95±0.56%, respectively. Fat content of pork of R0 was higher (P<0.05 than that of others groups.Cholesterol content of pork of R0, R1, R2 and R3 were 256.47±30.23, 252.34±26.56, 217.63±21.93 and199.21±25.94 mg/100 g, respectively. Cholesterol content of pork of R3 were lower (P<0.05 than thoseof R0. It is concluded that the use of rice hull up to 30% in the dried hotel food waste based-diet candecreases fat and cholesterol levels of pork.

  15. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuralay Atageldiyeva

    Full Text Available A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver.

  16. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD) and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver. PMID:27327650

  17. Coopetitive Ad Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hoy, Darrell; Jain, Kamal; Wilkens, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    A single advertisement often benefits many parties, for example, an ad for a Samsung laptop benefits Microsoft. We study this phenomenon in search advertising auctions and show that standard solutions, including the status quo ignorance of mutual benefit and a benefit-aware Vickrey-Clarke-Groves mechanism, perform poorly. In contrast, we show that an appropriate first-price auction has nice equilibria in a single-slot ad auction --- all equilibria that satisfy a natural cooperative envy-freen...

  18. Effects of diet forage source and neutral detergent fiber content on milk production of dairy cattle and methane emissions determined using GreenFeed and respiration chamber techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K J; Jones, A K; Humphries, D J; Crompton, L A; Reynolds, C K

    2016-10-01

    Strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from dairy cattle are unlikely to be adopted if production or profitability is reduced. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of high maize silage (MS) versus high grass silage (GS) diets, without or with added neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on milk production and methane emission of dairy cattle, using GreenFeed (GF) or respiration chamber (RC) techniques for methane emission measurements. Experiment 1 was 12wk in duration with a randomized block continuous design and 40 Holstein cows (74d in milk) in free-stall housing, assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n=10 per treatment), according to calving date, parity, and milk yield. Milk production and dry matter intake (DMI) were measured daily, and milk composition measured weekly, with methane yield (g/kg of DMI) estimated using a GF unit (wk 10 to 12). Experiment 2 was a 4×4 Latin square design with 5-wk periods and 4 dairy cows (114d in milk) fed the same 4 dietary treatments as in experiment 1. Measurements of DMI, milk production, and milk composition occurred in wk 4, and DMI, milk production, and methane yield were measured for 2d in RC during wk 5. Dietary treatments for both experiments were fed as total mixed rations offered ad libitum and containing 500g of silage/kg of dry matter composed (DM basis) of either 75:25 MS:GS (MS) or 25:75 MS:GS (GS), without or with added NDF from chopped straw and soy hulls (+47g of NDF/kg of dry matter). In both experiments, compared with high GS, cows fed high MS had a higher DMI, greater milk production, and lower methane yield (24% lower in experiment 1 using GF and 8% lower in experiment 2 using RC). Added NDF increased (or tended to increase) methane yield for high MS, but not high GS diets. In the separate experiments, the GF and RC methods detected similar dietary treatment effects on methane emission (expressed as g/d and g/kg of DMI), although the magnitude of the differences varied between

  19. AdS_3: the NHEK generation

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Puhm, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    It was argued in arXiv:1203.4227 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS_3 x S^3/Z_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  20. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus.

  1. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus. PMID:26613658

  2. Effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn in diets containing wet corn gluten feed on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, C H; Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Schutz, J S; Gautam, K K; Galyean, M L

    2013-07-01

    The effects of varying bulk density of steam-flaked corn (SFC) in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; Sweet Bran; Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) have not been defined. In Exp. 1, yearling steers (n = 108; initial BW = 367 ± 1.18 kg) were housed in 27 pens (4 steers/pen) and received 1 of 3 different SFC bulk density treatments in a randomized complete block design. Bulk density treatments were 283, 335, or 386 g/L SFC in diets containing 25% WCGF (% of DM). Steers were fed once daily to provide ad libitum access to feed for an average of 163 d. For a 5-d period before d 70 of the experiment, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected from each pen for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. Varying bulk densities of SFC did not affect (P ≥ 0.233) overall DMI, ADG, or G:F on a live- or carcass-adjusted basis. Dressing percent and LM area increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as bulk density increased, but other carcass traits were not affected by treatments. Intake of DM, OM, and CP during the 5-d digestion phase did not differ among bulk densities; however, starch intake increased linearly (P = 0.004) as bulk density of SFC increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, and CP tended (P ≤ 0.065) to decrease and starch digestibility decreased (P = 0.002) linearly as bulk density of SFC increased. In Exp. 2, a 3 × 3 Latin square design was used for collection of ruminal fluid from 3 ruminally cannulated Jersey steers adapted to the same diets used in Exp. 1. Bulk density did not affect NH3 concentrations, VFA molar proportions, ruminal fluid osmolality, and IVDMD of the diets. Total gas production increased linearly (P = 0.003) as bulk density of SFC increased from 283 to 335 g/L, but it decreased (P = 0.002) at 386 g/L. Present data suggest that bulk density can be increased up to 386 g/L in finishing diets containing 25% (DM basis) WCGF without affecting cattle performance and with limited effects on ruminal

  3. Feeding motivation and plasma metabolites in pregnant sows fed diets rich in dietary fiber either once or twice daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2012-01-01

    included 2 periods of 4 wk each. Restricted-fed sows were fed once daily (0800 h) during the first period and twice daily (0800 and 1500 h) during the second period, or vice versa. Semi ad libitum fed sows had access to feed 6 times a day in both periods. In each period, the feeding motivation was assessed...... of the time points post feeding, but semi ad libitum fed sows had a decreased feeding motivation (P restricted-fed sows, feeding twice daily resulted in decreased feeding motivation at 1900 h (P feeding once daily, but not at 0900 and 1200 h......The present study investigated the effects of source and level of dietary fiber (DF) and feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on feeding motivation and plasma metabolites at 4 different time points post feeding. Sixty pregnant sows (Sus scrofa, 4 blocks of 15 sows) were allocated to 1 of 5...

  4. Experience with an elemental diet (Vivonex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaveces, J W; Heiner, D C

    1985-12-01

    Six patients with intractable atopic dermatitis completed this study which consisted of a baseline week, 1 to 2 weeks on an elemental diet, then sequential specific food additions. Symptom/sign scores, total eosinophil counts, and IgE and IgG4 radioimmunoassays for wheat alpha-gliadin, bovine serum albumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and egg white were carried out as part of the protocol. Symptom/sign scores improved in five of six patients, some dramatically. Total eosinophil counts generally dropped after a week on the elemental diet and then increased as foods were added to the diet. The elemental diet used (Vivonex) appears to be beneficial in the management of at least some adult patients who have severe atopic dermatitis. PMID:3840962

  5. ADS National Programmes: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a preliminary design developed in 1998, based on the Energy Amplifier concept proposed by CERN, a first configuration of a lead-bismuth Eutectic cooled Experimental ADS (LBE-XADS) was worked out in the period 1999–2001, under the aegis of MURST, by a group of Italian organizations led by Ansado Nucleare, with the aim of assessing the feasibility of a small sized (80 MWth) ADS. At the end of 1997 a joint effort of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) led to the approval of a national programme by MURST (Minister for University and Scientific and Technological Research) named TRASCO (TRAsmutazione SCOrie) aiming at the study of physics and technologies needed to design an ADS for radioactive waste transmutation. The programme consisted of research subprogrammes on accelerator, neutronics, thermalhydraulics analysis, beam window technology, and material technology and compatibility with Pb and Pb-Bi. At now, most of the activities in support to the ADS development carried out at national level are part of EU-funded Projects. These activities are complemented by the programme agreement (AdP -Accordo di programma), signed between ENEA and the Ministry of Economic Development, which provides in general a range of activities aimed at the development of sustainable nuclear fission systems. Several universities and the national industry are involved, besides ENEA, in the activities

  6. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st) h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st) h and P = 0.047 from 1(st) to 5(th)) and fat (only during the 1(st) h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st) hour respect to 1(st) to 5(th)). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates.

  7. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ceacero

    Full Text Available Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st h (P = 0.048. Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st h and P = 0.047 from 1(st to 5(th and fat (only during the 1(st h; P = 0.036, but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st hour respect to 1(st to 5(th. Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011, suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates.

  8. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st) h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st) h and P = 0.047 from 1(st) to 5(th)) and fat (only during the 1(st) h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st) hour respect to 1(st) to 5(th)). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates. PMID:22403707

  9. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  10. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  11. Food and water intake, growth, and adiposity of Sprague-Dawley rats with diet board for 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, K S; Nevalainen, T O; Haasio, K; Kasanen, I H E; Nieminen, P A; Voipio, H-M

    2013-10-01

    Ad libitum (AL) feeding of rats leads to obesity and increased result variability, as well as premature morbidity and mortality. It may also alter metabolism and responses to foreign compounds. Moderate dietary restriction (DR) reduces these untoward effects without compromising the sensitivity of rodent bioassays. The diet board (DB) is a novel method for achieving moderate DR in group housing. Food pellets are firmly attached into grooves in an aspen board, and rats have to gnaw the wood in order to eat. Food is available continuously, but due to the effort involved rats eat less. This study simulated a chronic safety test to assess the long-term effects of DB feeding. A total of 146 male and female outbred Sprague-Dawley rats, nine weeks old at onset, were housed in groups of three and fed either AL or with DBs for two years. Food and water consumption were measured at six time points. The rats were weighed every one to two weeks. Body and tibial lengths and epididymal fat weight were measured at necropsy. Modified body mass index was calculated at five time points after one year of age. DB feeding reduced body weight and fat tissue moderately, more so in males. DB males ate less than AL males, but no differences were seen in the total food consumption in the females. There was no consistent difference in the within-group variations of the measured parameters. DB is a workable DR method, albeit some modification could enhance and standardize its DR effects, especially in female rats. PMID:23760564

  12. Possibilities of using MORINGA (Moringa oleifera LEAF MEAL AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE FOR FISHMEAL IN BROILER CHICKENS DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. ZANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-week feeding trial involving 180 2-week old Cobb broiler chicks was conducted to assess the effects of partial replacement of fishmeal with Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf meal on broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned in equal numbers in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD to four dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, and 15% Moringa leaf meal (MLM. Each treatment was replicated three times giving 15 birds per replicate. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. The parameters measured were feed intake, initial weight, final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, carcass traits, hematology, serum biochemistry and meat quality. Final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency significantly (p<0.05 declined with increasing level of MLM. None of the carcass traits measured was significantly affected by addition of MLM. Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH was the only hematological parameter that showed significance (P<0.05 difference in treatment groups. Triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL differed significantly (P<0.05. Also incorporation of MLM significantly (P<0.05 affected the moisture, crude protein and crude fat of the meat of experimental birds. Cost benefit analysis showed that incorporation of MLM resulted in reduced feed cost. However, the net revenue from birds fed diets containing MLM reduced as a result of poor weight gain. Based on the data obtained in this study it is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal when partially used to replace fishmeal may hamper growth rate of broiler chickens. Nonetheless, addition of MLM does not adversely affect mortality, carcass traits and blood variables.

  13. ESTUDIOS ETNOGRÁFICOS, PRÁCTICAS AGRÍCOLAS Y DIETA ÓPTIMA EN EL VALLE DE AMBATO, CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA, SIGLOS VI AL XI D. C. (Ethnographic Studies, Agricultural Practices, and Optimal Diet in the Ambato Valley, Catamarca, Argentina, VIth to XIth Centuries AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dantas

    2012-06-01

    ascertain what might have been the optimal combination with which each of these resources have contributed to the diet of the ancient inhabitants of the valley. The results obtained suggest that in these lands, during the VIth to the XIth century AD, the products obtained through gathering, mainly algarrobo (Prosopis sp., would have been the better option. Within the agricultural products, maize (Zea mays would have been the best choice. These data are consistent with those observed in the archaeological record of the valley and the information available for the region.

  14. 添加α-酮酸的低蛋白饮食干预对慢性肾脏病患者临床结局的影响%The Efficacy of Low Protein Diet Intervention Added with α-ketoacid on Clinical Outcome of Chronic Kidney Dis-ease Patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晔璇; 黄贵祥; 李子建; 江华; 曾俊

    2016-01-01

    目的:系统评价添加α-酮酸的低蛋白饮食( LPD)治疗对3/4期慢性肾功能不全( CKD)患者的病情进展及营养状况的影响。方法检索5个数据库(《中国生物医学文献数据库》、《中文生物医学期刊数据库》和《中国学术期刊全文数据库》、PUBMED及SCI等)2005年1月至2015年6月期间的文献资料,建立随机对照试验(RCT)纳入排除标准及排除标准,对文献进行鉴定。采用Cochrane评价员手册5.1.0版及改良Jadad质量评分进行质量评定。 Meta-分析的数据处理采用R(version 3.13)。结果检索到的60篇相关文献中,共3个RCT符合全部纳入标准。定性系统评价发现,3个RCT中LPD加α-酮酸治疗组的患者肾功能的恶化进程明显减慢:治疗组患者干预前后的血尿素氮、血肌酐、血磷下降差值显著高于对照组,而血钙上升的差值显著高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),患者营养状况得到改善。结论添加α-酮酸的LPD 用于临床3期或4期CKD 患者,可延缓疾病进展速度,改善患者的营养状况。%Objective System evaluation on progressive disease and nutritional status of 3or4 stage chronic kidney disease patients treated with low protein diet added with α-ketoacid. Methods Searching the literature material from Jan. 2005 to Jun. 2015 of Chinese Biological and Medical Database,Database of Chinese Biomedical Journals,Chinese Academic Periodical Full-text Database,Pubmed and SCI. Establishing the inclusion and exclusion criteria of randomized controlled trials to identify the litera-ture. Using Cochrane manual vesion5. 1. 0 and improved Jadad quality scale to assess quality. Using R(version3. 13)to process the data from meta-analysis. Results 3 RCTs met all the inclusion criteria among the 60 associated literature from the database. From the qualitative systematic review,the deterioration process of treatment group using LPD+α-ketoacid was obviously slowed down

  15. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead to heart disease, including high cholesterol , high blood pressure, and obesity ...

  16. Diets that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brussel Sprouts Green Salad Tangerines A Vegetarian or Vegan Diet A vegetarian diet generally excludes animal products. ... Steamed Green Beans with Pine Nuts Fruit Salad Vegan Roasted Vegetables with Whole Wheat Pasta Green Salad ...

  17. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to know about Wilson Disease Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... and arthritis; cardiomyopathy, dysrhythmias; pancreatitis; hypoparathyroidism; menstrual irregularities: infertility, repeated miscarriages From: A Diagnostic Tool for Physicians ( ...

  18. Diet and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financing Living Donation Home / After The Transplant / Staying Healthy / Diet And Exercise Medications Post-Transplant Medications Types of ... be aware of the important role of a healthy diet and exercise plan in healing. Prior to your ...

  19. Diet and Exercise Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested ... caffeine content (tea, sodas, chocolate drinks) and caffeinated coffee to two cups per day. Minimize alcohol to ...

  20. Diet and Your Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the scarring and hardening of the liver. Diet Recommendations: • Limit salt and foods that contain a lot of salt • Talk to your doctor about how much protein to have in your diet Fatty Liver Disease ...

  1. Caffeine in the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  2. Diet quality assessment indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho; Eliane Said Dutra; Nathalia Pizato; Nádia Dias Gruezo; Marina Kiyomi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I...

  3. Vegetarian diets and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A; Reddy, S

    1994-05-01

    The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.

  4. ADS National Programmes: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are mainly related to the MYRRHA project development. MYRRHA is an accelerator driven, multi purpose fast neutron spectrum facility for R&D, cooled by a lead-bismuth eutectic. SCK•CEN has started the MYRRHA project as a national programme with several national & international bilateral collaboration agreements; the project has now evolved as an European integrated project in the frame of the IPEUROTRANS (European Commission, Sixth Framework Programme). The MYRRHA ‘Draft-2’ predesign file (completed in the early 2005) has been proposed to the partners as a basis for the XT-ADS machine. After a detailed investigation of potential alternatives, the MYRRHA concept (for the subcritical core, the primary coolant system, the accommodation of experimental rigs, the reactor vessel and the spallation target) has been kept with some modifications to achieve the XT-ADS objectives. The most recent version of the XT-ADS design was presented in the 2007 TWG meeting

  5. D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, D

    2005-01-01

    We study the exact construction of D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3). We start by defining a family of conformal field theories that gives a natural Euclidean version of the SL(2,R) CFT and does not correspond to H(3)+, the analytic continuation of AdS(3). We argue that one can recuperate the exact CFT results of Lorentzian AdS(3), upon an analytic continuation in the moduli space of these conformal field theories. Then we construct exact boundary states for various symmetric and symmetry-breaking D-branes in AdS(3).

  6. Localization on $AdS_2\\times S^1$

    CERN Document Server

    David, Justin R; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Narain, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conformal symmetry relates the metric on $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ to that of $S^3$. This implies that under a suitable choice of boundary conditions for fields on $AdS_2$ the partition function of conformal field theories on these spaces must agree which makes $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ a good testing ground to study localization on non-compact spaces. We study supersymmetry on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ and determine the localizing Lagrangian for ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2\\times S^1$. We evaluate the partition function of ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2 \\times S^1$ using localization, where the radius of $S^1$ is $q$ times that of $AdS_2$. With boundary conditions on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ which ensure that all the physical fields are normalizable and lie in the space of square integrable wave functions in $AdS_2$, the result for the partition function precisely agrees with that of the theory on the $q$-fold covering of $S^3$.

  7. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2014-01-01

    The article asks whether it is not the responsibility of corporations to address the issue of women being underrepresented in Danish management jobs. In other words, it is argued that corporations should be encouraged to engage more actively in the recruitment of both men and women for management...... jobs by discursively constructing job ads that appeal to both sexes. This argument is part of the broader field of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder management, which involves discussions of the obligations of corporations to acknowledge and mitigate...... the increasingly widespread impact that their activities have on communities and social structures. The article emphasises the need for more active engagement on the part of corporations by analysing the discursive construction of preferred candidates in a small sample of Danish management job ads. By means...

  8. Prepartum concentrate supplementation of a diet based on medium-quality grass silage: Effects on performance, health, fertility, metabolic function, and immune function of low body condition score cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Welsh, M D; Barley, J; Meade, K G; Ferris, C P

    2016-09-01

    When cows with a "higher" body condition score (BCS) are oversupplied with energy during the dry period, postpartum energy balance is normally reduced, which can have a detrimental effect on immune competence and increase the infectious disease risk. However, within grassland-based systems higher yielding cows frequently have a low BCS at drying off. The effects on performance, health, and metabolic and immune functions of providing additional energy to cows with low BCS during the dry period is less certain. To address this uncertainty, 53 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (mean BCS of 2.5; 1-5 scale) were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments at dry-off: silage only or silage plus concentrates. Cows on the silage-only treatment were offered ad libitum access to medium-quality grass silage. Cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment were offered ad libitum access to a mixed ration comprising the same grass silage plus concentrates [in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], which provided a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day. Postpartum, cows were offered a common mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (in a 40:60 DM ratio) for a 70-d period. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased DM intake, tended to increase energy balance, and increased body weight (BW) and BCS gain prepartum. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased BW and BCS loss postpartum and tended to increase milk fat percentage and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration, but it did not affect postpartum DM intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Although the percentage of phagocytosis-positive neutrophils did not differ, neutrophils from cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment had higher phagocytic fluorescence intensity at 1 and 2 wk postpartum and higher phagocytic index at 1 wk postpartum. Serum haptoglobin concentrations and IFN-γ production by pokeweed mitogen stimulated whole blood culture were unaffected by treatment, although haptoglobin

  9. Prepartum concentrate supplementation of a diet based on medium-quality grass silage: Effects on performance, health, fertility, metabolic function, and immune function of low body condition score cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Welsh, M D; Barley, J; Meade, K G; Ferris, C P

    2016-09-01

    When cows with a "higher" body condition score (BCS) are oversupplied with energy during the dry period, postpartum energy balance is normally reduced, which can have a detrimental effect on immune competence and increase the infectious disease risk. However, within grassland-based systems higher yielding cows frequently have a low BCS at drying off. The effects on performance, health, and metabolic and immune functions of providing additional energy to cows with low BCS during the dry period is less certain. To address this uncertainty, 53 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (mean BCS of 2.5; 1-5 scale) were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments at dry-off: silage only or silage plus concentrates. Cows on the silage-only treatment were offered ad libitum access to medium-quality grass silage. Cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment were offered ad libitum access to a mixed ration comprising the same grass silage plus concentrates [in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], which provided a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day. Postpartum, cows were offered a common mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (in a 40:60 DM ratio) for a 70-d period. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased DM intake, tended to increase energy balance, and increased body weight (BW) and BCS gain prepartum. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased BW and BCS loss postpartum and tended to increase milk fat percentage and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration, but it did not affect postpartum DM intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Although the percentage of phagocytosis-positive neutrophils did not differ, neutrophils from cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment had higher phagocytic fluorescence intensity at 1 and 2 wk postpartum and higher phagocytic index at 1 wk postpartum. Serum haptoglobin concentrations and IFN-γ production by pokeweed mitogen stimulated whole blood culture were unaffected by treatment, although haptoglobin

  10. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  11. ADS National Programmes: France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies related to nuclear reactors and radioactive waste started at the French National Centre for Scientific research, CNRS, as a result of the French law on radioactive waste that was published in 1991. They were initially organized around the programme PACE (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle Electronucléaire = physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle), which became PACEN (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle et production d’Energie Nucléaire = Physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and production of nuclear energy) in 2006. Research on accelerator driven systems was from the beginning part of this programme. This research is mainly funded by the National Institute for Nuclear end Particle Physics (IN2P3) of CNRS and within the EURATOM European programmes (FP5, 6 and 7). The programme took place in several stages, and covered various scientific fields, benefitting from expertise of CNRS in the field. More specifically, it aimed and still aims to: – Test and verify the feasibility and design of the ADS concept, in terms of neutronics, physics of materials, design of the accelerator and tests of its prototypical components that have been built (or are at present under construction); – Measure and-or improve nuclear data related to radioactive waste transmutation. Today, most of the activities in support to ADS development carried out by CNRS focus on accelerator developments, GUINEVERE (Generator of Uninterrupted Intense NEutron at the lead VEnus REactor) experiment, ADS core studies, deployment scenarios and nuclear data measurements. The CEA R&D programmes on ADS are mainly focused on the European project EUROTRANS of the 6th Framework programme (2005–2010) and continued in the FREYA project of the 7th Framework Programme

  12. Adding linear orders

    CERN Document Server

    Shelah, Saharon

    2011-01-01

    We address the following question: Can we expand an NIP theory by adding a linear order such that the expansion is still NIP? Easily, if acl(A)=A for all A, then this is true. Otherwise, we give counterexamples. More precisely, there is a totally categorical theory for which every expansion by a linear order has IP. There is also an \\omega-stable NDOP theory for which every expansion by a linear order interprets bounded arithmetic.

  13. AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for the volumes. We also find...

  14. Atividade microbiana cecal e contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes de fibra e níveis de amido Caecal microbial activity and caecotrophy nutritional contribution in rabbits fed diets with different starch levels and fiber sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo a avaliação da atividade microbiana cecal e a contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de amido (22 a 32% em média mediante a inclusão de milho grão e diferentes fontes de fibra (feno de alfafa ou casca de soja, em esquema fatorial 2x2. No primeiro experimento, 40 coelhos alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados à vontade dos 45 aos 85 dias de idade, foram abatidos para coleta dos conteúdos ileais e cecais. A concentração de ácidos graxos voláteis foi influenciada pela interação entre tratamentos, sendo 93,82 mmol/l para ração de maior nível de amido com casca de soja e 80,03 mmol/l para ração de menor nível de amido com feno de alfafa. No segundo experimento, 40 coelhos aos 65 dias de idade, alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram alimentados à vontade por 10 dias, e receberam colares de madeira para permitir a coleta total de cecotrofos. Houve influência da interação entre tratamentos sobre os teores de proteína e energia dos cecotrofos, sendo de 29,66% e 4204,87 kcal/kg para ração contendo maiores níveis de amido e casca de soja e de 27,98% e 4080,46 kcal/kg para ração contendo menores níveis de amido e feno de alfafa. As rações de alto amido ou com casca de soja propiciaram maior enriquecimento do conteúdo cecal e melhor aporte nutricional para os coelhos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the caecal microbial activity and caecotrophy nutritional contribution in rabbits fed diets with differents starch levels (22 or 32% on average from a high or low inclusion of corn grain and differents fiber sources (alfalfa hay or soybean hulls, in a 2x2 factorial design. In the first experiment, 40 rabbits were individually housed in fattening cages within entirely randomized design, and fed ad libitum from 45 to 85

  15. Evaporation of large black holes in AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AdS/CFT correspondence offers a new perspective on the long-standing black hole information paradox. However, to be able to use the available gauge/gravity machinery one is forced to consider so-called 'large' black holes in AdS, and these objects are thermodynamically stable - they do not evaporate. We describe a simple toy model that allows large AdS black holes to decay, by coupling the emitted radiation to an external scalar field propagating in an auxiliary space. This effectively changes the properties of the boundary of AdS, making it partly absorbing. We demonstrate that the evaporation process never ceases by explicitly presenting (a) the transmission coefficient for a wave scattering from the bulk into auxiliary space and (b) the greybody factor for a black 3-brane in an AdS background. Therefore, the model provides an interesting framework to address the information paradox using AdS/CFT techniques.

  16. Norse Greenland dietary economy ca. AD 980-ca. AD 1450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arneborg, J.; Lynnerup, Niels; Heinemeier, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    An initial study of the C values for human bone collagen of 27 Norse Greenlanders in the late 1990s suggested a change in the Norse diet from predominantly terrestrial to predominantly marine food. This shift may well indicate a change in diet; the question left open by the limited initial isotop...

  17. Randall-Sundrum with AdS(7)

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, R; Bao, Ruoyu; Lykken, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    In the same sense that AdS_5 warped geometries arise naturally from Type IIB string theory with stacks of D3 branes, AdS_7 warped geometries arise naturally from M theory with stacks of M5 branes. We compactify two spatial dimensions of AdS_7 to get AdS_5 x \\Sigma^2, where \\Sigma^2 is e.g. a torus T^2 or a sphere S^2. The metric for \\Sigma inherits the same warp factor as appears in the AdS_5. Bulk fields generically have both Kaluza-Klein and winding modes associated with \\Sigma. In the effective 5d action these will contribute exotic new excitations. We analyze the 5d spectrum in detail for the case of a bulk scalar or a graviton in AdS_5 x T^2, in a setup which mimics the first Randall-Sundrum model. The results display several novel features, some of which might be observed in experiments at the LHC. For example, we obtain TeV scale string winding states without lowering the string scale. This is due to the double warping which is a generic feature of winding states along compactified AdS directions. Expe...

  18. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on fuzzy AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space. (author)

  19. Dirac Operator on Noncommutative AdS_2

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhri, H

    2003-01-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS_2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated with AdS_2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS_2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  20. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Hossein; Imaanpur, Ali

    2003-03-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  1. Dirac Operator on Fuzzy AdS_2

    OpenAIRE

    H. Fakhri; Imaanpur, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS_2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated with AdS_2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS_2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  2. Radius-dependent gauge unification in AdS5

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hyung Do; Kim, Ian-Woo

    2002-01-01

    We examine the relation of the 4-dimensional low energy coupling of bulk gauge boson in a slice of AdS5 to the 5-dimensional fundamental couplings as a function of the orbifold radius R. This allows us to address the gauge coupling unification in AdS5 by means of the radius running as well as the conventional momentum running. We then compute the radius dependence of 1-loop low energy couplings in generic AdS5 theory with 4-dimensional supersymmetry, and discuss the low energy predictions whe...

  3. Towards integrability for AdS3/CFT2

    CERN Document Server

    Sfondrini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We review the recent progress towards applying worldsheet integrability techniques to the $AdS_3/CFT_2$ correspondence to find its all-loop S matrix and Bethe-Yang equations. We study in full detail the massive sector of $AdS_3\\times S^3\\times T^4$ superstrings supported by pure Ramond-Ramond (RR) fluxes. The extension of this machinery to accommodate massless modes, to the $AdS_3\\times S^3\\times S^3\\times S^1$ pure-RR background and to backgrounds supported by mixed background fluxes is also reviewed. While the results discussed here were found elsewhere, our exposition is original.

  4. Conical singularities in AdS space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years, the study of conformal gauge theories from 10-D has been motivated by the AdSd+1/CFTd correspondence, first conjectured by J. Maldacena. The aim of this work is to consider the d = 4 case by analysing the configuration of the N coincident D3 branes. In this context, the work shows that there is a duality between type IIB string theory in AdS5 x S5 and N = 4 SU(N) Super Yang-Mills Theory in the IR. The AdS5/CFT4 correspondence brought also new approaches to the strong coupling problem in QCD. Nowadays, there is a whole line of works that focus on the low dimensional correspondence AdS4/CFT3, like the application to graphene and topological insulators, and the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence, related with the entanglement entropy. In this work, we consider the vortex configuration solution to the AdS4 and AdS3 space-time. The most important motivation is to discuss the boundary theory resulting from these solutions. We have examined a straightforward approach to a holographic computation of the graphene and entanglement entropy in the presence of the conical singularity. After this analysis, we consider the scalar field in the bulk in the presence of this metrics and work out the compactification modes. Taking the holographic point of view, we study and discuss the resulting Green function. (author)

  5. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (Pcarcass conformation of 0.74 units (Pcarcass organs did not differ (P>0.05) between RFI groups except for the empty weight of reticulo

  6. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  7. ADS National Programmes: Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ADS related activities within the Netherlands are concentrated at NRG. From 2000 to 2006, NRG supported SCK•CEN in their development of MYRRHA. The support was mainly devoted to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for the windowless target option. This collaboration was prolonged within the framework of the EU FP6 EUROTRANS project. Eventually this lead to a solution strategy for the hydraulic (without heat transfer) evaluation of a windowless target with one free surface using an Eulerian-Eulerian modeling approach. As a second free surface was added to the target design later, this approach would need to be revisited. The developed approach was applied to an assess the feasibility of a three feeder windowless target design. This preliminary assessment confirmed that there were no serious show stoppers for a three feeder design. Another study undertaken using related to the windowless target was a preliminary assessment of the risk of lead-bismuth splashing in case of a sudden heat deposition by the beam, e.g. at beam startup or beam interuptions. Within the framework of the EU FP7 CDT project, a window target is currently being assessed thermalhydraulicly in collaboration with SCK•CEN. Within the EU FP5 ASCHLIM project, the state of the art with regard to turbulence modelling for CFD approaches was determined. It was concluded that accurate simulation of heat transport in HLM was not feasible, especially in natural or mixed convection regimes. Within the EU FP7 THINS project this issue is currently being treated. NRG assists the commercial CFD code vendor CD adapco in implementing and testing a promising, academically tested, algebraic heat flux model

  8. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, Riccardo; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefanski, Bogdan; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3 x S3 x T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly-coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their sub-leading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results, and co

  9. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  10. Sugar in the diet of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Klemenčič, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweetened beverages are increasingly present in the nutrition of adolescents. Sugars added to food usually do not contain essential nutrients and inhibit the consumption of nutritionally rich foods. The aim of this diploma thesis is to determine how much sugar is present in the diets of adolescents, how and when most frequently adolescents eat sugar and whether the consumption of sweet foods among adolescents vary according to gender, age, and body weight. Data were collected using ...

  11. Dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in substitution of goat milk and slaughtered at different ages: an economic viability analysis using Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, L S; Veloso, C M; Marcondes, M I; Silveira, T S; Silva, A L; Souza, N O; Knupp, S N R; Cannas, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the economic viability of producing dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in alternative of goat milk and slaughtered at two different ages. Forty-eight male newborn Saanen and Alpine kids were selected and allocated to four groups using a completely randomized factorial design: goat milk (GM), cow milk (CM), commercial milk replacer (CMR) and fermented cow colostrum (FC). Each group was then divided into two groups: slaughter at 60 and 90 days of age. The animals received Tifton hay and concentrate ad libitum. The values of total costs of liquid and solid feed plus labor, income and average gross margin were calculated. The data were then analyzed using the Monte Carlo techniques with the @Risk 5.5 software, with 1000 iterations of the variables being studied through the model. The kids fed GM and CMR generated negative profitability values when slaughtered at 60 days (US$ -16.4 and US$ -2.17, respectively) and also at 90 days (US$ -30.8 and US$ -0.18, respectively). The risk analysis showed that there is a 98% probability that profitability would be negative when GM is used. In this regard, CM and FC presented low risk when the kids were slaughtered at 60 days (8.5% and 21.2%, respectively) and an even lower risk when animals were slaughtered at 90 days (5.2% and 3.8%, respectively). The kids fed CM and slaughtered at 90 days presented the highest average gross income (US$ 67.88) and also average gross margin (US$ 18.43/animal). For the 60-day rearing regime to be economically viable, the CMR cost should not exceed 11.47% of the animal-selling price. This implies that the replacer cannot cost more than US$ 0.39 and 0.43/kg for the 60- and 90-day feeding regimes, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the variables with the greatest impact on the final model's results were animal selling price, liquid diet cost, final weight at slaughter and labor. In conclusion, the production of male dairy goat kids can be economically

  12. Chaos and hydrodynamics near AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    We revisit AdS$_2$ holography with the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models in mind. Our main result is to rewrite a generic theory of gravity near an AdS$_2$ throat as a novel hydrodynamics coupled to the correlation functions of a conformal quantum mechanics. This gives a prescription for the computation of $n$-point functions in the dual quantum mechanics. We thereby find that the dual is maximally chaotic.

  13. Seasonal variation of the effect of high-carbohydrate and high-protein diets on the intermediate metabolism of Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae maintained in the laboratory Variações sazonais do efeito de uma dieta rica em carboidrato e rica em proteínas no metabolismo intermediário de Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae mantidos em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana K. Dutra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high-carbohydrate diet (HC and a high-protein diet (HP on the metabolism of the crayfish Parastacus brasiliensis (Von Martens, 1869, collected in different seasons and maintained in the laboratory for 15 days. Crayfish were collected monthly from January 2002 to January 2004 at São Francisco de Paula, Southern Brazil, in Guarapirá stream. In the laboratory, the animals were kept submerged in aquariums under controlled conditions. They were fed ad libitum, for 15 days with either a HC or HP diet. At the end of this period, haemolymph samples were collected, as were hepatopancreas, gills, and abdominal muscle that were removed for determination of glycogen, free glucose, lipids, and triglycerides. The haemolymph samples were used for determination of glucose, proteins, lipids, and triglycerides. Statistical analysis (ANOVA revealed significant seasonal differences in biochemical composition in crayfish maintained on HC or HP diets. Independent of the diets offered to the animals and the controlled conditions for 15 days, the indications of seasonality were unchanged. The observed changes seemed to be related to the reproductive period. Moreover, the HC diet increased all energy reserves in adult parastacids, which may aid in reproduction.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dieta rica em carboidratos (HC e da dieta rica em proteínas (HP sobre o metabolismo do Parastacus brasiliensis (Von Martens, 1869 coletados em diferentes estações e mantidos durante 15 dias em laboratório. Os lagostins foram coletados mensalmente de Janeiro de 2002 a Janeiro de 2004 em São Francisco de Paula, Sul do Brasil, no riacho Guarapirá. No laboratório, os animais foram mantidos submersos em aquários sob condições controladas. Eles foram alimentados ad libitum por 15 dias com a dieta HC ou HP. Após o final do período, as amostras de hemolinfa foram coletadas, assim como o hepatopâncreas, as

  14. Diet quality limits summer growth of field vole populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian M Forbes

    Full Text Available Marked variation occurs in both seasonal and multiannual population density peaks of northern European small mammal species, including voles. The availability of dietary proteins is a key factor limiting the population growth of herbivore species. The objective of this study is to investigate the degree to which protein availability influences the growth of increasing vole populations. We hypothesise that the summer growth of folivorous vole populations is positively associated with dietary protein availability. A field experiment was conducted over a summer reproductive period in 18 vegetated enclosures. Populations of field voles (Microtus agrestis were randomised amongst three treatment groups: 1 food supplementation with ad libitum high protein (30% dry weight pellets, 2 food supplementation with ad libitum low protein (1% dry weight; both supplemented foods had equivalent energy content pellets, and 3 control (no food supplementation, n = 6 per treatment. Vole density, survival, demographic attributes and condition indicators were monitored with live-trapping and blood sampling. Highest final vole densities were attained in populations that received high protein supplementation and lowest in low protein populations. Control populations displayed intermediate densities. The survival rate of voles was similar in all treatment groups. The proportion of females, and of those that were pregnant or lactating, was highest in the high protein supplemented populations. This suggests that variation in reproductive, rather than survival rates of voles, accounted for density differences between the treatment groups. We found no clear association between population demography and individual physiological condition. Our results demonstrate that dietary protein availability limits vole population growth during the summer growing season. This suggests that the nutritional quality of forage may be an underestimated source of interannual variation in the

  15. Effect of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on the productive and economic performance of autochthonous sheep breeds fed forage-based diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon; Joy, Margalida; Sanz Pascua, Albina; Blasco, Isabel; Ripoll, Guillermo; Álvarez Rodríguez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Sheep farming systems in Spain are experiencing an intensification process, characterised by a general selection criteria of enhancing prolificacy in ewes, and by increasing indoor feeding with concentrates to the detriment of grazing. This study evaluated the effects of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on productive and economic performance of a local sheep breed in different price scenarios. Ewes were fed forage hay ad libitum, without (in pre-partum period, PRE-HAY; and in post-...

  16. Underlying mechanisms and the evolving influence of diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2012-01-01

    has been shown to attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity. Several studies have examined gene-diet interactions in relation to obesity, but only a few suggestive interactions have been identified. This is most probably due to small effect sizes of the interactions and thereby a demand for large samples...... and the microbiome that can be modified by diet, and by genotype, adding to the complexity of determining the contributors to obesity....

  17. DIET at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  18. Effect of a short-term diet and exercise intervention on oxidative stress, inflammation, MMP-9, and monocyte chemotactic activity in men with metabolic syndrome factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christian K; Won, Dean; Pruthi, Sandeep; Kurtovic, Silvia; Sindhu, Ram K; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Barnard, R James

    2006-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of lifestyle modification on key contributing factors to atherogenesis, including oxidative stress, inflammation, chemotaxis, and cell adhesion. Obese men (n = 31), 15 of whom had metabolic syndrome, were placed on a high-fiber, low-fat diet in a 3-wk residential program where food was provided ad libitum and daily aerobic exercise was performed. In each subject, pre- and postintervention fasting blood was drawn for circulating levels of serum lipids, glucose and insulin (for estimation of insulin sensitivity), oxidative stress-generating enzyme myeloperoxidase and marker 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha, the inflammatory protein C-reactive protein, soluble ICAM-1 as an indicator of endothelial activation, sP-selectin as a marker of platelet activation, the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, and total matrix metalloproteinase-9. Using subject sera and human aortic endothelial cell culture systems, we measured VCAM-1 cell surface abundance and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, nitric oxide, superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide production in vitro by fluorometric detection. Also determined in vitro was serum-induced, monocyte adhesion and monocyte chemotactic activity. After 3 wk, significant reductions (P fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, myeloperoxidase, 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha, C-reactive protein, soluble ICAM-1, soluble P-selectin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were noted. In vitro, serum-stimulated cellular VCAM-1 expression, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production, and fluorometric detection of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production decreased, whereas a concomitant increase in NO production was noted (all P < 0.01). Additionally, both monocyte adhesion (P < 0.05) and MCA (P < 0.01) decreased. Nine of 15 were no longer positive for metabolic syndrome postintervention. Intensive lifestyle modification may

  19. Short communication. Effect of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on the productive and economic performance of autochthonous sheep breeds fed forage-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimon Ripoll-Bosch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheep farming systems in Spain are experiencing an intensification process, characterised by a general selection criteria of enhancing prolificacy in ewes, and by increasing indoor feeding with concentrates to the detriment of grazing. This study evaluated the effects of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on productive and economic performance of a local sheep breed in different price scenarios. Ewes were fed forage hay ad libitum, without (in pre-partum period, PRE-HAY; and in post-partum period, POST-HAY or with concentrates (300 g/d in pre-partum period, PRE-CON; and 750 g/d in post-partum period, POST-CON. The inclusion of concentrate during the pre-partum period (last 10 weeks of pregnancy had no effect on the productive performance of the ewes. In contrast, the inclusion of concentrate in the post-partum period (6 weeks, resulted in greater milk yield (1009 vs. 1275 ± 89 g/d, lamb average daily gain (151±12 vs. 225±19 g/d and lamb output (kg of lamb LW weaned. However, the greater productivity thanks to the use of concentrates did not always turn into greatest profitability, since the economic margin was highly influenced by the cost of the diet and extremely subjected to variability in price of concentrates. Hence, the inclusion of concentrates in sheep meat production was not always justified in economic terms. In conclusion, the use of concentrates should only be considered as long as prices of commodities remain low, and inadvisable when prices reach a certain threshold or are subject to certain volatility in markets.

  20. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  1. The Fat-1 Transgene in Mice Increases Antioxidant Potential, Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels, and Enhances PPARγ and SIRT-1 Expression on a Calorie Restricted Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mizanur Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both n-3 fatty acids (FA and calorie-restriction (CR are known to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in animals and humans. In this study, we investigated the synergistic anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capacity of n-3 FA and CR using Fat-1 transgenic mice (Fat-1 that are capable of converting n-6 FA to n-3 FA endogenously. Wild type (WT and Fat-1 mice were maintained on ad libitum (AL or CR (40% less than AL AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% corn oil (rich in n-6 FA for 5 months. Significantly lower levels of n-6/n-3 FA ratio were observed in serum, muscle and liver of Fat-1 mice fed AL or CR as compared to that of WT mice fed AL or CR. Muscle catalase (CAT, super oxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, and liver CAT and SOD activities were found higher in Fat-1 mice as compared to that of WT mice. These activities were more pronounced in Fat-1/CR group as compared to other groups. Serum pro-inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNFα, interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 were found lower in Fat-1 mice, as compared to that of WT mice. This anti-inflammatory effect was also more pronounced in Fat-1/CR group as compared to that of other groups. Furthermore, significantly higher levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPA Rgamma and life prolonging gene, sirtuin (SIRT-1 expression were found in liver of Fat-1/CR mice, as compared to that of WT/CR mice. These data suggest that n-3 FA along with moderate CR may prolong lifespan by attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress.

  2. Discrimination in Online Ad Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Latanya

    2013-01-01

    A Google search for a person's name, such as "Trevon Jones", may yield a personalized ad for public records about Trevon that may be neutral, such as "Looking for Trevon Jones?", or may be suggestive of an arrest record, such as "Trevon Jones, Arrested?". This writing investigates the delivery of these kinds of ads by Google AdSense using a sample of racially associated names and finds statistically significant discrimination in ad delivery based on searches of 2184 racially associated person...

  3. ADS National Programmes: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German R&D programme for ADS development is related to the partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel. This programme is implemented mainly by the three national research centres belonging to the Helmholtz Association, i.e. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in cooperation with the Technical University of Aachen (RWTH Aachen) and the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR). The main purpose of this R&D programme is the prospect to manage the high level radioactive waste such as to reduce the burden on a final repository. P&T does not eliminate the need for a final repository whatever the strategy, but it allows the reduction of the radio-toxicity associated with radioactive waste, the increase of the repository capacity as a consequence of the reduction of masses to be stored and their associated residual heat load. Different fuel cycle scenarios to implement P&T can be envisaged. These scenarios have been evaluated to identify the impact of P&T on the characteristics, number and deployment pace of the installations of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fuel fabrication, storage etc). Almost all activities conducted in the R&D programme are embedded in European and international projects and initiatives. In the following more details on the relevant components of the R&D programme are summarized

  4. Complexity Growth for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We further investigate the Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture for stationary anti de-Sitter (AdS) black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general $D$-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Ba\\~{n}ados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a new complexity bound but leave unchanged the conjecture that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  5. Diet Choices to Prevent Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colors of vegetables and fruits each day. A healthy diet also includes whole grains and is low in ... can I do to improve my diet? A healthy diet includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, ...

  6. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home About Porphyria Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  7. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS Black holes with Dirac hair

    CERN Document Server

    \\vCubrović, Mihailo; Schalm, Koenraad

    2010-01-01

    We provide new evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi Liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the spatially averaged AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at $\\ome_F$, we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis confirm that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profil...

  8. Comportamento ingestivo de ovelhas em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro Feeding behaviour of lactating ewes fed diets containing different neutral detergent fiber levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Haetinger Hübner

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do fornecimento de dietas com diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN sobre o comportamento ingestivo de ovelhas em lactação. Foram utilizadas 18 ovelhas 5/8 Ile de France 3/8 Texel, confinadas 24 horas após o parto em baias individuais, sendo aleatoriamente distribuídas em três tratamentos: 34, 43 e 52% de FDN na dieta. As dietas, isoproteicas, foram compostas por silagem de milho (Zea mays L., milho triturado, farelo de soja (Glycine max L., calcário calcítico, fosfato bicálcico e sal comum, sendo fornecidas ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia, em horários pré-estabelecidos às 8h30min e 16h30min. O comportamento ingestivo dos animais foi determinado mediante apreciação visual. O aumento do nível de FDN na dieta influenciou significativamente os consumos de MS e FDN, a produção de leite e os tempos despendidos em ingestão, ruminação, ócio e mastigação total, que variaram de forma quadrática (PThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different neutral detergent fiber (NDF levels in the diet on ingestive behavior of lactating ewes. Eighteen 5/8 Ile de France 3/8 Texel ewes, housed in individual cage 24 hours postpartum, were used. Animals were assigned to one of three treatments: 34, 43 and 52% NDF in the diet, in dry matter (DM basis. The total mixed rations, composed by corn silage (Zea mays L., ground corn, soybean meal (Glycine max L., limestone, salt and dicalcium phosphate, were given twice a day, at 0830 AM and 0430 PM. Ingestive behavior was determined by visual appreciation. The increase of the NDF level in the diet significantly influenced (P<.05 DM and NDF intakes, milk yield, and the feeding, rumination, idleness resting and total chewing times, that varied quadratically (P<.05. The NDF feeding and rumination efficiency increased, whereas DM feeding and rumination efficiency linearly decreased (P<.05 as effect of the NDF increased, being necessary

  9. 拴系饲养与自由采食对西门塔尔青年母牛超排效果的影响%Effect of Chained and Ad libitum Feeding on Superovulation of Simmental Heifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 牛志宏; 刘水涛; 张建军; 肖锐; 张光伟; 张健

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and 2010, the two different feeding styles were used in Simmental heifers. After 102 Simmental heifers were superovulated, the results in two groups were compared. The results showed that in 2009 and 2010, the average recovery eggs and transferable embryo yield were 15.04 vs 13.65 and 8.51 vs 6.93, respectively. The embryo development rate in two groups was different. In conclusion under inadequate nutrition in the long term, the growth and development in Simmental heifers was affected, and their fertility, superovulation response and transferable embryo yield are decreased.%本文分析比较了2009和2010年两种不同饲养管理方式对102头西门塔尔青年母牛超排效果的影响。结果表明,2009年拴系饲养的供体牛超排效果明显好于2010年自由采食的供体牛,平均回收卵和有效胚胎分别为15.04枚、13.65枚,8.51枚、6.93枚。2009年的有效胚胎率(56.58%)也高于2010年(50.73%)。从胚胎发育阶段的比例来看,2010年供体牛的扩张囊胚和囊胚比例比2009年低,而未受精和退化胚胎比例较高。结果显示,青年母牛长期处于营养摄入量不足的情况下,不仅影响体成熟,还会降低母牛的繁殖机能和超排效果以及有效胚胎数。

  10. Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF**6) is a commonly used method for measuring CH**4 enteric emissions in ruminants. Studies using SF**6 have shown large variation in CH**4 emissions data, inconsistencies in CH**4 emissions across studies, and potential methodological errors. Therefore, th...

  11. The effects of increasing amounts of milk replacer powder added to whole milk on feed intake and performance in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, R A; Machado, F S; Campos, M M; Furini, P M; Rufino, S R A; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on feed intake, heifer performance, and health of increasing the total solids (TS) content of liquid feed (whole milk) by adding increasing amounts of milk replacer powder during the pre- and postweaning periods. Crossbred Holstein-Gyr heifers (n=60) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=15 per group), which consisted of different TS concentrations: 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% of liquid feed. Heifers received 6 L of liquid feed per day, divided into 2 equal meals (0800 and 1600h) and provided in buckets, from 5 to 55d of age. From 56 to 59d of age, the total amount of liquid feed was reduced by half, maintaining only morning feedings. Heifers were weaned at 60d and monitored until 90d of age. Water and starter were provided ad libitum during the entire experiment. Corn silage was included in the diet during the postweaning period (70d of age). Feed intake and health scores were evaluated daily. Body weight and body frame development were recorded weekly. Starting at 14d, ruminal pH was measured every other week. Laboratory analysis determined that the actual TS contents of the liquid feed were 13.5, 16.1, 18.2, and 20.4%, for the proposed 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% TS treatments, respectively. The osmolality of liquid feed treatments was 265 to 533mOsm/L. Intake of liquid feed was similar among treatments from 4wk of age. During the preweaning period, starter intake, fecal score, and days with diarrhea were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH at weaning averaged 6.2 and was similar among treatments. Increasing concentrations of TS in the liquid feed were associated with linear increases in average daily gain, final body weight, and growth performance, but linear decreases in feed efficiency. During the postweaning period, intake of starter, corn silage, and water were similar among treatments, as well as average daily gain and feed efficiency. Final body weight and growth performance during the postweaning period

  12. Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) AD-6

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) in July of 2012. The visible parts are the positron accumulator (blue structures on top of of the antiproton extraction line) and the 5T magnet which traps the antiprotons.

  13. Global geometric properties of AdS space and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Poisson kernels and relations between them for a massive scalar field in a unit ball Bn with Hua's metric and conformal flat metric are obtained by describing the Bn as a submanifold of an (n+1)-dimensional embedding space. Global geometric properties of the AdS space are discussed. We show that the(n+1)-dimensional AdS space AdSn+1 is isomorphic to RP1×Bn and boundary of the AdS is isomorphic to RP1×Sn-1. Bulk-boundary propagator and the AdS/CFT like correspondence are demonstrated based on these global geometric properties of the RP1×Bn.

  14. AdS-Carroll Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, T E

    2016-01-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d+1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  15. Chronic consumption of a western diet induces robust glial activation in aging mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Leah C.; Harder, Jeffrey M.; Ileana Soto; de Vries, Wilhelmine N.; Simon W M John; Gareth R Howell

    2016-01-01

    Studies have assessed individual components of a western diet, but no study has assessed the long-term, cumulative effects of a western diet on aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, we have formulated the first western-style diet that mimics the fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral levels of western diets. This diet was fed to aging C57BL/6J (B6) mice to identify phenotypes that may increase susceptibility to AD, and to APP/PS1 mice, a mouse model of AD, to determine the e...

  16. Promising Medicated Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ The founding conference of World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies-Special Committee of Medicated Diet & Dietotherapy(WFCMS-SCMDAD).and the first world medicated diet and life nurturing academic seminar was held in the Great Hall of the People.Beijing,China,on August 11.A total of 400 experts and professors on medicated diet and life nurturing from 17 countries and regions including Japan,ROK,U.S.,Canada,U.K.,ect.Honorary President Professor Cai Guangxian delivered a welcoming speech to declare the organization's found.

  17. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  18. Effects of Low Glycemic Index Diets on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinhua; Heng, Weijun; Gao, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies of the effects of low glycemic index (LGI) diets on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have reported conflicting findings. The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on maternal and neonatal outcomes in GDM patients. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases for studies of the effects of LGI diets in GDM patients. We performed a meta-analysis of the effects of the LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on GDM outcomes. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- and fixed-effects models. Five RCTs involving 302 participants were included in our meta-analysis. No statistically significant differences in the risks of cesarean section delivery, large for gestational age, and small for gestational age were observed. The risk of macrosomia in the LGI groups was significantly lower (RR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10–0.71; P = 0.008) than that in the control groups. Our subgroup analysis of the effects of DF showed that LGI diets with an increased level of DF, relative to the control diet, reduced the risk of macrosomia beyond that of the LGI diets alone (RR: 0.17 vs 0.47, respectively). The subgroup analysis also showed that LGI diets in which the level of DF was approximately equivalent to that in the control diets significantly reduced the risk of insulin usage (RR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52–0.92; P = 0.01). The LGI diets reduced the risk of macrosomia in GDM patients, and LGI diets with added DF reduced the risk of macrosomia further. The LGI diets with levels of DF approximately equivalent to that in the control diets reduced the risk of insulin usage in GDM patients. PMID:27258511

  19. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-01-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Renyi entropy S_n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  20. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Evnin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  1. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  2. Microstates at the boundary of AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Samir D

    2011-01-01

    The bound states of the D1D5 brane system have a known gravitational description: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter region, and a 'cap' ending the AdS region. We construct perturbations that correspond to the action of chiral algebra generators on Ramond ground states of D1D5 branes. Abstract arguments in the literature suggest that the perturbation should be pure gauge in the AdS region; our perturbation indeed has this structure, with the nontrivial deformation of the geometry occurring at the 'neck' between the AdS region and asymptotic infinity. This 'non-gauge' deformation is needed to provide the nonzero energy and momentum carried by the perturbation. We also suggest implications this structure may have for the majority of microstates which live at the cap.

  3. Null warped AdS in higher spin gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Breunhoelder, Veronika; Grumiller, Daniel; Prohazka, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We equip three-dimensional spin-3 gravity in the principal embedding with a new set of boundary conditions that we call "asymptotically null warped AdS". We find a chiral copy of the Polyakov-Bershadsky algebra as asymptotic symmetry algebra, reminiscent of the situation in topologically massive gravity with strict null warped AdS boundary conditions. We prove the invertibility of the map between zuvielbein and metric variables and construct a global gauge transformation to half of AdS spin-3 gravity in the diagonal embedding. This explains why the theory is chiral and why the Polyakov-Bershadsky algebra arises. We then introduce chemical potentials, derive the entropy, free energy, and the holographic response functions, and conclude with a discussion.

  4. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  5. Towards integrability for AdS3/CFT2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the recent progress towards applying worldsheet integrability techniques to the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence to find its all-loop S matrix and Bethe–Yang equations. We study in full detail the massive sector of AdS3×S3×T4 superstrings supported by pure Ramond–Ramond (RR) fluxes. The extension of this machinery to accommodate massless modes, to the AdS3×S3×S3×S1 pure-RR background and to backgrounds supported by mixed background fluxes is also reviewed. While the results discussed here were found elsewhere, our presentation sometimes deviates from the one found in the original literature in an effort to be pedagogical and self-contained. (topical review)

  6. Logarithmic conformal field theories and AdS correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Khorrami, A. M. Ghezelbash. M.; Aghamohammadi, A

    1998-01-01

    We generalize the Maldacena correspondence to the logarithmic conformal field theories. We study the correspondence between field theories in (d+1)-dimensional AdS space and the d-dimensional logarithmic conformal field theories in the boundary of $AdS_{d+1}$. Using this correspondence, we get the n-point functions of the corresponding logarithmic conformal field theory in d-dimensions.

  7. Phases of Global AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Pallab; Subramanian, P N Bala

    2016-01-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ($AdS_4$) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  8. Phases of global AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-06-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  9. Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Metsaev, R R

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS fi...

  10. Diet for Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discuss these guidelines with a physical therapist and nutritionist familiar with movement disorders. Ataxia is a complex ... fiber to your diet with your physician or nutritionist, ask them if you might also benefit by ...

  11. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  12. Magnesium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal ... There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high ...

  13. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this special diet to limit the buildup of waste products in the body. Limiting fluids between dialysis ... up when the kidneys no longer function well. Dangerous heart rhythms may result, which can lead to ...

  14. Interstitial Cystitis and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toolkit Donate Monthly Giving Corporate Giving Planned Gifts & Estate Planning Donor Stock Transfer Instructions IC Charity in ... questionnaire on IC and diet. Revised Tuesday, April 5th, 2016 Home About IC What is Interstitial Cystitis ( ...

  15. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addiction that leads to health problems, including serious eating disorders, heart problems, and even death. Detox supplements can have side effects. Many of the supplements used during detox diets ...

  16. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  17. Compact AdS space, Brane geometry and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Boschi-Filho, H; Boschi-Filho, Henrique; Braga, Nelson R. F.

    2002-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence can be realized in spaces that are globally different but share the same asymptotic behavior. Two known cases are: a compact AdS space and the space generated by a large number of coincident branes. We discuss the physical consistency, in the sense of the Cauchy problem, of these two formulations. We show that the role of the boundary in the compact AdS space is equivalent to that of the flat asymptotic region in the brane space. We also show, by introducing a second coordinate chart for the pure AdS space, that a point at its spatial infinity corresponds to a horizon in the brane system.

  18. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Tonstad; Edward Nathan; Keiji Oda; Gary Fraser

    2013-01-01

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant o...

  19. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  20. BRST Quantization of String Theory in AdS(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Pakman, A

    2003-01-01

    We study the BRST quantization of bosonic and NSR strings propagating in AdS(3) x N backgrounds. The no-ghost theorem is proved using the Frenkel-Garland-Zuckerman method. Regular and spectrally-flowed representations of affine SL(2,R) appear on an equal footing. Possible generalizations to related curved backgrounds are discussed.