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Sample records for ad libitum diets

  1. Eating ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    in the context of the 'ad libitum meal'. The analytical interest is thus what kind of eaters and bodies are enacted in the meal test and what ideas of prevention and treatment are embedded in their standards. Drawing from ongoing empirical work among Danish obesity researchers performing scientific meal tests I...... ask what make up food stuff and eaters in the meal tests? More specifically I explore a scientific testing of changes in taste preferences before and after weight-loss surgery using an ad libitum buffet with a selection of different foods and another testing the effect of exercise on appetite also...... using an ad libitum meal consisting of spaghetti bolognaise. I analyse the entanglement and concurrence of different knowledge practices and show how several scalings of appetite play out, one ex explaining the aim of the test, being to ”measure what your body would want the most” and hence producing...

  2. The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. METHODS: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) men (n.......23 ± 0.11 in LF (P Weight regain or body composition did not differ between diets over 18 months. No effects on risk markers for T2D or CVD were found, with the exception of an improvement in the LDL/HDL ratio by the MUFA diet compared.......09) group. Weight regain in completers was not different between groups (mean ± SEM), MUFA 7.1 ± 2.1 % versus LF 5.6 ± 1.3 % versus CTR 7.2 ± 1.5 %, nor was body fat regain, MUFA 4.8 ± 1.0 % versus LF 4.7 ± 0.8 % versus CTR 5.7 ± 0.6 %. The MUFA group reduced LDL/HDL ratio by -0.47 ± 0.09 compared with -0...

  3. Performance and individual feed intake characteristics of group-housed sows fed a nonstarch polysaccharides diet ad libitum during gestation over three parities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Plagge, J.G.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding group-housed gestating sows a diet with a high level of fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; approximately 45% sugar beet pulp as fed) ad libitum on the development in individual feed intake characteristics and reproductive

  4. Exercise Does Not Protect against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad libitum in Old ApoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Géloën, Alain; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Chauveau, Fabien; Thézé, Benoît; Hubert, Violaine; Wiart, Marlène; Chirico, Erica N.; Rieusset, Jennifer; Vidal, Hubert; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE−/− mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE−/− mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta, and brain were then assessed. Results: In EX ApoE−/− mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE−/− EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during 12 weeks), brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.049) with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE−/−mice. Conclusion: We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE−/− animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status) but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation) did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE−/− mice.

  5. The contrasting effects of ad libitum and restricted feeding of a diet very high in saturated fats on sex ratio and metabolic hormones in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexenko, Andrei P; Mao, Jiude; Ellersieck, Mark R; Davis, Angela M; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Roberts, R Michael

    2007-10-01

    Skewing of the sex ratio towards males occurs among pups born to mice fed a very high saturated fat (VHF) diet. In the present study, we tested whether the fat content of the VHF diet rather than the number of calories consumed is responsible for this effect. Eight-week-old NIH Swiss mice were placed on the VHF diet either ad libitum (VHF) or in a restricted manner (VHF-R). The VHF-R mice gained weight at a similar rate to controls fed a standard chow diet. Mice were bred at 15 wk and subsequently at 26 wk and 35 wk of age. Overall, the VHF, VHF-R, and control groups delivered 244, 242, and 274 pups, respectively, with male proportions of 0.60, 0.43, and 0.48, respectively. The pup sex ratios of the VHF group (favoring males) and VHF-R group (favoring females) each differed from 0.5 (P fat consumed. Since males fed the VHF diet had neither more Y-sperm nor sired more sons than daughters, the dietary effects are manifested exclusively through the female.

  6. Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status.......We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status....

  7. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2013-01-01

    evoked a 2.7-cm (95% CI: 0.9, 5.1) smaller waist circumference and a 0.25-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.09, 0.41) lower serum LDL cholesterol compared with the LP diets at 6 mo (P waist circumference (P = 0.004), blood pressure......, increased protein intake improved cardiovascular markers in high-risk children, particularly in those undergoing most intensive intervention....

  8. Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aller, E E J G; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Background:A high dietary protein (P) content and low glycemic index (GI) have been suggested to be beneficial for weight management, but long-term studies are scarce.Objective:The DIOGENES randomized clinical trial investigated the effect of P and GI on weight loss maintenance in overweight....../high GI (HP/HGI), low P/low GI (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI) and a control diet. During the first 6 months foods were provided for free through a shop system, during the whole 12-month period subjects received guidance by a dietician. Primary outcome variable was the change in body weight over the 12......-month intervention period.Results:During the LCD period subjects lost 11.2 (10.8, 12.0) kg (mean (95% CI)). Average weight regain over the 12-month intervention period was 3.9 (95% CI 3.0 to 4.8) kg. Subjects on the HP diets regained less weight than subjects on the LP diets. The difference in weight...

  9. Local e extensão da digestão em terneiros desmamados alimentados "Ad Libitum" com dietas ricas em concentrado contendo diferentes fontes de proteína suplementar Site and extent of digestion by weaned calves fed "Ad Libitum" on high concentrate-rich diets with different supplemental protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vilmar Kozloski

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados nove terneiros da raça Holandesa (139 ± 2,4kg, fistulados no duodeno, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado para estudar o efeito da suplementação com diferentes fontes protéicas (2% de uréia ou 10% de farinha de carne na dieta total de dietas ricas em concentrado (milho e farelo de soja sobre o local e extensão da digestão do alimento, em condições de consumo ad libitum. A relação volumoso:concentrado das dietas foi de 30:70. A digestibilidade ruminal e total da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e nitrogênio, assim como o fluxo duodenal de nitrogênio microbiano e residual do alimento, e a eficiência da síntese protéica microbiana foram semelhantes nos dois tratamentos (P>0,10. A digestibilidade ruminal do amido também foi semelhante, mas a digestibilidade total foi menor no tratamento com uréia (PNine weaned Holstein calves (139 ± 2.4kg fitted with duodenal cannulas were used in a completly ramdomized design to study the effects of supplemental protein sources (2% of urea or 10% of meat meal of high concentrate diets (corn and soybean meal on site and extent of digestion of feed, in ad libitum feeding conditions. The forage:concentrate ratio was 30:70. The ruminal and total digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and nitrogen, as well as microbial and feed residual nitrogen duodenal flow, and the microbial protein synthesis efficiency were similar for both treatments (P>0.10. The ruminal digestibility of starch was also similar, but total digestibility was lower for urea treatment (P<0.10. However, this is probably due more to the limited capacity of ruminants to digest starch in the intestines than to an effect of the protein supplement. The use of urea or meat meal, as supplemental protein sources for corn and soybean meal based diets, formulated to supply the growth requirements of calves fed ad libitum, did not affect the digestion process.Thus, the choise of the protein

  10. Adaptive changes in the appetite, growth and feeding behaviour of pony mares offered ad libitum access to a complete diet in either a pelleted or chaff-based form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argo, C.M.; Cox, J.E.; Lockyer, C.

    2002-01-01

    Seven, 3-year-old pony mares (similar to230 kg) were used in a cross-over study to compare the appetite, energy and nutrient digestibilities, growth rate and feeding behaviour, when a complete diet was offered ad libitum in either the original loose-chaff mix (C), or as a more convenient, milled...... stabled ponies to re-establish natural feeding patterns and offers a viable alternative to meal and forage feeding. The more slowly ingested chaff form maximized time spent feeding and limited changes in DEI during the introductory period. Although CS and ADG increased over the first 4 weeks, growth...

  11. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.

  12. Pattern of tissue deposition, gain and body composition of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two levels of concentrate in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty 18-month-old steers (20 Nellore, 20 F1 Simmental × Nellore and 20 F1 Angus × Nellore with average body weight of 265.6±6.4 kg; 325.3±4.7 kg and 324.6±6.0 kg, respectively were used. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on physical carcass composition, empty body composition, composition of the gain, as well as the pattern of tissue deposition were evaluated in this trial. The interaction between genetic group and feeding regime was not significant for any variable evaluated. Animals fed at the maintenance level produced carcass with larger proportions of bones and muscle than the animals fed ad libitum and Nellore animals had larger muscle portion and smaller adipose tissue portion on the carcass than the crossbred animals. Nellore animals and those fed at maintenance had smaller amount of total fat in the carcass than the crossbred animals and those fed ad libitum, respectively. Fat was deposited more pronouncedly in the intermuscular depot, followed by the visceral depot. The rate of deposition of the carcass tissues was smaller in the Nellore animals and in the animals fed the diet with concentrate allowance equivalent to 1% body weight (except for subcutaneous fat tissue, when compared with the crossbred animals and those fed the diet with 2% BW on concentrate, respectively. The rate of fat deposition on the visceral depot was larger in the F1 Angus × Nellore animals and on those fed the 2% of BW of concentrate diet when compared with F1 Simmental × Nellore animals and those fed the diet with the lowest concentrate allowance (1% BW.

  13. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2010-01-01

    Diet is important in the prevention of CVD, and it has been suggested that a diet high in MUFA is more cardioprotective than a low-fat diet. We hypothesised that the thrombotic risk profile is improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...

  14. Effects on markers of inflammation and endothelial cell function of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2011-01-01

    Diet is important for the prevention of CVD, and diets high in MUFA might be more cardioprotective than low-fat diets. We hypothesise that inflammation and endothelial cell function will be improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) assigned to a diet moderate in the amount of fat (35-45% of energy; >20% of fat as MUFA; MUFA diet, n 39), a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet, n 43) or a control diet (35 % of energy as fat, n 24) for 6 months after...... weight loss. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all diets. Food was provided free of charge. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the intervention and analysed for C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and tissue factor pathway...

  15. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: A 6-mo randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    a 6-mo controlled dietary intervention. DESIGN: Nondiabetic overweight or obese [mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.5 +/- 2.6] men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 +/- 4.8 y were randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45% of energy) and >20% of fat...... as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet; n = 54), to a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet; n = 51), or to a control diet (35% of energy as fat; n = 26). Protein constituted 10-20% of energy in all 3 diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: More subjects dropped.......6%) groups than in the control group (2.6 +/- 0.5%) (P fasting insulin decreased by 2.6 +/- 3.5 pmol/L, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance by 0.17 +/- 0.13, and the ratio of LDL to HDL by 0.33 +/- 0.13; in the LF group, these variables increased by 4.3 +/- 3...

  16. Growth differences of male and female Gottingen minipigs during ad libitum feeding: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P.J.A.; Madsen, L.W.; Meyer, Otto A.

    2005-01-01

    Even though minipigs have been used in biomedical research for nearly half a century now, no specific nutrient requirements are available. For that reason a series of studies into the nutrient requirements of Gottingen minipigs were carried out. Firstly, a pilot study was carried out to determine...... the ad libitum feed intake (FI) during growth, as a reference for later feed restriction studies. Four male and four female minipigs were fed two types of diet, one standard pig diet (20.6% crude protein; 11.7% crude fat; 13.5 mj/kg DM metabolizable energy) and one diet specially designed for minipigs...... backfat thickness. Relative backfat thickness ranged from 5 to 13 cm/100 kg. Females had thicker relative backfat layers than males. Remarkably, no large changes in haematology and clinical chemistry occurred in ad libitum fed Gottingen minipigs as compared to reference values, and no abnormalities other...

  17. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Genoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2 Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2 were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22 or AGHE diet (n = 17 for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3 Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0, p < 0.001. There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E, 95% CI −19.5, −9.7, sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518, calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0 and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5 and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1 and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410 (all p < 0.01; (4 Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations.

  18. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, Psoda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  19. Influence of ad Libitum Feeding of Piglets With Bacillus Subtilis Fermented Liquid Feed on Gut Flora, Luminal Contents and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuyong; Mao, Chunxia; Wen, Hong; Chen, Zhiyu; Lai, Tao; Li, Lingyu; Lu, Wei; Wu, Huadong

    2017-01-01

    Some scholars caution that long-term ad libitum feeding with probiotic fermented food poses potential health risks to baby animals. We conducted a feeding experiment to investigate the influence of ad libitum feeding of pre-and post-weaned piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented diet on the gut microbiome, gut metabolomic profiles, bile acid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokines and faecal consistency. Compared with piglets fed a Bacillus subtilis-supplemented pellet diet, piglets fed the Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet had lower intestinal bacterial diversity (P > 0.05), higher intestinal fungal diversity (P > 0.05), more Firmicutes (P > 0.05), fewer Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria (P > 0.05), higher concentrations of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (P acid (P lactic acid (P acid (P > 0.05) and lithocholic acid (P  0.05). The data show that ad libitum feeding of piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet during the suckling and early post-weaning periods promotes the growth of lactic acid bacteria, bile salt hydrolase-active bacteria and 7a-dehydroxylase-active bacteria in the intestinal lumen; disturbs the normal production of lactic acid, orotic acid and unconjugated bile acids; and increases circulating interleukin-6 levels and diarrhoea incidence. PMID:28291252

  20. Comparison of behaviour, performance and mortality in restricted and ad libitum-fed growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Ramon, J; Piles, M; Sanchez, J P; Velarde, A; Rafel, O

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rabbits fed in a restricted regimen (75%) showed increased competition for feeding, drinking and use of specific areas of the cages as compared with those provided feed ad libitum. This evaluation was carried out by measuring their space utilisation in the cage, the incidence of agonistic behaviour and rates of mortality. In total, 504 rabbits between 31 and 66 days of age were used in this study. A total of 200 heavy-weight rabbits and 56 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 32 cages, each cage containing eight rabbits: 25 cages housing heavy rabbits and seven cages housing the light-weight ones. They were all fed ad libitum (AD). In addition, a total of 208 heavy-weight rabbits and 40 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 31 cages, each of them containing eight rabbits: 26 cages housing heavy weight rabbits and five cages housing light-weight ones. They were all fed a restricted diet (R) regimen. The restriction was calculated to be 75% of the feed consumed by the AD group. The total space available in the cage was 3252 cm(2), with a stocking density of 24.6 animals/m(2). Animals between 32 and 60 days of age from 20 different cages were observed nine times per week (morning or afternoon) by means of scan and focal sampling by one observer. During each period, cages were assessed for 5 min, registering every minute the position of all the animals in relation to Area A (feeder), Area B (central part) or Area C (back and drinker area). The incidence of agonistic behaviour such as displacement, biting and jumping on each other was also assessed. Performance variables such as daily gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to general health status and mortality rates, were recorded for all rabbits. When the rabbits were under restricted feeding, the competition for feed and drink increased with clear signs of agonistic behaviour such as biting, displacement and animals jumping on top of each other

  1. Bone Composition in Male and Female Göttingen Minipigs Fed Variously Restrictedly and near ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P. J. A.; Lemmens, A. G.; Beynen, A. C.;

    2006-01-01

    The current study evaluated the influence of restricted feeding at low and medium levels versus near ad libitum food intake, on the growth and bone development in male and female Göttingen minipigs aged 8 to 43 weeks fed two different types of diets. Diet 1 was a low fat, high fibre diet, whereas...... development, bone volume, and dry matter and ash content of the rib (mg) as compared to males. Also bone mineral concentrations in the femur, expressed as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in mg/cm3, were significantly higher in females as compared to males, as was the Ca:Pi ratio. Bone density measurements...... diet 2 was a high fat, low fibre diet. A higher level of feed intake led to a significant increase in the following parameters: body weight development, bone size (length and width of rib and femur), bone volume (rib), bone (rib) dry matter and ash content (mg), as well as bone density (femur...

  2. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkulo, M.A.R.; Bol, S.; Levels, K.; Lamberts, R.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Noakes, T.D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and tw

  3. The Ratio of Macronutrients, Not Caloric Intake, Dictates Cardiometabolic Health, Aging, and Longevity in Ad Libitum-Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M.; McMahon, Aisling C.; Ballard, J. William O.; Ruohonen, Kari; Wu, Lindsay E.; Cogger, Victoria C.; Warren, Alessandra; Huang, Xin; Pichaud, Nicolas; Melvin, Richard G.; Gokarn, Rahul; Khalil, Mamdouh; Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J.; Sinclair, David A.; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The fundamental questions of what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet and how this maintains health and longevity remain unanswered. Here, the Geometric Framework, a state-space nutritional modeling method, was used to measure interactive effects of dietary energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate on food intake, cardiometabolic phenotype, and longevity in mice fed one of 25 diets ad libitum. Food intake was regulated primarily by protein and carbohydrate content. Longevity and health were optimized when protein was replaced with carbohydrate to limit compensatory feeding for protein and suppress protein intake. These consequences are associated with hepatic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and mitochondrial function and, in turn, related to circulating branched-chain amino acids and glucose. Calorie restriction achieved by high-protein diets or dietary dilution had no beneficial effects on lifespan. The results suggest that longevity can be extended in ad libitum-fed animals by manipulating the ratio of macronutrients to inhibit mTOR activation. PMID:24606899

  4. Effects of segregation and impact of specific feeding behaviour and additional fruit on voluntary nutrient and energy intake in yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona barbadensis) when fed a multi-component seed diet ad libitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, I D; Veys, A C; Geeroms, B; Reinschmidt, M; Waugh, D; Werquin, G; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    Parrots are commonly fed multi-component seed diets; however, both segregation and feeding behaviour might alter ingredient and nutrient composition of the offered diet. First, the nutritional impact of segregation was assessed as it occurs when multi-component diets are temporarily stored in food containers that are replenished before completely emptied and birds being fed from the upper layer. The most detrimental effect hereof was a vast decrease in mineral supplements, leading to a decrease in Ca:P ratio in the offered food in relation to the formulated diet. Next, caloric distribution shifted towards more EE energy at the expense of NFE energy, as proportion of oilseeds increased and NFE-rich seeds decreased. Next, a feeding trial was performed on six yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona Barbadensis) in which nutritional impact of parrot-specific feeding behaviour was assessed as well as the influence of additional provision of fruit next to the seed mixture. Profound selective feeding behaviour and dehusking of seeds resulted in a vast increase in energetic density by up to 64% in the ingested fraction in relation to the offered mixture in toto. Furthermore, the already suboptimal Ca:P ratio further deteriorated and caloric distribution shifted by over twofold towards EE energy accompanied with a vast decline in NFE energy, CP energy remaining similar. Finally, provision of fruit next to the seed diet significantly lowered voluntary energy intake from 936 ± 71 to 809 ± 109 kJ ME/kg(0.75)/day, without compromising adequate protein intake. In conclusion, notwithstanding efforts of nutritionists to formulate diets to approximate estimated, species-specific requirements, nutritional composition of the actually consumed fraction of multi-component seed diets can be vastly deteriorated by both animal and management factors. Furthermore, offering of fruit next to a seed-based diet effectively reduces voluntary energy intake and can hence be applied to abate obesity.

  5. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate: a 6-month randomised study in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas M; Due, Anette

    2010-01-01

    ) for 6 months after a weight loss of about 10 %. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all three diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after intervention and analysed for factor VII coagulant activity (FVII...

  6. Water balance and ad libitum water intake in football players during a training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.

  7. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle.

  8. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (pexercise condition (pexercise condition (pExercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise.

  9. Meat quality of rabbits reared with two different feeding strategies: with or without fresh alfalfa ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Capra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate production performance, carcass characteristics and nutritive value of meat of rabbits reared under the 2 prevailing feeding strategies in Uruguay. One week after weaning, 96 purebred V line rabbits were randomly distributed between 2 treatments: (T1 commercial pelleted food ad libitum and (T2 commercial pelleted food ad libitum plus fresh alfalfa ad libitum. Each treatment included 12 cages containing 4 individuals each (2 males and 2 females. Growth performance characteristics (live weight evolution, commercial food consumption and food/gain ratio were evaluated. The consumption of alfalfa was not measured. Rabbits were slaughtered at a live weight of 2500 g and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Samples of meat and dissectible fat were analysed to determine intramuscular fat content at muscle L. dorsi, dissectible fat and intramuscular fat composition, minerals (Zn, Fe, Mg and Na, vitamin E and purines. Sensory evaluations were conducted to assess the effect of treatments on the consumer’s perception of differences and the existence of attributes determining preferences. Differences between treatments were significant for total commercial food intake (23 356 vs. 20 930 g/cage; P<0.001 and feed conversion ratio (3.82 vs. 3.41; P<0.01 for T1 and T2 respectively. No significant differences were found in average daily gain, age at slaughter and carcass characteristics. There were no significant differences in the intramuscular fat content. The fatty acid composition of dissectible and intramuscular fat was affected the inclusion of alfalfa in the diet increasing the linolenic acid content (1.82 vs. 3.28% and 2.29 vs. 5.15% for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001, and improving the n-6/n-3 relationship (8.60 vs. 5.82 and 11.58 vs. 5.64 for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001. There were no significant differences in vitamin E

  10. Ractopamine for finishing barrows fed restricted or ad libitum diets: performance and nitrogen balance Ractopamina para suínos em terminação recebendo ração restrita ou à vontade: desempenho e balanço de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius de Souza Cantarelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation of 5 ppm of ractopamine, associated or not to feed restriction in diets with a high total lysine content (1.04% was evaluated on performance and nitrogen balance. In experiment 1, 60 hybrid castrated male swine (76.2 ± 2.3 kg were housed in pairs according to a randomized complete block design in a factorial treatment arrangement (2 ×2 + 1 with or without ractopamine supplementation, two forms of feeding, ad libitum and feed restriction with 1.04% lysine, and an additional treatment (control, with ad libitum feed without ractopamine with 0.8% lysine, amounting to five treatments and six replications. The final live weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed conversion for 28 days were evaluated. There were improvements in supplementation with ractopamine for final live weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion. The ad libitum feeding improved both final live weight and daily weight gain compared with ractopamine. Compared with the control, there was a decrease in feed conversion with ractopamine supplementation and improvement for final weight (FW in the treatment with the ractopamine and ad libitum feed. In experiment 2, 30 hybrid castrated male swine (74.1 ± 2.5 kg were housed in metabolism cages and fed the same experimental treatments to evaluate the percentages of absorbed nitrogen (Nabs, retained nitrogen (Nret, nitrogen retained from the absorbed nitrogen (Nret/Nabs and the plasma urea concentration at 14 and 28 days. At 14 days, there was an increase in the Nret/Nabs and plasma urea concentration with ractopamine supplementation. Compared with the control, there was a decrease in the plasma urea concentration for feed restriction with ractopamine. At 28 days, there was an increase in the Nret/Nabs with ractopamine supplementation. Thus supplementation with 5 ppm ractopamine improved the performance and efficiency of swine nitrogen use. Feed restriction interfered negatively in weight gain, but it

  11. Duration of fertility in ad libitum and feed-restricted caged broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerzen, P R; Julsrud, W L; Robinson, F E

    1996-08-01

    It has been shown in previous studies that fertility can be reduced in overweight broiler breeder (BB) flocks. In an effort to determine the effect of ad libitum feeding on the duration of fertility in BB hens, 60 52-wk-old Shaver Starbro hens were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, ad libitum feeding (F) or restricted feeding (R) to maintain breeder target weights. All hens were reared to 52 wk under conditions of feed restriction. All birds were weighed individually on a weekly basis. At the beginning of each of two 4-wk study periods (56 to 60 wk and 60 wk to 64 wk), all birds were inseminated on 2 consecutive d with 0.05 mL pooled BB semen. All eggs were weighed and placed in a forced air incubator the same day that they were laid. After 7 to 10 d of incubation, the eggs were broken out and scored macroscopically as fertile with live embryo, fertile with dead embryo (early embryonic death), or clear (assumed infertile). The duration of fertility was defined as the number of days from the day after the second insemination to the last fertile egg before two consecutive interfile eggs. Hen BW were significantly different between treatments within each of the two 4-wk studies. The mean BW of the F hens was 4,261 g in Study 1 and 4,448 g in Study 2. The BW of the R hens were 3,459 g in Study 1 and 3,565 g in Study 2. Egg production levels and average egg weight was not different between treatments in either study. In Study 1, the duration of fertility for the F hens (12.7 d) and the R hens (12.7 d) were not different. In Study 2, the durations of fertility were significantly higher (P hens (12.7 d) than in the F hens (10.0 d). These results support the theory that overweight BB have a reduced duration of fertility that may contribute to a reduced fertility in artificially inseminated and naturally mated flocks.

  12. Alterations in energy balance from an exercise intervention with ad libitum food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Katarina; Renaud, Anne; Zurbuchen, Stefanie; Tschopp, Céline; Lehmann, Jan; Malatesta, Davide; Ruch, Nicole; Schutz, Yves; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding is needed regarding the effects of exercise alone, without any imposed dietary regimens, as a single tool for body-weight regulation. Thus, we evaluated the effects of an 8-week increase in activity energy expenditure (AEE) on ad libitum energy intake (EI), body mass and composition in healthy participants with baseline physical activity levels (PAL) in line with international recommendations. Forty-six male adults (BMI = 19·7-29·3 kg/m(2)) participated in an intervention group, and ten (BMI = 21·0-28·4 kg/m(2)) in a control group. Anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory fitness, EI, AEE and exercise intensity were recorded at baseline and during the 1st, 5th and 8th intervention weeks, and movement was recorded throughout. Body composition was measured at the beginning and at the end of the study, and resting energy expenditure was measured after the study. The intervention group increased PAL from 1·74 (se 0·03) to 1·93 (se 0·03) (P energy balance. Replication using a longer period (and/or more intense increase in PAL) is needed to investigate if and at what body composition the increase in AEE is met by an equivalent increase in EI.

  13. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  14. Quantifying hepatic glycogen synthesis by direct and indirect pathways in rats under normal ad libitum feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana F; Viega, Francisco J; Carvalho, Rui A; Jones, John G

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic glycogen synthesis from intact hexose (direct pathway) relative to that from gluconeogenic precursors (indirect pathway) was quantified in ad libitum-fed rats. Following (2)H(2)O administration and overnight feeding, the livers were removed and glycogen (2)H-enrichment was measured by (2)H NMR. Six controls and six rats rendered hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (STZ; fasting blood glucose = 385 +/- 31 mg/dl) were studied. The indirect pathway contribution, estimated as glycogen hydrogen 5 relative to hydrogen 2 enrichment, was 54% +/- 4% for control rats-similar to values from healthy, meal-fed humans. In STZ-treated rats, the indirect pathway contribution was significantly higher (68% +/- 4%, P diabetic (T1D) patients. In conclusion, sources of hepatic glycogen synthesis in rats during ad libitum nocturnal feeding were quantified by analysis of glycogen enrichment from (2)H(2)O. STZ caused alterations resembling the pathophysiology of hepatic glycogen synthesis in T1D patients.

  15. Fattening Holstein heifers by feeding high-moisture corn (whole or ground) ad libitum separately from concentrate and straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devant, M; Quintana, B; Aris, A; Bach, A

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of high-moisture corn (HMC), either whole or ground, fed separately from concentrate and straw on feeding behavior, rumen fermentation, whole tract digestibility, and nitrogen balance. Twenty-four Holstein heifers (199 ± 5.5 kg BW and 157 ± 6.9 d age) housed in individual pens were assigned to 3 treatments: 1) whole (unprocessed) HMC fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (WHMC); 2) HMC ground through a 0.4-cm screen before ensiling and fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (GHMC); and 3) a concentrate composed of mainly corn meal, ground through a roller mill with screen openings of 6 mm, and barley straw, both fed separately and ad libitum (Control). Concentrate, HMC, and straw were offered separately ad libitum in a free-choice situation and consumption was recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. Apparent nutrient digestibility and N balance were determined at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. At the same time points, rumen fluid was collected through rumenocentesis to determine rumen pH and VFA concentrations. Feeding behavior was monitored throughout the study. Animals were harvested after 134 d and HCW, rumen and cecum wall lesions, and liver abscesses were recorded. Treatment did not affect total DMI, feed efficiency, ADG, final BW, and carcass weight or classification. Concentrate consumption (6.6 ± 0.35 kg/d) of Control heifers was greater ( straw resulted in performance and behavioral patterns similar to feeding only concentrate and straw.

  16. On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henny C; van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Henk J

    2014-08-28

    Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks after implantation, leaving no local antimicrobial release available when a biomaterial-associated infection occurs later. Here we compare the ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a central venous catheter with their release from a new, on-demand release coating consisting of a temperature-sensitive copolymer of styrene and n-butyl (meth)acrylate. The copolymer can be loaded with an antimicrobial, which is released when the temperature is raised above its glass transition temperature. Ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a commercially-purchased catheter and associated antimicrobial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus was limited to 16days. Consecutive temperature-triggers of our on-demand coating yielded little or no antimicrobial efficacy of silver-acetate release, but antimicrobially-effective chlorhexidine concentrations were observed over a time period of 60-80days. This attests to the clear advantage of on-demand coatings above ad libitum releasing coatings, that may have released their antimicrobial content before it is actually needed. Importantly, glass transition temperature of chlorhexidine loaded copolymers was lower (48°C) than of silver loaded ones (61°C), facilitating their clinical use.

  17. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  18. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eHoch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger.Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for ten minutes each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test.In summary, fat (F, carbohydrates (CH, and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chips (PC were highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite their low energy density, fat-free potato chips (ffPC were also highly significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH and PC.Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  19. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  20. Leptin receptor in the chicken ovary: potential involvement in ovarian dysfunction of ad libitum-fed broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Anne

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hens, the ovarian follicles committed to ovulation are arranged in an ordered follicular hierarchy. In standard broiler breeders hens genetically selected for high growth rate the reproductive function is clearly dysfunctional. Feed restriction is needed during reproductive development to limit the formation of excessive numbers of ovarian yellow follicles arranged in multiple hierarchies. To determine whether leptin is involved in the nutritional and reproductive interactions controlling follicular hierarchy in hens, blood leptin levels and ovarian expression of the leptin receptor mRNA were determined during follicle maturation in three chicken lines; a slow growing broiler "Label" genotype without reproductive dysfunction, a fast growing "Standard" genotype fed ad libitum or restricted and a fast growing "Experimental" line with intermediate reproductive performance levels. Whereas expression of the leptin receptor mRNA did not change in the theca, it clearly decreased with follicular differentiation in the granulosa of slow growing hens. In fast growing standard hens fed ad libitum and presenting significant reproductive dysfunction, the decrease was disrupted and dramatic up-regulation of granulosa cell expression of the leptin receptor was observed. On the other hand, feed restriction decreased the overall level of expression of the leptin receptor mRNA and restored the decrease with follicular growth. The level of expression of the leptin receptor probably modulates the action of leptin on follicular differentiation. Since blood leptin and other metabolic factors were not affected by the genotype or by nutritional state, the factors involved in the regulation of leptin receptor gene expression remain to be determined. This study demonstrates the involvement of leptin in the nutritional control of reproduction in birds. Leptin action on the ovary probably controls follicular hierarchy through the regulation of steroidogenesis.

  1. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  2. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hopkins, William

    2009-01-31

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ("Ad lib") larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ("Ration") larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V(total) (Control, "C"), 109 ppm (Low, "L"), and 363 ppm (High, "H"). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at alpha=0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources are typically more limited.

  3. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of indigenous Pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia nilotica leaf meal and ad libitum Buffalo grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motubatse, M R; Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Malatje, M M

    2008-04-01

    In a first of two experiments, twenty yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.3 +/- 0.5 kg live weight were used in a 37-day study in a 2 (levels of PEG 4000) x 2 (levels ofAcacia) Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomised Design to determine the effect of the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g polyethylene glycol 4000 on diet intake and digestibility, and growth rate of Pedi goats fed ad libitum Buffalo grass hay. Acacia nilotica leaf meal contained high amounts of total phenolics (2.04% DM) and low amounts of condensed tannins; both extracted (0.37% DM) and unextracted (1.83% DM). Supplementation with PEG 4000 increased (P diets similar to the actual ratios of the first experiment. Level of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation improved (P < 0.05) in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities where 120 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. Similarly, 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) in vitro CP digestibility where 80 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. In vivo DM and OM digestibilities were best predicted from in vitro DM and OM digestibilities while in vivo CP was explained by in vitro OM and CP digestibilities. It is, therefore, concluded that in vitro DM and OM digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo DM and OM digestibilities while OM and CP digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo CP digestibility.

  4. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8–11-year-old boys

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8–11 year-old boys in a schoolbased setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum....

  5. Serum lipase activity and concentration during intravenous infusions of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 and after ad libitum meal ingestion in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Stevner, Lene Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect on serum lipase activity and protein concentration of intravenous infusions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY3-36) and of an ad libitum meal in healthy overweight men. Twenty-five healthy, male subjects participated in this randomized, double...... the infusion and after intake of an ad libitum meal for measurement of serum lipase. Serum lipase levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following mono-infusions of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 were comparable to serum lipase levels following placebo (P = 0.054 and P = 0.873, respectively...

  6. Both Longer Oral Sensory Exposure to and Higher Intensity of Saltiness Decrease Ad Libitum Food Intake in Healthy Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    Orosensory exposure to sweetness has been shown to be important in satiation, whereas the effect of exposure to a salty taste on satiation is not known. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of orosensory exposure time to and intensity of saltiness in soup on ad libitum intake. The sec

  7. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-01-01

    was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterized as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species...

  8. Effects of toasting blue lupins, soybeans or barley as supplement for high-yielding organic dairy cows fed grass-clover silage ad libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Lund, Peter; Kristensen, Troels;

    2008-01-01

    . The supplement under investigation was: lupins in experiment 1, barley in experiment 2 and soybeans in experiment 3. The same forage mixture of grass-clover silage (84% of DM), grass pellets (11% of DM) and straw (5% of DM) was fed ad libitum in all the experiments. Toasting decreased effective rumen protein...

  9. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

    2013-04-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal.

  10. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Jensen, M.G.; Riboldi, G.

    2010-01-01

    lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum El did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased Satiety Measures compared to their refined...

  11. Reappraise the situation but express your emotions:Impact of emotion regulation strategies on ad libitum food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eTaut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect and emotion regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165 could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of 1 whether eating (yes/no is used as a secondary emotion regulation strategy and 2 whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the emotion regulation strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, emotion regulation strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion-induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without emotion regulation instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no emotion regulation instruction then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no emotion regulation instruction and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted emotion regulation is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive emotion regulation such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when emotion regulation is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  12. Ad libitum fluid intake leads to no leg swelling in male Ironman triathletes – an observational field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Michael

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between fluid intake and limb swelling has been described for 100-km ultra-marathoners. We investigated a potential development of peripheral oedemata in Ironman triathletes competing over 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.2 km running. Methods In 15 male Ironman triathletes, fluid intake, changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, limb volumes and skinfold thickness were measured. Changes in renal function, parameters of skeletal muscle damage, hematologic parameters and osmolality in both serum and urine were determined. Skinfold thicknesses at hands and feet were measured using LIPOMETER® and changes of limb volumes were measured using plethysmography. Results The athletes consumed a total of 8.6 ± 4.4 L of fluids, equal to 0.79 ± 0.43 L/h. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass and the volume of the lower leg decreased (p p >0.05. The decrease in skeletal muscle mass was associated with the decrease in body mass (p p >0.05. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum sodium remained unchanged (p >0.05. Osmolality in serum and urine increased (p +] (r = −0.52, p r = −0.60, p Conclusions In these Ironman triathletes, ad libitum fluid intake maintained plasma [Na+] and plasma osmolality and led to no peripheral oedemata. The volume of the lower leg decreased and the decrease was unrelated to fluid intake. Future studies may investigate ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running to find an association between fluid intake and the development of peripheral oedemata.

  13. Ad libitum fluid intake leads to no leg swelling in male Ironman triathletes – an observational field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and limb swelling has been described for 100-km ultra-marathoners. We investigated a potential development of peripheral oedemata in Ironman triathletes competing over 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.2 km running. Methods In 15 male Ironman triathletes, fluid intake, changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, limb volumes and skinfold thickness were measured. Changes in renal function, parameters of skeletal muscle damage, hematologic parameters and osmolality in both serum and urine were determined. Skinfold thicknesses at hands and feet were measured using LIPOMETER® and changes of limb volumes were measured using plethysmography. Results The athletes consumed a total of 8.6 ± 4.4 L of fluids, equal to 0.79 ± 0.43 L/h. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass and the volume of the lower leg decreased (p 0.05). The decrease in skeletal muscle mass was associated with the decrease in body mass (p 0.05). Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum sodium remained unchanged (p >0.05). Osmolality in serum and urine increased (p <0.05). The change in body mass was related to post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) (r = −0.52, p <0.05) and post-race serum osmolality (r = −0.60, p <0.05). Conclusions In these Ironman triathletes, ad libitum fluid intake maintained plasma [Na+] and plasma osmolality and led to no peripheral oedemata. The volume of the lower leg decreased and the decrease was unrelated to fluid intake. Future studies may investigate ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running to find an association between fluid intake and the development of peripheral oedemata. PMID:22937792

  14. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (se 3) v. 52 (se 2) kJ/h, respectively, P = 0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P = 0·63) and energy balance (P = 0·67) also...

  15. Effect of alfalfa hay on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of growing lambs with ad libitum access to total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Alhidary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Forty male Naemi lambs were used to evaluate the effect of total mixed rations (TMR alone or in combination with supplementation of alfalfa hay offered at different schedules on growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Lambs at the age of three months, with an average weight of 28.85±1.09 kg, were randomly selected and distributed into four different feeding systems, 10 lambs each, as follows: TMR diet (control; TMR plus 100 g alfalfa hay; TMR plus 200 g alfalfa hay every two days; and TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay every three days. The TMR and fresh drinking water were offered ad libitum. Lambs in the treated groups (with alfalfa hay had significantly higher body weight, body weight change, dry matter intake, and feed conversion ratio compared with the control. Similarly, slaughter weight, carcass weight (hot and cold, and internal organs weight significantly increased in the treated groups, except for dressing weight percentage, which improved only in the treatment with TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay. By contrast, mesentery fat, back fat, and body wall fat decreased in treated groups. Meat quality characteristics indicated that cooking loss and pH values did not differ between the control and treated groups; however, meat colour (lightness, yellowness, and redness and pH (1 and 24 h improved in post-slaughter treated groups. Furthermore, no difference was found in texture profile analysis (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness, although the shear force decreased significantly in treated groups. Addition of alfalfa hay offered at the present plan may not only improve the growth and carcass characteristics, but also enhance the meat quality of Naemi lambs. From the labour and economic point of view, TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay every three days may be adopted while taking into account the management decision.

  16. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  17. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  18. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  19. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  20. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  1. Influencia de la ingesta ad libitum de bebidas con diferente osmolaridad sobre algunas variables fisiológicas durante una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración. Influence of ad libitum intake of beverages with different osmolarities on some physiological parameters during a high-intensity, long-duration physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: establecer la influencia de la ingesta ad libitum de diferentes bebidas hidratantes sobre el porcentaje de pérdida del peso corporal (%PC, el aumento de la frecuencia cardíaca (FC y la reducción porcentual del volumen plasmático (%VP en deportistas sometidos a una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración. Metodología: luego de nueve minutos de calentamiento, en banda rodante con velocidad equivalente al 50% de la frecuencia cardíaca de reserva (FCR, siguieron 88 minutos de carrera, durante la cual la velocidad se incrementó al 80% de la FCR; al final, 90 minutos de recuperación. No se hizo reposición hídrica durante el tratamiento deshidratado (DH; durante los tratamientos con hidratación se emplearon volúmenes similares, ingeridos ad libitum, de cada una de tres bebidas, a saber: hiperosmolar (Hiper, hipoosmolar (Hipo e isoosmolar (Iso. Resultados: se observó en cada uno de los tratamientos un aumento del porcentaje de pérdia del peso corporal (%PC (p<0,001 y de la FC (p< 0,05 al igual que una correlación entre el %PC y el incremento de la FC (p<0,000; en los tratamientos DH e Hiper hubo una reducción del volumen plasmático (%VP (p<0,05. Se observó interacción tiempo-tratamiento con el %PC. Conclusiones: la ingesta ad libitum fue menor que la cantidad recomendada en la literatura internacional, por lo que, probablemente, no se pudieron establecer los efectos de la osmolaridad de las bebidas hidratantes sobre las variables estudiadas. La magnitud del %PC, del incremento de la FC y de la reducción del %VP fueron proporcionales a la duración de la actividad física; la relación existente entre el %PC y la %VP se modificó por la osmolaridad de la bebida. Objetive: To establish the influence of ad libitum intake of hydrating beverages with different osmolarities on the percentage of body weight loss (%BW, the increase of heart rate (HR, and the percentage of plasma volume decrease (%PV in athletes

  2. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Gao, Zhiling, E-mail: zhilinggao@hotmail.com [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo [College of Animal Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Cai, Zhenjiang [Mechanical and Electric Engineering College, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China)

    2015-04-15

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were

  3. Plasma cortisol levels in response to a cold pressor test did not predict appetite or ad libitum test meal intake in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D; Hernandez, Dominica B; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E

    2012-12-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng/ml), heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as ratings of stress, pain, and appetite, were serially acquired. An ad libitum liquid meal was offered at 45min and intake measured covertly. Fasting cortisol was higher at 15min (mean peak cortisol) following the CPT compared to WW. Higher stress was reported at 2 and 15min for the CPT compared to WW. Pain, an indirect marker of the acute stress, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased following the CPT at 2min compared to WW. Hunger decreased after the CPT at 2 and 15min, and desire to eat ratings were lower following CPT compared to WW. Subjects did not have greater test meal intake (TMI) following CPT compared to WW. There was also no significant relationship between cortisol levels following stress and TMI, indicating that cortisol did not predict subsequent intake in obese women.

  4. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  5. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can contact your state Attorney General . Tagged with: advertising , diet , health , scam , weight loss July 2012 You ... Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  6. Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Donnelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. OBJECTIVE: TO ADDRESS THE QUESTION: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-January 2013 for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies were included. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete adults (mean age 18-64 years. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. RESULTS: No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17, 69% of acute (n = 40, 50% of short-term (n = 10, 92% of non-randomized (n = 12 and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24. Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. LIMITATIONS: The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure, or

  7. Effects of diet history on energy metabolism and physiological parameters in C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Keijer, J.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Snaas-Alders, S.H.; Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, M.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding body weight regulation is essential to fight obesity. Mouse studies, using different types of diets, showed conflicting results in terms of body weight persistence after changing from an ad libitum high-fat diet to an ad libitum low-fat diet. In this study, we questioned specifically w

  8. Comportamento ingestivo de caprinos Moxotó e Canindé submetidos à alimentação à vontade e restrita = Ingestive behavior of Moxotó and Canindé goats submitted to ad libitum and restricted feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Louro Ribeiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de caprinos das raças Moxotó e Canindé, submetidos a dois níveis de alimentação. Foram utilizados 24 cabritos inteiros (12 Moxotó e 12 Canindé com idade média de quatro meses e peso vivo inicial médio de 15 kg, alojados em baias individuais, distribuídos no delineamentointeiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2x2 (duas raças e dois níveis de alimentação e seis repetições. Os níveis de alimentação foram: à vontade (T1 e 30% de restrição em relação ao animal que recebia alimentação à vontade (T2. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais das raças Moxotó e Canindé não apresentaram diferença significativa (P>0,05 para as variáveis comportamentaisobservadas. Alimentação à vontade proporcionou maior atividade de alimentação e ruminação e menor tempo em ócio. As atividades de micção, defecação e procura por água foram influenciadas pela hora do dia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake behavior of Moxotóand Canindé breed goats when offered a diet at two levels of intake. Twenty-four noncastrated goats (12 Moxotó and 12 Canindé were used, with an average age of four months and an initial average weight of 15 kg. The goats were housed in individual pens, distributed using a completely randomized design, in a 2x2 factorial arrangement (two breeds and two levels of intake with six repetitions. The levels of intake offered were: ad libitum (T1 and 30% restriction (T2. The level of restriction was determined in relation to the amount consumed by animals on ad libitum intake. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24hr period. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the observed behavioral variables between animals of the Moxotó and Canindé breeds. Feeding at the level of free-choice intake resulted in greater feeding and

  9. Effects of different protein content and glycemic index of ad libitum diets on diabetes risk factors in overweight adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H.M.;

    2011-01-01

    Dpt. Physiology and Nutrition, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (EG, JAM); Institute of Preventive Medicine, Centre for Health and Society, Copenhagen, Denmark (CH), Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the N...

  10. Desempenho produtivo e eficiência bioeconômica de bovinos Nelore e Caracu selecionados para peso aos 378 dias de idade recebendo alimentação à vontade ou restrita Production and bioeconomic efficiency of Nellore and Caracu bulls selected to weight gain and fed ad libitum or restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gesualdi Júnior

    2006-04-01

    genetically selected Caracu with initial average weights of 404, 345 and 434 kg, respectively, were assigned to a completely randomized design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two feeding levels and three genetic groups. The dietary levels were either restricted (65 g DM/BW0.75 or ad libitum intake with animals fed twice a day. Corn silage was used as the forage portion of the diet while the concentrate contained ground corn, cottonseed meal, urea, monensin, and mineral mixture in a forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50. The slaughter criterion was four millimeters of subcutaneous fat measured by ultrasound at the 12th rib area. Bulls from the different genetic groups showed similar average daily weight gain, empty body weight gain, and carcass weight gain. However, these same variables were higher on animals fed ad libitum than on those restricted fed. No significant interaction between genetic group and feeding level was observed in this trial. Dry matter intake was affected not only by feeding level but also by genetic group and it was highest on genetically selected Caracu. Ordinary Nellore showed greater bionutritional efficiency and lower production cost compared to bulls from the other two genetic groups.

  11. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    The health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) are investigated in a six month randomized controlled intervention, in which the NND was compared to the average Danish diet (ADD) among 181 adult participants. Foods were handed out free of charge from a study shop according to the ad libitum...... has a potential as a healthy and highly satisfying diet for the general population....

  12. Impact of adding nitrate or increasing the lipid content of two contrasting diets on blood methaemoglobin and performance of two breeds of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Troy, S; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Waterhouse, A; Roehe, R

    2016-05-01

    Adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the concentration of dietary lipid are effective strategies for reducing enteric methane emissions. This study investigated their effect on health and performance of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a two×two×three factorial design comprising two breeds (CHX, crossbred Charolais; LU, Luing); two basal diets consisting of (g/kg dry matter (DM), forage to concentrate ratios) 520 : 480 (Mixed) or 84 : 916 (Concentrate); and three treatments: (i) control with rapeseed meal as the main protein source replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (18 g nitrate/kg diet DM) or (iii) rapeseed cake (RSC, increasing acid hydrolysed ether extract from 25 to 48 g/kg diet DM). Steers (n=84) were allocated to each of the six basal diet×treatments in equal numbers of each breed with feed offered ad libitum. Blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentrations (marker for nitrate poisoning) were monitored throughout the study in steers receiving nitrate. After dietary adaptation over 28 days, individual animal intake, performance and feed efficiency were recorded for a test period of 56 days. Blood MetHb concentrations were low and similar up to 14 g nitrate/kg diet DM but increased when nitrate increased to 18 g nitrate/kg diet DM (P0.05). Neither basal diet nor treatment affected carcass quality (P>0.05), but CHX steers achieved a greater killing out proportion (Pnitrate to the diet or increasing the level of dietary lipid through the use of cold-pressed RSC, did not adversely affect health or performance of finishing beef steers when used within the diets studied.

  13. Human diet and subsistence patterns in Norse Greenland AD c.980-AD c.1450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arneborg, J.; Lynnerup, Niels; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Greenlanders became more dependent on marine resources over time. The isotope data provide information at the level of the individual, and the study indicates that the Norse Greenlanders had an isotopically varied diet; there is no evidence that these differences were linked to sex or age. The shift in diet...... seems to have happened gradually, perhaps beginning during the initial settlement. The swiftness of the change, however, depended on where the immigrants settled; settlers in the southern part of the Eastern Settlement and in the Western Settlement may have adapted to the marine resources more rapidly...

  14. Adding glycaemic index and glycaemic load functionality to DietPLUS, a Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Sangeetha; Wai, Tony Ng Kock; Arshad, Fatimah

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the methodology to add glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) functionality to food DietPLUS, a Microsoft Excel-based Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator. Locally determined GI values and published international GI databases were used as the source of GI values. Previously published methodology for GI value assignment was modified to add GI and GL calculators to the database. Two popular local low GI foods were added to the DietPLUS database, bringing up the total number of foods in the database to 838 foods. Overall, in relation to the 539 major carbohydrate foods in the Malaysian Food Composition Database, 243 (45%) food items had local Malaysian values or were directly matched to International GI database and another 180 (33%) of the foods were linked to closely-related foods in the GI databases used. The mean ± SD dietary GI and GL of the dietary intake of 63 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, calculated using DietPLUS version3 were, 62 ± 6 and 142 ± 45, respectively. These values were comparable to those reported from other local studies. DietPLUS version3, a simple Microsoft Excel-based programme aids calculation of diet GI and GL for Malaysian diets based on food records.

  15. Comportamento ingestivo de caprinos Moxotó e Canindé submetidos à alimentação à vontade e restrita - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.50 Ingestive behavior of Moxotó and Canindé goats submitted to ad libitum and restricted feeding - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de caprinos das raças Moxotó e Canindé, submetidos a dois níveis de alimentação. Foram utilizados 24 cabritos inteiros (12 Moxotó e 12 Canindé com idade média de quatro meses e peso vivo inicial médio de 15 kg, alojados em baias individuais, distribuídos no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2x2 (duas raças e dois níveis de alimentação e seis repetições. Os níveis de alimentação foram: à vontade (T1 e 30% de restrição em relação ao animal que recebia alimentação à vontade (T2. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais das raças Moxotó e Canindé não apresentaram diferença significativa (P>0,05 para as variáveis comportamentais observadas. Alimentação à vontade proporcionou maior atividade de alimentação e ruminação e menor tempo em ócio. As atividades de micção, defecação e procura por água foram influenciadas pela hora do diaThe aim of this study was to evaluate the intake behavior of Moxotó and Canindé breed goats when offered a diet at two levels of intake. Twenty-four noncastrated goats (12 Moxotó and 12 Canindé were used, with an average age of four months and an initial average weight of 15 kg. The goats were housed in individual pens, distributed using a completely randomized design, in a 2x2 factorial arrangement (two breeds and two levels of intake with six repetitions. The levels of intake offered were: ad libitum (T1 and 30% restriction (T2. The level of restriction was determined in relation to the amount consumed by animals on ad libitum intake. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24hr period. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the observed behavioral variables between animals of the Moxotó and Canindé breeds. Feeding at the level of free-choice intake resulted in greater feeding and

  16. Adding guarana powder to medfly diets: an alternative for improving the Sterile Insect Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Câmara de Aquino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ceratitis capitata (medfly is a globally important horticultural pest that can be controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT, but the success of SIT depends on the sexual performance of mass-reared males when released into the field. We added “guarana” (Paullinia cupana powder (derived from an Amazonian fruit that is considered to be a stimulant with aphrodisiac effects, capable of improving human physical stamina to the diets of adult male medflies to determine whether it increased their sexual performance. The basic diet of a protein extract + sucrose (1:3 was enriched with guarana powder (3 % on a volume basis. Experiments examining sexual competitiveness were performed using lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. lab-reared males fed on the basic diet (and lab-reared females fed on the basic diet, as well as lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. wild males fed on the basic diet (and wild females fed on the basic diet. The results of both experiments indicated that males maintained on diets enriched with guarana powder showed higher copulation successes than males fed only with the basic diet. Guarana powder therefore contributed to the greater mating success of lab-reared males (probably because of its stimulant properties, and may represent a new and viable option for increasing SIT effectiveness.

  17. Suspicious minds: perceived vitamin content of ordinary and diet foods with added fat, sugar or salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Michael E

    2004-08-01

    Male and female dieters and non-dieters (mean age 18.5 years) rated the vitamin levels of ordinary foods (e.g. 'sliced fresh peaches') and counterparts with added fat, sugar or salt (e.g. 'sliced fresh peaches with sugar'). Unlike previous studies, in addition diet foods ('sugar-free ice cream') were compared to their ordinary fat- and/or sugar-rich counterparts ('ice cream'). Some respondents believed diet products to be lower in vitamins, particularly when the corresponding ordinary food was considered to be wholesome (e.g. milk or muffins).

  18. The effects of concentrate added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood metabolites in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B

    2009-04-01

    Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of concentrate added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and concentrate (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).

  19. Efectos de la ingesta ad libitum de bebidas hidratantes sobre el peso corporal, la frecuencia cardíaca y el volumen plasmático durante una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración -Informe preliminar- Body weight, the heart rate, and the plasma volume during a high-intesity, long-duration run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiela Flórez Manrique

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la magnitud de la ingesta ad libitum de tres bebidas hidratantes de diferente osmolaridad y establecer sus efectos sobre el porcentaje de pérdida del peso corporal (PC, el aumento de la frecuencia cardíaca (FC y la reducción porcentual del volumen plasmático (VP en nueve deportistas con entrenamiento aeróbico, sometidos, bajo condiciones ambientales neutras, a una actividad física de alta intensidad 80% de la FC de reserva (FCR80 y larga duración 88 minutos. Metodología: el protocolo experimental se realizó en banda rodante, luego de nueve minutos de calentamiento, a una velocidad equivalente al 50% de la FCR y con una pendiente del 1%; siguieron 88 minutos de carrera, en tres intervalos, los dos iniciales de 29 minutos y el último de 30; la pendiente se mantuvo y la velocidad se incrementó al 80% de la FCR; finalmente, 90 minutos de recuperación, en tres intervalos de 30 minutos cada uno. No se hizo reposición hídrica durante el tratamiento deshidratado (DH; durante los tratamientos con hidratación se empleó un volumen similar de tres bebidas de diferente osmolaridad (H-I, H-II, H-III, el cual fue ingerido ad libitum. Resultados: durante la etapa de ejercicio la pérdida hídrica fue de 1.440 ml/h mientras que el volumen ingerido fue de 407 ml/h. Se observó, en cada uno de los tratamientos, una pérdida porcentual del PC (p<0,001; un incremento de la FC (p<0,05, y excepto con H-II y H-III una reducción porcentual del VP (p<0,05. No hubo diferencias intertratamientos en el porcentaje de la pérdida del PC, en el aumento de la FC ni en la reducción porcentual del VP. Conclusiones: la ingesta ad libitum fue menor que la cantidad recomendada internacionalmente por lo que, probablemente, no se pudieron establecer los efectos de la osmolaridad de las bebidas hidratantes sobre las variables estudiadas. Estos hallazgos nos obligan a revisar las prácticas de hidratación de nuestros deportistas ya que, al parecer

  20. Freely accessible water does not decrease consumption of ethanol liquid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2003-02-01

    In experimental studies, liquid ethanol diets are usually given as the sole source of nutrition and fluid. Two series of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of freely accessible water on the consumption of ethanol liquid diets in male Long-Evans rats. The consumption of diets and subsequent learning ability of rats were first examined in animals given twice-daily saline injections. One group received diet with no access to water for 12 weeks and was subsequently given free access to water with diets for an additional 12 weeks. A second group was given diet and water ad libitum for 24 weeks. Control animals received an isocaloric sucrose-containing diet (with or without ad libitum access to water). Subsequently, rats were tested for active avoidance learning. In the first 12 weeks, animals with ad libitum access to water drank more diet than did water-restricted animals, and previously water-restricted animals increased their diet consumption when access to water was freely available. All water-restricted animals, in both ethanol- and sucrose-treated groups, showed deficits in active avoidance learning, whereas only ethanol-treated animals in groups with ad libitum access to water showed learning deficits. In the second series of experiments, the effect of saline injections on diet consumption, both in the presence and absence of water, was examined. Although saline injections were associated with decreased diet consumption, there was no effect of free access to water. No differences in blood ethanol concentration were seen among groups. Findings obtained from both series of studies demonstrate that consumption of a Sustacal-based liquid ethanol diet does not decrease if access to water is freely available.

  1. Cigarette-by-cigarette satisfaction during ad libitum smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2009-05-01

    Smoking is thought to produce immediate reinforcement, and subjective satisfaction with smoking is thought to influence subsequent smoking. The authors used ecological momentary assessment (A. A. Stone & S. Shiffman, 1994) to assess cigarette-by-cigarette smoking satisfaction in 394 heavy smokers who subsequently attempted to quit. Across 14,882 cigarettes rated, satisfaction averaged 7.06 (0-10 scale), but with considerable variation across cigarettes and individuals. Women and African American smokers reported higher satisfaction. More satisfied smokers were more likely to lapse after quitting (HR = 1.1, p < .03), whereas less satisfied smokers derived greater benefit from patch treatment to help them achieve abstinence (HR = 1.23, p < .001). Cigarettes smoked in positive moods were more satisfying, correcting for mood at the time of rating. The best predictor of subsequent smoking satisfaction was the intensity of craving prior to smoking. Understanding subjective smoking satisfaction provides insight into sources of reinforcement for smoking.

  2. Hunger in pregnant sows: Effects of a fibrous diet and free access to straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2015-01-01

    was not reduced by a fibrous diet or by ad libitum provision of straw. However, a fibrous diet did reduce frequency of drinking and floor directed explorative behaviour suggesting some alleviation of the adverse effects of hunger as supported by higher plasma levels of short-chain fatty acids and lower levels......Fibrous diets and the provision of straw have been suggested to reduce feeding motivation in pregnant sows. The present experiment investigated the separate and interactive effects of a fibrous diet and ad libitum access to straw on feeding motivation, oral behaviour and plasma levels...... pulp (35% dietary fibre) during the other period. Both diets were offered restrictively at 22 MJ net energy per day and throughout the experimental period sows were fed twice daily at 0800 and 1500 h. At the end of each 4-week period the undisturbed behaviour of the sows was recorded during two 24 h...

  3. Effect of selenium on rat growth, growth hormone and diet utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, R C

    1976-05-01

    Female rats were fed a selenium-deficient diet composed of Torula yeast, sucrose, vitamins (including tocopheryl acetate) and minerals from weaning and during breeding, gestation and lactation. The offspring were used to study the effects of selenium on growth, diet utilization and growth hormon status. The Torula yeast diet containing 200 IU dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate was fed alone or supplemented with 0.025 or 0.1 ppm of selenium as selenite. Rats fed the selenium-supplemented diets grew significently faster and consumed significantly more diet than rats fed the unsupplemented diet. Anterior pituitary weights were lower in selenium-deficient rats, but if expressed per unit of body weight, were similar to pituitary weight of selenium-supplemented animals. Total growth hormone in the anterior pituitary was reduced in selenium-deficient rats. A metabolism study indicated that rats allowed ad libitum access to supplemented diets consumed more diet and obtained more metabolizable energy from the diet than rats fed the deficient diet. It the intake of rats fed the supplemented diets was limited to that of rats allowed ad libitum access to deficient diet, growth of rats was similar. However, metabolizable energy content of the diet increased quadratically and nitrogen digestibility increased linearly as thelevel of selenium increased. Selenium deficiency reduced growth primarily by decreased diet consumption, but also reduced the utilization of energy and nitrogen.

  4. Use of enzymes in diets with different percentages of added fat for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.P. Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the extent to which the removal of fat source, and consequently its compounds, such as linoleic acid, can affect the performance of broilers. We used 600 male Cobb 500 day old chicks. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and six replicates of 20 birds each. The treatments were: (T1 diet - positive control (PC, which met the nutritional needs; (T2 diet - negative control (CN, a reduction of 100kcal/kg and low linoleic acid content; (T3: diet - negative control reformulated for low linoleic acid content and a set of Quantum phytase XT and Econase XT 25 (BAL + QFit-Eco, (T4: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to an intermediate value between the value of the diet and diet CP and CN to use a set of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (IAL + QFit-Eco and (T5: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to a value similar to that of the positive control diet and joint use of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (AAL + QFit-Eco. The joint use of Quantum Phytase and Econase promoted improvement in the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days. The greatest weight gain was obtained with diets containing percentages of total fat and linoleic acids. Dietary supplementation with enzymes resulted in higher levels of calcium in the tibia, whatever the percentage of linoleic studied.

  5. Concurrence of High Fat Diet and APOE Gene Induces Allele Specific Metabolic and Mental Stress Changes in an AD Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifat Segev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, evidence indicates that the pathological process begins long before actual cognitive or pathological symptoms are apparent. The long asymptomatic phase and complex integration between genetic, environmental, and metabolic factors make it one of the most challenging diseases to understand and cure. In the present study, we asked whether an environmental factor such as high-fat diet would synergize with a genetic factor to affect the metabolic and cognitive state in the ApoE4 mouse model of AD. Our data suggest that a high-fat diet induces diabetes mellitus-like metabolism in ApoE4 mice, as well as changes in BACE1 protein levels between the two ApoE strains. Furthermore, high-fat diet induces anxiety in this AD mouse model. Our results suggest that young ApoE4 carriers are prone to psychological stress and metabolic abnormalities related to AD, which can easily be triggered via high-fat nutrition.

  6. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

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    de Moura Leandro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg (ALP, restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP, ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg (ALD and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD. The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises.

  7. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Astrup, A; Raben, A; Geiker, N

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbo...

  8. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-03-03

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice.

  9. Sex-specific effects of high fat diet on indices of metabolic syndrome in 3xTg-AD mice: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Barron

    Full Text Available Multiple factors of metabolic syndrome have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, endocrine dysfunction and dyslipidemia. High fat diet, a common experimental model of obesity and metabolic syndrome, has been shown to accelerate cognitive decline and AD-related neuropathology in animal models. However, sex interacts with the metabolic outcomes of high fat diet and, therefore, may alter neuropathological consequences of dietary manipulations. This study examines the effects of sex and high fat diet on metabolic and AD-related neuropathological outcomes in 3xTg-AD mice. Three month-old male and female 3xTg-AD mice were fed either standard or high fat diets for 4 months. Obesity was observed in all high fat fed mice; however, ectopic fat accumulation, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were observed only in males. Interestingly, despite the different metabolic outcomes of high fat diet, the neuropathological consequences were similar: both male and female mice maintained under high fat diet exhibited significant worsening in behavioral performance and hippocampal accumulation of β-amyloid protein. Because high fat diet resulted in obesity and increased AD-like pathology in both sexes, these data support a role of obesity-related factors in promoting AD pathogenesis.

  10. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-08

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  11. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristin D. Brisbois

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  12. Dietary fibre added to very low calorie diet reduces hunger and alleviates constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Vrist, E; Quaade, F

    1990-01-01

    To examine whether supplement of dietary fibre may improve compliance to a very low calorie diet (VLCD) a nutrition powder providing 388 kcal/day (men: 466 kcal/day) was compared with a similar version containing plant fibre 30 g/day. Twenty-two obese patients entered the study. After a baseline...

  13. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on fatty acid digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fatty acids in diets containing 0 or 30% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and 0, 5, or 10% tallow. Barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 25 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs (n = 4/diet) were randomly assigned to diets: corn-soybean meal control (CON), CON plus 5% tallow (5T0D), CON plus 10% tallow (10T0D), CON plus 30% DDGS (0T30D), CON plus 5% tallow and 30% DDGS (5T30D), and CON plus 10% tallow and 30% DDGS (10T30D). Eight replicates per treatment were achieved by randomizing diets among pigs for a second collection period. Each pig was fed their respective diet for a 5-d adaptation period followed by 3-d fecal collection and 2-d ileal digesta collection periods. The AID and ATTD of fatty acids was calculated using the index method and acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker. When tallow was added to diets with 0% DDGS, there was no effect on AID of palmitic acid (C16:0) or SFA, while AID of stearic acid (C18:0) was increased (66.87% for CON, 72.06% for 5T0D, and 76.81% for 10T0D; P tallow increased C16:0 (77.62% for 0T30D, 69.66% for 5T30D, and 68.43% for 10T30D), C18:0 (85.87% for 0T30D, 64.08% for 5T30D, and 61.25% for 10T30D), and SFA (79.88% for 0T30D, 68.23% for 5T30D, and 66.29% for 10T30D). The AID of MUFA was not affected when tallow was added to diets with 30% DDGS but actually increased in 5T0D and 10T0D. The amount of apparent ileal digested fatty acids increased with the addition of DDGS and tallow regardless of their digestibility. Amounts of ileal digested MUFA and PUFA increased when both DDGS (P tallow (P tallow was observed. Interactions between DDGS and tallow were observed for ATTD of all fatty acids (P tallow addition independent from the inclusion level of DDGS and it was a function the dietary concentration of the fatty acid. Adding tallow to corn-soybean based

  14. Maternal high-fat diet worsens memory deficits in the triple-transgenic (3xTgAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A L Martin

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is not normally diagnosed until later in life, although evidence suggests that the disease starts at a much earlier age. Risk factors for AD, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, are known to have their affects during mid-life, though events very early in life, including maternal over-nutrition, can predispose offspring to develop these conditions. This study tested whether over-nutrition during pregnancy and lactation affected the development of AD in offspring, using a transgenic AD mouse model. Female triple-transgenic AD dam mice (3xTgAD were exposed to a high-fat (60% energy from fat or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks of age, female offspring were placed on a control diet and monitored up until 12 months of age during which time behavioural tests were performed. A transient increase in body weight was observed in 4-week-old offspring 3xTgAD mice from dams fed a high-fat diet. However, by 5 weeks of age the body weight of 3xTgAD mice from the maternal high-fat fed group was no different when compared to control-fed mice. A maternal high-fat diet led to a significant impairment in memory in 2- and 12-month-old 3xTgAD offspring mice when compared to offspring from control fed dams. These effects of a maternal high-fat diet on memory were accompanied by a significant increase (50% in the number of tau positive neurones in the hippocampus. These data demonstrate that a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation increases memory impairments in female 3xTgAD mice and suggest that early life events during development might influence the onset and progression of AD later in life.

  15. Time restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-01-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 h/day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access, ye...

  16. Effects of different yeast cell wall supplements added to maize- or wheat-based diets for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-López, R; Auclair, E; Van Immerseel, F; Ducatelle, R; García, F; Brufau, J

    2010-06-01

    1. Three experiments were carried out to study the effects of two experimental yeast cell wall (YCW) supplements, one from the yeast extract industry and the other from the brewery industry, added to maize or wheat based-diets, on performance and intestinal parameters of broiler chickens (Ross 308). 2. In the first and second experiments, a completely randomised block design with 4 experimental treatments was used: T-1) Negative control, no additives T-2) Positive control, avilamycin group (10 mg/kg feed), T-3) Yeast extract-YCW (500 mg/kg), and T-4) Brewery-YCW (500 mg/kg feed). There were 6 replicates of 20 (experiment 1) and 22 (experiment 2) chicks per treatment. 3. In experiment 1 (wheat based diets), yeast extract-YCW increased BW and daily feed intake (42 d). The effects were comparable to those of avilamycin. In experiment 2 (maize based diet), avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW treatments improved the feed conversion ratio with respect to the negative control group (0 to 14 d). 4. At 24 d, in both experiments, the ileal nutrient digestibility and ileal bacterial counts were not affected by any experimental treatment. In maize diets, lower intestinal viscosity was obtained with avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW than with the negative control. In wheat diets, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW reduced intestinal viscosity. 5. A third experiment was conducted to study the effect of yeast extract-YCW on animal performance, intestinal mucosa morphology and intestinal viscosity. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used; one factor was the dietary yeast extract-YCW supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg feed) and the other the cereal in the diet (maize or wheat). 6. At 43 d, the heaviest BW was in chickens fed on yeast extract-YCW compared to those given the negative control. At 22 d, yeast extract-YCW increased villus height, mucus thickness and number of goblet cells with respect to negative control. 7. Results of these experiments

  17. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol in finishing diets could not be confirmed.

  18. Low-carbohydrate diets and prostate cancer: how low is "low enough"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masko, Elizabeth M; Thomas, Jean A; Antonelli, Jodi A; Lloyd, Jessica C; Phillips, Tameika E; Poulton, Susan H; Dewhirst, Mark W; Pizzo, Salvatore V; Freedland, Stephen J

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies indicate that carbohydrate intake influences prostate cancer biology, as mice fed a no-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (NCKD) had significantly smaller xenograft tumors and longer survival than mice fed a Western diet. As it is nearly impossible for humans to consume and maintain NCKD, we determined whether diets containing 10% or 20% carbohydrate kcal showed similar tumor growth as NCKD. A total of 150 male severe combined immunodeficient mice were fed a Western diet ad libitum, injected with the human prostate cancer cell line LAPC-4, and then randomized 2 weeks later to one of three arms: NCKD, 10% carbohydrate, or 20% carbohydrate diets. Ten mice not injected were fed an ad libitum low-fat diet (12% fat kcal) serving as the reference in a modified-paired feeding protocol. Mice were sacrificed when tumors reached 1,000 mm(3). Despite consuming extra calories, all mice receiving low-carbohydrate diets were significantly lighter than those receiving a low-fat diet (P Diet did not affect survival (P = 0.34). There were no differences in serum insulin-like growth factor-I or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 at sacrifice among the low-carbohydrate arms (P = 0.07 and P = 0.55, respectively). Insulin was significantly lower in the 20% carbohydrate arm (P = 0.03). LAPC-4 xenograft mice fed a low-carbohydrate diet (10-20% carbohydrate kcal) had similar survival as mice consuming NCKD (0% carbohydrate kcal).

  19. Salt intensity does not affect ad libtum intake of similar pleasant tomato soup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.; Graaf, de C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup. Secondly, the perceived salt intensity before and after ad libitum intake of tomato soups with varying saltiness concentrations was assessed. Subjects (n = 48) ate in duplo ad libitum fr

  20. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors: the diet, obesity, and genes (DiOGenes) study: a randomized, controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gogebakan, O.; Kohl, A.; Osterhoff, M.A. (Martin A.); Baak, M. A.; Jebb, S. A.; Papadaki, A.; Martinez, J A; Handjieva Darlenska, T.; Hlavaty, P.; Weickert, M.O.; Holst, C; Saris, W.H.; Astrup, A; Pfeiffer, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes). METHODS AND RESULTS: DiOGenes is a pan-European controlled dietary intervention study in 932 overweight adults who first lost body weight on an 8-week low-calorie diet and were then randomized to 1 of 5 ad libitum diets for 26 week...

  1. Effects of the Physical Form of the Diet on Food Intake, Growth, and Body Composition Changes in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F.; Lana C DeMars; LuAnn K. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed isocaloric diets (AIN93G or a modification containing 25% wheat) in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 1, mice were assigned into 4 groups offered the AIN93G or the wheat-modified diet in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 2, mice were pair-fed the powdered diets to the ad libitum level of food intake of those fed t...

  2. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  3. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, T.M.; Dalskov, S.M. (S.M.); Van-Baak, M.A. (M.A.); Jebb, S. A.; Papadaki, A.; Pfeiffer, A.F.; Martinez, J A; HANDJIEVA-DARLENSKA, T.; Kunesova, M; Pihlsgård, M. (M.); Stender, S; Holst, C; Saris, W.H.; Astrup, A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power. METHODS: We enrolled overweight adults from eight European countries who had lost at least 8% of their initial body weight with a 3.3-MJ (800-kcal) low-calorie diet. Participants were randomly assigned, in a two-by-two factorial design, to one of five ad libitum diets to prevent weight regain...

  4. Insulin sensitivity is normalized in the third generation (F3 offspring of developmentally programmed insulin resistant (F2 rats fed an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin John F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims The offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy and lactation, but fed nutritionally adequate diets thereafter, have been shown to exhibit altered insulin sensitivity in adulthood. The current study investigates the insulin sensitivity of the offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy, and then maintained on energy-restricted diets post weaning over three generations. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats (F0 were mated with control males and protein malnourished during pregnancy/lactation. F1 offspring were then weaned to adequate but energy-restricted diets into adulthood. F1 dams were fed energy-restricted diets throughout pregnancy/lactation. F2 offspring were also fed energy-restricted diets post weaning. F2 pregnant dams were maintained as described above. Their F3 offspring were split into two groups; one was maintained on the energy-restricted diet, the other was maintained on an adequate diet consumed ad libitum post weaning. Results F2 animals fed energy-restricted diets were insulin resistant (p ad libitum postweaning diets (p Conclusion Maternal energy-restriction did not consistently program reduced insulin sensitivity in offspring over three consecutive generations. The reasons for this remain unclear. It is possible that the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed insulin resistance is determined in part by the relative insulin sensitivity of the mother during pregnancy/lactation.

  5. Effect of added zinc in diets with ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, C B; Burnett, D D; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Hill, G M; Haydon, K D; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing the dietary Zn content on growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma Zn, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs fed diets containing ractopamine HCl (RAC; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN). In Exp. 1, 312 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; 94 kg BW) were used in a 27-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 26 pens per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal diet (control; 0.66% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; and the RAC diet plus 50, 100, or 150 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or 50 mg Zn/kg from a Zn AA complex (ZnAA; Availa-Zn; Zinpro, Eden Prairie, MN). All diets also contained 83 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 in the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet without added Zn had increased (P diet. Increasing Zn from ZnO in diets containing RAC tended to increase (linear, P = 0.067) G:F and loin weight (quadratic, P = 0.064). Pigs fed diets with 50 mg Zn/kg from ZnAA tended to have increased (P = 0.057) ADG compared with pigs fed the RAC diet. In Exp. 2, 320 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC; 98 kg BW) were used in a 35-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 20 pens per treatment. Treatments included a control diet (0.66% SID Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; or the RAC diet plus 75, 150, and 225 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or ZnAA. All diets also contained 55 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 from the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet had increased (P diet. No Zn level or source effects or level × source interactions were observed for growth performance. A Zn level × source interaction (quadratic, P = 0.007) was observed in liver Zn concentrations. This resulted from liver Zn concentrations plateauing at 150 mg Zn/kg when ZnO was supplemented, while there was a linear increase when using ZnAA. Increasing Zn in diets containing RAC increased (linear, P diet compared with those fed the control diet. Expression of IL

  6. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  7. Effect of adding macro and micro minerals in pig feces fed diets with different levels of probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Alcides Robles Huaynate

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the effect of diets with different doses (0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of probiotic on daily fecal production (DFP and level of macro and micro minerals in feces of nursing (1st and 2nd initial phases and growing pigs and during total period. The DFP, as percentage of body weight, was different (P0.05 among treatments, with exception of calcium and sodium excretion at 1st initial phase and calcium, zinc and nickel during total period. The addition of a poliprobiotic to diets do not affect fecal production of nursing and growing pigs. However, the presence of microorganisms, added (levels of 200 and 300 ppm in diets for nursing and growing pigs reduced fecal excretion of calcium, zinc and nickel.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dietas contendo diferentes doses (0, 100, 200 e 300 ppm de probiótico sobre a produção diária de fezes (PDF e teor de macro e microminerais nas fezes de suínos, nas fases de creche e de crescimento e no período total. A PDF, como porcentagem do peso vivo, somente apresentou diferença estatística (P0,05 entre tratamentos, a exceção de cálcio e sódio na fase inicial 1 e cálcio, zinco e níquel no período total. A adição de um poliprobiótico às dietas, não afetou a produção de fezes dos suínos nas fases de creche e de crescimento. Entretanto, a presença de microrganismos, adicionados (níveis de 200 e 300 ppm às dietas reduziu a excreção fecal de cálcio, zinco e níquel.

  8. Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, A.R.; Toubro, Søren; Bulow, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the high satiating effect of protein, a high-protein diet may be desirable in the treatment of obesity. However the long-term effect of different levels of protein intake on renal function is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the renal effects of high vs low protein contents in fat......-reduced diets. DESIGN: Randomized 6 months dietary intervention study comparing two controlled ad libitum diets with 30 energy (E%) fat content: high-protein (HP; 25 E%) or low-protein, (LP, 12 E% protein). All food was provided by self-selection in a shop at the department, and high compliance to the diet...

  9. Feeding motivation and plasma metabolites in pregnant sows fed diets rich in dietary fiber either once or twice daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M B; Pedersen, L J; Theil, P K; Yde, C C; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of source and level of dietary fiber (DF) and feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on feeding motivation and plasma metabolites at 4 different time points post feeding. Sixty pregnant sows (Sus scrofa, 4 blocks of 15 sows) were allocated to 1 of 5 diets within blocks. Four diets were restricted (approximately 35 MJ ME/d): a barley and wheat control diet (171 g DF/kg DM; 12 g DF/MJ ME), and 3 fiber diets formulated to contain 35% DF by including pectin residue (323 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME), potato pulp (404 g DF/kg DM; 29 g DF/MJ ME), or sugar beet pulp (367 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The fifth diet was a mixture including an equal amount of the 3 fiber diets offered semi ad libitum (ad libitum access to feed during 6 periods of 1 h starting at 0300, 0600, 1100, 1500, 1800, and 2300; 354 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The experimental period included 2 periods of 4 wk each. Restricted-fed sows were fed once daily (0800 h) during the first period and twice daily (0800 and 1500 h) during the second period, or vice versa. Semi ad libitum fed sows had access to feed 6 times a day in both periods. In each period, the feeding motivation was assessed in an operant conditioning test, and samples of peripheral blood were taken in a balanced design, at 0900, 1200, 1900, and 0700 h, corresponding to 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after feeding for restricted sows fed once daily. No differences in the feeding motivation were found between the 4 restricted diets at any of the time points post feeding, but semi ad libitum fed sows had a decreased feeding motivation (P fiber diets compared with the control (P = 0.02). Nonesterified fatty acid was least in sows on the control diet and greatest in sows on the potato diet, whereas sows on the pectin and sugar beet diets were intermediate (P fiber diets. In spite of the found effects on plasma metabolites, the applied level of fiber in the diet of restrictedly fed sows did not reduce their feeding

  10. Effects of a lactoperoxidase system and lactoferrin, added to a milk replacer diet, on severity of diarrhoea, intestinal morphology and microbiology of digesta and faeces in young calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Oosting, S.J.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of the combination of a lactoperoxidase system (LP-s) and lactoferrin (LF) added to a milk replacer diet on severity of diarrhoea, the morphology of the small intestinal mucosa, and the microbiology of digesta and faeces in young calves

  11. Effect of a lactoperoxydase system and lactoferrin, added to a milk replacer diet, on severity of diarrhoea, intestinal morphology and microbiology of digesta and faeces in young calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.; Oosting, S.J.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of the combination of a lactoperoxidase system (LP-s) and lactoferrin (LF) added to a milk replacer diet on severity of diarrhoea, the morphology of the small intestinal mucosa, and the microbiology of digesta and faeces in young calves

  12. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Geiker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups...... achieved 5.1% lower GI than the HGI groups. The effect of HP and LGI was additive on weight loss and maintenance, and the combination was successful in preventing weight regain and reducing drop-out rate among the adults after the 11kg weight loss. This diet also reduced body fatness and prevalence......% of the population. In conclusion, the DioGenes diet has shown to be effective for prevention of weight regain and for weight reduction in overweight children under ad libitum conditions. The less-restrictive dietary approach fits into a normal food culture, and has been translated into popular diet and cook books...

  13. Effects of Antioxidants Supplemment, Astaxanthin, Vitamin E, C, in Rat Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Vahidinia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of antioxidants supplement and/or restricted diet on the development of obesity induced by feeding a high-fat (HF diet. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software using Colmogroph- Smirnov, One-Way ANOVA, and Two-Way ANOVA. Results: Dietary antioxidants suppressed body weight gain in the HF-diet ad libitum (-9.8%, and in HF restricted diet (-18.14%. Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Conclusion: results of this study suggest that antioxidants supplement might be of value in reducing the likelihood of obesity in rats fed with high-fat diets, especially when accompanying with restricted diets.

  14. Dietary Mercury Exposure Resulted in Behavioral Differences in Mice Contaminated with Fish-Associated Methylmercury Compared to Methylmercury Chloride Added to Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Bourdineaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  15. Effects of Adding of Two Commercial Absorbent Materials and Natural Zeolite to the Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 on Broiler Performance and their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Azimi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding of two commercial absorbent products in feeds and to compare the results with the effect of adding of natural zeolite in reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 on broiler growth, performance and immune system. In this study, 200 one day old Arian 386 broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replications and 10 chicks per each treatment. Experimental groups were as follows: negative control fed basal diet; positive control fed basal diet plus 1 mg aflatoxin B1 kg-1 diet; and three other groups fed 25g/kg Milbond-TX, Polysorb and Zeolite with 1 mg/kg aflatoxin B1, respectively. Feed intake did not significantly differ between the groups. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of birds fed contaminated diets were significantly decreased and increased, respectively but adding of the absorbent materials to contaminated feed caused a significant improvement in body weight gain and feed conversion. Among the internal organs, the spleen relative weights increased by consumption of aflatoxin B1contaminated feed. Aflatoxin B1 use without absorbent materials significantly decreased antibody production against Newcastle disease vaccine in 21 day. In addition, produced antibodies against sheep red blood cells in 35 day of age in birds fed aflatoxin B1 contaminated diets were reduced. The results of this study showed that the adding of natural zeolite and commercial absorbents in feeds contaminated with aflatoxin B1 causes improved performance and immune system compared with the group that received the aflatoxin B1 alone.

  16. Defensive effect of lansoprazole in dementia of AD type in mice exposed to streptozotocin and cholesterol enriched diet.

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    Rupinder K Sodhi

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor and agonist of liver x receptors in experimental dementia of AD type. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3 mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v, and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days] were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss mice. Morris water maze (MWM test was performed to assess learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies were also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS. Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ and HFD produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH levels. Further, the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Lansoprazole treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD -induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. It also prevented HFD-induced rise in the cholesterol level. Therefore, the findings demonstrate potential of lansoprazole in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, both cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects of lansoprazole appear to play a role. In addition study indicates the role of liver x receptors in dementia.

  17. Effects of adding various oils to the diet on growth, feed conversion and chemical composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W; Wirth, M; Rennert, B

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of various vegetable and fish oils was tested as feed components for one-summer-old carp fingerlings. Five diets were used: a basal diet, which served as control feed, was supplemented with 10% corn-germ oil, 10% sunflower oil, 10% fish oil or 10% rapeseed oil, respectively. By means of the lipid supplementation the crude protein content decreased from 35.5% in the basal diet to 31.9% in the test diets, whereas the gross energy level increased from 16.3 to 18.9 MJ/kg. The diets were fed over a period of 84 feeding days and water temperature was 23 degrees C. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein utilization were superior in all groups of carp which received the fat-enriched high energy diets. Considering the gain in % of the initial weight, the control fish reached less than 400% whereas all carp in the test groups, which consumed the oil-enriched diets, reached 455 to 485%. A significant influence of the kind of lipid on growth and feed conversion could not be recognized. The lipid-enriched diets with higher energy content resulted in increased fat levels of the carp. Fatty acid composition of the carp reflected that of the diets. In the control group and the fish oil group the levels of palmitic, palmitoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were especially high corresponding to the fatty acid profile of the diets. In carp fed the diets supplied with corn-germ oil and sunflower oil linoleic acid was dominant whereas the carp fed the rapeseed diet were characterized by a high level of oleic acid.

  18. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics.

  19. Effects of replacing grass silage with either maize silage or concentrates during late pregnancy on the performance of breeding ewes fed isonitrogenous diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, R W; Carson, A F; Gordon, A W

    2013-06-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the performance of breeding ewes fed a range of forage and concentrate-based diets in late pregnancy, balanced for supply of metabolizable protein (MP). For the final 6 weeks before lambing, 104 twin-bearing multiparous ewes were offered one of four diets: ad libitum precision-chop grass silage + 0.55 kg/day concentrates (GS); ad libitum maize silage + 0.55 kg/day concentrates (MS); a 1 : 1 mixture (on a dry matter (DM) basis) of grass silage and maize silage fed ad libitum + 0.55 kg/day (GSMS); or 1.55 kg/day concentrates + 50 g/day chopped barley straw (C). The CP content of the concentrates was varied between treatments (157 to 296 g/kg DM) with the aim of achieving a daily intake of 130 g/day MP across all treatments. Compared with ewes fed GS, forage DM intake was higher (P silage-based diets (7.5% v. 37.4% ewes), and was higher (P maize silage and all-concentrate diets can replace grass silage in pregnant ewe rations without impacting on performance, provided the supply of MP is non-limiting. The higher incidence of dystocia in ewes fed maize silage as the sole forage is a concern.

  20. Identification of N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate amyloid-β in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit and AD brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garmendia, Roxanna; Hernandez-Zimbron, Luis Fernando; Morales, Miguel Angel; Luna-Muñoz, José; Mena, Raul; Nava-Catorce, Miriam; Acero, Gonzalo; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Viramontes-Pintos, Amparo; Cribbs, David H; Gevorkian, Goar

    2014-01-01

    The main amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) variants detected in the human brain are Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42; however, a significant proportion of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain also consists of N-terminal truncated/modified species. AβN3(pE), Aβ peptide bearing amino-terminal pyroglutamate at position 3, has been demonstrated to be a major N-truncated/modified constituent of intracellular, extracellular, and vascular Aβ deposits in AD and Down syndrome brain tissue. It has been previously demonstrated that rabbits fed a diet enriched in cholesterol and given water containing trace copper levels developed AD-like pathology including intraneuronal and extracellular Aβ accumulation, tau hyperphosphorylation, vascular inflammation, astrocytosis, microgliosis, reduced levels of acetylcholine, as well as learning deficits and thus, may be used as a non-transgenic animal model of sporadic AD. In the present study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of AβN3(pE) in blood vessels in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit brain. In addition, we detected AβN3(pE) immunoreactivity in all postmortem AD brain samples studied. We believe that our results are potentially important for evaluation of novel therapeutic molecules/strategies targeting Aβ peptides in a suitable non-transgenic animal model.

  1. Adding Medicinal Herbs Including Garlic (Allium sativum and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris to Diet of Laying Hens and Evaluating Productive Performance and Egg Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In trying to finding phytogenic antibiotic-substitutes this study was done and effects of adding graded levels of Medicinal Herbs (MH including garlic (Allium sativum and thyme (Thymus vulgaris to laying hens’ diet on productive performance investigated. Approach: A total number of 108 Lohmann LSL-Lite hens after production peak were randomly divided in 18 cages (n = 6. Three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets (ME = 2720 Kcal Kg-1 and CP = 154.2 g Kg-1 including three levels (0, 1 and 2 g kg-1 of ground mixture of garlic and thyme (1:1 were fed to hens with 6 replicates per diet during 6 week trial period. Collected data of Feed Intake (FI, Egg Production (EP, Egg Mass (EM and calculated Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR as well as egg traits were analyzed based on completely randomized design using GLM procedure of SAS. Results: Dietary treatment did not have significant effect on EP, EM and FCR in laying hens (p>0.05. Dietary inclusion of MH decreased FI in weeks 1-6 (p≤0.05. Including diet with 0.1% MP improved means of egg weight (g comparing to the other two experimental diets. Adding 0.2% MH to diet increased egg yolk color as well as blood lymphocyte counts and decreased egg shell weight comparing to other dietary treatments (p≤0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, dietary inclusion of garlic and thyme can have beneficial effects on performance of laying hens in terms of improving egg weight and yolk color.

  2. Value added by Spirulina platensis in two different diets on growth performance, gut microbiota, and meat quality of Japanese quails

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    Mohamed S. Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growth promoting effect of the blue-green filamentous alga Spirulina platensis (SP was observed on meat type Japanese quail with antibiotic growth promoter alternative and immune enhancing power. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 180 Japanese quail chicks for 4 weeks to find out the effect of diet type (vegetarian protein diet [VPD] and fish meal protein diet [FMPD]- Spirulina dose interaction (1 or 2 g/kg diet on growth perfor-mance, gut microbiota, and sensory meat quality of growing Japanese quails (1-5 weeks old. Results: Data revealed improvement (p<0.05 of weight gain, feed conversion ratio and European efficiency index due to 1, 2 g (SP/kg VPD, and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD, respectively. There was a significant decrease of ileum mean pH value by 1 g (SP/kg VPD. Concerning gut microbiota, there was a trend toward an increase in Lactobacilli count in both 1; 2 g (SP/kg VPD and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD. It was concluded that 1 or 2 g (SP/kg vegetarian diet may enhance parameters of performance without obvious effect on both meat quality and gut microbiota. Moreover, 1 and/or 2 g (SP may not be invited to share fish meal based diet for growing Japanese quails. Conclusion: Using of SP will support the profitable production of Japanese quails fed vegetable protein diet.

  3. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Genoni; Johnny Lo; Philippa Lyons-Wall; Amanda Devine

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background/Objectives: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) Subjects/Methods: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolith...

  4. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  5. Dmbt1 does not affect a Western style diet-induced liver damage in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichold, Astrid; Brenner, Sibylle A; Förster-Fromme, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has markedly increased. Results from epidemiologic studies indicate that not only a general overnutrition but rather a diet rich in sugar, fat and cholesterol (= Western style diet) maybe a risk factor for the development...... of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Concerning liver diseases, it is known that Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 is amongst others related to liver injury and repair. In addition Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 seems to play a role in regard to the maintenance of the intestinal homeostasis...... and the regulation of food intake. Starting from this background the aim of the present study was to investigate if Dmbt1 plays a role in Western style diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice. Dmbt1 (+/+) and Dmbt1 (-/-) mice were fed a Western style diet or control diet ad libitum for 12 weeks. Both...

  6. Effect of diet composition on pregnancy outcome in overnourished rapidly growing adolescent sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Redmer, Dale A; Aitken, Raymond P

    2006-12-01

    When pregnant adolescent sheep are overnourished to promote maternal growth during pregnancy, growth of the placenta is impaired and results in the premature delivery of low birth weight lambs relative to control-fed adolescents of equivalent age. These effects have been achieved by feeding two levels of the same complete diet. The present study evaluated the role of protein in pregnancy outcome in our adolescent sheep paradigm. Adolescent ewes were implanted with single embryos on day 4 post-oestrus. Thereafter ewes were offered ad libitum an isoenergetic diet (11.4 MJ metabolisable energy/kg DM) containing either 12% (basic, B) or 17% (extra, E) crude protein. At day 75 of gestation, half the pregnant ewes on each protein level were switched to yield four groups, BB, EE, BE and EB protein. A further optimally nourished control group received a moderate quantity of a ration (14% crude protein) designed to provide 100% of the estimated energy and protein requirement of the adolescent sheep according to stage of pregnancy. Pregnancy outcome was determined at term. Feed intakes were independent of protein level in the four groups of ewes fed ad libitum and were higher (Pcolostrum yield were reduced (Pcolostrum IgG, butterfat, lactose and crude protein content at parturition were attenuated in the ad libitum compared with the control groups. However, within ad libitum groups pregnancy outcome parameters were largely unaffected by level or timing of exposure to high protein intakes. The data imply that it is high-energy intakes that are the primary cause of impaired placental development and adverse pregnancy outcome in rapidly growing adolescent sheep.

  7. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  8. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (Pdiet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (Pdiet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (Pdiet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (Pdiet induced DNA tail length and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid peroxidation and enhancing of antioxidant defense systems.

  9. Maslinic acid added to the diet increases growth and protein-turnover rates in the white muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Navarro, Mónica; Peragón, Juan; Amores, Victoria; De La Higuera, Manuel; Lupiáñez, José Antonio

    2008-03-01

    Maslinic acid (2-alpha, 3-beta-dihydroxiolean-12-en-28-oic acid) is a triterpenoid compound present in fruit and leaves of Olea europaea that can be used as an additive in the diet of trout. The present work investigates the effects of maslinic acid on growth, protein-turnover rates and nucleic acid concentration in trout white muscle. Five groups of 180 trout of a mean body mass of 20 g were fed for 225 days with diets containing 0, 1, 5, 25 and 250 mg of maslinic acid per kg of diet. At the end of the experiment, white-muscle weight and protein-accumulation rate of trout fed with maslinic acid were higher than in control. The total content of DNA, RNA, and protein in trout fed with 25 and 250 mg of maslinic acid kg(-1) were significantly higher than in control. The protein:DNA ratio was also slightly higher than control. In the same groups of trout, fractional (K(S)) and absolute (A(S)) protein-synthesis rates increased to more than 80% over the control values while no differences were found in the fractional protein-degradation rate (K(D)). These results, similar to previous findings in liver, show that maslinic acid can act as a growth factor when added to a standard trout diet.

  10. Feeding motivation and plasma metabolites in pregnant sows fed diets rich in dietary fiber either once or twice daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of source and level of dietary fiber (DF) and feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on feeding motivation and plasma metabolites at 4 different time points post feeding. Sixty pregnant sows (Sus scrofa, 4 blocks of 15 sows) were allocated to 1 of 5...... diets within blocks. Four diets were restricted (approximately 35 MJ ME/d): a barley and wheat control diet (171 g DF/kg DM; 12 g DF/MJ ME), and 3 fiber diets formulated to contain 35% DF by including pectin residue (323 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME), potato pulp (404 g DF/kg DM; 29 g DF/MJ ME), or sugar...... beet pulp (367 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The fifth diet was a mixture including an equal amount of the 3 fiber diets offered semi ad libitum (ad libitum access to feed during 6 periods of 1 h starting at 0300, 0600, 1100, 1500, 1800, and 2300; 354 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The experimental period...

  11. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with LQR resulted in a 17% better efficiency of ME use for gain (P efficiency of energy retention as fat (P efficiency, however, should be viewed with caution because it is related to visceral fat deposition, a nonedible tissue.

  12. Fatty acid patterns of dog erythrocyte membranes after feeding of a fish-oil based DHA-rich supplement with a base diet low in n-3 fatty acids versus a diet containing added n-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhrmann Herbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In dogs, increasing the tissue n-3 fatty acid (FA content is associated with potential benefit in some medical conditions, e.g. atopic dermatitis, cancer or heart disease. Therefore effectively and conveniently increasing tissue n-3 FA levels in dogs is of interest. Incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into cell membranes may be studied by FA analysis of erythrocyte membranes (EM, because of the correlation of its FA composition with the FA composition of other cells. Aim of the study was to determine whether an n-3 FA additive added to a control diet is as effective in increasing EM n-3 FA content as feeding an n-3 FA enriched diet. Furthermore the time course of the incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into canine EM was investigated. Methods Thirty dogs were randomly divided into three dietary groups with ten dogs per group. CONT got a dry dog food diet which did not contain EPA or DHA. FO got a dry dog food diet with a high EPA and DHA content. ADD got the CONT diet combined with an n-3 FA additive rich in DHA and EPA. After a feeding period of 12 weeks the additive was discontinued in ADD and these dogs were fed CONT diet for another four weeks to observe washout effects. Erythrocyte lipids were extracted from venous blood samples and their FA composition was determined by gas chromatography. The Mann-Whitney-U-test was used to detect significant differences between the different groups and time points. Results After one week the proportions of n-3 FA, DHA and EPA were already significantly increased in ADD and FO, apparently reaching a plateau within eight weeks. In our study DHA and not EPA was preferably incorporated into the EM. After discontinuing the administration of the additive in ADD, the n-3 FA values declined slowly without reaching baseline levels within four weeks. Conclusions In dogs, an increase of dietary n-3 FA content leads to a rapid inclusion of n-3 FA into EM, regardless of whether the n-3 FA are offered as

  13. Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment Análisis del comportamiento de ratas Wistar alimentadas con una dieta a base de linaza añadidos a un enriquecimiento ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Azevedo de Meneses

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6: FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.La linaza posee una gran cantidad de ácidos grasos n-3 y su consumo asociado a ambiente enriquecido, puede promover diferentes resultados comportamentales sobre el animal y su habituación. Este trabajo tubo por objetivo evaluar el comportamiento animal utilizando dos herramientas en el Open Field Test. Treinta y seis ratón Wistar fueron divididos en 6 grupos (n=6: FEEG, que recibi

  14. Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Sugar Added Intake of The Diet of Children 2-12 Years Old

    OpenAIRE

    Angga Hardiansyah; Hardinsyah Hardinsyah; Dadang Sukandar

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze intake of sodium, saturated fat (SFA), and added sugar of children 2-12 years old. For this purpose, 38.890 children 2-12 years old from the food consumption data of the basic health survey of the Ministry of Health were analyzed. The intake of sodium, SFA, and added sugar were calculated by using food composition table (FCT) of Indonesia and USDA, and from nutrition facts of labeled foods.The sodium and SFA calculated include both natural resources and w...

  15. Partial replacement of dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves for noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake in the diet of highland sheep fed on wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfay, Temesgen; Tesfay, Yayneshet

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake by dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves on feed intake, live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance of highland sheep in Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Twenty intact yearling male highland sheep weighing 16.9 ± 1.62 kg were used in a randomized complete block design and included the following four treatments: T1 (control, wheat straw ad libitum + 200 g noug seed cake (NSC) + 150 g wheat bran (WB)); T2 (wheat straw ad libitum + 170 g NSC + 44.3 g dried L. leucocephala (DLL) + 150 g WB); T3 (wheat straw ad libitum + 140 g NSC + 87.3 g DLL + 150 g WB); and T4 (wheat straw ad libitum + 110 g NSC + 130.2 g DLL + 150 g WB). Sheep fed on T4 diet consumed higher total dry matter (658 g/head/day) and recorded the highest average daily weight gain (59 g/head/day). Sheep fed on T4 diet had higher dry matter (61 %), organic matter (63 %), and crude protein (75 %) digestibility values than the other treatments. Sheep fed on T3 diet demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio (11.93) than sheep kept on the other treatments. All sheep exhibited positive nitrogen balance, with the highest nitrogen retention being measured in T4 (12 g/head/day). It is concluded that partially replacing NSC by DLL can improve total dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients, and body weight gain in highland sheep fed on wheat straw as the basal diet.

  16. Bacterial and protozoal communities and fatty acid profile in the rumen of sheep fed a diet containing added tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Valentina; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Mele, Marcello; Serra, Andrea; Luciano, Giuseppe; Lanza, Massimiliano; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of tannins on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) due to shifts in the ruminal microbial environment in sheep. Thirteen lambs (45 days of age) were assigned to two dietary treatments: seven lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (control group) while the other six lambs received the same concentrate with supplemental quebracho tannins (9.57% of dry matter). At 122 days of age, the lambs were slaughtered, and the ruminal contents were subjected to fatty acid analysis and sampled to quantify populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which converts C(18:2) c9-c12 (linoleic acid [LA]) to C(18:2) c9-t11 (rumenic acid [RA]) and then RA to C(18:1) t11 (vaccenic acid [VA]); we also sampled for Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which converts VA to C(18:0) (stearic acid [SA]). Tannins increased (P tannin-free diet. The concentration of SA was not affected by tannins. The SA/VA ratio was lower (P tannin-fed lambs than for the controls, suggesting that the last step of the BH process was inhibited by tannins. The B. proteoclasticus population was lower (-30.6%; P tannin-supplemented diet than in controls. These results suggest that quebracho tannins altered BH by changing ruminal microbial populations.

  17. Effects of dry matter intake restriction on diet digestion, energy partitioning, phosphorus retention, and ruminal fermentation by beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J H; Olson, K C; Schmidt, T B; Linville, M L; Alkire, D O; Meyer, D L; Rentfrow, G K; Carr, C C; Berg, E P

    2007-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of DMI restriction on diet digestion, ruminal fermentation, ME intake, and P retention by beef steers. In Exp. 1, twelve Angus x steers (average initial BW = 450 +/- 18 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets that were formulated to promote a 1.6-kg ADG at intake levels corresponding approximately to 100% (ad libitum, AL), 90% (IR90), or 80% (IR80) of ad libitum DMI. In Exp. 2, twelve crossbred steers (average initial BW = 445 +/- 56 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets that were formulated to promote a 1.6-kg ADG at AL or IR80. All diets delivered similar total NE, MP, Ca, and P per day. During both experiments, fecal DM output by IR80 was less (P /= 0.20) among treatments during both experiments, whereas P retention was similar (P >/= 0.46) among treatments during Exp. 1. Total VFA and the molar proportion of acetate of AL were greater (P fermentation patterns in finishing steers. Improvements in performance associated with programmed-feeding regimens of the type studied here do not appear to be related to changes in diet digestion or ME intake.

  18. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake among male university students in an ad libitum buffet setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Ida; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Køpke Nielsen, Brit

    2016-01-01

    due to the complexity of determinants for food choices and more research is therefore needed. This study assessed the of a choice architectural intervention aimed at reducing energy density of meals consumed by male university students, by proportionally increasing their vegetable consumption.A single...... one-day lunch meal study was conducted in a FoodScape Laboratory where an Intelligent Buffet was used to register the exact weight of each meal component self-served by each participant. A convenience sample of 65 men was divided to a control group (n= 32) and an intervention group (n= 33). The choice...... information.The quantity (g) of self-served F&V was significantly higher in the intervention group (+63.3 g, p=.005). The total energy (kJ) was significantly lower in the intervention group (-1326.3 kJ, p=.010), while there was no significant difference in the total amount (g) of self-served food between...

  19. Improved single pellet grasping using automated ad libitum full-time training robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenrich, Keith K; May, Zacnicte; Hurd, Caitlin; Boychuk, Carolyn E; Kowalczewski, Jan; Bennett, David J; Whishaw, Ian Q; Fouad, Karim

    2015-03-15

    The single pellet grasping (SPG) task is a skilled forelimb motor task commonly used to evaluate reaching and grasp kinematics and recovery of forelimb function in rodent models of CNS injuries and diseases. To train rats in the SPG task, the animals are usually food restricted then placed in an SPG task enclosure and presented food pellets on a platform located beyond a slit located at the front of the task enclosure for 10-30 min, normally every weekday for several weeks. When the SPG task is applied in studies involving various experimental groups, training quickly becomes labor intensive, and can yield results with significant day-to-day variability. Furthermore, training is frequently done during the animals' light-cycle, which for nocturnal rodents such as mice and rats could affect performance. Here we describe an automated pellet presentation (APP) robotic system to train and test rats in the SPG task that reduces some of the procedural weaknesses of manual training. We found that APP trained rats performed significantly more trials per 24 h period, and had higher success rates with less daily and weekly variability than manually trained rats. Moreover, the results show that success rates are positively correlated with the number of dark-cycle trials, suggesting that dark-cycle training has a positive effect on success rates. These results demonstrate that automated training is an effective method for evaluating and training skilled reaching performance of rats, opening up the possibility for new approaches to investigating the role of motor systems in enabling skilled forelimb use and new approaches to investigating rehabilitation following CNS injury.

  20. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    simultaneously for seven consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short and long sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured.......03;0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001;0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23;1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4;2.6) mmHg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2;2.0) energy %, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6;12.7) % (all P≤0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep...... duration (all P≥0.32). Conclusions: The susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep that results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity....

  1. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake among male university students in an ad libitum buffet setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Ida; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Køpke Nielsen, Brit;

    2016-01-01

    due to the complexity of determinants for food choices and more research is therefore needed. This study assessed the of a choice architectural intervention aimed at reducing energy density of meals consumed by male university students, by proportionally increasing their vegetable consumption.A single...... the two groups (-50.4 g p=.326). This emphasizes that the relative proportion of F&V/non-F&V changes as a result of the intervention.This study found convincing evidence for combining order of placement in a buffet and separating the fruits and vegetables, as a means to increase the quantity of self...

  2. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter

    2011-01-01

    At present, it is difficult to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is an important tool in the prevention of lifestyle diseases, and long-term studies investigating GI with diets matched in macronutrient composition, fiber content, energy content, and energy density are still scarce. We...... consuming the diets ad libitum for 10 wk. Two groups of a total of 29 healthy, overweight women (age: 30.5 ± 6.6 y; BMI: 27.6 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in the 10-wk intervention and a subsequent 4-h meal test. The breakfast test meals differed in GI but were equal in total energy, macronutrient...

  3. Morphometry of the small intestine from broilers treated with diets added of containing mannan oligosaccharides and enzymatic complex additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antônio Gravena

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS and enzymatic complex (EC on the morphometry and absorption surface of the small intestine wall in broilers were studied. Seven hundred and fifty birds were used in a completely randomized design and 2 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement – two MOS levels (0 and 0.1% from 1 to 21 days and 0.05% from 22 to 42 days of age, two EC levels (0 and 0.05% and a positive control diet with antibiotics – totaling five treatments with five replicates. Positive control x factorial interaction was significant for the longitudinal muscular thickness and for the absorption surface in the duodenum and ileum, being higher in birds subjected to MOS treatment. MOS x EC interaction was significant for the duodenal mucosa at 21 days and for the jejunum and ileum at 42 days, being lower in birds treated with no additives. The same effect was observed for the duodenal absorption surface at 21 days, and for the ileum at 42 days. MOS inclusion increased (P<0.05, and EC inclusion reduced (P<0.02, the longitudinal muscular thickness of the duodenum at 42 days. MOS addition increased the longitudinal muscular thickness and the mucosa, and this was reflected in the form of a more extensive intestinal absorption surface.

  4. A stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) perspective on human diet on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) ca. AD 1400-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendador, Amy S; Dudgeon, John V; Finney, Bruce P; Fuller, Benjamin T; Esh, Kelley S

    2013-10-01

    Ecological and environmental evidence suggests that Rapa Nui was among the most marginally habitable islands in Eastern Polynesia, with only a fraction of the biotic diversity found on archipelagos to the west, and capable of sustaining many fewer cultigens traditionally transported by Polynesian colonizers. However, archaeological evidence for human dietary adaptations under such restrictions is limited. Little is known about the particulars of the subsistence base and dietary changes on Rapa Nui that may be associated with a hypothesized late prehistoric decline in the quality and diversity of food sources. To better understand prehistoric Rapa Nui diet we examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of human teeth along with archaeological faunal material thought to comprise the Rapa Nui food web. Our results indicate that contrary to previous zooarchaeological studies diet was predominantly terrestrial throughout the entire sequence of occupation, with reliance on rats, chickens and C3 plants. While a few individuals may have had access to higher trophic level marine resources, this is evident only later in time (generally post-AD 1600). A decline in (15)N through time was observed, and may be attributed to declines in available terrestrial proteins; however, presently we cannot rule out the effect of changing soil and plant baseline δ(15)N. Our results also suggest differential access to higher trophic level marine resources among contemporaneous populations, but more research is required to clarify this observation.

  5. Stable isotope and trace element studies on gladiators and contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD--mplications for differences in diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lösch

    Full Text Available The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts.

  6. Energy allowances for solid fats and added sugars in nutritionally adequate U.S. diets estimated at 17-33% by a linear programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-02-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that no more than 5-15% of total dietary energy should be derived from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). The guideline was based on USDA food pattern modeling analyses that met the Dietary Reference Intake recommendations and Dietary Guidelines and followed typical American eating habits. This study recreated food intake patterns for 6 of the same gender-age groups by using USDA data sources and a mathematical optimization technique known as linear programming. The analytic process identified food consumption patterns based on 128 food categories that met the nutritional goals for 9 vitamins, 9 minerals, 8 macronutrients, and dietary fiber and minimized deviation from typical American eating habits. Linear programming Model 1 created gender- and age-specific food patterns that corresponded to energy needs for each group. Model 2 created food patterns that were iso-caloric with diets observed for that group in the 2001-2002 NHANES. The optimized food patterns were evaluated with respect to MyPyramid servings goals, energy density [kcal/g (1 kcal = 4.18 kJ)], and energy cost (US$/2000 kcal). The optimized food patterns had more servings of vegetables and fruit, lower energy density, and higher cost compared with the observed diets. All nutrient goals were met. In contrast to the much lower USDA estimates, the 2 models placed SoFAS allowances at between 17 and 33% of total energy, depending on energy needs.

  7. The Impact of Adding the Mixture of Medicinal Herbs to the Diet on the Qualitative Characteristics of Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Like other creatures, the human life depends on the phenomena of surrounding environment and the medicinal herbs are always applied in the human and livestock and poultry's foods as well as the pharmaceutical industry in order to protect the health and treat the diseases. The impact of medicinal herbs on the livestock and poultry's performance, their characteristics and enhanced immunity can be measured and applied as well. In this regard, an experiment in the form of completely randomized design was conducted for investigating the impact of the mixture of medicinal herbs (Thyme, oregano, cumin, Alhagi, garlic and eucalyptus in the diet on the performance, the quality of egg and the commercial laying hens' immune responses. The qualitative characteristics of egg including Haugh Unit, egg specific gravity, egg shell weight and shell thickness were measured and recorded at the end of each stage. The functional properties such as Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, production percentage, egg mass weight and feed intake were recorded and measured weekly and the egg weight two times a week. The obtained data analysis was done through the statistical software SPSS 20 and Duncan test was utilized in order to compare the average traits. Different levels of medicinal herbs had no impact on the improved Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, production percentage and egg mass weight in the whole period, but the medicinal herbs 2 and 3% significantly reduced the total feed intake and egg weight during the period compared to the control and probiotic treatment (p<0.05. The application of medicinal herbs at the level of 1% reduced the egg weight compared to the control treatment (p<0.05. There was no significant difference with the control treatment in any tested treatments in terms of qualitative characteristics of egg including the egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh Unit, egg specific gravity, antibody titer against red blood cells, Lymphocytes, hematocrit, red

  8. Differential Effects of Calorie Restriction and Exercise on the Adipose Transcriptome in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karrie E. Wheatley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that obesity reversal by calorie restriction (CR versus treadmill exercise (EX differentially modulates adipose gene expression using 48 female C57BL/6 mice administered a diet-induced obesity (DIO regimen for 8 weeks, then randomized to receive for 8 weeks either: (1 a control (AIN-76A diet, fed ad libitum (DIO control; (2 a 30% CR regimen; (3 a treadmill EX regimen (with AIN-76A diet fed ad libitum; or (4 continuation of the DIO diet. Relative to the DIO controls, both CR and EX reduced adiposity by 35–40% and serum leptin levels by 80%, but only CR increased adiponectin and insulin sensitivity. Gene expression microarray analysis of visceral white adipose tissue revealed 209 genes responsive to both CR and EX, relative to the DIO group. However, CR uniquely altered expression of an additional 496 genes, whereas only 20 were uniquely affected by EX. Of the genes distinctly responsive to CR, 17 related to carbohydrate metabolism and glucose transport, including glucose transporter (GLUT 4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of the Glut4 promoter revealed that, relative to the DIO controls, CR significantly increased histone 4 acetylation, suggesting epigenetic regulation may underlie some of the differential effects of CR versus EX on the adipose transcriptome.

  9. Plaguicidas en la dieta: aportando piezas al rompecabezas Pesticides in the diet: adding pieces to the puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vicente

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Mejorar la información sobre la exposición a plaguicidas mediante la dieta en nuestro país con la presentación de los resultados de detección de 88 parámetros de plaguicidas en 1.109 muestras de alimentos, obtenidas entre 1998 y 2003 para el programa de Investigación de la Calidad Sanitaria de los Alimentos (ICSA de Barcelona. Material y método: Se presentan los resultados por grupos de alimentos y se comparan con la situación en el período anterior para frutas y hortalizas. La significación de las diferencias observadas se estima mediante la prueba de la χ². Resultados: En las 1.109 muestras analizadas se obtuvieron 116 resultados positivos para plaguicidas (10,5%. En el 1,5% de las muestras se detectaron halogenados persistentes y en el 14,4%, otros plaguicidas. Los positivos se concentran en frutas, hortalizas, especias y cereales y sus derivados. No hay positivos entre los aceites vegetales, los huevos ni los productos de la pesca, y casi no hay en los lácticos ni en los cárnicos. Las frutas concentran la mayor presencia de plaguicidas, en todos los casos no persistentes. Las hortalizas tienen menos plaguicidas, pero en ellas se detecta algún tipo de organoclorado. Al comparar los valores en las frutas y verduras con los de 1989-1997 no se aprecian diferencias que alcancen la significación estadística. Conclusiones: Aunque el volumen de muestras con plaguicidas es relevante, en su mayoría no son por productos halogenados persistentes. Destaca la elevada presencia de plaguicidas en la fruta.Objectives: To improve information on exposure to pesticides through diet in Spain by reporting the results on 88 pesticide parameters in 1,109 food samples obtained between 1998 and 2003 as part of the Barcelona program for research on the health quality of foods. Material and method: The results are presented by food groups. For fruits and vegetables, the results were compared with those for the previous period. Statistical

  10. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  11. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  12. Digestibility and retention of zinc, copper, manganese, iron, calcium, and phosphorus in pigs fed diets containing inorganic or organic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Ma, Y L; Zhao, J M; Vazquez-Añón, M; Stein, H H

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the retention rate of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe in pigs fed either inorganic or organic sources of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. There were 2 types of diets (corn grits-based or corn-soybean meal [SBM]-based diets) and 3 micromineral treatments (basal micromineral premix [BMM], inorganic micromineral premix [IMM], and organic micromineral premix [OMM]). The BMM contained no added Zn, Cu, Mn, or Fe; the IMM microminerals were provided as sulfates of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe at 40, 50, 20, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The OMM contained the same levels of the 4 microminerals as IMM, but Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe in this premix were provided by Zn(2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid [HMTBa])2, Cu(HMTBa)2, Mn(HMTBa)2, and FeGly, respectively. Forty-eight barrows (initial BW: 31.1 ± 4.2 kg) were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to the corn grits diet with BMM for 2 wk. All pigs were then moved to metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 1 of the 6 treatment diets with 8 replicates per diet. Fecal and urine samples were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. Compared with corn grits diets, pigs fed corn-SBM diets had greater (P diet improved (P diets (interaction, P diet increased (P diet. Supplementation of OMM also increased (P diets. Results indicate that Zn(HMTBa)2 has greater digestibility and Cu(HMTBa)2 and Mn(HMTBa)2 have greater digestibility and retention rates compared with their inorganic sulfates, if included in a corn-SBM diet. Supplementation of organic microminerals also improves the digestibility of P in a corn-SBM diet.

  13. Efeito da adição dietética de milho de alta qualidade protéica em camundongos Effect of adding high-quality protein maize to the diet of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Castro Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo consistiu em avaliar os efeitos da adição de milho quality protein maize BR473 sobre aspectos bioquímicos e fisiológicos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos Swiss, fêmeas, 6-7 semanas, foram alimentados com rações comerciais, rações comerciais com milho híbrido (1:1, rações comerciais com milho de alta qualidade protéica (1:1. Foram avaliados, durante 3 meses, o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e de tecido adiposo retroperitoneal e os valores plasmáticos de proteínas, triglicerídeos, colesterol e glicose. RESULTADOS: A adição dietética de milho quality protein maize BR473 reduziu o consumo alimentar e o tecido adiposo retroperitoneal, porém manteve a glicemia e trigliceridemia em relação à adição de milho híbrido na ração comercial. CONCLUSÃO: A melhor eficiência alimentar e os impactos sobre os parâmetros bioquímicos do sangue sugerem o potencial do uso do milho quality protein maize BR473 como um importante complemento para garantir a segurança alimentar e nutricional.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the biochemical and physiological effects of adding quality protein maize BR473 to the diet of mice. METHODS:Female Swiss mice, 6-7 weeks old, were fed commercial diet alone or supplemented with either hybrid maize (1:1 or quality protein maize (1:1. Food intake, weight gain, abdominal obesity and plasma glucose, proteins, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were evaluated for 3 months. RESULTS: Dietary addition of the quality protein maize BR473 reduced food intake and abdominal fat, yet plasma glucose and triglycerides remained the same when compared with the addition of hybrid maize to the commercial feed. CONCLUSION: A better dietary efficiency and the impacts on the biochemical parameters of the blood suggest that the quality protein maize BR473 is an important complement to guarantee dietary and nutritional security.

  14. Obesity induced by cafeteria diet disrupts fertility in the rat by affecting multiple ovarian targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, M V; Torelli, C; Pustovrh, M C; Paz, D A; Elia, E M

    2015-11-01

    Obesity constitutes a health problem of increasing worldwide prevalence. Among the health detriments caused by obesity, reproduction is disrupted. However, the mechanisms involved in this disruption are not fully understood. Animals fed a cafeteria diet constitute the model for the study of obesity that most closely reflects Western diet habits. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a cafeteria diet affects ovarian function and to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved. For that purpose, 22-day-old female Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with a standard diet (control group; n = 20) or cafeteria diet (CAF group; n = 20). The cafeteria diet induced obesity and hyperglycaemia, without altering serum triglycerides, cholesterol or C-reactive protein concentrations. This diet also altered ovarian function: the rats showed prolonged dioestrous phases, decreased serum oestradiol concentrations and increased number of antral atretic follicles. Moreover, follicular cysts were detected in the CAF group, concomitantly with a decrease in the number of anti-Müllerian hormone immunoreactive pre-antral follicles and COX-2-positive antral and pre-ovulatory follicles. The authors conclude that a cafeteria diet reduces ovarian reserve, induces the presence of follicular cysts and disturbs the ovulatory process, leading to the delayed pregnancy observed in these animals.

  15. Fish oil rich diet in comparison to saturated fat rich diet offered protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Thomas R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objective Systemic chronic inflammation is linked to metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a Gram negative microbial product, triggers inflammation through toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4 signaling. It has been reported that dietary fatty acids also modulate inflammation through TLR-4. We investigated whether fish oil (FO rich diet in comparison to saturated fat (SF rich diet would confer protection from pathologies induced by LPS. Methods Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group received FO-diet and other received SF-diet ad libitum for 60 days. Diets were isocaloric containing 45% energy from fat. After 60-days of feeding, blood was collected after overnight fast. Mice were allowed to recover for 4-days, fasted for 5-hours, challenged with 100 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially, and bled after 2-hours. After 7-days of recuperation, mice were challenged with 500 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially and observed for physical health. Results Food intake was similar in FO- and SF-fed mice. FO-fed mice compared to SF-fed mice had significantly less body weight gain (P = 0.005, epididymal fat weight (P = 0.005, fasting blood glucose (70.8 vs 83.3 ng/dL; P Conclusion Overall, FO-diet compared to SF-diet offered protection against deleterious effects of LPS in mice.

  16. Milk yield and quality in Guernsey cows fed cottonseed cake-based diets partially substituted with baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Musimurimwa, Carmen; Chivandi, Eliton; Gwiriri, Lovemore; Mamhare, Eddison

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of partially substituting cottonseed cake with graded levels of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) seed cake (BSC) on milk yield and quality in Guernsey cows. Sixteen cows in mid-lactation and in their third parity were allocated to diets containing 0% (control), 5%, 10%, and 15% BSC in a completely randomized design. Each cow was given a daily feed ration of 6 kg and a basal diet of soya bean stover ad libitum. There were no differences in daily feed intake (P > 0.05), but basal intake differed among all treatment groups with cows on the control diet having the highest intake (30 ± 0.34 kg/day). Mean daily milk yield differed (P  0.05). These results indicate that BSC can substitute soya bean cake in dairy diets, but milk production and butterfat content are compromised.

  17. Effects of proportions of dietary macronutrients on glucocorticoid metabolism in diet-induced obesity in rats.

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    Roland H Stimson

    Full Text Available Tissue glucocorticoid levels in the liver and adipose tissue are regulated by regeneration of inactive glucocorticoid by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1 and inactivation by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases. A low carbohydrate diet increases hepatic 11beta-HSD1 and reduces glucocorticoid metabolism during weight loss in obese humans. We hypothesized that similar variations in macronutrient proportions regulate glucocorticoid metabolism in obese rats. Male Lister Hooded rats were fed an obesity-inducing ad libitum 'Western' diet (37% fat, n = 36 for 22 weeks, then randomised to continue this diet (n = 12 or to switch to either a low carbohydrate (n = 12 or a moderate carbohydrate (n = 12 diet for the final 8 weeks. A parallel lean control group were fed an ad libitum control diet (10% fat, n = 12 throughout. The low and moderate carbohydrate diets decreased hepatic 11beta-HSD1 mRNA compared with the Western diet (both 0.7+/-0.0 vs 0.9+/-0.1 AU; p<0.01, but did not alter 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue. 5Alpha-reductase mRNA was increased on the low carbohydrate compared with the moderate carbohydrate diet. Compared with lean controls, the Western diet decreased 11beta-HSD1 activity (1.6+/-0.1 vs 2.8+/-0.1 nmol/mcg protein/hr; p<0.001 and increased 5alpha-reductase and 5beta-reductase mRNAs (1.9+/-0.3 vs 1.0+/-0.2 and 1.6+/-0.1 vs 1.0+/-0.1 AU respectively; p<0.01 in the liver, and reduced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity (both p<0.01 in adipose tissue. Although an obesity-inducing high fat diet in rats recapitulates the abnormal glucocorticoid metabolism associated with human obesity in liver (but not in adipose tissue, a low carbohydrate diet does not increase hepatic 11beta-HSD1 in obese rats as occurs in humans.

  18. Baseline growth and reproductive parameters in Lymnaea stagnalis for OECD test guideline development: optimization of diets and culturing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Tom

    guideline. Therefore, we have evaluated other diets based on a review of the published literature and report here the results for different feeds: namely, cabbage leaves, fish flakes, lettuce leaves or sliced sweet potato. For the feeding trial, 5 snails (shell size ca. 2.6 cm) were held in 1 L freshwater...... (snails fed lettuce ad libitum (0.09 mm/snail/day) followed by snails fed fish flake>sweet potato>cabbage leave diets (0.03 mm/snail/day). Similarly, in a 56-d ring-test study with 7 laboratories, the lettuce diet gave...... mean specific growth rates of 0.06-0.09 mm/snail/day. Fecundity in the same test ranged from 519-1424 total embryos per snail. These data will be used towards developing a reference database of growth and reproduction for L. stagnalis and to aid the statistical optimization of the draft OECD test...

  19. Effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition changes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F; DeMars, Lana C; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-07-01

    The present study investigated effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed isocaloric diets (AIN93G or a modification containing 25% wheat) in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 1, mice were assigned into 4 groups offered the AIN93G or the wheat-modified diet in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 2, mice were pair-fed the powdered diets to the ad libitum level of food intake of those fed the pelleted form of the respective diets. Body weight, food intake, and fecal excretion were recorded, and body composition was assessed on mice 1 wk before termination of the experiment. Mice fed the powdered diets showed greater increases in body weight in 2 wk of feeding than did mice fed the pelleted diets. Compared with the pelleted diets, the powdered diets supported an approximately 85% increase in the fat-mass:body-mass ratio and a 2-fold increase in the abdominal-fat-weight:carcass-weight ratio. In addition, mice fed the powdered diet showed significantly greater plasma concentrations of insulin and leptin and significantly lower plasma adiponectin, compared with their pellet-fed counterparts. Food intake of mice fed the powdered diet was 11% greater for the AIN93G and 16% greater for the wheat diet compared with that of the respective pelleted diet. These results demonstrate that C57BL/6 mice responded to the physical form of these diets in terms of food intake, which affected their growth, body composition, and plasma concentrations of insulin and adipocytokines.

  20. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (Pdiet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (Pdiet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  1. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P

  2. Pengaruh Pemberian Diet Tinggi Minyak Sawit terhadap Kadar Malondialdehid Darah Tikus Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maressya Silvia Eszy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMinyak sawit merupakan sumber lemak yang banyak dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Minyak ini mengandung 50% asam lemak jenuh atau saturated fatty acid (SFA, 40% asam lemak tidak jenuh rantai tunggal atau Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA,10% asam lemak tidak jenuh rantai ganda atau Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA, antioksidan, vitamin E dan beta-karoten. Rasio asam lemak jenuh dan asam lemak tidak jenuh pada minyak sawit hampir sama. Komposisi asam lemak dan antioksidan berperan dalam menentukan pembentukan ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species di jaringan tubuh. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh diet tinggi minyak sawit terhadap kadar Malondialdehid (MDA darah tikus. Penelitian ini merupakan suatu studi eksperimental dengan menggunakan post test only control group design. Sampel terdiri dari sepuluh ekor tikus wistar jantan dengan berat antara 180-260 gram yang dibagi menjadi dua kelompok, yaitu kelompok tikus control yang diberi diet standar ad libitum dan kelompok tikus perlakuan yang diberi tambahan minyak sawit kedalam diet standar ad libitum. Setelah perlakuan satu bulan, dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar malondialdehid. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan (p<0,05 antara kadar MDA kelompok tikus perlakuan (2,494±0,504 nmol/ml dengan kelompok tikus kontrol (3,152±0,237 nmol/ml. Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa diet tinggi minyak sawit menurunkan kadar MDA darah tikus.Kata kunci: minyak sawit, SFA, MUFA, antioxidant, ROS, MDAAbstractPalm oil is a source of fat which most widely consumed by Indonesian people. This oil contains 50% Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA, 40% Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, 10% Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA, antioxidant, vitamin E and beta-carotene. The saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid ratio of palm oil is almost same. Composition offatty acids and antioxidants play a role in determining the production of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species in the

  3. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health.

  4. Reduced pain and inflammation in juvenile and adult rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Ruskin

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen that forces ketone-based rather than glucose-based cellular metabolism. Clinically, maintenance on a ketogenic diet has been proven effective in treating pediatric epilepsy and type II diabetes, and recent basic research provides evidence that ketogenic strategies offer promise in reducing brain injury. Cellular mechanisms hypothesized to be mobilized by ketone metabolism and underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy, such as reduced reactive oxygen species and increased central adenosine, suggest that the ketolytic metabolism induced by the diet could reduce pain and inflammation. To test the effects of a ketone-based metabolism on pain and inflammation directly, we fed juvenile and adult rats a control diet (standard rodent chow or ketogenic diet (79% fat ad libitum for 3-4 weeks. We then quantified hindpaw thermal nociception as a pain measure and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced local hindpaw swelling and plasma extravasation (fluid movement from the vasculature as inflammation measures. Independent of age, maintenance on a ketogenic diet reduced the peripheral inflammatory response significantly as measured by paw swelling and plasma extravasation. The ketogenic diet also induced significant thermal hypoalgesia independent of age, shown by increased hindpaw withdrawal latency in the hotplate nociception test. Anti-inflammatory and hypoalgesic diet effects were generally more robust in juveniles. The ketogenic diet elevated plasma ketones similarly in both age groups, but caused slowed body growth only in juveniles. These data suggest that applying a ketogenic diet or exploiting cellular mechanisms associated with ketone-based metabolism offers new therapeutic opportunities for controlling pain and peripheral inflammation, and that such a metabolic strategy may offer significant benefits for children and adults.

  5. Avaliação da qualidade protéica de uma dieta estabelecida em Quissamã, Rio de Janeiro, adicionada ou não de multimistura e de pó de folha de mandioca Protein quality evaluation of a diet established in Quissamã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, added or not with multi-mixture and powder of cassava leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Teles BOAVENTURA

    2000-12-01

    multimistura ou do pó de folha de mandioca não causou impacto sobre a qualidade da dieta estabelecida em Quissamã, não tendo melhorado sua capacidade de recuperar a desnutrição.The following experiment tested the quality of proteins present in the diet of undernourished children in the city of Quissamã, Rio de Janeiro, and then conducted the same tests adding variables: multi-mixture or powder of cassava leaf. The subjects used were 48 Rattus norvergicus, Wistar, males, 24 days old, and weighing 58.95 g. They were fed water and ration ad libitum. In the first phase, called Undernourishment, the animals were divided into three groups: control group, Quissamã group and no proteins group. The control group was fed a ration based on casein and the Quissamã group was fed a ration based on the Quissamã diet. Both of these groups had 8 rats. The no proteins group, with 32 animals, was fed during 10 days a diet with no proteins. In the second phase, called Recovery, which lasted for 18 days, the control group and Quissamã group were fed the same diet. The no proteins group was subdivided into four groups: the undernourished control group, which was fed the same diet as that of the control group; the undernourished Quissamã group, which was fed the same diet as that of the Quissamã group; the undernourished Quissamã group plus powder of cassava leaf; and the undernourished Quissamã group plus multi-mixture. Then, the Protein Efficiency Ratio and the Net Protein Retention were determined for both the control group and the Quissamã group. The results showed significant statiscal differences between these two groups, with the Quissamã Group reaching relative Net Protein Retention and Protein Efficiency Ratio of 71.54% and 66.04 respectively, in relation to the control Group. The Protein Efficiency Ratio Modified was determined for the undernourished groups. The undernourished control group showed significant statiscal differences in relation to the other groups. In this

  6. EFFECT OF RICE HULL IN THE DRIED HOTEL FOOD WASTE BASED-DIET ON LIPID CHARACTERISTICS AND MEAT QUALITY OF BARROWS

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Purnamartha; S. Setiyono; P. Panjono

    2014-01-01

    The study was constructed to observe the effect of rice hull as a fiber sources in the dried hotelfood waste based-diet on fat and cholesterol level of pork. Twenty four heads of two months old ofLandrace x Yorkshire cross barrows were randomly divided into four treatment groups, i.e. without ricehull (R0), 10% rice hull (R1), 20% rice hull (R2), and 30% rice hull (R3). They placed in individualconcrete pen with 1.9 m in length and 0.5 m in width. Feed and water were given as ad libitum.Obser...

  7. Impact of wheat aleurone structure on metabolic disorders caused by a high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Natalia Nicole; Pekkinen, Jenna; Zavala, Karla; Fouret, Gilles; Korkmaz, Ayhan; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Atalay, Mustafa; Hanhineva, Kati; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; Micard, Valérie

    2014-10-15

    The present study investigated the potential of native and structurally modified wheat aleurone, by dry-grinding or enzymatic treatments, to counteract metabolic disorders in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). C57BL6/J mice were first fed ad libitum with a high-fat diet for 9 weeks to induce obesity, after which the native or treated aleurone fractions were added (13% (w/w)) in the high-fat diets for an additional 8 weeks. The effects of the aleurone-enriched diets were evaluated by assessing body weight gain, adiposity, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and leptin, and anti-inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Enrichment of the diet with native or finely ground aleurone did not improve any parameter analyzed; finely ground aleurone even slightly increased (p = 0.03) body weight gain. Enrichment of the diet with enzymatically treated aleurone only had a tendency toward lower body weight gain, visceral adipose tissue accumulation, fasting plasma insulin, and leptin levels.

  8. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  9. Effect of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility and faecal microbiota of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cangyou; Zhang, Shihai; Yang, Qing; Peng, Qian; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the experiment on 180 weaned piglets (8.9 kg body weight) was to investigate the influence of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea incidence and numbers of faecal microbiota. The dietary treatments included a Control diet and five high fibre diets formulated with different fibre sources including wheat bran, soybean hulls, naked oat hulls, palm kernel expeller and bamboo fibre. The high fibre diets averaged 14.6% neutral detergent fibre with different non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) components and were fed ad libitum for 28 d. Faecal samples were collected during the last 3 d of the experiment and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fibre components were determined. Pigs fed the Control and wheat bran diets had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) than pigs fed the palm kernel expeller and bamboo meal diets. The reduced ADG for pigs appeared to be related to reductions in the digestibility of gross energy and dry matter, respectively. The feed-to-gain ratio was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the fibre diets. The digestibility of NSP components was different among the treatments. The diarrhoea incidence was not affected by treatments. The abundance of faecal bifidobacteria was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the wheat bran diet than for pigs fed the bamboo meal diet. It was concluded that the diets formulated with different fibre sources when fed to weaned piglets have different effects on pig performance, nutrient digestibility and numbers of faecal microbiota. The wheat bran diet rich in arabinoxylans enabled a better performance than the other tested diets with fibre addition.

  10. n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awada Manar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF diet or high-fat (HF, 20% diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG. Results Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6, (ii leptin and (iii 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution. Conclusion Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing

  11. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C

    1980-11-01

    During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health.

  12. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing 30% distillers dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J

    2015-01-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 315) were blocked by initial BW (6.8 ± 1.1 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of tallow and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on pig growth, carcass traits, and pork fat quality. Diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet (CON) and another 3 corn-soybean meal diets containing 5% tallow (T), 30% DDGS (D), or 5% tallow plus 30% DDGS (TD) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain similar levels of available P and standardized ileal digestible Lys:ME among treatments. Pigs were housed in 40 pens, with 7 to 8 pigs per pen, to provide 10 replicates per treatment. Overall ADG did not differ among treatments. Compared with CON (2.76 kg/d) and T (2.59 kg/d), feeding 30% DDGS reduced the ADFI (interaction, P > 0.05) of pigs when fed with 5% tallow (2.45 kg/d for TD) but not when fed alone (2.76 kg/d for D). There was no effect of DDGS on overall G:F, but pigs fed diets with tallow had greater (P tallow (0.37). Feeding tallow increased (P tallow (D = 71.8° and TD = 57.7° vs. CON = 134.0° and T = 113.4°) and tallow also tended to reduce belly firmness (P tallow reduced the concentration of SFA in belly fat, while the concentration of MUFA were increased (P tallow but not DDGS. Conversely, feeding DDGS increased (P tallow. An interaction (P = 0.03) between DDGS and tallow for iodine value (IV) of belly fat was observed, in which addition of tallow or DDGS increased the IV of belly fat (64.22 for T and 71.22 for D vs. 59.01 for CON) but addition of both reduced IV (67.88 for TD). The IV of belly fat and backfat were correlated (P tallow to 30% DDGS diets improved G:F and carcass yield while reducing the IV of belly fat. However, pork fat firmness as measured by belly flop angle was not improved.

  13. Effects of Adding of Two Commercial Absorbent Materials and Natural Zeolite to the Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 on Broiler Performance and their

    OpenAIRE

    J. Azimi; M.A Karimi Torshizi; A Allameh; H. Ahari

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding of two commercial absorbent products in feeds and to compare the results with the effect of adding of natural zeolite in reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 on broiler growth, performance and immune system. In this study, 200 one day old Arian 386 broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replications and 10 chicks per each treatment. Experimental groups were as follows: negative control...

  14. Diet-Induced Obesity and Circadian Disruption of Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; Mendoza, Jorge; Garcia, Alexandra N.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior. In general, DIO may alter locomotor activity by decreasing total activity. On the other hand, DIO largely alters eating patterns, producing increased overall ingestion and number of eating bouts that can extend to the resting period. Furthermore, within the hypothalamic areas, little effect has been reported on the molecular circadian mechanism in DIO animals with ad libitum hypercaloric diets and little or no data exist so far on its effects on the reward system areas. We further discuss the possibility of an uncoupling of metabolic and reward systems in DIO and highlight a gap of circadian and metabolic research that may help to better understand the implications of obesity. PMID:28223912

  15. Effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal plasticity in freely moving juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, J Harry; Ruskin, David N; Koranda, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2015-05-01

    Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, sufficient protein, high-fat diets with anticonvulsant activity used primarily as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism is thought to involve elevating inhibition and/or otherwise limiting excitability in the brain. Such a mechanism, however, might also significantly affect normal brain activity and limit synaptic plasticity, effects that would be important to consider in the developing brain. To assess ketogenic diet effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, electrophysiological recordings were performed at the perforant path/dentate gyrus synapse in awake, freely-behaving juvenile male rats. Electrodes were implanted 1 week prior to recording. Animals were fed regular chow or a ketogenic diet ad libitum for 3 weeks before recording. Although the ketogenic diet did not significantly alter baseline excitability (assessed by input-output curves) or short-term plasticity (using the paired-pulse ratio), it did reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation at all poststimulation timepoints out to the last time measured (48 h). The results suggest an effect of ketogenic diet-feeding on the induction magnitude but not the maintenance of long-term potentiation. The lack of effect of the diet on baseline transmission and the paired-pulse ratio suggests a mechanism that limits excitation preferentially in conditions of strong stimulation, consonant with clinical reports in which the ketogenic diet alleviates seizures without a major impact on normal brain activity. Limiting plasticity in a seizure-susceptible network may limit seizure-induced epileptogenesis which may subserve the ongoing benefit of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy.

  16. Growth performance, carcass yield and intestinal microflora populations of broilers fed diets containing thepax and yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boostani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the probiotic thepax and yogurt (as probiotic on the growth response and intestinal microflora results of broiler chickens. Two hundred forty day-old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 12 floor pens and reared for 42 day. The treatments consisted of yogurt (10, 5 and 2.5% during starter, grower and finisher periods in the drinking water, respectively and thepax (1000, 500, 250 g/ton-1 in the starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively, resulting three experimental diets and a control group. Each dietary treatment was fed ad-libitum to four replicate group of 20 birds at the beginning of rearing period. Birds and feed were weighed on days 21 and 42. The results of experiment indicate that diets containing feed additives improved broiler performance. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio improved significantly more (p < 0.05 with the thepax treatment compared with the control broilers during the total rearing period. The highest (p < 0.05 carcass and thigh values were recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax and yogurt, respectively. The lowest abdominal fat pad value was obtained in broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax. On d 21, thepax and yogurt significantly reduced (p < 0.05 cecal Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens populations compared with the control group. In conclusion, thepax and yogurt improved broilers growth response and conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving their microbial ecology.

  17. Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective: To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks.Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (∼2 g/kg body weight (n = 12 or artificial sweeteners (n = 11 as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (∼80 weight% and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits. The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0 and after the intervention (week 10 fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch.After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10, postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet.A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects.

  18. The effect of weaner diet protein content and diet quality on the long-term performance of pigs to slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellock, I J; Houdijk, J G M; Miller, A C; Gill, B P; Kyriazakis, I

    2009-04-01

    Short and long-term effects of manipulating dietary CP content and diet quality in weaner diets on health and performance of pigs were investigated in a 2 x 2 factorial combination of CP inclusion (high-CP, 230 g of CP/kg vs. low-CP, 170 g of CP/kg) and diet quality (high-quality, cooked cereals, and animal protein vs. low-quality, raw cereals, and plant protein). Diets were fed ad libitum for 14 d postweaning to pigs weaned at 29.4+/-3.1 d of age and 9.9+/-1.0 kg of BW. From d 14 to slaughter at 104+/-3 kg, all pigs were fed the same series of standard commercial diets. There were 15 replicates per treatment in the weaner phase (30 kg). High-quality diets promoted gut health as indicated by improved fecal lactobacilli to coliform ratio (P=0.002) and decreased fecal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli counts on d 11 postweaning (P=0.028), reducing the risk of postweaning diarrhea and improving pig health from weaning to the end of the weaner phase. Reducing CP content had no effect on gut health. High-CP (P=0.053) and high-quality (P=0.025) diets independently increased ADG during the first 14 d postweaning compared with low-CP and low-quality diets, respectively. There were no interactions between dietary CP content and quality on any of the response criteria investigated. Despite differences in the immediate postweaning period, there was no effect of manipulating diet quality or CP content for 2 wk postweaning on lifetime performance with pigs reaching slaughter weight in 128+/-7 d. These results indicate that high-quality diets may protect pig gut health during the immediate postweaning period. However, it may be possible to use less expensive, decreased quality weaner diets without any adverse effects on long-term performance when weaning older, heavier pigs and where health status, environmental control, and stock management are all maintained to a high standard.

  19. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving.

  20. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  1. On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - Comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J.B.; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henderina; Van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks af

  2. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, E. A.; Richardson, J. D.; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D.; Betts, J A

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ...

  3. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  4. 断乳期饮食添加时间与儿童构音障碍相关性研究%Study on the Dependablity of the Time Added Weaning Period Diet and Children Dysarthria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芸; 陈亦旋; 刘运清; 刘才华

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the time to add weaning period diet to infants and young children whether had an effect on chiidren'cavitas otis motor function, pronunciation and dysarthria. METHODS Surveyed children' parents of experimental group (added weaning period diet earlily)and control group(addod weaning period diet as normal) by one to one questionnaire investigation, got the information of weaning period diet, evaluated the children cavitas otis motor function, pronunciation and misartieulation and analysed the dependability between the time and dysarthria. RESULTS There were significant difference between experimental and control group in dysarthria and motor functional disturbance(P<0.01 ). CONCLUSIONS Added weaning period diet eariily during 4 to 6 months old can promote cavitas otis motor function and diminish dysarthria opportunity.%目的 探讨婴幼儿时期添加断乳期饮食的时间对儿童口腔运动功能、儿童发音和构音障碍的影响.方法 通过对实验组及对照组儿童父母进行一对一问卷调查,了解其断乳期饮食添加情况,评价儿童的口腔运动功能、发音及构音情况,从而分析断乳期饮食添加时间与儿童构音障碍的相关性.结果 伴构音障碍的实验组儿童多伴有口腔运动的功能障碍,且未能及时添加断乳期饮食,与对照组比较,两者有显著性差异(P<0.01).结论 4~6月尽早添加断乳期饮食,能促进口腔运动功能,从而减少儿童构音异常的发生机会.

  5. Effects of adding protein, condensed tannins, and polyethylene glycol to diets of sheep and goats fed one-seed juniper and low quality roughage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biochemical mechanisms that limit voluntary intake of one-seed juniper by browsing ruminants are not well understood. Twelve Rambouillet ewes (78 ± 2.3 kg BW) and 12 Boer-Spanish does (54 ± 1.4 kg BW) were used in a split-plot sequence design to investigate the effects of adding protein, quebrac...

  6. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Genoni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background/Objectives: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2 Subjects/Methods: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2 were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22 or AGHE diet (n = 17 for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3 Results: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03. Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046, costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01 and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01; (4 Conclusions: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility.

  7. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    in monounsaturated fatty acids ( > 20% of energy); 2) LF diet (n = 18): low-fat diet (20-30% of energy), and 3) control diet (n = 12): 35% of energy as fat ( > 15% of energy as saturated fatty acids). Protein accounted for 15% of energy in all 3 diets. A 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before......BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  8. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  9. Fatty acid and energy metabolism in broiler chickens fed diets containing either beef tallow or an oil blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsuthavas, S; Yuangklang, C; Vasupen, K; Mitchaothai, J; Alhaidary, A; Mohamed, H E; Beynen, A C

    2011-04-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) results in more whole-body fatty acid oxidation than the feeding of saturated fatty acids (SFA). It was reasoned that the increased fatty acid oxidation would be associated with enhanced whole-body energy expenditure and stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis. To put the hypothesis to the test, broiler chickens were fed diets containing either beef tallow as source of SFA or an oil blend as source of n-6 PUFA. The broilers either had free access to their diet or were fed a restricted amount. Seven-day-old, male broiler chickens were used; they were kept individually in cages from 1 to 4 weeks of age. In the birds fed ad libitum, the n-6 PUFA diet reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI), but did not significantly affect average daily weight gain (ADG) and the feed:conversion ratio (FCR). The lower ADFI on the n-6 PUFA diet was associated with a higher apparent digestibility of total fatty acids. The ratio of deposition in the body to intake of digestible total PUFA, which reflected n-6 PUFA, was significantly decreased by the n-6 PUFA diet, pointing at preferentially increased n-6 PUFA oxidation on the n-6 PUFA diet. The ratio for n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was higher than 1.0, which agrees with net de novo synthesis, but the n-6 PUFA diet induced a lower value than did the SFA diet. Feeding either the n-6 PUFA or SFA diet did not influence energy expenditure expressed as percentage of energy intake. This study supports the idea that dietary n-6 PUFA instead of SFA are preferentially oxidized, but no proof was obtained for enhanced energy expenditure and contrary to the hypothesis put forward, the n-6 PUFA diet depressed de-novo fatty acid synthesis.

  10. The effects of diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nadino; das Neves, José Henrique; Nazato, Carina; Louvandini, Helder; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the effects of Diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus, 28 lambs were allocated to one of four groups treated as follows: Group Basal Diet - Normal; Group Basal Diet - Immune-Suppressed; Group Supplemented Diet - Normal; and Group Supplemented Diet - Immune-Suppressed. The Basal Diet contained Cynodon dactylon (cv. coast cross) hay with 82 g crude protein (CP)/kg dry matter (DM), which was provided to the lambs in all groups ad libitum. In addition, animals on the Supplemented Diet received daily a commercial concentrate containing 171 g CP/kg DM, which was offered in an amount corresponding to 3% of the animal's live weight. The Immune-Suppressed groups received treatments with the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone sodium succinate (1.33 mg/kg of body weight), administered weekly. All lambs received a single infection with 4000 H. contortus infective larvae (L3) and were euthanised 28 days post-infection. Differences in pH and in the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations occurred in rumen as a result of the distinct Diets offered to lambs. Such changes, however, did not have any apparent effect on larvae exsheathment and/or larvae survival inside the rumen, with all groups presenting similar worm burdens. However, animals on the Supplemented Diet presented reductions in worm growth and faecal egg counts. There was a significant effect of the Diet on the IgG levels against total antigens of H. contortus L3 from 7 to 27 days post-infection, with supplemented animals showing higher overall mean values (PDiet; however, only the length of males was significantly affected (P<0.05). In conclusion, the changes caused in the rumen contents by supplementation with concentrate did not impair H. contortus establishment.

  11. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Kjetil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. Methods Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study. There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. Severity of arthritis was determined using a clinical scoring system. Arthritis joints were analysed by histopathology and graded. Serum samples were obtained at the end of the study and the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-β were determined by a Luminex™ assay system. Results Consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control. Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score. Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-1α and IL-13. Conclusions The study suggests that krill oil may be a useful intervention strategy against the clinical and histopathological signs of inflammatory arthritis.

  12. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, PFasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P... after an oral glucose challenge (Pmicrobiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P

  13. Digestion and deposition of individual fatty acids in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchaothai, J; Everts, H; Yuangklang, C; Wittayakun, S; Vasupen, K; Wongsuthavas, S; Srenanul, P; Hovenier, R; Beynen, A C

    2008-08-01

    The apparent digestibility and deposition in carcass of individual dietary fatty acids (FA) were determined in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil. The beef tallow was rich in saturated FA (SFA) and the sunflower oil had a high content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). A total of 39 barrows was used. The experimental diets contained 5% (w/w) of the variable fat source and were fed ad libitum. The dietary fat type had no effect (p > 0.05) on growth performance, even though the apparent digestibilities of crude fat and crude protein were higher (p tallow, the deposition:intake ratio was raised for the SFA (p tallow improved apparent digestibility of SFA, MUFA and PUFA, increased the deposition:digestible intake ratio for SFA, but lowered that for MUFA and PUFA.

  14. The effect of high-fat diet on the composition of the gut microbiota in cloned and non-cloned pigs of lean and obese phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise

    2013-01-01

    overall composition of their gut microbiota. The colon of lean cloned pigs contained relatively more bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and less from the phylum Bacteroidetes than obese cloned pigs as estimated by qPCR. Fluidigm qPCR results revealed differences in specific bacterial groups......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-far-high-energy diet on cloned and non-cloned domestic pigs of both lean and obese phenotype and to evaluate if the lean cloned pigs had a lower inter-individual variation as compared with non-cloned pigs. The microbiota of colon...... and terminal ileum was investigated in cloned and non-cloned pigs that received a high-far-high-energy diet with either restricted or ad libitum access to feed, resulting in lean and obese phenotypes, respectively. The fecal microbiota of lean pigs was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length...

  15. UTILIZATION OF MEXICAN SUNFLOWER LEAF MEAL-BASED DIETS BY PRE WEANED WEST AFRICAN DWARF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Henry Ekeocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted using 16 West African Dwarf (WAD lambs selected from 16 ewes brought to heat (Oestrus by synchronization and served by 2 rams. The experimental animals were placed at 6 weeks of age and were fed with Panicum maximum plus concentrate diet mixture of Mexican Sunflower Leaves (MSL and Wheat Bran (WB such that 0, 15, 30 and 45% of wheat bran was replaced by weight with MSL gravimetrically in diets A, B, C and D respectively. The experiment lasted for seven weeks. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and routine vaccination and medication were administered. Parameters measured were weight gain, dry matter intake, weaning weight and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR. The Dry Matter Intake - DMI (g/day was highest for lambs on diet C (156.94 followed by B (156.53, A (154.29 and D (152.04 g/day respectively. This increase was numerically higher than observed values for animals on treatments A and B but statistically significant (P0.05. Results from this study showed that 30% MSLM-based diet was acceptable to the pre-weaned lambs as it supported dry matter intake, optimum weight gain, weaning weight and feed conversion ratio before diminishing return sets in.

  16. Diet-induced obesity exacerbates metabolic and behavioral effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Ilana B; Grayson, Bernadette E; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Seeley, Randy J

    2015-06-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age. Although a comorbidity of PCOS is obesity, many are lean. We hypothesized that increased saturated fat consumption and obesity would exacerbate metabolic and stress indices in a rodent model of PCOS. Female rats were implanted with the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or placebo pellets prior to puberty. Half of each group was maintained ad libitum on either a high-fat diet (HFD; 40% butter fat calories) or nutrient-matched low-fat diet (LFD). Irrespective of diet, DHT-treated animals gained more body weight, had irregular cycles, and were glucose intolerant compared with controls on both diets. HFD/DHT animals had the highest levels of fat mass and insulin resistance. DHT animals demonstrated increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze by decreased distance traveled and time in the open arms. HFD consumption increased immobility during the forced-swim test. DHT treatment suppressed diurnal corticosterone measurements in both diet groups. In parallel, DHT treatment significantly dampened stress responsivity to a mild stressor. Brains of DHT animals showed attenuated c-Fos activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus; irrespective of DHT-treatment, however, all HFD animals had elevated hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus c-Fos activation. Whereas hyperandrogenism drives overall body weight gain, glucose intolerance, anxiety behaviors, and stress responsivity, HFD consumption exacerbates the effect of androgens on adiposity, insulin resistance, and depressive behaviors.

  17. GC-C-IRMS analysis of FAMEs as a tool to ascertain the diet of Iberian pigs used for the production of pork products with high added value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raposo, C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste, quality and perceived health benefits result in a high demand for both green and mature pork products derived from the Iberian bred swine. These characteristics are directly related to diet and breeding style (free ranging in a particular Mediterranean ecosystem: the Dehesa. Given that current demand is not matched by the available resources, animal feed is increasingly used. GC-C-IRMS analysis of Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic and Linoleic Acid methyl esters allows for differentiating between pork raised in the traditional way and that fattened on animal feed. Although a value of δ13CC18:1 = –25.9‰ is a good discriminator, exploratory analysis of principal canonical components is required to properly assign any unknown sample.El sabor, la calidad y los efectos saludables de los derivados del cerdo ibérico dan lugar a una elevada demanda de los mismos, tanto en fresco como curados. Las características mencionadas responden a una dieta y crianza específicas (libres en la Dehesa, alimentándose de lo que ésta produce. Frecuentemente, los recursos disponibles son insuficientes para cubrir la demanda, dando en ocasiones lugar a la alimentación artificial de algunos de los cerdos. El análisis de las relaciones isotópicas 13C/12C de los ácidos grasos Palmítico, Esteárico, Oleico y Linoleico mediante GC-C-IRMS permite diferenciar entre animales criados al estilo tradicional (acabados en montanera y aquellos alimentados con piensos. El valor de δ13CC18:1 = –25.9‰ es un buen indicador, pero la correcta asignación de una muestra dada requiere el empleo de los cuatro ácidos grasos indicados y su tratamiento estadístico mediante análisis de componentes principales.

  18. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may ...

  19. CCK(1) receptor is essential for normal meal patterning in mice fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2007-12-05

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a high fat diet on daily food intake and meal patterns using mice in which the CCK(1)R gene is deleted. CCK(1)R(-/-) and CCK(1)R(+/+) mice were fed isocaloric high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets ad libitum for 18 h each day and meal size, meal frequency, intermeal interval, and meal duration were determined. Daily food intake was unaltered by diet in the CCK(1)R(-/-) compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice. However, meal size was larger in the CCK(1)R(-/-) mice compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice when fed a HF diet, with a concomitant decrease in meal frequency. Meal duration was increased in mice fed HF diet regardless of phenotype. In addition, CCK(1)R(-/-) mice fed a HF diet had a 75% decrease in the time to 1st meal compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice following a 6 h fast. These data suggest that lack of the CCK(1)R results in diminished satiation, causing altered meal patterns including larger, less frequent meals when fed a high fat diet. These results suggest that the CCK(1)R is involved in regulating caloric intake on a meal to meal basis, but that other factors are responsible for regulation of daily food intake.

  20. Absence of intestinal microbiota does not protect mice from diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleissner, Christine K; Huebel, Nora; Abd El-Bary, Mohamed Mostafa; Loh, Gunnar; Klaus, Susanne; Blaut, Michael

    2010-09-01

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in host nutrient absorption and energy homeostasis. We studied the influence of different diets on body composition in germ-free (GF) and conventional (CV) mice. GF and CV male adult C3H mice were fed ad libitum a semi-synthetic low-fat diet (LFD; carbohydrate-protein-fat ratio: 41:42:17; 19.8 kJ/g), a high-fat diet (HFD; 41:16:43; 21.4 kJ/g) or a commercial Western diet (WD; 41:19:41; 21.5 kJ/g). There was no difference in body weight gain between GF and CV mice on the LFD. On the HFD, GF mice gained more body weight and body fat than CV mice, and had lower energy expenditure. GF mice on the WD gained significantly less body fat than GF mice on the HFD. GF mice on both HFD and WD showed increased intestinal mRNA expression of fasting-induced adipose factor/angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Fiaf/Angptl4), but they showed no major changes in circulating Fiaf/Angptl4 compared with CV mice. The faecal microbiota composition of the CV mice differed between diets: the proportion of Firmicutes increased on both HFD and WD at the expense of the Bacteroidetes. This increase in the Firmicutes was mainly due to the proliferation of one family within this phylum: the Erysipelotrichaceae. We conclude that the absence of gut microbiota does not provide a general protection from diet-induced obesity, that intestinal production of Fiaf/Angptl4 does not play a causal role in gut microbiota-mediated effects on fat storage and that diet composition affects gut microbial composition to larger extent than previously thought.

  1. Maternal Manganese Restriction Increases Susceptibility to High-Fat Diet-Induced Dyslipidemia and Altered Adipose Function in WNIN Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Ganeshan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth in utero is largely a reflection of nutrient and oxygen supply to the foetus. We studied the effects of Mn restriction per se, maternal Mn restriction, and postnatal high-fat feeding in modulating body composition, lipid metabolism and adipocyte function in Wistar/NIN (WNIN rat offspring. Female weanling, WNIN rats received ad libitum for 4 months, a control or Mn-restricted diet and were mated with control males. Some restricted mothers were rehabilitated with control diet from conception (MnRC or parturition (MnRP, and their offspring were raised on control diet. Some restricted offspring were weaned onto control diet (MnRW, while others continued on restricted diet throughout (MnR. A set of offspring from each group was fed high-fat diet from 9 months onwards. Body composition, adipocytes function, and lipid metabolism were monitored in male rat offspring at regular intervals. Maternal manganese restriction increased the susceptibility of the offspring to high-fat-induced adiposity, dyslipidaemia, and a proinflammatory state but did not affect their glycemic or insulin status.

  2. Effect of diet composition on water consumption in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M I; Beaulieu, A D; Patience, J F

    2006-11-01

    Concerns relating to use of water resources by the livestock industry, combined with the rising cost of manure management, have resulted in greater interest in identifying ways to reduce drinking water utilization by pigs while maintaining animal well-being and achieving satisfactory growth performance. The objective of this experiment was to determine if increasing the dietary CP or mineral concentrations increases water intake and excretion and, conversely, if reducing the dietary CP content reduces water intake and excretion. Forty-eight barrows (34.3 +/- 4.6 kg of BW; 12/treatment) were given free access to diets containing a low protein (16.9% CP), high protein (20.9% CP), or excess protein (25.7% CP) level, or a diet with excess levels of Ca, P, Na, and Cl. Water was available to each pig on an ad libitum basis via dish drinkers that were determined to waste less than 3% of total water flow. The excess CP diet tended to increase average daily water intake (ADWI) and urinary excretion (P luxury intake is a significant experimental challenge. Because the impact of dietary treatment on water utilization was small, we conclude that factors other than dietary protein and mineral concentration and daily protein and mineral intake have a relatively large effect on water intake and excretion. Consequently, strategies to reduce water intake must recognize, understand, and manage these additional behavioral and physiological factors. Diet composition may be a part of strategies designed to reduce excessive water utilization by the pig industry but may have a limited effect if other important factors are ignored.

  3. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-06

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  4. Time restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 h/day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access, yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome, improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a non-pharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases. PMID:22608008

  5. Modern 'junk food' and minimally-processed 'natural food' cafeteria diets alter the response to sweet taste but do not impair flavor-nutrient learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palframan, Kristen M; Myers, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Animals learn to prefer and increase consumption of flavors paired with postingestive nutrient sensing. Analogous effects have been difficult to observe in human studies. One possibility is experience with the modern, processed diet impairs learning. Food processing manipulates flavor, texture, sweetness, and nutrition, obscuring ordinary correspondences between sensory cues and postingestive consequences. Over time, a diet of these processed 'junk' foods may impair flavor-nutrient learning. This 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis was tested by providing rats long-term exposure to cafeteria diets of unusual breadth (2 or 3 foods per day, 96 different foods over 3 months, plus ad libitum chow). One group was fed processed foods (PF) with added sugars/fats and manipulated flavors, to mimic the sensory-nutrient properties of the modern processed diet. Another group was fed only 'natural' foods (NF) meaning minimally-processed foods without manipulated flavors or added sugars/fats (e.g., fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains) ostensibly preserving the ordinary correspondence between flavors and nutrition. A CON group was fed chow only. In subsequent tests of flavor-nutrient learning, PF and NF rats consistently acquired strong preferences for novel nutrient-paired flavors and PF rats exhibited enhanced learned acceptance, contradicting the 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis. An unexpected finding was PF and NF diets both caused lasting reduction in ad lib sweet solution intake. Groups did not differ in reinforcing value of sugar in a progressive ratio task. In lick microstructure analysis the NF group paradoxically showed increased sucrose palatability relative to PF and CON, suggesting the diets have different effects on sweet taste evaluation.

  6. Efficiency of different xylanase preparations in diets for pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmler, R; Rodehutscord, M

    2001-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with a total of 2288 pekin ducks. Day-old ducklings were group-penned on straw bedding and were fed complete, pelleted diets ad libitum for up to 49 days depending on experiment. In each experiment, starter diets (until day 21) and grower diets (from day 22) were used adequate in ME content and nutrient content. The sum of wheat, rye, and triticale amounted to at least 57% (starter diet) and 63% (grower diet), respectively. The inclusion level of wheat, rye, and triticale was different between experiments, with a maximum rye inclusion of 45%. Five different enzyme preparations all having, 1,4-beta-xylanase as the main activity were considered in this study with either one (2 preparations) or three (3 preparations) levels of supplementation. The effect of enzyme supplementation on ileal digesta viscosity was studied at the end of two experiments comprising 4 enzyme preparations. A significant reduction in digesta viscosity was determined for all preparations. The viscosity of digesta was higher in birds that were fed 45% rye in their diet as compared to those fed a diet based on triticale and wheat, even with enzyme supplementation. Differences in digesta viscosity were not reflected in growth or feed conversion data. In one experiment, the body weight of ducks on day 21 was significantly improved by enzyme supplementation. This effect disappeared with progress in experiment. In another experiment, feed intake was significantly improved with enzyme supplementation. Apart from this, no statistically significant improvement in performance could be detected. On overall average, the final BW of ducks fed an enzyme was (as compared to the unsupplemented control = 100), 100, and the feed conversion ratio was 101. There is no indication from the growth and feed conversion data that an enzyme effect becomes more pronounced with increasing inclusion rate of soluble NSP by rye. It is concluded that supplementary xylanases are efficient in

  7. Effect of diet composition and lysine supply on growth and body composition in juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeckel, Saskia; Dietz, Carsten; Schulz, Carsten; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding level and dietary lysine concentration on growth, protein and lysine retention, and body composition in juvenile turbot. Maintenance requirement for lysine and the efficiency of lysine utilisation were determined as well. Two experimental diets were formulated based on fishmeal or wheat gluten as main protein sources, containing 6.4 g (Diet A, control) and 4.5 g lysine per 100 g CP (Diet B), respectively. Diets were fed once daily at six feeding levels (per day 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, 1.2%, and 1.5% of body weight [BW] and ad libitum) to a total of 432 fish of 48 g initial BW. No differences in the growth parameters were observed between diets at the same feeding level, except a lower feed to gain ratio (p level at Diet B. Whole-body composition was not affected by diet, whereas muscle protein concentration was significantly lower for fish fed Diet B. Amino acid concentration in whole-body protein was affected by dietary treatment and fish fed Diet B showed lower concentrations of all essential amino acids. In fish muscle protein, lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine concentrations were significantly lower in Diet B. Efficiency of lysine utilisation for growth (klys) was determined by linear regression analysis and amounted for 0.69 for Diet B. The maintenance lysine requirement defined at zero lysine retention was 6.5 mg · kg(-0.8) · d(-1). Lysine intakes at zero protein retention were 13.0 mg and 12.9 mg · kg(-0.8) · d(-1) for Diet A and B, respectively. Growth and nutrient retention were similar for both diets and, therefore, a lysine deficiency in Diet B did not occur. In conclusion, a proportion of 330 g wheat gluten per kg feed did not influence growth performance and maintenance requirement for lysine in juvenile turbot. However, the effect of diet composition on the amino acid profile of body protein might be relevant for the derivation of the amino acid requirement

  8. Effect of Antioxidants Supplementation or Restricted Diet on Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

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    A.A. Vahidinia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine the preventive effect of antioxidant supplements and/or restricted diet on the stress oxidative index (8-Iso-PGF2α and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in obese rats induced by a high-fat (HF diet. Material and Methods: In this experimental study forty-eight male Wister rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Their daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. Serum 8-Iso-PGF2α and TAC measured by EIA methods. Results: Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Serum 8-Iso-PGF2α in HF was 1416.2±443.5 and in HF restricted was 1209.4±424.4pg/ml (p>0.05 and equal for other groups. The lowest TAC was seen in HF and highest was in HFS (0.36±0.43 and 3.0±1.13 mM, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusions: These results suggest that antioxidant supplements and caloric restriction may improved TAC and partially suppress stress oxidative index in high fat diet induced obese rats. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(1:48-56

  9. Diet quality assessment indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I, II or III' added to their names. Even validated indices usually find only modest associations between diet and risk of disease or death, raising questions about their limitations and the complexity associated with measuring the causal relationship between diet and health parameters. The objective of this review is to describe the main instruments used for assessing diet quality, and the applications and limitations related to their use and interpretation.

  10. Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes With the Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bulló, Monica; Babio, Nancy; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Basora, Josep; Estruch, Ramon; Covas, Maria Isabel; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ros, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the effects of two Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions versus a low-fat diet on incidence of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a three-arm randomized trial in 418 nondiabetic subjects aged 55–80 years recruited in one center (PREDIMED-Reus, northeastern Spain) of the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea [PREDIMED] study, a large nutrition intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Participants were randomly assigned to education on a low-fat diet (control group) or to one of two MedDiets, supplemented with either free virgin olive oil (1 liter/week) or nuts (30 g/day). Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on physical activity was given. The main outcome was diabetes incidence diagnosed by the 2009 American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS After a median follow-up of 4.0 years, diabetes incidence was 10.1% (95% CI 5.1–15.1), 11.0% (5.9–16.1), and 17.9% (11.4–24.4) in the MedDiet with olive oil group, the MedDiet with nuts group, and the control group, respectively. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of diabetes were 0.49 (0.25–0.97) and 0.48 (0.24–0.96) in the MedDiet supplemented with olive oil and nuts groups, respectively, compared with the control group. When the two MedDiet groups were pooled and compared with the control group, diabetes incidence was reduced by 52% (27–86). In all study arms, increased adherence to the MedDiet was inversely associated with diabetes incidence. Diabetes risk reduction occurred in the absence of significant changes in body weight or physical activity. CONCLUSIONS MedDiets without calorie restriction seem to be effective in the prevention of diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:20929998

  11. Analysis of time-dependent adaptations in whole-body energy balance in obesity induced by high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghdoori Babak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet has been extensively used as a model to study metabolic disorders of human obesity in rodents. However, the adaptive whole-body metabolic responses that drive the development of obesity with chronically feeding a HF diet are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated the physiological mechanisms by which whole-body energy balance and substrate partitioning are adjusted in the course of HF diet-induced obesity. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum either a standard or a HF diet for 8 weeks. Food intake (FI and body weight were monitored daily, while oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE were assessed weekly. At week 8, fat mass and lean body mass (LBM, fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 content in brown adipose tissue (BAT, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC content in liver and epidydimal fat were measured. Results Within 1 week of ad libitum HF diet, rats were able to spontaneously reduce FI to precisely match energy intake of control rats, indicating that alterations in dietary energy density were rapidly detected and FI was self-regulated accordingly. Oxygen consumption was higher in HF than controls throughout the study as whole-body fat oxidation also progressively increased. In HF rats, EE initially increased, but then reduced as dark cycle ambulatory activity reached values ~38% lower than controls. No differences in LBM were detected; however, epidydimal, inguinal, and retroperitoneal fat pads were 1.85-, 1.89-, and 2.54-fold larger in HF-fed than control rats, respectively. Plasma leptin was higher in HF rats than controls throughout the study, indicating the induction of leptin resistance by HF diet. At week 8, UCP-1 content and palmitate oxidation in BAT were 3.1- and 1.5-fold higher in HF rats than controls, respectively, while ACC content in liver and epididymal fat was markedly reduced

  12. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows.

  13. Rumen fermentation and microbial population in lactating dairy cows receiving diets containing oilseeds rich in C-18 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, M; Petit, H V; Chiquette, J; Wright, A-D G

    2013-04-14

    Sixteen Holstein rumen-cannulated primiparous milking dairy cows were fed a control diet (CN) based on maize silage and soyabean meal during a 4-week period before the start of a 21-d experiment with oilseeds containing high concentration of linoleic acid (Linola™) or linolenic acid (NuLin™). Thereafter, four cows received ad libitum one of each of four dietary treatments comprising of CN, Linola (LN), NuLin (NL) and LN/NL (50/50 % combination). Each LN, NL and LN/NL treatment contained 6 % oil of DM. Rumen digesta samples were collected on days 6, 11, 16 and 21 and milk samples on days 13, 15 and 17. There were no effects (P>0.05) of the oilseeds on pH and concentrations of NH3-N and total volatile fatty acids, while the acetate:propionate ratio was decreased (Pdigestion of dietary fibre and increased quality of milk.

  14. Diet-Induced Swine Model with Obesity/Leptin Resistance for the Study of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Torres-Rovira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the suitability of a swine breed with leptin resistance and predisposition to obesity (the Iberian pig as model for studies on metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Thus, six Iberian sows had ad libitum access to food enriched with saturated fat (SFAD group; food consumption was estimated to be 4.5 kg/animal/day whilst four females acted as controls and were fed with 2 kg/animal/day of a commercial maintenance diet. After three months of differential feeding, SFAD animals developed central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, and elevated blood pressure; the five parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome. Thus, the current study characterizes the Iberian pig as a robust, amenable, and reliable translational model for studies on nutrition-associated diseases.

  15. Body composition and energy utilization by steers of diverse genotypes fed a high-concentrate diet during the finishing period: II. Angus, Boran, Brahman, Hereford, and Tuli sires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    1998-02-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine the influence of Angus (A), Boran (BO), Brahman (BR), Hereford (H), or Tuli (T) sires on body composition, composition of gain, and energy utilization of crossbred steers during the finishing period. Beginning at 300 kg, 96 steers were adjusted to a high-corn diet and individual feeding. Steers were assigned, by sire breed, to be killed as an initial slaughter group or fed either a limited amount or ad libitum for 140 d then killed. Organ weights, carcass traits, and body composition were evaluated. The statistical model included sire breed (S), treatment (Trt), and the S x Trt interaction. Ad libitum feed intake was least for BO- and T-, intermediate for BR- and H-, and greatest for A-sired steers. Rates of weight, fat, and energy gains were similar for A-, H-, and BR-sired steers but less (P .12). Rates of water, fat, and protein gain increased linearly with increased rate of BW gain, but relationships differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Linear regression analyses indicated energy requirements for maintenance and efficiency of energy use for energy gain differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Evaluation by nonlinear regression indicated that heat production increased exponentially and energy gain increased asymptotically as feed intake increased above maintenance.

  16. Applied research of ferrous glycine complex adding in sow and porket diets%母、乳猪日粮中添加甘氨酸铁络合物的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The test was to investigate the application effect of iron-glycine on sow and porket. The experiment result indicated that the production performance of sow and porket increased. The application prospect of the amino acid of microelements is wide. Adding ferrous glycine complex 60 mg/kg in sow diet,adding ferrous glycine complex 100 mg/kg in porket diet, total number born, live litter size, litter weight at birth and birth weight were increased 5.14% (P>0.05), 6.30%(P>0.05), 7.50%(P0.05) compared with the control group. Ex⁃perimental group ADG increased 8.12% compare with the control group(P0.05).Sow colostrum iron content, the iron content placenta, umbili⁃cal cord piglets suckling pig iron content and iron content of the blood were increased 39.09%(P0.05).The test group's nursing newborn pig injection iron preparation or not, pig's skin color, coat color, the visible mucous membrane outward appearance representation and weight gain does not have the significant different seriously, but the control group has the significant difference.%  试验研究了母、乳猪日粮中添加甘氨酸铁络合物的应用效果。母猪日粮中添加甘氨酸铁络合物60 mg/kg,乳猪日粮中添加甘氨酸铁络合物100 mg/kg,总产仔数、活仔数、初生窝重和初生均重分别比对照组提高了5.14%(P>0.05)、6.30%(P>0.05)、7.50%(P0.05)。试验组仔猪日增重比对照组提高8.12%(P0.05)。母猪初乳铁含量、胎盘铁含量、乳猪脐带铁含量和乳猪血液铁含量分别比对照组提高了39.09%(P0.05)。试验组的哺乳仔猪注射铁制剂与否,猪的肤色、毛色、可视黏膜的外观表象及增重没有显著性的差异,而对照组则有显著性的差异。

  17. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  18. A high-fat diet containing whole walnuts (Juglans regia) reduces tumour size and growth along with plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul A; Vasu, Vihas T; Gohil, Kishorchandra; Kim, Hyunsook; Khan, Imran H; Cross, Carroll E; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2012-11-28

    Prostate cancer (PCa) has been linked to fat intake, but the effects of both different dietary fat levels and types remain inconsistent and incompletely characterised. The effects on PCa in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) cancer model of an elevated fat (20 % of energy as fat) diet containing 155 g of whole walnuts were compared to those of an elevated fat (20 % of energy as soyabean oil) diet with matched macronutrients, tocopherols as well as a low-fat (8 % of energy as soyabean oil) diet. Mice, starting at 8 weeks of age, consumed one of the three different diets ad libitum; and prostates, livers and blood were obtained after 9, 18 or 24 weeks of feeding. No differences were observed in whole animal growth rates in either high-fat (HF) diet group, but prostate tumour weight and growth rate were reduced in the walnut diet group. Walnut diet group prostate weight, plasma insulin-like growth factor 1, resistin and LDL were lower at 18 weeks, while no statistically significant prostate weight differences by diet were seen at 9 or 24 weeks. Multiple metabolites in the livers differed by diet at 9 and 18 weeks. The walnut diet's beneficial effects probably represent the effects of whole walnuts' multiple constituents and not via a specific fatty acid or tocopherols. Moreover, as the two HF diets had dissimilar effects on prostate tumour growth rate and size, and yet had the same total fat and tocopherol composition and content, this suggests that these are not strongly linked to PCa growth.

  19. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    Introduction An elevated level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in plasma is a core feature of the metabolic syndrome. Plasma PAI-1 is elevated in obesity and might be responsible for some of the secondary effects of obesity as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PAI-1 has been shown...... diet. Still, the relevance of GI in preventing the metabolic syndrome is controversial. Objectives The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks intake of a low glycemic index vs. a high glycemic index high-carbohydrate, low fat ad libitum diet on plasma PAI-1 activity...... and antigen levels in overweight women. Methods 45 healthy overweight women (BMI 27.6 ± 0.2 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to a parallel 10 week intervention with a low GI (n=23) or high GI (n=22) diet. Fasting blood samples were obtained before and after the 10 weeks. To study the postprandial effect of LGI...

  20. Fungal Fermented Protein (FFP : Alternative Ingredient to be Used in Muscovy Duck Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usaneeporn Soipeth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal fermented protein (FFP was the alternative feedstuff from Aspergillus niger and can be an interesting choice in poultry diets because these product was containing 20.49 % of crude protein and high leucine (0.58 %, phenylalanine (0.58 % and lysine (0.38 % and contained no aflatoxin. The experiments were performed using a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 3 replications employing eight 1-day-old, mixed sex muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata per experimental unit. The control birds were fed with a basal diet whereas the test birds were fed with FFP at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % of diet. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The feed intake of the starter showed no significant difference while the grower and finisher had higher feed intake with higher levels of FFP. In contrast, the high level of FFP yielded the lower final body weight and body weight gain, resulting in the high feed conversion ratio (4.38. For the performance of overall period, the ducks fed with 20 % FFP had higher average daily gain (29.40 g/b/d, body weight gain (2,471 g/b and feed conversion ratio (3.63. No deaths were found in any pens and the ducks remained in good health.

  1. Effects of diet containing monosodium glutamate on organ weights, acute blood steroidal sex hor mone levels, lipid profile and er ythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of diet containing monosodium glutamate on visceral organ weights, acute blood steroidal sex hormone levels, serum lipid profile (SLP and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities of Wistar rats. Methods: The Wistar rats were grouped into two groups of six rats each. The ones in Group 1 (control group were placed on water and pelletized standard guinea feed ad libitum, whereas Group 2 was regarded as test group [Wistar rats (WR-monosodium glutamate (MSG group] and the Wistar rats received water, compounded diet of MSG and pelletized standard guinea feed ad libitum. After 33 days of feeding study, rat body weight was obtained. Rats were sacrificed and the incisions were made into the thoracic cavity and blood samples were drawn by cardiac puncture as a terminal event. Plasma was assayed for estradiol and testosterone concentrations, SLP and erythrocyte peroxidase and catalase activities. Visceral organ weights were also measured. Results: WR-MSG exhibited marginal alterations in blood estradiol and testosterone concentrations. Elevation of serum triacylglycerol concentration in WR-MSG was corresponded to 77.7%. Increases in serum concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in WR-MSG were corresponded to 70.6% and 41.0% respectively. Erythrocyte peroxidase and catalase activities showed marginal alterations. Alterations in visceral organs-to-body weights ratios were not profound. Conclusions: Blood testosterone and estradiol concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05 altered, which may not be connected with the low dose of MSG in the diet. Marginal alterations of SLP did not indicate atherogenicity in WR-MSG. The visceral organs were not atrophic or hypertrophic because of the comparatively low dose of MSG consumed by WR-MSG and the duration of the feeding experiment.

  2. Both food restriction and high-fat diet during gestation induce low birth weight and altered physical activity in adult rat offspring: the "Similarities in the Inequalities" model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio da Silva Cunha

    Full Text Available We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called "Similarities in the Inequalities", in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the "similarities in the inequalities" phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib, receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR, receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam's habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF, receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels, abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The "similarities in the inequalities" effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females. Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters, probably through different biological mechanisms.

  3. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  4. Substitution of saturated with monounsaturated fat in a 4-week diet affects body weight and composition of overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piers, L S; Walker, Karen Z; Stoney, Rachel M; Soares, Mario J; O'Dea, Kerin

    2003-09-01

    A randomised crossover study of eight overweight or obese men (aged 24-49 years, BMI 25.5-31.3 kg/m(2)), who followed two diets for 4 weeks each, was performed to determine whether substitution of saturated fat with monounsaturated fat affects body weight and composition. Subjects were provided with all food and beverages as modules (selected ad libitum) of constant macronutrient composition, but differing energy content. The % total energy from saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat was 24, 13 and 3 % respectively on the saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich diet and 11, 22 and 7 % respectively on the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet. MUFA accounted for about 80 % of the unsaturated fats consumed on both diets. Body composition, blood pressure, energy expenditure (resting and postprandial metabolic rates, substrate oxidation rate, physical activity), serum lipids, the fatty acid profile of serum cholesteryl esters and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before and after each diet period. Significant (Psaturated with unsaturated fat, predominantly MUFA, can induce a small but significant loss of body weight and fat mass without a significant change in total energy or fat intake.

  5. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  6. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecily M Costello

    Full Text Available When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos and black bears (Ursus americanus in Grand Teton National Park during 2004-2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates, which accounted for 46-47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1 daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2 diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3 mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4 allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among

  7. Five-week dietary exposure to dry diets alters the faecal bacterial populations in the domestic cat (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Kittelmann, Sandra; Henderson, Gemma; Young, Wayne; Roy, Nicole C; Thomas, David G

    2011-10-01

    The effects of wet (canned) or dry (kibbled) diets on faecal bacterial populations in the cat were investigated in eight domestic short-haired cats (four males and four females; averaging 6 years of age and 3.4 kg) in a nested design. The cats were fed ad libitum a commercially available wet diet (moisture 82.0 %, crude protein 51.7 %, fat 28.9 %, carbohydrate (CHO) 8.9 % and ash 10.6 % DM) for 5 weeks. On the fifth week, individual feed intakes and faecal outputs were determined. Fresh faecal samples were collected twice daily, mixed for homogeneity, subsampled and stored at - 85 °C until analysis. The cats were then switched to a commercially available dry diet (moisture 8.5 %, crude protein 33.0 %, fat 11.0 %, CHO 49.4 % and ash 6.6 % DM) for 5 weeks, and fresh faeces were sampled as described previously. Energy intake tended to be higher in cats fed dry diets (P 0.05). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes amplified from DNA extracted from faeces was performed. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis of bacterial community profiles using Pearson's correlation revealed diet-specific clustering when the same cats were fed on either a dry or a wet diet (dissimilarity between the groups, 88.6 %; P Pelomonas and Fusobacteriaceae were influenced by a short-term change in diet format. This suggests that 5-week dietary exposure is sufficient to alter gastrointestinal microflora.

  8. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; Cain, Steven L; Pils, Shannon; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A; van Manen, Frank T

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004-2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46-47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in this

  9. Diet and macronutrient optimization in wild ursids: A comparison of grizzly bears with sympatric and allopatric black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; Cain, Steven L; Pils, Shannon R; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004–2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46–47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in

  10. Evaluation of Digestible lysine levels in diets with high energy density for finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Colina R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. To evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine in diets with high energy density on productive performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Materials and Methods. Seventy crossbred barrows (initial body weight of 83.36 kg were used and allotted in a randomized block design with five treatments, seven replications and two pigs per experimental unit. Pigs were fed ad libitum with diets containing 3.5 kcal/kg of ME and five levels of digestible lysine (0.46, 0.52, 0.58, 0.64 and 0.70% during four weeks. Final live weight (FLW, daily feed intake (DFI, daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion (FC, daily lysine intake (DLI, and the amount of lysine per body weight gain (DLI/DWG, were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken from each pig to determine urea nitrogen concentration (UN in serum and slaughtered to evaluate quantitative and qualitative carcass characteristics. Results. The FLW increased linearly (p<0.05.There were no differences among treatments for DFI, DWG, FC, carcass characteristics and UN. The DLI and DLI/DWG varied significantly (p<0.001 and increased linearly (p<0.001 with each lysine level. Pigs that consumed the limiting diet in lysine (0.46% showed less DLI and DLI/DWG (p<0.001 than pigs fed the other diets. Conclusions. The amount of DLI/DWG increased with the evaluated levels of digestible lysine in diets with high energy density, without effects on productive performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs.

  11. Macronutrient balances and obesity: the role of diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, A

    1999-09-01

    Observational cross-sectional and longitudinal studies suggest that a high fat diet and physical inactivity are independent risk factors for weight gain and obesity. Mechanistic and intervention studies support that fat possesses a lower satiating power than carbohydrate and protein, and a diet low in fat therefore decreases energy intake. The effect of dietary fat on energy balance is enhanced in susceptible subjects, particularly in sedentary individuals with a genetic predisposition to obesity who consume a high fat diet. Dietary carbohydrate promotes its own oxidation by an insulin-mediated stimulation of glucose oxidation. In contrast, high fat meals do not increase fat oxidation acutely. A sedentary life-style and low physical fitness cause a low muscular fat oxidation -capacity, and the consumption of a high fat diet by these individuals promotes fat storage in a synergistic fashion. Ad libitum low fat diets cause weight loss proportional to pre-treatment body weight in a dose-dependent way, i.e. weight loss is correlated positively to the reduction in dietary fat content. Increased physical activity prevents relapse after weight loss and studies have shown that those who keep up a higher level of physical activity are more successful in maintaining the reduced body weight. In conclusion, important interactions exist between genetic make up, dietary fat and physical fitness, so that a low fitness level and susceptible genes reduce muscular fat oxidation capacity which may decrease the tolerance of dietary fat. Increasing daily physical activity and reducing dietary fat content may be more effective when combined than when separate in preventing weight gain and obesity.

  12. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group: high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%, acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively, and butyrate only by pea protein (309%. Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78% but increased by pea protein (164%. Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat loss in obesity.

  13. Methane production, digestion, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, and milk production of cows fed corn silage- or barley silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing barley silage (BS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter basis) with the forage portion consisting of either barley silage (0% CS; 0% CS and 54.4% BS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (27% CS; 27.2% CS and 27.2% BS in the TMR), or corn silage (54% CS; 0% BS and 54.4% CS in the TMR). Increasing the CS proportion (i.e., at the expense of BS) also involved increasing the proportion of corn grain (at the expense of barley grain). Intake and digestibility of dry matter and milk production increased linearly as the proportion of CS increased in the diet. Increasing dietary CS proportion decreased linearly the acetate molar proportion and increased linearly that of propionate. Daily CH4 emissions tended to respond quadratically to increasing proportions of CS in the diet (487, 540, and 523 g/d for 0, 27, and 54% CS, respectively). Methane production adjusted for dry matter or gross energy intake declined as the amount of CS increased in the diet; this effect was more pronounced when cows were fed the 54% CS diet than the 27% CS diet. Increasing the CS proportion in the diet improved N utilization, as reflected by decreases in ruminal ammonia concentration and urinary N excretion and higher use of dietary N for milk protein secretion. Total replacement of BS with CS in dairy cow diets offers a strategy to decrease CH4 energy losses and control N losses without negatively affecting milk performance.

  14. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13; 6.8 MJ of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg; 14.0% crude protein (CP) ], or a middle energy density diet (MD, n = 13; 6.2 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP), or a low energy density diet (LD, n = 13; 5.4 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP) from d 21 before expected day of calving. After parturition, all cows were fed the same lactation diet to d 70 in milk (DIM). The DMI and NEL intake prepartum were decreased by the reduced energy density diets (P milk yield and the postpartum DMI were increased by the reduced energy density diet prepartum (P BCS and BW prepartum and postpartum were not affected by prepartum diets. HD group had higher milk fat content and lower lactose content compared with LD group during the first 3 wk of lactation (P milk yield, and alleviating negative EB postpartum. PMID:24976969

  15. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  16. Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo

    2013-03-01

    The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4 ± 2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P diets increased. Goats fed the T2, T3 and T4 diets gained 10.2, 34.1 and 52.5 g/head/day, respectively, while the control group (T1) lost weight (-12.7 g/head/day). The apparent digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P  0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response.

  17. A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrén Bo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We found marked improvement of glucose tolerance and lower dietary energy intake in ischemic heart disease (IHD patients after advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a Mediterranean-like diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meals and data on the satiety hormone leptin and the soluble leptin receptor from the same study. Methods Twenty-nine male IHD patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes type 2, and waist circumference > 94 cm, were randomized to ad libitum consumption of a Paleolithic diet (n = 14 based on lean meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs, and nuts, or a Mediterranean-like diet (n = 15 based on whole grains, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruit, fish, and oils and margarines during 12 weeks. In parallel with a four day weighed food record the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety Quotients were calculated, as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. Leptin and leptin receptor was measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. Free leptin index was calculated as the ratio leptin/leptin receptor. Results The Paleolithic group were as satiated as the Mediterranean group but consumed less energy per day (5.8 MJ/day vs. 7.6 MJ/day, Paleolithic vs. Mediterranean, p = 0.04. Consequently, the quotients of mean change in satiety during meal and mean consumed energy from food and drink were higher in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.03. Also, there was a strong trend for greater Satiety Quotient for energy in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.057. Leptin decreased by 31% in the Paleolithic group and by 18% in the Mediterranean group with a trend for greater relative decrease of leptin in the Paleolithic group. Relative changes in leptin and changes in weight and waist circumference correlated significantly in the Paleolithic group (p Conclusions A

  18. Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozanildo V Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian Camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh has attracted interest from food and cosmetics industries because of its rich content of vitamin C, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The goal of this study was investigates the antiobesity action of the ingestion of the Camu-camu pulp in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Wistar rats with obesity induced by subcutaneous injection of monosodium glutamate receiving diet ad libitum. The rats were divided in two groups: an experimental group that ingested 25 mL/day of Camu-camu pulp (CCG and a non treated group (CG. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Blood, liver, heart, white adipose tissues were collected and weighted, biochemical and inflammatory profiles were determinate as well. Animals that received the pulp of Camu-camu reduced their weights of the fat in white adipose tissues, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and insulin blood levels. There was an increase in HDL-c levels. No change was observed in inflammatory markers and liver enzymes. Camu-camu pulp was able to improve the biochemical profile of obesity in rats suggesting that this Amazonian fruit can be further used such a functional food ingredient in control of chronic diseases linked to obesity.

  19. Effect of type and level of dietary fat on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Grummer, R R

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tallow and choice white grease (CWG) fed at 0, 2, and 4% of the diet dry matter (DM) on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows when corn silage is the sole forage source. Fifteen midlactation Holstein cows were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 0% fat (control), 2% tallow, 2% CWG, 4% tallow, and 4% CWG (DM basis). The forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50, and diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of diets fed twice daily as total mixed rations. Cows fed supplemental fat had lower DM intake and produced less milk and milk fat than cows fed the control diet. Feeding 4% fat reduced milk production and milk fat yield relative to feeding 2% fat. Treatments had little effect on the concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids in milk fat. Total trans fatty acids were poorly related to changes in milk fat percentage. Ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acids concentration were not affected by supplemental fat. The acetate:propionate ratio, NH3-N, and numbers of protozoa in the rumen were significantly decreased when fat was added to the diets. Source of dietary fat did not affect rumen parameters. There was no treatment effect on in situ corn silage DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance. Including fat in corn silage-based diets had negative effects on milk production and rumen fermentation regardless of the source or level of supplemental fat.

  20. Eight week exposure to a high sugar high fat diet results in adiposity gain and alterations in metabolic biomarkers in baboons (Papio hamadryas sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejero M Elizabeth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Baboons (Papio hamadryas Sp. develop features of the cardiometabolic syndrome and represent a clinically-relevant animal model in which to study the aetiology of the disorder. To further evaluate the baboon as a model for the study of the cardiometabolic syndrome, we developed a high sugar high fat diet and hypothesized that it could be used to induce adiposity gain and affect associated circulating biomarkers. Methods We developed a diet enriched with monosaccharides and saturated fatty acids that was composed of solid and liquid energy sources. We provided a group of baboons (n = 9 ad libitum access to this diet for 8 weeks. Concurrently, a control group (n = 6 was maintained with ad libitum access to a low sugar low fat baseline diet and normal water for 8 weeks. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and circulating metabolic biomarkers were measured using standard methodology before and after the 8 week study period. Results Neither body composition nor circulating biomarkers changed in the control group. Following the 8 weeks, the intervention group had a significant increase in fat mass (1.71 ± 0.98 vs. 3.23 ± 1.70 kg, p = 0.004, triglyceride (55 ± 13 vs. 109 ± 67 mg/dL, p = 0.006,, and leptin (1.19 ± 1.40 vs. 3.29 ± 2.32 ng/mL, p = 0.001 and a decline in adiponectin concentrations (33530 ± 9744 vs. 23330 ± 7863 ng/mL, p = 0.002. Percentage haemoglobin A1C (4.0 ± 0.3 vs. 6.0 ± 1.4, p = 0.002 also increased in the intervention group. Conclusions Our findings indicate that when exposed to a high sugar high fat diet, young adult male baboons develop increased body fat and triglyceride concentrations, altered adipokine concentrations, and evidence of altered glucose metabolism. Our findings are in keeping with observations in humans and further demonstrate the potential utility of this highly clinically-relevant animal model for studying diet-induced metabolic dysregulation.

  1. Effect of supplemental tallow on performance of dairy cows fed diets with different corn silage:alfalfa silage ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Palmquist, D L; Grummer, R R

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the response to supplemental tallow of lactating cows fed basal diets with different alfalfa silage:corn silage ratios. We postulated that supplemental tallow will have decreasing negative effects on rumen fermentation, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk fat percentage as the dietary ratio of alfalfa silage:corn silage is increased. Eighteen Holstein cows averaging 134 +/- 14 d in milk were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (DM basis) and three forage treatments: 1) 50% of diet DM as corn silage, 2) 37.5% corn silage and 12.5% alfalfa silage, and 3) 25% corn silage and 25% alfalfa silage. Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber. No fat x forage treatment interactions were observed. Fat supplemented cows had lower DMI and produced more milk with less milk fat content relative to non-supplemented cows. Concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids was higher in milk fat of tallow-supplemented cows. Tallow supplementation had no effect on ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, but tended to decrease total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the rumen. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa silage increased DMI, milk fat percentage, and milk fat yield regardless of the fat content of the diet. Total VFA concentration and acetate:propionate ratio in the rumen were increased in response to higher levels of alfalfa in the diets. These results suggest that replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage did not alleviate the negative response of dairy cows to tallow supplementation at 2% of diet DM.

  2. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  3. Feed consumption, diet digestibility and mineral utilization in captive blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra) fed different levels of concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Katole, S; Choubey, M; Gupta, S P; Saini, M; Kumar, V; Swarup, D

    2013-02-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to know the level of concentrates in the diet of Antelope cervicapra at which diet digestibility and mineral utilization were optimum. Fifteen blackbucks (25-33 kg BW) were distributed into three groups of five each. Fresh oat (Avena sativa) and berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) fodders were offered ad libitum to all the animals. In addition, animals in groups II and III received concentrate mixture at the rate of 0.5 and 1% of BW, whereas animals in group I received no concentrates. As the level of concentrates increased, consumption of fodder decreased resulting in decreased consumption of neutral detergent fibre (NDFom), acid detergent fibre (ADFom), hemicellulose and cellulose. However, overall total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake was not significantly different between the groups. Digestibility of DM, OM and gross energy (GE) increased while that of NDFom and ADFom decreased with increased level of concentrates in the diet. Intake of P, Zn, Cu and Mn increased with increased level of concentrate supplementation; however, consumption of Ca and Fe followed the reverse trend. Absorption of P and Zn increased with increased level of concentrate supplementation. Serum concentration of Zn increased when concentrate was supplemented at the rate of 0.5% BW beyond which there was no further improvement. Increasing the level of concentrates in the diet was resulted in increased serum glucose and cholesterol levels. Forage-only diet was inadequate in supply of energy, P and zinc. Supplementation of concentrates at the rate of 0.5% BW was able to meet the requirement of these nutrients. Supplementation at the rate of 1% BW supplied energy and P in excess of requirement. It was concluded that the feeding of concentrates to the captive blackbuck fed forage-based diets should be restricted to 0.5% of BW.

  4. Associative effects of supplementing rice straw-based diet with cornstarch on intake, digestion, rumen microbes and growth performance of Huzhou lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Dong; Wang, Jia-Kun; Chen, Wei-Jian; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2010-04-01

    Thirty-six male Hu lambs consuming a rice straw-based diet were used in a 60-day trial to study the associative effects of cornstarch supplementation on intake, digestion, ruminal microbial population and growth performance. All animals were fed rice straw ad libitum together with 160 g/day of rapeseed meal and supplemented with cornstarch at levels of 0 (control), 60, 120 or 180 g/day, respectively. Increment of supplementary cornstarch showed little influence on rice straw intake. Optimal growth performance and highest apparent digestibility of organic matter was achieved in the 120 g/day cornstarch group (P performance. High levels of cornstarch, however, would decrease cellulase activity and populations of cellulolytic bacteria, and hence the digestibility of forage.

  5. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  6. Effects of diets with Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. on performance and digestibility of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Molina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects on performance and digestibility in growing rabbits were studied by comparing 3 diets containing increasing inclusion rates of amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.: 0 (A0, 160 (A16 and 320 g/kg (A32 diet. Diets were formulated isoproteic and isocaloric to meet the nutrient requirements of growing rabbits. One hundred and thirteen weaned New Zealand White rabbits (mean±standard deviation weight: 760±102 g, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of the 3  experimental diets. Rabbits were fed ad libitum from 35 to 87 d of age, and health status and performance traits were  onitored. The coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility of the diets were measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 12 rabbits per treatment. Amaranthus dubius contained 209 g/kg dry matter (DM of crude protein and 398 g/kg DM of neutral detergent fibre. There were no significant differences between treatments in weight gain (mean 21.6 g/d and live weight at the end of the fattening period (mean 1883 g. Daily feed intake was higher (P<0.05 in A0 than in A16 and A32 diets (85.4 vs. 73.7 and 69.9 g/d, respectively, and feed conversion rate improved with increased inclusion of A. dubius in the diet (from 3.84 to 3.28 for A0 and A32 diets, respectively; P<0.05. Health status was not affected by the amaranth inclusion rate. Total tract apparent digestibility showed high values, with no differences among diets except for ether extract. Thus, A. dubius could be considered as an alternative source of protein and fibre for rabbit feeding in tropical and subtropical regions.

  7. The effect of Ad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳

    2010-01-01

    There is the trend that now people appreciate those who are slim and regard slim even thin people beautiful. The thinner a person is, the more beautiful. Women, born to pursuit beauty, try various means to follow the trend. We all watch TV, and find a lot of advertisements on diet. The effect of them is tremendous. We all know the fact that it is not at all the better mouse trap will catch mouse. The sales methods are more important. If an advertisement is very interesting and seemingly effective, people will be lured by the ad and then try some of the products.

  8. High-protein weight-loss diets: are they safe and do they work? A review of the experimental and epidemiologic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Julie; Roberts, Susan B; Dallal, Gerard; Saltzman, Edward

    2002-07-01

    Recommendations for increased consumption of protein are among the most common approaches of popular or fad diets. This review summarizes the effects of dietary protein on satiety, energy intake, thermogenesis, and weight loss, as well as its effect on a variety of health outcomes in adults. In short-term studies, dietary protein modulates energy intake via the sensation of satiety and increases total energy expenditure by increasing the thermic effect of feeding. Whereas these effects did not contribute to weight and fat loss in those studies in which energy intake was fixed, one ad libitum study does suggest that a high-protein diet results in a greater decrease in energy intake, and therefore greater weight and fat loss. In terms of safety, there is little long-term information on the health effects of high-protein diets. From the available data, however, it is evident that the consumption of protein greater than two to three times the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance contributes to urinary calcium loss and may, in the long term, predispose to bone loss. Caution with these diets is recommended in those individuals who may be predisposed to nephrolithiasis or kidney disease, and particularly in those with diabetes mellitus.

  9. Performance, intestinal histomorphometry, and blood parameters of post-weaning piglets receiving different levels of soy protein concentrate in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Queiroz Resende

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seventy-two barrows were used to evaluate the effects of the use of soy protein concentrate (SPC in diets of post-weaning piglets on their performance, intestinal histomorphometry, and blood parameters. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age and distributed in a randomized-block experimental design with four treatments (0, 3, 6, and 9% SPC, six replications, and three piglets per replication. Diets were formulated to meet the requirement of the piglets according to phases of 21 to 32, 33 to 42, and 43 to 66 days of age. Both feed and water were provided ad libitum during the entire experiment. The feed of the phase of 43 to 66 days was based on corn and soybean meal. In the period between 21 and 32 days of age, the use of SPC in the diet did not impact the daily weight gain (DWG or the daily feed intake (DFI of the piglets, whereas there was a linear effect on feed conversion (FC, which decreased as the levels of SPC in the feed were increased. In the period between 33 and 42 days of age, a linear effect was observed on FC, which increased as the level of SPC in the feed was increased. In this period, no effects of SPC were observed on DWG or DFI. Inclusion of SPC in the diets does not influence performance, intestinal histomorphometry, or blood parameters of piglets in the period between 21 and 66 days of age.

  10. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets.

  11. FALSE YAM (Icacina Oliviformis LEAF MEAL AS AN INGREDIENT IN THE DIET OF WEANER RABBITS (Oryctolagus Cuniculus TO IMPROVE BLOOD PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ANSAH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of Icacina oliviformis leaf (IOL as a feed ingredient on the hematology of weaner rabbits. There were arranged in three treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. The control diet (T0 contained 0% Icacina oliviformis leaf (IOL while the treatment diets (T1and T2 contained 5% and 10% IOL, respectively. An amount of 200 g of the experimental diet was given to the animals each day while water was given ad-libitum. Initial blood samples were collected two days earlier before experimental diet was fed. Data were analyzed using Genstat Discovery Edition 3. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in (Haemoglobin Hb concentration, PCV, RBC however all the erythrocytes values increased from the initial low values to higher values. The margin of increase was higher for T1. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the treatment means for WBC, Neutrophiles, Eosinophiles, Monocytes counts in the final readings. The hematology values recorded for all the treatments fell within the normal ranges for rabbits. Feeding 5% and 10% IOL to a weaner rabbits led to an increase in erythrocytes values and could be used in feeding without any detrimental effect.

  12. Carcass and Internal Organs Characteristics of Growing-Finishing Pigs Fed Diets Containing Four Different Maize Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rahaman Saibu Salifu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the carcass and internal organ characteristics of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing four different maize varieties. Twenty individually-housed, Large White pigs (12 males and 8 females with an average initial body weight of 13.2 kg were allotted to four dietary treatments labeled, Local Normal maize (LNM, Imported Normal Yellow maize (INYM, Golden Jubilee maize (GJM and Etubi maize (ETM in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The last two treatments were approved Quality Protein Maize (QPM based diets. Each treatment was replicated five times, with a pig representing a replicate. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Values for the final weight, dressing percentage, shoulder, loin, belly, thigh, carcass length, backfat thickness, head and trotters were statistically similar (P>0.05. However, the values for heart, liver, kidney and respiratory tract were statistically different (P>0.05. The values for the liver (LNM=1.34, IMYM=1.26, GJM=1.51 and ETM=1.52 and the kidney (LNM=0.20, IMYM=0.17, GJM=0.21 and ETM=0.20 were significantly higher in favour of QPM-based diets. The results showed that using GJM and ETM varieties could be more profitable due to premium price placed on liver and lean pork in Ghana.

  13. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  14. Evaluation of palatability, protein and energi consumtion of adult lizard (Mabouya multifasciata by feed them of with many diet variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONI RIDWAN

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lizard (Mabouya multifasciata, one of natural resources that spreads almost all Indonesian islands. The animals can potentially be used as a source of protein and medicine as well as a pet. The objectives of the research were therefore to investigate the preference of certain kind of diet, measure the protein and energy consumption, and also to observe the weight gain of the lizard. Seventy two lizards consisting of 36 females that each having weight of 29.7 + 2.6 grams and 36 male that having weight of 30.0 + 2.9 grams were used in this study. These lizards were captured from their wild nature around Bogor, Ciamis, Sumedang and Cianjur of West Java. Block experimental design was used, with 4 diet treatments and two grouping based on sex, (male and female. The diets were crickets, mealworm, red ant larva and artificial diet. Each tree lizards was put on 0.30m x 0.30m x 0.50m nets made from glass. Diets were given 3% dry matter of lizard body weight and water has given ad libitum. Parameter measured was dry matter consumption, protein consumption, energy consumption and body weight gain. ANOVA used for the data analysis, followed with Duncan range-test. The result showed that dry matter consumption of crickets, red ant larva and artificial diet was significantly (P<0.01 higher than mealworms. Consumption of crickets crude-protein was significantly (P<0.01 higher than mealworms, red ant larva and artificial diet. Mealworm crude-protein consumption was significantly (P<0.01 lower compared with both red ant larva and artificial diet. Crickets and red ant larva showed higher affect (P<0.01 on body weight gain than artificial diet. However, there were no significant effect of all diet on consumption, brute energy and relatively metabolic energy. Grouping based on sex also did not show any significant affect to all parameters observed. It can be concluded that lizards prefer eating crickets, red ant larva and diet than mealworms.

  15. In utero and postnatal exposure to a high-protein or high-carbohydrate diet leads to differences in adipose tissue mRNA expression and blood metabolites in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Brittany M; Liu, Kari J; Keel, Tonya L; Graves, Thomas K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to measure the differences in body composition, adipose tissue gene expression, blood metabolite and hormone concentrations, and insulin sensitivity in kittens exposed to high-protein (HP) or high-carbohydrate (HC) nutrition in utero and through the growth period. Eight dams were randomised onto two test diets, and fed the diets throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring were evaluated for 9 months. Kittens were weaned at 2 months of age onto the same treatment diet as the dam and were allowed to consume diets ad libitum. The HC diet contained 34.3 % crude protein (CP), 19.2 % fat and 30.8 % digestible carbohydrate, while the HP diet contained 52.9 % CP, 23.5 % fat and 10.8 % digestible carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected at 6 months after birth. Body composition was determined at 2 and 8 months of age and an intravenous glucose tolerance test, neutering and adipose tissue biopsy conducted at 8 months of age. Physical activity was quantified at 6 and 9 months. Energy intake, DM intake and body weight were not different between groups. At 2 months, blood TAG were greater (P kittens fed the HP diet. At 8 months, blood leptin was higher (P kittens fed the HC diet, while chemokine receptor 5, hormone-sensitive lipase, uncoupling protein 2, leptin and insulin receptor mRNA were greater (P kittens fed the HP diet. The present results demonstrate some of the changes in blood metabolites and hormones, physical activity and mRNA abundance that occur with feeding high protein levels to kittens.

  16. 日粮中添加维基尼亚霉素对肉牛瘤胃微生物数量的影响%Influence of adding virginiamycin to diets of steers on ruminal microbial populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭同军; 王加启; 卜登攀; 王建平; 刘开朗; 李旦; 栾绍宇; 哈斯额尔敦

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of adding virginiamycin to diets of steers on ruminal microbial populations. Four ruminally cannulated steers (559.4±30.1 kg) were utilized in a repeat crossover design. Treatment group added virginiamycin. Ruminal fluid was collected on 28 d of experimental period, starting at 8:00 prefeeding and at 12:00 and 16:00 post-feeding from the anterior, dorsal, and mid-ventral region of the rumen. The Amount of microbial was counted after culturing using roll-tube technique. We detected that adding virginiamycin to diets of steers could active suppression and regulate amylolytic bacteria populations and proteolytic bacteria populations (P<0.01). But the populations of cellulolytic bacteria, total viable bacteria and protozoon were no difference between control group and treatment group. Statistics result of virginiamycin regulated that the different sampling time showed: viginiamycin could inhibite and regulate amylolytic bacteria populations when the sampling time was at 8:00 (P<0.05). Viginiamycin could inhibite and regulate amylolytic bacteria populations and proteolytic bacteria populations when the sampling time was at 12: 00(P<0.05). But the populations of cellulolytic bacteria, total viable bacteria and protozoon were no difference between control group and treatment group at the different sampling time. But the populations of total viable bacteria and protozoon to showed a tendency that "high-low-high" with time changed between control group and treatment group. The results showed that virginiamycin could active suppression and regulate amylolytic bacteria populations and proteolytic bacteria populations on high concentration. Therefore, virginiamycin potentially could prevent ruminal acidosis.%选用4头体重为559.4±30.1 kg,健康且装有瘤胃瘘管的4岁龄杂交肉牛,进行重复交叉试验设计,处理组添加维吉尼亚霉素,旨在观察日粮中添加维基尼亚霉素对瘤胃微生物

  17. Organic and genetically modified soybean diets: consequences in growth and in hematological indicators of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Feijó, Tatiana Silveira; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein quality of organic and genetically modified soy by feeding specific diets to rats. Three groups of Wistar rats (n=10) were used, and each group was named according to the food that they ate. There was an organic soy group (OG), a genetically modified soy group (GG), and a control group (CG). All animals received water and diet ad libitum for 455 days. At the end of this period, the weight of the GG group was the same as that of the OG, and both were higher than CG. Protein intake was similar for the OG and GG, which were significantly lower (p<0.0005) than the CG. The growth rate (GR) of the rats, albumin levels, and total levels of serum protein were comparable for all groups. Hematocrit (p<0.04) and hemoglobin (p<0.03) for the OG and GG were less than the CG. Although the OG and GG demonstrated reduced hematocrit and hemoglobin, both types of soy were utilized in a way similar to casein. This result suggests that the protein quality of soy is parallel to the standard protein casein in terms of growth promotion but not hematological indicators.

  18. Different sodium levels and electrolyte balances in pre-starter diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46% and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.

  19. Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, K A

    2011-07-01

    Dietary restriction is an effective strategy for weight loss in obese individuals. The most common form of dietary restriction implemented is daily calorie restriction (CR), which involves reducing energy by 15-60% of usual caloric intake every day. Another form of dietary restriction employed is intermittent CR, which involves 24 h of ad libitum food consumption alternated with 24 h of complete or partial food restriction. Although both diets are effective for weight loss, it remains unknown whether one of these interventions produces superior changes in body weight and body composition when compared to the other. Accordingly, this review examines the effects of daily CR versus intermittent CR on weight loss, fat mass loss and lean mass retention in overweight and obese adults. Results reveal similar weight loss and fat mass loss with 3 to 12 weeks' intermittent CR (4-8%, 11-16%, respectively) and daily CR (5-8%, 10-20%, respectively). In contrast, less fat free mass was lost in response to intermittent CR versus daily CR. These findings suggest that these diets are equally as effective in decreasing body weight and fat mass, although intermittent CR may be more effective for the retention of lean mass.

  20. Effects of increasing amounts of corn dried distillers grains with solubles in dairy cow diets on methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Julien, C; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of including corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diet at the expense of corn and soybean meal on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion (in sacco and apparent total-tract digestibility), N balance, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a triplicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) and fed (ad libitum intake) a total mixed ration containing (dry matter basis) 0, 10, 20, or 30% DDGS. Dry matter intake increased linearly, whereas apparent-total tract digestibility of dry matter and gross energy declined linearly as DDGS level in the diet increased. Increasing the proportion of DDGS in the diet decreased the acetate:propionate ratio, but this decrease was the result of reduced acetate concentration rather than increased propionate concentration. Milk yield increased linearly (up to +4kg/d) with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet and a tendency was observed for a quadratic increase in energy-corrected milk as the proportion of DDGS in the diet increased. Methane production decreased linearly with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet (495, 490, 477, and 475 g/d for 0, 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively). When adjusted for gross energy intake, CH4 losses also decreased linearly as DDGS proportion increased in the diet by 5, 8, and 14% for 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively. Similar decreases (up to 12% at 30% DDGS) were also observed when CH4 production was corrected for digestible energy intake. When expressed relative to energy-corrected milk, CH4 production declined linearly as the amount of DDGS increased in the diet. Total N excretion (urinary and fecal; g/d) increased as the amount of DDGS in the diet increased. Efficiency of N utilization (milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake) declined linearly with increasing inclusion of DDGS in the diet. However, productive N increased linearly with

  1. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Wang, Yajing; Simayi, Aminamu; Yasheng, Amingguli; Wu, Zhaohai; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13; 6.8 MJ of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg; 14.0% crude protein (CP) ], or a middle energy density diet (MD, n = 13; 6.2 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP), or a low energy density diet (LD, n = 13; 5.4 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP) from d 21 before expected day of calving. After parturition, all cows were fed the same lactation diet to d 70 in milk (DIM). The DMI and NEL intake prepartum were decreased by the reduced energy density diets (P consumption for HD, MD and LD groups were 149.8%, 126.2% and 101.1% of their calculated energy requirements prepartum (P < 0.05), and 72.7%, 73.1% and 75.2% during the first 4 wk postpartum, respectively. In conclusion, the low energy density prepartum diet was effective in controlling NEL intake prepartum, and was beneficial in increasing DMI and milk yield, and alleviating negative EB postpartum.

  2. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles.

  3. Microbial reprogramming inhibits Western diet-associated obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available A recent epidemiological study showed that eating 'fast food' items such as potato chips increased likelihood of obesity, whereas eating yogurt prevented age-associated weight gain in humans. It was demonstrated previously in animal models of obesity that the immune system plays a critical role in this process. Here we examined human subjects and mouse models consuming Westernized 'fast food' diet, and found CD4(+ T helper (Th17-biased immunity and changes in microbial communities and abdominal fat with obesity after eating the Western chow. In striking contrast, eating probiotic yogurt together with Western chow inhibited age-associated weight gain. We went on to test whether a bacteria found in yogurt may serve to lessen fat pathology by using purified Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 in drinking water. Surprisingly, we discovered that oral L. reuteri therapy alone was sufficient to change the pro-inflammatory immune cell profile and prevent abdominal fat pathology and age-associated weight gain in mice regardless of their baseline diet. These beneficial microbe effects were transferable into naïve recipient animals by purified CD4(+ T cells alone. Specifically, bacterial effects depended upon active immune tolerance by induction of Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells (Treg and interleukin (Il-10, without significantly changing the gut microbial ecology or reducing ad libitum caloric intake. Our finding that microbial targeting restored CD4(+ T cell balance and yielded significantly leaner animals regardless of their dietary 'fast food' indiscretions suggests population-based approaches for weight management and enhancing public health in industrialized societies.

  4. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  5. Feeding a diet containing resistant potato starch influences gastrointestinal tract traits and growth performance of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, J M; Agyekum, A K; Yin, Y L; Rideout, T C; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of feeding resistant potato starch (RPS) as a natural source of resistant starch to weaned pigs for 28 d immediately after weaning. Sixty piglets (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc) weaned at 21 ± 2 d (1:1 male:female) with an initial BW of 7.2 ± 0.78 kg were assigned in a completely randomized design to 1 of 5 dietary treatments to give 6 observations per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a negative control corn-soybean meal-wheat-wheat middlings-based diet (NC; no antimicrobial agents added) or the NC supplemented with RPS either as powder or in capsules and each included at 0.5 or 1.0% as a top-dressing on each day. Diets were formulated to meet 1998 NRC specifications. Pigs were offered the experimental diets on an ad libitum basis for 28 d and water was available at all times. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were determined weekly. Fecal score was determined daily for 14 d after weaning. At the conclusion of study, 1 pig from each pen was randomly selected and euthanized (n = 6 per treatment) to determine visceral organ weight, digesta pH, VFA, and ammonia N (NH3-N) concentrations. Resistant potato starch supplementation improved (P potato starch supplementation decreased (P 0.10) in visceral organ weights, growth performance, and digestibilities of DM, CP, Ca, and P among treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that supplementing a weaner pig diet with at least 0.5% RPS independent of mode of delivery has the potential to enhance outcomes characteristic of a functional gut in weaned pigs without adverse effects on growth.

  6. Consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets alters biochemical indices in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Osmund Falade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is thermally oxidized to increase its palatability and this has been a usual practice in most homes. This study sought to assess the biochemical responses of rats to thermally oxidized palm oil diets. Therefore, Wistar strain albino rats (Rattus norveigicus were fed with fresh palm oil (control and thermally oxidized palm oil (test groups diets and water ad libitum for 30 days. Then, the malondialdehyde (MDA contents and total protein of the plasma and liver were determined. Subsequently, the plasma liver function markers [alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin (ALB and total bilirubin (TBIL ] and the lipid profile [triglyceride (TRIG, total cholesterol (T-CHOL, high density lipoprotein (HDL-CHOL and low density lipoprotein (LDL-CHOL ] were assayed. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the plasma and liver total protein, ALB, TRIG and HDL-CHOL of the test groups when compared with the control. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05 in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP, TBIL, T-CHOL, LDL-CHOL and plasma/liver MDA of the test groups when compared with the control. These effects were most pronounced in rats fed with 20 min-thermally oxidized palm oil diet. Hence, consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets had deleterious effects on biochemical indices in rats. Therefore, cooking with and/or consumption of palm oil subjected to heat treatment for several long periods of time should be discouraged in our homes as this might have deleterious effects on human health.

  7. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen.

  8. The use of probiotic in the diet to improve carcass characteristics and meat quality of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been carried out to investigate the effect of probiotic and ruminally less-degradable protein supplementation on the growth and efficiency of feed utilization in sheep. Thirty two male sheep with an average liveweight of 23 kg were divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals to test four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were a basal concentrate diet, b basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein in proportion of 90:10%, c basal concentrate supplemented with probiotic at 0.5%, and d basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein and probiotic in proportion of 89.5:10:0.5% consequtively. The concentrate was fed at 1.5% of the liveweight, and adjusted every week after weighing the individuals. Napier grass was fed ad libitum after being chopped into 5 cm length. Drinking water was available adequately. The animals were individually caged. The experiment was carried out for 7-day adaptation to the dietary treatments and 42-day period of feeding trials. The parameters being observed include weekly liveweight changes, slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass characteristics. The results indicated that the liveweight changes were relatively the same for all treatment groups, which ranged from 89 to 94 g/d. However, the dry matter intakes ranged from 856 to 925 g/d. The slaughter weight ranged from 26.9 to 27.3 kg with carcass weight ranged from 12.0 to 12.8 kg indicating that the carcass percentage were in the range from 55.8 to 57.1% of the empty body weight. Probiotic supplement resulted in reduction of fat content in the meat from these observation, it is reasonable to assume that the use of probiotic in the diet reduced the carcass fat without affecting the daily weight gain.

  9. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet.

  10. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  11. Effects of Exogenous NSP Enzymes(Xylanase, β-glucanase and Cellulase) on Morphology and Functions of Digestive Tract in Growing Pigs Fed with Paddy-Based Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zi-rong; LU Jian-jun

    2003-01-01

    Ninety Landrace X Jia 35±0.40 kg weight growing pigs were randomly allotted to three treatments, each of which was replicated three times with ten pigs per replicate. The pigs were reared on either a conventional corn-based diet (control Ⅰ ) or a paddy-based diet (control Ⅱ ) or a paddy diet supplemented with 0.2% NSP enzymes (test group). All pigs were given ad libitum access to both feed and water. The results of feeding trial showed that supplementation of NSP enzymes significantly increased ADG by 8.78 % (P<0.05) and decreased F/G by 9.42% (P<0.05) over the control group Ⅱ. No significant differences were found in ADG and F/G between control group I and the test group. The digestive trial showed that adding NSP enzymes significantly improved apparent digestibility of CP, EE and CF by 18.76 (P<0.01), 16.04 (P <0.05) and 108.57%(P<0.05), respectively, compared to control Ⅱ. The activities of proteolytic enzyme and α-amylase in duodenal contents were increased by 99.07 (P<0.01) and 18.41% (P<0. 05) with the addition of NSP enzymes. No significant differences between test and control Ⅱ group were found in activities of the pepsin in the gastric content, the trypsin and lipase in duodenal contents, the disaccharidase and γ-glutany transferase (γ-GT) in intestinal mucosa, but there was a tendency towards higher activities associated with the NSP enzymes diet (P>0. 05). The lengths of the villi within the duodenal, jejunal and ileal sections of the small intestine of pigs receiving the NSP enzymes diet were increased by 23.68 (P<0. 05), 56.00 (P<0. 01)and 76.90%(P<0.01) respectively, relative to the pigs in control Ⅱ.

  12. The Effects of a Calorie Reduced Diet on Periodontal Inflammation and Disease in a Non Human Primate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Mays, Grishondra L.; Dawson, Dolphus R.; Gunsolley, John C.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Novak, Karen F.; Mattison, Julie A.; Ingram, Donald K.; Novak, M. John

    2008-01-01

    Background Low calorie diets are commonplace for reducing body weight. However, no information is available on the effects of a reduced calorie diet on periodontal inflammation and disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a long term calorie restricted diet (CR) on periodontitis in an animal model of periodontitis. Methods Periodontitis was induced in 55 young, healthy, adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by tying 2.0 silk ligatures at the gingival margins of maxillary premolar/molar teeth. Animals on a CR diet (30% CR; n=23) were compared to ad libitum diet controls (n=32). Clinical measures including plaque (PLI), probing pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), modified Gingival Index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were taken at baseline and 1, 2, and 3 months after ligature placement. Results Significant effects of CR were observed on the development of inflammation and the progression of periodontal destruction in this model. When compared to controls, CR resulted in a significant reduction in ligature induced GI (p<0.0001), BOP (p<0.0015), PD (p<0.0016), and CAL (p<0.0038). When viewed over time, periodontal destruction, as measured by CAL, progressed significantly more slowly in the CR animals than in the controls (p<0.001). Conclusions These clinical findings are consistent with available evidence that CR has anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, these experimental findings are the first observations that CR dampens the inflammatory response and reduces active periodontal breakdown associated with an acute microbial challenge. PMID:18597600

  13. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS) and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF) diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats). Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3%) or high (5.9%) levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences. PMID:21736742

  14. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Ginger C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats. Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3% or high (5.9% levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences.

  15. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows.

  16. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into ...

  17. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  18. Methyl donor-deficient diet during development can affect fear and anxiety in adulthood in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Daisuke; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Matsuda, Shingo; Tomizawa, Haruna; Sutoh, Chihiro; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the essential factors in the control of gene expression. Folic acid, methionine and choline (methyl donors)--all nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism--are known as important mediators of DNA methylation. A previous study has shown that long-term administration of a diet lacking in methyl donors caused global DNA hypermethylation in the brain (Pogribny et al., 2008). However, no study has investigated the effects of a diet lacking in methyl donors during the developmental period on emotional behaviors such as fear and anxiety-like behavior in association with gene expressions in the brain. In addition, it has not been elucidated whether a diet supplemented with methyl donors later in life can reverse these changes. Therefore, we examined the effects of methyl donor deficiency during the developmental period on fear memory acquisition/extinction and anxiety-like behavior, and the relevant gene expressions in the hippocampus in juvenile (6-wk) and adult (12-wk) mice. We found that juvenile mice fed a methyl-donor-deficient diet had impaired fear memory acquisition along with decreases in the gene expressions of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. In addition, reduced anxiety-like behavior with decreased gene expressions of Grin2b and Gabar2 was observed in both the methyl-donor-deficient group and the body-weight-matched food-restriction group. After being fed a diet supplemented with methyl donors ad libitum, adult mice reversed the alteration of gene expression of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Grin2b and Gabar2, but anxiety-like behavior became elevated. In addition, impaired fear-memory formation was observed in the adult mice fed the methyl-donor-deficient diet during the developmental period. Our study suggested that developmental alterations in the one-carbon metabolic pathway in the brain could have effects on emotional behavior and memory formation that last into adulthood.

  19. Antioxidant properties of tea blunt ROS-dependent lipogenesis: beneficial effect on hepatic steatosis in a high fat-high sucrose diet NAFLD obese rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Laura; Battault, Sylvain; Meyer, Grégory; Nascimento, Alessandro; Gaillard, Sandrine; de Sousa, Georges; Rahmani, Roger; Riva, Catherine; Armand, Martine; Maixent, Jean-Michel; Reboul, Cyril

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress could trigger lipid accumulation in liver and thus hepatic steatosis. Tea is able to prevent liver disorders, but a direct link between antioxidant capacities and prevention of steatosis has not been reported yet. We aimed to investigate such relationship in a rat model of high fat-high sucrose diet (HFS)-induced obesity and to explore more deeply the mechanisms in isolated hepatocytes. Wistar rats were divided into a control group (standard diet), an HFS group (high fat-sucrose diet) and an HFS+tea group (HFS diet with ad-libitum access to tea drink). Body weight, fat mass, glycemic parameters in blood, lipid and oxidative stress parameters in blood and liver were measured in each group after 14 weeks. Isolated hepatocytes were treated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer t-BHP in the presence or not of antioxidants (tempol or tea), and superoxide anion production and lipid accumulation were measured using specific fluorescent probes. We reported that the HFS diet highly increased hepatic lipids content, while tea consumption attenuated steatosis and improved the oxidative status (decrease in hepatic oxidative stress, increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity). The role of antioxidant properties of tea in such phenomenon was confirmed in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Indeed, the increase of mitochondrial ROS production with t-BHP resulted in lipid accumulation in hepatocytes (positive linear regression), and antioxidants (tempol or tea) normalized both. We reported that the antioxidant properties of tea protect rats from an obesogenic HFS diet-induced hepatic steatosis by counteracting the ROS-dependent lipogenesis.

  20. Methyl donor-deficient diet during development can affect fear and anxiety in adulthood in C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ishii

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is one of the essential factors in the control of gene expression. Folic acid, methionine and choline (methyl donors--all nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism--are known as important mediators of DNA methylation. A previous study has shown that long-term administration of a diet lacking in methyl donors caused global DNA hypermethylation in the brain (Pogribny et al., 2008. However, no study has investigated the effects of a diet lacking in methyl donors during the developmental period on emotional behaviors such as fear and anxiety-like behavior in association with gene expressions in the brain. In addition, it has not been elucidated whether a diet supplemented with methyl donors later in life can reverse these changes. Therefore, we examined the effects of methyl donor deficiency during the developmental period on fear memory acquisition/extinction and anxiety-like behavior, and the relevant gene expressions in the hippocampus in juvenile (6-wk and adult (12-wk mice. We found that juvenile mice fed a methyl-donor-deficient diet had impaired fear memory acquisition along with decreases in the gene expressions of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. In addition, reduced anxiety-like behavior with decreased gene expressions of Grin2b and Gabar2 was observed in both the methyl-donor-deficient group and the body-weight-matched food-restriction group. After being fed a diet supplemented with methyl donors ad libitum, adult mice reversed the alteration of gene expression of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Grin2b and Gabar2, but anxiety-like behavior became elevated. In addition, impaired fear-memory formation was observed in the adult mice fed the methyl-donor-deficient diet during the developmental period. Our study suggested that developmental alterations in the one-carbon metabolic pathway in the brain could have effects on emotional behavior and memory formation that last into adulthood.

  1. Effect of calcium, copper, and zinc levels in a rapeseed meal diet on mineral and trace element utilization in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T; Sandström, B

    1992-11-01

    Mineral and trace element interactions were studied in a balance trial with rats. Calcium, copper, and zinc were supplied to a rapeseed meal diet in a factorial design. Animals were fed ad libitum, and absorption, excretion, and retention of the elements were evaluated either as fractions of total intake or in relation to nitrogen retention to account for differences in food intake and lean body mass increment. The intrinsic content of minerals and trace elements was sufficient to support growth at a rate that could be expected from the rapeseed protein quality. However, when calcium was included in the diet, the intrinsic dietary level of zinc appeared to be limiting, despite the fact that the zinc level was twice the recommended level. Additional zinc supply reversed growth impairment. This calcium-zinc interaction is believed to be owing to the formation of phytate complexes. Calcium addition influenced the calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and iron--but not the copper--balances. The addition of calcium reduced the availability of the intrinsic zinc, whereas no effect was seen in the zinc-fortified groups. The availability of intrinsic copper was in a similar way significantly impaired by addition of dietary zinc, whereas copper-supplied groups were unaffected by zinc addition. Intrinsic iron availability was also dependent upon zinc addition, although in a more ambiguous way. Thus, addition of extrinsic minerals to a diet high in phytate can result in significant impairments of growth and mineral utilization.

  2. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  3. The Prevention of WEight Regain in diabetes type 2 (POWER) study : The effectiveness of adding a combined psychological intervention to a very low calorie diet, design and pilot data of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Berk (Kirsten Ac); H. Buijks (Hanneke); B. Özcan (Behiye); A. van 't Spijker (Adriaan); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Obesity is of major pathogenetic importance to type 2 diabetes, it contributes to poor glycemic control and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Over 80% of patients with diabetes type 2 are overweight. To achieve a more favourable risk profile, changes in diet and l

  4. Effect of feeding carp with fat-supplemented pelleted diets on histological appearance of the intestine and hepatopancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Epler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty two-year-old carps, Cyprinus carpio L. were kept in a closed water circulation system for five months. Fish were assigned to five groups (12 fish per group and fed ad libitum on Aller Classic pelleted feed for carp: standard or standard pelleted mixture supplemented with 6% oils. The control group (IK received standard pellets, group IIS+Rz – sunflower oil + rapeseed oil (50% : 50%; group IIIS+L – sunflower oil + linseed oil (80% : 20%; group IVR – fish oil; and group VSK – pork scratchings at the level of 6%. At the end of the experiment, 10 carps from each group were slaughtered and their body length and weight were measured to calculate mean body weight gains and mean individual gains. Fragments of intestine and hepatopancreas were histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The mean weight gains of fish at the end of the experiment, which were the highest for diet IIIS+L, and the lowest for VSK and IK diets, were fully confirmed by histological analysis, which showed that the lowest gains in biomass and mean individual weight were due to digestive disturbances associated mainly with lipid metabolism. These disturbances did not occur in groups IIS+Rz, IIIS+L and IVR.

  5. An evaluation of brewery waste as a replacement for concentrates in diets for growing crossbred common ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, N T K; Ogle, R B

    2004-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of feeding brewery waste that replaced different levels of concentrate in diets for growing crossbred common ducks. A total of 300 ducks at 3 weeks of age were allocated in a 2 x 5 factorial experiment. Two feeding systems were compared, with the brewery waste provided separately (S) or mixed (M) with a concentrate. For the first feeding system the concentrate was fed alone (C100M), or replaced successively by brewery waste at ratios of concentrate to brewery waste: 75:25 (C75M), 50:50 (C50M) and 25:75 (C25M) on a dry matter basis, and fed ad libitum. For the second system concentrate and brewery waste were fed separately, with the same levels as in the first system. Total feed intakes for both feeding systems and intakes of brewery waste, total dry matter, crude protein, calcium and phosphorus increased significantly as concentrate was reduced (p growth performance. The highest net profits were from the separate feeding system, and for ducks fed brewery waste only (C0). It is concluded that brewery waste can replace traditional diets for crossbred common ducks based on concentrate.

  6. Effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia karoo diets on Haemonchus contortus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahiya, C; Mukaratirwa, S; Thamsborg, S M

    2003-07-29

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of Acacia karoo and Acacia nilotica diets on Haemonchus contortus infections in goats. Twenty-four Boer goats of mixed sex (live weight 17-22 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, namely: A. nilotica (AN) group, A. karoo (AK) group, control infected with H. contortus (HC) group and the non-infected control (NHC) group. Animals in the AN, AK and HC groups were orally infected with a single dose of 3000 HC third stage larvae. The AN and AK groups had dried leaves of AN and AK, respectively, included in their basal diet at a rate of 40% dry matter (DM) while the HC and NHC groups had the basal diet throughout the experiment. All animals received a total feed allowance of 500 g DM per day and Katambora Rhodes grass hay ad libitum for roughage. Parameters measured included faecal egg counts and live weight. At the end of the experiment, three animals from each group were slaughtered and abomasal worm burdens were determined. A significant decrease in the faecal egg counts was recorded in animals in the AK group (P<0.05) relative to those in the AN and HC groups. The worm burdens were reduced by 34% in the AK group (P<0.05) and by 10% in the AN group (non-significant) relative to the infected control group. The study indicates that the difference in the effects of the two forages on HC infections may be related to type and concentration of tannins.

  7. Healthy lifestyles in Europe: prevention of obesity and type II diabetes by diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, A

    2001-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly in all age groups in most EU-countries and is one of the fastest growing epidemics, now affecting 10-40% of the adult population. Obesity increases the risk of serious co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and reduced life expectancy, and these complications may account for 5-10% of all health costs in EU countries. The risk of diabetes is particularly increased by obesity, and 80-95% of the increase in diabetes can be attributed to obesity and overweight with abdominal fat distribution. There is robust evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to support that an energy-dense, high fat diet and physical inactivity are independent risk factors for weight gain and obesity. Furthermore, interaction between dietary fat and physical fitness determine fat balance, so that the obesity promoting effect of a high fat diet is enhanced in susceptible subjects, particularly in sedentary individuals with a genetic predisposition to obesity. Ad libitum consumption of diets low in fat and high in protein and complex carbohydrates, with a low glycaemic index, contributes to the prevention of weight gain in normal weight subjects. It also causes a spontaneous weight loss of 3-4 kg in overweight subjects, and has beneficial effects on risk factors for diabetes and CVD. To prevent obesity and diabetes there are grounds for recommending the combination of increasing daily physical activity level to a PAL-value of at least 1.8 and reducing dietary fat content to 20-25 energy-% in sedentary subjects, and to 25-35% in more physically active individuals.

  8. Genetic parameters and effect of selection for body weight in lines of mink (Neovion vison) on ad libitum and restricted feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Bente Krog;

    2012-01-01

    .60 in females in the FF-, AL-, and RF-line). The results indicate that selection on AL feeding increased appetite and thereby improved feed conversion ratio while selection on RF improved feed utilization. Furthermore, the results suggest that selection for August weight produces lean mink while selection...

  9. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the Effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms (P0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  10. Insulin-like growth factor I and glucagon-like peptide-2 responses to fasting followed by controlled or ad libitum refeeding in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Murali, Sangita G; Liu, Xiaowen

    2008-01-01

    Luminal nutrients stimulate structural and functional regeneration in the intestine through mechanisms thought to involve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We investigated the relationship between IGF-I and GLP-2 responses and mucosal growth in rats fasted ...

  11. Repeated consumption of a large volume of liquid and semi-solid foods increases ad libitum intake, but does not change expected satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Mars, M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C. de

    2012-01-01

    Food intake and a food’s expected satiating effect initially rely on sensory attributes. People will learn about the food’s satiating capacity by exposure. We investigated whether repeated consumption changed the expected satiety effects and intake of iso-energetic liquid and semi-solid foods. In a

  12. Serum concentrations of creatine kinase and of triglycerides during lactation in gilts bred older and in multiparous sows fed ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira R.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the possible variation in blood concentrations of creatine kinase (CK and triglycerides in gilts bred older in comparison with multiparous sows. Ten primiparous and ten Camborough multiparous sows from the fourth to seventh parities were used. Breeding age and weight of gilts averaged respectively 231 days and 149.5kg. All females were moved into individual farrowing crates and were managed under the same conditions. Blood samples were collected by puncturing the coccygeal artery on day 7 before expected farrowing, and on days 2, 7, 14, 21 of lactation and 2 days after weaning. No difference in triglycerides and CK serum concentrations between groups were observed. The CK levels were low before farrowing, increased substantially on days 2 and 7 and decreased toward the end of lactation. The concentrations of triglycerides were slightly high before the parturition, diminished on days 2, 7, 14 and 21 and increased after weaning.

  13. Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Cassandra E; Phinney, Stephen D; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Quann, Erin E; Wood, Richard J; Bibus, Doug M; Kraemer, William J; Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal distribution of plasma fatty acids and increased inflammation are prominent features of metabolic syndrome. We tested whether these components of metabolic syndrome, like dyslipidemia and glycemia, are responsive to carbohydrate restriction. Overweight men and women with atherogenic dyslipidemia consumed ad libitum diets very low in carbohydrate (VLCKD) (1504 kcal:%CHO:fat:protein = 12:59:28) or low in fat (LFD) (1478 kcal:%CHO:fat:protein = 56:24:20) for 12 weeks. In comparison to the LFD, the VLCKD resulted in an increased proportion of serum total n-6 PUFA, mainly attributed to a marked increase in arachidonate (20:4n-6), while its biosynthetic metabolic intermediates were decreased. The n-6/n-3 and arachidonic/eicosapentaenoic acid ratio also increased sharply. Total saturated fatty acids and 16:1n-7 were consistently decreased following the VLCKD. Both diets significantly decreased the concentration of several serum inflammatory markers, but there was an overall greater anti-inflammatory effect associated with the VLCKD, as evidenced by greater decreases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, E-selectin, I-CAM, and PAI-1. Increased 20:4n-6 and the ratios of 20:4n-6/20:5n-3 and n-6/n-3 are commonly viewed as pro-inflammatory, but unexpectedly were consistently inversely associated with responses in inflammatory proteins. In summary, a very low carbohydrate diet resulted in profound alterations in fatty acid composition and reduced inflammation compared to a low fat diet.

  14. Nutrient and cell wall fraction digestibility of growing WAD ewe fed Mexican sunflower leaf meal (MSLM based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ekeocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After a previous 84-d performance phase on growing WAD ewe, Studies was conducted using sixteen West African dwarf (WAD ewe-lambs weighing between 17.50 and 17.88kg on a basal diet of Panicum maximum were allotted into 4 treatment groups A, B, C and D of 4 replicates each. The MSL replaced Wheat bran (WB gravimetrically at 0, 15, 30 and 45%. Treatment A served as control. The experiment lasted for one week. Digestibility was determined using a 6-d total fecal collection. Ewes were given ad libitum access to feed and water. Parameters measured were voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI, which comprised concentrate dry matter intake (CDMI and grass dry matter intake (GDMI, Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, Organic matter (OM and Energy . Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA .The VDMI (g/d varied from 392.30 - 695.00, CDMI (g/d varied from 181.80 - 536.80 and GDMI (g/d varied from 130.65 - 215.95 for ewe-lambs. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of NDF, ADF, ADL, organic matter (OM and Energy were similar. Approximately 75.5 ±1.1% of the VDMI came from the supplement. Diets containing 15% MSLM was superior to others for CDMI (181.80 – 536.80 g/day, CP intake (17.72 – 32.40 g/day/kgW0.75, Digestible DMI (49.45 - 80.68 g/day/kgW0.75 and Digestible CPI (13.68 - 27.16 g/day/kgW0.75 while GDMI (130.65 – 215.95 g/day for diets containing 30% and 45% MSLM were significant (p Inclusion of up to 45% Mexican Sunflower Leaf in the diets of growing ewe to replace Wheat bran was adequate.

  15. Partial replacement of an artificial nectar diet with native browse for feather-tail gliders (Acrobates pygmaeus) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Ella A; Herrin, Kimberly Vinette; Gleen, Wendy; Davies, Paul; Stapley, Rodd; Stebbings, Vanessa; Wiszniewski, Joanna; Spindler, Rebecca; Faichney, Graham J; Chaves, Alexandre V

    2013-01-01

    Captive-bred feather-tail gliders (Acrobates pygmaeus) housed at Taronga Zoo have had a long history of eye cholesterol plaques that may be associated with a largely sugar-based diet such as artificial nectar. The gliders also have prolonged periods of reduced activity when they are not visible in exhibits. This may be due to the ad libitum supply of an energy rich feed and reduced need to forage. This study examined behavioral and physiological changes associated with supplementing the high sugar-based diet with two species of native browse. The experiment was conducted over two consecutive periods of 3 weeks and consisted of two treatment groups: one group was offered the artificial nectar only, while the other group was offered the artificial nectar supplemented with a variety of native flowers. Live weight was recorded weekly. There was no change (P > 0.10) in artificial nectar intake with the supplementation of native browse in the diet. Blood metabolites (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose) tested for the two groups had no differences (P > 0.10) between treatments. Upon examination, there were no signs of tooth decay or cholesterol plaques in all animals throughout the experiment. Feed intake and behavior were recorded via sensor cameras. There was an increase (P native flowers compared to gliders fed the artificial nectar alone. In conclusion, supplementing to provide a more native diet to A. pygmaeus enhanced their natural foraging behavior, suggesting that it may result in long-term improvements in their health.

  16. Anti-inflammatory Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease is driven by inflammation. This article will provide an overview on how the balance of macronutrients and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can alter the expression of inflammatory genes. In particular, how the balance of the protein to glycemic load of a meal can alter the generation of insulin and glucagon and the how the balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can effect eicosanoid formation. Clinical results on the reduction of inflammation following anti-inflammatory diets are discussed as well as the molecular targets of anti-inflammatory nutrition. To overcome silent inflammation requires an anti-inflammatory diet (with omega-3s and polyphenols, in particular those of Maqui). The most important aspect of such an anti-inflammatory diet is the stabilization of insulin and reduced intake of omega-6 fatty acids. The ultimate treatment lies in reestablishing hormonal and genetic balance to generate satiety instead of constant hunger. Anti-inflammatory nutrition, balanced 40:30:30 with caloric restriction, should be considered as a form of gene silencing technology, in particular the silencing of the genes involved in the generation of silent inflammation. To this anti-inflammatory diet foundation supplemental omega-3 fatty acids at the level of 2-3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day should be added. Finally, a diet rich in colorful, nonstarchy vegetables would contribute adequate amounts of polyphenols to help not only to inhibit nuclear factor (NF)-κB (primary molecular target of inflammation) but also activate AMP kinase. Understanding the impact of an anti-inflammatory diet on silent inflammation can elevate the diet from simply a source of calories to being on the cutting edge of gene-silencing technology.

  17. Effects of different diets on intestinal microbiota and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Ping; Zou, Wen-Li; Chen, Shui-Jiao; Wei, Hong-Yun; Yin, Ya-Ni; Zou, Yi-You; Lu, Fang-Gen

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study the effects of different diets on intestinal microbiota and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development at the same caloric intake. METHODS Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (six rats each). The control diet (CON) group and free high-fat diet (FFAT) group were allowed ad libitum access to a normal chow diet and a high-fat diet, respectively. The restrictive high-fat diet (RFAT) group, restrictive high-sugar diet (RSUG) group, and high-protein diet (PRO) group were fed a high-fat diet, a high-sugar diet, and a high-protein diet, respectively, in an isocaloric way. All rats were killed at 12 wk. Body weight, visceral fat index (visceral fat/body weight), liver index (liver/body weight), insulin resistance, portal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and liver triglycerides were measured. The intestinal microbiota in the different groups of rats was sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology. RESULTS The FFAT group had higher body weight, visceral fat index, liver index, peripheral insulin resistance, portal LPS, serum ALT, serum AST, and liver triglycerides compared with all other groups (P < 0.05). Taking the same calories, the RFAT and RSUG groups demonstrated increased body weight, visceral fat index, peripheral insulin resistance and liver triglycerides compared with the PRO group (P < 0.05). The RFAT group also showed increased portal LPS compared with the PRO group (P < 0.05). Unweighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis of the sequencing data revealed that the intestinal microbiota structures of the CON, FFAT, RSUG and PRO groups were roughly separated away from each other. Taxon-based analysis showed that, compared with the CON group, the FFAT group had an increased abundance of Firmicutes, Roseburia and Oscillospira bacteria, a higher ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, and a decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes

  18. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically reduced feed intake, but improved feed efficiency up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary intervention, i.e. 16 weeks of age

  19. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ateş, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ayşen

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were pcambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in the large intestine. G. cambogia extract may be used in the P and Cu deficiencies due to increases resulting in the present P and Cu amounts in G. cambogia extract, or the use of

  20. The effects of glycine, L-threonine, and L-cystine supplementation to a 9% casein diet on the conversions of L-tryptophan to nicotinamide and to serotonin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Imai, Shoko; Nakata, Chifumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinamide and serotonin are synthesized from L-tryptophan in mammals. It is important to know the nutritional factors affecting the synthesis of nicotinamide and serotonin. We investigated the effects of amino acid composition. Young adult rats were fed ad libitum for 21 d a low-protein (9% casein) diet([1] control), or one of the low protein diets supplemented with following amino acids: [2] glycine, L-threonine, and L-cystine, [3] L-threonine and L-cystine, [4] glycine and L-cystine, and [5] glycine and L-threonine. The amounts of glycine, L-threonine and L-cystine supplementations were 2%, 0.078%, and 0.2%, respectively, and the amino acid contents of all diet were adjusted with supplementation of L-glutamic acid. The body weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and the amino acid nutrition biomarker, which is the urinary excretion ratio of (N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide+N(1)-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide)/N(1)-methylnicotinamide, improved by adding the amino acids glycine, L-threonine and L-cystine to a 9% casein diet. The conversion percentage of L-tryptophan to nicotinamide decreased with the addition of the amino acids glycine, L-threonine and L-cystine to a 9% casein diet, while the concentrations of serotonin in the brain, stomach and small intestine were not affected at all. The effects of each amino acid on body weight gain and the conversion ratios were also investigated. Glycine did not affect these variables. L-Cystine improved the body weight gain, the food efficiency ratio and the urine ratio, and decreased the conversion percentage. L-Threonine did not affect body weight gain or food efficiency ratio; however, it improved the urine ratio and decreased the conversion percentage.

  1. Role of a Bacillus subtilis direct-fed microbial on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation and bone mineralization in turkey poults fed with a rye-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Latorre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rye contains high concentrations of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, leading to reduced digestibility. Since poultry have little or no endogenous enzymes capable of hydrolyzing these NSP, exogenous carbohydrases as feed additives are used in an attempt to reduce the anti-nutritional effects of these polysaccharides. Previously, an in vitro study conducted in our laboratory showed that inclusion of certain Bacillus direct-fed microbial (DFM candidates that produce exogenous phytase, lipase, protease, cellulase and xylanase in high NSP diets significantly reduced both digesta viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation. In the present study, rye-based turkey starter diets with or without Bacillus-DFM were administered ad libitum to day-of-hatch turkey poults in two independent experiments. In both experiments, day-of-hatch turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CON or a DFM treated diet (n = 25 birds/group. At ten days–of-age, all turkey poults from experiments 1 and 2 were weighted and 12 turkey poults/group were randomly selected and humanely killed. Liver samples were aseptically collected to evaluate bacterial translocation, and intestinal digesta samples were individually collected to evaluate viscosity. Additionally, in experiment 2 both tibias were removed for assessment of bone parameters. In both experiments, the TRT group showed a reduction in the total number of coliforms in the liver as well as a reduced digesta viscosity when compared to the CON group (P<0.05. Turkey poults fed the Bacillus-DFM candidate had increased tibia diameter, breaking strength, ash content, calcium content, and phosphorus content when compared with CON turkey poults. In summary, turkey poults fed with a rye-based diet without DFM showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompanied by a reduction in bone mineralization; however these adverse effects can be prevented by the inclusion of selected a

  2. Apparent zinc absorption and zinc status of weanling rats fed moderately zinc-deficient diets enriched with beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, E; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare apparent Zn absorption and Zn status of weanling rats fed diets that differed in Zn level, fat level and fat source. Semi-synthetic diets, which were about isoenergetic and contained 3% soyabean oil, were supplemented with 7 or 100 mg Zn/kg to create a mild Zn deficiency (LZ) or a high Zn supply (HZ) and with 0 (LF), 22% beef tallow (BT) or 22% sunflower oil (SF) according to a 2 × 3 factorial design of treatments. They were fed ad libitum to 6 × 8 rats for 28 days. Energy intake and growth rates were comparable among the HZ groups. Weight gains in the LZ-LF, LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups averaged 5.54, 4.95 and 4.15 g/day, and apparent Zn absorption averaged 79.4, 60.3 and 48.0 μg Zn/day, respectively, whereas faecal Zn excretion was comparable among these groups. Apparent Zn absorption, and plasma and femur Zn concentrations were lower in the high-fat groups than in the LF group, possibly due to the high cellulose content of the BT and SF diets. Plasma Zn concentrations were higher in the animals fed the BT-based than in the SF-based diets, whereas femur and soft tissue Zn concentrations were comparable among these groups. The differences between the LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups in growth rate, Zn absorption rate and Zn status were confirmed in a second experiment. The results indicate that moderately Zn-deficient diets enriched with SF in relation to BT affect Zn metabolism of weanling rats by a yet unknown mechanism.

  3. Suppressed Fat Appetite after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Associates with Reduced Brain μ-opioid Receptor Availability in Diet-Induced Obese Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Mohammed K.; Patt, Marianne; Patt, Jörg T. W.; Becker, Georg A.; Rullmann, Michael; Kranz, Mathias; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Schischke, Kristin; Seyfried, Florian; Brust, Peter; Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama; Krügel, Ute; Fenske, Wiebke K.

    2017-01-01

    Brain μ-opioid receptors (MORs) stimulate high-fat (HF) feeding and have been implicated in the distinct long term outcomes on body weight of bariatric surgery and dieting. Whether alterations in fat appetite specifically following these disparate weight loss interventions relate to changes in brain MOR signaling is unknown. To address this issue, diet-induced obese male rats underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sham surgeries. Postoperatively, animals were placed on a two-choice diet consisting of low-fat (LF) and HF food and sham-operated rats were further split into ad libitum fed (Sham-LF/HF) and body weight-matched (Sham-BWM) to RYGB groups. An additional set of sham-operated rats always only on a LF diet (Sham-LF) served as lean controls, making four experimental groups in total. Corresponding to a stage of weight loss maintenance for RYGB rats, two-bottle fat preference tests in conjunction with small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies with the selective MOR radioligand [11C]carfentanil were performed. Brains were subsequently collected and MOR protein levels in the hypothalamus, striatum, prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex were analyzed by Western Blot. We found that only the RYGB group presented with intervention-specific changes: having markedly suppressed intake and preference for high concentration fat emulsions, a widespread reduction in [11C]carfentanil binding potential (reflecting MOR availability) in various brain regions, and a downregulation of striatal and prefrontal MOR protein levels compared to the remaining groups. These findings suggest that the suppressed fat appetite caused by RYGB surgery is due to reduced brain MOR signaling, which may contribute to sustained weight loss unlike the case for dieting. PMID:28133443

  4. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF. This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption, with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1 and post-intervention testing (day 22 in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05. However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF BEE PRODUCTS IN COMBINATION WITH PROBIOTIC IN CHICKEN DIET ON OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CHICKEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bobko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, the effect of the addition bee pollen extract in combination of with probiotic and propolis extract in combination with probiotic in diet of chicken broilers Ross 308 on oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles during 7 days storage by chilling was investigated. In the experiment were included 120 pieces of one day-old chicks, which were divided into 3 groups (control, E1 and E2. Feed mixtures and drinking water were given to chickens by ad libitum system until the age of 42 days. Bee pollen extract in amount of 400 mg.kg-1 added to feed mixtures plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation (Lactobacillus fermentum added to drinking water (E1, propolis extract in amount of 400 mg.kg-1 added to feed mixtures plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation (Lactobacillus fermentum added to drinking water (E2. During whole period of chilled storage (7 days were higher values of MDA determined in control group (C compared with experimental groups (E1 and E2. The higher average MDA values determined in breast muscle was in samples of control group (0.128 mg.kg-1 compared with experimental groups E1 (P0.05 and E2 (P≤0.05 (0.127 and 0.119 mg.kg-1, respectively after 7-day of chilled storage. The higher average MDA values (P0.05 were also determined in thigh muscles in control group (0.141 mg.kg-1 compared with experimental groups E1 (0.139 mg.kg-1 and E2 (0.128 mg.kg-1 after 7-day of chilled storage. Higher amount of MDA in thigh muscle compared to breast muscle is due to by higher amount of fat occurred in thigh muscle.

  6. The new Nordic diet - consumer expenditures and economic incentives estimated from a controlled intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    2013-01-01

    a randomized controlled ad libitum dietary 6 month intervention for central obese adults (18-65 years) and market retail price data of the products consumed in the intervention. Adjust consumed quantities to market price incentives using econometrically estimated price elasticities. Results: Average daily food...

  7. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  8. String Theory on AdS Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop

  9. 不同淀粉来源饲粮中添加复合淀粉酶对鲁烟白猪养分消化率及氮平衡的影响%The Effect of Adding Amylase to Diet that Has Different Sources of Starch on the Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance of Lu-Yan White Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建沅; 姜建阳; 宋春阳

    2015-01-01

    选取6头体重(35±1) kg、健康去势的鲁烟白猪,采用有重复的6×6拉丁方设计进行消化试验,试验饲粮为玉米和玉米-小麦饲粮,对照组不添加淀粉酶,试验组分别添加0.1%单酶C和0.1%复合酶,研究复合淀粉酶对鲁烟白猪不同淀粉来源饲粮养分消化率和氮平衡的影响. 结果表明,单酶C和复合淀粉酶都能提高鲁烟白猪饲粮养分消化率和对氮的利用率,但复合酶的效果好于单酶. 在玉米、玉米-小麦饲粮中添加复合淀粉酶对鲁烟白猪干物质、粗蛋白质和有机物消化率分别比对照组提高3.82个百分点、0.41个百分点、3.36个百分点和4.79个百分点、1.16个百分点、4.05个百分点(P0.05); 氮表观消化率、 氮生物学价值和蛋白质净利用率分别提高1.14个百分点、0.55个百分点、0.92个百分点,1.45个百分点、0.72个百分点、0.71个百分点(P>0.05);并且玉米-小麦型饲粮中加入复合淀粉酶对饲粮养分消化率的改善效果优于玉米型饲粮.%Six similar weight (35±1) kg,healthy and casteated growing pigs of Lu-Yan White pigs was selected. Then these pigs were divided into two groups,their diets have different starch source,corn and corn-wheat.The diets of which group were managed 3 situation,no amylase,single amylase,complex amylase.This experiment was completed through the way of 6 ×6 latin square design. The results show that,the nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization of Lu-Yan white pigs increased,when adding the composite amylase to the diet that has different sources of starch,and it's better to add single amylase.Compared with the blank group,the dry matter digestibility,crude protein digestibility and organic matter digestibility of experimental group adding the composite amylase in the diet of corn and corn-wheat increased by 3.82,0.41,3.36,4.79,1.16,4.05 percent(P0.05);1.14, 0.55, 0.92, 1.45, 0.72, 0.71 percent (P>0.05);and the effect of adding amylase in the diet

  10. Gout Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Low-fat yogurt 1 cup fresh melon Caffeine-free beverage, such as herbal tea Following a gout diet can help limit uric acid production and increase its elimination. Although the diet isn't likely to lower the uric acid concentration in your blood enough to treat your gout ...

  11. The impact of non- and genetically modified soybean diets in aorta wall remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daleprane, Julio B; Chagas, Mauricío A; Vellarde, Guillermo C; Ramos, Cristiane F; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of nongenetically modified soybean (non-GMS) and genetically modified soybean (GMS) meal on growth and cardiometabolic parameters in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (n= 10): non-GMS, GMS, and control group (CG). All animals received water and an isocaloric diet ad libitum for 455 d. Blood was drawn by cardiac puncture, and serum was separated for subsequent biochemical analyses (total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, insulin, glucose, and testosterone). The aorta was quickly harvested and fixed; the body fat mass was removed and weighed. Non-GMS and GMS had a growth index (GI) similar to CG but with a lower body weight (P < 0.05) and a lower amount of body fat mass (P < 0.05). Total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose concentrations, and aortic tunics were reduced (P < 0.05) in non-GMS and GMS compared to CG. Non-GMS and GMS are able to reduced serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose, and aortic remodeling in aged rats. No differences were observed between non-GMS and GMS in all parameters.

  12. Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...

  13. Evaluation of a Bacillus direct-fed microbial candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation in broiler chickens fed on a rye-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, J D; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Bielke, L R; Vicente, J L; Wolfenden, R; Menconi, A; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2015-01-01

    1. The effects of the dietary inclusion of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation were evaluated in broilers consuming rye-based diets. 2. In the present study, control mash rye-based diets (CON) or Bacillus-DFM supplemented diets (TRT) were administered ad libitum to male broilers in three independent experiments. 3. In Experiments 1 and 2 (n = 25/group), liver samples were taken to evaluate bacterial translocation, digesta samples were used for viscosity measurements and the intestinal microbial flora was evaluated from different intestinal sections to enumerate total recovered gram-negative bacteria (TGB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and anaerobic bacteria (TAB). Additionally, both tibias were removed for assessment of bone quality. 4. In Experiment 3, each experimental group had 8 replicates of 20 chickens (n = 160/group). Weekly, body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated. At d 28-of-age, samples were taken to determine bacterial translocation, digesta viscosity and bone quality characteristics. 5. In all experiments, consumption of Bacillus-DFM reduced bacterial translocation to the liver and digesta viscosity. Additionally, DFM supplementation improved BW, bone quality measurements and FCR. Moreover, chickens fed on the Bacillus-DFM diet in Experiments 1 and 2 showed a significant reduction in the number of gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria in the duodenal content compared to control. 6. In summary, chickens fed on a rye-based diet without DFM inclusion showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompanied by reduced performance and bone quality variables relative to the Bacillus-DFM candidate group. Hence, incorporation into the feed of a selected DFM ameliorated the adverse anti-nutritional effects related to utilisation of rye-based diets in broilers chickens.

  14. Milk fatty acid composition, rumen microbial population, and animal performances in response to diets rich in linoleic acid supplemented with chestnut or quebracho tannins in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccioni, A; Pauselli, M; Viti, C; Minieri, S; Pallara, G; Roscini, V; Rapaccini, S; Marinucci, M Trabalza; Lupi, P; Conte, G; Mele, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate milk fatty acid (FA) profile, animal performance, and rumen microbial population in response to diets containing soybean oil supplemented or not with chestnut and quebracho tannins in dairy ewes. Eighteen Comisana ewes at 122±6 d in milking were allotted into 3 experimental groups. Diets were characterized by chopped grass hay administered ad libitum and by 800 g/head and day of 3 experimental concentrates containing 84.5 g of soybean oil/kg of dry matter (DM) and 52.8 g/kg of DM of bentonite (control diet), chestnut tannin extract (CHT diet), or quebracho tannin extract (QUE diet). The trial lasted 4 wk. Milk yield was recorded daily, and milk composition and blood parameters were analyzed weekly. At the end of the experiment, samples of rumen fluid were collected to analyze pH, volatile fatty acid profile, and the relative proportions of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in the rumen microbial population. Hepatic functionality, milk yield, and gross composition were not affected by tannin extracts, whereas milk FA composition was characterized by significant changes in the concentration of linoleic acid (CHT +2.77% and QUE +9.23%), vaccenic acid (CHT +7.07% and QUE +13.88%), rumenic acid (CHT -1.88% and QUE +24.24%), stearic acid (CHT + 8.71% and QUE -11.45%), and saturated fatty acids (CHT -0.47% and QUE -3.38%). These differences were probably due to the ability of condensed versus hydrolyzable tannins to interfere with rumen microbial metabolism, as indirectly confirmed by changes in the relative proportions of B. fibrisolvens and B. proteoclasticus populations and by changes in the molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. The effect of the CHT diet on the milk FA profile and microbial species considered in this trial was intermediate between that of QUE and the control diet, suggesting a differential effect of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on rumen microbes. Compared with control animals

  15. Effects of breed and diet on growth and body composition of crossbred Boer and Spanish wether goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, A T; Dawson, L J; Puchala, R; Detweiler, G D; Merkel, R C; Wang, Z; Tesfai, K; Sahlu, T; Ferrell, C L; Goetsch, A L

    2009-09-01

    Sixty growing 3/4 Boer x 1/4 Spanish (BS) and Spanish (SP) wethers were used to determine influences of diet and breed on growth and body composition. A pelleted 50% concentrate diet (CD) and a diet based on grass hay (HD) were fed for ad libitum intake. Six wethers of each breed were slaughtered at 0 wk (total of 12). Six wethers of each diet-breed combination were slaughtered at 14 and 28 wk (24 per time) after consumption of the CD or HD. Initial BW of fed wethers were 21.6 and 18.8 kg for BS and SP, respectively (SEM = 0.7). Average daily gain during the entire experiment was influenced by an interaction (P diet (199, 142, 44, and 50 g/d for BS:CD, SP:CD, BS:HD, and SP:HD, respectively). Carcass mass was greater (P diet. Mass of internal fat (12.2, 12.1, 3.4, and 3.4% empty BW for BS:CD, SP:CD, BS:HD, and SP:HD, respectively; SEM = 0.3) differed (P diets. Energy in the carcass (320, 236, 87, and 79 MJ), noncarcass tissues (318, 237, 77, and 72 MJ), and empty body (638, 472, 164, and 150 MJ) ranked (P SP:CD > BS:HD and SP:HD. Empty body concentration of protein was 18.3, 17.5, 18.3, and 19.7% (SEM = 0.3) and of fat was 24.0, 23.4, 10.8, and 10.3% for BS:CD, SP:CD, BS:HD, and SP:HD, respectively (SEM = 0.6). Energy concentration in accreted tissue was 17.0, 18.7, 16.3, and 6.4 MJ/kg for CD:wk 1 to 14, CD:wk 15 to 28, HD:wk 1 to 14, and HD:wk 15 to 28, respectively (SEM = 1.4). In conclusion, relatively high growth potential of growing Boer crossbred goats with a moderate to high nutritional plane does not entail a penalty in realized growth when the nutritional plane is low. Body composition of growing Boer and Spanish goats is fairly similar regardless of growth rate. For growing meat goats other than with a prolonged limited nutritional plane, an average energy concentration in accreted tissue is 17.3 MJ/kg.

  16. Effect of protein levels and Zinc-biocomplex supplementation in concentrate diets on performance of young male goats

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    Supriyati I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This trial was carried out to investigate effects of protein levels and Zinc biocomplex supplementation in concentrate diets on performances of young male Etawah grade goats. Twenty-four young male goats were divided into four groups and received concentrate diets as follows: R0= 14% crude protein (CP, R1= 18% CP, R2= R0 + 60 ppm Zn and R3= R0 + 120 ppm Zn as Zn biocomplex. Initial live weight was 16.39±2.19 kg. Animals were offered King grass ad libitum and 400 g/h/d of concentrates diets for 16 week trial. The experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete design with four treatments and six replications. The concentrate diets had no significant effect on DM, TDN, NDF and ADF daily intakes (P>0.05 but significantly (P>0.05 influenced the CP and Zn daily intakes, ADG and FCR. The average DMI, TDN, NDF and ADF daily intakes for all treatments were 670, 547, 333 and 229 g, respectively. The CP daily intake for R0, R1, R2 and R3 treatments were 76.33, 91.83, 75.83 and 76.67 g, and the Zn daily intakes were 42.83, 45.50, 68.83 and 91.33 mg, respectively. The ADG for R0, R1, R2 and R3 were 71.65, 79.96, 78.17 and 82.74 g with the FCR values were 9.95, 8.50, 8.44 and 8.06, respectively. The in vivo digestibility of DM, NDF and ADF were not significant (P>0.05 but the digestibility of CP and GE were significant (P<0.05. The highest IOFC value occurred at R3 treatment. In conclusion, the improvement of CP levels from 14% to 18% in diets increased the goat performance and the supplementation of 120 ppm Zn as Zn biocomplex in diet containing 14% CP gave better performance and increased the IOFC value compared to animals receiving 18% level of CP in diet of young male goat

  17. Low carbohydrate ketogenic diet prevents the induction of diabetes using streptozotocin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalifa, A; Mathew, T C; Al-Zaid, N S; Mathew, E; Dashti, H

    2011-11-01

    Diabetes continues to be an overwhelmingly prevalent endocrine disorder that leads to several micro- and macrocomplications. It has been widely accepted that changes in dietary habits could induce or prevent the onset of diabetes. It is shown that low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) is effective in the amelioration of many of the deleterious consequences of diabetes. However, its role in preventing the onset of diabetes is not understood. Therefore, this study is focused on the effect of LCKD in preventing the induction of diabetes using streptozotocin (STZ) in rats by biochemical and histological methods. Forty-two Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups: normal diet (ND), low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD), and high carbohydrate diet (HCD). Specific diets ad libitum were given to each group of animals for a period of 8 weeks. Each group was further subdivided into normal control, sham control and diabetic groups. Animals in the diabetic group were given a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg). All the animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after the injection of STZ. Daily measurements of food and water intake as well as weekly measurement of body weight were taken during the whole 12 weeks of the experiment. After injecting with STZ, the blood glucose level of all the groups increased significantly except for the group fed on LCKD (p value<0.01). Also, food intake, water intake and urine output were significantly increased in all groups except for the LCKD group (p value<0.01). There was also a significant decrease in the weight gain of the animals that were fed on a LCKD as compared to other groups (p value<0.05). Although, substantial decrease in the number of β cells was noticed in diabetic rats, there were no change in the number of β cells in the LCKD treated diabetic animals as compared to LCKD control group. The results presented in this study, therefore, suggests that LCKD prevents

  18. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K N; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S Sendhil

    2016-05-20

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity.

  19. Polarised black holes in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  20. Segmented Strings in $AdS_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Callebaut, Nele; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in $AdS_3$. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In $AdS_3$, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an $AdS_2$ subspace of $AdS_3$. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in $AdS_3$ and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in $AdS_3$ and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  1. Fontes de Sódio e Relação Sódio: Cloro para Frangos de Corte Sodium Chloride Levels in Broiler Diets

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    AV Fischer da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 2.880 pintos de corte, para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes fontes de sódio (Na+ e relações sódio:cloro (Na+:Cl- na ração. As aves receberam ração e água ad libtum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade não foram influenciados (p>0,05 pela substituição da fonte tradicional de Na e pelas diferentes relações Na:Cl. A umidade da cama foi afetada pela fonte e níveis de Na na ração. Os resultados mostraram que pode-se utilizar o NaHCO3 como fonte parcial à exigência de Na para frangos de corte de 1 a 47 dias de idade.A trial was carried out with 2,880 day old chicks to evaluate different sources of sodium (Na+ and Na+:Cl- ratio in diets. Water and diets were available in "ad libitum" feeding. Experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and six repetitions. The performance (feed intake, body weight, feed conversion and mortality was not affected (P>0.05 by treatments, but different levels and sources of Na+ increased litter moisture. The NaHCO3 can be used in chicken broilers diets in partial substitution of Na for day 1 to 47.

  2. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression: impact of diet, sex, metabolic status, and cis genetic regulation.

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    Nathalie Viguerie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification of environmental and individual factors controlling AT adaptation is therefore essential. Here, expression of 271 transcripts, selected for regulation according to obesity and weight changes, was determined in 515 individuals before, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced weight loss, and after 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases.

  3. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

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    Lee M. Margolis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  4. Available phosphorus in diets for 15 to 30 kg pigs genetically selected for meat deposition

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    Cláudio Luiz Corrêa Arouca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to evaluate the effect of dietary available phosphorus levels (aP on the performance, blood and bone parameters of castrated male and female pigs, genetically selected for meat deposition, 60 commercial hybrids pigs with initial weight of 15.54±0.68 kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design, with six treatments (0.103, 0.210, 0.317, 0.424, 0.531, and 0.638% aP, five replicates, and two animals per experimental unit. Pigs were fed ad libitum and water was provided until the end of the experimental period (21 days, when animals reached 31.31±2.94 kg. Daily weight gain and daily feed intake increased, while the feed conversion improved quadratically up to 0.534, 0.487, and 0.574% aP maximum responses, respectively. The aP intake and the values of inorganic phosphorus in serum increased linearly with increasing the levels of aP in the diets. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased quadratically up to 0.558% maximum response. Bone breaking strength and calcium, phosphorus, and ash contents in the bones increased linearly with increasing aP concentration in the diets. The available phosphorus requirement of castrated male and female pigs genetically selected for meat deposition from 15 to 30 kg for best results of performance is 0.574%, corresponding to a daily intake of 8.26 g of available phosphorus.

  5. Available phosphorus requirement of sex-reversed red tilapia fed all-plant diets

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    Udomnan Udom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum requirement of dietary phoshporus (P for sex-reversed red tilapia in glass aquaria (50x100x47cm. Six practical diets were formulated to contain graded levels (0.58, 0.66, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.82% of available P from all-plant raw ingredients and dicalcium phosphate (DCP. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish, and each group was stocked with 20 fish (initial body weight, 25.16g 0.13. Fish were fed twice daily (08:00 and 16:00 ad libitum for 8 weeks. Average body weight and weight gain significantly increased with increasing available P (P<0.05. The whole body composition analysis showed that lipid and protein as well as P contents in whole body, vertebrae ash and vertebrae p, were significantly affected by available P (P<0.05. The blood biochemistry analysis showed that serum P and serum alkaline phosphatase activity increased with the increase of dietary available P levels (P<0.05. Data for weight gain, FCR, whole body P, vertebrae ash, vertebrae P, muscle protein, muscle fat and visceral fat were subjected to regression analysis to determine effects of the dietary levels of available P on these responses. Employing quadratic non-linear regression model of the relationship between available dietary P and P in vertebrae and whole body to study the P requirement, it was found that available dietary P requirement for sex-reversed red tilapia from the current study were of 0.76 and 0.79%, respectively. Increasing the dietary available P to higher concentration appears to reduce muscle fat while muscle protein increases.

  6. The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer.

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    Angela M Poff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Abnormal cancer metabolism creates a glycolytic-dependency which can be exploited by lowering glucose availability to the tumor. The ketogenic diet (KD is a low carbohydrate, high fat diet which decreases blood glucose and elevates blood ketones and has been shown to slow cancer progression in animals and humans. Abnormal tumor vasculature creates hypoxic pockets which promote cancer progression and further increase the glycolytic-dependency of cancers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO₂T saturates tumors with oxygen, reversing the cancer promoting effects of tumor hypoxia. Since these non-toxic therapies exploit overlapping metabolic deficiencies of cancer, we tested their combined effects on cancer progression in a natural model of metastatic disease. METHODS: We used the firefly luciferase-tagged VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer to compare tumor progression and survival in mice fed standard or KD ad libitum with or without HBO₂T (2.5 ATM absolute, 90 min, 3x/week. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. RESULTS: KD alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While HBO₂T alone did not influence cancer progression, combining the KD with HBO₂T elicited a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: KD and HBO₂T produce significant anti-cancer effects when combined in a natural model of systemic metastatic cancer. Our evidence suggests that these therapies should be further investigated as potential non-toxic treatments or adjuvant therapies to standard care for patients with systemic metastatic disease.

  7. Senemorphism: a novel perspective on aging patterns and its implication for diet-related biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Lucas Siqueira; Balduino, Alex; Aigaki, Toshiro; Heddle, Jonathan G

    2012-08-01

    Aging can be described as the accumulation of changes in organisms over time. Aging in organisms undergoing caloric restriction (CR) is widely considered as a slowed version of aging under ad libitum (AL) conditions. However, here we argue that aging under optimized CR is fundamentally different from aging under AL based on the following facts: (1) Comparing the two dietary groups, several age-related changes run in the opposite direction over time; (2) Switching from an AL to a CR diet clearly reverts (not only delays) several "normal" accumulated changes; (3) major causes of death are as different between both groups as they are between species. These observations support the idea that CR and AL initially modulate different metabolic and physiological programs, which exclusively over time generate two biologically different organisms. Such distinct diet-related senescence is analogous to the divergent aging processes and causes of death observed between castes of social insects, such as queens versus workers ("caste-related-senescence") and also between breeding versus non-breeding semelparous animals ("reproduction-related-senescence"). All these aging phenotypes are different not because they accumulate changes at a different rate, but because they accumulate different changes over time. Thus, the environment does not simply affect the individual aging rate through stochastic effects (e.g. U.V.) but also modulates the activation of a particular program/strategy that influences lifespan (e.g. caste, calorie intake). We refer to the environment-dependent aging patterns encoded by the genome as "senemorphism". Based on this idea we propose experimental schemes for aging, evolution and biomedical research.

  8. Effect of adding chrome in diets on structure and oxidation prevention function in kidney tissue of rabbit under heat stress%日粮铬对热应激獭兔肾脏组织结构及抗氧化功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玉芳; 高志花; 白雪梅; 邢立强; 李海峰; 张晓丽; 杨翠军; 王鹏欢; 张盼盼

    2012-01-01

    为了研究三氯化铬对热应激獭兔肾脏结构及组织中抗氧化功能的影响,本试验选用3月龄健康獭兔72只,随机分为6组,每组12只,对照组饲喂基础日粮,分别在基础日粮中添加0.2、0.4、0.6、0.8、1.0mg/kg铬量的三氯化铬,作为试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ组,在热应激条件下(獭兔饲养于人工气候仓内,气温设定为30~35℃,24h循环变温,35℃维持4h,)饲养30d。显示,热应激条件下,在獭兔基础日粮中添加一定量的三氯化铬不仅能有效降低热应激对獭兔肾脏组织结构的损伤,还可显著提高肾脏组织中GSH—Px、SOD和CAT活性,降低肾脏组织中MDA含量(P〈0.05或0.01)。结果提示,夏季高温环境下,在獭兔基础日粮中添加0.6~1.0mg/kg铬量的三氯化铬可通过增强机体的抗氧化功能,抑制机体内自由基和脂质过氧化物的产生,保护机体肾脏组织结构完整,维持机体正常生理功能。%The design was used to study the effect of adding chrome in diets on structure and oxidation prevention in kidney tissue of rabbit under heat stress. Seventy two rabbits,3 month-old,were divided randomly into 6 groups. The control group was fed the basal diet, and the treatment groups were given the diet supplemented with 0.2,0.4, 0. 6, 0.8,1.0 mg/kg chrome, respectively. The rabbits were raised under heat stress (raised in artificial climate laboratory,with temperature 30-35℃, a cycling 24 hour, 35℃ for 4 hours)for 30 days. The results showed that the diet adding proper chrome not only can efficiently respite damage of on kidney tissue structure caused by heat stress, but also rises activity of GSH-Px.SOD and CAT,decreases content of MDA in kidney tissue (P〈0.05 or P〈0.01) ,indicating that in high temperature condition, the diet adding 0.6-1.0 mg/kg chrome could strengthen body oxidation prevention function, restraint ROS, protect kidney

  9. Replacing alfalfa silage with corn silage in dairy cow diets: Effects on enteric methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Julien, C; Massé, D I; Lettat, A; Chouinard, P Y; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing alfalfa silage (AS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow total mixed rations (TMR) on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, apparent total-tract digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a TMR [forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis], with the forage portion consisting of either alfalfa silage (0% CS; 56.4% AS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% CS; 28.2% AS and 28.2% CS in the TMR), or corn silage (100% CS; 56.4% CS in the TMR). Increasing the CS proportion (i.e., at the expense of AS) in the diet was achieved by decreasing the corn grain proportion and increasing that of soybean meal. Intake of DM and milk yield increased quadratically, whereas DM digestibility increased linearly as the proportion of CS increased in the diet. Increasing the dietary CS proportion resulted in changes (i.e., lower ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, reduced fiber digestibility, decreased protozoa numbers, and lower milk fat and higher milk protein contents) typical of those observed when cows are fed high-starch diets. A quadratic response in daily CH4 emissions was observed in response to increasing the proportion of CS in the diet (440, 483, and 434 g/d for 0% CS, 50% CS, and 100% CS, respectively). Methane production adjusted for intake of DM, and gross or digestible energy was unaffected in cows fed the 50% CS diet, but decreased in cows fed the 100% CS diet (i.e., quadratic effect). Increasing the CS proportion in the diet at the expense of AS improved N utilization, as reflected by the decreases in ruminal NH3 concentration and manure N excretion, suggesting low potential NH3 and N2O emissions. Results from this study, suggest that total replacement of AS with CS in dairy cow diets offers a means of decreasing CH4 output

  10. A low protein diet during pregnancy provokes a lasting shift of hepatic expression of genes related to cell cycle throughout ontogenesis in a porcine model

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    Oster Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. Adverse environmental conditions during fetal development provoke an intrauterine adaptive response termed 'fetal programming', which may lead to both persistently biased responsiveness to extrinsic factors and permanent consequences for the organismal phenotype. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome exhibits short-term and long-term changes, depending on the maternal diet. In order to contribute to a comprehensive inventory of genes and functional networks that are targets of nutritional programming initiated during fetal life, we applied whole-genome microarrays for expression profiling in a longitudinal experimental design covering prenatal, perinatal, juvenile, and adult ontogenetic stages in a porcine model. Pregnant sows were fed either a gestational low protein diet (LP, 6% CP or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP. All offspring was nursed by foster sows receiving standard diets. After weaning, all offspring was fed standard diets ad libitum. Results Analyses of the hepatic gene expression of the offspring at prenatal (94 dies post conceptionem, dpc and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dies post natum, dpn included comparisons between dietary groups within stages as well as comparisons between ontogenetic stages within diets to separate diet-specific transcriptional changes and maturation processes. We observed differential expression of genes related to lipid metabolism (e.g. Fatty acid metabolism, Biosynthesis of steroids, Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, FA elongation in mitochondria, Bile acid synthesis and cell cycle regulation (e.g. Mitotic roles of PLK, G1/S checkpoint regulation, G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation. Notably, at stage 1 dpn no regulation of a distinct pathway was found in LP offspring. Conclusions The transcriptomic

  11. Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Kontogianni, Meropi; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective.

  12. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  13. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9-desaturation of [13C]vaccenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frédéric; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo delta9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using 13C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90 g sunflower-seed oil (SO) per d or 60 g sunflower-seed oil and 30 g fish oil per d plus additional starch (SFO), in a grassland hay-based diet given to eight Alpine goats in a 2 x 2 cross-over design with 21 d experimental periods. Milk yield and composition were similar between treatments. Goats fed SFO had higher milk 6 : 0-16 : 0 concentration, lower milk sigmaC18 concentrations and showed no effect on milk VA and RA, compared with SO. At the end of the experiment, intravenous injection of 1.5 g [13C]VA followed by measurements of milk lipid 13C enrichment showed that in vivo 31.7 and 31.6 % of VA was delta9-desaturated into milk RA in the caprine with the SO and SFO treatments, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for delta9-desaturase (or stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SCD1, SCD5) in mammary tissues and four milk delta9-desaturation ratios were similar between treatments. In conclusion, the present study provides the first estimates of in vivo endogenous synthesis of RA (63-73 % of milk RA) from VA in goats, and shows no difference between the two lipid supplements compared.

  14. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joo-Yeon Kim,1,* Mak-Soon Lee,1,* Sunyoon Jung,1 Hyunjin Joo,1 Chong-Tai Kim,2 In-Hwan Kim,3 Sangjin Seo,1 Soojung Oh,1 Yangha Kim11Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC and nanoemulsion OC (NOC on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks.Results: NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not.Conclusion: From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.Keywords: oleoresin capsicum

  15. Constructing Lifshitz solutions from AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Under general assumptions, we show that a gravitational theory in d+1 dimensions admitting an AdS solution can be reduced to a d-dimensional theory containing a Lifshitz solution with dynamical exponent z=2. Working in a d=4, N=2 supergravity setup, we prove that if the AdS background is N=2 supersymmetric, then the Lifshitz geometry preserves 1/4 of the supercharges, and we construct the corresponding Killing spinors. We illustrate these results in examples from supersymmetric consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity, enhancing the class of known 4-dimensional Lifshitz solutions of string theory. As a byproduct, we find a new AdS4 x S1 x T(1,1) solution of type IIB.

  16. High-Protein and High-Dietary Fiber Breakfasts Result in Equal Feelings of Fullness and Better Diet Quality in Low-Income Preschoolers Compared with Their Usual Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Campbell, Wayne W; Mattes, Rickard D; Schwichtenberg, Amy J

    2017-03-01

    Background: In the United States, 17% of children are currently obese. Increasing feelings of fullness may prevent excessive energy intake, lead to better diet quality, and promote long-term maintenance of healthy weight.Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a fullness-rating tool (aim 1) and to determine whether a high-protein (HP), high-fiber (HF), and combined HP and HF (HPHF) breakfast increases preschoolers' feelings of fullness before (pre) and after (post) breakfast and pre-lunch, as well as their diet quality, as measured by using a composite diet quality assessment tool, the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (aim 2).Methods: Children aged 4 and 5 y (n = 41; 22 girls and 19 boys) from local Head Start centers participated in this randomized intervention trial. Sixteen percent of boys and 32% of girls were overweight or obese. After the baseline week, children rotated through four 1-wk periods of consuming ad libitum HP (19-20 g protein), HF (10-11 g fiber), HPHF (19-21 g protein, 10-12 g fiber), or usual (control) breakfasts. Food intake at breakfast was estimated daily, and for breakfast, lunch, and snack on day 3 of each study week Student's t tests and ANOVA were used to determine statistical differences.Results: Children's post-breakfast and pre-lunch fullness ratings were ≥1 point higher than those of pre-breakfast (aim 1). Although children consumed, on average, 65 kcal less energy during the intervention breakfasts (P quality (12%) was calculated for the HP and HF breakfasts (P quality. Serving HP or HF breakfasts may be valuable in improving diet quality without lowering feelings of satiation or satiety. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02122224.

  17. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased.

  18. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  19. Increasing linseed supply in dairy cow diets based on hay or corn silage: Effect on enteric methane emission, rumen microbial fermentation, and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C; Ferlay, A; Mosoni, P; Rochette, Y; Chilliard, Y; Doreau, M

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of increasing extruded linseed supply in diets based on hay (H; experiment 1) or corn silage (CS; experiment 2) on enteric methane (CH4) emission, rumen microbial and fermentation parameters, and rumen and total-tract digestibility. In each experiment, 4 lactating Holstein cows fitted with cannulas at the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square design (28-d periods). Cows were fed ad libitum a diet [50:50 and 60:40 forage:concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis for experiments 1 and 2, respectively] without supplementation (H0, CS0) or supplemented with extruded linseed at 5% (H5, CS5), 10% (H10, CS10), and 15% (H15, CS15) of dietary DM (i.e., 1.8, 3.6 and 5.4% total fatty acids added, respectively). All measurements were carried out during the last 8 d of each period. Linseed supply linearly decreased daily CH4 emission in cows fed H diets (from 486 to 289g/d for H0 to H15, on average) and CS diets (from 354 to 207g/d for CS0 to CS15, on average). The average decrease in CH4 per kilogram of DM intake was, respectively, -7, -15, and -38% for H5, H10, H15 compared with the H0 diet, and -4, -8, and -34% for CS5, CS10, and CS15 compared with the CS0 diet. The same dose-response effect was observed on CH4 emission in percent of gross energy intake, per kilogram of nutrient digested, and per kilogram of 4% fat- and 3.3% protein-corrected milk (FPCM) in both experiments. Changes in the composition of rumen volatile fatty acids in response to increasing linseed supply resulted in a moderate or marked linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio for H or CS diets, respectively. The depressive effect of linseed on total protozoa concentration was linear for H diets (-15 to -40%, on average, for H5 to H15 compared with H0) and quadratic for CS diets (-17 to -83%, on average, for CS5 to CS15 compared with CS0). Concentration of methanogens was similar among H or CS diets. The energetic benefits from the decreased CH4 emission

  20. SENSORY EVALUATION OF HUBBARD JV CHICKENS MEAT AFTER PROPOLIS APPLICATION IN THEIR DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, propolis extract was applied in the diet of Hubbard JV broiler chickens and we tested its influence on the sensory quality of breast and thigh muscles prepared by baking at 200 °C for 60 minutes, followed by final baking for 10-15 minutes. Five groups were created: one control (C and four experimental (I, II, III, IV groups. Each group consisted of 100 chickens. Fattening lasted 42 days. Chickens were fed by ad libitum system. The identical starter feed mixture were administered till the 21st day of age. From the 22nd to 42nd day of age, chickens were fed by growth feed mixture in all groups. Feed mixtures were made without antibiotics and coccidiostats. Propolis extract was added to experimental groups at doses of 150 mg.kg-1 (I, 450 mg.kg-1 (II, 600 mg.kg-1 (III and 800 mg.kg-1 (IV. Breast and thigh muscles of 60 chickens from each group were prepared by baking and were anonymously assessed by six-member committee, which evaluated the smell, taste, juiciness and tenderness of meat in five-point scale. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 were found in smell, taste, juiciness and tenderness of breast and thigh muscles between the control and experimental groups. Sensory quality of chicken meat is one of the most important links for its use in food chain. The results of experiment confirmed, that propolis extract in those quantities can be applied in chicken nutrition, because sensory quality of chicken meat has not been worsen after its application.

  1. Effects of Adding Ipriflavone to Low-calcium Diet on Microstructure and Histomorphometry of Bone in Cage Layers%低钙日粮添加依普黄酮对笼养蛋鸡骨组织显微结构和形态计量学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文亭; 马利芹; 杨永红; 王鹏; 利凯

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of adding Ipriflavone to low-calcium diet on microstructure and histomorphometry of bone in hyline brown laying hens. Two hundred 24-week-old hyline brown laying hens were randomly divided into four groups and fed on diets as follows; control group (containing calcium 3. 55% in basic diet)? low calcium group (containing calcium 1. 27% in low-calcium diet) , test group I (adding 8 mg o kg-1 Ipriflavone to low-calcium diet) and test group II (adding 20 mg o kg-1 Ipriflavone to low-calcium diet) for 60 days. At the end of experiment, 10 hens in each group were killed. Then, demineralized bone sections of the left middle tibias were made for observing the changes of bone microstructure by using OLYMPUS BX41 metalloscope, and some static parameters of bone histomorphometry were measured by Image-Pro Plus 6. 0. Tibia microstructure was observed. Compared with control group, cortical bone of low calcium group had many resorption cavities, there were a large number of osteo-clasts in the resorption cavities, and osteoclasts increased in the surface of medullary bone trabeculas, the effect of bone resorption was more than that of bone formation and led to osteoporosis. Cortical bone of test group I had many resorption cavities, there were more osteoclasts in the resorption cavities and the surface of medullary bone trabeculas, the effect of bone resorption was not inhibited. There were a large number of osteogenic cells and osteoblasts in the outer surface of cortical bone in test group II, the effect of bone formation was increased. And, Static parameters of bone histomorphometry were measured. Compared with low calcium group, Tb. Ar and %Tb. Ar in test group I and II were very significantly increased (P0. 05). In test group II Tb. Sp was significantly decreased (P<0. 05) and Tb. Th was significantly increased (P< 0. 05). The results showed that adding 20 mg ?kg-1 Ipriflavone to low-calcium diet strengthened bone

  2. 低磷低蛋白日粮添加植酸酶和氨基酸对泌乳母猪粪氮磷排出量的影响%Effect of low phosphorus and low protein diet adding phytase and amino acids on nitrogen and phosphorus excertion of lactating sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方桂友; 董志岩; 邱华玲; 林勤

    2016-01-01

    Forty five crossbred sows (Landrace ×Yorkshire) with 3~7 parity were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups,each group had 15 sows,and the lactation length was 21 days. The crude protein in the diet of group1 was 18%, and the total phosphorus was 0.68%;The crude protein in the diet of group2 was 16.5%, and the total phosphorus was 0.58%; The crude protein in the diet of group3 was 15%, and the total phosphorus was 0.58%;The diet of group2 and group3 added phytase. The results showed that feed in-take of lactating sows and average daily gain of litter was not affected negatively(P>0.05),sow weight loss , fecal nitrogen and phospho-rus excertoin were decreased significantly (P<0.05),while total phosphorus decreased by 0.1%and the reduction of dietary CP was 1.5 to 3.%选择3~7胎长白×大白二元杂交母猪45头,随机分为3个组,每个组15头,泌乳期21 d。处理1组的日粮粗蛋白为18%、总磷为0.68%;处理2组的日粮粗蛋白为16.5%、总磷为0.58%;处理3组的日粮粗蛋白为15%、总磷为0.58%;处理2组和处理3组日粮中添加植酸酶。结果表明,日粮蛋白质降低1.5~3个百分点和总磷降低0.1%,对泌乳母猪的采食量和哺乳仔猪日增重无显著影响,母猪泌乳期体重损失显著减少,粪氮和磷的排放量显著减少。

  3. Cobalt and vitamin B12 in diets for commercial laying hens on the second cycle of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Kato

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of cobalt and vitamin B12 in diets for commercial laying hens on the second production cycle was studied. Four hundred and eighty light commercial laying hens, Lohmann LSL, were used at initial phase of forced molting laying period. The trial was conducted in a randomized design. The plots were the treatments which were constituted by combination of five cobalt levels (0.00; 0.30; 0.60; 0.90 and 1.20ppm and two vitamin B12 levels (without and with 10µ/kg, and the split-plots were four periods (21, 42, 63 and 84 days during the second period of production, with 4 repetitions and 12 hens per experimental unit. Food and water were provided ad libitum and eggs were collected twice daily. Performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated. At the end of experimental period, two layers from each treatment were slaughtered, and liver and blood samples were taken for analysis. Performance and egg quality were not different (p>0.05 among cobalt supplementation levels, although egg damage data were different (p<0.05. Supplementation with vitamin B12 decreased egg weight. No influence of cobalt or vitamin B12 supplementation was seen on the concentration of cobalt in the liver and yolk as well as on blood analysis (hematrocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, and leukocytes. The results revealed that vitamin B12 supplementation was important for commercial laying hens on the second cycle of production, but not cobalt supplementation.

  4. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  5. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  6. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaohuan D; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON) or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat), a purified high fat (HF) diet (45%kcal from fat) and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat) (HFCLA). All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21) until the end of the study (day 150). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory EDHF

  7. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat, a purified high fat (HF diet (45%kcal from fat and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat (HFCLA. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21 until the end of the study (day 150. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory

  8. Ganho de peso, hemoglobina e hematócrito de ratos recebendo dieta de Quissamã, RJ, com ou sem suplemento alimentar alternativo Weight gain, hemoglobin and hematocrit of rats receiving the Quissamã's diet with or without an alternative food supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Teles Boaventura

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o suplemento alimentar alternativo adicionado à Dieta de Quissamã, consumida por crianças desnutridas inscritas no Subprograma da Multimistura da Secretaria de Saúde do município de Quissamã, RJ. O ensaio biológico foi desenvolvido durante 28 dias com 42 Rattus norvegicus, Wistar, machos (26 dias, do Laboratório de Nutrição Experimental da Universidade Federal Fluminense, divididos em sete grupos: 1 Grupo Controle (dieta à base de caseína adicionado de vitaminas e minerais; 2 GCvm adicionado do Suplemento Alimentar; 3 Grupo Controle adicionado do Suplemento Alimentar; 4 Grupo Quissamã, à base da Dieta de Quissamã; 5 Grupo Quissamã adicionado de vitaminas e minerais; 6 GQvm adicionado do Suplemento Alimentar; e 7 Grupo Quissamã adicionado do Suplemento Alimentar. Água e ração foram ofertados com livre acesso, e o pesos dos animais e o consumo de ração foram medidos a cada dois dias. O sangue foi coletado no 28º dia para análise. O Grupo Controle adicionado do Suplemento Alimentar apresentou perda de peso significativa (pThis study evaluated an alternative food supplement added to the Quissamã's diet, which is consumed by malnourished children who participate in the Multimixture Subprogram, developed by Quissamã Municipal Health Authority, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The biological assay was carried out during 28 days with 42 male Rattus norvegicus, Wistar, 26 days old, obtained from the Experimental Nutrition Laboratory at the Fluminense Federal University, divided into seven groups: 1 Control Group (diet based on casein added with vitamins and minerals; 2 CGvm added with Food Supplement; 3 Control Group added with Food Supplement; 4 Quissamã Group, based on Quissamã's Diet; 5 QG added with vitamins and minerals; 6 QGvm added with Food Supplement; and 7 QG added with Food Supplement. Water and food were offered ad libitum, and the weight of the animals and the food consumption were measured every two

  9. Effect of alfalfa forage preservation method and particle length on performance of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets and tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, S G; Reynal, S M; Grummer, R R

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including alfalfa preserved either as silage or long-stem or chopped hay on DMI and milk fat production of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with supplemental tallow (T). Fifteen Holstein cows that averaged 117 DIM were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments (DM basis) were: 1) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate without T (CS); 2) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (CST); 3) 25% corn silage:25% short-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (SAHT); 4) 25% corn silage:25% long-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (LAHT); and 5) 25% corn silage:25% alfalfa silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (AST). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a TMR fed 4 times daily. Diets averaged 16.4% CP and 30.3% NDF. Including 2% T in diets with corn silage as the sole forage source decreased DMI and milk fat percentage and yield. Replacing part of corn silage with alfalfa in diets with 2% T increased milk fat percentage and yield. The milk fat of cows fed CST was higher in trans-10 C18:1 than that of cows fed diets with alfalfa. No effect of alfalfa preservation method or hay particle length was observed on DMI and milk production. The milk fat percentage and yield were lower, and the proportion of trans-10 C18:1 in milk fat was higher for cows fed LAHT than for cows fed SAHT. Alfalfa preservation method had no effect on milk fat yield. Ruminal pH was higher for cows fed alfalfa in the diets, and it was higher for cows fed LAHT than SAHT. Feeding alfalfa silage or chopped hay appears to be more beneficial than long hay in sustaining milk fat production when 2% T is fed with diets high in corn silage. These results support the role of trans fatty acids in milk fat depression.

  10. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT. Methods Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12 or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12 ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume. Results The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Conclusion Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT

  11. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  12. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  13. Diet and Spondylitis

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    ... Have Spondylitis? Treatment Information Medications Exercise & Posture Diet & Nutrition Medication & Diet Dietary Supplements Changing Your Diet The London AS / Low Starch Diet Complementary Treatments Possible Complications Iritis or Anterior Uveitis Fatigue in Spondylitis Pain in ...

  14. Diet and Nutrition

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    ... Resources > Diet and Nutrition Go Back Diet and Nutrition Email Print + Share Diet and nutrition concerns of ... you. NEW!! Test your knowledge of diet and nutrition by taking this self-assessment for an opportunity ...

  15. Superradiant instability in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of superradiance in the context of asymptotically global AdS spacetimes is investigated with particular accent on its effect on the stability of the systems under consideration. To this end, the concept of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is explained, together with its implications on the boundary conditions at $\\mathcal{I}$, as well as the Newman-Penrose-Teukolsky formalism, whereby the Teukolsky master equation in a most general form for Kerr-AdS is given. Furthermore, work done in the cases of RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS is laid out in a concise manner, putting emphasis on the important steps taken in determining the endpoint of the superradiant instability in the two configurations. For the former this turns out to be a black hole with reduced charge and a static charged scalar condensate around it, whereas for the latter two of the more probable outcomes are presented, both of which imply a violation of one of the cosmic censorships.

  16. Boson Stars in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We construct boson stars in global Anti de Sitter (AdS) space and study their stability. Linear perturbation results suggest that the ground state along with the first three excited state boson stars are stable. We evolve some of these solutions and study their nonlinear stability in light of recent work \\cite{Bizon:2011gg} arguing that a weakly turbulent instability drives scalar perturbations of AdS to black hole formation. However evolutions suggest that boson stars are nonlinearly stable and immune to the instability for sufficiently small perturbation. Furthermore, these studies find other families of initial data which similarly avoid the instability for sufficiently weak parameters. Heuristically, we argue that initial data families with widely distributed mass-energy distort the spacetime sufficiently to oppose the coherent amplification favored by the instability. From the dual CFT perspective our findings suggest that there exist families of rather generic initial conditions in strongly coupled CFT ...

  17. AdS solutions through transgression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science

    2008-07-15

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  18. A comparison of supplemental calcium soap of palm fatty acids versus tallow in a corn-based finishing diet for feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Crystal M; Hahm, Sahng-Wook; Archibeque, Shawn L; Wagner, John J; Engle, Terry E; Roman-Muniz, Ivette N; Woerner, Dale; Sponsler, Mark; Han, Hyungchul

    2015-01-01

    Rumen bypass fat is commonly added to increase energy intake in dairy cattle. The objective of this study is to examine the addition of rumen bypass fat during finishing period on performance and carcass characteristics in grain fed steers. This study was conducted as a completely randomized block design with 126 cross-bred steer calves (initial BW 471.5 ± 7.5 kg) randomly assigned to pens with 9 steers/pen (n = 7 pens/treatment). Each pen was randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups; rumen bypass fat treatment (CCS, calcium soap of palm fatty acids) and control diet (CT, tallow). The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Animals were fed twice daily at 110 % of the previous daily ad libitum intake. Blood from each sample was taken from the jugular vein. Muscle and adipose samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi regions. Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics were assessed. To examine adipogenic gene expression, quantitative real-time PCR was completed. Steers fed the CT had a greater level of performance for most of the parameters measured. The CT group had greater DMI (P < 0.05) and tended to have greater ADG (P < 0.10). Marbling score (P < 0.05) and quality grade (P < 0.05) were greater for steers fed the CT diet than those fed CCS. The longissimus muscle area tended to be greater (P < 0.10) in steers fed CT (87.60 cm(2)) than those fed CCS (84.88 cm(2)). The leptin mRNA expression was down-regulated (P < 0.05) in adipose tissue of steers fed a CCS when compared to those fed CT. These data suggest that calcium soap of palm fatty acids can be added to finishing diets without significant reduction in final body weight, although there may be modest reductions in marbling and quality scores.

  19. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channel activity in brain cells of adult offspring mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Andrés Orellana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine, the most important neuroteratogen of tobacco smoke, can reproduce brain and cognitive disturbances per se when administered prenatally. However, it is still unknown if paracrine signaling among brain cells participates in prenatal nicotine-induced brain impairment of adult offspring. Paracrine signaling is partly mediated by unopposed channels formed by connexins (hemichannels and pannexins serving as aqueous pores permeable to ions and small signaling molecules, allowing exchange between the intra- and extracellular milieus. Our aim was to address whether prenatal nicotine exposure changes the activity of those channels in adult mice offspring under control conditions or subjected to a second challenge during young ages: high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet. To induce prenatal exposure to nicotine, osmotic minipumps were implanted in CF1 pregnant mice at gestational day 5 to deliver nicotine bitartrate or saline (control solutions. After weaning, offspring of nicotine-treated or untreated pregnant mice were fed ad libitum with chow or HFC diets for 8 weeks. The functional state of Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels was evaluated by dye uptake experiments in hippocampal slices from 11-week-old mice. We found that prenatal nicotine increased the opening of Cx43 hemichannels in astrocytes, and Panx1 channels in microglia and neurons only if offspring mice were fed with HFC diet. Blockade of iNOS, COX2 and EP1, P2X7 and NMDA receptors, showed differential inhibition of prenatal nicotine-induced channel opening in glial cells and neurons. Importantly, inhibition of the above mentioned enzymes and receptors, or blockade of Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels greatly reduced ATP and glutamate release from hippocampal slices of prenatally nicotine-exposed offspring. We propose that unregulated gliotransmitter release through Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels may participate in brain alterations observed in offspring of mothers exposed to tobacco smoke

  20. Interruption of Ghrelin Signaling in the PVN Increases High-Fat Diet Intake and Body Weight in Stressed & Non-Stressed C57BL6J Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Robert Patterson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic social stress has been associated with increased caloric intake and adiposity. These effects have been linked to stress induced changes in the secretion of ghrelin, a hormone that targets a number of brain regions to increase food intake and energy expenditure and promote increased body fat content. One of the brain sites targeted by ghrelin is the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, a region critical for both the regulation of the stress response and the regulation of energy balance. Given these data, we examined the contribution of ghrelin receptors in the PVN to the metabolic and behavioral changes that are seen during chronic social stress in mice. To do this, mice were implanted with cannulae attached to osmotic minipumps and delivering either vehicle or the ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonist [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6 (20nmol/day/mouse. Following a week of recovery, half of the animals in each group were exposed to chronic social defeat stress for a period of three weeks whereas the other half were left undisturbed. During this time, all animals were given ad libitum access to standard laboratory chow and presented a high-fat diet for 4 hours during the day. Results showed that the ghrelin receptor antagonism did not decrease stressed induced caloric intake, but paradoxically increased the intake of the high fat diet. This would suggest that ghrelin acts on the PVN to promote the intake of carbohydrate rich diets while decreasing fat intake and blockade of ghrelin receptors in the PVN leads to more consumption of foods that are high in fat.

  1. The effect of high-fat diet on the composition of the gut microbiota in cloned and non-cloned pigs of lean and obese phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise; Stagsted, Jan; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-far-high-energy diet on cloned and non-cloned domestic pigs of both lean and obese phenotype and to evaluate if the lean cloned pigs had a lower inter-individual variation as compared with non-cloned pigs. The microbiota of colon and terminal ileum was investigated in cloned and non-cloned pigs that received a high-far-high-energy diet with either restricted or ad libitum access to feed, resulting in lean and obese phenotypes, respectively. The fecal microbiota of lean pigs was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The intestinal microbiota of lean and obese cloned and non-cloned pigs was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR and a novel high-throughput qPCR platform (Fluidigm). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the T-RFLP profiles revealed that lean cloned and non-cloned pigs had a different overall composition of their gut microbiota. The colon of lean cloned pigs contained relatively more bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and less from the phylum Bacteroidetes than obese cloned pigs as estimated by qPCR. Fluidigm qPCR results revealed differences in specific bacterial groups in the gut microbiota of both lean and obese pigs. Our results suggest that high-far-high-energy diet is associated with changes in the gut microbiota even in the absence of obesity. Overall, the cloned pigs had a different gut microbiota from that of non-cloned pigs. To our knowledge this is the first study to investigate the gut microbiota of cloned domestic pigs of lean and obese phenotype.

  2. Sarcolipin Is a Key Determinant of the Basal Metabolic Rate, and Its Overexpression Enhances Energy Expenditure and Resistance against Diet-induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Santosh K; Bal, Naresh C; Sopariwala, Danesh H; Pant, Meghna; Rowland, Leslie A; Shaikh, Sana A; Periasamy, Muthu

    2015-04-24

    Sarcolipin (SLN) is a novel regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) in muscle. SLN binding to SERCA uncouples Ca(2+) transport from ATP hydrolysis. By this mechanism, SLN promotes the futile cycling of SERCA, contributing to muscle heat production. We recently showed that SLN plays an important role in cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis. However, the detailed mechanism of how SLN regulates muscle metabolism remains unclear. In this study, we used both SLN knockout (Sln(-/-)) and skeletal muscle-specific SLN overexpression (Sln(OE)) mice to explore energy metabolism by pair feeding (fixed calories) and high-fat diet feeding (ad libitum). Our results show that, upon pair feeding, Sln(OE) mice lost weight compared with the WT, but Sln(-/-) mice gained weight. Interestingly, when fed with a high-fat diet, Sln(OE) mice consumed more calories but gained less weight and maintained a normal metabolic profile in comparison with WT and Sln(-/-) mice. We found that oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation were increased markedly in Sln(OE) mice. There was also an increase in both mitochondrial number and size in Sln(OE) muscle, together with increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) and PPAR γ coactivator 1 α (PGC1α), key transcriptional activators of mitochondrial biogenesis and enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism. These results, taken together, establish an important role for SLN in muscle metabolism and energy expenditure. On the basis of these data we propose that SLN is a novel target for enhancing whole-body energy expenditure.

  3. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  4. THE INFLUENCE AN EXOGENOUS ENZYMES-PROBIOTICS COMPLEX ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF ALBINO RATS FED DIETS CONTAINING UP TO 60% RICE BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOATENG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzyme™ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzyme™. There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05 for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzyme™ led to an improvement (P>0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzyme™. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05. The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzyme™ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.

  5. Semen characteristics and biochemical composition of cloacal foam of male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) fed diet incorporated with selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A; Mohan, J; Mandal, A B; Lal, N

    2017-04-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) on physical and cloacal gland size, foam production, biochemical composition of foam and semen biochemical characteristics of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). Two hundred twenty-five (225)-day-old male Japanese quail were randomly distributed to three dietary treatment groups for a period of 20 weeks. Each treatment comprised of three replicates, each containing 25 chicks. Three experimental diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg Se/kg (T1 , T2 and T3, respectively), and diet T1 was considered as control. Sodium selenite was used as the source of selenium. All the birds were provided with feed and water ad libitum. Cloacal foam characteristics, that is cloacal gland index and foam weight, were significantly higher in T2 group. However, body weight, frequency of foam discharge and testes weight (left and right) did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Physical characteristics of semen, that is semen volume and sperm concentration, did not differ (p > 0.05) among the Se-treated groups. The sperm motility, live-dead count and abnormality improved significantly (p foam in terms of total protein, acid phosphatase (ACP) and nitric oxide did not differ (p > 0.05), while the concentration of glucose was higher (p foam variables, biochemical composition of foam, semen characteristics and fertility in male Japanese quail.

  6. Effects of crude glycerin supplementation on performance and meat quality of Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, N; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2009-02-01

    Forty-eight bulls (335 +/- 8.6 kg of initial BW) were randomly assigned to 4 glycerin levels (0, 4, 8, and 12% of concentrate DM) with the objective of evaluating the effects of glycerin supplementation on performance, ruminal fermentation, metabolism, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. Concentrates were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric (assuming a glycerin ME content of 3.47 Mcal/kg of DM). Concentrate and straw were fed for ad libitum intake. Bull BW and feed consumption were recorded monthly. Additionally, rumen and blood samples were collected every month. Bulls were slaughtered after 91 d of study (460 +/- 11 kg of final BW). Hot carcass weight, carcass backfat, and conformation were recorded. The area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and intramuscular fat content of LM were determined. Glycerin level did not affect daily concentrate intake (6.89 +/- 0.34 kg/d of DM), straw intake (1.38 +/- 0.069 kg/d of DM), total DMI (8.27 +/- 0.32 kg/d of DM), ADG (1.36 +/- 0.087 kg/d), or G:F (0.17 +/- 0.009). Similarly, rumen molar proportions of propionic, acetic, and butyric acids, and rumen liquid osmolality were unaffected by treatment. However, a decreased rumen pH (P glycerin in concentrate compared with those receiving 0, 4, or 12%. No changes were observed in carcass and meat quality. The ME content of glycerin (86% glycerol) can be assumed to be 3.47 Mcal/kg of DM in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. In addition, feeding concentrate containing up to 12.1% of glycerin does not lead to detrimental effects on performance, ruminal fermentation, metabolism, and carcass and meat quality variables.

  7. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S A Palmnäs

    Full Text Available Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat and further into ad libitum water control (W or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment. Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05. Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  8. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (Paspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  9. Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Masafumi; Ning, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy on a disk region for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The AdS soliton is dual to a gapped system with an IR fixed-point. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy. We then study the renormalization group (RG) flow of the refinement by tuning the linear size of the chosen disk region. Our main results are (i) the RG flow of the refinement decreases monotonically for most of the cases; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the refinement obeys the volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover; however, the crossover will turn into phase transition by the Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) for the AdS solitons, there are discontinuous phase transitions bet...

  10. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  11. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  12. An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley E; Kim, Sarah; Goldman, Veronica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bayandorian, Hovig; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend. Objective The aim was to determine whether an online intervention based on our previous recommendations (an ad libitum very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet with lifestyle factors; “intervention”) or an online diet program based on the American Diabetes Associations’ “Create Your Plate” diet (“control”) would improve glycemic control and other health outcomes among overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this pilot feasibility study, we randomized overweight adults (body mass index ≥25) with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 6.5%-9.0%) to a 32-week online intervention based on our previous recommendations (n=12) or an online diet program based around a plate method diet (n=13) to assess the impact of each intervention on glycemic control and other health outcomes. Primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed by mixed-effects linear regression to compare outcomes by group. Results At 32 weeks, participants in the intervention group reduced their HbA1c levels more (estimated marginal mean [EMM] –0.8%, 95% CI –1.1% to –0.6%) than participants in the control group (EMM –0.3%, 95% CI –0.6% to 0.0%; P=.002). More than half of the participants in the intervention group (6/11, 55%) lowered their HbA1c to less than 6.5% versus 0% (0/8) in the control group (P=.02). Participants in the intervention group lost more weight (EMM –12.7 kg, 95% CI –16.1 to

  13. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    regulation. The results of a qualitative concept test reveal positive attitudes towards the proposed production process. The discussions about fewer standards being sufficient or about options “in-between” conventional and organic standards indicate that the difference in production processes is noticed, yet...... it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value....

  14. Suplementação de lisina e metionina em dietas com baixo nível protéico para o crescimento inicial do pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg Lysine and methionine supplementation in diets with low protein level for the initial growth of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Patrícia Muñoz-Ramírez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da suplementação de metionina ou lisina em dietas com baixo teor protéico para o crescimento do pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg (Characiformes, Characidae. Foram formuladas uma dieta basal com 22% de proteína bruta (PB, 4100kcal de energia bruta (EB/kg, 0,42% de metionina e 1,16% de lisina e outras 6 dietas, com a mesma formulação básica, suplementadas com 0,2, 0,4 ou 0,6% de metionina ou lisina. Uma 8ª dieta (controle continha 26% PB, 4100kcal EB/kg, 0,48% metionina e 1,43% de lisina. As dietas foram administradas à vontade a 144 alevinos com 14,98 ± 1,16g de peso médio inicial. As médias de ganho em peso, eficiência de retenção de energia bruta e dos consumos alimentares da dieta controle mostraram-se maiores (P The objective of this research was to study the effects of methionine or lysine supplementation in diets with low protein level for growth of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg (Characiformes, Characidae. Diets were formulated as a basal diet presenting 22% crude protein (CP, 4100 kcal gross energy (GE/kg, 0.42% of methionine and 1.16% of lysine and other six diets, with the same basic formulation, supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% methionine or lysine. An eighth diet (control contained 26% CP, 4100 kcal (GE/kg, 0.48% methionine and 1.43% of lysine. The diets were administered ad libitum to 144 fingerlings with initial medium weight of 14.98 ± 1.16 g. Averages weight gain, gross energy efficiency retention and feed intake for the control treatment were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than those of smaller protein level diets. Averages protein retention efficiency were only higher (P < 0.01 in the diets supplemented with lysine, showing the advantages of lysine supplementation in diets with low crude protein level. A higher growth of pacu was confirmed with diets containing 26% of CP.

  15. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA.

  16. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  17. A balanced diet is necessary for proper entrainment signals of the mouse liver clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hirao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The peripheral circadian clock in mice is entrained not only by light-dark cycles but also by daily restricted feeding schedules. Behavioral and cell culture experiments suggest an increase in glucose level as a factor in such feeding-induced entrainment. For application of feeding-induced entrainment in humans, nutrient content and dietary variations should be considered. PRINCIPAL FINDING: To elucidate the food composition necessary for dietary entrainment, we examined whether complete or partial substitution of dietary nutrients affected phase shifts in liver clocks of mice. Compared with fasting mice or ad libitum fed mice, the liver bioluminescence rhythm advanced by 3-4 h on the middle day in Per2::luciferase knock-in mice that were administered a standard mouse diet, i.e. AIN-93M formula [0.6-0.85 g/10 g mouse BW] (composition: 14% casein, 47% cornstarch, 15% gelatinized cornstarch, 10% sugar, 4% soybean oil, and 10% other [fiber, vitamins, minerals, etc.], for 2 days. When each nutrient was tested alone (100% nutrient, an insignificant weak phase advance was found to be induced by cornstarch and soybean oil, but almost no phase advance was induced by gelatinized cornstarch, high-amylose cornstarch, glucose, sucrose, or casein. A combination of glucose and casein without oil, vitamin, or fiber caused a significant phase advance. When cornstarch in AIN-93M was substituted with glucose, sucrose, fructose, polydextrose, high-amylose cornstarch, or gelatinized cornstarch, the amplitude of phase advance paralleled the increase in blood glucose concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest the following: (1 balanced diets containing carbohydrates/sugars and proteins are good for restricted feeding-induced entrainment of the peripheral circadian clock and (2 a balanced diet that increases blood glucose, but not by sugar alone, is suitable for entrainment. These findings may assist in the development of dietary

  18. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  19. Fanning in open-topped cowshed and chromium added to diet improving growth performance of heat-stressed beef cattle%敞篷牛舍接力送风及饲粮添加铬改善肉牛生产性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡景义; 冯堂超; 师筑俊; 廖阔遥; 易宗容

    2015-01-01

    of the barn, fanning, and spraying cooling, additive in diet etc, were used to relief the hot stress of livestock. To improving the production properties of cattle, fanning in open-topped cowshed combining with chromium added to diet were investigation. A 2×2 factorial trial was conducted to determine the effects of fanning and chromium added to diet on thermal environment, physiological indexes and growth performance of beef cattle in summer in the Southern China. Thirty-six Simmental crossbred beef cattle ( average body weight 392.8 kg ) were chosen and randomly divided into 4 groups, and were raised in open feedlot barn for 30 days. In treatment 1 (T1), fans were installed and chromium nicotinate was added to beef cattle diet; In treatment 2 (T2), fans were only assembled; In treatment 3 (T3), chromium nicotinate was added to diet; In the control treatment (T4), the beef cattle were raised in feedlot barn without fans and without chromium nicotinate in diet. The dosage of chromium was 800µg/kg. The indexes such as environmental factors, temperature-humidity index, rectal temperature, respiration rate, average daily gain and economic benefits were collected. The results showed as following: 1) Compared with the control barn without fan, average room temperature was lower by 1.9℃ (P < 0.01), wind speed was increased by 5.6 times (P < 0.01), THI reduce by 5.65% (P < 0.01) in 14:00 in treatment barn with fan. 2) For the cattle suffered from the heat stress, the respiration rate was reduced by 2.37 times (P< 0.01), and rectal temperature were reduced by 0.18℃ (P<0.01) by chromium supplementation, and the respiration rate was reduced by 6.97 times (P < 0.01) by fanning. No interaction effects on respiration rate and rectal temperature was obtained between chromium supplementation and fanning. 2) The average daily gain of beef cattle in T1 were increased by 44.16% (P< 0.05), 35.37% (P < 0.05) and 79.03% (P < 0.05) than that in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Gross

  20. Live and formulated diet evaluation through initial growth and survival of jundiá larvae, Rhamdia quelen Alimento vivo e formulado, crescimento inicial e sobrevivência de pós-larvas de jundiá, Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Falanghe Carneiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Live diet (LD dependence and the lack of suitable formulated diets (FD are major constraints for the expansion of larviculture of many fish species. The low digestibility and nutritional quality of FD are factors that might explain their failure as a stand-alone starter food. To determine whether FD in combination with LD (zooplankton may efficiently increase larval growth and survival of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, when compared to fish fed by either types of diet alone, jundiá larvae (5.57 mm; 1.41 mg were initially stocked into 12 10-L aquaria (100 larvae per aquarium. Replicate groups (n=4 were fed ad libitum one of the three diets for 20 (when fed FD or 48 days (when fed LD or the combined diets. Larvae fed FD alone presented significantly lower survival and growth rates as compared to larvae fed LD or a combination of both (co-fed. In addition, co-fed larvae grew better (170 mg in relation to those fed solely with LD (110 mg. Such better performance of combined feeding indicates that most of the required nutrients are in balance when both diet sources are included. More can be learned about fish larvae nutrition by further testing the effect of feeding combined diets, which include zooplankton, than only testing new ingredients or protein sources commonly used in the elaboration of juvenile or adult fish feeds.A larvicultura da maioria das espécies de peixes enfrenta o desafio da dependência do alimento vivo (AL e da falta de dietas formuladas (DF que atendam plenamente às necessidades das larvas. A baixa digestibilidade e a qualidade nutricional das DFs são alguns dos fatores que explicam o insucesso quando as larvas recebem apenas FD. Para avaliar o efeito da combinação da DF com o AL no crescimento e na sobrevivência de larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, comparando com o uso separado da DF ou do AL, larvas recém eclodidas (5,57 mm; 1,41 mg foram estocadas inicialmente em 12 aquários de 10 L (100 larvas por aquário. Quatro r

  1. Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitho, R.J.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Nsahlai, I.V.; Tamminga, S.; Bruchem, J. van; Arts, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150

  2. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  3. N-Acetylneuraminic acid attenuates hypercoagulation on high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, a type of sialic acid, has close links with cholesterol metabolism and is often used as a biomarker in evaluating the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, most studies on the health implications of Neu5Ac have focused on its effects on the nervous system, while its effects on cardiovascular risk factors have largely been unreported. Thus, the effects of Neu5Ac on coagulation status in high fat diet (HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats were evaluated in this study. Methods: Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into five different groups and fed with HFD alone, HFD low-dose Neu5Ac, HFD high-dose Neu5Ac, HFD simvastatin (10 mg/kg day, and normal pellet alone. Food was given ad libitum while body weight of rats was measured weekly. After 12 weeks of intervention, rats were sacrificed and serum and tissue samples were collected for biochemistry and gene expression analysis, respectively. Results: The results showed that Neu5Ac could improve lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia-associated coagulation. Neu5Ac exerted comparable or sometimes better physiological effects than simvastatin, at biochemical and gene expression levels. Conclusions: The data indicated that Neu5Ac prevented HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and associated hypercoagulation in rats through regulation of lipid-related and coagulation-related genes and, by extension, induced metabolite and protein changes. The implications of the present findings are that Neu5Ac may be used to prevent coagulation-related cardiovascular events in hyperlipidemic conditions. These findings are worth studying further.

  4. Eggs modulate the inflammatory response to carbohydrate restricted diets in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek Jeff S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD consistently lower glucose and insulin levels and improve atherogenic dyslipidemia [decreasing triglycerides and increasing HDL cholesterol (HDL-C]. We have previously shown that male subjects following a CRD experienced significant increases in HDL-C only if they were consuming a higher intake of cholesterol provided by eggs compared to those individuals who were taking lower concentrations of dietary cholesterol. Here, as a follow up of our previous study, we examined the effects of eggs (a source of both dietary cholesterol and lutein on adiponectin, a marker of insulin sensitivity, and on inflammatory markers in the context of a CRD. Methods Twenty eight overweight men [body mass index (BMI 26–37 kg/m2] aged 40–70 y consumed an ad libitum CRD (% energy from CHO:fat:protein = 17:57:26 for 12 wk. Subjects were matched by age and BMI and randomly assigned to consume eggs (EGG, n = 15 (640 mg additional cholesterol/day provided by eggs or placebo (SUB, n = 13 (no additional dietary cholesterol. Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention to assess plasma lipids, insulin, adiponectin and markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1. Results Body weight, percent total body fat and trunk fat were reduced for all subjects after 12 wk (P Conclusion A CRD with daily intake of eggs decreased plasma CRP and increased plasma adiponectin compared to a CRD without eggs. These findings indicate that eggs make a significant contribution to the anti-inflammatory effects of CRD, possibly due to the presence of cholesterol, which increases HDL-C and to the antioxidant lutein which modulates certain inflammatory responses.

  5. Intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet attenuates alcohol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sunil; Van Cleef, Arriel; Davis, Jon F

    2017-02-01

    Binge eating disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur in the presence of other psychiatric conditions. Data suggest that binge eating engages similar behavioral and neurochemical processes common to AUD, which might contribute to the etiology or maintenance of alcoholism. However, it is unclear how binge feeding behavior and alcohol intake interact to promote initiation or maintenance of AUD. We investigated the impact of binge-like feeding on alcohol intake and anxiety-like behavior in male Long Evans rats. Rats received chow (controls) or extended intermittent access (24h twice a week; Int-HFD) to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet for six weeks. Standard rodent chow was available ad-libitum to all groups and food intake was measured. Following HFD exposure, 20.0% ethanol, 2.0% sucrose intake and endocrine peptide levels were evaluated. Anxiety-like behavior was measured using a light-dark (LD) box apparatus. Rats in the Int-HFD group displayed a binge-like pattern of feeding (alternations between caloric overconsumption and voluntary caloric restriction). Surprisingly, alcohol intake was significantly attenuated in the Int-HFD group whereas sugar consumption was unaffected. Plasma acyl-ghrelin levels were significantly elevated in the Int-HFD group, whereas glucagon-like peptide-1 levels did not change. Moreover, rats in the Int-HFD group spent more time in the light side of the LD box compared to controls, indicating that binge-like feeding induced anxiolytic effects. Collectively, these data suggest that intermittent access to HFD attenuates alcohol intake through reducing anxiety-like behavior, a process potentially controlled by elevated plasma ghrelin levels.

  6. Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrapoke, T.; Wanapat, M.; Wanapat, S.

    2012-01-01

    Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS. PMID:25049652

  7. Rumen adaptation of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) by high level of urea supplementation when fed on rice straw-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to investigate rumen adaptation of urea on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, fermentation efficiency, and microbial protein synthesis. Buffaloes were fed with rice straw ad libitum for a period of 2 weeks and then were shifted to a step-up diet regimen by supplementation of concentrate containing 20 and 40 g/kg urea at 5 g/kg BW for a period of 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The results revealed that feed intake and nutrient digestibility were increased by urea supplementation (P urea nor adaptation period (P > 0.05) while bacterial and fungal zoospores were increased especially at 40 g/kg urea. Data from real-time PCR further showed that total bacteria and the three predominant cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens) were increased by urea supplementation both at 2 and 4 weeks of urea feeding. Furthermore, methane production was similar among treatments while microbial protein synthesis was enhanced when buffaloes were fed with urea after a period of 2 weeks especially at 40 g/kg urea (P urea supplementation could increase feed intake, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and fermentation efficiency of swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. It is suggested that buffaloes could adapt well and utilize urea as a N source effectively within a period of 2 weeks uptake without adverse effect.

  8. Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbracht, Megan G; Laugero, Kevin D; Van Loan, Marta D; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L

    2012-05-15

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision-making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision-making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participating in a 12-week controlled, calorie-reduced intervention. We hypothesized that a greater amount of weight loss over the course of the intervention would be associated with better performance on the IGT, assessed at the end of the intervention. The intervention led to significant weight loss of 5.8±3.1 kg (pcortisol), metabolic (resting energy expenditure), and behavioral (food intake; dietary restraint) factors that might be related to differences in the magnitude of weight loss. Of these variables, ad libitum consumption of energy, fat and protein during a buffet meal was inversely related to weight loss (r=-0.428; pemotionally or socially salient ramifications. These findings underscore the need to further investigate higher cognitive and neuroendocrine pathways that may influence or be altered by the process of dieting and weight loss.

  9. 在日粮中添加葡萄糖氧化酶和植物血凝素防治仔猪早期断奶腹泻症的试验%Control of Piglet Early Weaning Diarrhea by Adding Glucose Oxidase and Phytohemagglutinin to Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田东霞; 张玉坤; 田泉成

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究在日粮中添加葡萄糖氧化酶和植物血凝素防治仔猪早期断奶腹泻症的效果,探讨其对仔猪生产性能和肠道健康等方面所产生的作用。[方法]选用120头断奶仔猪,随机分为对照组、试验组I和试验组Ⅱ3组,分别饲喂常规断奶仔猪基础日粮、添加0.5%的葡萄糖氧化酶日粮以及添加0.5%的葡萄糖氧化酶和0.1%植物血凝素日粮,采用统一的饲养管理模式。记录每日腹泻次数、采食量、死亡数以及试验开始和结束时每头仔猪空腹体重:计算平均日增重、腹泻率、平均日采食量、饲料转化率及死亡率。[结果]试验期内仔猪平均日增重,试验组I和试验组Ⅱ分别比对照组提高25.0%和26.8%.差异极显著(P〈0.01);仔猪料肉比,试验组I和试验组Ⅱ分别比对照组下降17.2%和18.7%,差异板显著(P〈0.01);仔猪腹泻率,试验组I和试验组Ⅱ分别比对照组下降56.0%和65.5%,差异极显著(P〈0.01);仔猪成活率,试验组I比对照组提高7.4%,差异不显著(P〉0.05),试验组Ⅱ比对照组提高13%,差异极显著(P〈0.01)。[结论]在日粮中添加葡萄糖氧化酶和植物血凝素可明显提高饲料转化效率和仔猪成活卒.明显降低仔猪腹泻率。%[Objective] The control effect of piglet early weaning diarrhea (PEWD) by adding glucose oxidase and phytohemagglutinin to diet was studied to explore the effect on performance and intestinal health of piglet. [Method] One hundred and twenty weaned piglets were randomly divided into three groups, that was controlled, group I and group 11. Under the uniform raising management pattern, piglets in control were fed on routine basal diet; piglets in group I were fed on diet with 0.5% glucose oxidase; piglets in group II were fed on diet with 0.5% glucose oxidase and 0.1% phytohemagglutinin. The diarrhea frequency

  10. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S Prem

    2015-01-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of N=8 supergravity on AdS_4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor a_{max} . Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy E \\leq a_{max}, while geodesics with E > a_{max} terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outw...

  11. Twistor methods for AdS$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Tim; Williams, Jack

    2016-01-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS$_5$ is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  12. Holography of AdS vacuum bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbon, J.L.F. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT UAM/CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    We consider the fate of AdS vacua connected by tunneling events. A precise holographic dual of thin-walled Coleman-de Luccia bounces is proposed in terms of Fubini instantons in an unstable CFT. This proposal is backed by several qualitative and quantitative checks, including the precise calculation of the instanton action appearing in evaluating the decay rate. Big crunches manifest themselves as time dependent processes which reach the boundary of field space in a finite time. The infinite energy difference involved is identified on the boundary and highlights the ill-defined nature of the bulk setup. We propose a qualitative scenario in which the crunch is resolved by stabilizing the CFT, so that all attempts at crunching always end up shielded from the boundary by the formation of black hole horizons. In all these well defined bulk processes the configurations have the same asymptotics and are finite energy excitations.

  13. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, P J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Lonergan, S M; Prusa, K J; Ahn, D U; Stoffregen, W C; Dozier, W A; Honeyman, M S

    2008-11-01

    The effects of dietary crude glycerin on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology in growing pigs were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerin utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerin, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days postweaning, 96 pigs (48 barrows and 48 gilts, average BW of 7.9 +/- 0.4 kg) were allotted to 24 pens (4 pigs/pen), with sex and BW balanced at the start of the experiment. Dietary treatments were 0, 5, and 10% crude glycerin inclusion in corn-soybean meal-based diets and were randomly assigned to pens. Diets were offered ad libitum in meal form and formulated to be equal in ME, sodium, chloride, and Lys, with other AA balanced on an ideal AA basis. Pigs and feeders were weighed every other week to determine ADG, ADFI, and G:F. At the end of the trial, all pigs were scanned using real-time ultrasound and subsequently slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Blood samples were collected pretransport and at the time of slaughter for plasma metabolite analysis. In addition, kidney, liver, and eye tissues were collected for subsequent examination for lesions characteristic of methanol toxicity. After an overnight chilling of the carcass, loins were removed for meat quality, sensory evaluation, and fatty acid profile analysis. Pig growth, feed intake, and G:F were not affected by dietary treatment. Dietary treatment did not affect 10th-rib backfat, LM area, percent fat free lean, meat quality, or sensory evaluation. Loin ultimate pH was increased (P = 0.06) in pigs fed the 5 and 10% crude glycerin compared with pigs fed no crude glycerin (5.65 and 5.65 versus 5.57, respectively). Fatty acid profile of the LM was slightly changed by diet with the LM from pigs fed 10% crude glycerin having less linoleic acid (P glycerin diets. Dietary treatment did not affect blood metabolites or frequency of lesions in the examined tissues. This experiment demonstrated that

  14. Leucaena and dried poultry waste improve the performance of West African Dwarf sheep on a grass diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Euphresia Besongtakor; Ndamukong, Kenneth Jacob Ngoh; Pamo, Etienne Tendonkeng

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects on digestibility and growth when West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep were fed a basal diet of Tripsacum laxum with Leucaena leucocephala or dried poultry waste as supplement. Fifteen WAD sheep (12 rams and 3 ewes) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments of 5 animals each, namely T1-basal diet of chopped T. laxum (control), T2-basal diet plus dried poultry waste, and T3-basal diet plus L. leucocephala. Animals had access to drinking water and a mineral mix ad libitum. They were weighed weekly after a 2-week adaptation period, for a duration of 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rams randomly selected from each treatment group were used for the digestibility study. Results revealed that average daily intake of L. leucocephala (350.0 ± 0.3 g/animal) was higher than that of dried poultry waste (260.0 ± 0.1 g/animal). The supplemented groups, T2 and T3, gained 21.4 and 31.0 g daily respectively, while animals of the control group (T1) lost 6.0 g daily. There was a significant difference (P<0.01) in dry matter intake between the control and supplemented groups, with T2 recording the highest intake. Organic matter intake of treatment 3 was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of T1 and T2. The differences in crude fibre (CF) ingestion between T2 and T1 as well as T3 and T1 were significant (P<0.01), with the highest ingestion of CF occurring in T1. The dry matter digestibility of the supplemented groups was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. The organic matter digestibility of T2 and T3, as well as T1 and T3 were significantly different (P<0.05), being highest in T3 (77.0 ± 2.1 %) and lowest in T2 (58.1 ± 1.0 %) It was concluded from the study that T. laxum can be better utilized in West African Dwarf sheep when supplemented with dried poultry waste or L. leucocephala.

  15. Effects of two commercial diets and technical feed treatment on stomach lesions and immune system of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liermann, W; Berk, A; Frahm, J; Böschen, V; Dänicke, S

    2016-11-02

    The impact of technical feed treatment and diet on stomach lesions and traits of the local and systemic immune system were investigated in fattening pigs. Feeding groups differed in technical feed treatment (standard ground meal vs. finely ground and pelleted feed) and diet (soya bean meal vs. rapeseed meal/DDGS/soya beans). Pigs were fattened approximately 10 weeks by ad libitum feeding and slaughtered subsequently. Gastric alterations were assessed by a macroscopic scoring system [macroscopic stomach score (MSC) 0 =  normal to 4 =  severe lesions]. For immunological investigations, lymphocytes from blood and jejunal tissues were isolated. T-cell phenotyping was carried out by staining intestinal lymphocytes with monoclonal antibodies for CD4 and CD8 and flow cytometric measurements. MSC was higher in animals fed finely ground and pelleted feed compared with their counterparts. Significant interactions between diet and feed treatment considering the MSC were observed (p = 0.027). There was no effect of diet or technical feed treatment on T cells of blood, Lymphonodi gastrici or lamina propria (LP) and intraepithelial cells. However, technical feed treatment significantly affected subsets of CD4(+) , CD8(+) , CD8(low) , CD4/CD8 double-positive T cells, the mean fluorescence intensity of CD4(+) T cells and the ratio of CD8(low) /CD8(high) T cells in Peyer's patches (PP). All named parameters were reduced in PP of animals fed finely ground and pelleted feed compared with animals fed standard ground meal. Furthermore, significant differences between T cells of lymph nodes and LP were observed between animals with middle MSC (MSC = 1-2.5) and animals with high MSC (MSC = 3-4). Significant alterations in T cells of PP were observed between animals of low (MSC = 0-0.5) and high MSC. The observed effects provide the evidence that the impact of technical feed treatment is not limited on the stomach lesions. Possible stimuli and consequences of the immune system

  16. Intermittent fasting reduces body fat but exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in young rats regardless of high protein and fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Yoo, Kyung Min; Hyun, Joo Suk; Kang, Suna

    2017-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IMF) is a relatively new dietary approach to weight management, although the efficacy and adverse effects have not been full elucidated and the optimal diets for IMF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a one-meal-per-day intermittent fasting with high fat (HF) or protein (HP) diets can modify energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism in normal young male Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity or overweight. Male rats aged 5 weeks received either HF (40% fat) or HP (26% protein) diets ad libitum (AL) or for 3 h at the beginning of the dark cycle (IMF) for 5 weeks. Epidydimal fat pads and fat deposits in the leg and abdomen were lower with HP and IMF. Energy expenditure at the beginning of the dark cycle, especially from fat oxidation, was higher with IMF than AL, possibly due to greater activity levels. Brown fat content was higher with IMF. Serum ghrelin levels were higher in HP-IMF than other groups, and accordingly, cumulative food intake was also higher in HP-IMF than HF-IMF. HF-IMF exhibited higher area under the curve (AUC) of serum glucose at the first part (0-40 min) during oral glucose tolerance test, whereas AUC of serum insulin levels in both parts were higher in IMF and HF. During intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test, serum glucose levels were higher with IMF than AL. Consistently, hepatic insulin signaling (GLUT2, pAkt) was attenuated and PEPCK expression was higher with IMF and HF than other groups, and HOMA-IR revealed significantly impaired attenuated insulin sensitivity in the IMF groups. However, surprisingly, hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen storage was higher in IMF groups than AL. The higher glycogen storage in the IMF groups was associated with the lower expression of glycogen phosphorylase than the AL groups. In conclusion, IMF especially with HF increased insulin resistance, possibly by attenuating hepatic insulin signaling, and lowered glycogen phosphorylase expression despite decreased fat mass in young

  17. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  18. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  19. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  20. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth > For Teens > Are Detox Diets Safe? ... las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that anything ...

  1. Effects of Adding Compound Enzyme with Different Zymogram in Miscellaneous Meal Diets on Laying Performance and Eggs Quality of Laying Hens%杂粕型日粮添加不同酶谱的复合酶对蛋鸡产蛋性能和蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 王玉琳; 李胜利

    2015-01-01

    旨在研究杂粕型日粮中添加不同酶谱的复合酶对蛋鸡产蛋高峰期产蛋性能及蛋品质的影响。选择1440只300日龄、体重和产蛋率相近的海兰褐蛋鸡,随机分为5个处理,每个处理3个重复,每个重复96只鸡。对照1组饲喂玉米—豆粕型日粮,不添加复合酶;对照2组饲喂玉米—杂粕型日粮,不添加复合酶;试验1、2、3组在饲喂玉米—杂粕型日粮的基础上,分别添加复合酶1、2、3。试验期为70 d。记录并比较各处理组蛋鸡的产蛋性能和蛋品质相关指标。结果表明,与对照2组相比,试验1、2、3组的产蛋率、平均蛋重、日采食量和产蛋量均显著提高(P0.05). There were no significant differences of eggs quality related indexes between experimental groups and control groups (P>0.05). Compared with control group 2, an increasing trend in shell thickness in experimental groups was observed, and the increased range of experimental group 3 was the sharpest. It was indicated that the laying performance of laying hens fed with corn-miscellaneous meal diets adding compound enzyme was similar with that of laying hens fed with corn-soybean meal diets. The improvement effects of compound enzyme with different zymogram on laying performance and egg quality of laying hens varied, and the compound enzyme No.3 with higher content of xylanase and protease was preferred in production practice.

  2. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  3. Skil problemerne ad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    På grundlag af evalueringer og forskning i gymnasiereformen 2005 foreslås det at skille problemerne ad i forskellige niveauer. Herved kan der arbejdes med niveaudelte løsninger.......På grundlag af evalueringer og forskning i gymnasiereformen 2005 foreslås det at skille problemerne ad i forskellige niveauer. Herved kan der arbejdes med niveaudelte løsninger....

  4. Effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and apparent whole-tract digestibility of beef heifers across three contrasting diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, R P; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Kenny, D A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of divergent phenotypic ranking for residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal CH emissions, diet digestibility, and indices of ruminal fermentation in heifers across 3 commercially relevant diets. Twenty-eight Limousin × Friesian heifers were used and were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI: 14 low-RFI and 14 high-RFI animals. Ruminal CH emissions were estimated over 5 d using the SF tracer gas technique on 3 successive occasions: 1) at the end of a 6-wk period (Period 1) on grass silage (GS), 2) at the end of an 8-wk period (Period 2) at pasture, and 3) at the end of a 5-wk period (Period 3) on a 30:70 corn silage:concentrate total mixed ration (TMR). Animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water at all times. Individual DMI was estimated during CH measurement and rumen samples were taken at the end of each CH measurement period. Diet type affected all feed intake and CH traits measured ( 0.05), but CH yield was greatest in low-RFI heifers ( = 0.03) as a proportion of both DMI and GE intake. Interactions between the main effects were observed ( < 0.05) for CP digestibility (CPD), DM digestibility (DMD), ruminal propionate, and the acetate:propionate ratio. Low-RFI animals had greater ( < 0.05) CPD and DMD than their high-RFI contemporaries when offered GS but not the other 2 diets. Low-RFI heifers also had greater OM digestibility ( = 0.027). Additionally, low-RFI heifers had a lower concentration of propionate ( < 0.05) compared with high-RFI heifers when fed GS, resulting in a greater ( < 0.05) acetate:propionate ratio. However, these differences were not evident for the other 2 diets. Energetically efficient animals do not have a lower ruminal methanogenic potential compared with their more inefficient counterparts and, indeed, some evidence to the contrary was found, which may reflect the greater nutrient digestive potential observed in low-RFI cattle.

  5. Too late to catch up: a high nutrient specification diet in the grower phase does not improve the performance of low birth weight pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S L; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    Low birth weight pigs are on a different growth trajectory from their normal birth weight littermates and as a consequence they may need to be fed differently, if they are to show compensatory gain. The objective of the experiment was to determine if low birth weight pigs will respond to a higher AA: energy diet, in a manner similar to the response of normal birth weight pigs whose BW gain has been previously reduced as a result of feed restriction. The experiment was a 3 × 2 factorial with 180 pigs and 6 replicates. Treatments were comprised of 3 BW categories (NU = normal birth weight fed unrestrictedly [1.7 to 2.0 kg], NR = normal birth weight but fed restrictedly from d 49 to 63 and L = low birth weight [ ≤ 1.2 kg]) and 2 diet specifications given from d 63 to 91 (high or standard AA: energy ratio). In period 1 (d 0 to d 49), pigs were selected within 24 h of birth and cross fostered into litters by birth weight (11/12 piglets). Pigs were weaned at d 28 and kept in their litters until d 49. In period 2 (d 49 to 63), litters were split to form 2 treatment groups consisting of 5 pigs each: NR pigs received restricted amounts of feed (600 g/d) with the remaining NU and L pigs fed ad libitum on a conventional diet. The aim was for NR and L pigs to have the same BW by d 63. In period 3 (d 63 to 91), groups within litter were randomly allocated to a high or standard AA:energy ratio diet. Body weight on d 63 was 25.8, 21.2, 21.8 kg (0.381 SED) for NU, NR and L pigs respectively; by d 91 there was no difference in the BW of NU and NR pigs (P > 0.05), but L pigs still weighed less (P low birth weight pigs. However, previously restricted normal birth weight pigs were able to exhibit compensatory growth and were more efficient when fed a higher specification diet.

  6. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  7. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD...... modifications of the diet are needed in order to make this food concept beneficial regarding phosphorus absorption....

  8. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... is investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...

  9. Antiproton-Decelerator (AD)

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    When the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) was stopped in 1996, because of its costly operation, a cheaper way of continuing low-energy antiproton physics was sought. The Antiproton-Collector (AC), added in 1987 to the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) to provide a tenfold intensity increase, was converted into the Antiproton-Decelerator (AD). Antiprotons from the target at 3.5 GeV/c are decelerated to 100 MeV/c, and fast-ejected to the experiments. Major changes were necessary. Above all, the conversion from a constant-field machine to one with a magnetic cycle, modulating the field by an impressive factor 35. New systems for stochastic and electron cooling had to be added. Beam diagnostics at an intensity of only 2E7 antiprotons was a challenge. In 2000, the AD began delivery of antiprotons to the experiments.

  10. AdS_3: the NHEK generation

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Puhm, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    It was argued in arXiv:1203.4227 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS_3 x S^3/Z_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  11. Supplementing an energy adequate, higher-protein diet with protein does not enhance fat-free mass restoration after short-term severe negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Sepowitz, John J; McClung, Holly L; Lieberman, Harris R; Farina, Emily K; McClung, James P; Ferrando, Arny A; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-04-06

    Negative energy balance during military operations can be severe and result in significant reductions in fat-free mass (FFM). Consuming supplemental high-quality protein following such military operations may accelerate restoration of FFM. Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and whole-body protein turnover (single-pool (15)N-alanine method) were determined before (PRE) and after 7 d (POST) of severe negative energy balance during military training in 63 male US Marines (mean±SD, 25±3 y, 84±9 kg). After POST measures were collected, volunteers were randomized to receive higher-protein (HIGH: 1103 kcal/d, 133 g protein/d), moderate protein (MOD: 974 kcal/d, 84 g protein/d), or carbohydrate-based low protein control (CON: 1042 kcal/d, 7 g protein/d) supplements, in addition to a self-selected, ad libitum diet, for the 27 d intervention (REFED). Measurements were repeated POST-REFED. POST total body mass (TBM, -5.8±1.0 kg, -7.0%), FFM (-3.1±1.6 kg, -4.7%), and net protein balance (-1.7±1.1 g protein/kg/d) were lower and proteolysis (1.1±1.9 g protein/kg/d) was higher compared to PRE (Penergy (4498±725 kcal/d). All volunteers, independent of group assignment, achieved positive net protein balance (0.4±1.0 g protein/kg/d) and gained TBM (5.9±1.7 kg, 7.8%) and FFM (3.6±1.8 kg, 5.7%) POST-REFED compared to POST (Penergy-adequate, higher-protein diets with additional protein may not be necessary to restore FFM after short-term severe negative energy balance.

  12. EFFECT OF RICE HULL IN THE DRIED HOTEL FOOD WASTE BASED-DIET ON LIPID CHARACTERISTICS AND MEAT QUALITY OF BARROWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Purnamartha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was constructed to observe the effect of rice hull as a fiber sources in the dried hotelfood waste based-diet on fat and cholesterol level of pork. Twenty four heads of two months old ofLandrace x Yorkshire cross barrows were randomly divided into four treatment groups, i.e. without ricehull (R0, 10% rice hull (R1, 20% rice hull (R2, and 30% rice hull (R3. They placed in individualconcrete pen with 1.9 m in length and 0.5 m in width. Feed and water were given as ad libitum.Observation was done for 10 weeks prior to slaughter. Completely Randomized Design was used in thisstudy. Data obtained was analyzev by anova and mean comparison of Duncan's new Multiple RangeTest. Fat content of R0, R1, R2, dan R3 pork were 14.09±0.31, 13.30±0.44, 12.9±20.30 and11.95±0.56%, respectively. Fat content of pork of R0 was higher (P<0.05 than that of others groups.Cholesterol content of pork of R0, R1, R2 and R3 were 256.47±30.23, 252.34±26.56, 217.63±21.93 and199.21±25.94 mg/100 g, respectively. Cholesterol content of pork of R3 were lower (P<0.05 than thoseof R0. It is concluded that the use of rice hull up to 30% in the dried hotel food waste based-diet candecreases fat and cholesterol levels of pork.

  13. Ruminally protected lysine and methionine for lactating dairy cows fed a diet designed to meet requirements for microbial and postruminal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P H; Fredeen, A H; Chalupa, W; Julien, W E; Sato, H; Fujieda, T; Suzuki, H

    1995-03-01

    Dairy cows, 20 at each of two sites, were used to determine responses to ruminally protected Lys and Met in a full lactation study. Cows were fed corn silage twice daily for ad libitum intake and a concentrate four times daily in proportion to milk production. At Truro, cows were fed 2.7 kg/d of alfalfa and timothy hay DM at 0600 and at 1500 h. At Fredericton, cows were fed 2.7 kg of timothy silage DM at 0600 h and 2.7 kg of alfalfa hay DM at 1500 h. Diets were designed to meet, but not to exceed, recommendations for ruminally degradable CP and intestinally digestible protein. Ten cows at each site were fed ruminally protected L-Lys.HCl (19 g/d) and DL-Met (6.5 g/d). Cows fed AA at each site produced more milk, lactose, protein, and fat; milk protein and fat percentages were also higher. No time x treatment interactions occurred for any production parameter. In spite of similar production responses between sites, cows fed AA consumed more DM at Truro, but those at Fredericton did not. Thus, gross efficiency of utilization of dietary N for milk N was increased with AA at Fredericton but not at Truro. However, considering the increased intake of CP by cows fed AA at Truro, an event that would have been expected to depress efficiency of utilization of dietary N, the lack of difference at Truro between treatments can be interpreted as an improvement, relative to expectations, because of AA feeding. High producing dairy cows fed a diet that was adequate in CP responded to ruminally protected Lys and Met primarily with increased production of milk protein and fat throughout the full lactation.

  14. Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, decreased visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte size in rats fed with high fat diet more effectively than nonfermented soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Park, Sang Chul; Song, Kye Yong

    2012-01-01

    Soybean is known to have an anti-obesity effect. We compared the anti-obesity effect of doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, with that of nonfermented soybeans in rats. Steamed soybeans and doenjang (steamed soybeans fermented and aged for 10 months) were sampled and freeze-dried. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed basal (BA) (5% fat), high fat (HF) (30% fat), HF+steamed soybeans (SOY), or HF+doenjang (DJ) diet ad libitum for 8 weeks. HF significantly increased body weight gain, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels, and epididymal fat pad weight compared with BA. Compared with HF, body weight gain and hepatic TG and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in SOY and DJ groups, but they were not significantly different from each other. DJ significantly reduced visceral fat weight and epididymal adipocyte size compared with HF, whereas SOY resulted in a mild reduction without significance. This was possibly because DJ showed lowered fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity and elevated carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1 activity in liver tissue more than SOY. SOY and DJ did not affect serum total and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels compared with HF; however, DJ significantly lowered the atherogenic index and serum leptin level. In conclusion, doenjang, a fermented soybean product, was more effective than soybeans for preventing diet-induced visceral fat accumulation, possibly because of its greater effects on CPT-1 activity stimulation and FAS activity suppression. These effects may be due in part to the higher content of aglycone isoflavones in doenjang.

  15. In vitro cellular adaptations of indicators of longevity in response to treatment with serum collected from humans on calorie restricted diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne S Allard

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR produces several health benefits and increases lifespan in many species. Studies suggest that alternate-day fasting (ADF and exercise can also provide these benefits. Whether CR results in lifespan extension in humans is not known and a direct investigation is not feasible. However, phenotypes observed in CR animals when compared to ad libitum fed (AL animals, including increased stress resistance and changes in protein expression, can be simulated in cells cultured with media supplemented with blood serum from CR and AL animals. Two pilot studies were undertaken to examine the effects of ADF and CR on indicators of health and longevity in humans. In this study, we used sera collected from those studies to culture human hepatoma cells and assessed the effects on growth, stress resistance and gene expression. Cells cultured in serum collected at the end of the dieting period were compared to cells cultured in serum collected at baseline (before the dieting period. Cells cultured in serum from ADF participants, showed a 20% increase in Sirt1 protein which correlated with reduced triglyceride levels. ADF serum also induced a 9% decrease in proliferation and a 25% increase in heat resistance. Cells cultured in serum from CR participants induced an increase in Sirt1 protein levels by 17% and a 30% increase in PGC-1alpha mRNA levels. This first in vitro study utilizing human serum to examine effects on markers of health and longevity in cultured cells resulted in increased stress resistance and an up-regulation of genes proposed to be indicators of increased longevity. The use of this in vitro technique may be helpful for predicting the potential of CR, ADF and other dietary manipulations to affect markers of longevity in humans.

  16. Effects of diet forage source and neutral detergent fiber content on milk production of dairy cattle and methane emissions determined using GreenFeed and respiration chamber techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K J; Jones, A K; Humphries, D J; Crompton, L A; Reynolds, C K

    2016-10-01

    Strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from dairy cattle are unlikely to be adopted if production or profitability is reduced. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of high maize silage (MS) versus high grass silage (GS) diets, without or with added neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on milk production and methane emission of dairy cattle, using GreenFeed (GF) or respiration chamber (RC) techniques for methane emission measurements. Experiment 1 was 12wk in duration with a randomized block continuous design and 40 Holstein cows (74d in milk) in free-stall housing, assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n=10 per treatment), according to calving date, parity, and milk yield. Milk production and dry matter intake (DMI) were measured daily, and milk composition measured weekly, with methane yield (g/kg of DMI) estimated using a GF unit (wk 10 to 12). Experiment 2 was a 4×4 Latin square design with 5-wk periods and 4 dairy cows (114d in milk) fed the same 4 dietary treatments as in experiment 1. Measurements of DMI, milk production, and milk composition occurred in wk 4, and DMI, milk production, and methane yield were measured for 2d in RC during wk 5. Dietary treatments for both experiments were fed as total mixed rations offered ad libitum and containing 500g of silage/kg of dry matter composed (DM basis) of either 75:25 MS:GS (MS) or 25:75 MS:GS (GS), without or with added NDF from chopped straw and soy hulls (+47g of NDF/kg of dry matter). In both experiments, compared with high GS, cows fed high MS had a higher DMI, greater milk production, and lower methane yield (24% lower in experiment 1 using GF and 8% lower in experiment 2 using RC). Added NDF increased (or tended to increase) methane yield for high MS, but not high GS diets. In the separate experiments, the GF and RC methods detected similar dietary treatment effects on methane emission (expressed as g/d and g/kg of DMI), although the magnitude of the differences varied between

  17. Peripheral endocannabinoid signaling controls hyperphagia in western diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argueta, Donovan A; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

    2017-03-15

    The endocannabinoid system in the brain and periphery plays a major role in controlling food intake and energy balance. We reported that tasting dietary fats was met with increased levels of the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, in the rat upper small intestine, and pharmacological inhibition of this local signaling event dose-dependently blocked sham feeding of fats. We now investigated the contribution of peripheral endocannabinoid signaling in hyperphagia associated with chronic consumption of a western-style diet in mice ([WD] i.e., high fat and sucrose). Feeding patterns were assessed in male C57BL/6Tac mice maintained for 60days on WD or a standard rodent chow (SD), and the role for peripheral endocannabinoid signaling at CB1Rs in controlling food intake was investigated via pharmacological interventions. In addition, levels of the endocannabinoids, 2-AG and anandamide, in the upper small intestine and circulation of mice were analyzed via liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to evaluate diet-related changes in endocannabinoid signaling and the potential impact on food intake. Mice fed WD for 60days exhibited large increases in body weight, daily caloric intake, average meal size, and rate of feeding when compared to control mice fed SD. Inhibiting peripheral CB1Rs with the peripherally-restricted neutral cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, AM6545 (10mg/kg), significantly reduced intake of WD during a 6h test, but failed to modify intake of SD in mice. AM6545 normalized intake of WD, average meal size, and rate of feeding to levels found in SD control mice. These results suggest that endogenous activity at peripheral CB1Rs in WD mice is critical for driving hyperphagia. In support of this hypothesis, levels of 2-AG and anandamide in both, jejunum mucosa and plasma, of ad-libitum fed WD mice increased when compared to SC mice. Furthermore, expression of genes for primary components of the endocannabinoid

  18. Sunlight exposure increases vitamin D sufficiency in growing pigs fed a diet formulated to exceed requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B M; Ingold, B C; Young, J L; Fensterseifer, S R; Wechsler, P J; Austin, K J; Larson-Meyer, D E

    2017-04-01

    Traditional confinement practices limit exposure to sunlight and vitamin D synthesis, and vitamin insufficiency occurs even with dietary supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of limited sun exposure on serum concentration of vitamin D and the expression of vitamin D synthesizing enzymes in the liver and kidney of pigs on a vitamin D sufficient diet. White-pigmented grower pigs (29.7 ± 2.3 kg) fed 15% CP diet ad libitum providing >1,200 IU vitamin D3/kg of feed were exposed to sunlight for 1 h each day at solar noon for 14 d at the spring equinox (March pigs, n = 10) or summer solstice (June pigs, n = 5) and again before slaughter in June (March pigs) and September (June pigs). Blood for the analysis of 25(OH)D was collected before and after sunlight exposure. Traditionally housed pigs served as controls. After initial sun exposure, blood samples were collected from June pigs daily for 5 d and weekly for 8 wk to determine vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D decay, respectively. Kidney and liver samples were collected from the June pigs at slaughter after sun exposure for analysis of messenger RNA expression of vitamin D binding protein and synthesizing/degrading enzymes. Average daily gain (ADG) was not influenced (P > 0.5) by sunlight exposure. June pigs had fewer days on feed, lower (P = 0.003) ADG and were slaughtered at a lighter (P D for all pigs. March pigs, obtained from a Midwest producer, had lower (P D than June pigs born on-farm. Initial sunlight exposure increased serum concentration of 25(OH)D in March pigs by 200% and June pigs by 67%. Serum concentration of vitamin D3 was decreased (P D decreased (P D binding protein, vitamin D synthesizing CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP2D25, or degrading enzyme CYP24A1 were not influenced (P ≥ 0.19) by sunlight exposure. Expression of CYP27B1 was decreased (P = 0.04) in the kidney but tended to be increased (P = 0.06) in the liver after sun exposure. These results suggest limited sun exposure can

  19. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus.

  20. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  1. Effects of inulin-type fructans consumption on mineral intestinal absorption and balance in rats fed control and iron-deficient diets
    Efeitos do consumo de frutanos do tipo inulina na absorção intestinal e balanço de minerais em ratos alimentad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. C. VAZ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In this study, the effects of inulin-type fructans (ITF consumption on mineral absorption (Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn and balance (Ca and Mg were evaluated in rats fed control and iron-defi cient diets. Each of 24 male Wistar rats (4-wk old was assigned to 1 of 4 groups derived from 2×2 factorial design with 2 levels of added Fe (0 and 35 mg/kg and ITF (0 and 100 g/kg for 33 d. The food intake was determined daily and body weight recorded every two days. Food and demineralized water were offered ad libitum. Feces and urine were quantitatively collected for 5 d from day 23 of the test period, pooled, and stored at -20ºC for mineral analysis. ITF consumption increased Ca absorption (P < 0.05 only in non-defi cient rats, whereas Mg absorption was positively affected irrespective of Fe status of the animals. Unexpectedly, Cu absorption was impaired by ITF. Furthermore, Fe defi ciency negatively affected the absorption of Mg and Zn (P < 0.001. In conclusion, ITF consumption positively affected the absorption of Ca and Mg. However, Fe and Zn absorption were unchanged and Cu was negatively affected by ITF supplementation. The effects of ITF consumption on Cu homeostasis is unknown and should be considered in future research.

  2. Sacarose como veículo de suplementação dietética de ácido fólico em camundongos prenhes Saccharose as a vehicle for the supplementation of folic acid in pregnant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Arcaro de Lima

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A ingestão adequada de folato é essencial durante a embriogênese, e sua deficiência está associada à ocorrência de defeitos no fechamento do tubo neural. OBJETIVO: Determinar se a sacarose é um bom veículo para a suplementação de folato em camundongos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Quarenta camundongos Swiss fêmeas foram divididos nos grupos: C: ração comercial + água ad libitum; DS: ração balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água por 14 dias; D/DS: ração balanceada isenta de folato + água com sacarose sem folato por 14 dias seguida de ração balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água por mais 14 dias; D: ração balanceada isenta de folato + água com sacarose sem folato por 14 dias. Os animais de todos os grupos experimentais receberam ração balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água durante os três dias do acasalamento e nos 15 dias restantes até o sacrifício. RESULTADOS: Os animais dos grupos D e D/DS apresentaram alopecia, palidez ocular e adinamia enquanto consumiam água com sacarose sem folato, sinais que foram revertidos quando receberam folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água. Não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação a prenhez, implantes, fetos vivos, reabsorção, morte fetal tardia, nível sérico de folato e contagem de hemácias ao final do experimento, não tendo sido observadas anomalias congênitas em nenhum dos grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A sacarose é um meio adequado para a suplementação de folato na dieta.Adequate folate intake is essential during embryogenesis and its deficiency is associated with neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if saccharose is a good vehicle for the supplementation of folate in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 Swiss female mice were allocated into the following groups: C (commercial mouse food + ad libitum water; DS (folate-free balanced diet

  3. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st) h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st) h and P = 0.047 from 1(st) to 5(th)) and fat (only during the 1(st) h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st) hour respect to 1(st) to 5(th)). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates.

  4. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ceacero

    Full Text Available Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st h (P = 0.048. Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st h and P = 0.047 from 1(st to 5(th and fat (only during the 1(st h; P = 0.036, but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st hour respect to 1(st to 5(th. Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011, suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates.

  5. ESTUDIOS ETNOGRÁFICOS, PRÁCTICAS AGRÍCOLAS Y DIETA ÓPTIMA EN EL VALLE DE AMBATO, CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA, SIGLOS VI AL XI D. C. (Ethnographic Studies, Agricultural Practices, and Optimal Diet in the Ambato Valley, Catamarca, Argentina, VIth to XIth Centuries AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dantas

    2012-06-01

    ascertain what might have been the optimal combination with which each of these resources have contributed to the diet of the ancient inhabitants of the valley. The results obtained suggest that in these lands, during the VIth to the XIth century AD, the products obtained through gathering, mainly algarrobo (Prosopis sp., would have been the better option. Within the agricultural products, maize (Zea mays would have been the best choice. These data are consistent with those observed in the archaeological record of the valley and the information available for the region.

  6. Quality and fatty acid profile of the milk of indigenous goats subjected to different local diets in Tunisian arid lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeb, N; Addis, M; Fiori, M; Khorchani, S; Atigui, M; Khorchani, T

    2016-02-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that certain pastoral forages and olive by-products, available in arid areas, may positively influence fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of goat's milk. Thirty indigenous goats (body weight = 25.2 kg; age = 4.1 years) were allocated to three groups. During 60 days, the goats received ad libitum either dried olive leaves + Stipa tenacissima (group OL), khortane grass hay (group Ko) or oat hay (control diet, group OH). Milk samples were collected and analysed for total solids, fat, protein, lactose and ash content and fatty acid profile. Average milk yield did not statistically differ among groups. Milk total solids from OL group were higher in comparison with Ko and C groups (15.3, 14.7 and 14.5%, respectively; p < 0.05). Fat content was also higher for the OL group as compared to the other groups (5.44 vs. 5.01 and 4.66%, respectively, for Ko and OH). No significant differences were observed for the milk content of lactose, protein and ash. The percentage of saturated fatty acids of total milk fat was higher in OL and Ko groups compared to the C group (p < 0.001); the milk whereof was characterized by the highest percentage of monounsaturated (p < 0.01) and total unsaturated fatty acids. Milk fat of Ko and C groups showed significantly higher proportions of rumenic (CLA cis-9 trans-11) and vaccenic acids (C18:1 trans-11) compared to OL milk. The feeding system based on Stipa tenacissima and dried olive leaves resulted in the milk lowest proportion of trans-fatty acids and the highest proportion of polyunsaturated ω3-fatty acids (p < 0.05).

  7. Possibilities of using MORINGA (Moringa oleifera LEAF MEAL AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE FOR FISHMEAL IN BROILER CHICKENS DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. ZANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-week feeding trial involving 180 2-week old Cobb broiler chicks was conducted to assess the effects of partial replacement of fishmeal with Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf meal on broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned in equal numbers in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD to four dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, and 15% Moringa leaf meal (MLM. Each treatment was replicated three times giving 15 birds per replicate. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. The parameters measured were feed intake, initial weight, final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, carcass traits, hematology, serum biochemistry and meat quality. Final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency significantly (p<0.05 declined with increasing level of MLM. None of the carcass traits measured was significantly affected by addition of MLM. Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH was the only hematological parameter that showed significance (P<0.05 difference in treatment groups. Triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL differed significantly (P<0.05. Also incorporation of MLM significantly (P<0.05 affected the moisture, crude protein and crude fat of the meat of experimental birds. Cost benefit analysis showed that incorporation of MLM resulted in reduced feed cost. However, the net revenue from birds fed diets containing MLM reduced as a result of poor weight gain. Based on the data obtained in this study it is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal when partially used to replace fishmeal may hamper growth rate of broiler chickens. Nonetheless, addition of MLM does not adversely affect mortality, carcass traits and blood variables.

  8. Enhanced flavor-nutrient conditioning in obese rats on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate choice diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hallie S; Myers, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Through flavor-nutrient conditioning rats learn to prefer and increase their intake of flavors paired with rewarding, postingestive nutritional consequences. Since obesity is linked to altered experience of food reward and to perturbations of nutrient sensing, we investigated flavor-nutrient learning in rats made obese using a high fat/high carbohydrate (HFHC) choice model of diet-induced obesity (ad libitum lard and maltodextrin solution plus standard rodent chow). Forty rats were maintained on HFHC to induce substantial weight gain, and 20 were maintained on chow only (CON). Among HFHC rats, individual differences in propensity to weight gain were studied by comparing those with the highest proportional weight gain (obesity prone, OP) to those with the lowest (obesity resistant, OR). Sensitivity to postingestive food reward was tested in a flavor-nutrient conditioning protocol. To measure initial, within-meal stimulation of flavor acceptance by post-oral nutrient sensing, first, in sessions 1-3, baseline licking was measured while rats consumed grape- or cherry-flavored saccharin accompanied by intragastric (IG) water infusion. Then, in the next three test sessions they received the opposite flavor paired with 5 ml of IG 12% glucose. Finally, after additional sessions alternating between the two flavor-infusion contingencies, preference was measured in a two-bottle choice between the flavors without IG infusions. HFHC-OP rats showed stronger initial enhancement of intake in the first glucose infusion sessions than CON or HFHC-OR rats. OP rats also most strongly preferred the glucose-paired flavor in the two-bottle choice. These differences between OP versus OR and CON rats suggest that obesity is linked to responsiveness to postoral nutrient reward, consistent with the view that flavor-nutrient learning perpetuates overeating in obesity.

  9. Localization on $AdS_2\\times S^1$

    CERN Document Server

    David, Justin R; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Narain, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conformal symmetry relates the metric on $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ to that of $S^3$. This implies that under a suitable choice of boundary conditions for fields on $AdS_2$ the partition function of conformal field theories on these spaces must agree which makes $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ a good testing ground to study localization on non-compact spaces. We study supersymmetry on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ and determine the localizing Lagrangian for ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2\\times S^1$. We evaluate the partition function of ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2 \\times S^1$ using localization, where the radius of $S^1$ is $q$ times that of $AdS_2$. With boundary conditions on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ which ensure that all the physical fields are normalizable and lie in the space of square integrable wave functions in $AdS_2$, the result for the partition function precisely agrees with that of the theory on the $q$-fold covering of $S^3$.

  10. D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, D

    2005-01-01

    We study the exact construction of D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3). We start by defining a family of conformal field theories that gives a natural Euclidean version of the SL(2,R) CFT and does not correspond to H(3)+, the analytic continuation of AdS(3). We argue that one can recuperate the exact CFT results of Lorentzian AdS(3), upon an analytic continuation in the moduli space of these conformal field theories. Then we construct exact boundary states for various symmetric and symmetry-breaking D-branes in AdS(3).

  11. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  12. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  13. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease. These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a ...

  14. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to know about Wilson Disease Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... dysarthria; rigid dystonia; pseudobulbar palsy; seizures; migraine headaches; insomnia Psychiatric: Depression; neuroses; personality changes; psychosis Other symptoms: ...

  15. Methane production, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, N balance, and milk production of cows fed timothy silage- or alfalfa silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Massé, D I; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changing forage source in dairy cow diets from timothy silage (TS) to alfalfa silage (AS) on enteric CH₄ emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, dry matter basis), with the forage portion consisting of either TS (0% AS; 0% AS and 54.4% TS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% AS; 27.2% AS and 27.2% TS in the TMR), or AS (100% AS; 54.4% AS and 0% TS in the TMR). Compared with TS, AS contained less (36.9 vs. 52.1%) neutral detergent fiber but more (20.5 vs. 13.6%) crude protein (CP). In sacco 24-h ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM) was higher for AS than for TS (73.5 vs. 66.9%). Replacement of TS with AS in the diet entailed increasing proportions of corn grain and bypass protein supplement at the expense of soybean meal. As the dietary proportion of AS increased, CP and starch concentrations increased, whereas fiber content declined in the TMR. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing AS proportions in the diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of OM and gross energy remained unaffected, whereas CP digestibility increased linearly and that of fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of AS in the diet. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was not affected, whereas ruminal concentration of ammonia (NH₃) and molar proportion of branched-chain VFA increased as the proportion of AS in the diet increased. Daily CH₄ emissions tended to increase (476, 483, and 491 g/d for cows fed 0% AS, 50% AS, and 100% AS, respectively) linearly as cows were fed increasing proportions of AS. Methane production adjusted for dry matter intake (average=19.8 g/kg) or gross energy intake (average=5.83%) was not affected by increasing AS inclusion

  16. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  17. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring c

  18. Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and cultural studies. Major conclusions showed that the beauty myth since the Dutch colonial period never been change. The main concept is always in colonialism’s idea: “white is better”. The West is better than the East.

  19. Adding linear orders

    CERN Document Server

    Shelah, Saharon

    2011-01-01

    We address the following question: Can we expand an NIP theory by adding a linear order such that the expansion is still NIP? Easily, if acl(A)=A for all A, then this is true. Otherwise, we give counterexamples. More precisely, there is a totally categorical theory for which every expansion by a linear order has IP. There is also an \\omega-stable NDOP theory for which every expansion by a linear order interprets bounded arithmetic.

  20. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the potassium in your diet or use salt substitutes (which often contain potassium). People who have kidney ... consume. Alternative Names Hypertension - diet Images DASH diet Low sodium diet References American Heart Association Nutrition Committee; Lichtenstein ...

  1. AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for the volumes. We also find...

  2. Prepartum concentrate supplementation of a diet based on medium-quality grass silage: Effects on performance, health, fertility, metabolic function, and immune function of low body condition score cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Welsh, M D; Barley, J; Meade, K G; Ferris, C P

    2016-09-01

    When cows with a "higher" body condition score (BCS) are oversupplied with energy during the dry period, postpartum energy balance is normally reduced, which can have a detrimental effect on immune competence and increase the infectious disease risk. However, within grassland-based systems higher yielding cows frequently have a low BCS at drying off. The effects on performance, health, and metabolic and immune functions of providing additional energy to cows with low BCS during the dry period is less certain. To address this uncertainty, 53 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (mean BCS of 2.5; 1-5 scale) were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments at dry-off: silage only or silage plus concentrates. Cows on the silage-only treatment were offered ad libitum access to medium-quality grass silage. Cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment were offered ad libitum access to a mixed ration comprising the same grass silage plus concentrates [in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], which provided a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day. Postpartum, cows were offered a common mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (in a 40:60 DM ratio) for a 70-d period. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased DM intake, tended to increase energy balance, and increased body weight (BW) and BCS gain prepartum. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased BW and BCS loss postpartum and tended to increase milk fat percentage and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration, but it did not affect postpartum DM intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Although the percentage of phagocytosis-positive neutrophils did not differ, neutrophils from cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment had higher phagocytic fluorescence intensity at 1 and 2 wk postpartum and higher phagocytic index at 1 wk postpartum. Serum haptoglobin concentrations and IFN-γ production by pokeweed mitogen stimulated whole blood culture were unaffected by treatment, although haptoglobin

  3. [Western diet and Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrino, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Alzheimer Disease, characterised by a global impairment of cognitive functions, is more and more common in Western societies, both because of longer life expectancy and, probably, because of increasing incidence. Several hints suggest that this degenerative disease is linked to western diet, characterised by excessive dietary intake of sugar, refined carbohydrates (with high glycaemic index), and animal product (with high content of saturated fats), and decreased intake of unrefined seeds--cereals, legumes, and oleaginous seeds--and other vegetables (with high content of fibres, vitamins, polyphenols and other antioxidant substances, phytoestrogens) and, in several populations, of sea food (rich in n-3 fatty acids). It has been hypothesised, in fact, that AD, may be promoted by insulin resistance, decreased endothelial production of nitric oxide, free radical excess, inflammatory metabolites, homocysteine, and oestrogen deficiency. AD, therefore, could theoretically be prevented (or delayed) by relatively simple dietary measures aimed at increasing insulin sensitivity (trough reduction of refined sugars and saturated fats from meat and dairy products), the ratio between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (e.g. from fish and respectively seed oils), antioxidant vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B6, phytoestrogens (vegetables, whole cereals, and legumes, including soy products), vitamin B12 (bivalve molluscs, liver), and Cr, K, Mg, and Si salts. This comprehensive improvement of diet would fit with all the mechanistic hypotheses cited above. Several studies, on the contrary, are presently exploring monofactorial preventive strategies with specific vitamin supplementation or hormonal drugs, without, however, appreciable results.

  4. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  5. Atividade microbiana cecal e contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes de fibra e níveis de amido Caecal microbial activity and caecotrophy nutritional contribution in rabbits fed diets with different starch levels and fiber sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo a avaliação da atividade microbiana cecal e a contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de amido (22 a 32% em média mediante a inclusão de milho grão e diferentes fontes de fibra (feno de alfafa ou casca de soja, em esquema fatorial 2x2. No primeiro experimento, 40 coelhos alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados à vontade dos 45 aos 85 dias de idade, foram abatidos para coleta dos conteúdos ileais e cecais. A concentração de ácidos graxos voláteis foi influenciada pela interação entre tratamentos, sendo 93,82 mmol/l para ração de maior nível de amido com casca de soja e 80,03 mmol/l para ração de menor nível de amido com feno de alfafa. No segundo experimento, 40 coelhos aos 65 dias de idade, alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram alimentados à vontade por 10 dias, e receberam colares de madeira para permitir a coleta total de cecotrofos. Houve influência da interação entre tratamentos sobre os teores de proteína e energia dos cecotrofos, sendo de 29,66% e 4204,87 kcal/kg para ração contendo maiores níveis de amido e casca de soja e de 27,98% e 4080,46 kcal/kg para ração contendo menores níveis de amido e feno de alfafa. As rações de alto amido ou com casca de soja propiciaram maior enriquecimento do conteúdo cecal e melhor aporte nutricional para os coelhos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the caecal microbial activity and caecotrophy nutritional contribution in rabbits fed diets with differents starch levels (22 or 32% on average from a high or low inclusion of corn grain and differents fiber sources (alfalfa hay or soybean hulls, in a 2x2 factorial design. In the first experiment, 40 rabbits were individually housed in fattening cages within entirely randomized design, and fed ad libitum from 45 to 85

  6. Pathologies in Lovelock AdS Black Branes and AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    We study the pathologies in AdS black branes in Lovelock theory. More precisely, we examine the conditions that AdS black branes have the naked singularity, the ghost instability and the dynamical instability. From the point of view of the AdS/CFT correspondence, the pathologies in AdS black branes indicate the pathologies in the corresponding CFT. Hence, we need to be careful when we apply AdS/CFT in Lovelock theory to various phenomena such as the shear viscosity to entropy ratio in strongly coupled quantum filed theory.

  7. Norse Greenland dietary economy ca. AD 980-ca. AD 1450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arneborg, J.; Lynnerup, Niels; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    An initial study of the C values for human bone collagen of 27 Norse Greenlanders in the late 1990s suggested a change in the Norse diet from predominantly terrestrial to predominantly marine food. This shift may well indicate a change in diet; the question left open by the limited initial isotop...

  8. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The article asks whether it is not the responsibility of corporations to address the issue of women being underrepresented in Danish management jobs. In other words, it is argued that corporations should be encouraged to engage more actively in the recruitment of both men and women for management...... that this agreement reflects a high degree of conservatism in the system where men enjoy a considerable advantage and where procedures that ensure male dominance are perpetuated even in the linguistic and discursive construction of job ads....

  9. Value-Added Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolfs Bems; Robert C. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates the conceptual foundations for measuring real effective exchange rates (REERs) to allow for vertical specialization in trade. We derive a value-added REER describing how demand for the value added that a country produces changes as the price of its value added changes relative to competitors. We then compute this index for 42 countries from 1970-2009 using trade measured in value added terms and GDP deflators. There are substantial differences between value-added and conven...

  10. An $xp$ model on $AdS_2$ spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the $xp$ model on the AdS$_2$ spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, equal in magnitude, given by a harmonic oscillator with a zero point energy parameterized by the AdS radius, measured in units of a fundamental length of the model. We also construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS$_2$ spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.

  11. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  12. 生酮饮食添加治疗儿童癫痫性痉挛临床和随访研究%Clinical obsevr ation and follow-ups tudy of ketogenic diet adding treatment for epileptic spasms in chil-dren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩彤立; 徐曼婷; 陈春红; 王晓慧; 丁昌红; 方方

    2016-01-01

    目的:初步了解生酮饮食( ketogenic diet,KD)添加治疗对儿童癫痫性痉挛的短期疗效、不良反应及依从性。方法对2012年7月至2014年12月在我院接受KD添加治疗的20例癫痫性痉挛患儿,总结其临床特点,并临床随访。结果20例癫痫性痉挛患儿,男14例,女6例,年龄10个月至8岁2个月,<1岁2例,~3岁10例,~6岁5例,>6岁3例。隐源性癫痫12例,围生期脑损伤6例,先天性脑发育畸形及重症病毒性脑炎后遗症各1例。20例患儿均以痉挛发作为主要发作形式,其中7例患儿同时伴随其他发作形式,包括部分性发作泛化全身、阵挛发作、强直发作、不典型失神、不典型失神持续状态。19例患儿诊断为婴儿痉挛症或晚发性癫痫性痉挛,1例诊断为Lennox-Gaustaut综合征。20例患儿病程最短11 d,最长7年9个月。1例患儿因口服抗癫痫药物后短期(11 d)出现较严重肝功损害,予KD治疗,余患儿均为难治性癫痫。20例患儿中6例完全缓解,占30%,1例患儿癫痫发作明显改善,达Engel分级Ⅱ级。12例患儿大运动能力进步,6例患儿同时出现语言能力进步。主要不良反应为消化道症状和代谢紊乱,均较轻微,无严重不良反应。治疗疗程>6个月者8例,其中4例仍继续治疗,其余12例因短期治疗无效、饮食不耐受、腹泻、治疗过程中饮食控制欠佳及复发等原因终止治疗。结论 KD添加治疗对癫痫性痉挛治疗有效,短期内尚未观察到严重不良反应。还需要加强长期管理,改善饮食配方,提高优质脂肪比例,对更大样本进行更长时间临床观察,为癫痫性痉挛患儿提供更好的治疗方案及更多治疗选择。%Objective To preliminarily study the efficacy and sfa ety of ketogenic diet( KD) adding treatment for epileptic spasm s in children.Methods The clinical features,efficacies,side effects and compli

  13. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, Riccardo; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefanski, Bogdan; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3 x S3 x T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly-coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their sub-leading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results, and co

  14. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  15. Chaos and hydrodynamics near AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    We revisit AdS$_2$ holography with the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models in mind. Our main result is to rewrite a generic theory of gravity near an AdS$_2$ throat as a novel hydrodynamics coupled to the correlation functions of a conformal quantum mechanics. This gives a prescription for the computation of $n$-point functions in the dual quantum mechanics. We thereby find that the dual is maximally chaotic.

  16. Quantum Field Theory and Unification in AdS5

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa; Randall, Lisa; Schwartz, Matthew D.

    2001-01-01

    We consider gauge bosons in the bulk of AdS5 in a two-brane theory that addresses the hierarchy problem. We show such a theory can be consistent with gauge coupling unification at a high scale. We discuss subtleties in this calculation and show how to regulate consistently in a bounded AdS5 background. Our regularization is guided by the holographic dual of the calculation.

  17. The influence of diet on Lawsonia intracellularis colonization in pigs upon experimental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Henriette T; Jensen, Tim K; Schmidt, Anja S; Jensen, Bent B; Jensen, Søren M; Møller, Kristian

    2004-10-05

    The objective of this investigation was to study if different feeding strategies influence experimental infections of pigs with Lawsonia intracellularis, the causative agent of proliferative enteropathy. In three sequential trials, a total of 144 weaned pigs were fed five different diets all made from a standard diet based on wheat and barley as carbohydrate source and soybean as protein source. The five diets were: a standard diet (fine ground and pelleted), the standard diet fed as fermented liquid feed, the standard diet added 1.8% formic acid, the standard diet added 2.4% lactic acid and a diet similar to the standard diet (made from the same ingredients), but fed coarse ground. Twenty-four pigs on each diet were orally inoculated with L. intracellularis and growth performance and faecal excretion of bacteria were monitored. Twenty-four pigs fed the standard diet were included as not experimentally infected controls. Pigs in the first two trials were sacrificed 4 weeks post-inoculation, whereas animals in the third trial were sacrificed after 5 weeks. Pigs in all experimentally infected groups excreted L. intracellularis. The fermented liquid diet delayed the excretion of L. intracellularis and furthermore, pigs fed the standard diet supplemented with lactic acid had limited pathological lesions when the intestines were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The growth performance was reduced in pigs experimentally challenged with L. intracellularis, however the prevalence and severity of diarrhea was limited.

  18. The Effect of Triticale and Enzyme Cocktail (Xylanase & β-Glucanase Replacement in Grower Diet on Performance, Digestive Organ Relative Weight, Gut Viscosity and Gut Morphology of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Zarghi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Corn and wheat are the grains most routinely used in commercial poultry diets. For consumption of these cereals, there are a competition between humans and mono-gastric animals. Due to corn crop limitation in Iran, approximately 50% of the corn required for poultry nutrition is supplied through imports. Since triticale is more resistant to various diseases, dry weather and in similar culture and weather conditions can produce higher yield than wheat, triticale considered as a crop suitable for cultivation in inefficient lands and its culture in the world has being increased. The use of triticale in broiler feed has been limited because of the presence of soluble non-starch polysaccharides components. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different replacement levels of corn by triticale in grower diets with and without exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth performance, relative weight of digestive organs, jejunal morphology, and intestinal viscosity of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods Five hundred 11 d old male broiler chicks (Ross 308, were assigned to a factorial arrangement (5×2 with a completely randomized design with 5 replicates of 10 chicks each. The factors included 5 levels of triticale replacement levels for corn (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% and 2 levels (zero and 0.5 g /kg of diet of enzyme cocktail “Xylanase & β-Glucanase” in the broiler grower diets. The experimental diets were isocalric and isonitrogenous and fed ad-libitum from 11 to 24 d of age. The growth performance as mean body weight at 24 d of age, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were calculated. At 24d of age, one bird from each pen, close to the average pen weight was selected, weighed, and euthanized by cervical dislocation. The gastrointestinal (GI tract organs were emptied and weighed. Approximately 1.5 g of wet weight of the fresh digesta was immediately placed in a micro centrifuge tube and

  19. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet....

  20. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  1. What do government agencies consider in the debate over added sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The place of sugars in the U.S. diet is vigorously debated with much attention on added sugars, those added during processing or preparation of foodstuffs, particularly as they relate to obesity. Federal government agencies have different responsibilities related to the food supply including researc...

  2. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channel activity in brain cells of adult offspring mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Juan A; Busso, Dolores; Ramírez, Gigliola; Campos, Marlys; Rigotti, Attilio; Eugenín, Jaime; von Bernhardi, Rommy

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine, the most important neuroteratogen of tobacco smoke, can reproduce brain and cognitive disturbances per se when administered prenatally. However, it is still unknown if paracrine signaling among brain cells participates in prenatal nicotine-induced brain impairment of adult offspring. Paracrine signaling is partly mediated by unopposed channels formed by connexins hemichannels (HCs) and pannexins serving as aqueous pores permeable to ions and small signaling molecules, allowing exchange between the intra- and extracellular milieus. Our aim was to address whether prenatal nicotine exposure changes the activity of those channels in adult mice offspring under control conditions or subjected to a second challenge during young ages: high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet. To induce prenatal exposure to nicotine, osmotic minipumps were implanted in CF1 pregnant mice at gestational day 5 to deliver nicotine bitartrate or saline (control) solutions. After weaning, offspring of nicotine-treated or untreated pregnant mice were fed ad libitum with chow or HFC diets for 8 weeks. The functional state of connexin 43 (Cx43) and pannexin 1 (Panx1) unopposed channels was evaluated by dye uptake experiments in hippocampal slices from 11-week-old mice. We found that prenatal nicotine increased the opening of Cx43 HCs in astrocytes, and Panx1 channels in microglia and neurons only if offspring mice were fed with HFC diet. Blockade of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E receptor 1 (EP1), ionotropic ATP receptor type 7 (P2X7) and NMDA receptors, showed differential inhibition of prenatal nicotine-induced channel opening in glial cells and neurons. Importantly, inhibition of the above mentioned enzymes and receptors, or blockade of Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels greatly reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glutamate release from hippocampal slices of prenatally nicotine-exposed offspring. We propose that unregulated gliotransmitter

  3. Dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in substitution of goat milk and slaughtered at different ages: an economic viability analysis using Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, L S; Veloso, C M; Marcondes, M I; Silveira, T S; Silva, A L; Souza, N O; Knupp, S N R; Cannas, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the economic viability of producing dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in alternative of goat milk and slaughtered at two different ages. Forty-eight male newborn Saanen and Alpine kids were selected and allocated to four groups using a completely randomized factorial design: goat milk (GM), cow milk (CM), commercial milk replacer (CMR) and fermented cow colostrum (FC). Each group was then divided into two groups: slaughter at 60 and 90 days of age. The animals received Tifton hay and concentrate ad libitum. The values of total costs of liquid and solid feed plus labor, income and average gross margin were calculated. The data were then analyzed using the Monte Carlo techniques with the @Risk 5.5 software, with 1000 iterations of the variables being studied through the model. The kids fed GM and CMR generated negative profitability values when slaughtered at 60 days (US$ -16.4 and US$ -2.17, respectively) and also at 90 days (US$ -30.8 and US$ -0.18, respectively). The risk analysis showed that there is a 98% probability that profitability would be negative when GM is used. In this regard, CM and FC presented low risk when the kids were slaughtered at 60 days (8.5% and 21.2%, respectively) and an even lower risk when animals were slaughtered at 90 days (5.2% and 3.8%, respectively). The kids fed CM and slaughtered at 90 days presented the highest average gross income (US$ 67.88) and also average gross margin (US$ 18.43/animal). For the 60-day rearing regime to be economically viable, the CMR cost should not exceed 11.47% of the animal-selling price. This implies that the replacer cannot cost more than US$ 0.39 and 0.43/kg for the 60- and 90-day feeding regimes, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the variables with the greatest impact on the final model's results were animal selling price, liquid diet cost, final weight at slaughter and labor. In conclusion, the production of male dairy goat kids can be economically

  4. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...... diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and wholegrain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state....

  5. Seasonal variation of the effect of high-carbohydrate and high-protein diets on the intermediate metabolism of Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae maintained in the laboratory Variações sazonais do efeito de uma dieta rica em carboidrato e rica em proteínas no metabolismo intermediário de Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae mantidos em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana K. Dutra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high-carbohydrate diet (HC and a high-protein diet (HP on the metabolism of the crayfish Parastacus brasiliensis (Von Martens, 1869, collected in different seasons and maintained in the laboratory for 15 days. Crayfish were collected monthly from January 2002 to January 2004 at São Francisco de Paula, Southern Brazil, in Guarapirá stream. In the laboratory, the animals were kept submerged in aquariums under controlled conditions. They were fed ad libitum, for 15 days with either a HC or HP diet. At the end of this period, haemolymph samples were collected, as were hepatopancreas, gills, and abdominal muscle that were removed for determination of glycogen, free glucose, lipids, and triglycerides. The haemolymph samples were used for determination of glucose, proteins, lipids, and triglycerides. Statistical analysis (ANOVA revealed significant seasonal differences in biochemical composition in crayfish maintained on HC or HP diets. Independent of the diets offered to the animals and the controlled conditions for 15 days, the indications of seasonality were unchanged. The observed changes seemed to be related to the reproductive period. Moreover, the HC diet increased all energy reserves in adult parastacids, which may aid in reproduction.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dieta rica em carboidratos (HC e da dieta rica em proteínas (HP sobre o metabolismo do Parastacus brasiliensis (Von Martens, 1869 coletados em diferentes estações e mantidos durante 15 dias em laboratório. Os lagostins foram coletados mensalmente de Janeiro de 2002 a Janeiro de 2004 em São Francisco de Paula, Sul do Brasil, no riacho Guarapirá. No laboratório, os animais foram mantidos submersos em aquários sob condições controladas. Eles foram alimentados ad libitum por 15 dias com a dieta HC ou HP. Após o final do período, as amostras de hemolinfa foram coletadas, assim como o hepatopâncreas, as

  6. Effect of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on the productive and economic performance of autochthonous sheep breeds fed forage-based diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon; Joy, Margalida; Sanz Pascua, Albina; Blasco, Isabel; Ripoll, Guillermo; Álvarez Rodríguez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Sheep farming systems in Spain are experiencing an intensification process, characterised by a general selection criteria of enhancing prolificacy in ewes, and by increasing indoor feeding with concentrates to the detriment of grazing. This study evaluated the effects of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on productive and economic performance of a local sheep breed in different price scenarios. Ewes were fed forage hay ad libitum, without (in pre-partum period, PRE-HAY; and in post-...

  7. Action growth for AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  8. Vitamin A in diets for Nile tilapia Vitamina A em dietas para tilápia do Nilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ferraz Bacconi Campeche

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary vitamin supplementation decrease stress caused by high stocking density, and boosts immunological system of farmed fish. A studied was carried out to determine vitamin A requirements of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in an all male group (13.8 ± 1.2 g and a mixed sex population (9.8 ± 2.3 g. Fish stocked in 100-L plastic aquaria (26.0 ± 1.0ºC were fed to near satiety, twice a day, seven days a week, during 75 days with vitamin A-free, semi-purified diets supplemented with 0; 600; 1,200; 1,800; 2,400; 3,000; 3,600; 4,200; 4,800 and 5,400 International Units (IU of retinyl palmitate (30% vitamin A per kg of diet in a completely randomized experimental design, factorial arrangement 2c10 (n = 4. Deficiency signs of vitamin A were observed in fish fed 0 to 1.200 IU vitamin A kg-1 diet; moderate signs were observed in fish fed diets with 1.800 to 3.600 IU vitamin A kg-1 diet; no interactions group*level (p 0.05. A group effect was observed regarding all performance variables (p A suplementação de vitaminas na dieta diminui o estresse e estimula o sistema imunológico causado por altas densidades de estocagem dos peixes. Este trabalho determinou a exigência em vitamina A para a tilápia do Nilo em uma população monosexo masculina (13.8 ± 1.2 g e em uma população original (9.8 ± 2.3 g. Os peixes foram estocados em aquários plásticos de 100 L (26.0 ± 1.0ºC e alimentados "ad libitum", duas vezes ao dia, sete dias da semana, durante 75 dias com dieta semi-purificada suplementada com 0; 600; 1.200; 1.800; 2.400; 3.000; 3.600; 4.200; 4.800 e 5.400 UI de retinyl palmitato (30% de vitamina A por kg de dieta, em um delineamento experimental totalmente ao acaso e arranjo fatorial 2c10 (n = 4. Deficiência nutricional severa foi observada em peixes alimentados com 0 a 1.200 UI vitamina A kg-1 de dieta; sinais moderados foram encontrados em peixes alimentados com 1.800 a 3.600 UI vitamina A kg-1 de dieta; interações grupo*nível (p

  9. Complexity Growth for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We further investigate the Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture for stationary anti de-Sitter (AdS) black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general $D$-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Ba\\~{n}ados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a new complexity bound but leave unchanged the conjecture that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  10. AdS_5 Black Holes with Fermionic Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Burrington, B A; Sabra, W A; Burrington, Benjamin A.; Liu, James T.

    2004-01-01

    The study of new BPS objects in AdS_5 has led to a deeper understanding of AdS/CFT. To help complete this picture, and to fully explore the consequences of the supersymmetry algebra, it is also important to obtain new solutions with bulk fermions turned on. In this paper we construct superpartners of the 1/2 BPS black hole in AdS_5 using a natural set of fermion zero modes. We demonstrate that these superpartners, carrying fermionic hair, have conserved charges differing from the original bosonic counterpart. To do so, we find the R-charge and dipole moment of the new system, as well as the mass and angular momentum, defined through the boundary stress tensor. The complete set of superpartners fits nicely into a chiral representation of AdS_5 supersymmetry, and the spinning solutions have the expected gyromagnetic ratio, g=1.

  11. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS Black holes with Dirac hair

    CERN Document Server

    \\vCubrović, Mihailo; Schalm, Koenraad

    2010-01-01

    We provide new evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi Liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the spatially averaged AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at $\\ome_F$, we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m