WorldWideScience

Sample records for ad hoc wireless

  1. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  2. DAWN: Dynamic Ad-hoc Wireless Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-19

    Wireless Networks, , ( ): . doi: Ning Li, Jennifer C. Hou. Localized Topology Control Algorithms for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks, IEEE ...Multi-User Diversity in Single-Radio OFDMA AdHoc Networks Based on Gibbs Sampling, IEEE Milcom . 03-NOV-10, . : , TOTAL: 1 Number of Peer-Reviewed...Networks, ( ) Hui Xu, , Xianren Wu, , Hamid R. Sadjadpour, , J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, . A Unified Analysis of Routing Protocols inMANETs, IEEE

  3. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  4. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies

  5. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  6. Fundamental Properties of Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekmat, R.

    2005-01-01

    Wireless mobile ad-hoc networks are formed by mobile devices that set up a possibly short-lived network for communication needs of the moment. Ad-hoc networks are decentralized, self-organizing networks capable of forming a communication network without relying on any fixed infrastructure. Each nod

  7. Reliable adaptive multicast protocol in wireless Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc network environments, every link is wireless and every node is mobile. Those features make data lost easily as well as multicasting inefficient and unreliable. Moreover, Efficient and reliable multicast in wireless ad hoc network is a difficult issue. It is a major challenge to transmission delays and packet losses due to link changes of a multicast tree at the provision of high delivery ratio for each packet transmission in wireless ad hoc network environment.In this paper, we propose and evaluate Reliable Adaptive Multicast Protocol (RAMP) based on a relay node concept. Relay nodes are placed along the multicast tree. Data recovery is done between relay nodes. RAMP supports a reliable multicasting suitable for mobile ad hoc network by reducing the number of packet retransmissions. We compare RAMP with SRM (Scalable Reliable Multicast). Simulation results show that the RAMP has high delivery ratio and low end-to-end delay for packet transmission.

  8. Robust message routing for mobile (wireless) ad hoc networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Johnson, Michael M.; Kilman, Dominique Marie (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bierbaum, Neal Robert; Chen, Helen Y.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.; Tsang, Rose P.; Nicol, David M. (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL)

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of research targeting improvements in the robustness of message transport in wireless ad hoc networks. The first section of the report provides an analysis of throughput and latency in the wireless medium access control (MAC) layer and relates the analysis to the commonly used 802.11 protocol. The second section describes enhancements made to several existing models of wireless MAC and ad hoc routing protocols; the models were used in support of the work described in the following section. The third section of the report presents a lightweight transport layer protocol that is superior to TCP for use in wireless networks. In addition, it introduces techniques that improve the performance of any ad hoc source routing protocol. The fourth section presents a novel, highly scalable ad hoc routing protocol that is based on geographic principles but requires no localization hardware.

  9. IP ADDRESS AUTOCONFIGURATION FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿姆贾德

    2002-01-01

    A novel mechanism was specified by which a node in ad hoc network may autoconfigure an IP address which is unique throughout the mobile ad hoc network. This new algorithm imposes less and constant overhead and delay in obtaining an IP address, and fully utilizes the available addresses space of an ad hoc network, and independent of the existing routing protocol, and less prone to security threats. Moreover, a new Join/Leave mechanism was proposed as an enhancement to the new IP address autoconfiguration algorithm, to support the overall operation of the existing routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks.

  10. Mobility Prediction in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks using Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaniche, Heni

    2010-01-01

    Mobility prediction allows estimating the stability of paths in a mobile wireless Ad Hoc networks. Identifying stable paths helps to improve routing by reducing the overhead and the number of connection interruptions. In this paper, we introduce a neural network based method for mobility prediction in Ad Hoc networks. This method consists of a multi-layer and recurrent neural network using back propagation through time algorithm for training.

  11. Virtual reality mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ziyue; Gong Bo; He Xingui

    2008-01-01

    For wireless ad hoc networks simulation.node's mobility pattern and traffic pattern are two key elements.A new simulation model is presented based on the virtual reality collision detection algorithm in obstacle environment,and the model uses the path planning method to avoid obstacles and to compute the node's moving path.Obstacles also affect node's signal propagation.Considering these factors,this study implements the mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks.Simulation results show that the model has a significant impact on the performance of protocols.

  12. Study on Sinkhole Attacks in Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAGANDEEP

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically self-organize in arbitrary and temporary network topologies. As compared to conventional network, wireless ad hocnetwork are more vulnerable to the security attacks. The nature and structure of wireless ad hoc network makes it very attractive to attackers, because there is no fixed infrastructure and administrativeapproach in it. “Sinkhole attack” is one of the severe attacks in this type of network; this makes trustable nodes to malicious nodes that result in loss of secure information. This paper focuses on sinkhole attacks on routing protocols such as DSR, AODV. To overcome the problems occur due to sinkhole we discuss about Security-aware routing (SAR which helps to reduce the impact of such attack.

  13. Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. B. Nogales

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a cutting-edge technology used for implementing wireless ad hoc networks. In order to provide an overall scheme for mobile ad hoc networks, this paper deals with scatternet topology formation and routing algorithm to form larger ad hoc wireless Networks. Scatternet topology starts by forming a robust network, which is less susceptible to the problems posed by node mobility. Mobile topology relies on the presence of free nodes that create multiple connections with the network and on their subsequently rejoining the network. Our routing protocol is a proactive routing protocol, which is tailor made for the Bluetooth ad hoc network. The connection establishment connects nodes in a structure that simplifies packet routing and scheduling. The design allows nodes to arrive and leave arbitrarily, incrementally building the topology and healing partitions when they occur. We present simulation results that show that the algorithm presents low formation latency and also generates an efficient topology for forwarding packets along ad-hoc wireless networks.

  14. Energy management in wireless cellular and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Imran, Muhammad; Qaraqe, Khalid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates energy management approaches for energy efficient or energy-centric system design and architecture and presents end-to-end energy management in the recent heterogeneous-type wireless network medium. It also considers energy management in wireless sensor and mesh networks by exploiting energy efficient transmission techniques and protocols. and explores energy management in emerging applications, services and engineering to be facilitated with 5G networks such as WBANs, VANETS and Cognitive networks. A special focus of the book is on the examination of the energy management practices in emerging wireless cellular and ad hoc networks. Considering the broad scope of energy management in wireless cellular and ad hoc networks, this book is organized into six sections covering range of Energy efficient systems and architectures; Energy efficient transmission and techniques; Energy efficient applications and services. .

  15. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks Routing Protocols - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Jayakumar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks(MANET represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self organize into arbitrary and temporary ad-hoc network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internet work in areas with no preexisting communication infrastructure e.g., disaster recovery environments. An ad-hoc network is not a new one, having been around in various forms for over 20 years. Traditionally, tactical networks have been the only communication networking application that followed the ad-hoc paradigm. Recently the introduction of new technologies such as Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11 and hyperlan are helping enable eventual commercial MANET deployments outside the military domain. These recent revolutions have been generating a renewed and growing interest in the research and development of MANET. To facilitate communication within the network a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The goal of the routing protocol is to have an efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes, so that messages can be delivered in a timely manner. Bandwidth and power constraints are the important factors to be considered in current wireless network because multi-hop ad-hoc wireless relies on each node in the network to act as a router and packet forwarder. This dependency places bandwidth, power computation demands on mobile host to be taken into account while choosing the protocol. Routing protocols used in wired network cannot be used for mobile ad-hoc networks because of node mobility. The ad-hoc routing protocols are divided into two classes: table driven and demand based. This paper reviews and discusses routing protocol belonging to each category.

  16. Access Point Security Service for wireless ad-hoc communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, J.; Nijdam, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a security solution for ad-hoc peer-to-peer communication. The security solution is based on a scenario where two wireless devices require secure communication, but share no security relationship a priori. The necessary requirements for the secur

  17. Recent development in wireless sensor and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong; Yang, Yeon-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of numerous physically distributed autonomous devices used for sensing and monitoring the physical and/or environmental conditions. A WSN uses a gateway that provides wireless connectivity to the wired world as well as distributed networks. There are many open problems related to Ad-Hoc networks and its applications. Looking at the expansion of the cellular infrastructure, Ad-Hoc network may be acting as the basis of the 4th generation wireless technology with the new paradigm of ‘anytime, anywhere communications’. To realize this, the real challenge would be the security, authorization and management issues of the large scale WSNs. This book is an edited volume in the broad area of WSNs. The book covers various chapters like Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks, its Coverage, Connectivity as well as Deployment. It covers comparison of various communication protocols and algorithms such as MANNET, ODMRP and ADMR Protocols for Ad hoc Multicasting, Location Based C...

  18. Multicost Routing Approach in Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ramamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A Wireless ad hoc network is a collection of autonomous movable nodes that communicate with each other over wireless links without any static infrastructure. In these networks there is no fixed topology because of the mobility of nodes, interference, multipath propagation and path loss. A variety of routing protocols and algorithm with varying network settings are analyzed to link between the nodes and communicate packets to their destinations. Most of these algorithms are single cost, in the logic that they consign a scalar cost parameter to every link and compute the path that has minimum cost. Although multicost routing, a vector of cost parameters is consigned to each link and the cost vector of a path is well-defined based on the cost vectors of the links that embrace it. Adjustable transmission power control of the nodes with multi cost routing algorithm can support optimizeto acquire the reduced interference and improve the ad hoc network performance. Approach: The link and path of the wireless network is consigned with several cost parameters. Hop count, total interference, node link delay, residual energy of a node and the node transmission power are the cost parameters assigned for link and path of the ad hoc networks. Multicost parameters are combined in different optimization function with respect to various routing algorithm. Results: Simulation and optimization shows multicost SUM/MIN Energy-Interference algorithm with variable transmission power can lead to decrease the interference and improves the overall network performance. Conclusion: The function optimized for wireless ad hoc networks that the Multicost SUM/MIN Energy-Interference algorithm achieves improved performance over than the single cost algorithm.

  19. Interference in wireless ad hoc networks with smart antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of directional antennas in wireless ad hoc networks can actually increase interference due to limitations of virtual carrier sensing. We derive a simple mathematical expression for interference in both physical and virtual carrier sense networks, which reveals counter-intuitively that receivers in large dense networks with directional antennas can experience larger interference than in omnidirectional networks unless the beamwidth is sufficiently small. Validity of mathematical analysis is confirmed using simulations.

  20. ON THE CAPACITY REGION OF WIRELESS AD HOC RELAY NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Qinyun; Yao Wangsheng; Peng Jianmin; Su Gang

    2006-01-01

    Network capacity is a key characteristic to evaluate the performance of wireless networks. The goal of this paper is to study the capacity of wireless ad hoc relay network. In the model, there is at most ns source nodes transmitting signal simultaneously in the network and the arbitrarily complex network coding is allowed. The upper capacity bound of the network model are derived from the max-flow min-cut theorem and the lower capacity bound are obtained by the rate-distortion function for the Gaussian source. Finally, simulation results show that the upper network capacity will decrease as the number of source nodes is increased.

  1. Wireless ad hoc and sensor networks management, performance, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been employed across a wide range of applications, there are very few books that emphasize the algorithm description, performance analysis, and applications of network management techniques in WSNs. Filling this need, Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Management, Performance, and Applications summarizes not only traditional and classical network management techniques, but also state-of-the-art techniques in this area. The articles presented are expository, but scholarly in nature, including the appropriate history background, a review of current

  2. MWAHCA: a multimedia wireless ad hoc cluster architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Juan R; Lloret, Jaime; Jimenez, Jose M; Sendra, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node's capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss). The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.

  3. MWAHCA: A Multimedia Wireless Ad Hoc Cluster Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node’s capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss. The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.

  4. Analysis on Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N.Renjith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Outlook of wireless communication system marked an extreme transform with the invention of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. WSN is a promising technolog y for enabling a variety of applications like environmental monitoring, security and applications that save our lives and assets. In WSN, large numbers of sensor nodes are deployed to sensing and gathering information and forward them to the base station with the help of routing protocol. Routing protocols plays a major role by identifying and maintaining the routes in the network. Competence o f sensor networks relay on the strong and effective routing protocol used. In this paper, we present a simulation based performance evaluation of differen t Ad hoc routing protocols like AODV, DYMO, FSR, LANM AR, RIP and ZRP in Wireless Sensor Networks. Based on the study, the future research areas and k ey challenges for routing protocol in WSN are to optimize network performance for QoS support and en ergy conservation

  5. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeone O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  6. A Smart Booster Approach In Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzar Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc network is upcoming next generation technology. The foremost reason to be the popularity of MANET is its infrastructure less nature. MANET is a group of wireless mobile nodes which are connected wirelessly. Nodes may be highly mobile because the beauty of wireless network (like MANET or cellular system lies in mobility. But due to this mobility of nodes, the topology of the node and network changed frequently. This frequent change topology affect to the communication between nodes. If nodes are within the range of each other they can communicate properly but if nodes are not in the range of each other, communication will not be possible smoothly or even ongoing communication may be disrupt or lost. So there is a need to develop and design a mechanism or system that can handle such types of situation and prevent communication failure or frequent link failure. In the present work a novel booster mechanism approach is proposed to overcome such situation or Link failure. In the proposed Approach, the level of the Power at both the Transmitter as well as Receiver is measured in order to maintain communication smooth between the nodes. If one node is moving away from the communicating node then both moving node will measure its receiving power with respect to the distance and if its current power level reaches the threshold level it switched “ON” its Booster and at the same time it send a message to source node which contains received power level of moving node due to this ,that source node also “ON” its Booster and thus both nodes connect together to protect the link failure during that mobility. The Booster Approach is a novel concept in the direction of smooth communication in dynamic or wireless environment in Mobile Ad hoc Network.

  7. Wireless sensor and ad hoc networks under diversified network scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Due to significant advantages, including convenience, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the implementation and use of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks have gained steep growth in recent years. This timely book presents the current state-of-the-art in these popular technologies, providing you with expert guidance for your projects in the field. You find broad-ranging coverage of important concepts and methods, definitions of key terminology, and a look at the direction of future research. Supported with nearly 150 illustrations, the book discusses a variety of critical topics, from topology

  8. Dynamic Carpooling Using Wireless Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek V. Potnis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in awareness about the conservation of natural resources in today’s world, has led to carpooling becoming a widely followed practice. Carpooling refers to sharing of a vehicle with other passengers, thus reducing the fuel costs endured by the passengers, had they traveled individually. Carpooling helps reduce fuel consumption, thereby helping conserve the natural resources. Conventional Carpooling Portals require the users to register themselves and input their desired departure and destination points. These portals maintain a database of the users and map them with the users, who have registered for their cars to be pooled. This paper proposes a decentralized method of dynamic carpooling using the Wireless Ad-hoc Network, instead of having the users to register on a Web Portal. The user’s device, requesting for the carpool service can directly talk to another user’s device, providing the pooled car, using the Wireless Ad-hoc Network, thereby eliminating the need for the user to connect to the internet to access the web portal.

  9. CAPACITY EVALUATION OF MULTI-CHANNEL WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jiandong; Zygmunt J. Haas; Min Sheng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the capacity of multi-channel, multi-hop ad hoc network is evaluated.In particular, the performance of multi-hop ad hoc network with single channel IEEE 802.11MAC utilizing different topologies is shown. Also the scaling laws of throughputs for large-scale ad hoc networks and the theoretical guaranteed throughput bounds for multi-channel gridtopology systems are proposed. The results presented in this work will help researchers to choosethe proper parameter settings in evaluation of protocols for multi-hop ad hoc networks.

  10. A peer-to-peer file search and download protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, H.; Tekkalmaz, M.; Korpeoglu, I.

    2009-01-01

    Deployment of traditional peer-to-peer file sharing systems on a wireless ad-hoc network introduces several challenges. Information and workload distribution as well as routing are major problems for members of a wireless ad-hoc network, which are only aware of their immediate neighborhood. In this

  11. The Evolution of IDS Solutions in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks To Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novarun Deb

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The domain of wireless networks is inherently vulnerable to attacks due to the unreliable wireless medium. Such networks can be secured from intrusions using either prevention or detection schemes. This paper focuses its study on intrusion detection rather than prevention of attacks. As attackers keep onimprovising too, an active prevention method alone cannot provide total security to the system. Here in lies the importance of intrusion detection systems (IDS that are solely designed to detect intrusions in real time. Wireless networks are broadly classified into Wireless Ad-hoc Networks (WAHNs, Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and the most recent Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs. Several IDS solutions have been proposed for these networks. This paper is an extension to a survey of IDS solutions for MANETs and WMNs published earlier in the sense that the present survey offers a comparative insight of recent IDS solutions for all the sub domains of wireless networks.

  12. A Comparision Study of Common Routing Protocols Used In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Alhadidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and compare performance of both reactive and proactive Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs routing protocols using different environments. Wireless networks are divided into two types: infrastructure and ad hoc network. In wireless ad hoc networks each node can be a sender, router and receiver, so these types of network are less structure compared to infrastructure network. Therefore wireless ad hoc networks need special routing protocols to overcome the limitations of wireless ad hoc networks. Wireless ad hoc networks routing protocols can be categorized into two types: reactive (on demand routing protocols and proactive routing protocols. In proactive routing protocols the nodes periodically send control messages across the network to build routing table. Different routing protocols have been simulated using GloMoSim (Global Mobile Information system simulation library and PARSEC compiler. Five multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols have been simulated to cover a range of design choices: Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP, Fisheye State Routing (FSR, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV and Location Aided Routing (LAR. The protocols are evaluated in different environments to investigate performance metrics. Performance metric includes the following aspects: packets deliver ratio, end-to-end delay and end-to-end throughput.

  13. Cluster-based Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Wu; Zhisheng Liu; Yongxin Feng; Guangxing Wang

    2004-01-01

    There are inherent vulnerabilities that are not easily preventable in the mobile Ad-Hoc networks.To build a highly secure wireless Ad-Hoc network,intrusion detection and response techniques need to be deployed;The intrusion detection and cluster-based Ad-Hoc networks has been introduced,then,an architecture for better intrusion detection based on cluster using Data Mining in wireless Ad-Hoc networks has been shown. A statistical anomaly detection approach has been used.The anomaly detection and trace analysis have been done locally in each node and possibly through cooperation with clusterhead detection in the network.

  14. Enhancing the performance of ad hoc wireless networks with smart antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Somprakash; Ueda, Tetsuro

    2006-01-01

    A large portion of the network capacity of an ad hoc network can be wasted by the medium access mechanisms of omni-directional antennas. To overcome this problem, researchers propose the use of directional or adaptive antennas that largely reduce radio interference, improving the utilization of wireless medium and the resulting network throughput.Enhancing the Performance of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks with Smart Antennas discusses these issues and challenges. Following an introduction to ad hoc networks, it presents an overview of basic Media Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols in ad hoc

  15. Journey from Mobile Ad Hoc Networks to Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfang; Xie, Bin; Agrawal, Dharma P.

    A wireless mesh network (WMN) is a particular type of mobile ad hoc network (MANET), which aims to provide ubiquitous high bandwidth access for a large number of users. A pure MANET is dynamically formed by mobile devices without the requirement of any existing infrastructure or prior network configuration. Similar to MANETs, a WMN also has the ability of self-organization, self-discovering, self-healing, and self-configuration. However, a WMN is typically a collection of stationary mesh routers (MRs) with each employing multiple radios. Some MRs have wired connections and act as the Internet gateways (IGWs) to provide Internet connectivity for other MRs. These new features of WMNs over MANETs enable them to be a promising alternative for high broadband Internet access. In this chapter, we elaborate on the evolution from MANETs to WMNs and provide a comprehensive understanding of WMNs from theoretical aspects to practical protocols, while comparing it with MANETs. In particular, we focus on the following critical issues with respect to WMN deployment: Network Capacity, Positioning Technique, Fairness Transmission and Multiradio Routing Protocols. We end this chapter with some open problems and future directions in WMNs.

  16. Handbook on theoretical and algorithmic aspects of sensor, ad hoc wireless, and peer-to-peer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jie

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceAD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKSA Modular Cross Layer Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks, M. Conti, J. Crowcroft, G. Maselli, and G. TuriRouting Scalability in MANETs, J. Eriksson, S. Krishnamurthy and M. FaloutsosUniformly Distributed Algorithm for Virtual Backbone Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, D.S. KimMaximum Necessary Hop Count for Packet Routing in MANET, X. Chen and J. ShenEfficient Strategyproof Multicast in Selfish Wireless Networks, X.-Yang LiGeocasting in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, I. StojmenovicTopology Control for Ad hoc Networks: Present Solutions and Open Issues, C.-C. Shen a

  17. DESAIN ALGORITMA DAN SIMULASI ROUTING UNTUK GATEWAY AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixson Meok

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available   Routing protocol to the wireless ad hoc networks is very needed in the communication process between some terminals, to send the data packet through one or several node(s to the destination address where the network typology is always changing. Many previous works that discussed about routing ad hoc both for manet (mobile ad hoc networks and wireless networks, but the emphasis have more focus on comparing the performance of several routing ad hoc. While in this work, there is a bulding of routing algorithm model to gateway in land to the nodes that analogized as a boat that move on the sea. With the assumption that the communication inter terminals to radio band of Very High Frequency, thus algorithm that built in the simulation based on the range gap of the HF frequency. The result of this simulation will be developed as the platform to implement the service development of multiuser communication

  18. Research on multihop wireless ad hoc network and its routing protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zhu, Qiuping

    2004-04-01

    An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without using any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Because of its acentric, self-organized, fast deployable and mobile property, people are paying more attention to the using of ad hoc network in the emergency. In such an environment, multiple networks "hops" may be needed for one node to exchange data with another across the network, due to the limited range of each mobile node"s wireless transmissions. So for an ad hoc network, a rational routing protocol is especially important. The paper will analyze the character of ad hoc network and the special requirement for communication protocols. Toward the routing protocols, this paper presents four multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols that cover a range of design choices: DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector), TORA (Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm), DSR (Dynamic Source Routing), and AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector). After thoroughly analyzed the network structure and routing protocols, the paper gives the proposal of a new hybrid routing protocol and the view for future work.

  19. Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Raminder P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.

  20. Topology-Transparent Transmission Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-lei; WANG Chun-jiang; LIU Yuan-an; MA Lei-lei

    2005-01-01

    In order to maximize the average throughput and minimize the transmission slot delay in wireless Ad Hoc networks,an optimal topology-transparent transmission scheduling algorithm-multichannel Time-Spread Multiple Access(TSMA)is proposed.Further analysis is shown that the maximum degree is very sensitive to the network performance for a wireless Ad Hoc networks with N mobile nodes.Moreover,the proposed multichannel TSMA can improve the average throughput M times and decrease the average transmission slot delay M times,as compared with singlechannel TSMA when M channels are available.

  1. Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Santi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks: Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks provides the reader with an overview of mobility modelling, encompassing both theoretical and practical aspects related to the challenging mobility modelling task. It also: Provides up-to-date coverage of mobility models for next generation wireless networksOffers an in-depth discussion of the most representative mobility models for major next generation wireless network application scenarios, including WLAN/mesh networks, vehicular networks, wireless sensor networks, and

  2. Utilization of AODV in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad M. Alfawaer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AODV is a mature and widely accepted routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET, it has low processing and memory overhead and low network utilization, and works well even in high mobility situation. We modified AODV to use these dominating sets, resulting in the AODV-DS protocol. Our contribution in addressing the fragility of a minimum connected dominating set in the presence of mobility and cross-traffic. We develop three heuristics to fortify the dominating set process against loss by re-introducing some redundancy using a least-first set cover rather than a greedy set cover. AODV-DS exhibits about a 70% savings in RREQ traffic while maintaining the same or better latency and delivery ratio for 30 source nodes in a graph of 50 nodes. It was also about as fair as conventional AODV in distributing the RREQ burden among all nodes, except in cases of low-mobility and few source nodes. For low-mobility networks, it was not as fair to forwarding nodes as AODV, but better than AODV with Dominant Pruning (DP.

  3. Efficient Optimal Packet Management in Distributed Wireless Ad-Hoc Environment using DST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Amudhavel,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective Packet Management (PM is widely used in distributed wireless environments to reduce the access costs and improve data availability. Therefore, packet transmission in wireless environment becomes one of the important challenges for effective data transfer and maintaining the reliability of data . This paper addresses theissues in maintaining the effective packet management in the wireless ad hoc network environments and proposes an effective solution for the same using an optimization technique. The proposed approach concentrates on effective packet management in the dynamic environment and maintaining local consistency issues which occur in the Distributed Wireless Ad-Hoc network environment. Therefore, this paper evaluates the efficiency of existing techniques, and proposes a more efficient local packet management algorithm. The new algorithm leverages existing techniques which are shown to be efficient. This paper also addresses the advantages and disadvantages of various packet management and its issues.

  4. Throughput of 802.11g wireless devices in ad hoc mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Brian B.; Hardy, Rommie L.

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has used IEEE 802.11g standard wireless LANs for implementation in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). One common problem with the use of 802.11g wireless devices is maintaining a high operational throughput over distances. In this paper, we assess the throughput performance of four 802.11g wireless network interface cards (NIC) performing in ad-hoc mode and an outdoor environment. This assessment was based on characteristics of NICs, such as chipset, signal amplification, and antenna diversity over various operating distances. The assessment showed that antenna diversity for outdoor environment has no throughput improvement, and amplification did not always improve data rates. The wireless communication with small buffer size minimizes fluctuation of throughput date rate over large range of distances.

  5. Analysing the Behaviour and Performance of Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Highly Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun G Menon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wireless networks have enabled us to deploy and use mobile ad hoc networks for communication between the rescue officers in disaster recovery and reconstruction operations. This highly dynamic network does not require any infrastructure or centralized control. As the topology of the network remain dynamic, severe performance limitations incur with traditional routing strategies. Recently a new routing paradigm known as opportunistic routing protocols have been proposed to overcome these limitations and to provide efficient delivery of data in these highly dynamic ad hoc networks. Using the broadcasting nature of the wireless medium, this latest routing technique tries to address two major issues of varying link quality and unpredictable node mobility in ad hoc networks. Unlike conventional IP forwarding, where an intermediate node looks up a forwarding table for a suitable next hop, opportunistic routing brings in opportunistic data forwarding that allows multiple candidate nodes in the forwarding area to act on the broadcasted data packet. This increases the reliability of data delivery in the network with reduced delay. One of the most important issues that have not been studied so far is the varying performance of opportunistic routing protocols in wireless networks with highly mobile nodes. This research paper analyses and compares the various advantages, disadvantages and the performance of the latest opportunistic routing protocols in wireless ad hoc networks with highly mobile nodes.

  6. An Energy-Aware On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Veerayya, Mallapur

    2008-01-01

    An ad-hoc wireless network is a collection of nodes that come together to dynamically create a network, with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. An ad-hoc network is characterized by energy constrained nodes, bandwidth constrained links and dynamic topology. With the growing use of wireless networks (including ad-hoc networks) for real-time applications, such as voice, video, and real-time data, the need for Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees in terms of delay, bandwidth, and packet loss is becoming increasingly important. Providing QoS in ad-hoc networks is a challenging task because of dynamic nature of network topology and imprecise state information. Hence, it is important to have a dynamic routing protocol with fast re-routing capability, which also provides stable route during the life-time of the flows. In this thesis, we have proposed a novel, energy aware, stable routing protocol named, Stability-based QoS-capable Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (SQ-AODV), which is an enhancement...

  7. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  8. Enhancements for distributed certificate authority approaches for mobile wireless ad hoc networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Michalski, John T.; Anderson, William Erik

    2003-12-01

    Mobile wireless ad hoc networks that are resistant to adversarial manipulation are necessary for distributed systems used in military and security applications. Critical to the successful operation of these networks, which operate in the presence of adversarial stressors, are robust and efficient information assurance methods. In this report we describe necessary enhancements for a distributed certificate authority (CA) used in secure wireless network architectures. Necessary cryptographic algorithms used in distributed CAs are described and implementation enhancements of these algorithms in mobile wireless ad hoc networks are developed. The enhancements support a network's ability to detect compromised nodes and facilitate distributed CA services. We provide insights to the impacts the enhancements will have on network performance with timing diagrams and preliminary network simulation studies.

  9. MULTICAST ROUTING WITH QUALITY OF SERVICE CONSTRAINTS IN THE AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Idrissi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent multimedia applications and services are very demanding in terms of Quality of Service (QoS. This creates new challenges in ensuring QoS when delivering those services over wireless networks. Motivated by the need of supporting high quality multicast applications in wireless ad hoc networks, we propose a network topology that can minimize the power when connecting the source node to the destination nodes in multicast sessions with the respect of the QoS provisions. We formulated the problem as integer linear programming problem with a set of energy and QoS constraints. We minimize the total power of energy used by nodes while satisfying QoS constraints (Bandwidth and maximum delay that are crucial to wireless ad hoc network performance.

  10. Intelligent Routing using Ant Algorithms for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Menaka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless network is one of the niche areas and has been a growing interest owing to their ability to control the physical environment even from remote locations. Intelligent routing, bandwidth allocation and power control techniques are the known critical factors for this network communication. It is customary to find a feasible path between the communication end point which is a challenging task in this type of network. The present study proposes an Ant Mobility Model (AMM, an on-demand, multi-path routing algorithm that exercises power control and coordinate the nodes to communicate with one another in wireless network. The main goal of this protocol is to reduce the overhead, congestion, and stagnation, while increasing the throughput of the network. It can be realized from the simulation results that AMM proves to be a promising solution for the mobility pattern in wireless networks like MANETs.

  11. Time synchronization in ad-hoc wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nishant

    2013-06-01

    Advances in micro-electronics and developments in the various technologies have given birth to this era of wireless sensor networks. A sensor network is the one which provides information about the surrounding environment by sensing it and clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks plays a vital role to maintain the integrity of entire network. In this paper two major low energy consumption clock synchronization algorithms, Reference Broadcast Synchronization (RBS) and Timing-Sync Protocol for Sensor Networks (TPSN) are simulated, which result in high level of accuracy, reliability, handles substantially greater node densities, supports mobility, and hence perform well under all possible conditions.

  12. Address autoconfiguration in wireless ad hoc networks: protocols and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cempaka Wangi, N.I.; Prasad, R.V.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of smaller devices having higher computational capacity and wireless communication capabilities, the world is becoming completely networked. Although, the mobile nature of these devices provides ubiquitous services, it also poses many challenges. In this article, we look in depth at

  13. Computing Nash Equilibrium in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Peter E.; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of computing Nash equilibrium in wireless networks modeled by Weighted Timed Automata. Such formalism comes together with a logic that can be used to describe complex features such as timed energy constraints. Our contribution is a method for solving this problem us...

  14. User—dependent Perfect—scheduling Multiple Access (UPMA) for Wireless Ad Hoc Networ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIJiandong; LIWeiying; YANGJiawei; WENGJiwei

    2003-01-01

    A new multiple access protocol for wireless Internet access, called user-dependent perfect-scheduling multiple access (UPMA), is proposed. Packet transmis-sions are scheduled according to the number of active users,packet queue length and round-robin service rule. The proposed self-organizing algorithm is used to determine the number of active users. Users in ad h0c network are divided into clusters by the self-organizing algorithm. In each cluster an independent UPMA is used. UPMA al-gorithms for star and ad hoc wireless network are given.Performance analysis shows that UPMA have stable and very high throughnut.

  15. Maximization of Energy Efficiency in Wireless ad hoc and Sensor Networks With SERENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, an analysis of the node energy consumption distribution shows that the largest part is due to the time spent in the idle state. This result is at the origin of SERENA, an algorithm to SchEdule RoutEr Nodes Activity. SERENA allows router nodes to sleep, while ensuring end-to-end communication in the wireless network. It is a localized and decentralized algorithm assigning time slots to nodes. Any node stays awake only during its slot and the slots assigned to its neighbors, it sleeps the remaining time. Simulation results show that SERENA enables us to maximize network lifetime while increasing the number of user messages delivered. SERENA is based on a two-hop coloring algorithm, whose complexity in terms of colors and rounds is evaluated. We then quantify the slot reuse. Finally, we show how SERENA improves the node energy consumption distribution and maximizes the energy efficiency of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We compare SERENA with classical TDMA and optimized variants such as USAP in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks.

  16. Wireless Ad-hoc Network Model for Video Transmission in the Tunnel of Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc networks have been widely used for its flexibility and quick development, especially in emergent conditions. Recently they are introduced to coal mines underground for rescuing after disasters such as gas explosions. Significantly, we construct a network model named Chain Model to simulate the special circumstance in the tunnel of the mine. Moreover, for studying effects of different routing protocols used in this model when transmitting video data, Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV are compared with each other in the experiment based on our model. The result indicates that AODV performs best among the three protocols in this model in terms of packet loss ratio, end-to-end delay time and throughput, which is significant for our future research on ad hoc networks for rescuing in coal mines underground.

  17. A QoS Routing Protocol based on Available Bandwidth Estimation for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaniche, Heni; Frikha, Mounir; Kamoun, Farouk

    2011-01-01

    At the same time as the emergence of multimedia in mobile Ad hoc networks, research for the introduction of the quality of service (QoS) has received much attention. However, when designing a QoS solution, the estimation of the available resources still represents one of the main issues. This paper suggests an approach to estimate available resources on a node. This approach is based on the estimation of the busy ratio of the shared canal. We consider in our estimation the several constraints related to the Ad hoc transmission mode such as Interference phenomena. This approach is implemented on the AODV routing protocol. We call AODVwithQOS our new routing protocol. We also performed a performance evaluation by simulations using NS2 simulator. The results confirm that AODVwithQoS provides QoS support in ad hoc wireless networks with good performance and low overhead.

  18. Cross-Layer Interaction in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Practical Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Vincent; Marot, Michel; Becker, Monique

    This paper presents the design and the performance evaluation of a joined process between the PHY (PHYsical) layer and routing layer in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks. This cross-layer interaction between the PHY and routing layers allows each node in an ad hoc network to evaluate the performance of each path in its routing table in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) and to classify each path accordingly. Routing information from poor quality links are not forwarded leading to the selection of high quality links during the routing process. An implementation of our cross-layer algorithm based on Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is presented along with simulation results showing significant improvements in terms of additional throughput and lower BER. Furthermore, inherent of our mechanism's design, the network overhead introduced by routing protocols is reduced..

  19. Load Balancing In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks With Low Forwarding Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Dadhich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad-hoc network comprises of a set of wireless nodes and requires no fixed infrastructure. Forefficient communication between nodes, ad-hoc networks are typically grouped in to clusters, whereeach cluster has a clusterhead (or Master. In our study, we will take a communication model that isderived from that of BlueTooth. Clusterhead nodes are responsible for the formation of clusters eachconsisting of a number of nodes (analog to cells in a cellular network and maintenance of the topologyof the network. Consequently, the clusterhead tend to become potential points of failures and naturally,there will be load imbalanced. Thus, it is important to consider load balancing in any clusteringalgorithm. In this paper, we consider the situation when each node has some load, given by theparameter forwarding Index.

  20. A Distributed Virtual Backbone Formation for Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong-tao; HE Chen; JIANG Ling-ge

    2007-01-01

    The virtual backbone is an approach for solving routing problems in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. A connected dominating set (CDS) was proposed as a virtual backbone to improve the performance of wireless networks. The quality of a virtual backbone is measured not only by approximation factor, which is the ratio of its size to that of minimum CDS, but also time complexity and message complexity. In this paper, a distributed algorithm is presented to construct a minimum CDS for ad hoc and sensor networks. By destroying triangular loops in the virtual backbone, the proposed algorithm can effectively construct a CDS with smaller size. Moreover, our algorithm, which is fully localized, has a constant approximation ratio, linear message and time complexity, and low implementation complexity. The simulation results and theoretical analysis show that our algorithm has better efficiency and performance than conventional approaches.

  1. A Novel Approach to Modeling and Flooding in Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Issaad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new modeling approach for wireless ad-hoc networks. The new approach is based on the construction of fuzzy neighborhoods and essentially consists of assigning a membership or importance degree to each network radio link which reflects the relative quality of this link. This approach is first used to model the flooding problem and then an algorithm is proposed to solve this problem which is of a great importance in ad-hoc wireless networks intrinsically subject to a certain level of node mobility. Simulations carried out in a dynamic environment show promising results and stability compared to the enhanced dominant pruning algorithm. Such an approach is suitable to take into account the volatile aspect of radio links and the physical layer uncertainty when modeling these networks, particularly when the physical layer offers no or insufficient guaranties to high-level protocols as for the flooding.

  2. Transmission Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Energy Harvesting Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Vaze, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Transmission capacity of an ad hoc wireless network is analyzed when each node of the network harvests energy from nature, e.g. solar, wind, vibration etc. Transmission capacity is the maximum allowable density of nodes, satisfying a per transmitter-receiver rate, and an outage probability constraint. Energy arrivals at each node are assumed to follow a Bernoulli distribution, and each node stores energy using an energy buffer/battery. For ALOHA medium access protocol (MAP), optimal transmiss...

  3. New horizons in mobile and wireless communications, v.4 ad hoc networks and pans

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2009-01-01

    Based on cutting-edge research projects in the field, this book (part of a comprehensive 4-volume series) provides the latest details and covers the most impactful aspects of mobile, wireless, and broadband communications development. These books present key systems and enabling technologies in a clear and accessible manner, offering you a detailed roadmap the future evolution of next generation communications. Other volumes cover Networks, Services and Applications; Reconfigurability; and Ad Hoc Networks.

  4. Asymptotic Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Realistic Links under a Honey Comb Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Asnani, Himanshu

    2007-01-01

    We consider the effects of Rayleigh fading and lognormal shadowing in the physical interference model for all the successful transmissions of traffic across the network. New bounds are derived for the capacity of a given random ad hoc wireless network that reflect packet drop or capture probability of the transmission links. These bounds are based on a simplified network topology termed as honey-comb topology under a given routing and scheduling scheme.

  5. Performance Impacts of Lower-Layer Cryptographic Methods in Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAN LEEUWEN, BRIAN P.; TORGERSON, MARK D.

    2002-10-01

    In high consequence systems, all layers of the protocol stack need security features. If network and data-link layer control messages are not secured, a network may be open to adversarial manipulation. The open nature of the wireless channel makes mobile wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) especially vulnerable to control plane manipulation. The objective of this research is to investigate MANET performance issues when cryptographic processing delays are applied at the data-link layer. The results of analysis are combined with modeling and simulation experiments to show that network performance in MANETs is highly sensitive to the cryptographic overhead.

  6. Intelligent Stale-Frame Discards for Real-Time Video Streaming over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheu Tsang-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents intelligent early packet discards (I-EPD for real-time video streaming over a multihop wireless ad hoc network. In a multihop wireless ad hoc network, the quality of transferring real-time video streams could be seriously degraded, since every intermediate node (IN functionally like relay device does not possess large buffer and sufficient bandwidth. Even worse, a selected relay node could leave or power off unexpectedly, which breaks the route to destination. Thus, a stale video frame is useless even if it can reach destination after network traffic becomes smooth or failed route is reconfigured. In the proposed I-EPD, an IN can intelligently determine whether a buffered video packet should be early discarded. For the purpose of validation, we implement the I-EPD on Linux-based embedded systems. Via the comparisons of performance metrics (packet/frame discards ratios, PSNR, etc., we demonstrate that video quality over a wireless ad hoc network can be substantially improved and unnecessary bandwidth wastage is greatly reduced.

  7. Fault Tolerant Mechanism for Multimedia Flows in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Based on Fast Switching Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia traffic can be forwarded through a wireless ad hoc network using the available resources of the nodes. Several models and protocols have been designed in order to organize and arrange the nodes to improve transmissions along the network. We use a cluster-based framework, called MWAHCA architecture, which optimizes multimedia transmissions over a wireless ad hoc network. It was proposed by us in a previous research work. This architecture is focused on decreasing quality of service (QoS parameters like latency, jitter, and packet loss, but other network features were not developed, like load balance or fault tolerance. In this paper, we propose a new fault tolerance mechanism, using as a base the MWAHCA architecture, in order to recover any multimedia flow crossing the wireless ad hoc network when there is a node failure. The algorithm can run independently for each multimedia flow. The main objective is to keep the QoS parameters as low as possible. To achieve this goal, the convergence time must be controlled and reduced. This paper provides the designed protocol, the analytical model of the algorithm, and a software application developed to test its performance in a real laboratory.

  8. Protocols for Detection and Removal of Wormholes for Secure Routing and Neighborhood Creation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayajneh, Thaier Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are suitable and sometimes the only solution for several applications. Many applications, particularly those in military and critical civilian domains (such as battlefield surveillance and emergency rescue) require that ad hoc networks be secure and stable. In fact, security is one of the main barriers to the extensive use…

  9. Survivability analysis of wireless Ad hoc network using stochastic reward nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; CUI Gang; LIU Hong-wei; WANG Hui-qiang

    2008-01-01

    To provide services in presence of failures or attacks in a timely manner, the network survivability was analyzed. Based on stochastic Petri nets, we put forward an effective model for ad hec network and adopt a two-phase approach consisting of the steady-state availability analysis and the system transient performance anal-ysis, then provide a quantitative approach for analysis of the network survivability. The results show that the proposed model is useful for the design and evaluation of the wireless ad hoc network.

  10. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  11. A Multiobjective Optimization Framework for Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Gorce, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are seldom characterized by one single performance metric, yet the current literature lacks a flexible framework to assist in characterizing the design tradeoffs in such networks. In this work, we address this problem by proposing a new modeling framework for routing in ad hoc networks, which used in conjunction with metaheuristic multiobjective search algorithms, will result in a better understanding of network behavior and performance when multiple criteria are relevant. Our approach is to take a holistic view of network management and control that captures the cross-interactions among interference management techniques implemented at various layers of the protocol stack. We present the Pareto optimal sets for an example sensor network when delay, robustness and energy are considered as performance criteria for the network.

  12. GBP-WAHSN: A Group-Based Protocol for Large Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaime Lloret; Miguel Garcia; Jesus Tomás; Fernando Boronat

    2008-01-01

    Grouping nodes gives better performance to the whole network by diminishing the average network delay and avoiding unnecessary message for warding and additional overhead. Many routing protocols for ad-hoc and sensor network shave been designed but none of them are based on groups. In this paper, we will start defining group-based topologies,and then we will show how some wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WAHSN) routing protocols perform when the nodes are arranged in groups. In our proposal connections between groups are established as a function of the proximity of the nodes and the neighbor's available capacity (based on the node's energy). We describe the architecture proposal, the messages that are needed for the proper operation and its mathematical description. We have also simulated how much time is needed to propagate information between groups. Finally, we will show a comparison with other architectures.

  13. Designing and implementing an experimental wireless mobile ad hoc networks testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Dai, Guanzhong; Mu, Dejun; Zhang, Huisheng

    2006-11-01

    A very large number of simulation models have been developed to study ad hoc network architectures and protocols under many network scenarios, number of nodes, mobility rates, etc. However, fidelity of simulation results has always been a concern, especially when the protocols being studied are affected by the propagation and interference characteristics of the radio channels. This paper describes our experience in designing and implementing a MANET prototype system, Experimental Wireless Mobile Ad hoc Networks Testbed (EWMANT), in order to perform largescale, reproducible experiments. EWMANT aims at assessing several different protocols in a real-world environment instead of by simulation. It assists us with finding and evaluating a proper solution, showing the clear advantage of realworld implementations compared to simulations.

  14. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part II: Proactive Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This work is the second of a two-part series of papers on the effectiveness of cooperative techniques in non-centralized carrier sense-based ad hoc wireless networks. While Part I extensively discussed reactive cooperation, characterized by relayed transmissions triggered by failure events at the intended receiver, Part II investigates in depth proactive solutions, in which the source of a packet exploits channel state information to preemptively coordinate with relays in order to achieve the optimal overall rate to the destination. In particular, this work shows by means of both analysis and simulation that the performance of reactive cooperation is reduced by the intrinsic nature of the considered medium access policy, which biases the distribution of the available relays, locating them in unfavorable positions for rate optimization. Moreover, the highly dynamic nature of interference that characterizes non-infrastructured ad hoc networks is proved to hamper the efficacy and the reliability of preemptively ...

  15. Load-balanced broadcast routing in wireless Ad-hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In wireless Ad-hoc networks, where mobile hosts are powered by batteries, the entire network may be partitioned because of the drainage of a small set of batteries.Therefore, the crucial issue is to improve the energy efficiency, with an objective of balancing energy consumption.A greedy algorithm called weighted minimum spanning tree (WMST) has been proposed, in which time complexity is O(n2).This algorithm takes into account the initial energy of each node and energy consumption of each communication.Simulation has demonstrated that the performance of the proposed algorithm improves the load balance and prolongs the lifetime.

  16. A survey of medium access control protocols for wireless ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio João Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues distinguishes Medium Access Control (MAC protocols for wireless networks from those used in wireline systems. In addition, for ad-hoc networks, the characteristics of the radio channel, the diverse physical-layer technologies available and the range of services envisioned make it a difficult task to design an algorithm to discipline the access to the shared medium that results efficient, fair, power consumption sensitive and delay bound. This article presents the current “state-of-art” in this area, including solutions already commercially available as well as those still in study.

  17. A TDMA based media access control protocol for wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Tang, Biyu

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel Time Division Multiplex Access (TDMA) based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol of wireless Ad Hoc network. To achieve collision free transmission, time slots in a MAC frame are cataloged into three types, that is access slot, control slot and traffic slot. Nodes in the network access to the network in the access slot, and an exclusive control is allocated subsequently. Data packets are transmission by dynamic schedule the traffic slots. Throughput and transmission delay are also analyzed by simulation experiment. The proposed protocol is capable of providing collision free transmission and achieves high throughput.

  18. On capacity of wireless ad hoc networks with MIMO MMSE receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Widely adopted at home, business places, and hot spots, wireless ad-hoc networks are expected to provide broadband services parallel to their wired counterparts in near future. To address this need, MIMO techniques, which are capable of offering several-fold increase in capacity, hold significant promise. Most previous work on capacity analysis of ad-hoc networks is based on an implicit assumption that each node has only one antenna. Core to the analysis therein is the characterization of a geometric area, referred to as the exclusion region, which quantizes the amount of spatial resource occupied by a link. When multiple antennas are deployed at each node, however, multiple links can transmit in the vicinity of each other simultaneously, as interference can now be suppressed by spatial signal processing. As such, a link no longer exclusively occupies a geometric area, making the concept of "exclusion region" not applicable any more. In this paper, we investigate link-layer throughput capacity of MIMO ad-hoc ...

  19. HIERARCHICAL DESIGN BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS AD HOC SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saiful Islam Mamun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless ad hoc sensor network becomes popular both in civil and military jobs.However, security is one of the significant challenges for sensor network because of their deploymentin open and unprotected environment. As cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect sensornetwork from external attacks, intrusion detection system needs to be introduced. Though intrusionprevention mechanism is one of the major and efficient methods against attacks, but there might besome attacks for which prevention method is not known. Besides preventing the system from someknown attacks, intrusion detection system gather necessary information related to attack technique andhelp in the development of intrusion prevention system. In addition to reviewing the present attacksavailable in wireless sensor network this paper examines the current efforts to intrusion detectionsystem against wireless sensor network. In this paper we propose a hierarchical architectural designbased intrusion detection system that fits the current demands and restrictions of wireless ad hocsensor network. In this proposed intrusion detection system architecture we followed clusteringmechanism to build a four level hierarchical network which enhances network scalability to largegeographical area and use both anomaly and misuse detection techniques for intrusion detection. Weintroduce policy based detection mechanism as well as intrusion response together with GSM cellconcept for intrusion detection architecture.

  20. Secure adaptive topology control for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Ching-Tsung; Li, Yu-Wei; Wen, Chih-Yu; Ouyang, Yen-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a secure decentralized clustering algorithm for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. The algorithm operates without a centralized controller, operates asynchronously, and does not require that the location of the sensors be known a priori. Based on the cluster-based topology, secure hierarchical communication protocols and dynamic quarantine strategies are introduced to defend against spam attacks, since this type of attacks can exhaust the energy of sensor nodes and will shorten the lifetime of a sensor network drastically. By adjusting the threshold of infected percentage of the cluster coverage, our scheme can dynamically coordinate the proportion of the quarantine region and adaptively achieve the cluster control and the neighborhood control of attacks. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is feasible and cost effective for wireless sensor networks.

  1. A Framework for Providing E-Services to the Rural Areas using Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan; Sayeed, Sabit Anjum; Ahmed, Farruk; Hong, Choong Seon

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the proliferation of mobile computing devices has driven a revolutionary change in the computing world. The nature of ubiquitous devices makes wireless networks the easiest solution for their interconnection. This has led to the rapid growth of several wireless systems like wireless ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks etc. In this paper we have proposed a framework for rural development by providing various e-services to the rural areas with the help of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We have discussed how timely and accurate information could be collected from the rural areas using wireless technologies. In addition to this, we have also mentioned the technical and operational challenges that could hinder the implementation of such a framework in the rural areas in the developing countries.

  2. Detection and Control of Vampire Attacks in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoopa S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc low-power wireless networks are the most promising research direction in sensing and pervasive computing. Prior security work in this area has focused primarily on denial of service at the routing or medium access control levels. Earlier, the resource depletion attacks are considered only as a routing problem, very recently these are classified in to a new group called “vampire attacks”. This thesis work explores the identification of resource depletion attacks at the routing protocol layer and in the application layer, which permanently disable networks by quickly draining nodes’ battery power. These Vampire attacks are not specific to a particular protocol, but rather rely on the properties of many popular classes of routing protocols. It is clear that all examined protocols are susceptible to Vampire attacks, which are devastating, difficult to detect, and are easy to carry out using as few as one malicious insider sending only protocol compliant messages. In the worst case, a single Vampire can increase network-wide energy usage by a factor of O(N, where N in the number of network nodes. In this work a detection and control strategy is proposed for these vampire attacks, along with a secure packet forwarding mechanism, which will save Ad-hoc wireless nodes from power drainage due to vampire packets.

  3. DDoS Attack and Defense Scheme in Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Arunmozhi, S A; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3312

    2011-01-01

    The wireless ad hoc networks are highly vulnerable to distributed denial of service(DDoS) attacks because of its unique characteristics such as open network architecture, shared wireless medium and stringent resource constraints. These attacks throttle the tcp throughput heavily and reduce the quality of service(QoS) to end systems gradually rather than refusing the clients from the services completely. In this paper, we discussed the DDoS attacks and proposed a defense scheme to improve the performance of the ad hoc networks. Our proposed defense mechanism uses the medium access control (MAC) layer information to detect the attackers. The status values from MAC layer that can be used for detection are Frequency of receiving RTS/CTS packets, Frequency of sensing a busy channel and the number of RTS/DATA retransmissions. Once the attackers are identified, all the packets from those nodes will be blocked. The network resources are made available to the legitimate users. We perform the simulation with Network Si...

  4. Improving TCP Performance over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Busy Tone Assisted Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that transmission control protocol (TCP performance degrades severely in IEEE 802.11-based wireless ad hoc networks. We first identify two critical issues leading to the TCP performance degradation: (1 unreliable broadcast, since broadcast frames are transmitted without the request-to-send and clear-to-send (RTS/CTS dialog and Data/ACK handshake, so they are vulnerable to the hidden terminal problem; and (2 false link failure which occurs when a node cannot successfully transmit data temporarily due to medium contention. We then propose a scheme to use a narrow-bandwidth, out-of-band busy tone channel to make reservation for broadcast and link error detection frames only. The proposed scheme is simple and power efficient, because only the sender needs to transmit two short messages in the busy tone channel before sending broadcast or link error detection frames in the data channel. Analytical results show that the proposed scheme can dramatically reduce the collision probability of broadcast and link error detection frames. Extensive simulations with different network topologies further demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve TCP throughput by 23% to 150%, depending on user mobility, and effectively enhance both short-term and long-term fairness among coexisting TCP flows in multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  5. New efficiency algorithm for flooding the packet in wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyuhwan; Ma, Joongsoo

    2002-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel flooding algorithm based on an existing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol in wireless ad hoc networks. Currently when we use the multi-hop routing algorithm, such as the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) algorithm, the Cluster-Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) and so on, we frequently use the broadcast packet in order to get the topology information. At this time all nodes receiving the packet try to forward the received packet to other nodes. If a number of nodes are located in the sender's coverage, the channel is busy due to the delivery of the received packet. With respect to the coverage of the IEEE 802.11, the utilization factor of the wireless network is decreased because of occupying the channel to distribute the received packet. Thus we propose the new algorithm to resolve this problem. In this algorithm, each node maintains a table of immediate neighbors as well as each neighbor's neighbors. When each node receiving broadcast packets in the sender's coverage forwards the packets, it decides whether to forward them or not by comparing the neighbor list of receiver with that of sender. The proposed algorithm can increase the network efficiency due to the decrease in frequency of broadcast packets in the multi-hop routing protocol. Finally, we evaluate the improved performance through the simulation.

  6. A High Throughput On-Demand Routing Protocol for Multirate Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    Routing in wireless ad hoc networks is a challenging issue because it dynamically controls the network topology and determines the network performance. Most of the available protocols are based on single-rate radio networks and they use hop-count as the routing metric. There have been some efforts for multirate radios as well that use transmission-time of a packet as the routing metric. However, neither the hop-count nor the transmission-time may be a sufficient criterion for discovering a high-throughput path in a multirate wireless ad hoc network. Hop-count based routing metrics usually select a low-rate bound path whereas the transmission-time based metrics may select a path with a comparatively large number of hops. The trade-off between transmission time and effective transmission range of a data rate can be another key criterion for finding a high-throughput path in such environments. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing metric based on the efficiency of a data rate that balances the required time and covering distance by a transmission and results in increased throughput. Using the new metric, we propose an on-demand routing protocol for multirate wireless environment, dubbed MR-AODV, to discover high-throughput paths in the network. A key feature of MR-AODV is that it controls the data rate in transmitting both the data and control packets. Rate control during the route discovery phase minimizes the route request (RREQ) avalanche. We use simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed MR-AODV protocol and results reveal significant improvements in end-to-end throughput and minimization of routing overhead.

  7. An extended smart utilization medium access control (ESU-MAC) protocol for ad hoc wireless systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishtha, Jyoti; Sinha, Aakash

    2006-05-01

    The demand for spontaneous setup of a wireless communication system has increased in recent years for areas like battlefield, disaster relief operations etc., where a pre-deployment of network infrastructure is difficult or unavailable. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a promising solution, but poses a lot of challenges for all the design layers, specifically medium access control (MAC) layer. Recent existing works have used the concepts of multi-channel and power control in designing MAC layer protocols. SU-MAC developed by the same authors, efficiently uses the 'available' data and control bandwidth to send control information and results in increased throughput via decreasing contention on the control channel. However, SU-MAC protocol was limited for static ad-hoc network and also faced the busy-receiver node problem. We present the Extended SU-MAC (ESU-MAC) protocol which works mobile nodes. Also, we significantly improve the scheme of control information exchange in ESU-MAC to overcome the busy-receiver node problem and thus, further avoid the blockage of control channel for longer periods of time. A power control scheme is used as before to reduce interference and to effectively re-use the available bandwidth. Simulation results show that ESU-MAC protocol is promising for mobile, ad-hoc network in terms of reduced contention at the control channel and improved throughput because of channel re-use. Results show a considerable increase in throughput compared to SU-MAC which could be attributed to increased accessibility of control channel and improved utilization of data channels due to superior control information exchange scheme.

  8. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D.; Rao, D. Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network. PMID:26167529

  9. SVANET: A Smart Vehicular Ad Hoc Network for Efficient Data Transmission with Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmission protocol for the vehicles in the highway, in which data can be forwarded with the help of vehicles if they are connected with each other or data can be forwarded with the help of nearby wireless sensors. Our data transmission protocol is designed to increase the driving safety, to prevent accidents and to utilize channels efficiently by adjusting the control and service channel time intervals dynamically. Besides, our protocol can transmit information to vehicles in advance, so that drivers can decide an alternate route in case of traffic congestion. For various data sharing, we design a method that can select a few leader nodes among vehicles running along a highway to broadcast data efficiently. Simulation results show that our protocol can outperform the existing standard in terms of the end to end packet delivery ratio and latency.

  10. A load-balanced minimum energy routing algorithm for Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks (WSNs) have received considerable academia research attention at present. The energy-constraint sensor nodes in WSNs operate on limited batteries, so it is a very important issue to use energy efficiently and reduce power consumption. To maximize the network lifetime, it is essential to prolong each individual node's lifetime through minimizing the transmission energy consumption, so that many minimum energy routing schemes for traditional mobile ad hoc network have been developed for this reason. This paper presents a novel minimum energy routing algorithm named Load-Balanced Minimum Energy Routing (LBMER) for WSNs considering both sensor nodes' energy consumption status and the sensor nodes'hierarchical congestion levels, which uses mixture of energy balance and traffic balance to solve the problem of "hot spots" of WSNs and avoid the situation of"hot spots" sensor nodes using their energy at much higher rate and die much faster than the other nodes. The path router established by LBMER will not be very congested and the traffic will be distributed evenly in the WSNs.Simulation results verified that the LBMER performance is better than that of Min-Hop routing and the existing minimum energy routing scheme MTPR (Total Transmission Power Routing).

  11. A Self-Organization Framework for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks as Small Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Abhik; Gauthier, Vincent; Yeo, Chai Kiat; Afifi, Hossam; Lee, Bu Sung

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the benefits of small world networks, we propose a self-organization framework for wireless ad hoc networks. We investigate the use of directional beamforming for creating long-range short cuts between nodes. Using simulation results for randomized beamforming as a guideline, we identify crucial design issues for algorithm design. Our results show that, while significant path length reduction is achievable, this is accompanied by the problem of asymmetric paths between nodes. Subsequently, we propose a distributed algorithm for small world creation that achieves path length reduction while maintaining connectivity. We define a new centrality measure that estimates the structural importance of nodes based on traffic flow in the network, which is used to identify the optimum nodes for beamforming. We show, using simulations, that this leads to significant reduction in path length while maintaining connectivity.

  12. Real-Time Video Streaming in Multi-hop Wireless Static Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Even, Guy; Medina, Moti; Shimon,; Shahar,; Zadorojniy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We deal with the problem of streaming multiple video streams between pairs of nodes in a multi-hop wireless ad hoc network. The nodes are positioned on a plane, know their locations, and are synchronized (via GPS). We consider a 802.11g WiFi network in which NICs can hop between non-overlapping frequency channels in a synchronous fashion. We design a centralized algorithm that computes a frequency assignment and a schedule whose goal is to maximize the minimum throughput over all the video streams. In addition, we developed a localized flow-control mechanism to stabilize the queue lengths. We simulated traffic scheduled by the algorithm using OMNET++/MixiM (i.e., physical SINR interference model with 802.11g) to test whether the computed throughput is achieved.

  13. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part I: Reactive Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative techniques have been shown to significantly improve the performance of wireless systems. Despite being a mature technology in single communication link scenarios, their implementation in wider, and practical, networks poses several challenges which have not been fully identified and understood so far. In this two-part paper, the implementation of cooperative communications in non-centralized ad hoc networks with sensing-based channel access is extensively discussed. Both analysis and simulation are employed to provide a clear understanding of the mutual influence between the link layer contention mechanism and collaborative protocols. Part I of this work focuses on reactive cooperation, in which relaying is triggered by packet delivery failure events, while Part II addresses proactive approaches, preemptively initiated by the source based on channel state information. Results show that sensing-based channel access significantly hampers the effectiveness of cooperation by biasing the spatial distri...

  14. Enhanced Partial Dominant Pruning (EPDP Based Broadcasting in Ad hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashikur Rahman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In many applications of ad-hoc wireless networks, one often has to broadcast the same message to all nodes. The major goal of any broadcasting algorithm is to minimize the number of retransmissions, i.e., to accomplish the goal with the minimum amount of traffic in the network. In addition to reducing the bandwidth expense needed to convey the message to all the nodes, this objective will try to minimize the total amount of energy spent by the nodes on this communal task. This is of paramount importance in sensor networks, which are often built of disposable nodes, whose life-time is directly determined by the efficiency of their power management scheme. In this paper, we present a heuristic broadcast algorithm dubbed EPDP, for Enhanced Partial Dominant Pruning, and demonstrate its superiority, in terms of the total number of retransmissions, over other solutions addressing the same issue.

  15. An Anchorless Cooperative Localization System for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhar Mahmud Towhid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a wireless ad-hoc localization system where each node is assumed to be equipped with ranging (RSSI/TDoA and AoA capability. Using these capabilities each node can measure distance and bearing of neighboring nodes. These measurements are supplied to each connected nodes in the network. Using the measurements of each neighboring node pairs, a node can construct a whole network coordinate map, where the location of every node is shown relative to a reference point (i.e. the node’s own location. Using this network coordinate map, the nodes can maintain connectivity with their neighbors. Unlike triangulation, the system does not need at least two or more neighbors of each node for approximating the node position, rather it can attain this even with a single neighbor. We will also show that the system has reliable accuracy when more accurate ranging and angulation systems are used

  16. RMAC: A Reliable MAC Protocol Supporting Multicast for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Sheng Si; Cheng-Zhi Li

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new reliable MAC protocol called "RMAC" supporting reliable multicast for wireless ad hoc networks. By utilizing the busy tones to realize the multicast reliability, RMAC has three novelties: (1) it uses a variablelength control frame to stipulate an order for the receivers to respond, thus solving the feedback collision problem; (2) it extends the usage of busy tone for preventing data frame collisions into the multicast scenario; and (3) it introduces a new usage of busy tone for acknowledging data frames positively. In addition, RMAC is generalized into a comprehensive MAC protocol that provides both reliable and unreliable services for all the three modes of communications: unicast, multicast,and broadcast, making it capable of supporting various upper-layer protocols. The evaluation shows that RMAC achieves high reliability with very limited overhead. RMAC is also compared with other reliable MAC protocols, showing that RMAC not only provides higher reliability but also involves lower cost.

  17. Power-Controlled Data Transmission in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Berberoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy scarcity and interference are two important factors determining the performance of wireless ad-hoc networks that should be considered in depth. A promising method of achieving energy conservation is the transmission power control. Transmission power control also contributes to the mitigation of interference thereby promotes throughput by means of rendering multiple hosts to communicate in the same neighborhood simultaneously without impairing each other’s transmissions. However, as identified previously in the literature, traditional hidden terminal problem gets deteriorated when transmission power control mechanism is intended to be applied. In this article, we discuss the primary details about the power usage and throughput deficiency of the traditional 802.11 RTS/CTS mechanism. Improvements by means of power control are introduced as well as the solutions to the challenges likely to emerge because of the usage of diverse power levels throughout the network.

  18. Probabilistic Modelling of Information Propagation in Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics of broadcasting wireless ad-hoc networks is studied through probabilistic modelling. A randomized transmission discipline is assumed in accordance with existing MAC definitions such as WLAN with Decentralized Coordination or IEEE-802.15.4. Message reception is assumed...... to be governed by node power-down policies and is equivalently assumed to be randomized. Altogether randomization facilitates a probabilistic model in the shape of an integro-differential equation governing the propagation of information, where brownian node mobility may be accounted for by including an extra...... diffusion term. The established model is analyzed for transient behaviour and a travelling wave solution facilitates expressions for propagation speed as well as parametrized analysis of network reliability and node power consumption. Applications of the developed models for node localization and network...

  19. A Control Packet Minimized Routing Protocol for Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Sik Hong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AODV routing protocol is intended for use by mobile nodes in ad-hoc wireless networks. As the degree of node mobility becomes high, however, the number of RREQ and RREP messages during the route discovery process increase so rapidly. The unexpected increases in the number of control packets cause the destination node to decrease the packet receiving rate. Besides, the overall energy consumption for the network can be increased. Thus, we propose a novel method of adaptively controlling the occurrences of the control packets based on AIAD (additive increase additive decrease under a consideration of the current network status. We have tested our proposed method with both the conventional AODV and the method using timestamp based on the three performance metrics; i.e., node mobility, node velocity, and node density, to compare their performances.

  20. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-07-14

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes.

  1. An Investigation about Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karthik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any stand-alone infrastructure or centralized administration. Mobile Ad-hoc networks are self-organizing and self-configuring multihop wireless networks where, the structure of the network changes dynamically. This is mainly due to the mobility of nodes. The Nodes in the network not only acts as hosts but also as routers that route data to or from other nodes in network. In mobile ad-hoc networks a routing procedure is always needed to find a path so as to forward the packets appropriately between the source and the destination. The main aim of any ad-hoc network routing protocol is to meet the challenges of the dynamically changing topology and establish a correct and an efficient communication path between any two nodes with minimum routing overhead and bandwidth consumption. The design problem of such a routing protocol is not simple since an ad hoc environment introduces new challenges that are not present in fixed networks. A number of routing protocols have been proposed for this purpose like Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Destination- Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV. In this paper, we study and compare the performance of the following three routing protocols AODV, DSR and DSDV.

  2. Intelligent self-organization methods for wireless ad hoc sensor networks based on limited resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2006-05-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network (WSN) is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. To a greater degree than the terminals found in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for communications, sensor nodes are resource-constrained, with limited computational processing, bandwidth, memory, and power, and are typically unattended once in operation. Consequently, the level of information exchange among nodes, to support any complex adaptive algorithms to establish network connectivity and optimize throughput, not only deplete those limited resources and creates high overhead in narrowband communications, but also increase network vulnerability to eavesdropping by malicious nodes. Cooperation among nodes, critical to the mission of sensor networks, can thus be disrupted by the inappropriate choice of the method for self-organization. Recent published contributions to the self-configuration of ad hoc sensor networks, e.g., self-organizing mapping and swarm intelligence techniques, have been based on the adaptive control of the cross-layer interactions found in MANET protocols to achieve one or more performance objectives: connectivity, intrusion resistance, power control, throughput, and delay. However, few studies have examined the performance of these algorithms when implemented with the limited resources of WSNs. In this paper, self-organization algorithms for the initiation, operation and maintenance of a network topology from a collection of wireless sensor nodes are proposed that improve the performance metrics significant to WSNs. The intelligent algorithm approach emphasizes low computational complexity, energy efficiency and robust adaptation to change, allowing distributed implementation with the actual limited resources of the cooperative nodes of the network. Extensions of the

  3. A Review and Comparison of Quality of Service Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Prasad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Service (QoS guarantees must be supported in a network that intends to carry real time andmultimedia traffic. IETF RFC 2386 defines QoS as a set of service requirements to be met by the networkwhile transporting a packet stream from source to the destination. The dynamic network topology andwireless bandwidth sharing makes QoS provisioning far more challenging in wireless networks ascompared to the wired counterparts. The support for the QoS services is underpinned by QoS routing. AQoS routing protocol selects network routes with sufficient resources for the satisfaction of the requestedQoS parameters. The goal of QoS routing is to satisfy the QoS requirements for each admittedconnection, while achieving global efficiency in resource utilization. The problem of QoS routing withmultiple additive constraints is known to be NP-hard. This requires the QoS dynamics to be fullyunderstood before it can be implemented in wireless ad hoc networks. The paper discusses the issuesinvolved in QoS routing and presents an overview and comparison of some existing QoS routingprotocols. The article concludes with some open issues for further investigation.

  4. A Near-Optimal Optimization Algorithm for Link Assignment in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-Chang Liu; Bao-Hua Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years, wireless networking technologies have made vast forays in our daily lives. In wireless ad-hoc networks, links are set up by a number of units without any permanent infrastructures. In this paper, the resource optimization is considered to maximize the network throughput by efficiently using the network capacity, where multi-hop functionality and spatial TDMA (STDMA) access scheme are used. The objective is to find the minimum frame length with given traffic distributions and corresponding routing information. Because of the complex structure of the underlying mathematical problem, previous work and analysis become intractable for networks of realistic sizes. The problem is addressed through mathematical programming approach, the linear integer formulation is developed for optimizing the network throughput, and then the similarity between the original problem and the graph edge coloring problem is shown through the conflict graph concept. A column generation solution is proposed and several enhancements are made in order to fasten its convergence. Numerical results demonstrate that the theoretical limit of the throughput can be efficiently computed for networks of realistic sizes.

  5. A Routing Strategy for Non-Cooperation Wireless Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung T. Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Choosing routes such that the network lifetime is maximized in a wireless network with limited energy resources is a major routing problem in wireless multi-hop ad hoc networks. In this paper, we study the problem where participants are rationally selfish and non-cooperative. By selfish we designate the users who are ready to tamper with their source-routing (senders could choose intermediate nodes in the routing paths or next hop selection strategies in order to increase the total number of packets transmitted, but do not try to harm or drop packets of the other nodes. The problem therefore amounts to a non-cooperative game. In the works [2,6,19,23], the authors show that the game admits Nash equilibria [1]. Along this line, we first show that if the cost function is linear, this game has pure-strategy equilibrium flow even though participants have different demands. However, finding a Nash equilibrium for a normal game is computationally hard [9]. In this work, inspired by mixed-strategy equilibrium, we propose a simple local routing algorithm called MIxed Path Routing protocol (MiPR. Using analysis and simulations, we show that MiPR drives the system to an equilibrium state where selfish participants do not have incentive to deviate. Moreover, MiPR significantly improves the network lifetime as compared to original routing protocols.

  6. A System of Umpires for Security of Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyaswamy Kathirvel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a self-created self-organized and self-administering set of nodes connectedvia wireless links without the aid of any fixed infrastructure or centralized administrator. Protecting the network layer frommalicious attacks is an important and challenging issue in both wired and wireless networks and the issue becomes even morechallenging in the case of MANET. In this paper we propose a solution of umpiring system (US that provides security forrouting and data forwarding operations. Umpiring system consist of three models, are single umpiring system (SUS, doubleumpiring system (DUS, and triple umpiring system (TUS. In our system each node in the path from source to destination hasdual roles to perform: packet forwarding and umpiring.US does not apply any cryptographic techniques on the routing andpacket forwarding message. In the umpiring role, each node in the path closely monitors the behavior of its succeeding nodeand if any misbehavior is noticed immediately flags off the guilty node. For demonstration, we have implemented the umpiringsystem by modifying the popular AODV protocol.

  7. Energy-efficient algorithm for broadcasting in ad hoc wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Xingbo; Cheng, Hongju; Wan, Zheng

    2013-04-12

    Broadcasting is a common and basic operation used to support various network protocols in wireless networks. To achieve energy-efficient broadcasting is especially important for ad hoc wireless sensor networks because sensors are generally powered by batteries with limited lifetimes. Energy consumption for broadcast operations can be reduced by minimizing the number of relay nodes based on the observation that data transmission processes consume more energy than data reception processes in the sensor nodes, and how to improve the network lifetime is always an interesting issue in sensor network research. The minimum-energy broadcast problem is then equivalent to the problem of finding the minimum Connected Dominating Set (CDS) for a connected graph that is proved NP-complete. In this paper, we introduce an Efficient Minimum CDS algorithm (EMCDS) with help of a proposed ordered sequence list. EMCDS does not concern itself with node energy and broadcast operations might fail if relay nodes are out of energy. Next we have proposed a Minimum Energy-consumption Broadcast Scheme (MEBS) with a modified version of EMCDS, and aimed at providing an efficient scheduling scheme with maximized network lifetime. The simulation results show that the proposed EMCDS algorithm can find smaller CDS compared with related works, and the MEBS can help to increase the network lifetime by efficiently balancing energy among nodes in the networks.

  8. p-RWBO: a novel low-collision and QoS-supported MAC for wireless ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Keping; LI Yun; ZHAO WeiLiang; WANG ChongGang; Kazem SOHRABY

    2008-01-01

    QoS supported MAC mechanism is a key issue for supporting QoS in wireless ad hoc networks. A new backoff algorithm, named RWBO+BEB, was proposed previously to decrease the packet collision probability significantly. In this paper, it is explored how to make RWBO+BEB support service differentiation in wireless ad hoc networks, and a novel proportional service differentiation algorithm, named p-RWBO, is proposed to allocate the wireless bandwidth according to the bandwidth ratio of each station. In p-RWBO, station n's walking probability (Pw, n) is selected according to its allocated bandwidth ratio. An analytical model is proposed to analyze how to choose Pw, n according to the bandwidth ratios of station n. The simulation results indicate that p-RWBO can differentiate services in terms of both bandwidth and delay.

  9. PROTOCOLS FOR INCREASING THE LIFETIME OF NODES OF AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Malarkodi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption of nodes in ad hoc networks is a critical issue as they predominantly operate on batteries. In order to improve the lifetime of an ad hoc network, all the nodes must be utilized evenly and the power required for connections must be minimized. Energy management deals with the process of managing energy resources by means of controlling the battery discharge, adjusting the transmission power and scheduling of power sources so as to increase the lifetime of the nodes of an ad hoc wireless network. In this paper, two protocols are proposed to improve the lifetime of the nodes. The first protocol assumes smart battery packages with L cells and uses dynamic programming (DP to optimally select the set of cells used to satisfy a request for power. The second one proposes a MAC layer protocol denoted as Power Aware medium Access Control (PAMAC protocol which enables the network layer to select a route with minimum total power requirement among the possible routes between a source and a destination provided all nodes in the routes have battery capacity above a threshold. The life time of the nodes using the DP based scheduling policy is found through simulation and compared with that obtained using the techniques reported in the literature. It is found that DP based policy increases the lifetime of the mobile nodes by a factor of 1.15 to 1.8. The life expectancy, the average power consumption and throughput of the network using PAMAC protocol are computed through simulation and compared with that of the other MAC layer protocols 802.11, MACA, and CSMA. Besides this, the life expectancy and average power consumption of the network for different values of threshold are also compared. From the simulation results, it is observed that PAMAC consumes the least power and provides the longest lifetime among the various MAC Layer protocols. Moreover, using PAMAC as the MAC layer protocol, the performance obtained using different routing layer

  10. Experimental performance study of wireless ad hoc system utilizing 802.11a standard base on different routing protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao F.; Wang, You-Zheng; Mei, Shunliang; Wang, Jing

    2002-08-01

    The wireless ad hoc network technology provides a flexible infrastructure for next generation mobile telecommunication. In this paper, the performances of the networks based on IEEE802.11a standard, including packets successful delivery rate, average end-to-end delay and system throughput, have been studied with different routing protocols (AODV, WRP, and FISHEYE) using GloMoSim to evaluate the effects of various factors, such as node mobility, node density, and node radio transmission range. The simulation results show that adaptive routing protocol will be more suitable for the variation ad hoc network and the results are helpful for the optimum design and deployment of an actual network.

  11. A DRIVEN BACKUP ROUTING TABLE TO FIND ALTERNATIVE DISJOINT PATH IN AD HOC WIRELESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan S. Abujassar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The performances of the routing protocols are important since they compute the primary path betweensource and destination. In addition, routing protocols need to detect failure within a short period oftime when nodes move to start updating the routing table in order to find a new primary path tothe destination. Meantime, loss of packets and end-to- end delays will increase thereby reducingthroughput and degrading the performance of the network. This paper proposes a new algorithm,DBRT (Driven Backup Routing Table, to improve the existing proactive protocols such as DSDV(Destination Sequenced Distance Vector protocol by creating a backup routing table to providemultiple alternative routes. The DBRT algorithm identifies adjacent nodes for each node in the samerange and then selects one of these as a backup next hop according to the available path to thedestination. The results show that loss of data packets, throughput and end-to-end delay times betweensource and destination are improved. The results show that the new protocol does not degrade thenetwork’s performance despite sending extra messages to construct and update the new backuprouting table. Simulations (using an NS2 simulator are undertaken to demonstrate the differencebetween using a DSDV protocol with or without the proposed schema.Index Terms; Network Protocols ;( DSDV Destination Sequenced Distance Vector ; DBRT (Driven BackupRouting Table;Wireless Network; Mobile Ad Hoc Network

  12. Capacity Scaling of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Effect of Finite Wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Si-Hyeon

    2010-01-01

    We study the capacity scaling of wireless ad hoc networks considering the effect of finite wavelength. $n$ source--destination pairs are assumed to be randomly placed in areas of 1 (dense network) and $n$ (extended network). \\"{O}zg\\"{u}r \\emph{et al.} showed that the linear capacity scaling is possible for the dense network and the extended network with path-loss exponent equal to 2, which is achieved by hierarchical cooperation (HC). However, such a linear capacity scaling was shown to violate the physical limit on degrees of freedom by Franceschetti \\emph{et al}. The cause of the contradiction is the idealized channel model used in the analysis of the HC, in which the channel correlation due to the finite wavelength is ignored. In this paper, we use a channel model that captures the channel correlation correctly, modify the HC accordingly, and analyze its throughput scaling in terms of both $n$ and the wavelength. Our result shows exactly how the throughput scaling of HC is degraded due to the effect of fi...

  13. Joint routing and rate allocation for multiple video streams in ad-hoc wireless networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiao-qing; SINGH Jatinder Pal; GIROD Bernd

    2006-01-01

    The support for multiple video streams in an ad-hoc wireless network requires appropriate routing and rate allocation measures ascertaining the set of links for transmitting each stream and the encoding rate of the video to be delivered over the chosen links. The routing and rate allocation procedures impact the sustained quality of each video stream measured as the mean squared error (MSE) distortion at the receiver, and the overall network congestion in terms of queuing delay per link. We study the trade-off between these two competing objectives in a convex optimization formulation, and discuss both centralized and distributed solutions for joint routing and rate allocation for multiple streams. For each stream, the optimal allocated rate strikes a balance between the selfish motive of minimizing video distortion and the global good of minimizing network congestions, while the routes are chosen over the least-congested links in the network. In addition to detailed analysis, network simulation results using ns-2 are presented for studying the optimal choice of parameters and to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed measures.

  14. Enhancing the selection of backoff interval using fuzzy logic over wireless Ad Hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Radha; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2015-01-01

    IEEE 802.11 is the de facto standard for medium access over wireless ad hoc network. The collision avoidance mechanism (i.e., random binary exponential backoff-BEB) of IEEE 802.11 DCF (distributed coordination function) is inefficient and unfair especially under heavy load. In the literature, many algorithms have been proposed to tune the contention window (CW) size. However, these algorithms make every node select its backoff interval between [0, CW] in a random and uniform manner. This randomness is incorporated to avoid collisions among the nodes. But this random backoff interval can change the optimal order and frequency of channel access among competing nodes which results in unfairness and increased delay. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that schedules the medium access in a fair and effective manner. This algorithm enhances IEEE 802.11 DCF with additional level of contention resolution that prioritizes the contending nodes according to its queue length and waiting time. Each node computes its unique backoff interval using fuzzy logic based on the input parameters collected from contending nodes through overhearing. We evaluate our algorithm against IEEE 802.11, GDCF (gentle distributed coordination function) protocols using ns-2.35 simulator and show that our algorithm achieves good performance.

  15. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  16. Further Development of Synchronous Array Method for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbo Hua

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A further development of the synchronous array method (SAM as a medium access control scheme for large-scale ad hoc wireless networks is presented. Under SAM, all transmissions of data packets between adjacent nodes are synchronized on a frame-by-frame basis, and the spacing between concurrent cochannel transmissions of data packets is properly controlled. An opportunistic SAM (O-SAM is presented which allows concurrent cochannel transmissions to be locally adaptive to channel gain variations. A distributed SAM (D-SAM is discussed that schedules all concurrent cochannel transmissions in a distributed fashion. For networks of low mobility, the control overhead required by SAM can be made much smaller than the payload. By analysis and simulation, the intranetwork throughput of O-SAM and D-SAM is evaluated. The effects of traffic load and multiple antennas on the intranetwork throughput are studied. The throughput of ALOHA is also analyzed and compared with that of O-SAM and D-SAM. By a distance-weighted throughput, a comparison of long distance transmission versus short distance transmission is also presented. The study of D-SAM reveals an important insight into the MSH-DSCH protocol adopted in IEEE 802.16 standards.

  17. Analysis of DDoS Attack Effect and Protection Scheme in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramratan Ahirwal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET every node functions as transmitter, router and data sink is network without infrastructure. Detecting malicious nodes in an open ad-hoc network in whichparticipating nodes have no previous security associations presents a number of challenges not faced by traditional wired networks. Traffic monitoring in wired networks is usually performed at switches,routers and gateways, but an ad-hoc network does not have these types of network elements where the Intrusion Detection System (IDS can collect and analyse audit data for the entire network. A number ofneighbour-monitoring, trust-building, and cluster-based voting schemes have been proposed in the research to enable the detection and reporting of malicious activity in ad-hoc networks. The resourcesconsumed by ad-hoc network member nodes to monitor, detect, report, and diagnose malicious activity, however, may be greater than simply rerouting packets through a different available path. In this paperwe are trying to protect our network from distributed denial of service attack (DDOS, In this paper we present method for determining intrusion or misbehave in MANET using intrusion detection system and protect the network from distributed denial of service (DDOS and analysis the result on the bases of actual TCP flow monitoring, routing load ,packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay in normal , DDOS attack and IDS time .

  18. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks%无线特定网络--Ad Hoc网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张筱; 张光昭

    2001-01-01

    Ad Hoc网络是一种没有固定结构的无线移动网络.介绍了移动Ad Hoc网络(MANETs)的主要特点和与传统有线分组交换网相比的特性,讨论了应用于Ad Hoc网络的路由机制和所需面临的问题.

  19. A Systematic Design Method for Large-Scale Wireless Ad Hoc Network Protocol Based on Optimization Decomposition Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chaonong Xu; Chi Zhang; Yongjun Xu; Zhiguang Wang

    2015-01-01

    The idea of network protocol design based on optimization theory has been proposed and used practically in Internet for about 15 years. However, for large-scale wireless ad hoc network, although protocol could be viewed as a recursive solving of a global optimization problem, protocol design is still facing huge challenge because an effective distributed algorithm for solving global optimization problem is still lacking. We solve the problem by putting forward a systematic design method based...

  20. Performance Evaluation of Reactive Protocols for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi A Bichkar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The requirement for good Quality of Service in Mobile Ad Hoc Network is that, better protocols should be used. To improve protocol efficiency, the two key issues to be considered are, low control overhead and low energy consumption. For reducing energy consumption and routing overhead, an enhanced routing algorithm, EEDSR (Energy Efficient Dynamic Source Routing with local route enhancement model for DSR (Dynamic Source Routing is implemented. Comparisons based on routing overhead, energy and throughput is done between EEDSR and EEAODV (Energy Efficient Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector and AODV (Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector protocols. For all protocols, NS-2.34 Simulator is used. This paper presents the simulation results in order to choose the best routing protocol to give highest performance. The simulations have shown that EEDSR protocol performs well as it consumes 12�0less energy than EEAODV and AODV

  1. Cross-layer design for intrusion detection and data security in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-09-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. The nodes are severely resource-constrained, with limited processing, memory and power capacities and must operate cooperatively to fulfill a common mission in typically unattended modes. In a wireless sensor network (WSN), each sensor at a node can observe locally some underlying physical phenomenon and sends a quantized version of the observation to sink (destination) nodes via wireless links. Since the wireless medium can be easily eavesdropped, links can be compromised by intrusion attacks from nodes that may mount denial-of-service attacks or insert spurious information into routing packets, leading to routing loops, long timeouts, impersonation, and node exhaustion. A cross-layer design based on protocol-layer interactions is proposed for detection and identification of various intrusion attacks on WSN operation. A feature set is formed from selected cross-layer parameters of the WSN protocol to detect and identify security threats due to intrusion attacks. A separate protocol is not constructed from the cross-layer design; instead, security attributes and quantified trust levels at and among nodes established during data exchanges complement customary WSN metrics of energy usage, reliability, route availability, and end-to-end quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning. Statistical pattern recognition algorithms are applied that use observed feature-set patterns observed during network operations, viewed as security audit logs. These algorithms provide the "best" network global performance in the presence of various intrusion attacks. A set of mobile (software) agents distributed at the nodes implement the algorithms, by moving among the layers involved in the network response at each active node

  2. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  3. FRCA: a fuzzy relevance-based cluster head selection algorithm for wireless mobile ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chongdeuk; Jeong, Taegwon

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA) to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP), the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA), and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM). The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms.

  4. Analytical Models of Cross-Layer Protocol Optimization in Real-Time Wireless Sensor Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    The real-time interactions among the nodes of a wireless sensor network (WSN) to cooperatively process data from multiple sensors are modeled. Quality-of-service (QoS) metrics are associated with the quality of fused information: throughput, delay, packet error rate, etc. Multivariate point process (MVPP) models of discrete random events in WSNs establish stochastic characteristics of optimal cross-layer protocols. Discrete-event, cross-layer interactions in mobile ad hoc network (MANET) protocols have been modeled using a set of concatenated design parameters and associated resource levels by the MVPPs. Characterization of the "best" cross-layer designs for a MANET is formulated by applying the general theory of martingale representations to controlled MVPPs. Performance is described in terms of concatenated protocol parameters and controlled through conditional rates of the MVPPs. Modeling limitations to determination of closed-form solutions versus explicit iterative solutions for ad hoc WSN controls are examined.

  5. Unsupervised algorithms for intrusion detection and identification in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2009-05-01

    In previous work by the author, parameters across network protocol layers were selected as features in supervised algorithms that detect and identify certain intrusion attacks on wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WSNs) carrying multisensor data. The algorithms improved the residual performance of the intrusion prevention measures provided by any dynamic key-management schemes and trust models implemented among network nodes. The approach of this paper does not train algorithms on the signature of known attack traffic, but, instead, the approach is based on unsupervised anomaly detection techniques that learn the signature of normal network traffic. Unsupervised learning does not require the data to be labeled or to be purely of one type, i.e., normal or attack traffic. The approach can be augmented to add any security attributes and quantified trust levels, established during data exchanges among nodes, to the set of cross-layer features from the WSN protocols. A two-stage framework is introduced for the security algorithms to overcome the problems of input size and resource constraints. The first stage is an unsupervised clustering algorithm which reduces the payload of network data packets to a tractable size. The second stage is a traditional anomaly detection algorithm based on a variation of support vector machines (SVMs), whose efficiency is improved by the availability of data in the packet payload. In the first stage, selected algorithms are adapted to WSN platforms to meet system requirements for simple parallel distributed computation, distributed storage and data robustness. A set of mobile software agents, acting like an ant colony in securing the WSN, are distributed at the nodes to implement the algorithms. The agents move among the layers involved in the network response to the intrusions at each active node and trustworthy neighborhood, collecting parametric values and executing assigned decision tasks. This minimizes the need to move large amounts

  6. A State-of-the-art Survey on IDS for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks and Wireless Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Novarun; Chaki, Nabendu

    2011-01-01

    An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) detects malicious and selfish nodes in a network. Ad hoc networks are often secured by using either intrusion detection or by secure routing. Designing efficient IDS for wireless ad-hoc networks that would not affect the performance of the network significantly is indeed a challenging task. Arguably, the most common thing in a review paper in the domain of wireless networks is to compare the performances of different solutions using simulation results. However, variance in multiple configuration aspects including that due to different underlying routing protocols, makes the task of simulation based comparative evaluation of IDS solutions somewhat unrealistic. In stead, the authors have followed an analytic approach to identify the gaps in the existing IDS solutions for MANETs and wireless mesh networks. The paper aims to ease the job of a new researcher by exposing him to the state of the art research issues on IDS. Nearly 80% of the works cited in this paper are published ...

  7. Queueing models for mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de Roland

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents models for the performance analysis of a recent communication paradigm: mobile ad hoc networking. The objective of mobile ad hoc networking is to provide wireless connectivity between stations in a highly dynamic environment. These dynamics are driven by the mobility of stations

  8. Optimalization of Beacon Selection for Localization in Wireless AD-HOC Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we engage in optimalization of convenient beacons for localization position of a node in the ad-hoc network. An algorithm designed by us localizes position of moving or static node by RSS (Received Signal Strength method and trilateration. At first, localization of unknown node runs by combination of all beacons. Than optimalizating algorithmreduces the number of beacons (and repeats localization, while only three left. Its reduction is based on highest levels of received signal strength. It is only when signals are from the nearest beacons. Position localizating exactness is statistically interpreted from all localization by beacons combination and its repeating.

  9. Adaptive and Fuzzy Approaches for Nodes Affinity Management in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Natsheh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In most of the ad-hoc routing protocols, a static link lifetime (LL is used for a newly discovered neighbors. Though this works well for networks with fixed infrastructures, it is inadequate for ad-hoc networks due to nodes mobility and frequent breaks of links. To overcome this problem, routing protocols with estimated LL using nodes affinity were introduced. However, these protocols also used the static estimated LL during the connection time. In contrast to that, in this paper two methods are presented to estimate LL based on nodes affinity and then continually update those values depending on changes of the affinity. In the first method, linear function is used to map the relationship between the signal strength fluctuation and LL. In the second method, fuzzy logic system is used to map this relationship in a nonlinear fashion. Significance of the proposed methods is validated using simulation. Results indicate that fuzzy method provides the most efficient and robust LL values for routing protocols.

  10. A robust cross-layer metric for routing protocol in mobile wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Chisci, Luigi; Fabbrini, Luca; Giovannetti, Giulio

    2012-12-01

    In a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) where Mobile Nodes (MNs) self-organize to ensure the communication over radio links, routing protocols clearly play a significant role. In future MANETs, protocols should provide routing under full mobility, power constraints, fast time-varying channels, and nodes subject to high loading. In this article, a novel robust routing protocol, named distributed X-layer fastest path (DXFP), is proposed. The protocol is based on a cross-layer metric which is robust against the time-variations of the network as far as topology (mobility), congestion of the nodes and channel quality (fading, power constraints) are concerned. All these features are integrated in a single physical cost, i.e., the network crossing time, which has to be minimized. Furthermore, several routes from source to destination are stored for a given data flow to efficiently face the disconnections which frequently occur in MANETs. It is shown that the DXFP protocol, though locally operating in a fully distributed way within the MNs, provides, for each data flow, the optimum routes according to the considered metric. The DXFP protocol has been compared with two of the most commonly used routing protocols for MANETs, i.e., dynamic source routing and ad hoc on-demand distance vector, showing significant improvements in performance and robustness.

  11. Performance Analysis of a Cluster-Based MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alonso-Zárate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model to evaluate the non-saturated performance of the Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks (DQMANs in single-hop networks is presented in this paper. DQMAN is comprised of a spontaneous, temporary, and dynamic clustering mechanism integrated with a near-optimum distributed queuing Medium Access Control (MAC protocol. Clustering is executed in a distributed manner using a mechanism inspired by the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF of the IEEE 802.11. Once a station seizes the channel, it becomes the temporary clusterhead of a spontaneous cluster and it coordinates the peer-to-peer communications between the clustermembers. Within each cluster, a near-optimum distributed queuing MAC protocol is executed. The theoretical performance analysis of DQMAN in single-hop networks under non-saturation conditions is presented in this paper. The approach integrates the analysis of the clustering mechanism into the MAC layer model. Up to the knowledge of the authors, this approach is novel in the literature. In addition, the performance of an ad hoc network using DQMAN is compared to that obtained when using the DCF of the IEEE 802.11, as a benchmark reference.

  12. Rate-aware optimal transmission power analysis in wireless ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Lin; Li Minglu; Yu Jiadi

    2008-01-01

    The problem of transmission power control in a rate-aware way is investigated to improve the through put of wireless ad hoe network.The behavior of basic IEEE 802.11 DCF is approximated by the p-persistent CSMA through a Markov chain model.The throughput model takes hidden terminals, multi-hop flow and concurrent interference into account.Numerical results show that the optimal transmission power derived from this model could balance the tradeoff between spatial reuse and data rate and hence yield maximum throughput.

  13. Potentials, Limitations and Applications of long-term and mobile ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Lapteva, Yulia; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2014-05-01

    To characterize environmental systems it is necessary to identify and describe processes with suitable methods. Environmental systems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, so individual measurements for their complete representation are often not sufficient. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems offer significant benefits as a better consideration of the local test conditions becomes possible. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous environmental systems. Significant advantages in the application of mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks are their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, a point measurement with a sensor is significantly improved by measuring at several points. It is also possible to perform analog and digital signal processing and computation on the basis of the measured data close to the sensor. Hence, a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of sensor nodes. Furthermore, their localization via satellite, the miniaturization of the nodes and long-term energy self-sufficiency are current topics under investigation. The possibilities and limitations of the applicability of wireless sensor networks for long-term and mobile environmental monitoring are presented. A concepts and realization example are given in the field of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes .This long term monitoring is part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Furthermore a mobile ad-hoc sensor network is presented for the monitoring of water induced mass wasting processes.

  14. Statistical-Based Joint Power Control for Wireless Ad Hoc CDMA Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGShu; RONGMongtian; CHENBo

    2005-01-01

    Current power control algorithm for CDMA-based ad hoc networks contains SIR and interference measurement, which is based on history information. However, for the traffics in today's or future's network, important statistical property is burstiness. As a consequence, the interference at a given receiving node may fluctuate dramatically. So the convergence speed of power control is not fast and the performance degrades. This paper presents a joint power control model. To a receiving node, all transmitting nodes assigned in same time slot adjust their transmitter power based on current information, which takes into account the adjustments of transmitter power of other transmitting nodes. Based on the joint power control model, this paper proposes a statisticalbased power control algorithm. Through this new algorithm, the interference is estimated more exactly. The simulation results indicated that the proposed power control algorithm outperforms the old algorithm.

  15. Research on the Key Issues of Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen; ZHENG Bao-yu

    2005-01-01

    Communication Network and Signal Processing are two of the research hotspots in the field of information technology because of their fast development. This paper focuses on the introduction of some research progresses in our National 863 Project based on the combination of technologies in these two areas. We present two new Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols based on so-called Multi-Packets Reception (MPR) in Ad hoc networks. Communication in the first scheme is initiated from senders and from receivers in the second one. Simulation results show that these new MAC protocols, which are based on new signal processing techniques, may raise network capacity and reduce transmission delay of data from end to end.

  16. ON THE PROBABILITY OF K-CONNECTIVITY IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS UNDER DIFFERENT MOBILITY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare the probability of k-Connectivity of an ad hoc network under Random Way Point (RWP,City Section and Manhattan mobility models. A Network is said to be k-Connected if there exists at least kedge disjoint paths between any pair of nodes in that network at any given time and velocity. Initially, foreach of the three mobility models, the movement of the each node in the ad hoc network at a givenvelocity and time are captured and stored in the Node Movement Database (NMDB. Using themovements in the NMDB, the location of the node at a given time is computed and stored in the NodeLocation Database (NLDB. A weighted graph is created using the location of the nodes from NLDB,which is converted into a residual graph. The k-Connectivity of this residual graph is obtained by runningFord-Fulkerson’s algorithm on it. Ford Fulkerson’s algorithm computes the maximum flow of a networkby recording the flows assigned to different routes from each node to all the other nodes in the network.When run for a particular source-destination pair (s, d pair on a residual network graph with unit edgeweights as capacity, the maximum flow determined by Ford-Fulkerson’ algorithm is the number of edgedisjoint s-d paths on the network graph. Simulations show that the RWP model yields the highestprobability of k-Connectivity compared to City Section and Manhattan mobility models for a majority ofdifferent node densities and velocities considered. Simulation results also show that, for all the threemobility models, as the k value increases, the probability of k-Connectivity decreases for a given densityand velocity and as the density increases the probability of k-Connectivity increases.

  17. A Secure Intrusion Detection System against DDOS Attack in Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Using Multi-Hop Routing Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dinesh. S. Banabakode,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network is a technology which are used in society in daily life an activities such as in traffic surveillance, in building construction or it’s application is used in battlefield also. In MANET there is no control of any node here is no centralized controller that’s why each node has its own routing capability. And each node act as device and its change its connection to other devices. The main problem of today’s MANET is a security, because there is no any centralized controller. Our main aim is that we protect them from DDOS attack in terms of flooding through messages, packet drop, end to end delay and energy dropping etc. For that we are applying many techniques for saving energy of nodes and identifying malicious node and types of DDOS attack and in this paper we are discussing this technique.

  18. Topology Discovering and Power saving Mechanism for Routing in a Tree of Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa Zabian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Power management in mobile network is an open challenges where the power level in the network influences the network life time. However, there are a trade off between the power consumption and the connectivity in mobile networks. We present a topology control mechanism and a routing protocol for Ad-Hoc wireless networks that chooses the shortest path given the lower power consumption. The power consumption in forwarding a packet in the proposed topology is depends on only two main factors are the number of hops and the packet size. Our analytical results are confirmed by our simulation results where both has give the same results for power consumption in sending a packet taking in consideration only the power consumed in communication.

  19. A MODEL FOR CONGESTION CONTROL OF TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL IN MOBILE WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib M. Monzer Habbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is a fundamental protocol in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite.TCP was well designed and optimized to work over wired networks where most packet loss occurs due to network congestion. In theory, TCP should not care whether it is running over wired networks, WLANs, or Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs. In practice, it does matter because most TCP deployments have been carefully designed based on the assumption that congestion is the main factor of network instability. However, MANETs have other dominating factors that cause network instability. Forgetting the impact of these factors violates some design principles of TCP congestion control and open questions for future research to address. This study aims to introduce a model that shows the impact of MANET factors on TCP congestion control. To achieve this aim, Design Research Methodology (DRM proposed by BLESSING was used as a guide to present this model. The proposed model describes the existing situation of TCP congestion control. Furthermore, it points to the factors that are most suitable to be addressed by researchers in order to improve TCP performance. This research proposes a novel model to present the impact of MANET factors on TCP congestion control. The model is expected to serve as a benchmark for any intended improvement and enhancement of TCP congestion control over MANET.

  20. Design and Implementation of a Communication Protocol to Improve Multimedia QoS and QoE in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Santos, Juan Ramón

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This dissertation addresses the problem of multimedia delivery over multi-hop ad hoc wireless networks, and especially over wireless sensor networks. Due to their characteristics of low power consumption, low processing capacity and low memory capacity, they have major difficulties in achieving optimal quality levels demanded by end users in such communications. In the first part of this work, it has been carried out a study to determine the behavior of a variety of multimedia streams...

  1. A More Efficient Group Key Distribution Scheme for Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; CHEN Ke-fei; WEN Mi; ZHENG Yan-fei

    2008-01-01

    As the wireless medium is characterized by its lossy nature, reliable communication cannot be as-sumed in the key management scheme. Therefore self-healing is a good property for key distribution scheme in wireless applications. A new self-healing key distribution scheme was proposed, which is optimal in terms of user memory storage and efficient in terms of communication complexity.

  2. Service placement in ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenburg, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Service provisioning in ad hoc networks is challenging given the difficulties of communicating over a wireless channel and the potential heterogeneity and mobility of the devices that form the network. Service placement is the process of selecting an optimal set of nodes to host the implementation of a service in light of a given service demand and network topology. The key advantage of active service placement in ad hoc networks is that it allows for the service configuration to be adapted continuously at run time. ""Service Placement in Ad Hoc Networks"" proposes the SPi service placement fr

  3. On using multiple routing metrics with destination sequenced distance vector protocol for MultiHop wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, M.; Fazio, P.; Voznak, M.; Partila, P.; Komosny, D.; Tovarek, J.; Chmelikova, Z.

    2016-05-01

    A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes which communicate without a fixed backbone or centralized infrastructure. Due to the frequent mobility of nodes, routes connecting two distant nodes may change. Therefore, it is not possible to establish a priori fixed paths for message delivery through the network. Because of its importance, routing is the most studied problem in mobile ad hoc networks. In addition, if the Quality of Service (QoS) is demanded, one must guarantee the QoS not only over a single hop but over an entire wireless multi-hop path which may not be a trivial task. In turns, this requires the propagation of QoS information within the network. The key to the support of QoS reporting is QoS routing, which provides path QoS information at each source. To support QoS for real-time traffic one needs to know not only minimum delay on the path to the destination but also the bandwidth available on it. Therefore, throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead are traditional performance metrics used to evaluate the performance of routing protocol. To obtain additional information about the link, most of quality-link metrics are based on calculation of the lost probabilities of links by broadcasting probe packets. In this paper, we address the problem of including multiple routing metrics in existing routing packets that are broadcasted through the network. We evaluate the efficiency of such approach with modified version of DSDV routing protocols in ns-3 simulator.

  4. A topology control algorithm for preserving minimum-energy paths in wireless ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhong; CHANG Yilin; CUI Can; ZHANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    In this Paper,a distributed topology control algorithm is proposed.By adjusting the transmission power of each node,this algorithm constructs a wireless network topology with minimum-energy property,i.e.,it preserves a minimum-energy path between every pair of nodes.Moreover,the proposed algorithm can be used in both homogenous and heterogeneous wireless networks.and it can also work without an explicit propagation channel model or the position information of nodes.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has advantages over the topology control algorithm based on direct-transmission region in terms of average node degree and power efficiency.

  5. Dynamic Hierarchical Sleep Scheduling for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Wen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two scheduling management schemes for wireless sensor networks, which manage the sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocate network resources efficiently. A local criterion is used to simultaneously establish the sensing coverage and connectivity such that dynamic cluster-based sleep scheduling can be achieved. The proposed schemes are simulated and analyzed to abstract the network behaviors in a number of settings. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithms provide efficient network power control and can achieve high scalability in wireless sensor networks.

  6. Security Threat Analysis of Wireless Ad Hoc Network Technology%无线自组网技术安全威胁分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃振; 刘继光; 李朝东

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless technology, the wireless ad hoc network technology is applied maturely. However, because of open character of network and nature of wireless transmission, the node equipment of ad hoc system networking is exposed in the open and public networks, the security protection of various sensitive information in network transmission is facing the challenges from all kinds of malicious attacks, the security problem becomes the core issue of wireless ad hoc network technology. On the basis of research on ad hoc network structure and technical characteristics as well as analysis on several aspects of faced security threats, this paper proposes the improvement measures for ad hoc network system security in such aspects as access node, node organization and terminal access.%随着无线技术的迅速发展,无线自组网技术得以成熟应用,然而因为网络的开放特性以及无线传输的本质,使得自组网系统组网的节点设备暴露在开放、公开的网络之中,网络传输的各种敏感信息安全防护面临着来自各种恶意攻击的挑战,安全问题已成为无线自组网技术的核心问题之一。本文在研究了自组网网络组网结构、技术特点和分析了面临的几方面安全威胁基础之上,提出了关于自组网系统安全在节点接入、节点组织、终端接入等方面采取改进措施的建议。

  7. Reliable routing protocols for dynamic wireless ad hoc and sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jian

    2007-01-01

    The vision of ubiquitous computing requires the development of devices and technologies, which can be pervasive without being intrusive. The basic components of such a smart environment will be small nodes with sensing and wireless communications capabilities, able to organize flexibly into a networ

  8. Wireless sensor and mobile ad-hoc networks vehicular and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Fuqaha, Ala

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the practical perspectives in using wireless sensor networks (WSN) to develop real world applications that can be used for space exploration. These applications include sensor interfaces, remote wireless vehicles, space crew health monitoring and instrumentation. The material discusses how applications of WSN originally developed for space travel and exploration are being applied and used in multiple real world applications, allowing for the development of smart systems that have characteristics such as self-healing, self-diagnosis, and emergency healthcare notification. This book also: ·         Discusses how multidisciplinary fields can be implemented in a single application ·         Reviews exhaustively the state-of-the-art research in WSN for space and vehicular applications ·         Covers smart systems that have self-healing, self-diagnosis, and emergency healthcare notification

  9. Improvement in Medium Access Control protocol based on new contention scheme for wireless ad hoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Ellammal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In todays wireless networks, stations using the IEEE 802.11 standard contend for the channel using the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF. Research has shown that DCF€™s performance degrades especially with the large number of stations. This becomes more concerning due to the increasing proliferation of wireless devices. In this paper, we present a Medium Access Control (MAC scheme for wireless LANs and compare its performance to DCF . Our scheme, which attempts to resolve the contention in a constant number of slots (or constant time, is called CONSTI. The contention resolution happens over a predefined number of slots. In a slot, the stations probabilistically send a jam signal on the channel. The stations listening retire if they hear a jam signal. The others continue to the next slot. Over several slots, we aim to have one station remaining in the contention, which will then transmit its data. We find the optimal parameters of CONSTI and present an analysis on its performance.

  10. Design and Implementation of AMRP for Multi hop wireless Mobile ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.R.Balakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper have analyzed the interruption concert of a multi-hop wireless network in which the routes between resource-objective pairs are fixed. It has developed a new queue grouping technique to handle the complex correlations of the service process resulting from the multi-hop nature of the flows and their mutual sharing of the wireless medium. A general set based interfering model is assumed that imposes constraints on links that can be served simultaneously at any given time. These interference constraints are used to obtain a fundamental lower bound on the interruption concert of any scheduling policy for the system. It presents a systematic methodology to derive such lower bounds. For a special wireless system, namely the clique, it design a policy that is sample path interruption is finest. For the cycle queue network, where the interruption finest policy is known, the expected interruption of the optimal policy numerically coincides with the lower bound. The lower bound analysis provides useful insights into the design and analysis of optimal or nearly optimal scheduling policies.

  11. Adaptive Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Long-term and Event-oriented Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Chirila, Andrei Marian; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, complexity and dynamic. Hence, single point measurements are often not sufficient for their complete representation. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic environmental systems offer significant benefits as a better consideration to the local test conditions, due to the simple adjustment of the sensor distribution, the sensor types and the sample rate. Another advantage of wireless ad-hoc sensor networks is their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, individual point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several points continuously. In this work a concept and realization for Long-term ecosystem research is given in the field monitoring of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes. This long term analyses are part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Regarding to the adaptive behavior of the network, also a mobile version was developed to overcome the lack of information of temporally and spatially fixed measurements for the detection and recording of highly dynamic or time limited processes. First results of different field campaigns are given to present the potentials and limitations of this application in environmental science, especially for the monitoring of the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes, soil-atmosphere interaction and the validation of remote sensing data.

  12. Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.

  13. AUTOMATED EB BILLING SYSTEM USING GSM AND AD-HOC WIRELESS ROUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Saravanan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the passage of time, technology has merged itself with the daily life of humans. We have seen so much progress in the field of science and technology but we are not able to make full use of it. One such area for improvement is the Electricity board billing system. Our existing electricity board billing system in India is obsolete and time consuming. We are proposing a system through which electricity billing becomes fully automated and communication is made possiblevia wireless networks. The existing manual system in India has major drawbacks. This system is prone to errors and can also be easily manipulated. The prevailing manual system also requires lot of human workforce. The major disadvantage in this system is that the meter cannot be accessed by the meter reader if the customer is not present at home. In our system the central EB office has immediate access to all consumer homes in a locality with the help of an RF system. The EB meter present in each house is connected by wireless network with the EB office which periodically gets updates from the meter. The EB office using a backend database calculates the amount to be paid according to the number of units consumed and sends it back to the meter for display and also to the user’s mobile phone. The advantages of the proposed system make the existing system incompetent. It ispossible to connect to remote areas even when there is a power failure as it employs wireless technology. The new system is user friendly, easy to access and far more efficient than the existing system.

  14. Self-Organization of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks as Small Worlds Using Long Range Directional Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Abhik; Gauthier, Vincent; Yeo, Chai Kiat; Afifi, Hossam; Lee, Bu Sung

    2011-01-01

    We study how long range directional beams can be used for self-organization of a wireless network to exhibit small world properties. Using simulation results for randomized beamforming as a guideline, we identify crucial design issues for algorithm design. Subsequently, we propose an algorithm for deterministic creation of small worlds. We define a new centrality measure that estimates the structural importance of nodes based on traffic flow in the network, which is used to identify the optimum nodes for beamforming. This results in significant reduction in path length while maintaining connectivity.

  15. Load balancing strategy of heterogeneous wireless networks based on multi-hop routing algorithm of ad hoc network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xuebing; Wang Qingping; Zhu Guangxi; Liu Gan

    2009-01-01

    Because of different system capacities of base station (BS) or access point (AP) and ununiformity of traffic distribution in different cells, quantities of new call users may be blocked in overloaded cell in communication hot spots. Whereas in some neighboring under-loaded cells, bandwidth may be superfluous because there are only few users to request services. In order to raise resource utilization of the whole heterogeneous networks, several novel load balancing strategies are proposed, which combine the call admission control policy and multi-hop routing protocol of ad-hoc network for load balancing. These load balancing strategies firstly make a decision whether to admit a new call or not by considering some parameters like load index and route cost, etc.., and then transfer the denied users into neighboring under-loaded cell with surplus channel according to optimum multi-hop routing algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed load balancing strategies can distribute traffics to the whole heterogeneous wireless networks, improve the load balance index efficiently, and avoid the call block phenomenon almost absolutely.

  16. SARA: a self-adaptive and resource-aware approach towards secure wireless ad hoc and sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigan, Chunxiao; Li, Leiyuan

    2005-05-01

    Providing security is essential for mission critical Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (WAHSN) applications. Often a highly secure mechanism inevitably consumes a rather large amount of system resources, which in turn may unintentionally cause a Security Service Denial of Service (SSDoS) attack. This paper proposes a self-adaptive resource-aware (SARA) security provisioning approach for WAHSNs. For resource scarce WAHSNs, SARA strives to provide the optimal tradeoff between the sufficient security (which is reflected by the Security Index (SI)) and the acceptable network performance degradation (which is reflected by the Performance Index (PI)). With the support of the offline optimal secure protocol selection module and the online self-adaptive security control module, SARA is capable of employing different combinations of secure protocol sets to satisfy different security need at different condition for different applications. To determine the security index SI of a secure protocol set, a heuristic cross-layer security-service mapping mechanism is presented. Furthermore, we evaluate performance index PI of a secure protocol set via simulation followed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Consequently, the proposed self-adaptive security provisioning based on both SI and PI achieves the maximum overall network security services and network performance services, without causing the SSDoS attack. Furthermore, this self-adaptive mechanism is capable of switching from one secure protocol set to another while keeping similar level of security and performance, it thus provides additional security by security service hopping.

  17. A Random Ant-Like Unicast Routing Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A random ant-like unicast routing (RAUR protocol is proposed for wireless ad hoc sensor networks. In RAUR, when a source node needs to find a routing path to a destination, it does not flood the network. Instead, the source selects one of its neighbors to send out a route request packet. And the selected neighbor will also select one of its neighbors to forward the packet. The number of nodes to forward the searching message will be reduced. Hence, it could help to save the energy. In addition, the control overhead will be less. In this paper, our approximated mathematical analysis shows that the successful rate in finding a path with only one attempt is considerably high. Our research also shows that the RAUR will get higher successful rate through the larger number of hops. We study the performance of the network using the proposed RAUR by simulation of Glomosim and compare it with the routing protocols, DSR and AODV. The results show that RAUR could outperform in many metrics.

  18. Energy Effective Congestion Control for Multicast with Network Coding in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanxin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve network throughput and reduce energy consumption, we propose in this paper a cross-layer optimization design that is able to achieve multicast utility maximization and energy consumption minimization. The joint optimization of congestion control and power allocation is formulated to be a nonlinear nonconvex problem. Using dual decomposition, a distributed optimization algorithm is proposed to avoid the congestion by control flow rate at the source node and eliminate the bottleneck by allocating the power at the intermediate node. Simulation results show that the cross-layer algorithm can increase network performance, reduce the energy consumption of wireless nodes and prolong the network lifetime, while keeping network throughput basically unchanged.

  19. E-BEB Algorithm to Improve Quality of Service on Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Hubaishi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Medium Access Control (MAC protocol is the main element which determines the system throughput in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs IEEE 802.11 standard. The MAC technique of the IEEE 802.11 protocol is called Distributed Coordination Function (DCF. In DCF, stations contend for the use of the channel in distributed manner via the use of the Carrier Sensing Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA protocol. In the CSMA/CA protocol, each station sets up a Backoff time according to a randomly selected interval from zero to the Contention Window (CW for an additional deferral time before transmitting. The random Binary Exponential Backoff (BEB algorithm is used to randomize moments at which stations try to access the wireless medium. However, in the random Backoff mechanism, packet collisions are not entirely eliminated, and the system throughput decreases when the number of stations is large, and there is no fairness between stations. The BEB algorithm has a number of disadvantages; one crucial disadvantage is the problem of fairness. In this paper, we analyze the behavior of the BEB algorithm used in IEEE 802.11 standard. We propose an Enhanced Binary Exponential Backoff (E-BEB algorithm to improve the fairness of the channel access for BEB algorithm. Our E-BEB algorithm adjusts the way of increase or decrease of the contention window CW based on the number of the frame which is sent successfully. We propose several configurations, and we use NS2 simulator to analyze the network's fairness of the channel access of the E-BEB algorithm. The simulation results show that compared with other algorithms like BEB or Improved BEB (IBEB, the E-BEB algorithm improves the fairness of the channel access and increases the network's throughput capacity; which is an valuable Quality of Service (QoS parameter.

  20. Development of Innovative and Inexpensive Optical Sensors in Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Hannes; Schima, Robert; Assing, Martin; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Due to the heterogeneity and dynamic of ecosystems, the observation and monitoring of natural processes necessitate a high temporal and spatial resolution. This also requires inexpensive and adaptive measurements as well as innovative monitoring strategies. To this end, the application of ad-hoc wireless sensor networks holds the potential of creating an adequate monitoring platform. In order to achieve a comprehensive monitoring in space and time with affordability, it is necessary to reduce the sensor costs. Common investigation methods, especially with regard to vegetation processes, are based on optical measurements. In particular, different wavelengths correspond to specific properties of the plants and preserve the possibility to derive information about the ecosystem, e.g. photosynthetic performance or nutrient content. In this context, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensors and hyperspectral sensors are in major use. This work aims the development, evaluation and application of inexpensive but high performance optical sensors for the implementation in wireless sensor networks. Photosynthetically active radiation designates the spectral range from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis. PAR sensors enable the detection of the reflected solar light of the vegetation in the whole PAR wave band. The amount of absorption indicates photosynthetic activity of the plant, with good approximation. Hyperspectral sensors observe specific parts or rather distinct wavelengths of the solar light spectrum and facilitate the determination of the main pigment classes, e.g. Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and Anthocyanin. Due to the specific absorption of certain pigments, a characteristic spectral signature can be seen in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, known as narrow-band peaks. In an analogous manner, also the presence and concentration of different nutrients cause a characteristic spectral

  1. A probabilistic dynamic energy model for ad-hoc wireless sensors network with varying topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Husseini, Amal

    In this dissertation we investigate the behavior of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) from the degree distribution and evolution perspective. In specific, we focus on implementation of a scale-free degree distribution topology for energy efficient WSNs. WSNs is an emerging technology that finds its applications in different areas such as environment monitoring, agricultural crop monitoring, forest fire monitoring, and hazardous chemical monitoring in war zones. This technology allows us to collect data without human presence or intervention. Energy conservation/efficiency is one of the major issues in prolonging the active life WSNs. Recently, many energy aware and fault tolerant topology control algorithms have been presented, but there is dearth of research focused on energy conservation/efficiency of WSNs. Therefore, we study energy efficiency and fault-tolerance in WSNs from the degree distribution and evolution perspective. Self-organization observed in natural and biological systems has been directly linked to their degree distribution. It is widely known that scale-free distribution bestows robustness, fault-tolerance, and access efficiency to system. Fascinated by these properties, we propose two complex network theoretic self-organizing models for adaptive WSNs. In particular, we focus on adopting the Barabasi and Albert scale-free model to fit into the constraints and limitations of WSNs. We developed simulation models to conduct numerical experiments and network analysis. The main objective of studying these models is to find ways to reducing energy usage of each node and balancing the overall network energy disrupted by faulty communication among nodes. The first model constructs the wireless sensor network relative to the degree (connectivity) and remaining energy of every individual node. We observed that it results in a scale-free network structure which has good fault tolerance properties in face of random node failures. The second model considers

  2. Research on Security of Routing Protocols for Battlefield Wireless Ad Hoc Networks%战场无线Ad Hoc网络路由协议的安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周铭; 杨华兵; 李方敏; 王敏

    2011-01-01

    Battlefield wireless Ad Hoc networks are independent from fixed infrastructure and feature flexible and quick deployment. However, battlefield wireless Ad Hoc networks are not widely applied for security concerns. This paper lists types of attacks faced by secure routing protocols for battlefield wireless Ad Hoc networks and describes the design requirements on secure routing protocols. In addition, it analyzes the widely-applied secure routing protocols for wireless Ad Hoc networks in details and compares their attack-defending capabilities. The result indicates that no single protocol can defend against all kinds of attacks and that initiation of common security criteria for all secure routing protocols is the most urgent issue at the moment. At last, this paper proposes some directions for future research and design of secure routing protocols for battlefield wireless Ad Hoc networks.%战场无线Ad Hoc网络不需要固定基础设施,具有组网灵活、快捷等特点,然而由于安全性问题致使其未能广泛应用.作者给出了针对战场无线Ad Hoc网络路由协议的攻击分类,列举了安全路由协议的设计要求,详细分析了多种无线Ad Hoc网络安全路由协议,并对其防御攻击能力进行了比较.结果表明,没有一种安全路由协议能够防御所有的攻击,目前急需评判路由协议的安全性准则.最后指出了关于战场无线Ad Hoc网络安全路由协议的设计目标和下一步的研究方向.

  3. EFFECT OF MOBILITY ON PERFORMANCE OF WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK PROTOCOLS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Marathe, A. (Achla)

    2001-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless adhoc networks. An important ohjective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols was measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packels received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols were used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols were used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. The inair1 conclusion of our study include the following: 1. 'I'he performance of the: network varies widely with varying mobility models, packet injection rates and speeds; and can ba in fact characterized as fair to poor depending on the specific situation. Nevertheless, in general, it appears that the combination of AODV and 802.1 I is far better than other combination of routing and MAC protocols. 2. MAC layer protocols interact with routing layer protocols. This concept which is formalized using statistics implies that in general it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Such an interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. More interestingly, the results wise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. 3. Routing prolocols with distributed knowledge about routes are more suitable for networks with mobility. This is seen by comparing the performance of AODV with DSR or LAR scheme 1. In DSli and IAR scheme 1, information about a computed path is being stored in the route query control packct. 4. MAC layer protocols have varying performance with varying mobility

  4. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Toqeer Mahmood; Tabbassam Nawaz; Rehan Ashraf; Syed M. Adnan Shah

    2012-01-01

    A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed id...

  5. Vehicular ad hoc network security and privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, X

    2015-01-01

    Unlike any other book in this area, this book provides innovative solutions to security issues, making this book a must read for anyone working with or studying security measures. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Security and Privacy mainly focuses on security and privacy issues related to vehicular communication systems. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to vehicular ad hoc network and its unique security threats and privacy concerns and then illustrates how to address those challenges in highly dynamic and large size wireless network environments from multiple perspectives. This book is richly illustrated with detailed designs and results for approaching security and privacy threats.

  6. Intellectual mobile Ad Hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sova, Oleg; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Bunin, Sergey; Zhuk, Pavlo

    2012-01-01

    In this article intellectualization of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks resources management is offered. It was proposed decomposition of the primary goal of MANET functioning into easy subgoals, and fragment of the MANET node target structure is presented.

  7. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aldabbas, Hamza; Janicke, Helge; Al-Bayatti, Ali; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4117

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis. These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours' data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters) and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nod...

  8. High Secure Fingerprint Authentication in Ad hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    P.Velayutham

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the methodology proposed is an novel robust approach on secure fingerprint authentication and matching techniques to implement in ad-hoc wireless networks. This is a difficult problem in ad-hoc network, as it involves bootstrapping trust between the devices. This journal would present a solution, which providesfingerprint authentication techniques to share their communication in ad-hoc network. In this approach, devices exchange a corresponding fingerprint with master device fo...

  9. Decentralized position verification in geographic ad hoc routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinmüller, Tim; Schoch, Elmar; Kargl, Frank; Maihöfer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Inter-vehicle communication is regarded as one of the major applications of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Compared to MANETs or wireless sensor networks (WSNs), these so-called vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have unique requirements on network protocols. The requirements result mainly from no

  10. C-LOAD POWER CONTROL PROTOCOL-CROSS-LAYER DESIGN OF A NETWORK LAYER LOAD POWER CONTROL PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arivoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc network scenario, Cross-layer design is emerging, important in wireless ad hoc network and the power control methods. Power control is the intelligent selection of transmit power in a communication to achieve the better performance within the system. Cross-layer is used to sharing the information between the layers. Physical to Transport layer information are shared in this protocol, due to this cross-layering is designed to optimize the power control. CLD using LOADPOWER (LOADPOW control protocol is reduce the overall end-end delay and the energy consumption using transmission power. The novelty of this work deals with both low and high transmission power control methodologies. So many power control schemes are dealt in MAC layer but this work, Power control protocol was done in network layer and it plays a vital role. A MAC approach to power control only does a local optimization whereas network layer is capable of global optimization. Simulation was done in NS-2 simulator with the performance metrics as improved throughput, energy consumption and end-end delay. The key concept is to improve the throughput, saves energy by sending all the packets with optimal transmission power according to the network load. A comparison of few protocols with Load Power Control Protocol (LPCP was implemented and got the better performances using NS-2 simulator.

  11. TOWARD CALIBRATED MODULAR WIRELESS SYSTEM BASED AD HOC SENSORS FOR IN SITU LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS AS SUPPORT TO SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASAAD CHAHBOUN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for in situ Land Surface Temperature (LST measurements' campaigns for satellite algorithms validations. The proposed method based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is constituted by modules of node arrays. Each of which is constituted by 25 smart nodes scattered throughout a target field. Every node represents a Thermal Infra Red (TIR radiation sensor and keeps a minimum size while ensuring the functions of communication, sensing, and processing. This Wireless-LST (Wi-LST system is convenient to beinstalled on a field pointing to any type of targets (e.g. bare soil, grass, water, etc.. Ad hoc topology is adopted among the TIR nodes with multi-hop mesh routing protocol for communication, acquisition data are transmitted to the client tier wirelessly. Using these emergent technologies, we propose a practical method for Wi-LSTsystem calibration. TIR sensor (i.e. OSM101 from OMEGA society measures temperature, which is conditioned and amplified by an AD595 within a precision of 0.1 °C. Assessed LST is transmitted over thedeveloped ad hoc WSN modules (i.e. MICA2DOT from CROSSBOW society, and collected at in situ base station (i.e. PANASONIC CF19 laptop using an integrated database. LST is evaluated with a polynomialalgorithm structure as part of developed software. Finally, the comparison of the mean values of LST(Wi-LST in each site with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS sensor, obtained from the daily LST product (MOD11C1 developed by the MODIS-NASA Science Team, on board TERRA satellite during the campaign period is provided.

  12. Constrained Delaunay Triangulation for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Satyanarayana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometric spanners can be used for efficient routing in wireless ad hoc networks. Computation of existing spanners for ad hoc networks primarily focused on geometric properties without considering network requirements. In this paper, we propose a new spanner called constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT which considers both geometric properties and network requirements. The CDT is formed by introducing a small set of constraint edges into local Delaunay triangulation (LDel to reduce the number of hops between nodes in the network graph. We have simulated the CDT using network simulator (ns-2.28 and compared with Gabriel graph (GG, relative neighborhood graph (RNG, local Delaunay triangulation (LDel, and planarized local Delaunay triangulation (PLDel. The simulation results show that the minimum number of hops from source to destination is less than other spanners. We also observed the decrease in delay, jitter, and improvement in throughput.

  13. A Security Private Key Distribution Management Method in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks%无线Ad Hoc网络中一种分布式密钥安全管理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祝

    2013-01-01

    An Ad Hoc wireless network is an autonomous self-organizing system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links where undirectly connected nodes can communicate via intermediate nodes.Providing security support is a challenging task because wireless networks are susceptible to be attacked ranging from passive eavesdropping to active interference.In this paper,a private key distribution management method is presented for wireless Ad Hoc network.The protocol is based on selecting altruism nodes and avoiding utilitarianism nodes by neighbor's observation to performed (k,n) threshold cryptography for the strong private key protection.The protocol is efficient for an untrustworthy Ad Hoc network,also prevents a k-1 adversaries from gaining information about the secret private key.%Ad Hoc无线网络是一种自组织移动网络,其中节点是通过不直接连接的中间节点来进行传输.无线网络是非常敏感的,攻击范围可以是被动的偷听,也可以是主动的干预,提供安全支持是一个挑战任务.论文提出了一种分布式密钥安全管理方法,这个方法是选择利他节点,并通过邻居观察完成(k,n)门限密钥,形成强密钥保护避免选择功利性强的节点.本方法对非信任的Ad Hoc网络是十分有效的,避免了k-1对手通过密钥获得信息.

  14. A New QoS Management Scheme for VoIP Application over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said El brak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs have to support new applications including VoIP (voice over IP that impose stringent QoS (quality of service constraints and requirements. However, VoIP applications make a very inefficient use of the MANET resources. Our work represents a first step toward improving aspects at the network layer by addressing issues from the standpoint of adaptation, claiming that effective adaptation of routing parameters can enhance VoIP quality. The most important contribution is the adaptive OLSR-VA algorithm which provides an integrated environment where VoIP activity is constantly detected and routing parameters are adapted in order to meet the application requirements. To investigate the performance advantage achieved by such algorithm, a number of realistic simulations (MANET scenarios are performed under different conditions. The most important observation is that performance is satisfactory in terms of the perceived voice quality.

  15. Decentralized Network-level Synchronization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voulgaris, Spyros; Dobson, Matthew; Steen, van Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Energy is the scarcest resource in ad hoc wireless networks, particularly in wireless sensor networks requiring a long lifetime. Intermittently switching the radio on and off is widely adopted as the most effective way to keep energy consumption low. This, however, prevents the very goal of communic

  16. A Study On OFDM In Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Nasereldin Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is the physical layer in emerging wireless local area networks that are also being targeted for ad hoc networking. OFDM can be also exploited in ad hoc networks to improve the energy performance of mobile devices. It is important in wireless networks because it can be used adaptively in a dynamically changing channel. This study gives a detailed view about OFDM and how it is useful to increase the bandwidth. This paper also gives an idea about how OFDM can be a promising technology for high capacity wireless communication.

  17. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed idea shows that it is a better approach based on gossip routing.

  18. Ad Hoc networks and wireless sensor networks in telecommunications application%Ad Hoc网络与无线传感器网络在电信中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锴

    2009-01-01

    重点介绍Ad Hoc网络与其它传统通信网络相比具有的显著特点,这些特点使得Ad Hoc组网成为无线网络和移动计算领域最集中研究的热点,以及Ad Hoc网络在电信业的应用,除本身具有的重要价值外, 还具有大规模电信级服务.同时介绍无线传感器网络,介绍其特点,对WSN在电信中的应用前景进行分析.%This article puts emphasis on the Ad Hoc networks compared to other traditional communications networks with a notable feature,which make Ad Hoc networks into the wireless network and mobile computing research in the field with the highest concentration of hot spots, and Ad Hoc network applications in the telecommunications industry, in addition to the important value in itself, but also has a large-scale carrier-class service. At the same time, it introduces WSN with a comparative analysis of its characteristics,and analyzes WSN in telecommunications applications.

  19. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Aldabbas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis.These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours’ data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nodes. We evaluate our framework using the Network Simulator (NS-2 to check whether the privacy and confidentiality of the originator are met. For this we implemented the Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs, as NS-2 agents that manage and enforce the policies attached to packets at every node in the MANET.

  20. Routing Security in Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks%移动无线Ad Hoc网络的路由安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵绍刚; 肖征荣

    2004-01-01

    Ad Hoc是特定的无线网络结构,它强调多跳、自组织、无中心的概念。MANET(mobile ad hoc network)被认为是最有希望的下一代Ad Hoc解决方案。MANET网络是具备相互通信能力无线移动节点的集合,这些节点没有固定的网络结构,也没有限定到类似基站或移动交换中心这样的中心控制部

  1. A Discovery Process for Initializing Ad Hoc Underwater Acoustic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    1 The route establishment process is very similar to Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing protocol except that AODV does not...research in network routing protocols . 3 Chapter III provides an overview of the challenges posed by the physical ocean medium on acoustic communications...network routing strategies. A. RELATED WORK While discovery and routing protocols for terrestrial ad hoc and wireless sensor networks have been

  2. A Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Zougagh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a collection of mobile nodes in which the wireless links are frequently broken down due to mobility and dynamic infrastructure. Routing is a significant issue and challenge in ad hoc networks. Many routing protocols have been proposed like OLSR, AODV so far to improve the routing performance and reliability. In this paper, we describe the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR and the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV. We evaluate their performance through exhaustive simulations using the Network Simulator 2 (ns2 by varying conditions (node mobility, network density.

  3. Awareness of Emerging Wireless Technologies: Ad-hoc and Personal Area Networks Standards and Emerging Technologies (Sensibilisation a l’emergence des technologies sans fil: technologies emergeantes et normes de reseaux personnels et ad-hoc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Routing protocol utilizing Increasing id numberS AODV Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (MANET...TORA,DSR, AODV Hybrid: ZRP, CBR IP, ICMP, IGMP Figure 2-1: Hierarchy of MANET Routing Protocols . Some functionalities done by different routing ...reactive protocols . The functioning of AODV is also based on flooding the Route Request packet in search of route for a destination. While this Route

  4. Integrated Metric-Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector: A Routing Protocol over Wireless Mesh Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Md. A Rahman; Farhat Anwar; Md. S. Azad

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) is an emerging technology for wireless environment. Since WMNs are permanent or semi-permanent network, an efficient and reliable path establishment is the core concern for such type of networks. Several performance metrics has been designed for WMNs such as Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Expected Transmission Time (ETT), interference Aware Routing Metric (iAWARE), Link Type Aware (LTA) Metric, Success Probability Product (SPP) and so on. H...

  5. Neural methods based on modified reputation rules for detection and identification of intrusion attacks in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2010-04-01

    Determining methods to secure the process of data fusion against attacks by compromised nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and to quantify the uncertainty that may exist in the aggregation results is a critical issue in mitigating the effects of intrusion attacks. Published research has introduced the concept of the trustworthiness (reputation) of a single sensor node. Reputation is evaluated using an information-theoretic concept, the Kullback- Leibler (KL) distance. Reputation is added to the set of security features. In data aggregation, an opinion, a metric of the degree of belief, is generated to represent the uncertainty in the aggregation result. As aggregate information is disseminated along routes to the sink node(s), its corresponding opinion is propagated and regulated by Josang's belief model. By applying subjective logic on the opinion to manage trust propagation, the uncertainty inherent in aggregation results can be quantified for use in decision making. The concepts of reputation and opinion are modified to allow their application to a class of dynamic WSNs. Using reputation as a factor in determining interim aggregate information is equivalent to implementation of a reputation-based security filter at each processing stage of data fusion, thereby improving the intrusion detection and identification results based on unsupervised techniques. In particular, the reputation-based version of the probabilistic neural network (PNN) learns the signature of normal network traffic with the random probability weights normally used in the PNN replaced by the trust-based quantified reputations of sensor data or subsequent aggregation results generated by the sequential implementation of a version of Josang's belief model. A two-stage, intrusion detection and identification algorithm is implemented to overcome the problems of large sensor data loads and resource restrictions in WSNs. Performance of the twostage algorithm is assessed in simulations of WSN

  6. The Extended Clustering AD HOC Routing Protocol (ECRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buthayna Al-Sharaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks are acollection of mobile nodes communicating via wireless channels without any fixedinfrastructure. Because of their ease and low cost of building, ad hoc networks have a lot of attractiveapplications in different fields. The topology of ad hoc networks changes dynamically, and each node in thenetwork can act as a host or router.With the increase in the number of wirelessdevices andlarge amountof traffic to be exchanged, the demand for scalable routing protocols has increased. This paper presents ascalable routing protocol, based on AODV protocol, called the Extended Clustering Ad Hoc RoutingProtocol (ECRP. This is a hybrid protocol, which combines reactive and proactive approaches in routing.The protocol uses theGlobal PositioningSystem todetermine the position of certain nodesin the network.The evaluation methodology and simulation results obtained showthat the protocol is efficient and scaleswell in large networks

  7. Routing in Highly Dynamic Ad Hoc Networks: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun G Menon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to analyze the various issues and challenges involved in routing of data packets in highly mobile ad hoc networks. Routing in ad hoc networks has always been a challenging and tough task due to the dynamic topology and error prone wireless channel. There are a number of issues like lack of centralized control, constantly moving nodes etc that has to be considered while routing a data packet from the source to the destination in the ad hoc network. Routing of data packets becomes much more difficult with increased mobility of nodes. This paper analyses the various issues in routing of data packets from the source to the destination node and also lists down the parameters that has to be considered while designing and selecting a routing protocol for highly mobile ad hoc networks.

  8. DEHAR: a Distributed Energy Harvesting Aware Routing Algorithm for Ad-hoc Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Koefoed; Madsen, Jan; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2010-01-01

    One of the key design goals in Wireless Sensor Networks is long lasting or even continuous operation. Continuous operation is made possible through energy harvesting. Keeping the network operational imposes a demand to prevent network segmentation and power loss in nodes. It is therefore important...... that the best energy-wise route is found for each data transfer from a source node to the sink node. We present a new adaptive and distributed routing algorithm for finding energy optimised routes in a wireless sensor network with energy harvesting. The algorithm finds an energy efficient route from each source...... node to a single sink node, taking into account the current energy status of the network. By simulation, the algorithm is shown to be able to adapt to changes in harvested and stored energy. Simulations show that continuous operation is possible....

  9. Multiagent Based Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Manvi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are a compelling application of ad hoc networks, because of the potential to access specific context information (e.g. traffic conditions, service updates, route planning and deliver multimedia services (Voice over IP, in-car entertainment, instant messaging, etc.. This paper proposes an agent based information dissemination model for VANETs. A two-tier agent architecture is employed comprising of the following: 1 'lightweight', network-facing, mobile agents; 2 'heavyweight', application-facing, norm-aware agents. The limitations of VANETs lead us to consider a hybrid wireless network architecture that includes Wireless LAN/Cellular and ad hoc networking for analyzing the proposed model. The proposed model provides flexibility, adaptability and maintainability for traffic information dissemination in VANETs as well as supports robust and agile network management. The proposed model has been simulated in various network scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.

  10. A survey of TCP over ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Altman, Eitan; Nain, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was designed to provide reliable end-to-end delivery of data over unreliable networks. In practice, most TCP deployments have been carefully designed in the context of wired networks. Ignoring the properties of wireless ad hoc networks can lead to TCP implemen

  11. Application-Level and User-Level QoS Assessment of Audio-Video IP Transmission over Cross-Layer Designed Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunome, Toshiro; Tasaka, Shuji; Nakaoka, Ken

    This paper performs application-level QoS and user-level QoS assessment of audio-video streaming in cross-layer designed wireless ad hoc networks. In order to achieve high QoS at the user-level, we employ link quality-based routing in the network layer and media synchronization control in the application layer. We adopt three link quality-based routing protocols: OLSR-SS (Signal Strength), AODV-SS, and LQHR (Link Quality-Based Hybrid Routing). OLSR-SS is a proactive routing protocol, while AODV-SS is a reactive one. LQHR is a hybrid protocol, which is a combination of proactive and reactive routing protocols. For applicationlevel QoS assessment, we performed computer simulation with ns-2 where an IEEE 802.11b mesh topology network with 24 nodes was assumed. We also assessed user-level QoS by a subjective experiment with 30 assessors. From the assessment results, we find AODV-SS the best for networks with long inter-node distances, while LQHR outperforms AODV-SS for short inter-node distances. In addition, we also examine characteristics of the three schemes with respect to the application-level QoS in random topology networks.

  12. Energy generation for an ad hoc wireless sensor network-based monitoring system using animal head movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm;

    2011-01-01

    are not easily accessible. Therefore, exploring novel sources of energy generation rather than operating electronics only on limited power supplies such as batteries is a major challenge. Monitoring free-ranging animal behavior is an application in which the entities (animals) within the MANET are not readily...... to this problem, the equations of motion from each neck-mounted sensor as well as the amount of mechanical energy generated per time instant (each second) during upward and downward head movements were calculated. This resulted in the production of 857 mW and 1660 mW during the downward and upward movements......, respectively. Furthermore, the energy consumption of each wireless node within the MANET was estimated to be 117.8 mW per second. Conversion of energy from mechanical to electrical requires miniature electromechanical generators that can currently provide between 25% and 50% conversion efficiency. Even using...

  13. Unsupervised learning in persistent sensing for target recognition by wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    In previous work by the author, effective persistent and pervasive sensing for recognition and tracking of battlefield targets were seen to be achieved, using intelligent algorithms implemented by distributed mobile agents over a composite system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for persistence and a wireless network of unattended ground sensors for pervasive coverage of the mission environment. While simulated performance results for the supervised algorithms of the composite system are shown to provide satisfactory target recognition over relatively brief periods of system operation, this performance can degrade by as much as 50% as target dynamics in the environment evolve beyond the period of system operation in which the training data are representative. To overcome this limitation, this paper applies the distributed approach using mobile agents to the network of ground-based wireless sensors alone, without the UAV subsystem, to provide persistent as well as pervasive sensing for target recognition and tracking. The supervised algorithms used in the earlier work are supplanted by unsupervised routines, including competitive-learning neural networks (CLNNs) and new versions of support vector machines (SVMs) for characterization of an unknown target environment. To capture the same physical phenomena from battlefield targets as the composite system, the suite of ground-based sensors can be expanded to include imaging and video capabilities. The spatial density of deployed sensor nodes is increased to allow more precise ground-based location and tracking of detected targets by active nodes. The "swarm" mobile agents enabling WSN intelligence are organized in a three processing stages: detection, recognition and sustained tracking of ground targets. Features formed from the compressed sensor data are down-selected according to an information-theoretic algorithm that reduces redundancy within the feature set, reducing the dimension of samples used in the target

  14. Performance Evaluation of Important Ad Hoc Network Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad hoc network is a collection of specific infrastructureless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without any centralized administration. A user can move anytime in an ad hoc scenario and, as a result, such a network needs to have routing protocols which can adopt dynamically changing topology. To accomplish this, a number of ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed and implemented, which include dynamic source routing (DSR, ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing, and temporally ordered routing algorithm (TORA. Although considerable amount of simulation work has been done to measure the performance of these routing protocols, due to the constant changing nature of these protocols, a new performance evaluation is essential. Accordingly, in this paper, we analyze the performance differentials to compare the above-mentioned commonly used ad hoc network routing protocols. We also analyzed the performance over varying loads for each of these protocols using OPNET Modeler 10.5. Our findings show that for specific differentials, TORA shows better performance over the two on-demand protocols, that is, DSR and AODV. Our findings are expected to lead to further performance improvements of various ad hoc networks in the future.

  15. Ad Hoc网络中基于身份的密钥管理及认证%An Identity-based Key Management and Authentication in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖希; 金亮

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a distributed key management and authentication approach based on identity in wireless Ad Hoc network is introduced. Each node uses the identity as its public key. The master private is shared by the private key of every node. Threshold and identity-based key management and authentication are used. The identity-based mechanism is applied here not only to provide end-to-end authenticity and confidentiality, but also to save network bandwidth and computational power of wireless nodes. It is very efficient and robust to transfer packets.%提出了在AdHoe网络中一种分布式基于身份的密钥管理及认证方法。每个节点使用其身份作为公钥,主密钥由各节点的私钥分享,从而形成基于身份的门限分布式密钥管理。该方法不仅提供了点对点的认证,而且节省了网络带宽和节点的能量消耗,具有很高的效率和鲁棒性。

  16. Summary of routing protocols and classifications of wireless mobile Ad Hoc networks%无线Ad Hoc网络的路由协议及分类概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长安

    2007-01-01

    无线移动Ad Hoc网络(Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks)是随着无线通信技术的快速发展而出现的一种新型网络.它具有无中心结点限制、无有线介质限制、自组性、自愈性、高移动性和快速建立等优点,适合在复杂不确定的移动环境中应用.总括了Ad Hoc的基本概念、原理和现状,针对无线Ad Hoc网络特有的节能、QoS和安全三方面要求,对目前的Ad Hoc相关协议进行了概述、对比和分类, 有助于进一步研究.

  17. Intelligent algorithms for persistent and pervasive sensing in systems comprised of wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors and mobile infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-04-01

    With the development of low-cost, durable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it is now practical to perform persistent sensing and target tracking autonomously over broad surveillance areas. These vehicles can sense the environment directly through onboard active sensors, or indirectly when aimed toward ground targets in a mission environment by ground-based passive sensors operating wirelessly as an ad hoc network in the environment. The combination of the swarm intelligence of the airborne infrastructure comprised of UAVs with the ant-like collaborative behavior of the unattended ground sensors creates a system capable of both persistent and pervasive sensing of mission environment, such that, the continuous collection, analysis and tracking of targets from sensor data received from the ground can be achieved. Mobile software agents are used to implement intelligent algorithms for the communications, formation control and sensor data processing in this composite configuration. The enabling mobile agents are organized in a hierarchy for the three stages of processing in the distributed system: target detection, location and recognition from the collaborative data processing among active ground-sensor nodes; transfer of the target information processed on the ground to the UAV swarm overhead; and formation control and sensor activation of the UAV swarm for sustained ground-target surveillance and tracking. Intelligent algorithms are presented that can adapt to the operation of the composite system to target dynamics and system resources. Established routines, appropriate to the processing needs of each stage, are selected as preferred based on their published use in similar scenarios, ability to be distributively implemented over the set of processors at system nodes, and ability to conserve the limited resources at the ground nodes to extend the lifetime of the pervasive network. In this paper, the performance of this distributed, collaborative system concept for

  18. Multilevel security model for ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Changda; Ju Shiguang

    2008-01-01

    Modern battlefield doctrine is based on mobility, flexibility, and rapid response to changing situations.As is well known, mobile ad hoc network systems are among the best utilities for battlefield activity. Although much research has been done on secure routing, security issues have largely been ignored in applying mobile ad hoc network theory to computer technology. An ad hoc network is usually assumed to be homogeneous, which is an irrational assumption for armies. It is clear that soldiers, commanders, and commanders-in-chief should have different security levels and computation powers as they have access to asymmetric resources. Imitating basic military rank levels in battlefield situations, how multilevel security can be introduced into ad hoc networks is indicated, thereby controlling restricted classified information flows among nodes that have different security levels.

  19. Reliable routing algorithm in marine ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Wei; YANG Yong-Tian

    2004-01-01

    A routing algorithm called DNH for increasing efficiency of mobile ad hoc network is presented, which is based on a new criterion called TSS ( Temporarily Steady State) , combining with wireless transmission theory that makes networks topology correspondingly stabilization. Also the DNH algorithm has the characteristics of giving up queuing in a node, but selecting another idle node instead of the node for forwarding data packets if the node has a full throughput. Simulation evaluation shows that selecting another node is better than queuing in a full throughout node if some conditions are satisfied, especially during a sea battle, every warship in ad hoc network wants to contest time and increase propagation reliability. The DNH algorithm can help decrease routing time, and raise efficiency of marine ad hoc networks.

  20. Auto-configuration protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity.

  1. SIMULATION STUDY OF BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN THE MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEENU SHARMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad hoc network is a temporary network set up by wireless nodes usually moving randomly and communicating without a network infrastructure. Due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, however, wireless ad hoc networks may be unprotected against attacks by the malicious nodes. In this study we investigated the effects of Blackhole attacks on the network performance. We simulated Blackhole attacks in Qualnet Simulator and measured the packet loss in the network with and without a blackhole. The simulation is done on AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol. The network performance in the presence of a blackhole is reduced up to 26%.

  2. Towards More Realistic Mobility Model in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Dhananjay S. Gaikwad; Mahesh Lagad; Prashant Suryawanshi; Vaibhav Maske

    2012-01-01

    Mobility models or the movement patterns of nodes communicating wirelessely, play a vital role in the simulation-based evaluation of vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Even though recent research has developed models that better corresponds to real world mobility, we still have a limited understanding of the level of the required level of mobility details for modeling and simulating VANETs. In this paper, we propose a new mobility model for VANETs that works on the city area and map the topo...

  3. Ad Hoc无线网络及其路由协议分析%AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS AND ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成; 刘金刚

    2006-01-01

    Ad Hoc无线网络是由多个无线主机组成的一个没有任何集中管理设备的临时网络.本文首先概述了Ad Hoc无线网络,其次分析了Ad Hoc无线网络的组织结构和特点,并提出了设计Ad Hoc网络协议需要满足的条件,最后对目前运用于Ad Hoc无线网络的常用路由协议进行了重点的分析.

  4. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  5. High Secure Fingerprint Authentication in Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Velayutham

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methodology proposed is an novel robust approach on secure fingerprint authentication and matching techniques to implement in ad-hoc wireless networks. This is a difficult problem in ad-hoc network, as it involves bootstrapping trust between the devices. This journal would present a solution, which providesfingerprint authentication techniques to share their communication in ad-hoc network. In this approach, devices exchange a corresponding fingerprint with master device for mutual communication, which will then allow them to complete an authenticated key exchange protocol over the wireless link. The solution based on authenticating user fingerprint through the master device, and this master device handshakes with the corresponding slave device for authenticating the fingerprint all attacks on the wireless link, and directly captures the user's device that was proposed to talk to a particular unknown device mentioned previously in their physical proximity. The system is implemented in C# and the user node for a variety of different devices with Matlab.

  6. Ad Hoc Access Gateway Selection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Liu

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. For mobile nodes in Ad Hoc network to internet, internet communications in the peer nodes must be achieved through the gateway. Therefore, the key Ad Hoc Access Networks will focus on the discovery gateway, as well as gateway selection in the case of multi-gateway and handover problems between different gateways. This paper considers the mobile node and the gateway, based on the average number of hops from an average access time and the stability of routes, improved gateway selection algorithm were proposed. An improved gateway selection algorithm, which mainly considers the algorithm can improve the access time of Ad Hoc nodes and the continuity of communication between the gateways, were proposed. This can improve the quality of communication across the network.

  7. User-centred and context-aware identity management in mobile ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Arabo, Abdullahi

    2013-01-01

    The emergent notion of ubiquitous computing makes it possible for mobile devices to communicate and provide services via networks connected in an ad-hoc manner. These have resulted in the proliferation of wireless technologies such as Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANets), which offer attractive solutions for services that need flexible setup as well as dynamic and low cost wireless connectivity. However, the growing trend outlined above also raises serious concerns over Identity Management (IM) du...

  8. Secure Clustering in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Nayyar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A vehicular Ad-hoc network is composed of moving cars as nodes without any infrastructure. Nodes self-organize to form a network over radio links. Security issues are commonly observed in vehicular ad hoc networks; like authentication and authorization issues. Secure Clustering plays a significant role in VANETs. In recent years, various secure clustering techniques with distinguishing feature have been newly proposed. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of these techniques are designed for VANETs and pave the way for the further research, a survey of the secure clustering techniques is discussed in detail in this paper. Qualitatively, as a result of highlighting various techniques of secure clustering certain conclusions are drawn which will enhance the availability and security of vehicular ad hoc networks. Nodes present in the clusters will work more efficiently and the message passing within the nodes will also get more authenticated from the cluster heads.

  9. Intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jamalipour, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been extensive research activity in the emerging area of Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (ICMANs). By considering the nature of intermittent connectivity in most real word mobile environments without any restrictions placed on users' behavior, ICMANs are eventually formed without any assumption with regard to the existence of a end-to-end path between two nodes wishing to communicate. It is different from the conventional Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), which have been implicitly viewed as a connected graph with established complete paths betwe

  10. Ad hoc networks telecommunications and game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Benslama, Malek; Batatia, Hadj

    2015-01-01

    Random SALOHA and CSMA protocols that are used to access MAC in ad hoc networks are very small compared to the multiple and spontaneous use of the transmission channel. So they have low immunity to the problems of packet collisions. Indeed, the transmission time is the critical factor in the operation of such networks. The simulations demonstrate the positive impact of erasure codes on the throughput of the transmission in ad hoc networks. However, the network still suffers from the intermittency and volatility of its efficiency throughout its operation, and it switches quickly to the satura

  11. ANALYSIS OF ROUTING IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An ad-hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any standalone infrastructure or centralized administration. Routing in Ad hoc networks is a challenging problem because nodes are mobile and links are continuously being created and broken.In this model we not only improves the reputation of the network but also provide a routing approach for reliable data transmission and also avoid the loop occurs in the communication. The mobile network is the dynamicnetwork that provides the solution for the inclusion and exclusion of dynamic nodes in the network. AODV and DSR are the two most popular routing protocols for ad-hoc network that we discussed here. In this paper we describe the way to find the node having packet loss and to perform the elimination of node from the network withoutperforming the rerouting and provide the reliable data transfer over the network. In this paper, we design and evaluate cooperative caching techniques to efficiently support data access in the ad-hoc network.

  12. Multihost ad-hoc network with the clustered Security networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Manikandan,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Security has becomes a primary concern in order to provide protected communication between mobile nodes in a host environment .Unlike the wire line network, the unique characteristics mobile ad-hoc networkpose a collection on autonomous nodes of terminals. Which ommunication with each other by forming multihost radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. Node in Ad-hoc network path is dynamic network topology. These challenges clearly make a case for building multifence security selection that achieve both protection and describe network performance. In this paper we focus on the fundamental security of protection. the multihost network connectivity between mobile nodes in a MANET.we Identify thesecurity issues related to this problem, disuse the challenges to security design and review the security proposals the protect multihost wireless networks. Some security mechanism used in wired network cannot simply is applied to protocol an ad-hoc network. After analyzing various type attacks ad-hoc network, a security for thefamous routing protocol, DSR (Dynamic sources routing is proposed the complete security solutions should cluster nodes and MANET encompass the security components of prevention, detection and reactions.

  13. Design and Implementation of a Communication Protocol to Improve Multimedia QoS and QoE in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Santos, Juan Ramón

    2016-01-01

    [ES] Esta tesis doctoral aborda el problema de la distribución de contenidos multimedia a través de redes inalámbricas ad hoc multisalto, especialmente las redes inalámbricas de sensores que, debido a sus características de bajo consumo energético, baja capacidad de procesamiento y baja capacidad de memoria, plantean grandes dificultades para alcanzar los niveles de calidad óptimos que exigen los usuarios finales en dicho tipo de comunicaciones. En la primera parte de este trabajo se ha l...

  14. Context discovery in ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are more and more present in our daily life. Such networks are often composed of mobile and battery-supplied devices, like laptops and PDAs. With no requirement for infrastructure support, MANETs can be used as temporary networks, such as for conference and office env

  15. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei

    Due to the wide use of communicating mobile devices, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained in popularity in recent years. In order that the devices communicate properly, many protocols have been proposed working at different levels. Devices in an MANET are not stationary but may keep moving......, thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore...... issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection...

  16. BCR Routing for Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAMESH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless and the Mobile Networks appear to provide a wide range of applications. Following these, the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET aid in wide development of many applications. The achievement of the real world applications are attained through effective routing. The Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad hoc Network (ICMANET is a sparse network where a full connectivity is never possible. ICMANET is a disconnected MANET and is also a Delay Tolerant Network (DTN that sustains for higher delays. The routing in a disseminated network is a difficult task. A new routing scheme called Bee Colony Routing (BCR is been proposed with a motto of achieving optimal result in delivering the data packet towards the destined node. BCR is proposed with the basis of Bee Colony Optimization technique (BCO. The routing in ICMNAET is done by means of Bee routing protocol. This paper enchants a novel routing methodology for data transmission in ICMANET.

  17. Proposal of interference reduction routing for ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Naito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an interference reduction routing protocol for ad-hoc networks. The interference is one of the degradation factors in wireless communications. In the ad-hoc network, some nodes communicate simultaneously. Therefore, these communications cause interference each other, and some packets are corrupted due to interference from another node. In the proposed protocol, each node estimates required transmission power according to hello messages. Therefore, the node can transmit a data packet with minimum required transmission power. Consequently, the interference against neighbor nodes can be reduced. From simulation results, we can find that the proposed protocol can reduce the number of control messages and can improve the throughput performance.

  18. Performance Evaluation of TCP over Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Foez; Islam, Nayeema; Debnath, Sumon Kumar

    2010-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing devices, the demand for continuous network connectivity regardless of physical location has spurred interest in the use of mobile ad hoc networks. Since Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the standard network protocol for communication in the internet, any wireless network with Internet service need to be compatible with TCP. TCP is tuned to perform well in traditional wired networks, where packet losses occur mostly because of congestion. However, TCP connections in Ad-hoc mobile networks are plagued by problems such as high bit error rates, frequent route changes, multipath routing and temporary network partitions. The throughput of TCP over such connection is not satisfactory, because TCP misinterprets the packet loss or delay as congestion and invokes congestion control and avoidance algorithm. In this research, the performance of TCP in Adhoc mobile network with high Bit Error rate (BER) and mobility is studied and investigated. Simulation model is implement...

  19. Minimum Process Coordinated Checkpointing Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tuli, Ruchi

    2011-01-01

    The wireless mobile ad hoc network (MANET) architecture is one consisting of a set of mobile hosts capable of communicating with each other without the assistance of base stations. This has made possible creating a mobile distributed computing environment and has also brought several new challenges in distributed protocol design. In this paper, we study a very fundamental problem, the fault tolerance problem, in a MANET environment and propose a minimum process coordinated checkpointing scheme. Since potential problems of this new environment are insufficient power and limited storage capacity, the proposed scheme tries to reduce the amount of information saved for recovery. The MANET structure used in our algorithm is hierarchical based. The scheme is based for Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) which belongs to a class of Hierarchical Reactive routing protocols. The protocol proposed by us is nonblocking coordinated checkpointing algorithm suitable for ad hoc environments. It produces a consistent set of...

  20. Monitoring of slope-instabilities and deformations with Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in wireless ad-hoc Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernández-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    In most mountainous regions, landslides represent a major threat to human life, properties and infrastructures. Nowadays existing landslide monitoring systems are often characterized by high efforts in terms of purchase, installation, maintenance, manpower and material. In addition (or because of this) only small areas or selective points of the endangered zone can be observed by the system. Therefore the improvement of existing and the development of new monitoring and warning systems are of high relevance. The joint project "Sensor based Landslide Early Warning Systems" (SLEWS) deals with the development of a prototypic Alarm- and Early Warning system (EWS) for different types of landslides using low-cost micro-sensors (MEMS) integrated in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Modern so called Ad-Hoc, Multi-Hop wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized by a self organizing and self-healing capacity of the system (autonomous systems). The network consists of numerous individual and own energy-supply operating sensor nodes, that can send data packages from their measuring devices (here: MEMS) over other nodes (Multi-Hop) to a collection point (gateway). The gateway provides the interface to central processing and data retrieval units (PC, Laptop or server) outside the network. In order to detect and monitor the different landslide processes (like fall, topple, spreading or sliding) 3D MEMS capacitive sensors made from single silicon crystals and glass were chosen to measure acceleration, tilting and altitude changes. Based on the so called MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, the sensors combine very small mechanical and electronic units, sensing elements and transducers on a small microchip. The mass production of such type of sensors allows low cost applications in different areas (like automobile industries, medicine, and automation technology). Apart from the small and so space saving size and the low costs another advantage is the energy

  1. Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks; Principles and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Piran, Mohammad Jalil; Babu, G Praveen

    2011-01-01

    The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congestion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year by year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. Therefore, exploiting the new technologies, e.g. wireless sensor networks, is required as a solution of reduction of these saddening and reprehensible statistics. This has motivated us to propose a novel and comprehensive system to utilize Wireless Sensor Networks for vehicular networks. We coin the vehicular network employing wireless Sensor networks as Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Network, or VASNET in short. The proposed VASNET is particularly for highway traffic .VASNET is a self-organizing Ad Hoc and sensor network comprised of a large number of sensor nodes. In VASNET there are two kinds of sensor nodes, some are embedded on the vehicles-vehicular nodes- and others are deployed in predetermined distances besides the highway road, known as Road Side Sensor nodes (RSS...

  2. Evolutionary algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dorronsoro, Bernabé; Danoy, Grégoire; Pigné, Yoann; Bouvry, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Describes how evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to identify, model, and minimize day-to-day problems that arise for researchers in optimization and mobile networking. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), vehicular networks (VANETs), sensor networks (SNs), and hybrid networks—each of these require a designer’s keen sense and knowledge of evolutionary algorithms in order to help with the common issues that plague professionals involved in optimization and mobile networking. This book introduces readers to both mobile ad hoc networks and evolutionary algorithms, presenting basic concepts as well as detailed descriptions of each. It demonstrates how metaheuristics and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to help provide low-cost operations in the optimization process—allowing designers to put some “intelligence” or sophistication into the design. It also offers efficient and accurate information on dissemination algorithms topology management, and mobility models to address challenges in the ...

  3. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-07-14

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment.

  4. Gossip Based Ad-Hoc Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Zygmunt; Halpern, Joseph Y.; Li, Erran L.

    2002-01-01

    Many ad hoc routing protocols are based on some variant of flooding. Despite various optimizations, many routing messages are propagated unnecessarily. We propose a gossiping-based approach, where each node forwards a message with some probability, to reduce the overhead of the routing protocols. Gossiping exhibits bimodal behavior in sufficiently large networks: in some executions, the gossip dies out quickly and hardly any node gets the message; in the remaining executions, a substantial fr...

  5. Studies on urban vehicular ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongzi

    2013-01-01

    With the advancement of wireless technology, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a promising approach to realizing 'smart cities' and addressing many important transportation problems such as road safety, efficiency, and convenience.This brief provides an introduction to the large trace data set collected from thousands of taxis and buses in Shanghai, the largest metropolis in China. It also presents the challenges, design issues, performance modeling and evaluation of a wide spectrum of VANET research topics, ranging from realistic vehicular mobility models and opportunistic ro

  6. An Efficient Routing Algorithm in Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShuqiao; LIHongyan; LIJiandong

    2005-01-01

    The Dynamic source routing protocol(DSR) is an on-demand routing protocol, designed specifically for use in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes. In this paper, some mechanisms such as the route's lifetime prediction, route’s creation time and an adaptive gratuitous route reply mode are introduced into DSR to get an efficient routing algorithm which is refered to E-DSR. The simulation results show that E-DSR can improve the packet delivery rate and reduce the routing overhead compared with hop-based DSR.

  7. Performance Comparisons of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Manickam, P; Girija, M; Manimegalai, Dr D; 10.5121/ijwmn.2011.3109

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a network temporarily without any support of central administration. Moreover, Every node in MANET moves arbitrarily making the multi-hop network topology to change randomly at unpredictable times. There are several familiar routing protocols like DSDV, AODV, DSR, etc...which have been proposed for providing communication among all the nodes in the network. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR based on metrics such as throughput, packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay by using the NS-2 simulator.

  8. Research on Routing Protocol of Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Tuo Ming Fu; Che Min

    2016-01-01

    Routing protocol is an important content of mobile Ad Hoc. The typical mobile Ad Hoc network routing protocols is introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of these routing protocols are analyzed. A hybrid routing protocol is put forward based on this.

  9. Auto-Configuration Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity. PMID:22163814

  10. Auto-Configuration Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián García Matesanz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity.

  11. An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Godder

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is set up with multiple wireless devices without any infrastructure. Its employment is favored in many environments. Quality of Service (QoS is one of the main issues for any network and due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS is extremely a challenging task. It is modeled as a multi-layer problem and is considered in both Medium Access Control (MAC and routing layers for ad hoc networks. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol is one of the most used and popular reactive routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. This paper proposed a new protocol QoS based AODV (QAODV which is a modified version of AODV.

  12. Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Principles and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalil Piran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congest ion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year b y year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. Therefore, exp loiting the new technologies, e.g. wireless sensor networks, is required as a solution of reduction of these sad dening and reprehensible statistics. This has motiv ated us to propose a novel and comprehensive system to utilize Wireless Sensor Networks for vehicular networks. W e coin the vehicular network employing wireless Senso r networks as Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Network, or VASNET in short. The proposed VASNET is particularl y for highway traffic .VASNET is a self-organizing Ad Hoc and sensor network comprised of a large number of sensor nodes. In VASNET there are two kinds of sensor nodes, some are embedded on the vehicles-veh icular nodes- and others are deployed in predetermi ned distances besides the highway road, known as Road S ide Sensor nodes (RSS. The vehicular nodes are use d to sense the velocity of the vehicle for instance. We can have some Base Stations (BS such as Police Tra ffic Station, Firefighting Group and Rescue Team. The ba se stations may be stationary or mobile. VASNET provides capability of wireless communication betwe en vehicular nodes and stationary nodes, to increas e safety and comfort for vehicles on the highway road s. In this paper we explain main fundamentals and challenges of VASNET

  13. Performance evaluation of fingerprint image processing for high Security Ad-hoc network

    OpenAIRE

    P.Velayutham; Dr.T.G.Palanivelu

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless technology, various mobile devices have been developed for military and civilian applications. Defense research and development has shown increasing interest in ad-hoc networks because a military has to be mobile peer-to-peer is a good architecture for mobile communication in coalition operations. In this paper, the methodology proposed is an novel robust approach on secure fingerprint authentication and matching techniques to implement in ad-hoc wireles...

  14. A Survey on Security Issues in Ad Hoc Routing Protocols and their Mitigation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kayarkar, Harshavardhan

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETS) are transient networks of mobile nodes, connected through wireless links, without any fixed infrastructure or central management. Due to the self-configuring nature of these networks, the topology is highly dynamic. This makes the Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in MANETS highly vulnerable to serious security issues. In this paper, we survey the common security threats and attacks and summarize the solutions suggested in the survey to mitigate these security vulnerabilities.

  15. Varying Overhead Ad Hoc on Demand Vector Routing in Highly Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An inherent feature of mobile ad hoc networks is the frequent change of network topology leading to stability and reliability problems of the network. Highly dynamic and dense network have to maintain acceptable level of service to data packets and limit the network control overheads. This capability is closely related as how quickly the network protocol control overhead is managed as a function of increased link changes. Dynamically limiting the routing control overheads based on the network topology improves the throughput of the network. Approach: In this study we propose Varying Overhead - Ad hoc on Demand Vector routing protocol (VO-AODV for highly dynamic mobile Ad hoc network. The VO-AODV routing protocol proposed dynamically modifies the active route time based on the network topology. Results and Conclusion: Simulation results prove that the proposed model decreases the control overheads without decreasing the QOS of the network.

  16. A Simulation Study: The Impact of Random and Realistic Mobility Models on the Performance of Bypass-AODV in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baroudi Uthman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To bring VANET into reality, it is crucial to devise routing protocols that can exploit the inherited characteristics of VANET environment to enhance the performance of the running applications. Previous studies have shown that a certain routing protocol behaves differently under different presumed mobility patterns. Bypass-AODV is a new optimization of the AODV routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. It is proposed as a local recovery mechanism to enhance the performance of the AODV routing protocol. It shows outstanding performance under the Random Waypoint mobility model compared with AODV. However, Random Waypoint is a simple model that may be applicable to some scenarios but it is not sufficient to capture some important mobility characteristics of scenarios where VANETs are deployed. In this paper, we will investigate the performance of Bypass-AODV under a wide range of mobility models including other random mobility models, group mobility models, and vehicular mobility models. Simulation results show an interesting feature that is the insensitivity of Bypass-AODV to the selected random mobility model, and it has a clear performance improvement compared to AODV. For group mobility model, both protocols show a comparable performance, but for vehicular mobility models, Bypass-AODV suffers from performance degradation in high-speed conditions.

  17. Contribution to design a communication framework for vehicular ad hoc networks in urban scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp Barba, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The constant mobility of people, the growing need to be always connected, the large number of vehicles that nowadays can be found in the roads and the advances in technology make Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) be a major area of research. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks are a special type of wireless Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), which allow a group of mobile nodes configure a temporary network and maintain it without the need of a fixed infrastructure. A vehicular network presents some spec...

  18. A Prototype System for Using Multiple Radios in Directional MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network): A NISE Funded Applied Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Technical Document 3276 September 2013 A Prototype System for using Multiple Radios in Directional MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network) A...point, it is difficult to employ directional antennas in a mobile ad hoc network ( MANET ) as most current radio and wireless networking protocols were...September 2013 Final A Prototype System for Using Multiple Radios in Directional MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network) A NISE funded Applied Research

  19. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  20. Minimization of energy consumption in ad hoc networks; Minimisation de la consommation d'energie dans les reseaux ad hoc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senouci, S.M.; Pujolle, G. [Paris-6 Univ., Lab. LIP6, 75 (France)

    2005-04-01

    An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless devices forming a temporary network independently of any administration or fixed infrastructure. The main benefits of this new generation of mobile networks are flexibility and their low cost. Wireless devices have maximum utility when they can be used 'anywhere at anytime'. However, one of the greatest limitations to that goal is the finite power supplies. Since batteries provide limited power, a general constraint of wireless communication is the short continuous operation time of mobile terminals. This constraint is more important for the ad hoc networks, since every terminal has to perform the functions of a router. Therefore, energy consumption should be a crucial issue while designing new communication protocols and particularly ad hoc routing protocols. We propose, in this paper, some extensions to the most important on-demand routing algorithm, AODV (Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector). The discovery mechanism in these extensions uses energy as a routing metric. These algorithms improve the network survivability by maintaining the network connectivity, which is the strong requirement for a high-quality communication. They carry out this objective with low message overhead for computing routes and without affecting the other network protocol layers. (authors)

  1. Flooding attack and defence in Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Hou Yafei; Zhong Yiping; Zhang Shiyong; Dai Zhoulin

    2006-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks are particularly vulnerable to denial of service (DOS) attacks launched through compromised nodes or intruders. In this paper, we present a new DOS attack and its defense in ad hoc networks. The new DOS attack, called Ad hoc Flooding Attack(AHFA), is that intruder broadcasts mass Route Request packets to exhaust the communication bandwidth and node resource so that the valid communication can not be kept. After analyzed Ad hoc Flooding Attack, we develop Flooding Attack Prevention (FAP), a generic defense against the Ad hoc Flooding Attack. When the intruder broadcasts exceeding packets of Route Request, the immediate neighbors of the intruder record the rate of Route Request. Once the threshold is exceeded, nodes deny any future request packets from the intruder. The results of our implementation show FAP can prevent the Ad hoc Flooding attack efficiently.

  2. TCP Issues in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Qiang Xu; Tie-Jun Wu

    2006-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a kind of very complex distributed communication systems with wireless mobile nodes that can be freely and dynamically self-organized into arbitrary and temporary network topologies. MANETs inherit several limitations of wireless networks, meanwhile make new challenges arising from the specificity of MANETs, such as route failures, hidden terminals and exposed terminals. When TCP is applied in a MANET environment, a number of tough problems have to be dealt with. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on this dynamic field is given. Specifically, for the first time all factors impairing TCP performance are identified based on network protocol hierarchy, I.e., lossy wireless channel at the physical layer; excessive contention and unfair access at the MAC layer; frail routing protocol at the network layer, the MAC layer and the network layer related mobile node; unfit congestion window size at the transport layer and the transport layer related asymmetric path. How these factors degrade TCP performance is clearly explained. Then, based on how to alleviate the impact of each of these factors listed above, the existing solutions are collected as comprehensively as possible and classified into a number of categories, and their advantages and limitations are discussed. Based on the limitations of these solutions, a set of open problems for designing more robust solutions is suggested.

  3. On Performance Modeling of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Khayam SyedAli; Farooq Muddassar; Saleem Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Simulation studies have been the predominant method of evaluating ad hoc routing algorithms. Despite their wide use and merits, simulations are generally time consuming. Furthermore, several prominent ad hoc simulations report inconsistent and unrepeatable results. We, therefore, argue that simulation-based evaluation of ad hoc routing protocols should be complemented with mathematical verification and comparison. In this paper, we propose a performance evaluation framework that can be used ...

  4. Improving Reactive Ad Hoc Routing Performance by Geographic Route Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-da; YU Yan-bing; LU Di

    2005-01-01

    In order to help reactive ad hoc routing protocols select better-performance routes, a novel metric named geographic route length (GRL) is proposed. The relationship between GRL metric and routing performance is analyzed in detail. Combined with hop metric, GRL is applied into the original ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) to demonstrate its effectiveness. Simulation experiments have shown that GRL can effectively reduce packet delay and route discovery frequency, thus can improve reactive ad hoc routing performance.

  5. Modeling Terrain Impact on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Modeling Terrain Impact on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks ( MANET ) Connectivity Lance Joneckis Corinne Kramer David Sparrow David Tate I N S T I T U T E F...SUBTITLE Modeling Terrain Impact on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks ( MANET ) Connectivity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...1882 ljonecki@ida.org Abstract—Terrain affects connectivity in mobile ad hoc net- works ( MANET ). Both average pairwise link closure and the rate

  6. ITMAN: An Inter Tactical Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Grandhomme, Florian; Guette, Gilles; Ksentini, Adlen; Plesse, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    International audience; New generation radio equipment, used by soldiers and vehicles on the battlefield, constitute ad hoc networks and specifically, Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANET). The battlefield where these equipment are deployed includes a majority of coalition communication. Each group on the battleground may communicate with other members of the coalition and establish inter-MANETs links. Operational communications tend to provide tactical ad hoc networks some capacities. There is a be...

  7. Reliable Multicast Error Recovery Algorithm in Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Abdullah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes characterized by wireless links. The major challenge in ad hoc networks lies in adapting multicast communication to several environments, where mobility is unlimited and failures are frequent. Reliable multicast delivery requires a multicast message to be received by all mobile nodes in the communication group. The recovery mechanism requires feedback messages from each one of the receivers. In the tree-based recovery protocols, a group of nodes into recovery regions designate a forwarding node per region for retransmitting lost messages. In this study, local error recovery algorithm is applied within these relatively smaller regions, where the repaired packets are retransmitted only to the requested receivers in the local group. These receivers create a sub group from the local group which itself is a subgroup of the global multicast group. By applying local error recovery algorithm, the number of duplicated packets, due to packets retransmission, decreases which lead to improving the system performance. Simulation results demonstrate the scalability of the proposed algorithm in comparison to Source Tree Reliable Multicast (STRM protocol. The algorithm achieved up to 2.33% improvement on the percentage of duplicated packets in stable mobility speed without incurring any further communication or intense computation overhead.

  8. Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariza Kamboj

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many crucial applications of MANETs like the battlefield, conference and disaster recovery defines the needs for group communications either one-to-many or many-to-many form. Multicast plays an important role in bandwidth scarce multihop mobile ad hoc networks comprise of limited battery power mobile nodes. Multicast protocols in MANETs generate many controls overhead for maintenance of multicast routingstructures due to frequent changes of network topology. Bigger multicast tables for the maintenance of network structures resultsin inefficient consumption of bandwidth of wireless links andbattery power of anemic mobile nodes, which in turn, pose thescalability problems as the network size is scaled up. However,many MANET applications demands scalability from time to time. Multicasting for MANETs, therefore, needs to reduce the state maintenance. As a remedy to these shortcomings, this paper roposes an overlay multicast protocol on application layer. In the proposed protocol titled “Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM” the network nodes construct overlay hierarchical framework to reduce the protocols states and constrain their distribution within limited scope. Based on zone around each node, it constructs a virtual structure at application layer mapped with the physical topology at network layer, thus formed two levels of hierarchy. The concept of two level hierarchies reduces the protocol state maintenance and hence supports the vertical scalability. Protocol depends on the location information obtained using a distributed location service, which effectively reduces the overhead for route searching and updating the source based multicast tree.

  9. Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin Sebastian E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. This paper proposes a Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol (LOR to addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner.This protocol takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. By utilizing such in-the-air backup, communication is maintained without being interrupted. The additional latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. Simulation results on NS2 verified the effectiveness of the proposed protocol with improvement in throughput by 28%.

  10. Distributed intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Jiang Xinghao; Wu Yue; Liu Ning

    2008-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking(MANET)has become an exciting and important technology in recent years,because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices.Mobile ad hoc networks is highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium,dynamically changing network topology,cooperative algorithms,and lack of centralized monitoring and management point.The traditional way of protecting networks with firewalls and encryption software is no longer sufficient and effective for those features.A distributed intrusion detection approach based on timed automata is given.A cluster-based detection scheme is presented,where periodically a node is elected as the monitor node for a cluster.These monitor nodes can not only make local intrusion detection decisions,but also cooperatively take part in global intrusion detection.And then the timed automata is constructed by the way of manually abstracting the correct behaviours of the node according to the routing protocol of dynamic source routing(DSR).The monitor nodes can verify the behaviour of every nodes by timed automata,and validly detect real-time attacks without signatures of intrusion or trained data.Compared with the architecture where each node is its own IDS agent,the approach is much more efficient while maintaining the same level of effectiveness.Finally,the intrusion detection method is evaluated through simulation experiments.

  11. Ad Hoc Network Security Technology%Ad hoc网络安全技术简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 李鑫; 黄红伟

    2011-01-01

    Ad hoc network is a kind of mobile network without fixed infrastructure;all nodes are composed of mobile host.As the mobility of the node leads to network topology changing quickly and node communication is based on wireless links,Ad hoc network is facing greater challenges more than cane network about security.In this paper,according to Ad hoe network security issues,we analysis common attacks in the Ad hoe network,focused on secure routing,key management and other key issues.%Ad hoc网络是一种没有有线基础设施支持的移动网络,网络中的节点均由移动主机构成。由于节点的移动性导致网络拓扑结构不断变化,节点通信完全依靠无线链路,相对于有线网络在安全性上面临更大的挑战。本文根据Ad hoc网络面临的安全问题,分析了Ad hoc网络中常见的攻击方式,并集中讨论了Ad hoc网络的安全路由、密钥管理等关键问题。

  12. Analysis of Fuzzy Logic Based Intrusion Detection Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advancement in wireless technologies, many of new paradigms have opened for communications. Among these technologies, mobile ad hoc networks play a prominent role for providing communication in many areas because of its independent nature of predefined infrastructure. But in terms of security, these networks are more vulnerable than the conventional networks because firewall and gateway based security mechanisms cannot be applied on it. That’s why intrusion detection systems are used as keystone in these networks. Many number of intrusion detection systems have been discovered to handle the uncertain activity in mobile ad hoc networks. This paper emphasized on proposed fuzzy based intrusion detection systems in mobile ad hoc networks and presented their effectiveness to identify the intrusions. This paper also examines the drawbacks of fuzzy based intrusion detection systems and discussed the future directions in the field of intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks.

  13. Real Time Experimental Analysis of Mobile Ad-Hoc Traffic in Indoor and Outdoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C.Kishore Raja

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of mobile ad hoc network varies from collaborative computing to time critical applications in indoor and outdoor environment. Mobility of ad hoc network makes very attractive in all areas of mobile applications. Connection sustainability is the main problem in wireless ad hoc network. This paper analyse straight up, flat topologies of mobile ad hoc traffic in indoor and outdoor environment in real time campus network and evaluate the scenarios based on performance metrics. The results show that the mobiles nodes in straight up and flat topologies are affected by connection, mobility and obstacles with all other topologies. It is also observed that straight up static topology for indoor shows better performance in all metrics.

  14. A novel technique for node authentication in mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Aluvala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of nodes in mobility that communicate to one another forming a network through wireless links, in which each node acts a router and forward packets to destinations. The dynamic topology and self-organizing of the nodes make them more vulnerable to the network. In MANET, the major challenging task is to provide security during the routing of data packets. Various kinds of attacks have been studied in ad hoc networks, but no proper solution found for these attacks. So, preventing the malicious nodes from destroying the network plays vital role in ad hoc networks. In this paper, a novel technique has been proposed to provide node authentication while a new node joining into the network and before initiating route discovery process in mobile ad hoc networks. Also shown how the proposed technique mitigates the impact of attacks on nodes.

  15. A NOVEL ROUTING ATTACK IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. N. SATYANARAYANA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks will often be deployed in environments where the nodes of the networks are unattended and have little or no physical protection against tampering. The nodes of mobile ad hoc networks are thus susceptible to compromise. The networks are particularly vulnerable to denial of service (DOS attacks launched through compromised nodes or intruders. In this paper, we present a new DOS attack and its defense in ad hoc networks. The new DOS attack, called Ad Hoc Flooding Attack (AHFA, can result in denial of service when used against on-demand routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, such as AODV, DSR. The intruder broadcasts mass Route Request packets to exhaust the communication bandwidth and node resource so that the valid communication cannot be kept. After analyzed Ad Hoc Flooding Attack, we develop Flooding Attack Prevention (FAP, a generic defense against the Ad Hoc Flooding Attack in mobile ad hoc networks. When the intruder broadcasts exceeding packets of Route Request, the immediate neighbors of the intruder record the rate of Route Request. Once the threshold is exceeded, nodes deny any future request packets from the intruder. The results of our implementation show FAP can prevent the Ad Hoc Flooding attack efficiently.

  16. Capacity Scaling of Ad Hoc Networks with Spatial Diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Andrew M; Weber, Steven P

    2007-01-01

    This paper derives the exact outage probability and transmission capacity of ad hoc wireless networks with nodes employing multiple antenna diversity techniques. The analysis enables a direct comparison of the number of simultaneous transmissions achieving a certain data rate under different diversity techniques. Preliminary results derive the outage probability and transmission capacity for a general class of signal distributions which facilitates quantifying the gain for fading or non-fading environments. The transmission capacity is then given for uniformly random networks with path loss exponent $\\alpha>2$ in which nodes: (1) use static beamforming through $M$ sectorized antennas for which the gain is shown to be $\\Theta(M^2)$ if the antennas are without sidelobes, but less in the event of a nonzero sidelobe level; (2) dynamic eigen-beamforming (maximal ratio transmission/combining) in which the gain is shown to be $\\Theta(M^{\\frac{2}{\\alpha}})$; (3) various transmit antenna selection and receive antenna ...

  17. A Holistic Approach to Information Distribution in Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Casetti, Claudio; Fiore, Marco; La, Chi-Anh; Michiardi, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the problem of spreading information contents in a wireless ad hoc network with mechanisms embracing the peer-to-peer paradigm. In our vision, information dissemination should satisfy the following requirements: (i) it conforms to a predefined distribution and (ii) it is evenly and fairly carried by all nodes in their turn. In this paper, we observe the dissemination effects when the information moves across nodes according to two well-known mobility models, namely random walk and random direction. Our approach is fully distributed and comes at a very low cost in terms of protocol overhead; in addition, simulation results show that the proposed solution can achieve the aforementioned goals under different network scenarios, provided that a sufficient number of information replicas are injected into the network. This observation calls for a further step: in the realistic case where the user content demand varies over time, we need a content replication/drop strategy to adapt the number of inform...

  18. M-BOARD IN AN AD-HOC NETWORK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Panth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Notice Board is very essential part of any organization. This paper presents the design and implementation of M-Board (Mobile Notice Board for Ad-hoc Network Environment that can be established and made available for an educational or industry environment. The cost-free communication among the mobile phone clients and server takes place with the help of Bluetooth wireless technology. M-Board is particularly developed as an informative application environment to provide the basic information like daily events or timetable to the users. The design is based on the amalgamation of Java ME with other technologies like Java SE, Java EE, PHP and MySQL. The system is designed to provide simple, easy-to-use, cost-free solution in a ubiquitous environment. The system design is easily implemented and extensible allowing the number of clients in Personal Area Network (PAN for information exchange with the hotspot-server.

  19. Mobile Advertisement in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Advertisement is a location-aware dissemination solution built on top of a vehicular ad-hoc network. We envision a network of WiFi access points that dynamically disseminate data to clients running on the car's smart device. The approach can be considered an alternative to the static advertisement billboards and can be useful to business companies wanting to dynamically advertise their products and offers to people driving their car. The clients can subscribe to information based on specific topics. We present design solutions that use access points as emitters for transmitting messages to wireless-enabled devices equipped on vehicles. We also present implementation details for the evaluation of the proposed solution using a simulator designed for VANET application. The results show that the application can be used for transferring a significant amount of data even under difficult conditions, such as when cars are moving at increased speeds, or the congested Wi-Fi network causes significant packet loss...

  20. Congestion Reduction Using Ad hoc Message Dissemination in Vehicular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hewer, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITS) and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad-hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through the network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to the receivers of this information. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols for influencing traffic flow, reducing congestion in road networks. The computational experiments presented in this paper show how an intelligent driver model (IDM) and car-following model can be adapted to 'react' to the reception of information. This model also presents the advantages of coupling together traffic modelling tools and network simulation tools.

  1. SECURITY CHALLENGES IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dorri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MANET is a kind of Ad Hoc network with mobile, wireless nodes. Because of its special characteristics like dynamic topology, hop-by-hop communications and easy and quick setup, MANET faced lots of challenges allegorically routing, security and clustering. The security challenges arise due to MANET’s selfconfiguration and self-maintenance capabilities. In this paper, we present an elaborate view of issues in MANET security. Based on MANET’s special characteristics, we define three security parameters for MANET. In addition we divided MANET security into two different aspects and discussed each one in details. A comprehensive analysis in security aspects of MANET and defeating approaches is presented. In addition, defeating approaches against attacks have been evaluated in some important metrics. After analyses and evaluations, future scopes of work have been presented.

  2. Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc Network to the Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mao-ning

    2005-01-01

    A novel scheme is presented to integrate mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) with the Internet and support mobility across wireless local area networks (WLANs) and MANETs. The mobile nodes, connected as a MANET, employ the optimize d link state routing (OLSR) protocol for routing within the MANET. Mobility management across WLANs and MANETs is achieved through the hierarchical mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) protocol. The performance is evaluated on a HMIPv6 based test-bed composed of WLANs and MANETs. The efficiency gain obtained from using HMIPv6 in such a hybrid network is investigated. The investigation result shows that the use of HMIPv6 can achieve up to 27% gain on reducing the handoff latency when a mobile roams within a domain. Concerning the reduction of the signaling load on the Internet, the use of HMIPv6 can achieve at least a 54% gain and converges to 69%.

  3. Adaptive Weighted Clustering Algorithm for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwan Yasin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new algorithm for clustering MANET by considering several parameters. This is a new adaptive load balancing technique for clustering out Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET. MANET is special kind of wireless networks where no central management exits and the nodes in the network cooperatively manage itself and maintains connectivity. The algorithm takes into account the local capabilities of each node, the remaining battery power, degree of connectivity and finally the power consumption based on the average distance between nodes and candidate cluster head. The proposed algorithm efficiently decreases the overhead in the network that enhances the overall MANET performance. Reducing the maintenance time of broken routes makes the network more stable, reliable. Saving the power of the nodes also guarantee consistent and reliable network.

  4. Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networking Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gavrilovska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc and sensor networks are becoming an increasingly popular wireless networking concepts lately. This paper analyzes and compares prominent routing schemes in these networking environments. The knowledge obtained can serve users to better understand short range wireless network solutions thus leading to options for implementation in various scenarios. In addition, it should aid researchers develop protocol improvements reliable for the technologies of interest.

  5. Study of Impact of Mobile Ad hoc Networking and its Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashema Hasti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many people carry numerous portable devices, such as laptops, mobile phones, PDAs and mp3 players, for use in their professional and private lives. For the most part, these devices are used separately-that is, their applications do not interact. Imagine, however, if they could interact directly: participants at a meeting could share documents or presentations; all communication could automatically be routed through the wireless corporate campus network. These examples of spontaneous, ad hoc wireless communication between devices might be loosely defined as a scheme, often referred to as ad hoc networking, which allows devices to establish communication, anytime and anywhere without the aid of a central infrastructure. This paper describes the concept of mobile ad hoc networking (MANET and points out some of its applications that can be envisioned for future. Also, the paper presents two of the technical challenges MANET poses, which include Geocasting and QoS.

  6. A Secure and Pragmatic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    An ad hoc network is a group of wireless mobile computers (or nodes), in which individual nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to allow nodes to communicate beyond direct wireless transmission range. Because of node mobility and power limitations, the network topology changes frequently. Routing protocol plays an important role in the ad hoc network. A recent trend in ad hoc network routing is the reactive on-demand philosophy where routes are established only when required. As an optimization for the current Dynamic Source Routing Protocol, a secure and pragmatic routes selection scheme based on Reputation Systems was proposed. We design the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol and implement simulation models using GloMoSim. Simulation results show that the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol provides better experimental results on packet delivery ratio, power consumption and system throughput than Dynamic Source Routing Protocol.

  7. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  8. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Al-Nahari

    Full Text Available Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV, which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  9. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  10. Incentive-based control of ad hoc networks: a performance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbel, F.; Kresinski, A.E.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Ad hoc networks are self-configuring networks of mobile nodes, connected by wireless links. If a destination node is beyond the transmission range of an origin node, then the nodes must cooperate to provide a multi-hop route. Any node can act as a sender, receiver or transit node. It is clear that i

  11. BLESSED with opportunistic beacons: a lightweight data dissemination model for smart mobile ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces BLESSED, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the complementary utilization of the IEEE 802.11 and Bluetooth Low Energy standards. As a ubiq

  12. Multipath routing and multiple description coding in ad-hoc networks: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz, I.F.; Epema, D.; Jongh, J. de

    2004-01-01

    The nature of wireless multihop ad-hoc networks makes it a challenge to offer connections of an assured quality. In order to improve the performance of such networks, multipath routing in combination with Multiple Description Coding (MDC) has been proposed. By splitting up streams of multimedia traf

  13. Performance evaluation of fingerprint image processing for high Security Ad-hoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Velayutham

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of wireless technology, various mobile devices have been developed for military and civilian applications. Defense research and development has shown increasing interest in ad-hoc networks because a military has to be mobile peer-to-peer is a good architecture for mobile communication in coalition operations. In this paper, the methodology proposed is an novel robust approach on secure fingerprint authentication and matching techniques to implement in ad-hoc wireless networks. This is a difficult problem in ad-hoc network, as it involves bootstrapping trust between the devices. This journal would present a solution, which provides fingerprint authentication techniques to share their communication in ad-hoc network. In this approach, devices exchange a corresponding fingerprint with master device for mutual communication, which will then allow them to complete an authenticated key exchange protocol over the wireless link. The solution based on authenticating user fingerprint through the master device, and this master device handshakes with the corresponding slave device for authenticating the fingerprint all attacks on the wireless link, and directly captures the user's device that was proposed to talk to a particular unknown device mentioned previously in their physical proximity. The system is implemented in C# and the user node for a variety of different devices with Matlab.

  14. Ad hoc Routing Protocol Based on NS%基于NS的Ad hoc路由协议研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建武

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the Ad Hoc wireless network basic characteristics,and on the basis of Ad Hoc network reviewed the research status of main routing protocol,and discussed the Ad Hoc wireless network routing protocols of the development trends and challenges,the Ad Hoc of several typical network routing protocols the characteristics of the classification analysis and comparison.And focuses on analyzing the AODV,DSDV,DSR three agreement and the characteristics of the routing mechanism,and use the NS2 simulation software of the simulation,and again from the simulation results of data analysis,draw diagrams are compared.%在分析Ad Hoc无线网络基本特性的基础上,综合评述Ad Hoc网络路由协议主要的研究现状,讨论Ad Hoc无线网络路由协议的发展趋势和挑战。对几种典型的Ad Hoc网络路由协议的特点进行分类分析和比较,着重分析AODV,DSDV,DSR等3种协议的特点及路由机制,并使用NS2仿真软件对其仿真,再从仿真结果中分析数据,绘出图表进行比较。

  15. A Globally Accessible List (GAL Based Recovery Concept In Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Daniel,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is a mobile, multi-hop wireless network which is capable of autonomous operation whose primary role is to provide a reliable end to end communication between nodes in the network.However achieving reliable transmission in mobile wireless network is crucial due to change in the network topology caused by node mobility. Modern communication network is becoming increasing & diverse. This is the consequence of an increasing array of devices & services both wired & wireless. There are various protocols to facilitate communication in ad hoc network like DSR and TORA. However these approaches end up in the inefficient utilization of resources after link failure and congestion. This paper proposes an approach to get over this problem .We have added some static nodes which only keeps information related to the current working path and also helps in quick recovery in case of link failure .

  16. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Mobility Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Rahmadya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of developing countries with high land traffic density. This traffic density could cause traffic jam, traffic accidents and other disturbances. This research had developed a simulator that could calculate the traffic density of roads in urban areas. With the use of this simulator, the researcher could calculate the time needed if the source node transports the message to the destination node by using the ad hoc network communication facility. In this research, every vehicle utilizes multi-hop communication in a communication network. The vehicle sends the message through flooding message and passes on the received message to other vehicles. Based on the simulation done on map size 10 km x 10 km with a total of 20 vehicles on the road, it was calculated that the simulator could transmit the message to its destination on the 106th second from node 3 and with the total of 200 vehicles on the road, the simulator could transmit the message to its destination on the 22nd second from node 5. 

  17. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes.

  18. Assured Resource Sharing in Ad-Hoc Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Gail-Joon [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-12-19

    The project seeks an innovative framework to enable users to access and selectively share resources in distributed environments, enhancing the scalability of information sharing. We have investigated secure sharing & assurance approaches for ad-hoc collaboration, focused on Grids, Clouds, and ad-hoc network environments.

  19. Philosophical perspectives on ad hoc hypotheses and the Higgs mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon; Harlander, Robert; Karaca, Koray

    2014-01-01

    We examine physicists' charge of ad hocness against the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particle physics. We argue that even though this charge never rested on a clear-cut and well-entrenched definition of "ad hoc", it is based on conceptual and methodological assumptions and pri

  20. Enhanced Weight based DSR for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Samant; Jain, Sweta

    2011-12-01

    Routing in ad hoc network is a great problematic, since a good routing protocol must ensure fast and efficient packet forwarding, which isn't evident in ad hoc networks. In literature there exists lot of routing protocols however they don't include all the aspects of ad hoc networks as mobility, device and medium constraints which make these protocols not efficient for some configuration and categories of ad hoc networks. Thus in this paper we propose an improvement of Weight Based DSR in order to include some of the aspects of ad hoc networks as stability, remaining battery power, load and trust factor and proposing a new approach Enhanced Weight Based DSR.

  1. On Performance Modeling of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayam SyedAli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation studies have been the predominant method of evaluating ad hoc routing algorithms. Despite their wide use and merits, simulations are generally time consuming. Furthermore, several prominent ad hoc simulations report inconsistent and unrepeatable results. We, therefore, argue that simulation-based evaluation of ad hoc routing protocols should be complemented with mathematical verification and comparison. In this paper, we propose a performance evaluation framework that can be used to model two key performance metrics of an ad hoc routing algorithm, namely, routing overhead and route optimality. We also evaluate derivatives of the two metrics, namely, total energy consumption and route discovery latency. Using the proposed framework, we evaluate the performance of four prominent ad hoc routing algorithms: DSDV, DSR, AODV-LL, and Gossiping. We show that the modeled metrics not only allow unbiased performance comparison but also provide interesting insight about the impact of different parameters on the behavior of these protocols.

  2. AD HOC TEAMWORK BEHAVIORS FOR INFLUENCING A FLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Genter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc teamwork refers to the challenge of designing agents that can influence the behavior of a team, without prior coordination with its teammates. This paper considers influencing a flock of simple robotic agents to adopt a desired behavior within the context of ad hoc teamwork. Specifically, we examine how the ad hoc agents should behave in order to orient a flock towards a target heading as quickly as possible when given knowledge of, but no direct control over, the behavior of the flock. We introduce three algorithms which the ad hoc agents can use to influence the flock, and we examine the relative importance of coordinating the ad hoc agents versus planning farther ahead when given fixed computational resources. We present detailed experimental results for each of these algorithms, concluding that in this setting, inter-agent coordination and deeper lookahead planning are no more beneficial than short-term lookahead planning.

  3. Efficient Load Balancing Routing Technique for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Abdulkader Salem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mobile ad hoc network (MANET is nothing but the wireless connection of mobile nodes which provides the communication and mobility among wireless nodes without the need of any physical infrastructure or centralized devices such as access point or base station. The communication in MANET is done by routing protocols. There are different categories of routing protocols introduced with different goals and objectives for MANETs such as proactive routing protocols (e.g. DSDV, reactive routing protocols (e.g. ADOV, geographic routing protocols (e.g. GRP, hybrid routing protocols etc. There are two important research problems with such routing protocols to address such as efficient load balancing and energy efficiency. In this paper, we are focusing on evaluation and analysis of efficient load balancing protocol design for MANET. Inefficient load balancing technique results in increasing routing overhead, poor packet delivery ratio, and other Quality of Service (QoS parameters. In literature, there are a number of different methods proposed for improving the performance of routing protocols by efficient load balancing among mobile nodes communication. However, most of the methods suffer from various limitations. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for improved the QoS performance of load balancing approach as well as increasing the network lifetime. Evaluation of Network lifetime is out of scope of this paper.

  4. QoS-aware multicast routing protocol for Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    Ad hoc wireless networks consist of mobile nodes interconnected by multihop communication paths. Unlike conventional wireless networks, ad hoc networks have no fixed network infrastructure or administrative support. Due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS) is an inherently complex, difficult issue and very important research issue. MAODV (Multicast Ad hoc Ondemand Distance Vector) routing protocol provides fast and efficient route establishment between mobile nodes that need to communicate with each other. MAODV has minimal control overhead and route acquisition latency. In addition to unicast routing, MAODV supports multicast and broadcast as well.The multicast routing problem with multiple QoS constraints, which may deal with the delay, bandwidth and packet loss measurements is discussed, and a network model for researching the ad hoc network QoS multicast routing problem is described. It presents a complete solution for QoS multicast routing based on an extension of the MAODV routing protocol that deals with delay, bandwidth and packet loss measurements. The solution is based on lower layer specifics. Simulation results show that, with the proposed QoS multicast routing protocol, end-to-end delay, bandwidth and packet loss on a route can be improved in most of cases. It is an available approach to multicast routing decision with multiple QoS constraints.

  5. I-Min: An Intelligent Fermat Point Based Energy Efficient Geographic Packet Forwarding Technique for Wireless Sensor and Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Kaushik; Das, and Pradip K; 10.5121/jgraphoc.2010.2204

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption and delay incurred in packet delivery are the two important metrics for measuring the performance of geographic routing protocols for Wireless Adhoc and Sensor Networks (WASN). A protocol capable of ensuring both lesser energy consumption and experiencing lesser delay in packet delivery is thus suitable for networks which are delay sensitive and energy hungry at the same time. Thus a smart packet forwarding technique addressing both the issues is thus the one looked for by any geographic routing protocol. In the present paper we have proposed a Fermat point based forwarding technique which reduces the delay experienced during packet delivery as well as the energy consumed for transmission and reception of data packets.

  6. Survey: Comparison Estimation of Various Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanshu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes attached by wireless links. It represents a complex and dynamic distributed systems that consist of mobile wireless nodes that can freely self organize into an ad-hoc network topology. The devices in the network may have limited transmission range therefore multiple hops may be needed by one node to transfer data to another node in network. This leads to the need for an effective routing protocol. In this paper we study various classifications of routing protocols and their types for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks like DSDV, GSR, AODV, DSR, ZRP, FSR, CGSR, LAR, and Geocast Protocols. In this paper we also compare different routing protocols on based on a given set of parameters Scalability, Latency, Bandwidth, Control-overhead, Mobility impact.

  7. Formal reconstruction of attack scenarios in mobile ad hoc and sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekhis Slim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several techniques of theoretical digital investigation are presented in the literature but most of them are unsuitable to cope with attacks in wireless networks, especially in Mobile Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (MASNets. In this article, we propose a formal approach for digital investigation of security attacks in wireless networks. We provide a model for describing attack scenarios in a wireless environment, and system and network evidence generated consequently. The use of formal approaches is motivated by the need to avoid ad hoc generation of results that impedes the accuracy of analysis and integrity of investigation. We develop an inference system that integrates the two types of evidence, handles incompleteness and duplication of information in them, and allows possible and provable actions and attack scenarios to be generated. To illustrate the proposal, we consider a case study dealing with the investigation of a remote buffer overflow attack.

  8. Review Strategies and Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Network- Internet Integration Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The desire to be connected anytime and anywhere has led to the development of wireless networks, opening new vista of research in pervasive and ubiquitous computing. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs use portable devices such as mobile phones, laptops or personal digital assistants (PDAs for spontaneous establishment of communication. Most existing research in the area of mobile Ad Hoc Networks is limited to stand-alone isolated networks. But connectivity of a mobile Ad Hoc network to the Internet is also desirable as more and more applications and services in our society now depend on fixed infrastructure networks. It is therefore important that dynamically deployed wireless Ad Hoc networks should also gain access to these fixed networks and their services. The integration of MANETs into Internet increases the networking flexibility and coverage of existing infrastructure networks. Although researchers have proposed many solutions, but it is still unclear which one offer the best performance compared to the others. When an Ad Hoc network is connected to Internet, it is important for the mobile nodes to detect efficiently available Internet gateways providing access to the Internet. Internet gateway discovery time and handover delay have strong influence on packet delay and throughput. The key challenge in providing connectivity is to minimize the overhead of mobile IP and Ad Hoc routing protocol between Internet and Ad Hoc networks. There, this paper focuses on proposed technical solutions on Internet gateway discovery and also we briefly describe different ways to provide global Internet access for MANETs. Finally, some challenges are also mentioned which need in depth investigation.

  9. A Novel Metric For Detection of Jellyfish Reorder Attack on Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Jayasingh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc networks are susceptible to many attacks due to its unique characteristics such as open network architecture, stringent resource constraints, shared wireless medium and highly dynamic topology. The attacks can be of different types out of which denial of service is one of the most difficult attacks to detect and defend. Jellyfish is a new denial of service attack that exploits the end to end congestion control mechanism of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol which has a very devastating effect on the throughput. The architecture for detection of such attack should be both distributed and cooperative to suit the needs of wireless ad-hoc networks that is every node in the wireless ad-hoc network should participate in the intrusion detection. We intend to develop an algorithm that detects the jellyfish attack at a single node and that can be effectively deployed at all other nodes in the ad hoc network. We propose the novel metric that detects the Jellyfish reorder attack based on the Reorder Density which is a basis for developing a metric. The comparison table shows the effectiveness of novel metric, it also helps protocol designers to develop the counter strategies for the attack.

  10. Quality-of-service sensitivity to bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods for intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc multimedia sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2012-06-01

    In the author's previous work, a cross-layer protocol approach to wireless sensor network (WSN) intrusion detection an identification is created with multiple bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods applied to the functions of the protocol layers, a single method to each layer, to improve the intrusion-detection performance of the protocol over that of one method applied to only a single layer's functions. The WSN cross-layer protocol design embeds GAs, anti-phase synchronization, ACO, and a trust model based on quantized data reputation at the physical, MAC, network, and application layer, respectively. The construct neglects to assess the net effect of the combined bioinspired methods on the quality-of-service (QoS) performance for "normal" data streams, that is, streams without intrusions. Analytic expressions of throughput, delay, and jitter, coupled with simulation results for WSNs free of intrusion attacks, are the basis for sensitivity analyses of QoS metrics for normal traffic to the bio-inspired methods.

  11. A Comparison of the TCP Variants Performance over different Routing Protocols on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Biradar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a variant of TCP (Tahoe, Vegas, TCP is most widely used transport protocol in both wired and wireless networks. In mobile ad hoc networks, the topology changes frequently due to mobile nodes, this leads to significant packet losses and network throughput degradation. This is due to the fact that TCP fails to distinguish the path failure and network congestion. In this paper, the performances of TCP over different routing (DSR, AODV and DSDV protocols in ad hoc networks wasstudied by simulation experiments and results are reported.

  12. Energy Efficient and QoS sensitive Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed Tanoli, Tariq; Khalid Khan, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Efficient routing is an important part of wireless ad hoc networks. Since in ad hoc networks we have limited resources, there are many limitations like bandwidth, battery consumption, and processing cycle etc. Reliability is also necessary since there is no allowance for invalid or incomplete information (and expired data is useless). There are various protocols that perform routing by considering one parameter but ignoring other parameters. In this paper we present a protocol that finds route on the basis of bandwidth, energy and mobility of the nodes participating in the communication.

  13. Deny-by-Default Distributed Security Policy Enforcement in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicherry, Mansoor; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stavrou, Angelos

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are increasingly employed in tactical military and civil rapid-deployment networks, including emergency rescue operations and ad hoc disaster-relief networks. However, this flexibility of MANETs comes at a price, when compared to wired and base station-based wireless networks: MANETs are susceptible to both insider and outsider attacks. This is mainly because of the lack of a well-defined defense perimeter preventing the effective use of wired defenses including firewalls and intrusion detection systems.

  14. Broadcast design in cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief investigates the special challenges of broadcast design in cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks. It introduces two broadcast protocols in CR ad hoc networks: a quality-of-service based broadcast protocol under blind information and a fully-distributed broadcast protocol with collision avoidance. A novel unified analytical model is also presented to analyze the performance of the broadcast protocols. This is the first book dedicated to the unique broadcast design challenges in CR ad hoc networks. The authors also discuss the recent research on the performance analysis of broa

  15. Malware-Propagative Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Asymptotic Behavior Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasileios Karyotis; Anastasios Kakalis; Symeon Papavassiliou

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the spreading of malicious software over ad hoe networks, where legitimate nodes are prone to propagate the infections they receive from either an attacker or their already infected neighbors, is analyzed. Considering the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) node infection paradigm we propose a probabilistic model, on the basis of the theory of closed queuing networks, that aims at describing the aggregated behavior of the system when attacked by malicious nodes. Because of its nature, the model is also able to deal more effectively with the stochastic behavior of attackers and the inherent probabilistic nature of the wireless environment. The proposed model is able to describe accurately the asymptotic behavior of malware-propagative large scale ad hoc networking environments. Using the Norton equivalent of the closed queuing network, we obtain analytical results for its steady state behavior, which in turn is used for identifying the critical parameters affecting the operation of the network. Finally, through modeling and simulation, some additional numerical results are obtained with respect to the behavior of the system when multiple attackers are present, and regarding the time-dependent evolution and impact of an attack.

  16. The Social Function of Ad Hoc Transient Communities - Spoken presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetter, Sibren

    2008-01-01

    Fetter, S. (2008). The Social Function of Ad Hoc Transient Communities. Presentation at the Master Active Learning miniconference. November, 14, 2008, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  17. Location Based Throughput Maximization Routing in Energy Constrained Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sumathy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless Ad-hoc network, power consumption becomes an important issue due to limited battery power. One of the reasons for energy expenditure in this network is irregularly distributed node pattern, which impose large interference range in certain area. To maximize the lifetime of ad-hoc mobile network, the power consumption rate of each node must be evenly distributed and the over all transmission range of each node must be minimized. Our protocol, Location based throughput maximization routing in energy constrained Ad-hoc network finds routing paths, which maximize the lifetime of individual nodes and minimize the total transmission energy consumption. The life of the entire network is increased and the network throughput is also increased. The reliability of the path is also increased. Location based energy constrained routing finds the distance between the nodes. Based on the distance the transmission power required is calculated and dynamically reduces the total transmission energy.

  18. ACRR: Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing with Controlled Route Requests

    CERN Document Server

    Kataria, Jayesh; Sanyal, Sugata

    2010-01-01

    Reactive routing protocols like Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks which are used in Mobile and Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) work by flooding the network with control packets. There is generally a limit on the number of these packets that can be generated or forwarded. But a malicious node can disregard this limit and flood the network with fake control packets. These packets hog the limited bandwidth and processing power of genuine nodes in the network while being forwarded. Due to this, genuine route requests suffer and many routes either do not get a chance to materialize or they end up being longer than otherwise. In this paper we propose a non cryptographic solution to the above problem and prove its efficiency by means of simulation.

  19. A Decentralized VPN Service over Generalized Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Sho; Shima, Keiichi; Uo, Yojiro; Esaki, Hiroshi

    We present a decentralized VPN service that can be built over generalized mobile ad-hoc networks (Generalized MANETs), in which topologies can be represented as a time-varying directed multigraph. We address wireless ad-hoc networks and overlay ad-hoc networks as instances of Generalized MANETs. We first propose an architecture to operate on various kinds of networks through a single set of operations. Then, we design and implement a decentralized VPN service on the proposed architecture. Through the development and operation of a prototype system we implemented, we found that the proposed architecture makes the VPN service applicable to each instance of Generalized MANETs, and that the VPN service makes it possible for unmodified applications to operate on the networks.

  20. Efficient Packet Forwarding Approach in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using EBGR Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Prasanth, K; Jayasudha, K; Chandrasekar, C

    2010-01-01

    VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Conventional routing protocols in MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Networks) are unable to fully address the unique characteristics in vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose EBGR (Edge Node Based Greedy Routing), a reliable greedy position based routing approach to forward packets to the node present in the edge of the transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop, with consideration of nodes moving in the direction of the destination. We propose Revival Mobility model (RMM) to evaluate the performance of our routing technique. This paper presents a detailed description of our approach and simulation results show that packet delivery ratio is improved considerably compared to other routing techniques of V...

  1. Efficient Packet Forwarding Approach in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using EBGR Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayasudha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Conventional routing protocols in MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Networks are unable to fully address the unique characteristics in vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose EBGR (Edge Node Based Greedy Routing, a reliable greedy position based routing approach to forward packets to the node present in the edge of the transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop, with consideration of nodes moving in the direction of the destination. We propose Revival Mobility model (RMM to evaluate the performance of our routing technique. This paper presents a detailed description of our approach and simulation results show that packet delivery ratio is improved considerably compared to other routing techniques of VANET.

  2. Distribution of Information in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    2.4. MACA Protocol ...................................20 Figure 2.5. Route discovery in AODV (From [32]).............28 Figure 2.6. Creation of a...2.5. Route discovery in AODV (From [32]) The DSR (Dynamic Source Routing ) protocol [33], proposed by Johnson and Maltz, is very similar to AODV ...Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing ( AODV ) [30] and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [48] version unicast are reactive protocols (the paths are built

  3. An Efficient Proactive RSA Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui-shan; CHEN Ke-fei

    2007-01-01

    A proactive threshold signature scheme is very important to tolerate mobile attack in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient proactive threshold RSA signature scheme for ad hoc networks. The scheme consists of three protocols: the initial secret share distribution protocol, the signature generation protocol and the secret share refreshing protocol. Our scheme has three advantages. First, the signature generation protocol is efficient. Second, the signature generation protocol is resilient. Third, the share refreshing protocol is efficient.

  4. Link Perdurability Based Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xuebin; Zhou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Ad Hoc networks are prone to link failures due to mobility. In this letter, a link perdurability based routing scheme is proposed to try dealing with this problem. This scheme uses signal strength measurements to estimate the route life time and hence chooses a stable route, and is implemented in two typical ad hoc routing protocols to evaluate its performance. The simulation results have shown that this scheme can improve these protocols' packet delivery ratio in cases where there are frequent link failures.

  5. A Comprehensive Performance Comparison of On-Demand Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahangir; Hayder, Syed Irfan

    Mobile ad hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves on a fly. In this paper we focus on the performance of the on-demand routing protocols such as DSR and AODV in ad-hoc networks. We have observed the performance change of each protocol through simulation with varying the data in intermediate nodes and to compare data throughput in each mobile modes of each protocol to analyze the packet fraction for application data. The objective of this work is to evaluate two routing protocols such as On-demand behavior, namely, Ad hoc Demand Distance vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), for wireless ad hoc networks based on performance of intermediate nodes for the delivery of data form source to destination and vice versa in order to compare the efficiency of throughput in the neighbors nodes. To overcome we have proposed OPNET simulator for performance comparison of hop to hop delivery of data packet in autonomous system.

  6. Metric-Based Cooperative Routing in Multihop Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communication fully leverages the broadcast nature of wireless channels and exploits time/spatial diversity in a distributed manner, thereby achieving significant improvements in system capacity and transmission reliability. Cooperative diversity has been well studied from the physical layer perspective. Thereafter, cooperative MAC design has also drawn much attention recently. However, very little work has addressed cooperation at the routing layer. In this paper, we propose a simple yet efficient scheme for cooperative routing by using cooperative metrics including packet delivery ratio, throughput, and energy consumption efficiency. To make a routing decision based on our scheme, a node needs to first determine whether cooperation on each link is necessary or not, and if necessary, select the optimal cooperative scheme as well as the optimal relay. To do so, we calculate and compare cooperative routing metric values for each potential relay for each different cooperative MAC scheme (C-ARQ and CoopMAC in this study, and further choose the best value and compare it with the noncooperative link metric. Using the final optimal metric value instead of the traditional metric value at the routing layer, new optimal paths are set up in multihop ad hoc networks, by taking into account the cooperative benefits from the MAC layer. The network performance of the cooperative routing solution is demonstrated using a simple network topology.

  7. Reliability analysis of cluster-based ad-hoc networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jason L. [Quality Engineering and System Assurance, Armament Research Development Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States); Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel [School of Systems and Enterprises, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)], E-mail: Jose.Ramirez-Marquez@stevens.edu

    2008-10-15

    The mobile ad-hoc wireless network (MAWN) is a new and emerging network scheme that is being employed in a variety of applications. The MAWN varies from traditional networks because it is a self-forming and dynamic network. The MAWN is free of infrastructure and, as such, only the mobile nodes comprise the network. Pairs of nodes communicate either directly or through other nodes. To do so, each node acts, in turn, as a source, destination, and relay of messages. The virtue of a MAWN is the flexibility this provides; however, the challenge for reliability analyses is also brought about by this unique feature. The variability and volatility of the MAWN configuration makes typical reliability methods (e.g. reliability block diagram) inappropriate because no single structure or configuration represents all manifestations of a MAWN. For this reason, new methods are being developed to analyze the reliability of this new networking technology. New published methods adapt to this feature by treating the configuration probabilistically or by inclusion of embedded mobility models. This paper joins both methods together and expands upon these works by modifying the problem formulation to address the reliability analysis of a cluster-based MAWN. The cluster-based MAWN is deployed in applications with constraints on networking resources such as bandwidth and energy. This paper presents the problem's formulation, a discussion of applicable reliability metrics for the MAWN, and illustration of a Monte Carlo simulation method through the analysis of several example networks.

  8. Random Time Identity Based Firewall In Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Patel, R. B.; Singh, Parvinder

    2010-11-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-organizing network of mobile routers and associated hosts connected by wireless links. MANETs are highly flexible and adaptable but at the same time are highly prone to security risks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, and lack of centralized control. Firewall is an effective means of protecting a local network from network-based security threats and forms a key component in MANET security architecture. This paper presents a review of firewall implementation techniques in MANETs and their relative merits and demerits. A new approach is proposed to select MANET nodes at random for firewall implementation. This approach randomly select a new node as firewall after fixed time and based on critical value of certain parameters like power backup. This approach effectively balances power and resource utilization of entire MANET because responsibility of implementing firewall is equally shared among all the nodes. At the same time it ensures improved security for MANETs from outside attacks as intruder will not be able to find out the entry point in MANET due to the random selection of nodes for firewall implementation.

  9. Similarity-Based Clustering Strategy for Mobile Ad Hoc Multimedia Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia data are becoming popular in wireless ad hoc environments. However, the traditional content-based retrieval techniques are inefficient in ad hoc networks due to the multiple limitations such as node mobility, computation capability, memory space, network bandwidth, and data heterogeneity. To provide an efficient platform for multimedia retrieval, we propose to cluster ad hoc multimedia databases based on their semantic contents, and construct a virtual hierarchical indexing infrastructure overlaid on the mobile databases. This content-aware clustering scheme uses a semantic-aware framework as the theoretical foundation for data organization. Several novel techniques are presented to facilitate the representation and manipulation of multimedia data in ad hoc networks: 1 using concise distribution expressions to represent the semantic similarity of multimedia data, 2 constructing clusters based on the semantic relationships between multimedia entities, 3 reducing the cost of content-based multimedia retrieval through the restriction of semantic distances, and 4 employing a self-adaptive mechanism that dynamically adjusts to the content and topology changes of the ad hoc networks. The proposed scheme is scalable, fault-tolerant, and efficient in performing content-based multimedia retrieval as demonstrated in our combination of theoretical analysis and extensive experimental studies.

  10. Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols using Network Simulator – 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manikandan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is a network which consists of nodes that use a wireless interface to send packet data. Since the nodes in a network of this kind can serve as routers and hosts, they can forward packets on behalf of other nodes and run user application. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is probably the most well-known example of this networking paradigm have been around for over twenty years, mainly exploited to design tactical networks. Furthermore, the multi-hop ad-hoc networking paradigm is often used for building sensor networks to study, control, monitor events and phenomena. To exploit these potentialities, modeling, simulation and theoretical analyses have to be complemented by real experiences, which provide both a direct evaluation of ad-hoc networks and at the same time precious information for a realistic modeling of these systems. Different routing protocols namely Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocol and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV protocol in MANET are compared and the performance are evaluated based on various metrics like Packet Delivery ratio, Avg. end-to-end delay, throughput, etc. For this purpose, a discrete event simulator known as NS2 is used.

  11. Hybrid Packet-Pheromone-Based Probabilistic Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkouli Nejad, Keyvan; Shawish, Ahmed; Jiang, Xiaohong; Horiguchi, Susumu

    Ad-Hoc networks are collections of mobile nodes communicating using wireless media without any fixed infrastructure. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make Ad-Hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like natural disasters or military conflicts. The current Ad-Hoc networks can only support either high mobility or high transmission rate at a time because they employ static approaches in their routing schemes. However, due to the continuous expansion of the Ad-Hoc network size, node-mobility and transmission rate, the development of new adaptive and dynamic routing schemes has become crucial. In this paper we propose a new routing scheme to support high transmission rates and high node-mobility simultaneously in a big Ad-Hoc network, by combining a new proposed packet-pheromone-based approach with the Hint Based Probabilistic Protocol (HBPP) for congestion avoidance with dynamic path selection in packet forwarding process. Because of using the available feedback information, the proposed algorithm does not introduce any additional overhead. The extensive simulation-based analysis conducted in this paper indicates that the proposed algorithm offers small packet-latency and achieves a significantly higher delivery probability in comparison with the available Hint-Based Probabilistic Protocol (HBPP).

  12. Review of Artificial Immune System to Enhance Security in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Dalal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Networks consist of wireless host that communicate with each other. The routes in a Mobile Ad-hoc Network may consist of many hops through other hosts between source and destination. The hosts are not fixed in a Mobile Adhoc Network; due to host mobility topology can change any time. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are much more vulnerable to security attacks. Current research works on securing Mobile Adhoc Networks mainly focus on confidentiality, integrity,authentication, availability, and fairness. Design of routingprotocols is very much crucial in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. There are various techniques for securing Mobile Ad-hoc Network i.e. cryptography. Cryptography provides efficient mechanism to provide security, but it creates very much overhead. So, an approach is used which is analogous to Biological Immune System, known as Artificial Immune System (AIS. There is a reason of AIS to be used for security purposes because the Human Immune System (HIS protects the body against damage from an extremely large number of harmfulbacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, termed pathogens. It doesthis largely without prior knowledge of the structure of thesepathogens. AIS provide security by determining non-trusted nodes and eliminate all non-trusted nodes from the network.

  13. Contributions à la détection des comportements malhonnêtes dans les réseaux ad hoc AODV par analyse de la confiance implicite

    OpenAIRE

    Ayachi, Mohamed Ali

    2011-01-01

    An ad hoc network is a collection of mobile devices that communicate in a self organized way using wireless network interfaces without neither centralized administration nor fixed infrastructure. In such a network, nodes must cooperate with each other so as to extend their transmission range to reach distant nodes. This cooperation requires a specific ad hoc routing protocol to establish and maintain routes between nodes. Ad hoc routing protocols are based on mutual trust between collaboratin...

  14. Multi-Hop Bandwidth Management Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pattanayak, Binod Kumar; Jagadev, Alok Kumar; Nayak, Manojranjan

    2010-01-01

    An admission control scheme should play the role of a coordinator for flows in a data communication network, to provide the guarantees as the medium is shared. The nodes of a wired network can monitor the medium to know the available bandwidth at any point of time. But, in wireless ad hoc networks, a node must consume the bandwidth of neighboring nodes, during a communication. Hence, the consumption of bandwidth by a flow and the availability of resources to any wireless node strictly depend upon the neighboring nodes within its transmission range. We present a scalable and efficient admission control scheme, Multi-hop Bandwidth Management Protocol (MBMP), to support the QoS requirements in multi-hop ad hoc networks. We simulate several options to design MBMP and compare the performances of these options through mathematical analysis and simulation results, and compare its effectiveness with the existing admission control schemes through extensive simulations. KEYWORDS

  15. Impact of Rushing attack on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Palanisamy, V

    2009-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs) is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicate with each other via wireless links with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration such as base station or access points. Nodes in a MANETs operate both as host as well as routers to forward packets for each other in a multihop fashion. For many applications in wireless networks, multicasting is an important and frequent communication service. By multicasting, since a single message can be delivered to multiple receivers simultaneously. It greatly reduces the transmission cost when sending the same packet to multiple recipients. The security issue of MANETs in group communications is even more challenging because of involvement of multiple senders and multiple receivers. At that time of multicasting, mobile ad hoc network are unprotected by the attacks of malicious nodes because of vulnerabilities of routing protocols. Some of the attacks are Rushing attack, Blackhole attack, Sybil attack, Neighbor attack ...

  16. An Optimal CDS Construction Algorithm with Activity Scheduling in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penumalli, Chakradhar; Palanichamy, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    A new energy efficient optimal Connected Dominating Set (CDS) algorithm with activity scheduling for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is proposed. This algorithm achieves energy efficiency by minimizing the Broadcast Storm Problem [BSP] and at the same time considering the node's remaining energy. The Connected Dominating Set is widely used as a virtual backbone or spine in mobile ad hoc networks [MANETs] or Wireless Sensor Networks [WSN]. The CDS of a graph representing a network has a significant impact on an efficient design of routing protocol in wireless networks. Here the CDS is a distributed algorithm with activity scheduling based on unit disk graph [UDG]. The node's mobility and residual energy (RE) are considered as parameters in the construction of stable optimal energy efficient CDS. The performance is evaluated at various node densities, various transmission ranges, and mobility rates. The theoretical analysis and simulation results of this algorithm are also presented which yield better results. PMID:26221627

  17. Enhancement in Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cui-rong; YANG Xiao-zong; GAO Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Ad-hoc networking has mainly been associated with military battlefield networks. Security has received considerably less attention and the issue needs to be addressed before any successful applications will appear. Due to the insecure nature of the wireless link and their dynamically changing topology, wireless ad-hoc networks require a careful and security-oriented approach for designing routing protocols.In this paper, an AODV-based secure routing protocolENAODV is presented. A speed-optimized digital signature algorithm is integrated into the routing protocol. The protocol algorithm is implemented with NS-2. The security of the protocol is analyzed. The simulating results show that the performances of ENAODV protocol, such as average node energy consumption, packet delay and packet delivery is nearly the same as standard AODV protocol.

  18. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WORMHOLE SECURITY APPROACHES FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Hababeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks are talented but are exposed to the risk of wormhole attacks. However, a wormhole attack can be mounted easily and forms stern menaces in networks, particularly against various ad-hoc wireless networks. The Wormhole attack distorts the network topology and decrease the network systems performance. Therefore, identifying the possibility of wormhole attacks and recognizing techniques to defend them are central to the security of wireless networks as a whole. In this study, we will summarize state of the art wormhole defense approaches, categories most of the existing typical approaches and discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. We will also point out some unfulfilled areas in the wormhole problem and provide some directions for future exploring.

  19. SWIPT in 3-D Bipolar Ad Hoc Networks with Sectorized Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Krikidis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we study the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) concept in 3-D bipolar ad hoc networks with spatial randomness. Due to three spatial dimensions of the network, we introduce a 3-D antenna sectorization that exploits the horizontal and the vertical spatial separation. The impact of 3-D antenna sectorization on SWIPT performance is evaluated for the power-splitting technique by using stochastic geometry tools. Theoretical and numerical results show that ...

  20. A REVIEW ON ADVANCED TRAFFIC CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a dynamicdistributed system of wireless nodes that moveindependently of each other. The operating transmissionrange of the nodes is limited and as a result, MANETroutes are often multi-hop in nature. Any node in aMANET can become a source or destination, and eachnode can function as a router, forwarding data for its peers.MANET routing protocols are either proactive or reactivein nature. Proactive routing protocols determine andmaintain routes between any pa...

  1. Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jungeblut

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a real-time Multiprocessor System-On-Chip (MPSoC for low power wireless applications. The multiprocessor is based on eight 32bit RISC processors that are connected via an Network-On-Chip (NoC. The NoC follows a novel approach with guaranteed bandwidth to the application that meets hard realtime requirements. At a clock frequency of 100 MHz the total power consumption of the MPSoC that has been fabricated in 180 nm UMC standard cell technology is 772 mW.

  2. LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Murugan Tamilarasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network is one of the wireless network in which mobile nodes are communicate with each other and have no infrastructure because no access point. The MANET protocols can be classified as proactive and reactive routing protocol. The proactive routing protocols, all nodes which participated in network have routing table. This table updated periodically and is used to find the path between source and destination. The reactive routing protocol, nodes are initiate route discovery procedure when on-demand routes. In order to find the better route in MANET, many routing protocols are designed in the recent years. But those protocols are not concentrating about communication links and battery energy. Communication links between nodes and energy of nodes are very important factor for improving quality of routing protocols. This study presents innovative Link Stability with Energy Aware (LSEA multipath routing protocol. The key idea of the protocol is find the link quality, maximum remaining energy and lower delay. Reflections of these factors are increasing the qualities like packet delivery ratio, throughputs and reduce end-to-end delay. The LSEAMRP was simulated on NS-2 and evaluation results also shown.

  3. An Effective Approach for Mobile ad hoc Network via I-Watchdog Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Lal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is now days become very famous due to their fixed infrastructure-less quality and dynamic nature. They contain a large number of nodes which are connected and communicated to each other in wireless nature. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless technology that contains high mobility of nodes and does not depend on the background administrator for central authority, because they do not contain any infrastructure. Nodes of the MANET use radio wave for communication and having limited resources and limited computational power. The Topology of this network is changing very frequently because they are distributed in nature and self-configurable. Due to its wireless nature and lack of any central authority in the background, Mobile ad hoc networks are always vulnerable to some security issues and performance issues. The security imposes a huge impact on the performance of any network. Some of the security issues are black hole attack, flooding, wormhole attack etc. In this paper, we will discuss issues regarding low performance of Watchdog protocol used in the MANET and proposed an improved Watchdog mechanism, which is called by I-Watchdog protocol that overcomes the limitations of Watchdog protocol and gives high performance in terms of throughput, delay.

  4. An Agent Based Intrusion Detection Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Reshmi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection has over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in case of wireless mobile ad hoc networks. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless mobile ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks in-spite of some security measures, and it may be too late before any counter action can take effect. As such, there is a need to complement traditional security mechanisms with efficient intrusion detection and response systems. This paper proposes an agent-based model to address the aspect of intrusion detection in cluster based mobile wireless ad hoc network environment. The model comprises of a set of static and mobile agents, which are used to detect intrusions, respond to intrusions, and distribute selected and aggregated intrusion information to all other nodes in the network in an intelligent manner. The model is simulated to test its operation effectiveness by considering the performance parameters such as, detection rate, false positives, agent overheads, and intrusion information distribution time. Agent based approach facilitates flexible and adaptable security services. Also, it supports component based software engineering components such as maintainability, reachability, reusability, adaptability, flexibility, and customization.

  5. A Framework for Speech Enhancement with Ad Hoc Microphone Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavakoli, Vincent Mohammad; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll;

    2016-01-01

    distortion ratio, the PESQ measure, and the STOI intelligibility measure. Major findings in this work are the observed changes in the superiority of different methods for certain conditions. When perceptual quality or intelligibility of the speech are the ultimate goals, there are turning points where......Speech enhancement is vital for improved listening practices. Ad hoc microphone arrays are promising assets for this purpose. Most well-established enhancement techniques with conventional arrays can be adapted into ad hoc scenarios. Despite recent efforts to introduce various ad hoc speech...... enhancement apparatus, a common framework for integration of conventional methods into this new scheme is still missing. This paper establishes such an abstraction based on inter and intra sub-array speech coherencies. Along with measures for signal quality at the input of sub-arrays, a measure of coherency...

  6. Distributed geolocation algorithm in mobile ad hoc networks using received signal strength differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanzeng; Tang, Helen

    2012-05-01

    Future military wireless communication in a battlefield will be mobile ad hoc in nature. The ability to geolocate and track both friendly forces and enemies is very important in military command and control operations. However, current mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) have no capabilities to geolocate radio emitters that belong to enemy mobile ad hoc networks. This paper presents a distributed geolocation algorithm using received signal strength differences to geolocate enemy radio emitters by leveraging friendly force MANET infrastructure, and proposes a communication protocol for radio emitter geolocation applications. An enemy's radio emitter signal is detected, and its signal strength is measured by the nodes in a friendly mobile ad hoc network. The identity of the enemy radio emitter is extracted from the decoded message header of the medium access control layer. By correlating and associating the enemy's radio emitter identity with its received signal strength, the enemy radio emitter is identified. The enemy's radio emitter identity and its received signal strength are distributed and shared among friendly mobile ad hoc nodes. Using received signal strength differences, a master friendly node can calculate the enemy's radio emitter geolocation, and build a recognized MANET picture (RMP). This MANET picture is then distributed to all friendly nodes for effective command and control operations. An advantage of this method is that mobile ad hoc nodes do not need special RF antennas to geolocate the enemy radio emitter as conventional electronic warfare techniques do. MATLAB-based simulations are presented to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed distributed geolocation algorithm under different MANET placements.

  7. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

  8. Survey on Security Issues in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Mokhtar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks are special case of ad hoc networks that, besides lacking infrastructure, communicating entities move with various accelerations. Accordingly, this impedes establishing reliable end-to-end communication paths and having efficient data transfer. Thus, VANETs have different network concerns and security challenges to get the availability of ubiquitous connectivity, secure communications, and reputation management systems which affect the trust in cooperation and negotiation between mobile networking entities. In this survey, we discuss the security features, challenges, and attacks of VANETs, and we classify the security attacks of VANETs due to the different network layers.

  9. Dynamic Encryption Technology in Ad-hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhao-hui; WANG Shun-man; XU Kai; LIANG Qing

    2007-01-01

    A new dynamic encryption application in ad-hoc networks is proposed. The advantages of this method are its being able to use the previous ciphertext as a seed of a new encryption process, rendering the encryption process effective in all communication process by continuous dynamic key generation together with synchronization, and its capability to cut back on system bandages to a greater extent, which is valuable for the ad-hoc circumstance. In addition, the rationality and effectiveness of this novel encryption method have been verified by the test results.

  10. Internet Connectivity using Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim Ali; Aamir Saeed; Syed Rohullah Jan; Asadullah; Ahsan Khawaja

    2012-01-01

    Although a mobile Ad-Hoc network (MANET) can be used in many cases but the most preferable is a MANET connected to the internet. This is achieved by using gateways which act as bridges between a MANET and the internet. To communicate in-between, a mobile node needs to find a valid route to the gateway which requires gateway discovery mechanism. In this paper Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is altered to achieve the interconnection between a MANET and the Internet. Furthermore, the pap...

  11. A Survey of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRADIP M. JAWANDHIYA,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc network (MANETs. Compared to wired networks, MANETs are more vulnerable to security attacks due to the lack of a trusted centralized authority and limited resources. Attacks on ad hoc networks can be classified as passive and active attacks, depending on whether the normal operation of the network is disrupted or not. In this paper, we are describing the all prominent attacks described in literature in a consistent manner to provide a concise comparison on attack types. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that studies all the existing attacks on MANETs.

  12. A New Proposal for Route Finding in Mobile AdHoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Vignesh Ramamoorthy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts connected by wireless links – the union of which forms an arbitrary topology. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily, thus the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet. There are various routing protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR, AODV and DSDV. This paper examines two routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks– the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV and the Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV. Generally, the routing algorithms can be classified into Reactive and Proactive. A Hybrid algorithm combines the basic properties of reactive and proactive into one. The proposed approach is a novel routing pattern based on Ant Colony Optimization and Multi Agent System. This pattern integrates two different algorithms together and helps to get optimum routes for a particular radio range. The approaches used here are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Multi Agent System (MAS. The proposed integrated approach has a relatively short route establishment time while using a small number of control messages which makes it a scalable routing approach. The overhead of this routing approach will be inexpensive and also will enable to have an alternate route during route failure. This proposed route finding scheme in order to provide high connectivity of nodes, will minimize the route discovery latency and the end-to-end delay.

  13. Study on the Current Situation and Evolvement on Ad Hoc Network%Ad Hoc网络的研究现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 蔡振

    2012-01-01

    Ad Hoc networks as a way to temporarily speed automatic network of mobile communication technologyhas been moreattention to the experts, the current wireless Ad Hoc network is a focus of study. This article describes the characteristics of Ad Hoc Networks and applications, and the research situation.%Ad Hoc网络做为一种能够临时快速自动组网的移动通信技术越来越得到专家们的重视,目前Ad Hoc网络也是无线网络研究中的一个重点和热点。介绍了Ad Hoc网络的特点和应用以及Ad Hoc网络的研究状况。

  14. Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Rakesh Kumar,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available hoc networks are self configuring network and by a random and quickly changing network topology; thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol can accommodate such an environment. Different protocols govern the mobile ad hoc networks and to improve the packet delivery ratio of Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks with high mobility, a message exchange scheme for its invalid route reconstruction is being used. Three protocols AODV, DSDV and I-DSDV were simulated using NS-2 package and were compared in terms of packet delivery ratio, end to end delay routing overhead in different environment; varying number of nodes, speed and pause time. Simulation results show that IDSDVcompared with DSDV, it reduces the number of dropped data packets with little increased overhead at higher rates of node mobility but still compete with AODV in higher node speed and number of node.

  15. A Novel Architecture for Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Patel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s wireless networks are vulnerable in many ways including illegal use, unauthorized access, denial of service attacks, eavesdropping so called war chalking. These problems are one of the main issues for wider uses of wireless network. On wired network intruder can access by wire but in wireless it has possibilities to access the computer anywhere in neighborhood. However, securing MANETs is highly challenging issue due to their inherent characteristics. Intrusion detection is an important security mechanism, but little effort has been directed towards efficient and effective architectures for Intrusion Detection System in the context of MANETs. We investigate existing Intrusion Detection Architecture design Issues, challenges and proposed a novel architecture based on a conceptual model for an IDS agent that lead to a secure collaboration environment integrating mobile ad hoc network and the wired backbone. In wireless/mobile ad hoc network, the limited power, weak computation capabilities of mobile nodes, and restricted bandwidth of the open media impede the establishment of a secure collaborative environment.

  16. Reliable and Efficient Broadcasting in Asymmetric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Minimized Forward Node List Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Murugesan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Network wide broadcasting is a fundamental operation in ad hoc networks. In broadcasting, a source node sends a message to all the other nodes in the network. Unlike in a wired network, a packet transmitted by a node in ad hoc wireless network can reach all neighbors. Therefore, the total number of transmissions (Forwarding nodes used as the cost criterion for broadcasting. Approach: This study proposes a reliable and efficient broadcasting algorithm using minimized forward node list algorithm which uses 2-hop neighborhood information more effectively to reduce redundant transmissions in asymmetric Mobile Ad hoc networks that guarantees full delivery. Among the 1-hop neighbors of the sender, only selected forwarding nodes retransmit the broadcast message. Forwarding nodes are selected such a way that to cover the uncovered 2-hop neighbors. Results: Simulation results show that the proposed broadcasting algorithm provides high delivery ratio, low broadcast forward ratio, low overhead and minimized delay. Conclusion: In this study, reliable and efficient broadcasting algorithm in asymmetric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using minimized forward node list algorithm has been proposed which provides low forward ratio, high delivery ratio while suppressing broadcast redundancy.

  17. Trust-based hexagonal clustering for efficient certificate management scheme in mobile ad hoc networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S JANANI; M S K MANIKANDAN

    2016-10-01

    The wireless and dynamic nature of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) render them more vulnerable to security attacks. However, providing a security mechanism implicitly has been a major challenge in such an ad-hoc environment. Certificate management plays an important role in securing an ad-hoc network.Certificate assignment, verification, and revocation complexity associated with the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) framework is significantly large. Smaller the size of the network lesser will be the certificate management complexity. However, smaller the size, large will be the overall infrastructural cost, and also larger will be the overall redundant certificates due to multiple certificate assignment at the boundary regions, that in turn affects the prompt and accurate certificate revocation. By taking these conflicting requirements into consideration, we propose the trust-based hexagonal clustering for an efficient certificate management (THCM) scheme, to bear an absolutely protected MANET Disparate to the existing clustering techniques, we present a hexagonal geographicclustering model with Voronoi technique where trust is accomplished. In particular, to compete against attackers, we initiate a certificate management strategy in which certificate assignment, verification, and revocation are carried out efficiently. The performance of THCM is evaluated by both simulation and empirical analysis in terms of effectiveness of revocation scheme (with respect to revocation rate and time), security, and communication cost. Besides, we conduct a mathematical analysis of measuring the parameters obtained from the two platforms in multiple times. Relevant results demonstrate that our design is efficient to guarantee a secured mobile ad hoc network.

  18. Inter-Cluster Routing Authentication for Ad Hoc Networks by a Hierarchical Key Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueh-Min Huang; Hua-Yi Lin; Tzone-I Wang

    2006-01-01

    Dissimilar to traditional networks, the features of mobile wireless devices that can actively form a network without any infrastructure mean that mobile ad hoc networks frequently display partition due to node mobility or link failures. These indicate that an ad hoc network is difficult to provide on-line access to a trusted authority server. Therefore,applying traditional Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) security framework to mobile ad hoc networks will cause insecurities.This study proposes a scalable and elastic key management scheme integrated into Cluster Based Secure Routing Protocol (CBSRP) to enhance security and non-repudiation of routing authentication, and introduces an ID-Based internal routing authentication scheme to enhance the routing performance in an internal cluster. Additionally, a method of performing routing authentication between internal and external clusters, as well as inter-cluster routing authentication, is developed.The proposed cluster-based key management scheme distributes trust to an aggregation of cluster heads using a threshold scheme faculty, provides Certificate Authority (CA) with a fault tolerance mechanism to prevent a single point of compromise or failure, and saves CA large repositories from maintaining member certificates, making ad hoc networks robust to malicious behaviors and suitable for numerous mobile devices.

  19. Study of the IDS in wireless Ad Hoc networks based on mobile agents%基于移动代理的无线Ad Hoc网络IDS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张念丽

    2006-01-01

    介绍了无线Ad Hoc网络的特点和面临的安全问题,分析了移动代理在Ad Hoc网络入侵检测系统中的适用性,给出了一种基于移动代理的无线Ad Hoc网络入侵检测系统模型.

  20. Providing Location Security in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gongjun

    2010-01-01

    Location is fundamental information in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). Almost all VANET applications rely on location information. Therefore it is of importance to ensure location information integrity, meaning that location information is original (from the generator), correct (not bogus or fabricated) and unmodified (value not changed). We…

  1. Authentication Based on Multilayer Clustering in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Heyi-Sook

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a secure cluster-routing protocol based on a multilayer scheme in ad hoc networks. This work provides scalable, threshold authentication scheme in ad hoc networks. We present detailed security threats against ad hoc routing protocols, specifically examining cluster-based routing. Our proposed protocol, called "authentication based on multilayer clustering for ad hoc networks" (AMCAN, designs an end-to-end authentication protocol that relies on mutual trust between nodes in other clusters. The AMCAN strategy takes advantage of a multilayer architecture that is designed for an authentication protocol in a cluster head (CH using a new concept of control cluster head (CCH scheme. We propose an authentication protocol that uses certificates containing an asymmetric key and a multilayer architecture so that the CCH is achieved using the threshold scheme, thereby reducing the computational overhead and successfully defeating all identified attacks. We also use a more extensive area, such as a CCH, using an identification protocol to build a highly secure, highly available authentication service, which forms the core of our security framework.

  2. Performance modeling of data dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaqfeh, Moumena; Lakas, Abderrahmane; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) have become a cornerstone component of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). VANET applications present a huge potential for improving road safety and travel comfort, hence the growing interest of both academia and industry. The main advantage of VANETs is its...

  3. Security Challenges and Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH.V. Raghavendran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile nodes that form a temporary network without of any existing network infrastructure or central access point. The popularity of these networks created security challenges as an important issue. The traditional routing protocols perform well with dynamically changing topology but are not designed to defense against security challenges. In this paper we discuss about current challenges in an ad hoc environment which includes the different types of potential attacks that are possible in the Mobile Ad hoc Networks that can harm its working and operation. We have done literature study and gathered information relating to various types of attacks. In our study, we have found that there is no general algorithm that suits well against the most commonly known attacks. But the complete security solution requires the prevention, detection and reaction mechanisms applied in MANET. To develop suitable security solutions for such environments, we must first understand how MANETs can be attacked. This paper provides a comprehensive study of attacks against mobile ad hoc networks. We present a detailed classification of the attacks against MANETs.

  4. VMQL: A Visual Language for Ad-Hoc Model Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    In large scale model based development, analysis level models are more like knowledge bases than engineering artifacts. Their effectiveness depends, to a large degree, on the ability of domain experts to retrieve information from them ad hoc. For large scale models, however, existing query facili...

  5. Dynamic Mobile IP routers in ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways

  6. Evaluating Self-Addressing Protocols for Ad-Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Ricardo de O.; Pras, Aiko; Gomes, Reinaldo

    2011-01-01

    Ad-hoc networks are supposed to operate autonomously and, therefore, self-* technologies are fundamental to their deployment. Many of these so- lutions have been proposed during the last few years, covering several layers and functionalities of network- ing systems. Addressing can be considered as o

  7. TMAP ad hoc Working Group Fish Progress report 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, L.J.; Damm, U.; Diederichs, B.; Jager, Z.; Overzee, van H.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Building on previous work done by the TMAP ad hoc Working Group Fish, a meeting and a workshop were held in Hamburg in June and October 2007. The most important aim of both was to come to an agreement on how to proceed with the data preparations and analyses, and to facilitate the exchange of data a

  8. Neighbor-Aware Control in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Neighbor-Aware Contention Resolution Channel access problem in ad hoc networks is a special dynamic leader - election prob- lem in which multiple leaders are...message coordinations. However, the network throughput may drastically degrade when the leader election becomes increasingly competitive due to the

  9. A new Hierarchical Group Key Management based on Clustering Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman EL-SAYED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The migration from wired network to wireless network has been a global trend in the past few decades because they provide anytime-anywhere networking services. The wireless networks are rapidly deployed in the future, secure wireless environment will be mandatory. As well, The mobility and scalability brought by wireless network made it possible in many applications. Among all the contemporary wireless networks,Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET is one of the most important and unique applications. MANET is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multihop radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. Due to the nature of unreliable wireless medium data transfer is a major problem in MANET and it lacks security and reliability of data. The most suitable solution to provide the expected level of security to these services is the provision of a key management protocol. A Key management is vital part of security. This issue is even bigger in wireless network compared to wired network. The distribution of keys in an authenticated manner is a difficult task in MANET. When a member leaves or joins the group, it needs to generate a new key to maintain forward and backward secrecy. In this paper, we propose a new group key management schemes namely a Hierarchical, Simple, Efficient and Scalable Group Key (HSESGK based on clustering management scheme for MANETs and different other schemes are classified. Group members deduce the group key in a distributed manner.

  10. Guard against cooperative black hole attack in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Pratap Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous network that consists of nodes which communicate with each other with wireless channel. Due to its dynamic nature and mobility of nodes, mobile ad hoc networks are more vulnerable to security attack than conventional wired and wireless networks. One of the principal routing protocols AODV used in MANETs. The security of AODV protocol is influence by the particular type of attack called Black Hole attack. In a black hole attack, a malicious node injects a faked route reply claiming to havethe shortest and freshest route to the destination. However, when the data packets arrive, the malicious node discards them. To preventing black hole attack, this paper presents RBS (Reference Broadcast Synchronization & Relative velocity distance method for clock synchronization process in Mobile ad-hoc Network for removal of cooperative black hole node. This paper evaluates the performance in NS2 network simulator and our analysis indicates that this method is very suitable to remove black hole attack.

  11. Power-Controlled MAC Protocols with Dynamic Neighbor Prediction for Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; ZHANG Lin; XIAO Yong-kang; SHAN Xiu-ming

    2004-01-01

    Energy and bandwidth are the scarce resources in ad hoc networks because most of the mobile nodes are battery-supplied and share the exclusive wireless medium. Integrating the power control into MAC protocol is a promising technique to fully exploit these precious resources of ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper, a new intelligent power-controlled Medium Access Control (MAC) (iMAC) protocol with dynamic neighbor prediction is proposed. Through the elaborate design of the distributed transmit-receive strategy of mobile nodes, iMAC greatly outperforms the prevailing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in not only energy conservation but also network throughput. Using the Dynamic Neighbor Prediction (DNP), iMAC performs well in mobile scenes. To the best of our knowledge, iMAC is the first protocol that considers the performance deterioration of power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile scenes and then proposes a solution. Simulation results indicate that DNP is important and necessary for power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

  12. Comparison of Analytical and Measured Performance Results on Network Coding in IEEE 802.11 Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Fang; Médard, Muriel; Hundebøll, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Network coding is a promising technology that has been shown to improve throughput in wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we compare the analytical and experimental performance of COPE-style network coding in IEEE 802.11 ad-hoc networks. In the experiments, we use a lightweight scheme called...

  13. O-DSR: OPTIMIZED DSR ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rjab Hajlaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile users that communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. When designing mobile ad hoc networks, several interesting and difficult problems arise because of the shared nature of the wireless medium, limited transmission power (range of wireless devices, node mobility, and battery limitations. This paper aims at providing a new schema to improve Dynamic Source Routing (DSR Protocol. The aim behind the proposed enhancement is to find the best route in acceptable time limit without having broadcast storm. Moreover, O-DSR enables network not only to overcome congestion but also maximize the lifetime of mobile nodes. Some simulations results show that the Route Request (RREQ and the Control Packet Overhead decrease by 15% when O-DSR is used, consequently. Also the global energy consumption in O-DSR is lower until to 60 % , which leads to a long lifetime of the network.

  14. On Protocols to Prevent Black Hole Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless or Mobile Networks emerged to replace the wired networks. The new generation of wireless network is relatively different than the comparisons of traditional wired network in many aspects like resource sharing, power usage, reliability, efficient, ease to handle, network infrastructure and routing protocols, etc. Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs are autonomous and decentralized wireless systems. MANETs consist of mobile nodes that are free in moving in and out in the network. There is an increasing threat of attacks on the MANET. Thus, in MANET black hole attack are mostly serious security attacks. In this paper, we have examined certain black hole attacks prevention routing protocols. Finally, we have compared some routing protocols using some important parameters and then addressed major issues related to this.

  15. Secure neighborhood discovery: A fundamental element for mobile ad hoc networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadimitratos, P.; Poturalski, M.; Schaller, P.

    2008-01-01

    ) - the discovery of devices directly reachable for communication or in physical proximity - becomes a fundamental requirement and building block for various applications. However, the very nature of wireless mobile networks makes it easy to abuse ND and thereby compromise the overlying protocols and applications......Pervasive computing systems will likely be deployed in the near future, with the proliferation of wireless devices and the emergence of ad hoc networking as key enablers. Coping with mobility and the volatility of wireless communications in such systems is critical. Neighborhood discovery (ND....... Thus, providing methods to mitigate this vulnerability and secure ND is crucial. In this article we focus on this problem and provide definitions of neighborhood types and ND protocol properties, as well as a broad classification of attacks. Our ND literature survey reveals that securing ND is indeed...

  16. ADHOCFTSIM: A Simulator of Fault Tolerence In the AD-HOC Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Insaf Djebbar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility and diversity of Wireless Mobile Networks offer many opportunities that are not alwaystaken into account by existing distributed systems. In particular, the proliferation of mobile users and theuse of mobile Ad-Hoc promote the formation of collaborative groups to share resources. We propose asolution for the management of fault tolerance in the Ad-Hoc networks, combining the functions neededto better availability of data. Our contribution takes into account the characteristics of mobile terminalsin order to reduce the consumption of resources critical that energy, and to minimize the loss ofinformation. Our solution is based on the formation of clusters, where each is managed by a node leader.This solution is mainly composed of four sub-services, namely: prediction, replication, management ofnodes in the cluster and supervision. We have shown, using several sets of simulation, that our solution istwofold: minimizing the energy consumption which increases the life of the network and better supportdeal with requests lost.

  17. Enhancing On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocols using Mobility Prediction in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Makhlouf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-organizing wireless communication network in which mobile devices are based on no infrastructure like base stations or access points. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like disaster recovery or military conflict. Since node mobility may cause links to be broken frequently, a very important issue for routing in MANETs is how to set reliable paths which can last as long as possible. To solve this problem, non-random behaviors for the mobility patterns that mobile users exhibit are exploited. This paper introduces a scheme to improve On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP performances by using mobility prediction. 

  18. LAR VS DSR: EVALUATION OF AD HOC NETWORK PROTOCOLS IN PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT OF COMMUNICATION OF ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANIEH MOVAHEDI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling and managing of robots and their information communication to each other is an important issue, and wireless technologies without infrastructure like Ad hoc networks due to their quick trigger and cost slightness can play efficiently. Various protocols have been used in this field and in the recent study, two famous Ad hoc network protocols have been simulated for 4 km2 work areas with changes of the same elements in types of robots like speed, pause time, number of nodes, important parameters that show network optimization rate and include PDR, Throughput, End-To-End Delay by using simulation in GloMoSim software. In this research, for suitable protocols in every time, output has been calculated by making the same chance and then, obtained information was investigated statistically. In total, LAR protocol was recognized that had higher scores than DSR and could be used as an optimum protocol in robotic industries, technically.

  19. Implement DUMBO as a Network Based on Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are a large variety of wireless access networks. One of these networksis Digital Ubiquitous Mobile Broadband OLSR (DUMBO which has been stronglymotivated by the fact that large scale natural disasters can wipe out terrestrialcommunication infrastructure. DUMBO routers can automatically form one or more selfconfiguring,self-healing networks called Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. VehicleAd hoc Network (VANETs is an advanced version of MANETs. VANETs is offered tobe used by network service providers for managing connection to get a high performanceat real time, high bandwidth and high availability in networks such as WLAN, UMTS,Wi-MAX and etc. In this paper surveying DUMBONET Routers with relevant algorithm,approaches and solutions from the literature, will be consider.

  20. Improved Packet Forwarding Approach in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using RDGR Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Prasanth, K; Jayasudha, K; Chandrasekar, Dr C; 10.5121/ijngn.2010.2106

    2010-01-01

    VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Position based routing protocols are becoming popular due to advancement and availability of GPS devices. One of the critical issues of VANETs are frequent path disruptions caused by high speed mobility of vehicle that leads to broken links which results in low throughput and high overhead . This paper argues the use of information on vehicles' movement information (e.g., position, direction, speed of vehicles) to predict a possible link-breakage event prior to its occurrence. So in this paper we propose a Reliable Directional Greedy routing (RDGR), a reliable position based routing approach which obtains position, speed and direction of its neighboring nodes from GPS. This approach incorporates potential score based strategy...

  1. Simulation of Efficiency in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using OMNeT++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Manchikalapudi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A network is a group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks which are categorized based on topology, protocol and architecture. A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-configuring infrastructure less network of mobile devices connected by wireless. Ad hoc networks maintain an unfair behavior in flow control especially when considered in the case of IEEE 802.11 Mac layer. Introducing efficiency in 802.11 is not an easy task. It reduces the overall global throughput. The network is to be designed in such a way that it deals with the fairness and throughput by maximizing aggregate throughput. Such kind of network design can be efficiently implemented on an evolving simulation tool named OMNet++.

  2. Enabling Adaptive Rate and Relay Selection for 802.11 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Neil; Wang, Wenye

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring wireless networks that lack permanent infrastructure and are formed among mobile nodes on demand. Rapid node mobility results in dramatic channel variation, or fading, that degrades MANET performance. Employing channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter can improve the throughput of routing and medium access control (MAC) protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Several routing algorithms in the literature explicitly incorporate the fading signal strength into the routing metric, thus selecting the routes with strong channel conditions. While these studies show that adaptation to the time-variant channel gain is beneficial in MANETs, they do not address the effect of the outdated fading CSI at the transmitter. For realistic mobile node speeds, the channel gain is rapidly varying, and becomes quickly outdated due the feedback delay. We analyze the link throughput of joint rate adaptation and adaptive relay selection in the presence of imperfect CSI. Mor...

  3. Cross-Layer Design Approach for Power Control in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarfaraz Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, communication among mobile nodes occurs through wireless medium The design of ad hoc network protocol, generally based on a traditional “layered approach”, has been found ineffective to deal with receiving signal strength (RSS-related problems, affecting the physical layer, the network layer and transport layer. This paper proposes a design approach, deviating from the traditional network design, toward enhancing the cross-layer interaction among different layers, namely physical, MAC and network. The Cross-Layer design approach for Power control (CLPC would help to enhance the transmission power by averaging the RSS values and to find an effective route between the source and the destination. This cross-layer design approach was tested by simulation (NS2 simulator and its performance over AODV was found to be better.

  4. An optimized node-disjoint multipath routing scheme in mobile ad hoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liang, Mangui; Liu, Zhiyu

    2016-02-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), link failures are caused frequently because of node’s mobility and use of unreliable wireless channels for data transmission. Multipath routing strategy can cope with the problem of the traffic overloads while balancing the network resource consumption. In the paper, an optimized node-disjoint multipath routing (ONMR) protocol based on ad hoc on-demand vector (AODV) is proposed to establish effective multipath to enhance the network reliability and robustness. The scheme combines the characteristics of reverse AODV (R-AODV) strategy and on-demand node-disjoint multipath routing protocol to determine available node-disjoint routes with minimum routing control overhead. Meanwhile, it adds the backup routing strategy to make the process of data salvation more efficient in case of link failure. The results obtained through various simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of route availability, control overhead and packet delivery ratio.

  5. Neighbor Attack And Detection Mechanism In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parthiban

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs, security is one of the most important concerns because a MANETs system is much more vulnerable to attacks than a wired or infrastructure-based wireless network. Designing an effective security protocol for MANET is a very challenging task. This is mainlydue to the unique characteristics of MANETs, namely shared broadcast radio channel, insecure operatingenvironment, lack of central authority, lack of association among users, limited availability of resources, and physical vulnerability. In this paper we present simulation based study of the impact of neighbor attack on mesh-based Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET. And also we study the number of attackers and position affects the performance metrics such as packet delivery ratio and throughput. The study enables us to propose a secure neighbor detection mechanism (SNDM. A generic detection mechanism against neighbor attack for On Demand Routing Protocols is simulated on GlomoSim environment.

  6. Authentication Using Trust to Detect Misbehaving Nodes in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Q-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sivagurunathan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in Mobile Ad Hoc Network is crucial problem due to its open shared wireless medium, multi-hop and dynamic nature, constrained resources, lack of administration and cooperation. Traditionally routing protocols are designed to cope with routing operation but in practice they may be affected by misbehaving nodes so that they try to disturb the normal routing operations by launching different attacks with the intention to minimize or collapse the overall network performance. Therefore detecting a trusted node means ensuring authentication and securing routing can be expected. In this article we have proposed a Trust and Q-learning based Security (TQS model to detect the misbehaving nodes over Ad Hoc On Demand Distance-Vector (AODV routing protocol. Here we avoid the misbehaving nodes by calculating an aggregated reward, based on the Q-learning mechanism by using their historical forwarding and responding behaviour by the way misbehaving nodes can be isolated.

  7. A Survey on Intrusion in Ad Hoc Networks and its Detection Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Preetee K. Karmore,

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc wireless networks are defined as the category of wireless networks that utilizes multi-hop radio relaying and are capable of operating without the support of any fixed infrastructure hence, they are called infrastructure less networks. The lack of any central coordination makes them more vulnerable to attacks than wirednetworks. Due to some unique characteristics of MANETs, prevention methods alone are not sufficient to make them secure therefore, detection should be added as another defense before an attacker can breach the system. Network intrusion detection is the process of monitoring the events occurring in the network and analyzing them for signs of intrusions, defined as attempts to compromise the confidentiality. In this paper, we define and discuss varioustechniques of Intrusion Detection. We also present a description of routing protocols and types of security attacks possible in the network.

  8. Comparative Analysis of AODV, OLSR, TORA, DSR and DSDV Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilpreet Kaur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs are autonomous and decentralized wireless systems. Mobile Ad hoc Network is a collection of mobile nodes in which the wireless links are frequently broken down due to mobility and dynamic infrastructure. Routing is a significant issue and challenge in ad hoc networks. Many Routing protocols have been proposed so far to improve the routing performance and reliability. This research paper describes the characteristics of ad hoc routing protocols Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV, Optimized link State Routing (OLSR, Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV based on the performance metrics like packet delivery fraction, Average delay, Normalized Routing load, Throughput and Jitter under low mobility and low traffic network as well as under high mobility and high traffic network. Results show that AODV has maximum throughput under low traffic and DSDV has maximum throughput under high traffic. As network becomes dense OLSR, DSR and DSDV perform well in terms of Throughput than AODV and TORA. TORA performs well in dense networks in terms of packet delivery fraction but at the same time Normalized Routing load of TORA is maximum among all the protocols in both the networks. DSDV has least Normalized Routing load in both low and high traffic. OLSR and DSDV give the least Jitter and Average Delay in both networks.

  9. Distinguishing congestion from malicious behavior in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2004-08-01

    Packet dropping in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks could be a result of wireless link errors, congestion, or malicious packet drop attack. Current techniques for detecting malicious behavior either do not consider congestion in the network or are not able to detect in real time. Further more, they usually work at network layer. In this paper, we propose a TCP-Manet protocol, which reacts to congestion like TCP Reno protocol, and has additional capability to distinguish among congestion, wireless link error, and malicious packet drop attack. It is an end-to-end mechanism that does not require additional modifications to the nodes in the network. Since it is an extension of existing TCP protocol, it is compatible with existing protocols. It works in conjunction with the network layer and an unobtrusive monitor to assist the network in the detection and characterization of the nature of the behavior. Experimental results show that TCP-Manet has the same performance as that of TCP-Reno in wired network, and performs better in wireless ad-hoc networks in terms of throughput while having good detection effectiveness.

  10. An Overview of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for the Existing Protocols and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Omari, Saleh Ali K; 10.5121/jgraphhoc.2010.2107

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of two or more devices or nodes or terminals with wireless communications and networking capability that communicate with each other without the aid of any centralized administrator also the wireless nodes that can dynamically form a network to exchange information without using any existing fixed network infrastructure. And it's an autonomous system in which mobile hosts connected by wireless links are free to be dynamically and some time act as routers at the same time, and we discuss in this paper the distinct characteristics of traditional wired networks, including network configuration may change at any time, there is no direction or limit the movement and so on, and thus needed a new optional path Agreement (Routing Protocol) to identify nodes for these actions communicate with each other path, An ideal choice way the agreement should not only be able to find the right path, and the Ad Hoc Network must be able to adapt to changing network of this type at any...

  11. Optimal JPWL Forward Error Correction Rate Allocation for Robust JPEG 2000 Images and Video Streaming over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueh, Max; Diouris, Jean-François; Diop, Magaye; Devaux, François-Olivier; De Vleeschouwer, Christophe; Macq, Benoit

    2008-12-01

    Based on the analysis of real mobile ad hoc network (MANET) traces, we derive in this paper an optimal wireless JPEG 2000 compliant forward error correction (FEC) rate allocation scheme for a robust streaming of images and videos over MANET. The packet-based proposed scheme has a low complexity and is compliant to JPWL, the 11th part of the JPEG 2000 standard. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated using a wireless Motion JPEG 2000 client/server application; and the ability of the optimal scheme to guarantee quality of service (QoS) to wireless clients is demonstrated.

  12. Analyzing Reactive Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Kamaljit I. Lakhtaria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous mobile nodes forming network in an infrastructure less environment and has dynamic topology. MANET reactive protocols always not have low control overhead. The control overhead for reactive protocols is more sensitive to the traffic load, in terms of the number of traffic rows, and mobility, in terms of link connectivity change rates, than other protocols. Therefore, reactive protocols may only be suitable for MANETs with small number of traffic loads and small link connectivity change rates. It is already proved that, it is more feasible to maintain full network topology in a MANET with low control overhead. In this Research Paper through simulations that were carried out by using Network Simulator-2 (NS-2 we had analyze Reactive/ On-demand protocols such as Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV, Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR,

  13. Safety Message Power Transmission Control for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Samara, Ghassan; Al-Salihy, Wafaa A H

    2010-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is one of the most challenging research area in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In this research we proposed a dynamic power adjustment protocol that will be used for sending the periodical safety message. (Beacon)based on the analysis of the channel status depending on the channel congestion and the power used for transmission. The Beacon Power Control (BPC) protocol first sensed and examined the percentage of the channel congestion, the result obtained was used to adjust the transmission power for the safety message to reach the optimal power. This will lead to decrease the congestion in the channel and achieve good channel performance and beacon dissemination.

  14. Simulator for Energy Efficient Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The research on various issues in Mobile ad hoc networks is getting popular because of its challenging nature and all time connectivity to communicate. Network simulators provide the platform to analyse and imitate the working of the nodes in the networks along with the traffic and other entities. The current work proposes the design of a simulator for the mobile ad hoc networks that provides a test bed for the energy efficient clustering in the dynamic network. Node parameters like degree of connectivity and average transmission power are considered for calculating the energy consumption of the mobile devices. Nodes that consume minimum energy among their 1-hop neighbours are selected as the cluster heads.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Routing Attacks in Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Syam Purkayastha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the mobile ad hoc networks the major role is played by the routing protocols in order to route the data from one mobile node to another mobile node. But in such mobile networks, routing protocols are vulnerable to various kinds of security attacks such as blackhole node attacks. The routing protocols of MANET are unprotected and hence resulted into the network with the malicious mobile nodes in the network. These malicious nodes in the network are basically acts as attacks in the network. In this paper, we modify the existing DSR protocol with the functionality of attacks detection without affecting overall performance of the network. Also, we are considering the various attacks on mobile ad hoc network called blackhole attack, flooding attack and show the comparative analysis of these attacks using network simulator ns-2.

  16. Bandwidth Estimation For Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presents bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET, which uses some components of the two methods for the bandwidth estimation: 'Hello Bandwidth Estimation 'Listen Bandwidth Estimation. This paper also gives the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed method is based on the comparison of these two methods. Bandwidth estimation is an important issue in the Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET because bandwidth estimation in MANET is difficult, because each host has imprecise knowledge of the network status and links change dynamically. Therefore, an effective bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET is highly desirable. Ad hoc networks present unique advanced challenges, including the design of protocols for mobility management, effective routing, data transport, security, power management, and quality-of-service (QoS provisioning. Once these problems are solved, the practical use of MANETs will be realizable.

  17. Efficient Resource Management for Multicast Ad Hoc Networks: Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chopra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Group communication over multicast ad hoc network suffers from insufficient utilization of limited resources, i.e. shared channel, battery, data processing capabilities and storage space etc. Multicast routing protocol should be able to manage all these resources because their consumption depends upon different factors, i.e. Unicast/Multicast network operations, dynamic topology due to mobility, control overhead due to scalability, packet loss and retransmission due to collision and congestion etc. All these factors may cause unnecessary network load, delay and unfair resource utilization. However, multicast ad hoc routing protocols are more efficient than Unicast routing protocols, but they also suffer from performance degradation factors discussed above. Researchers have developed various layer wise solutions for resource optimization. In this paper, we will explore the different schemes for fair utilization of network resources.

  18. A Simplified Mobile Ad Hoc Network Structure for Helicopter Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldime Mohamed Salih Abdelgader

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of volunteer and statutory organizations who are capable of conducting an emergency response using helicopters. Rescue operations require a rapidly deployable high bandwidth network to coordinate necessary relief efforts between rescue teams on the ground and helicopters. Due to massive destruction and loss of services, ordinary communication infrastructures may collapse in these situations. Consequently, information exchange becomes one of the major challenges in these circumstances. Helicopters can be also employed for providing many services in rugged environments, military applications, and aerial photography. Ad hoc network can be used to provide alternative communication link between a set of helicopters, particularly in case of significant amount of data required to be shared. This paper addresses the ability of using ad hoc networks to support the communication between a set of helicopters. A simplified network structure model is presented and extensively discussed. Furthermore, a streamlined routing algorithm is proposed. Comprehensive simulations are conducted to evaluate the proposed routing algorithm.

  19. Reformative multicast routing protocol based on Ad Hoc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜旺; 王华; 焦国太

    2008-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc networks has been widely applied to military field, emergency management, public service and so on. Because it is uncertain on network and communication, a great deal of energy will be consumed with nodes increasing and creating routing each other. The reformative on-demand multicast routing protocol was putted forward by researching the energy consuming of multicast routing protocol in Ad Hoc. It will decrease consumption in a big multicast flooding through studying the relaying group net structure based on map or wormhole. The energy consumption is reduced 30% by creating the two kinds of routing principles: minimization of energy consumption and minimization of maximum nodes energy consumption. The simulation result indicates that the reformative RODMRP is effective to reduce the energy consuming while routing protocol built.

  20. Power Control in Multi-cluster Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINYanliang; YANGYuhang

    2003-01-01

    Power control gives us many advantages including power saving, lower interference, and efficient channel utilization. We proposed two clustering algorithms with power control for multl-cluster mobile ad hoc networks in this paper. They improve the network throughput and the network stability as compared to other ad hoc networks in which all mobile nodes use the same transmission power. Furthermore, they help in reducing the system power consumption. We compared the performances of the two approaches. Simulation results show that the DCAP (Distributed clustering algorithm with power control) would achieve a better throughput performance and lower power consumption than the CCAP (Centralized clustering algorithm with power control), but it is complicated and liable to be affected by node velocity.

  1. Distributed Reinforcement Learning Approach for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Celimuge; Kumekawa, Kazuya; Kato, Toshihiko

    In Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), general purpose ad hoc routing protocols such as AODV cannot work efficiently due to the frequent changes in network topology caused by vehicle movement. This paper proposes a VANET routing protocol QLAODV (Q-Learning AODV) which suits unicast applications in high mobility scenarios. QLAODV is a distributed reinforcement learning routing protocol, which uses a Q-Learning algorithm to infer network state information and uses unicast control packets to check the path availability in a real time manner in order to allow Q-Learning to work efficiently in a highly dynamic network environment. QLAODV is favored by its dynamic route change mechanism, which makes it capable of reacting quickly to network topology changes. We present an analysis of the performance of QLAODV by simulation using different mobility models. The simulation results show that QLAODV can efficiently handle unicast applications in VANETs.

  2. A Secure Multi-Routing Platform for Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU She-jie; CHEN Jing; XIONG Zai-hong

    2008-01-01

    In an ad hoc network, it is usually difficult to optimize the assignment of network routing resources using a single type of routing protocol due to the differences in network scale, node moving mode and node distribution. Therefore, it is desirable to have nodes run multiple routing protocols simultaneously so that more than one protocols can be chosen to work jointly. For this purpose,a multiple routing platform for Ad hoc networks is proposed on a higher level of current routing protocols. In order to ensure the security of the platform, a security mechanism and its formal analysis by BAN logic is given. The simulation results of the network performance demonstrate that the proposed multi-routing platform is practicable in some complex applications.

  3. Implementing Smart Antenna System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Kulkarni P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the necessity of exchanging and sharing data increases, users demand easy connectivity, and fast networks whether they are at work, at home, or on the move. Nowadays, users are interested in interconnecting all their personal electronic devices (PEDs in an ad hoc fashion on the move. This type of network is referred to as Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET. When in such network a smart antenna System (SAS is implemented then we can achieve maximum capacity and improve the quality and coverage. So we are intended to implement such a SAS in the MANET. In this paper we have shown significance of Throughput and Bit Error Rate by implementing SAS in MANET using MATLABR2010a.

  4. AHBP: An Efficient Broadcast Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟; 卢锡城

    2001-01-01

    Broadcast is an important operation in many network protocols. It is utilized to discover routes to unknown nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and is the key factor in scaling on-demand routing protocols to large networks. This paper presents the Ad Hoc Broadcast Protocol (AHBP) and its performance is discussed. In the protocol, messages are only rebroadcast by broadcast relay gateways that constitute a connected dominating set of the network. AHBP can efficiently reduce the redundant messages which make flooding-like protocols perform badly in large dense networks. Simulations are conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the protocol. The simulation results have shown excellent reduction of broadcast redundancy with AHBP. It also contributes to a reduced level of broadcast collision and congestion.

  5. A Novel Routing Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Chand

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a collection of mobile users without any support of fixed infrastructure. The nodes in these networks have several constraints such as transmission power, bandwidth and processing capability. In addition to it an important parameter of interest is the residual battery power of the nodes. Conventional routing schemes do not take this aspect into consideration. Therefore this paper proposes a routing strategy that takes this aspect into consideration by modifying the Route Request (RREQ packet of the Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol. The protocol chooses a threshold below which a node is not allowed to relay data/control packets. The results show a remarkable improvement in the value of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR, throughput and at the same time the network lifetime is not affected.

  6. Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking on Android Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    done to take advantage of High Performance Computer ( HPC ) resources seeded within the mobile ad-hoc network. Having access to HPC resources allows the...are provided by the device manufacturers . Because of this, we could enable IBSS with the same modified kernel. Unfortunately, using the same chipset and...source project called MANET Manager (9), which ports the OLSR daemon to Android devices. With this additional software we were able to successfully

  7. An Approach In Optimization Of Ad-Hoc Routing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different optimization of Ad-hoc routing algorithm is surveyed and a new method using training based optimization algorithm for reducing the complexity of routing algorithms is suggested. A binary matrix is assigned to each node in the network and gets updated after each data transfer using the protocols. The use of optimization algorithm in routing algorithm can reduce the complexity of routing to the least amount possible.

  8. Flying Ad-Hoc Networks: Routing Protocols, Mobility Models, Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Muneer Bani Yassein; “Nour Alhuda” Damer

    2016-01-01

    Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs) is a group of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) which completed their work without human intervention. There are some problems in this kind of networks: the first one is the communication between (UAVs). Various routing protocols introduced classified into three categories, static, proactive, reactive routing protocols in order to solve this problem. The second problem is the network design, which depends on the network mobility, in which is the process of cooperati...

  9. Secure Ad Hoc Networking on an Android Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    describes a proto- type implementation of a secure ad hoc networking system for Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Android platforms with a focus on...TN–1390 UNCLASSIFIED 6 Future Work 18 References 19 Appendices A Certificate Authority Key Generation 22 B CSR to CA Signed Certificate 23 C SE...Authority COTS Commercial Off The Shelf CPU Central Processing Unit CSR Certificate Signing Request DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DIA

  10. A new traffic allocation algorithm in Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; MIAO Jian-song; SUN Dan-dan; ZHOU Li-gang; DING Wei

    2006-01-01

    A dynamic traffic distribution algorithm based on the minimization product of packet delay and packet energy consumption is proposed. The algorithm is based on packet delay and energy consumption in allocating traffic, which can optimize the network performance. Simulation demonstrated that the algorithm could dynamically adjust to the traffic distribution between paths, which can minimize the product of packet delay and energy consumption in mobile Ad hoc networks.

  11. An Enhanced Route Recovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyung; Park, Noyeul; Kim, Changhwa; Choi, Seung-Sik

    In case of link failures, many ad hoc routing protocols recover a route by employing source-initiated route re-discovery, but this approach can degrade system performance. Some use localized route recovery, which may yield non-optimal paths. Our proposal provides a mechanism that can enhance the overall routing performance by initiating route recovery at the destination node. We elucidate the effects through simulations including comparisons with AODV and AODV with local repair.

  12. Cost management based security framework in mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Security issues are always difficult to deal with in mobile ad hoc networks. People seldom studied the costs of those security schemes respectively and for some security methods designed and adopted beforehand, their effects are often investigated one by one. In fact, when facing certain attacks, different methods would respond individually and result in waste of resources.Making use of the cost management idea, we analyze the costs of security measures in mobile ad hoc networks and introduce a security framework based on security mechanisms cost management. Under the framework, the network system's own tasks can be finished in time and the whole network's security costs can be decreased. We discuss the process of security costs computation at each mobile node and in certain nodes groups. To show how to use the proposed security framework in certain applications, we give examples of DoS attacks and costs computation of defense methods. The results showed that more secure environment can be achieved based on the security framework in mobile ad hoc networks.

  13. Beamforming in Ad Hoc Networks: MAC Design and Performance Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Fakih

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine in this paper the benefits of beamforming techniques in ad hoc networks. We first devise a novel MAC paradigm for ad hoc networks when using these techniques in multipath fading environment. In such networks, the use of conventional directional antennas does not necessarily improve the system performance. On the other hand, the exploitation of the potential benefits of smart antenna systems and especially beamforming techniques needs a prior knowledge of the physical channel. Our proposition performs jointly channel estimation and radio resource sharing. We validate the fruitfulness of the proposed MAC and we evaluate the effects of the channel estimation on the network performance. We then present an accurate analytical model for the performance of IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. We extend the latter model, by introducing the fading probability, to derive the saturation throughput for our proposed MAC when the simplest beamforming strategy is used in real multipath fading ad hoc networks. Finally, numerical results validate our proposition.

  14. An Algorithm for Localization in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Barani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning a node in Vehicular Ad-Hoc networks is one of the most interested research areas in recent years. In many Ad-Hoc networks such as Vehicular Ad-Hoc networks in which the nodes are considered as vehicles, move very fast in streets and highways. So, to have a safe and fast transport system, any vehicle should know where a traffic problem such as a broken vehicle occurs. GPS is one of the equipments which have been widely used for positioning service. Problem statement: Vehicle can use a GPS receiver to determine its position. But, all vehicles have not been equipped with GPS or they cannot receive GPS signals in some places such as inside of a tunnel. In these situations, the vehicle should use a GPS free method to find its location. Approach: In this study, a new method based on transmission range had been suggested. Results: This algorithm had been compared with a similar algorithm ODAM in same situations. The best performance for Optimized Disseminating Alarm Message (ODAM is when 40% of nodes are equipped with GPS. Conclusion: We executed our algorithm on this situation and compared it with ODAM results. At the end of this study, we can see our algorithm in compare to ODAM has better results.

  15. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Elizarraras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15% compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput.

  16. Outage Analysis of Opportunistic Cooperative Ad Hoc Networks with Randomly Located Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wen Xing; Hai-Chuan Ding; Guang-Hua Yang; Shao-Dan Ma; Ze-Song Fei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,an opportunistic cooperative ad hoc sensor network with randomly located nodes is analyzed.The randomness of nodes' locations is captured by a homogeneous Poisson point process.The effect of imperfect interference cancellation is also taken into account in the analysis.Based on the theory of stochastic geometry,outage probability and cooperative gain are derived.It is demonstrated that explicit performance gain can be achieved through cooperation.The analyses are corroborated by extensive simulation results and the analytical results can thus serve as a guideline for wireless sensor network design.

  17. QDSR: QoS-aware Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIMinghong; YAOYinxiong; BAIYingcai

    2004-01-01

    QoS routing in wireless ad hoc networks faces many technical challenges due to time varying link and random mobility of nodes in these dynamic networks.In this paper, we design a QoS-aware dynamic source routing protocol (QDSR), based on DSR . QDSR uses minimum cost as the constraint, modifies route discovery, route reply and route maintenance mechanisms in DSR, adds the capability of path testing and initial resource reservation.The results of robustness and stability and performances imulations demonstrate that it suits the fluctuation of dynamic environment very well.

  18. A Survey of Unipath Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Barveen Banu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A MANET (Mobile Ad hoc NETwork is an interconnection of mobile devices by wireless links forming a dynamic topology without much physical network infrastructure such as routers, servers, access points/cables or centralized administration. Routing is a mechanism of exchanging data between the source node and the destination node. Several protocols are used to perform routing the information from the source node to the destination node. The main aim of this paper is to explore the working principles of each unipath routing protocol. The unipath routing protocols are divided into Table-Driven (Proactive, On-demand (Reactive, Hybrid routing protocols.

  19. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wen Hu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  20. A hierarchical virtual backbone construction protocol for mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hierarchical backbone construction protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. Our protocol is based on the idea of using an efficient extrema finding method to create clusters comprising the nodes that are within certain prespecified wireless hop distance. Afterward, we apply our ‘diameter’ algorithm among clusters to identify the dominating nodes that are, finally, connected via multi-hop virtual links to construct the backbone. We present the analytic as well as simulation study of our algorithm and also a method for the dynamic maintenance of constructed backbone. In the end, we illustrate the use of the virtual backbone with the help of an interesting application.

  1. ECDSA - Performance improvements of intrusion detection in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available wireless network with collection of mobile nodes without an underlying infrastructure. In this network, the occurrences of misbehavior nodes are a main problem that degrades the network performance. In previous technique watchdog is used to detect nodes misbehaviors in the mobile ad-hoc network, but it contains some of potential issues. To avoid these issues we propose a novel algorithm named as Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA particularly designed for increases the security in network.

  2. An SPN analysis method for parallel scheduling in Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛琳阳; 徐文超; 贾世楼

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new analytic method for modeling and evaluating mobile ad hoc networks (MANET)is proposed. Petri nets technique is introduced into MANET and a packet-flow parallel scheduling scheme is presented using Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN). The flowing of tokens is used in graphics mode to characterize dynamical features of sharing a single wireless channel. Through SPN reachability analysis and isomorphic continuous time Markov process equations, some network parameters, such as channel efficiency, one-hop transmission delay etc. , can be obtained. Compared with conventional performance evaluation methods, the above parameters are mathematical expressions instead of test results from a simulator.

  3. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chenn-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  4. A Network Security and Defense Program Based on Ad Hoc%一种基于Ad Hoc的网络安全防御方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成兵; 陈明东

    2012-01-01

    Analying of Wireless Ad Hoc networks play an important role in society, and its facing a variety of security threats, this paper discusses the advantages and limitations of various network security solutions and technologies for wireless Ad Hoc networks , proposes an in-depth security defense program and explains its implementation process, while points out some of the problems of wireless Ad Hoc networks need to be resolved in the security field.%分析无线Ad Hoc网络在社会中发挥的重要作用及其面临的多种安全威胁,讨论目前各种网络安全解决方案和技术的优点及局限性,提出一种针对无线Ad Hoc网络的纵深安全防御方案并阐述其执行过程,同时指出无线Ad Hoc网络在安全领域急需解决的一些问题.

  5. Enhanced Antenna Position Implementation Over Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VNET) In 3D Space

    CERN Document Server

    Kanrar, Soumen

    2011-01-01

    The technology related to networking moves wired connection to wireless connection.The basic problem concern in the wireless domain, random packet loss for the end to end connection. In this paper we show the performance and the impact of the packet loss and delay, by the bit error rate throughput etc with respect to the real world scenario vehicular ad hoc network in 3-dimension space (VANET in 3D). Over the years software development has responded to the increasing growth of wireless connectivity in developing network enabled software. In this paper we consider the real world physical problem in three dimensional wireless domain and map the problem to analytical problem . In this paper we simulate that analytic problem with respect to real world scenario by using enhanced antenna position system (EAPS) mounted over the mobile node in 3D space. In this paper we convert the real world problem into lab oriented problem by using the EAPS -system and shown the performance in wireless domain in 3 dimensional spac...

  6. DYNAMIC K-MEANS ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZED ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zandieh Shirazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic K-means algorithm to improve the routing process in Mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs is presented. Mobile ad-hoc networks are a collocation of mobile wireless nodes that can operate without using focal access points, pre-existing infrastructures, or a centralized management point. In MANETs, the quick motion of nodes modifies the topology of network. This feature of MANETS is lead to various problems in the routing process such as increase of the overhead massages and inefficient routing between nodes of network. A large variety of clustering methods have been developed for establishing an efficient routing process in MANETs. Routing is one of the crucial topics which are having significant impact on MANETs performance. The K-means algorithm is one of the effective clustering methods aimed to reduce routing difficulties related to bandwidth, throughput and power consumption. This paper proposed a new K-means clustering algorithm to find out optimal path from source node to destinations node in MANETs. The main goal of proposed approach which is called the dynamic K-means clustering methods is to solve the limitation of basic K-means method like permanent cluster head and fixed cluster members. The experimental results demonstrate that using dynamic K-means scheme enhance the performance of routing process in Mobile ad-hoc networks.

  7. Using Apriori algorithm to prevent black hole attack in mobile Ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Mirabedini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is considered as an autonomous network, which consists of mobile nodes, which communicate with each other over wireless links. When there is no fixed infrastructure, nodes have to cooperate in order to incorporate the necessary network functionality. Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol is one of the primary principal routing protocols implemented in Ad hoc networks. The security of the AODV protocol is threaded by a specific kind of attack called ‘Black Hole’ attack. This paper presents a technique to prevent the Black hole attack by implementing negotiation with neighbors who claim to maintain a route to destination. Negotiation process is strengthen by apriori method to judge about suspicious node. Apriori algorithm is an effective association rule mining method with relatively low complexity, which is proper for MANETs. To achieve more improvement, fuzzy version of ADOV is used. The simulation results indicate that the proposed protocol provides more securable routing and also more efficiency in terms of packet delivery, overhead and detection rate than the conventional AODV and fuzzy AODV in the presence of Black hole attacks.

  8. AUTHENTICATION ARCHITECTURE USING THRESHOLD CRYPTOGRAPHY IN KERBEROS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadj Gharib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless technologies is gradually increasing and risks related to the use of these technologies are considerable. Due to their dynamically changing topology and open environment without a centralized policy control of a traditional network, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and attacks. The ideal solution to overcome a myriad of security concerns in MANET’s is the use of reliable authentication architecture. In this paper we propose a new key management scheme based on threshold cryptography in kerberos for MANET’s, the proposed scheme uses the elliptic curve cryptography method that consumes fewer resources well adapted to the wireless environment. Our approach shows a strength and effectiveness against attacks.

  9. A Survey of Routing Attacks and Security Measures in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Sudhir; Sharma, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a set of mobile nodes which are self-configuring and connected by wireless links automatically as per the defined routing protocol. The absence of a central management agency or a fixed infrastructure is a key feature of MANETs. These nodes communicate with each other by interchange of packets, which for those nodes not in wireless range goes hop by hop. Due to lack of a defined central authority, securitizing the routing process becomes a challenging task thereby leaving MANETs vulnerable to attacks, which results in deterioration in the performance characteristics as well as raises a serious question mark about the reliability of such networks. In this paper we have attempted to present an overview of the routing protocols, the known routing attacks and the proposed countermeasures to these attacks in various works.

  10. Security enhancement for mobile ad hoc networks routing with OLSRv2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhexiong; Tang, Helen; Yu, F. Richard; Wang, Maoyu

    2013-05-01

    Some features of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), including dynamic membership, topology, and open wireless medium, introduce a variety of security risks. Malicious nodes can drop or modify packets that are received from other nodes. These malicious activities may seriously affect the availability of services in MANETs. Therefore, secure routing in MANETs has emerged as an important MANET research area. In this paper, we propose a scheme that enhances the security of Optimal Link State Routing version 2 (OLSRv2) in MANETs based on trust. In the proposed scheme, more accurate trust can be obtained by considering different types of packets and other important factors that may cause dropping packets in friendly nodes, such as buffer overflows and unreliable wireless connections. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  11. Intrusion Detection In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using GA Based Feature Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Nallusamy, R; Duraiswamy, K

    2009-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) has become an exciting and important technology in recent years because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices. MANETs are highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology and lack of centralized monitoring point. It is important to search new architecture and mechanisms to protect the wireless networks and mobile computing application. IDS analyze the network activities by means of audit data and use patterns of well-known attacks or normal profile to detect potential attacks. There are two methods to analyze: misuse detection and anomaly detection. Misuse detection is not effective against unknown attacks and therefore, anomaly detection method is used. In this approach, the audit data is collected from each mobile node after simulating the attack and compared with the normal behavior of the system. If there is any deviation from normal behavior then the event is considered as an attack. Some of the features of collected audi...

  12. Impact of Throughput in Enhancing the Efficiency of Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network - A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jayaraj

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHNs constitute a viable solution to solve the current problems of inefficiency in the spectrum allocation, and to deploy highly reconfigurable and self-organizing wireless networks. Cognitive Radio (CR devices are envisaged to utilize the spectrum in an opportunistic way by dynamically accessing different licensed portions of the spectrum. However the phenomena of channel fading and primary cum secondary interference in cognitive radio networks does not guarantee application demands to be achieved continuously over time. Availability of limited spectrum and the inadequate spectrum resource usage necessitates a new communication standard to utilize the existing wireless spectrum opportunistically. This paper discusses currently existing mechanism for providing better efficiency by utilizing cognitive network intelligence. The frequencies used are utilized to the maximum extent without any interference. This paper aims in comparing the techniques used for enhancing the throughput in CR.

  13. Performance Analysis of TORA & DSR Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D GEETHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. The main classes of routing protocols are Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A Reactive (on-demand routing strategy is a popular routing category for wireless ad hoc routing. It is a relatively new routing philosophy that provides a scalable solution to relatively large network topologies. The design follows the idea that each node tries to reduce routing overhead by sending routing packets whenever a communication is requested. In this paper an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent on demand reactive routing protocols for MANETs: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocols. This subjected the protocols to identical loads and environmental conditions and evaluates their relative performance with respect to quantitative metrics; throughput, average delay, packet delivery ratio and routing load. From the detailed simulation results and analysis of presented, we use NS-2 simulator for simulation of DSR and TORA protocol and variation occurs in mobility of packets, time interval between the packets sent and packet size of packets sent in throughout the protocols.

  14. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-12-15

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.

  15. Distributed optimization of a multisubchannel Ad Hoc cognitive radio network

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we study the distributed-duality-based optimization of a multisubchannel ad hoc cognitive radio network (CRN) that coexists with a multicell primary radio network (PRN). For radio resource allocation in multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) systems, the orthogonal-access-based exclusive subchannel assignment (ESA) technique has been a popular method, but it is suboptimal in ad hoc networks, because nonorthogonal access between multiple secondary-user links by using shared subchannel assignment (SSA) can bring a higher weighted sum rate. We utilize the Lagrangian dual composition tool and design low-complexity near-optimal SSA resource allocation methods, assuming practical discrete-rate modulation and that the CRN-to-PRN interference constraint has to strictly be satisfied. However, available SSA methods for CRNs are either suboptimal or involve high complexity and suffer from slow convergence. To address this problem, we design fast-convergence SSA duality schemes and introduce several novel methods to increase the speed of convergence and to satisfy various system constraints with low complexity. For practical implementation in ad hoc CRNs, we design distributed-duality schemes that involve only a small number of CRN local information exchanges for dual update. The effects of many system parameters are presented through simulation results, which show that the near-optimal SSA duality scheme can perform significantly better than the suboptimal ESA duality and SSA-iterative waterfilling schemes and that the performance loss of the distributed schemes is small, compared with their centralized counterparts. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Transmission of Successful Route Error Message(RERR) in Routing Aware Multiple Description Video Coding over Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Kinjal; Sharma, Dharmendar; Mishra, Priyanka; Rakesh, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Video transmission over mobile ad-hoc networks is becoming important as these networks become more widely used in the wireless networks. We propose a routing-aware multiple description video coding approach to support video transmission over mobile ad-hoc networks with single and multiple path transport. We build a model to estimate the packet loss probability of each packet transmitted over the network based on the standard ad-hoc routing messages and network parameters without losing the RERR message. We then calculate the frame loss probability in order to eliminate error without any loss of data.

  17. Recovery from Wormhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xiao-jun; TIAN Chang; ZHANG Yu-sen

    2006-01-01

    Wormhole attack is a serious threat against MANET (mobile ad hoc network) and its routing protocols.A new approach-tunnel key node identification (TKNI) was proposed. Based on tunnel-key-node identification and priority-based route discovery, TKNI can rapidly rebuild the communications that have been blocked by wormhole attack. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed approach aims at both static and dynamic topology environment, involves addressing visible and invisible wormhole attack modes, requires no extra hardware, has a low overhead, and can be easily applied to MANET.

  18. Connectivity analysis of one-dimensional ad-hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgsted, Martin; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Application and communication protocols in dynamic ad-hoc networks are exposed to physical limitations imposed by the connectivity relations that result from mobility. Motivated by vehicular freeway scenarios, this paper analyzes a number of important connectivity metrics for instantaneous...... snapshots of stochastic geographic movement patterns: (1) The single-hop connectivity number, corresponding to the number of single-hop neighbors of a mobile node; (2) the multi-hop connectivity number, expressing the number of nodes reachable via multi-hop paths of arbitrary hop-count; (3) the connectivity...

  19. EXTENDED DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Kumari Sharma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available MANET is a collection of self-configurable mobile nodes. Several routing protocols are proposed for ad hoc network among which DSR and AODV On demand routing protocols are mostly used. Existing Dynamic source routing protocol is not suitable for large network because packet size gets increased according to the number of nodes travelled by route discovery packet. In this paper, extended DSR routing protocol is proposed to eliminate the above limitation of existing DSR. Proposed protocol will be suitable for small and large both types of networks.

  20. Mobile ad hoc networking the cutting edge directions

    CERN Document Server

    Basagni, Stefano; Giordano, Silvia; Stojmenovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    ""An excellent book for those who are interested in learning the current status of research and development . . . [and] who want to get a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art.""-E-Streams This book provides up-to-date information on research and development in the rapidly growing area of networks based on the multihop ad hoc networking paradigm. It reviews all classes of networks that have successfully adopted this paradigm, pointing out how they penetrated the mass market and sparked breakthrough research. Covering both physical issues and applica

  1. A framework for reactive optimization in mobile ad hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClary, Dan; Syrotiuk, Violet; Kulahci, Murat

    2008-01-01

    We present a framework to optimize the performance of a mobile ad hoc network over a wide range of operating conditions. It includes screening experiments to quantify the parameters and interactions among parameters influential to throughput. Profile-driven regression is applied to obtain a model...... of the non-linear behaviour of throughput. The intermediate models obtained in this modelling effort are used to adapt the parameters as the network conditions change, in order to maximize throughput. The improvements in throughput range from 10-26 times the use of the default parameter settings...

  2. Escape probability based routing for ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xuanping; Qin Zheng; Li Xin

    2006-01-01

    Routes in an ad hoc network may fail frequently because of node mobility. Stability therefore can be an important element in the design of routing protocols. The node escape probability is introduced to estimate the lifetime and stability of link between neighboring nodes and the escape probability based routing (EPBR) scheme to discover stable routes is proposed. Simulation results show that the EPBR can discover stable routes to reduce the number of route rediscovery, and is applicable for the situation that has highly dynamic network topology with broad area of communication.

  3. Ad Hoc Selection of Voice over Internet Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Mitchell G. (Inventor); Bullock, John T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a communication system technique involving ad hoc selection of at least two audio streams is provided. Each of the at least two audio streams is a packetized version of an audio source. A data connection exists between a server and a client where a transport protocol actively propagates the at least two audio streams from the server to the client. Furthermore, software instructions executable on the client indicate a presence of the at least two audio streams, allow selection of at least one of the at least two audio streams, and direct the selected at least one of the at least two audio streams for audio playback.

  4. Connectivity analysis of one-dimensional ad-hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    Applications and communication protocols in dynamic ad-hoc networks are exposed to physical limitations imposed by the connectivity relations that result from mobility. Motivated by vehicular freeway scenarios, this paper analyzes a number of important connectivity metrics for instantaneous...... hop-count; (3) the connectivity distance, expressing the geographic distance that a message can be propagated in the network on multi-hop paths; (4) the connectivity hops, which corresponds to the number of hops that are necessary to reach all nodes in the connected network. The paper develops...

  5. Ad-Hoc vs. Standardized and Optimized Arthropod Diversity Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of standardized and optimized protocols has been recently advocated for different arthropod taxa instead of ad-hoc sampling or sampling with protocols defined on a case-by-case basis. We present a comparison of both sampling approaches applied for spiders in a natural area of Portugal. Tests were made to their efficiency, over-collection of common species, singletons proportions, species abundance distributions, average specimen size, average taxonomic distinctness and behavior of richness estimators. The standardized protocol revealed three main advantages: (1 higher efficiency; (2 more reliable estimations of true richness; and (3 meaningful comparisons between undersampled areas.

  6. A Timed Calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengying Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop a timed calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks embodying the peculiarities of local broadcast, node mobility and communication interference. We present a Reduction Semantics and a Labelled Transition Semantics and prove the equivalence between them. We then apply our calculus to model and study some MAC-layer protocols with special emphasis on node mobility and communication interference. A main purpose of the semantics is to describe the various forms of interference while nodes change their locations in the network. Such interference only occurs when a node is simultaneously reached by more than one ongoing transmission over the same channel.

  7. A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    accumulate between these entities.” Capra [34] proposes to use a human trust model based on human interactions in a trust model for fully distributed...network environments such as MANETs. Capra defines trust as the degree of a belief about the behavior of other entities (or agents). Li and Singhal [35...2004. [34] L. Capra , “Toward a Human Trust Model for Mobile Ad-hoc Net- works,” Proc. 2nd UK-UbiNet Workshop, 5-7 May 2004, Cambridge University

  8. Power-Aware Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Sevil; Clark, John A.; Tapiador, Juan E.

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a highly promising new form of networking. However they are more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. In addition, conventional intrusion detection systems (IDS) are ineffective and inefficient for highly dynamic and resource-constrained environments. Achieving an effective operational MANET requires tradeoffs to be made between functional and non-functional criteria. In this paper we show how Genetic Programming (GP) together with a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) can be used to synthesise intrusion detection programs that make optimal tradeoffs between security criteria and the power they consume.

  9. Analysis of Multipath Routing in Random Ad Hoc Networks Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Das

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed a multipath routing protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Multipath routing overcomes various problems that occur in data delivery through a single path. The proposed protocol selects multiple neighbor nodes of source node to establish multiple paths towards destination. These nodes are selected based on their minimum remaining distance from destination. We have computed the length of various paths and average hops count for different node density in the network. We have considered only three paths for our evaluation. The results show that path-2 gives better results in term of hop count and path length among three paths.

  10. Complex Threshold Key Management for Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; XIONG Zhong-wei; LI Zhi-tang

    2005-01-01

    A complex threshold key management framework has been proposed, which can address the challenges posed by the unique nature of Ad hoc network. Depending on the cooperation of the controller and participation nodes, this scheme should be efficient in the operation environmental alteration and tolerant faults of node, which take the advantages of the benefits of both key management approaches and alleviate their limitations. For the cooperation of the controller and participation nodes, a (t,n) threshold Elliptic curve sign-encryption scheme with the specified receiver also has been proposed. Using this threshold signencryption scheme, the key management distributes the trust between a controller and a set of participation nodes.

  11. Application of MAC protocol in aeronautical Ad Hoc networks%MAC协议在航空自组网中应用综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹振林; 孙荣平; 柏长帅

    2013-01-01

      MAC protocol of aeronautical Ad hoc network is a direct controller of grouping messages in the wireless channel sending and reception. Therefore,in aeronautical Ad Hoc network,it is crucial for the performance of aeronautical Ad Hoc net⁃work whether MAC protocol can efficiently and fairly use the limited wireless channel resources. The MAC functions and the in⁃fluence factors of aeronautical Ad Hoc networks on MAC protocols are summarized in in this paper. MAC protocol characteristics of the wireless Ad Hoc networks and the key technologys of aeronautical Ad Hoc networks are analyzed in combination with the application of MAC in MANET.%  航空自组网MAC协议是分组报文在无线信道上发送和接收的直接控制者,因此,在航空自组网中,MAC协议能否高效、公平地利用有限的无线信道资源对航空自组网的性能起至关重要的作用。概述了MAC的功能作用、航空自组网对MAC协议的影响因素,并结合MAC在MANET中的应用,分析了无线自组网MAC协议的特点和航空自组网MAC协议的关键技术。

  12. NDTAODV: NEIGHBOR DEFENSE TECHNIQUE FOR AD HOC ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR (AODV TO MITIGATE FLOOD ATTACK IN MANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshai Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs are collections of mobile nodes that can communicate with one another using multihop wireless links. MANETs are often deployed in the environments, where there is no fixed infrastructure and centralized management. The nodes of mobile ad hoc networks are susceptible to compromise. In such a scenario, designing an efficient, reliable and secure routing protocol has been a major challengesue over the last many years. The routing protocol Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV has no security measures in-built in it. It is vulnerable to many types of routing attacks. The flood attack is one of them. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective technique to secure Ad hoc Ondemand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol against flood attacks. To deal with a flood attack, we have proposed Neighbor Defense Technique for Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (NDTAODV. This makes AODV more robust. The proposed technique has been designed to isolate the flood attacker with the use of timers, peak value and hello alarm technique. We have simulated our work in Network Simulator NS-2.33 (NS-2 with different pause times by way of different number of malicious nodes. We have compared the performance of NDTAODV with the AODV in normal situation as well as in the presence of malicious attacks. We have considered Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF, Average Throughpu

  13. An Implementation of Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Real-time Voice Communication System%一种移动无线自组网即时语音通信系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李现涛; 郭达伟; 李杨

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc has been quickly developed recently, requirement for real - time voice communication based on the platform is increasingly shown. This paper gives out a way to realize the multi - hop real - time voice communication system, with the technology VOIP, RTP and so on. Through mobile tests, the system has shown a good performance,which is sentenced to be more than 3.5 by MOS standard under low speed mobile condition, this system could support instant voice communication.%近年来,移动无线自组织网络迅速发展,在该平台上实时语音通信的需求也日益显现.在linux平台下,利用VOIP和RTP等技术实现了无线移动自组织网络的多跳即时语音通信系统.并通过上网本组成的硬件实验平台进行了移动实验,在低速移动条件下的实时语音通信效果MOS评分在3.5以上,能够满足即时语音通信的需求.

  14. Automated Position System Implementation over Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks in 2-Dimension Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Kanrar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The real world scenario have changed from the wired connection to wireless connection. Over the years software development has responded to the increasing growth of wireless connectivity in developing network enabled software. The problem arises in the wireless domain due to random packet loss in transport layer and as well as in data link layer for the end to end connection. The basic problem we have considered in this paper is to convert the real world scenario of "Vehicular ad hoc network"into lab oriented problem by used the APS-system and study the result to achieve better performance in wireless domain. Approach: We map the real world physical problem into analytical problem and simulate that analytic problem with respect to real world scenario by Automated Position System (APS for antenna mounted over the mobile node in 2D space. Results: We quantify the performance and the impact of the packet loss, delay, by the bit error rate and throughput with respect to the real world scenario of VANET in the MAC layer, data link layer and transport layer. Conclusion: We observe that the Directional the Antenna which is mounted over the vehicle gives less bit error in comparison to Isotropic and Discone antenna.

  15. Enhanced Antenna Position Implementation Over Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VNET In 3D Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Kanrar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The technology related to networking moves wired connection to wireless connection. The basic problem concern in the wireless domain, random packet loss for the end to end connection. Inthis paper we show the performance and the impact of the packet loss and delay, by the bit error rate throughput etc with respect to the real world scenario vehicular ad hoc network in 3-dimension space(VANET in 3D. Over the years software development has responded to the increasing growth of wireless connectivity in developing network enabled software. In this paper we consider the real world physicalproblem in three dimensional wireless domain and map the problem to analytical problem . In this paper we simulate that analytic problem with respect to real world scenario by using enhanced antenna position system (EAPS mounted over the mobile node in 3D space. In this paper we convert the real world problem into lab oriented problem by using the EAPS –system and shown the performance inwireless domain in 3 dimensional space.

  16. Peer-to-Peer Overlay in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcel C.; Kassler, Andreas J.; Chiasserini, Carla-Fabiana; Casetti, Claudio; Korpeoglu, Ibrahim

    Wireless multi-hop networks such as mobile ad-hoc (MANET) or wireless mesh networks (WMN) have attracted big research efforts during the last years as they have huge potential in several areas such as military communications, fast infrastructure replacement during emergency operations, extension of hotspots or as an alternative communication system. Due to various reasons, such as characteristics of wireless links, multi-hop forwarding operation, and mobility of nodes, performance of traditional peer-to-peer applications is rather low in such networks. In this book chapter, we provide a comprehensive and in-depth survey on recent research on various approaches to provide peer-to-peer services in wireless multi-hop networks. The causes and problems for low performance of traditional approaches are discussed. Various representative alternative approaches to couple interactions between the peer-to-peer overlay and the network layer are examined and compared. Some open questions are discussed to stimulate further research in this area.

  17. Evaluating And Comparison Of Intrusion In Mobile AD HOC Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zougagh Hicham

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile ad hoc network (MANETs has been widespread in many applications.Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The absolute security in the mobile ad hoc network is very hard to achieve because of its fundamental characteristics, such as dynamic topology, open medium, absence of infrastructure, limited power and limited bandwidth. The Prevention methods like authentication and cryptography techniques alone are not able to provide the security to these types of networks. However, these techniques have a limitation on the effects of prevention techniques in general and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to prevent newer attacks that are designed for circumventing the existing security measures. For this reason, there is a need of second mechanism to “detect and response” these newer attacks. Therefore, efficient intrusion detection must be deployed to facilitate the identification and isolation of attacks. In this article we classify the architecture for IDS that have so far been introduced for MANETs, and then existing intrusion detection techniques in MANETs presented and compared. We then provide some directions for future researches.

  18. LAMAN: Load Adaptable MAC for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realp Marc

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc radio networks, mechanisms on how to access the radio channel are extremely important in order to improve network efficiency. In this paper, the load adaptable medium access control for ad hoc networks (LAMAN protocol is described. LAMAN is a novel decentralized multipacket MAC protocol designed following a cross-layer approach. Basically, this protocol is a hybrid CDMA-TDMA-based protocol that aims at throughput maximization in multipacket communication environments by efficiently combining contention and conflict-free protocol components. Such combination of components is used to adapt the nodes' access priority to changes on the traffic load while, at the same time, accounting for the multipacket reception (MPR capability of the receivers. A theoretical analysis of the system is developed presenting closed expressions of network throughput and packet delay. By simulations the validity of our analysis is shown and the performances of a LAMAN-based system and an Aloha-CDMA-based one are compared.

  19. SPM: Source Privacy for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Jian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Source privacy plays a key role in communication infrastructure protection. It is a critical security requirement for many mission critical communications. This is especially true for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs due to node mobility and lack of physical protection. Existing cryptosystem-based techniques and broadcasting-based techniques cannot be easily adapted to MANET because of their extensive cryptographic computation and/or large communication overhead. In this paper, we first propose a novel unconditionally secure source anonymous message authentication scheme (SAMAS. This scheme enables message sender to transmit messages without relying on any trusted third parties. While providing source privacy, the proposed scheme can also provide message content authenticity. We then propose a novel communication protocol for MANET that can ensure communication privacy for both message sender and message recipient. This protocol can also protect end-to-end routing privacy. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is secure against various attacks. The theoretical analysis and simulation show that the proposed scheme is efficient and can provide high message delivery ratio. The proposed protocol can be used for critical infrastructure protection and secure file sharing in mobile ad hoc networks where dynamic groups can be formed.

  20. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK ROUTING PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur Gulati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is an infrastructure less and decentralized network which need a robust dynamic routing protocol. Many routing protocols for such networks have been proposed so far to find optimized routes from source to the destination and prominent among them are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocols. The performance comparison of these protocols should be considered as the primary step towards the invention of a new routing protocol. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive routing protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR based on QoS metrics (packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay, throughput, jitter, normalized routing overhead and normalized MAC overhead by using the NS-2 simulator. The performance comparison is conducted by varying mobility speed, number of nodes and data rate. The comparison results show that AODV performs optimally well not the best among all the studied protocols.

  1. Identification of node behavior for Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyati Choure , Sanjay Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In present scenario, in ad-hoc network, the behavior of nodes are not very stable. They do not work properly and satisfactory. They are not cooperative and acting selfishly. They show their selfishness to share their resources like bandwidth to save life of battery, they are not hasitate to block thepackets sent by others for forwarding and transmit their own packets. Due to higher Mobility of the different nodes makes the situation even more complicated. Multiple routing protocols especially for these conditions have been developed during the last few years, to find optimized routes from a source to some destination.But it is still difficult to know the actual shortest path without attackers or bad nodes. Ad-hoc network suffer from the lot of issues i.e. congestion, Throughput, delay, security, network overhead. Packet delivery ratio is the issues of ongoing research. Cause of node failure may be either natural failure of node links or it may be due to act of an attacker or bad node which may degrade performance of network slowly or drastically, which also need to identify or determined. In this paper, we identify the good and bad nodes. A simulation has been performed to achieve better performance of modified AODV. Good result has been obtained in terms of Throughout, Packet Delivery Ratio.

  2. SEMAN: A Novel Secure Middleware for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the particularities of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs, such as dynamic topology and self-organization, the implementation of complex and flexible applications is a challenge. To enable the deployment of these applications, several middleware solutions were proposed. However, these solutions do not completely consider the security requirements of these networks. Based on the limitations of the existing solutions, this paper presents a new secure middleware, called Secure Middleware for Ad Hoc Networks (SEMAN, which provides a set of basic and secure services to MANETs aiming to facilitate the development of distributed, complex, and flexible applications. SEMAN considers the context of applications and organizes nodes into groups, also based on these contexts. The middleware includes three modules: service, processing, and security. Security module is the main part of the middleware. It has the following components: key management, trust management, and group management. All these components were developed and are described in this paper. They are supported by a cryptographic core and behave according to security rules and policies. The integration of these components provides security guarantees against attacks to the applications that usethe middleware services.

  3. Energy Efficient Probabilistic Broadcasting for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2016-08-01

    In mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) flooding method is used for broadcasting route request (RREQ) packet from one node to another node for route discovery. This is the simplest method of broadcasting of RREQ packets but it often results in broadcast storm problem, originating collisions and congestion of packets in the network. A probabilistic broadcasting is one of the widely used broadcasting scheme for route discovery in MANETs and provides solution for broadcasting storm problem. But it does not consider limited energy of the battery of the nodes. In this paper, a new energy efficient probabilistic broadcasting (EEPB) is proposed in which probability of broadcasting RREQs is calculated with respect to remaining energy of nodes. The analysis of simulation results clearly indicate that an EEPB route discovery scheme in ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) can increase the network lifetime with a decrease in the average power consumption and RREQ packet overhead. It also decreases the number of dropped packets in the network, in comparison to other EEPB schemes like energy constraint gossip (ECG), energy aware gossip (EAG), energy based gossip (EBG) and network lifetime through energy efficient broadcast gossip (NEBG).

  4. Securing Zone Routing Protocol in Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution in the field of security analysis on mobile ad-hoc networks, and security requirements of applications. Limitations of the mobile nodes have been studied in order to design a secure routing protocol that thwarts different kinds of attacks. Our approach is based on the Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP; the most popular hybrid routing protocol. The importance of the proposed solution lies in the fact that it ensures security as needed by providing a comprehensive architecture of Secure Zone Routing Protocol (SZRP based on efficient key management, secure neighbor discovery, secure routing packets, detection of malicious nodes, and preventing these nodes from destroying the network. In order to fulfill these objectives, both efficient key management and secure neighbor mechanisms have been designed to be performed prior to the functioning of the protocol.To validate the proposed solution, we use the network simulator NS-2 to test the performance of secure protocol and compare it with the conventional zone routing protocol over different number of factors that affect the network. Our results evidently show that our secure version paragons the conventional protocol in the packet delivery ratio while it has a tolerable increase in the routing overhead and average delay. Also, security analysis proves in details that the proposed protocol is robust enough to thwart all classes of ad-hoc attacks.

  5. Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Ad hoc Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nawaz Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network resource restrictions on bandwidth, processing capabilities, battery life and memory of mobile devices lead tradeoff between security and resources consumption. Due to some unique properties of MANETs, proactive security mechanism like authentication, confidentiality, access control and non-repudiation are hard to put into practice. While some additional security requirements are also needed, like cooperation fairness, location confidentiality, data freshness and absence of traffic diversion. Traditional security mechanism i.e. authentication and encryption, provide a security beach to MANETs. But some reactive security mechanism is required who analyze the routing packets and also check the overall network behavior of MANETs. Here we propose a local-distributed intrusion detection system for ad hoc mobile networks. In the proposed distributed-ID, each mobile node works as a smart agent. Data collect by node locally and it analyze that data for malicious activity. If any abnormal activity discover, it informs the surrounding nodes as well as the base station. It works like a Client-Server model, each node works in collaboration with server, updating its database each time by server using Markov process. The proposed local distributed- IDS shows a balance between false positive and false negative rate. Re-active security mechanism is very useful in finding abnormal activities although proactive security mechanism present there. Distributed local-IDS useful for deep level inspection and is suited with the varying nature of the MANETs.

  6. The impact of propagation environment and traffic load on the performance of routing protocols in ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rhattoy, A; 10.5121/ijdps.2012.3106

    2012-01-01

    Wireless networks are characterized by a dynamic topology triggered by the nodes mobility. Thus, the wireless multi-hops connection and the channel do not have a determinist behaviour such as: interference or multiple paths. Moreover, the nodes' invisibility makes the wireless channel difficult to detect. This wireless networks' behaviour should be scrutinized. In our study, we mainly focus on radio propagation models by observing the evolution of the routing layer's performances in terms of the characteristics of the physical layer. For this purpose, we first examine and then display the simulation findings of the impact of different radio propagation models on the performance of ad hoc networks. To fully understand how these various radio models influence the networks performance, we have compared the performances of several routing protocols (DSR, AODV, and DSDV) for each propagation model. To complete our study, a comparison of energy performance based routing protocols and propagation models are presente...

  7. Advances in Ad Hoc Network Technology%Ad Hoc网络技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵耀培; 张福强; 董茜

    2005-01-01

    Ad Hoc 网络现在是非常有吸引力的研究方向.本文介绍了Ad Hoc 网络的定义、特点、体系结构、信道接入协议,最后分析了Ad Hoc 网络面临的问题.希望本文能为进行Ad Hoc 网络技术研究的人们提供一定的方便.

  8. Remote Upload of Evidence over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Indrajit

    In this work, we report on one aspect of an autonomous robot-based digital evidence acquisition system that we are developing. When forensic investigators operate within a hostile environment they may use remotely operated unmanned devices to gather digital evidence. These systems periodically upload the evidence to a remote central server using a mobile ad hoc network. In such cases, large pieces of information need to be fragmented and transmitted in an appropriate manner. To support proper forensic analysis, certain properties must ensured for each fragment of evidence — confidentiality during communication, authenticity and integrity of the data, and, most importantly, strong evidence of membership for fragments. This paper describes a framework to provide these properties for the robot-based evidence acquisition system under development.

  9. Parameterized Verification of Safety Properties in Ad Hoc Network Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Delzanno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the main results proved in recent work on the parameterized verification of safety properties for ad hoc network protocols. We consider a model in which the communication topology of a network is represented as a graph. Nodes represent states of individual processes. Adjacent nodes represent single-hop neighbors. Processes are finite state automata that communicate via selective broadcast messages. Reception of a broadcast is restricted to single-hop neighbors. For this model we consider a decision problem that can be expressed as the verification of the existence of an initial topology in which the execution of the protocol can lead to a configuration with at least one node in a certain state. The decision problem is parametric both on the size and on the form of the communication topology of the initial configurations. We draw a complete picture of the decidability and complexity boundaries of this problem according to various assumptions on the possible topologies.

  10. Parallel routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Khaled; Arafeh, Bassel; Alzeidi, Nasser; 10.5121/ijcnc.2011.3506

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes and evaluates a new position-based Parallel Routing Protocol (PRP) for simultaneously routing multiple data packets over disjoint paths in a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) for higher reliability and reduced communication delays. PRP views the geographical region where the MANET is located as a virtual 2-dimensional grid of cells. Cell-disjoint (parallel) paths between grid cells are constructed and used for building pre-computed routing tables. A single gateway node in each grid cell handles routing through that grid cell reducing routing overheads. Each node maintains updated information about its own location in the virtual grid using GPS. Nodes also keep track of the location of other nodes using a new proposed cell-based broadcasting algorithm. Nodes exchange energy level information with neighbors allowing energy-aware selection of the gateway nodes. Performance evaluation results have been derived showing the attractiveness of the proposed parallel routing protocol from different resp...

  11. TRUSTWORTHY ENABLED RELIABLE COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURE IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Dhavamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks are widely used in military and other scientific area. There are various kind of routing protocols are available to establish the route, with the proper analyzation one can choose the routing protocol to form their own network with respect to number of nodes and security considerations. The mobility of nodes makes the environment infrastructure less. It also has a certain number of characteristics which makes the security difficult. A trust recommendation mechanism has designed to keep track of node’s behavior to establish the trustworthiness of the network. Meanwhile with this trustworthiness a node can make objective judgment among another node’s trustworthiness to maintain whole system at a certain security level. The motivation of the work is to understanding the behavior or routing protocol and the trustworthiness.

  12. A Distributed Mutual Exclusion Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Dagdeviren

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distributed mutual exclusion algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks. This algorithm requires a ring of cluster coordinators as the underlying topology. The topology is built by first providing clusters of mobile nodes in the first step and then forming a backbone consisting of the cluster heads in a ring as the second step. The modified version of the Ricart-Agrawala Algorithm on top of this topologyprovides analytically and experimentally an order of decrease in message complexity with respect to the original algorithm. We analyze the algorithm, provide performance results of the implementation, discuss the fault tolerance and the other algorithmic extensions, and show that this architecture can be used for other middleware functions in mobile networks.

  13. An Adaptive Replica Allocation Algorithm in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingZheng; JinshuSu; KanYang

    2004-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), nodes move freely and the distribution of access requests changes dynamically. Replica allocation in such a dynamic environment is a significant challenge. In this paoer, a dynamic adaptive replica allocation algorithm that can adapt to the nodes motion is proposed to minimize the communication cost of object access. When changes occur in the access requests of the object or the network topology, each replica node collects access requests from its neighbors and makes decisions locally to expand replica to neighbors or to relinquish the replica. The algorithm dynamically adapts the replica allocation scheme to a local optimal one. Simulation results show that our algorithms efficiently reduce the communication cost of object access in MANET environment.

  14. FDAN: Failure Detection Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkaouha, Haroun; Abdelli, Abdelkrim; Bouyahia, Karima; Kaloune, Yasmina

    This work deals with fault tolerance in distributed MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Networks) systems. However, the major issue for a failure detection protocol is to confound between a fault and a voluntary or an involuntary disconnection of nodes, and therefore to suspect correct nodes to be failing and conversely. Within this context, we propose in this paper a failure detection protocol that copes with MANET systems constraints. The aim of this work is to allow to the system to launch recovery process. For this effect, our protocol, called FDAN, is based on the class of heartbeat protocols. It takes into account: no preliminary knowledge of the network, the nodes disconnection and reconnection, resources limitation...Hence, we show that by using temporary lists and different timeout levels, we achieve to reduce sensibly the number of false suspicions.

  15. Realistic Mobility Modeling for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Hilal; Tugcu, Tuna

    2009-08-01

    Simulations used for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) are mostly based on random mobility and fail to consider individual behaviors of the vehicles. Unrealistic assumptions about mobility produce misleading results about the behavior of routing protocols in real deployments. In this paper, a realistic mobility modeling tool, Mobility for Vehicles (MOVE), which considers the basic mobility behaviors of vehicles, is proposed for a more accurate evaluation. The proposed model is tested against the Random Waypoint (RWP) model using AODV and OLSR protocols. The results show that the mobility model significantly affects the number of nodes within the transmission range of a node, the volume of control traffic, and the number of collisions. It is shown that number of intersections, grid size, and node density are important parameters when dealing with VANET performance.

  16. Evaluation des performances des protocoles de routage Ad hoc

    OpenAIRE

    Boushaba, Abdelali; Oumsis, Mohammed; Benabbou, Rachid

    2010-01-01

    International audience; L'objectif de ce travail est d'une part, de confronter par la simulation, à l'aide de NS-2, les performances de quatre protocoles de routage Ad hoc: DSR, AODV, OLSR et DSDV et d'autre part, d'examiner l'impact de la charge du trafic, de la mobilité et de la densité des nœuds sur le comportement de ces protocoles. Les résultats montrent qu'il n'y a pas un protocole qui est favori pour tous les critères d'évaluation. En effet, chaque protocole a des comportements différe...

  17. Secure Routing and Data Transmission in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed S. Alnumay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an identity (ID based protocol that secures AODV and TCP so that it can be used in dynamic and attack prone environments of mobile ad hoc networks. The proposed protocol protects AODV using Sequential Aggregate Signatures (SAS based on RSA. It also generates a session key for each pair of source-destination nodes of a MANET for securing the end-to-end transmitted data. Here each node has an ID which is evaluated from its public key and the messages that are sent are authenticated with a signature/ MAC. The proposed scheme does not allow a node to change its ID throughout the network lifetime. Thus it makes the network secure against attacks that target AODV and TCP in MANET. We present performance analysis to validate our claim.

  18. Topology for efficient information dissemination in ad-hoc networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, E.; Okino, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the information dissemination problem in ad-hoc wirless networks. First, we analyze the probability of successful broadcast, assuming: the nodes are uniformly distributed, the available area has a lower bould relative to the total number of nodes, and there is zero knowledge of the overall topology of the network. By showing that the probability of such events is small, we are motivated to extract good graph topologies to minimize the overall transmissions. Three algorithms are used to generate topologies of the network with guaranteed connectivity. These are the minimum radius graph, the relative neighborhood graph and the minimum spanning tree. Our simulation shows that the relative neighborhood graph has certain good graph properties, which makes it suitable for efficient information dissemination.

  19. Precise positioning systems for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Samir A Elsagheer; Ansari, Gufran Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a very promising research venue that can offers many useful and critical applications including the safety applications. Most of these applications require that each vehicle knows precisely its current position in real time. GPS is the most common positioning technique for VANET. However, it is not accurate. Moreover, the GPS signals cannot be received in the tunnels, undergrounds, or near tall buildings. Thus, no positioning service can be obtained in these locations. Even if the Deferential GPS (DGPS) can provide high accuracy, but still no GPS converge in these locations. In this paper, we provide positioning techniques for VANET that can provide accurate positioning service in the areas where GPS signals are hindered by the obstacles. Experimental results show significant improvement in the accuracy. This allows when combined with DGPS the continuity of a precise positioning service that can be used by most of the VANET applications.

  20. On service differentiation in mobile Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺亮; 叶澄清

    2004-01-01

    A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile. Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks.

  1. Making friends on the fly advances in ad hoc teamwork

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the encounter and interaction of agents such as robots with other agents and describes how they cooperate with their previously unknown teammates, forming an Ad Hoc team. It presents a new algorithm, PLASTIC, that allows agents to quickly adapt to new teammates by reusing knowledge learned from previous teammates.  PLASTIC is instantiated in both a model-based approach, PLASTIC-Model, and a policy-based approach, PLASTIC-Policy.  In addition to reusing knowledge learned from previous teammates, PLASTIC also allows users to provide expert-knowledge and can use transfer learning (such as the new TwoStageTransfer algorithm) to quickly create models of new teammates when it has some information about its new teammates. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on three domains, ranging from multi-armed bandits to simulated robot soccer games.

  2. Vehicular ad hoc networks standards, solutions, and research

    CERN Document Server

    Molinaro, Antonella; Scopigno, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) from the their onset, gradually going into technical details, providing a clear understanding of both theoretical foundations and more practical investigation. The editors gathered top-ranking authors to provide comprehensiveness and timely content; the invited authors were carefully selected from a list of who’s who in the respective field of interest: there are as many from Academia as from Standardization and Industry sectors from around the world. The covered topics are organized around five Parts starting from an historical overview of vehicular communications and standardization/harmonization activities (Part I), then progressing to the theoretical foundations of VANETs and a description of the day-one standard-compliant solutions (Part II), hence going into details of vehicular networking and security (Part III) and to the tools to study VANETs, from mobility and channel models, to network simulators and field trial methodologies (Part IV), and fi...

  3. Collaboration Layer for Robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz; Broberg, Jacob Honor´e

    2009-01-01

    In many applications multiple robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are required to collaborate in order to solve a task. This paper shows by proof of concept that a Collaboration Layer can be modelled and designed to handle the collaborative communication, which enables robots in small to medium size...... networks to solve tasks collaboratively. In this proposal the Collaboration Layer is modelled to handle service and position discovery, group management, and synchronisation among robots, but the layer is also designed to be extendable. Based on this model of the Collaboration Layer, generic services....... A prototype of the Collaboration Layer has been developed to run in a simulated environment and tested in an evaluation scenario. In the scenario five robots solve the tasks of vacuum cleaning and entrance guarding, which involves the ability to discover potential co-workers, form groups, shift from one group...

  4. On service differentiation in mobile Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺亮; 叶澄清

    2004-01-01

    A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the Received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile.Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks.

  5. Maximizing the Effective Lifetime of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. Julius; Dewan, M. Ali Akber; Chae, Oksam

    This paper presents a new routing approach to extend the effective lifetime of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) considering both residual battery energy of the participating nodes and routing cost. As the nodes in ad hoc networks are limited in power, a power failure occurs if a node has insufficient remaining energy to send, receive or forward a message. So, it is important to minimize the energy expenditure as well as to balance the remaining battery power among the nodes. Cost effective routing algorithms attempt to minimize the total power needed to transmit a packet which causes a large number of nodes to loose energy quickly and die. On the other hand, lifetime prediction based routing algorithms try to balance the remaining energies among the nodes in the networks and ignore the transmission cost. These approaches extend the lifetime of first few individual nodes. But as nodes spend more energy for packet transfer, power failures occurs, within short interval resulting more number of total dead node earlier. This reduces the effective lifetime of the network, as at this stage successful communication is not possible due to the lack of forwarding node. The proposed method keeps the transmission power in modest range and at the same time tries to reduce the variance of the residual energy of the nodes more effectively to obtain the highest useful lifetime of the networks in the long run. Nonetheless, movement of nodes frequently creates network topology changes via link breaks and link creation and thus effects on the stability of the network. So, the pattern of the node movement is also incorporated in our route selection procedure.

  6. A Light-Weight Service Discovery Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranwa A. Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks devices do not rely on a fixed infrastructure and thus have to be self-organizing. This gives rise to various challenges to network applications. Existing service discovery protocols fall short of accommodating the complexities of the ad-hoc environment. However, the performance of distributed service discovery architectures that rely on a virtual backbone for locating and registering available services appeared very promising in terms of average delay but in terms of message overhead, are the most heavy-weight. In this research we propose a very light-weight, robust and reliable model for service discovery in wireless and mobile networks by taking into account the limited resources to which are subjected the mobile units. Approach: Three processes are involved in service discovery protocols using virtual dynamic backbone for mobile ad hoc networks: registration, discovery and consistency maintenance. More specifically, the model analytically and realistically differentiates stable from unstable nodes in the network in order to form a subset of nodes constituting a relatively stable virtual Backbone (BB. Results: Overall, results acquired were very satisfactory and meet the performance objectives of effectiveness especially in terms of network load. A notable reduction of almost 80% of message signaling was observed in the network. This criterion distinguishes our proposal and corroborate to its light-weight characteristic. On the other hand, results showed reasonable mean time delay to the requests initiated by the clients. Conclusion: Extensive simulation results obtained confirm the efficiency and the light-weight characteristic of our approach in significantly reducing the cost of message overhead in addition to having the best delay values when compared with strategies well-known in the literature.

  7. A Survey on Attacks and Defense Metrics of Routing Mechanism in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.Manikandan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a dynamic wireless network that can be formed infrastructure less connections in which each node can act as a router. The nodes in MANET themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. Although the ongoing trend is to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their certain unique properties, the main challenge is the vulnerability to security attacks. In the presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challenges in MANET is to design the robust security solution that can protect MANET from various routing attacks. Different mechanisms have been proposed using various cryptographic techniques to countermeasure the routing attacks against MANET. As a result, attacks with malicious intent have been and will be devised to exploit these vulnerabilities and to cripple the MANET operations. Attack prevention measures, such as authentication and encryption, can be used as the first line of defense for reducing the possibilities of attacks. However, these mechanisms are not suitable for MANET resource constraints, i.e., limited bandwidth and battery power, because they introduce heavy traffic load to exchange and verifying keys. In this paper, we identify the existent security threats an ad hoc network faces, the security services required to be achieved and the countermeasures for attacks in routing protocols. To accomplish our goal, we have done literature survey in gathering information related to various types of attacks and solutions. Finally, we have identified the challenges and proposed solutions to overcome them. In our survey, we focus on the findings and related works from which to provide secure protocols for MANETs. However, in short, we can say that the complete security solution requires the prevention, detection and reaction mechanisms applied in MANET.

  8. Higher Throughput Maintenance Using Average Time Standard for Multipath Data Delivery Ad-hoc Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.Shanmugasundaram

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless network has come out as one of the key enablers for reliable data delivery for different types of applications.Ad-hoc network consists of self-actuated node that collaborates in order to transfer the information.Trajectory-based Statistical Forwarding (TSF method used optimal target point selection algorithm to forward packets in order to satisfy probability of packet delivery over multi-hopbut failed provide higher throughputon the multipath data delivery. TheVoid Aware Pressure Routing (VAPR method used hop count and intensity information to build a directional data delivery system but performance of specialized geographic routing based multipath data delivery was not attained. To maintain the higher throughput level on ad-hoc network data delivery, Median Multicast Throughput Data Delivery (MMTDD mechanism is proposed in thispaper.The basic idea of MMTDD mechanism is to divide a message into multiple shares and deliver them via multiple independent source paths to the destination. MMTDD mechanism with the average time standard takes the best threshold value for every data (i.e., packet partitioning by avoiding packet loss. By this means, MMTDD mechanism uses the Average Time Standard (ATS to guarantee the required packet allocationwith higher throughput level. With the application of ATS, the MMTDD mechanism derives the theoretical model by attaining approximately 4% higher throughput level on the multipath data delivery in ad-hoc network.MMTDD mechanism makes use of time scheduling schemestodiscover and maintain data delivery paths with minimal time consumption.Median Multicast in MMTDD mechanism used the balanced state flow model to deliver data on multiple paths and experiment is conducted on factors such as time consumption, data delivery rate,average delivery delay and throughput level.

  9. An Intelligent Multicast Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector Protocol for MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baburaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently multicast ro uting protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs are emerging for wireless group communication. This includes application such as multipoint data dissemination and multiparty conferencing which made the analytical design and development of the MANETs in a very efficient manner. For MANETs there are several multicast routing protocols are available, but they perform well under specific scenarios only. The topology of a MANET changes adequately based on the random mobility of network nodes, unlike the network topology of a wired network which is static.Multicast routing protocol outperforms the basic broadcast routing by sharing the resources along general links, while sending information to a set of predefined multiple destinations in a concurrent way. Due to the lack of redundancy in multipath and multicast structures, the multicast routing protocols are vulnerable to the component failure in ad-hoc networks. So it is the dire need to solve the problem optimally. One of the efficient techniques for solving the optimization problem is the Genetic Algorithm (GA. The key factors that determine the performance of GA is by the well designed architecture of chromosomes and operators in the intelligent algorithm. This paper proposes a new genetic algorithm based Multicast Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector Protocol for MANETs (GA-MAODV, which improves the packet delivery ratio of the routing messages. The GAbased MAODV allows each node in the network to send out multicast data packets, and the multicast data packets are broadcast when propagating along the multicast group tree.

  10. A HYBRID APPROACH FOR NODE CO-OPERATION BASED CLUSTERING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sathiyakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is termed as a set of wireless nodes which could be built with infrastructure less environment where network services are afforded by the nodes themselves. In such a situation, if a node refuses to co-operate with other nodes, then it will lead to a considerable diminution in throughput and the network operation decreases to low optimum value. Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the collaboration of nodes for packet routing ahead. Nevertheless, much of the existing work in MANETs imagines that mobile nodes (probably possessed by selfish users will pursue prearranged protocols without variation. Therefore, implementing the co-operation between the nodes turn out to be an significant issue. The previous work described a secured key model for ad hoc network with efficient node clustering based on reputation and ranking model. But the downside is that the co-operation with the nodes is less results in a communication error. To enhance the security in MANET, in this work, we present a hybrid approach, build a node co-operation among the nodes in MANET by evaluating the weightage of cooperativeness of each node in MANET. With the estimation of normal co-operative nodes, nodes are restructured on its own (self. Then clustering is made with the reorganized nodes to form a secured communication among the nodes in the MANET environment. The Simulation of the proposed Hybrid Approach for Node Cooperation based Clustering (HANCC work is done for varying topology, node size, attack type and intensity with different pause time settings and the performance evaluations are carried over in terms of node cooperativeness, clustering efficiency, communication overhead and compared with an existing secured key model. Compared to an existing secured key model, the proposed HANCC performance is 80-90% high.

  11. Performance Comparison of Secure Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Garg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Ad-Hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Each node operates not only as an end system but, also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. A node can get compromised during the route discovery process. Attackers from inside or outside can easily exploit the network. Several secure routing protocols are proposed for MANETs by researchers. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent secure routing protocols for MANETs: Secure Efficient Ad-Hoc Distance Vector Protocol i.e. SEAD (a proactive or table driven protocol and Ariadne (a reactive or on demand protocol.Compared to the proactive routing protocols, less control overhead is a distinct advantage of the reactive protocols. Thus, reactive routing protocols have better scalability than proactive routing protocols. However, when using reactive routing protocols, source nodes may suffer from long delays for route searching before they can forward data packets. Hence these protocols are not suitable for real-time applications. As per our findings the difference in the protocols mechanics leads to significant performance differentials for both of these protocols. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying simulation time. These simulations are carried out using the NS-2 network simulator. The results presented in this work illustrate the importance in carefully evaluating and implementing routing protocols in an ad hoc environment.

  12. T2AR: trust-aware ad-hoc routing protocol for MANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjayan, Gayathri; Subbiah, Janakiraman

    2016-01-01

    Secure data transfer against the malicious attacks is an important issue in an infrastructure-less independent network called mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). Trust assurance between MANET nodes is the key parameter in the high-security provision under dynamic topology variations and open wireless constraints. But, the malicious behavior of nodes reduces the trust level of the nodes that leads to an insecure data delivery. The increase in malicious attacks causes the excessive energy consumption that leads to a reduction of network lifetime. The lack of positional information update of the nodes in ad-hoc on-demand vector (AODV) protocol during the connection establishment offers less trust level between the nodes. Hence, the trust rate computation using energy and mobility models and its update are the essential tasks for secure data delivery. This paper proposes a trust-aware ad-hoc routing (T2AR) protocol to improve the trust level between the nodes in MANET. The proposed method modifies the traditional AODV routing protocol with the constraints of trust rate, energy, mobility based malicious behavior prediction. The packet sequence ID matching from the log reports of neighbor nodes determine the trust rate that avoids the malicious report generation. Besides, the direct and indirect trust observation schemes utilization increases the trust level. Besides, the received signal strength indicator utilization determines the trusted node is within the communication range or not. The comparative analysis between the proposed T2AR with the existing methods such as TRUNCMAN, RBT, GR, FBR and DICOTIDS regarding the average end-to-end delay, throughput, false positives, packet delivery ratio shows the effectiveness of T2AR in the secure MANET environment design.

  13. A Testbed Implementation for Securing OLSR in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Panaousis, Emmanouil A; Millar, Grant P; Ramrekha, Tipu A; Politis, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary personal computing devices are increasingly required to be portable and mobile enabling user’s wireless access, to wired network infrastructures and services. This approach to mobile computing and communication is only appropriate in situations where a coherent infrastructure is available. There are many situations where these requirements are not fulfilled such as; developing nations, rural areas, natural disasters, and military conflicts to name but a few. A practical solution is to use mobile devices interconnected via a wireless medium to form a network, known as a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET), and provide the services normally found in wired networks. Security in MANETs is an issue of paramount importance due to the wireless nature of the communication links. Additionally due to the lack of central administration security issues are different from conventional networks. For the purposes of this article we have used the “WMN test-bed” to enable secure routing in MANETs. The us...

  14. Data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information in a mobile ad hoc network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Shigeru; Hayashi, Takuma; Taenaka, Yuzo; Okuda, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE), Chachulski et al. (2007), improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow.

  15. Network Size and Connectivity in Mobile and Stationary Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    mobile ad hoc networks ( MANETs ) is that routes consisting of multiple hops will be available to connect those nodes that lack line-of- sight connectivity...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT One of the assumptions behind tactical mobile ad hoc networks ( MANETs ) is that routes consisting of multiple hops will be...Network Size and Connectivity in Mobile and Stationary Ad Hoc Networks Lance Joneckis Corinne Kramer David Sparrow David Tate I N S T I T U T E

  16. Evaluation of Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol in HetMAN Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Zahian Ismail; Rosilah Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), a type of network with special characteristics, needs a special mechanism to bear with its ad hoc behavior. Approach: The important issue in MANET is routing protocol. Routing protocol is a standard used to determine the route path taken during the transmission of data. Results: In this study we focused on the Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol for MANET. Simulation experiments were carried out using the OMNeT++ network s...

  17. Intelligent Networks Data Fusion Web-based Services for Ad-hoc Integrated WSNs-RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah Alshahrany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of variety of data fusion tools and techniques for big data processing poses the problem of the data and information integration called data fusion having objectives which can differ from one application to another. The design of network data fusion systems aimed at meeting these objectives, need to take into account of the necessary synergy that can result from distributed data processing within the data networks and data centres, involving increased computation and communication. This papers reports on how this processing distribution is functionally structured as configurable integrated web-based support services, in the context of an ad-hoc wireless sensor network used for sensing and tracking, in the context of distributed detection based on complete observations to support real rime decision making. The interrelated functional and hardware RFID-WSN integration is an essential aspect of the data fusion framework that focuses on multi-sensor collaboration as an innovative approach to extend the heterogeneity of the devices and sensor nodes of ad-hoc networks generating a huge amount of heterogeneous soft and hard raw data. The deployment and configuration of these networks require data fusion processing that includes network and service management and enhances the performance and reliability of networks data fusion support systems providing intelligent capabilities for real-time control access and fire detection.

  18. Adaptation of mobile ad-hoc network protocols for sensor networks to vehicle control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenya; Matsui, Yosuke; Koita, Takahiro

    2005-12-01

    As sensor network applications to monitor and control the physical environment from remote locations, a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) has been the focus of many recent research and development efforts. A MANET, autonomous system of mobile hosts, is characterized by multi-hop wireless links, absence of any cellular infrastructure, and frequent host mobility. Many kinds of routing protocols for ad-hoc network have been proposed and still actively updated, because each application has different characteristics and requirements. Since the current studies show it is almost impossible to design an efficient routing protocol to be adapted for all kinds of applications. We, therefore, have focused a certain application, inter-vehicle communication for ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems), to evaluate the routing protocols. In our experiment, we defined several traffic flow models for inter-vehicle communication applications. By using simulation, we evaluated end-to-end delay and throughput performance of data transmission for inter-vehicle communications with the existing routing protocols. The result confirms the feasibility of using some routing protocols for inter-vehicle communication services.

  19. Linking Satellites Via Earth "Hot Spots" and the Internet to Form Ad Hoc Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stu; Grosvenor, Sandra; Ingram, Mary Ann; Langley, John; Miranda, Felix; Lee, Richard Q.; Romanofsky, Robert; Zaman, Afoz; Popovic, Zoya

    2004-01-01

    As more assets are placed in orbit, opportunities emerge to combine various sets of satellites in temporary constellations to perform collaborative image collections. Often, new operations concepts for a satellite or set of satellites emerge after launch. To the degree with which new space assets can be inexpensively and rapidly integrated into temporary or "ad hoc" constellations, will determine whether these new ideas will be implemented or not. On the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) satellite, a New Millennium Program mission, a number of experiments were conducted and are being conducted to demonstrate various aspects of an architecture that, when taken as a whole, will enable progressive mission autonomy. In particular, the target architecture will use adaptive ground antenna arrays to form, as close as possible, the equivalent of wireless access points for low earth orbiting satellites. Coupled with various ground and flight software and the Internet. the architecture enables progressive mission autonomy. Thus, new collaborative sensing techniques can be implemented post-launch. This paper will outline the overall operations concept and highlight details of both the research effort being conducted in ad hoc constellations, mission autonomy and

  20. Efficient Resource Conservation Design in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Reactive Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Sujitha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network is a compilation of wireless mobile terminals that are in contact with each other in the absence of a permanent infrastructure network. This gives a irregular formation. Many resources like power, energy, reliable data delivery and end to end delay plays a significant role in the network. But due to the dynamic movement of nodes, power management and energy conservation stands as a critical area. This is also due to the limited battery power and the maximum utilization of power by the nodes in the network .The responsibility of saving power has increased and it is possible byminimizing the consumption during the routing process. It is done in order to expand the lifetime of the network. In view of such a vital position, we introduce a new algorithm using an MAODV( Modified AdHoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol protocol which exactly concentrates on power awareness at the time of route selection. Power status of each and every node is observed to avoid excess consumption. It also makes sure that there is a rise in the speed of route selection and discovery process. Route Patch-Up scheme used in this algorithm results in optimum utilization of power using an Modified AODV (MAODV protocol. Thus the idea proposed provides better performance through simulation over NS2.

  1. A Novel Method for Intrusion Detection System to Enhance Security in Ad hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bathla, Himani

    2010-01-01

    The notion of an ad hoc network is a new paradigm that allows mobile hosts (nodes) to communicate without relying on a predefined infrastructure to keep the network connected. Most nodes are assumed to be mobile and communication is assumed to be wireless. The mobility of nodes in an ad-hoc network means that both the population and the topology of the network are highly dynamic. It is very difficult to design a once-for-all intrusion detection system. A secure protocol should atleast include mechanisms against known attack types. In addition, it should provide a scheme to easily add new security features in the future. The paper includes the detailed description of Proposed Intrusion Detection System based on Local Reputation Scheme. The proposed System also includes concept of Redemption and Fading these are mechanism that allow nodes previously considered malicious to become a part of the network again. The simulation of the proposed system is to be done using NS-2 simulator.

  2. Gateway Node-Based Greedy Routing Algorithm for Efficient Packet Forwarding in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas A,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vehicular communications are one of the hottest research topics. It has also gained much attention in industry as well as academia. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs are advances of the wireless communication technologies. Routing is one of the key research issues in VANETs as long as it plays an important role in public safety and commercial applications. In VANET, routing of data is a challenging task due to high speed of nodes (i.e., vehicles movement and rapidly changing topology. Recent research showedthat existing routing algorithm solutions for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs are not able to meet the unique requirements of vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose Gateway Node-Based Greedy Routing(GNGR, a reliable greedy position-based routing approach algorithm. In GNGR, we forward the packets to any of the nodes in the corner of the transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop. With this consideration, the nodes move towards the direction of the destination. We propose Dynamic TransitionMobility Model (DTMM to evaluate our routing technique. This paper gives a complete description of our packet forwarding approach and simulation results. The simulation results are carried out based on Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR. Our routing technique is compared with other routing techniques; the PDR is improved significantly compared with other routing techniques of VANET.

  3. Balancement de charges dans les réseaux Ad Hoc.

    OpenAIRE

    BERRABAH, Abdelkrim

    2014-01-01

    Un réseau mobile Ad Hoc sans fils est un réseau mobile sans infrastructure tel que tous les noeuds sont capables de mouvement et peuvent être relié de façon arbitraire. Il ya de nombreux protocole pour mobile Ad Hoc, on peut les catégorisés en : table-driven routing protocoles ces derniers tentent de maintenir la mise à jour des informations de routage en chaque noeud. Les protocoles de routage mobile Ad Hoc sans fils les plus connus sont ‘dynamic source routing(DSR)’ et ‘Ad Hoc on-demand dis...

  4. Packet Transmission Analysis in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks using Revival Mobility Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Prasanth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs have been recently attracting an increasing attention from both research and industry communities. VANETs are currently deployed on a large scale, research in this area is mostly simulation based. Mobility models or the movement patterns of nodes communicating wirelessly, play a vital role in determining the protocol performance in VANET. We still have a limited understanding of the required level of mobility details for modeling and simulating VANETs. Thus, it is essential to study and analyze various mobility models and their effect on VANET protocols. In this paper, we examine d different mobility models proposed in the recent research literature. We proposed Revival Mobility Model (RMM and evaluate its effect on packet delivery in VANETs by ns-2 simulations.

  5. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  6. Optimal Scheduling for Fair Resource Allocation in Ad Hoc Networks with Elastic and Inelastic Traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Jaramillo, Juan Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of congestion control and scheduling in ad hoc wireless networks that have to support a mixture of best-effort and real-time traffic. Optimization and stochastic network theory have been successful in designing architectures for fair resource allocation to meet long-term throughput demands. However, to the best of our knowledge, strict packet delay deadlines were not considered in this framework previously. In this paper, we propose for the first time a model for incorporating the quality of service (QoS) requirements of packets with deadlines in the optimization framework. The solution to the problem results in a joint congestion control and scheduling algorithm which fairly allocates resources to meet the fairness objectives of both elastic and inelastic flows, and per-packet delay requirements of inelastic flows.

  7. QoS Routing and Performance Evaluation for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using OLSR Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Amnai, Mohamed; Abouchabaka, Jaafar

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Ad-Hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes in communication without using infrastructure. As the real-time applications used in today's wireless network grow, we need some schemes to provide more suitable service for them. We know that most of actual schemes do not perform well on traffic which is not strictly CBR. Therefore, in this paper we have studied the impact, respectively, of mobility models and the density of nodes on the performances (End-to-End Delay, Throughput and Packet Delivery ratio) of routing protocol (Optimized Link State Routing) OLSR by using in the first a real-time VBR (MPEG-4) and secondly the Constant Bit Rate (CBR) traffic. Finally we compare the performance on both cases. Experimentally, we considered the three mobility models as follows Random Waypoint, Random Direction and Mobgen Steady State. The experimental results illustrate that the behavior of OLSR change according to the model and the used traffics.

  8. Distributed Stochastic Power Control in Ad-hoc Networks: A Nonconvex Case

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan; Li, Jason H

    2011-01-01

    Utility-based power allocation in wireless ad-hoc networks is inherently nonconvex because of the global coupling induced by the co-channel interference. To tackle this challenge, we first show that the globally optimal point lies on the boundary of the feasible region, which is utilized as a basis to transform the utility maximization problem into an equivalent max-min problem with more structure. By using extended duality theory, penalty multipliers are introduced for penalizing the constraint violations, and the minimum weighted utility maximization problem is then decomposed into subproblems for individual users to devise a distributed stochastic power control algorithm, where each user stochastically adjusts its target utility to improve the total utility by simulated annealing. The proposed distributed power control algorithm can guarantee global optimality at the cost of slow convergence due to simulated annealing involved in the global optimization. The geometric cooling scheme and suitable penalty pa...

  9. A Combinational Perspective in Stimulating Cooperation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahshid Rahnamay-Naeini; Masoud Sabaei

    2011-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks cooperation among nodes cannot always be assumed since nodes with limited resources and different owners are capable of making independent decisions. Cooperation problems in topology control and packet forwarding tasks have been mostly studied separately but these two tasks are not independent. Considering a joint cooperation problem by taking into account dependencies between tasks will result in more reliable and efficient networks. In this paper topology control definition is extended to cover cooperation problem in both packet forwarding and topology control in a single problem. In this definition nodes have to adjust their transmission power and decide on their relay role. This paper models the interactions of nodes as a potential game with two-dimensional utility function. The presented model, named TCFORCE (Topology Control packet FORwarding Cooperation Enforcement), preserves the network connectivity and reduces the energy consumption by providing cooperative paths between all pairs of nodes in the network.

  10. Reducing Congestion in Obstructed Highways with Traffic Data Dissemination Using Ad hoc Vehicular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Thomas D.; Nekovee, Maziar; Coveney, Peter V.

    2010-12-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITSs) and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through a network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to receivers. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols to influence vehicular flow, reducing congestion in road networks. The computational experiments we present show how a car-following model and lane-change algorithm can be adapted to "react" to the reception of information. This model also illustrates the advantages of coupling together with vehicular flow modelling tools and network simulation tools.

  11. Trust Based Scheme for QoS Assurance in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a peer-to-peer wireless network where nodes can communicate with each other without the use of infrastructure such as access points or base stations. These networks are self-configuring, capable of self-directed operation and hastily deployable. Nodes cooperate to provide connectivity, operates without centralized administration. Nodes are itinerant, topology can be very dynamic and nodes must be able to relay traffic since communicating nodes might be out of range. The dynamic nature of MANET makes network open to attacks and unreliability. Routing is always the most significant part for any networks. Each node should not only work for itself, but should be cooperative with other nodes. Node misbehaviour due to selfish or malicious intention could significantly degrade the performance of MANET. The Qos parameters like PDR, throughput and delay are affected directly due to such misbehaving nodes. We focus on trust management framework, which is intended to cope with misbehav...

  12. Modelling and Initial Validation of the DYMO Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espensen, Kristian Asbjørn Leth; Kjeldsen, Mads Keblov; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2008-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructureless network established by a set of mobile devices using wireless communication. The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) protocol is a routing protocol for multi-hop communication in MANETs currently under development by the Internet Engineering Task...... Force (IETF). This paper presents a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) model of the mandatory parts of the DYMO protocol, and shows how scenario-based state space exploration has been used to validate key properties of the protocol. Our CPN modelling and verification work has spanned two revisions of the DYMO...... protocol specification and have had direct impact on the most recent version of the protocol specification....

  13. Performance Evaluation of AODV Routing Protocol in Cognitive Radio Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhangi Mahamuni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio is designed for the utilisation of unused frequency. The transmission opportunity of a cognitive node is not guaranteed due to the presence of primary users (PUs.To better characterize theunique features of cognitive radio networks, we propose new routing metrics, including Routing for CRNs using IEEE 802.11 which are the official standards for wireless communication. Routing protocols, for network without infrastructures, have to be developed. These protocols determine how messages can be forwarded, from a source node to a destination node which is out of the range of the former, using other mobile nodes of the network. Routing, which includes for example maintenance and discovery of routes, is one of the very challenging areas in communication. Numerous simulations of routing protocols have been made using different simulators, such as ns-2.The impact of sensing time, route path and mobility in Ad- Hoc networks on connectivity and throughput tested.

  14. A New Cluster-based Wormhole Intrusion detection algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Debdutta Barman; Chaki, Nabendu

    2010-01-01

    In multi-hop wireless systems, the need for cooperation among nodes to relay each other's packets exposes them to a wide range of security attacks. A particularly devastating attack is the wormhole attack, where a malicious node records control traffic at one location and tunnels it to another compromised node, possibly far away, which replays it locally. Routing security in ad hoc networks is often equated with strong and feasible node authentication and lightweight cryptography. Unfortunately, the wormhole attack can hardly be defeated by crypto graphical measures, as wormhole attackers do not create separate packets. They simply replay packets already existing on the network, which pass the cryptographic checks. Existing works on wormhole detection have often focused on detection using specialized hardware, such as directional antennas, etc. In this paper, we present a cluster based counter-measure for the wormhole attack, that alleviates these drawbacks and efficiently mitigates the wormhole attack in MAN...

  15. CR-MAC: A multichannel MAC protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a cross-layer based cognitive radio multichannel medium access control (MAC) protocol with TDMA, which integrate the spectrum sensing at physical (PHY) layer and the packet scheduling at MAC layer, for the ad hoc wireless networks. The IEEE 802.11 standard allows for the use of multiple channels available at the PHY layer, but its MAC protocol is designed only for a single channel. A single channel MAC protocol does not work well in a multichannel environment, because of the multichannel hidden terminal problem. Our proposed protocol enables secondary users (SUs) to utilize multiple channels by switching channels dynamically, thus increasing network throughput. In our proposed protocol, each SU is equipped with only one spectrum agile transceiver, but solves the multichannel hidden terminal problem using temporal synchronization. The proposed cognitive radio MAC (CR-MAC) protocol allows SUs to identify and use the unused frequency spectrum in a way that constrains the level of interference...

  16. A REVIEW ON ADVANCED TRAFFIC CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a dynamicdistributed system of wireless nodes that moveindependently of each other. The operating transmissionrange of the nodes is limited and as a result, MANETroutes are often multi-hop in nature. Any node in aMANET can become a source or destination, and eachnode can function as a router, forwarding data for its peers.MANET routing protocols are either proactive or reactivein nature. Proactive routing protocols determine andmaintain routes between any pair of nodes irrespective oftheir requirement. The reactive on-demand routingprotocols determine a route only when required. As thenetwork topology changes dynamically, reactive ondemandrouting has been preferred over proactive routing.In this Paper, we will review the routing protocol in theMANET.

  17. POWER-AWARE ROUTING BASED ON DSR FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jingbo; Hong Peilin; Li Jinsheng

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption is a crucial design concern in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs)since nodes are powered by batteries with limited energy, whereas Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)protocol does not take the energy limitation of MANET nodes into account. This paper proposes an energy-saving routing algorithm based on DSR: Power Aware Routing protocol based on DSR (PAR-DSR). The design objective of PAR-DSR is to select energy-efficient paths. The main features of PAR-DSR are: (1) Nodes use the Signal Attenuation Rate (SAR) to conduct power control operations;(2) Minimum path cost as metric to balance the traffic and energy consumption of wireless nodes. The simulation results show that PAR-DSR can greatly reduce the energy consumption of MANET nodes.The average node lifetime of PAR-DSR is 50%-77% longer than that of DSR.

  18. Implementation and performance evaluation of mobile ad hoc network for Emergency Telemedicine System in disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Kim, D Y; Jung, S M; Lee, M H; Kim, K S; Lee, C K; Nah, J Y; Lee, S H; Kim, J H; Choi, W J; Yoo, S K

    2009-01-01

    So far we have developed Emergency Telemedicine System (ETS) which is a robust system using heterogeneous networks. In disaster areas, however, ETS cannot be used if the primary network channel is disabled due to damages on the network infrastructures. Thus we designed network management software for disaster communication network by combination of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) and Wireless LAN (WLAN). This software maintains routes to a Backbone Gateway Node in dynamic network topologies. In this paper, we introduce the proposed disaster communication network with management software, and evaluate its performance using ETS between Medical Center and simulated disaster areas. We also present the results of network performance analysis which identifies the possibility of actual Telemedicine Service in disaster areas via MANET and mobile network (e.g. HSDPA, WiBro).

  19. Location-based route self-recovery for mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medidi, Sirisha; Wang, Jiong

    2007-04-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a radio packet network without dedicated infrastructures. In recent years it has received tremendous attention because of its self-configuration and self-maintenance capabilities. However, because of node mobility and shared wireless links, its routing protocol design presents nontrivial challenges such as broadcast storm, stale route and delay. This paper proposes a location-based route self-recovery technique for source-initiated routing protocols. The purpose of route self-recovery is to reduce overhead and delay during route maintenance as well as allowing continuous packet forwarding for fault resilience. The ns-2 based simulation shows throughput and overhead improvements of source-initiated routing with route self-recovery and in the case of highly dynamic environments and heavy traffic loads, it is more robust and scalable than other protocols.

  20. Cognitive radio network in vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Mun-Yee Lim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio network and Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET are recent emerging concepts in wireless networking. Cognitive radio network obtains knowledge of its operational geographical environment to manage sharing of spectrum between primary and secondary users, while VANET shares emergency safety messages among vehicles to ensure safety of users on the road. Cognitive radio network is employed in VANET to ensure the efficient use of spectrum, as well as to support VANET’s deployment. Random increase and decrease of spectrum users, unpredictable nature of VANET, high mobility, varying interference, security, packet scheduling and priority assignment are the challenges encountered in a typical cognitive VANET environment. This paper provides survey and critical analysis on different challenges of cognitive radio VANET, with discussion on the open issues, challenges and performance metrics, for different cognitive radio VANET applications.