WorldWideScience

Sample records for ad hoc wireless

  1. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  2. Routing Security in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Mohammad O.; Cardei, Mihaela; Wu, Jie

    Wireless networks provide rapid, untethered access to information and computing, eliminating the barriers of distance, time, and location for many applications ranging from collaborative, distributed mobile computing to disaster recovery (such as fire, flood, earthquake), law enforcement (crowd control, search, and rescue), and military communications (command, control, surveillance, and reconnaissance). An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration [11

  3. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies

  4. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  5. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  6. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  7. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet

  8. Implementation and Experimental Evaluation of Wireless Ad hoc Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A wireless ad hoc network consists of a number of mobile nodes that temporarily form a dynamic infrastructure-less network. New routing protocols that can adapt to the frequent topology changes induced by node mobility and varying link qualities are needed. During the last decade dozens of different ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed, optimized and partially compared, mainly through simulation studies. This thesis takes an experimental approach to the evaluation of ad hoc routing pro...

  9. Fundamental Properties of Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekmat, R.

    2005-01-01

    Wireless mobile ad-hoc networks are formed by mobile devices that set up a possibly short-lived network for communication needs of the moment. Ad-hoc networks are decentralized, self-organizing networks capable of forming a communication network without relying on any fixed infrastructure. Each nod

  10. Reliable adaptive multicast protocol in wireless Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc network environments, every link is wireless and every node is mobile. Those features make data lost easily as well as multicasting inefficient and unreliable. Moreover, Efficient and reliable multicast in wireless ad hoc network is a difficult issue. It is a major challenge to transmission delays and packet losses due to link changes of a multicast tree at the provision of high delivery ratio for each packet transmission in wireless ad hoc network environment.In this paper, we propose and evaluate Reliable Adaptive Multicast Protocol (RAMP) based on a relay node concept. Relay nodes are placed along the multicast tree. Data recovery is done between relay nodes. RAMP supports a reliable multicasting suitable for mobile ad hoc network by reducing the number of packet retransmissions. We compare RAMP with SRM (Scalable Reliable Multicast). Simulation results show that the RAMP has high delivery ratio and low end-to-end delay for packet transmission.

  11. Secure and reliable wireless and ad hoc communications

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Son Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Wireless and ad hoc communication systems create additional challenges for the implementation of security and reliability services when compared to fxed networks. On the one hand, the inherent characteristics of wireless environment contribute serious system vulnerabilities if the security requirements are not met. On the other hand, the mobility pattern as well as resource constraints of ad hoc devices make security design more di cult. The principal objective of SWACOM pro...

  12. IP ADDRESS AUTOCONFIGURATION FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿姆贾德

    2002-01-01

    A novel mechanism was specified by which a node in ad hoc network may autoconfigure an IP address which is unique throughout the mobile ad hoc network. This new algorithm imposes less and constant overhead and delay in obtaining an IP address, and fully utilizes the available addresses space of an ad hoc network, and independent of the existing routing protocol, and less prone to security threats. Moreover, a new Join/Leave mechanism was proposed as an enhancement to the new IP address autoconfiguration algorithm, to support the overall operation of the existing routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks.

  13. Mobility Prediction in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks using Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaniche, Heni

    2010-01-01

    Mobility prediction allows estimating the stability of paths in a mobile wireless Ad Hoc networks. Identifying stable paths helps to improve routing by reducing the overhead and the number of connection interruptions. In this paper, we introduce a neural network based method for mobility prediction in Ad Hoc networks. This method consists of a multi-layer and recurrent neural network using back propagation through time algorithm for training.

  14. Virtual reality mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ziyue; Gong Bo; He Xingui

    2008-01-01

    For wireless ad hoc networks simulation.node's mobility pattern and traffic pattern are two key elements.A new simulation model is presented based on the virtual reality collision detection algorithm in obstacle environment,and the model uses the path planning method to avoid obstacles and to compute the node's moving path.Obstacles also affect node's signal propagation.Considering these factors,this study implements the mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks.Simulation results show that the model has a significant impact on the performance of protocols.

  15. Study on Sinkhole Attacks in Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAGANDEEP

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically self-organize in arbitrary and temporary network topologies. As compared to conventional network, wireless ad hocnetwork are more vulnerable to the security attacks. The nature and structure of wireless ad hoc network makes it very attractive to attackers, because there is no fixed infrastructure and administrativeapproach in it. “Sinkhole attack” is one of the severe attacks in this type of network; this makes trustable nodes to malicious nodes that result in loss of secure information. This paper focuses on sinkhole attacks on routing protocols such as DSR, AODV. To overcome the problems occur due to sinkhole we discuss about Security-aware routing (SAR which helps to reduce the impact of such attack.

  16. Energy management in wireless cellular and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Imran, Muhammad; Qaraqe, Khalid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates energy management approaches for energy efficient or energy-centric system design and architecture and presents end-to-end energy management in the recent heterogeneous-type wireless network medium. It also considers energy management in wireless sensor and mesh networks by exploiting energy efficient transmission techniques and protocols. and explores energy management in emerging applications, services and engineering to be facilitated with 5G networks such as WBANs, VANETS and Cognitive networks. A special focus of the book is on the examination of the energy management practices in emerging wireless cellular and ad hoc networks. Considering the broad scope of energy management in wireless cellular and ad hoc networks, this book is organized into six sections covering range of Energy efficient systems and architectures; Energy efficient transmission and techniques; Energy efficient applications and services. .

  17. An Intrusion Detection Architecture for Clustered Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Jaydip

    2010-01-01

    Intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc networks is a challenging task because these networks change their topologies dynamically, lack concentration points where aggregated traffic can be analyzed, utilize infrastructure protocols that are susceptible to manipulation, and rely on noisy, intermittent wireless communications. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on co-operative algorithms, absence of c...

  18. Access Point Security Service for wireless ad-hoc communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, J.; Nijdam, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a security solution for ad-hoc peer-to-peer communication. The security solution is based on a scenario where two wireless devices require secure communication, but share no security relationship a priori. The necessary requirements for the secur

  19. WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK UNDER BLACK-HOLE ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Om

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Ad-hoc Network is a temporary and decentralized type of wireless network. Due to security vulnerabilities in the routing protocol currently, this type of network is unprotected to network layer attacks. Black-hole attack is such a type of attack and is a Denial-of-Service (DoS attack. Due to its nature, the attack makes the source node send all the data packets to a Black-hole node that ends up dropping all the packets. The aim of this paper is to reflect light on the severe effects of a Black-hole attack in a Wireless Ad-hoc network and the drawbacks of the security mechanisms being used for the mitigation of this attack.

  20. Secure Geographic Routing in Ad Hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahariadis Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Security in sensor networks is one of the most relevant research topics in resource constrained wireless devices and networks. Several attacks can be suffered in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks (WSN, which are highly susceptible to attacks, due to the limited resources of the nodes. In this paper, we propose innovative and lightweight localization techniques that allow for intrusion identification and isolation schemes and provide accurate location information. This information is used by our routing protocol which additionally incorporates a distributed trust model to prevent several routing attacks to the network. We finally evaluate our algorithms for accurate localization and for secure routing which have been implemented and tested in real ad hoc and wireless sensor networks.

  1. Recent development in wireless sensor and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong; Yang, Yeon-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of numerous physically distributed autonomous devices used for sensing and monitoring the physical and/or environmental conditions. A WSN uses a gateway that provides wireless connectivity to the wired world as well as distributed networks. There are many open problems related to Ad-Hoc networks and its applications. Looking at the expansion of the cellular infrastructure, Ad-Hoc network may be acting as the basis of the 4th generation wireless technology with the new paradigm of ‘anytime, anywhere communications’. To realize this, the real challenge would be the security, authorization and management issues of the large scale WSNs. This book is an edited volume in the broad area of WSNs. The book covers various chapters like Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks, its Coverage, Connectivity as well as Deployment. It covers comparison of various communication protocols and algorithms such as MANNET, ODMRP and ADMR Protocols for Ad hoc Multicasting, Location Based C...

  2. Cooperative Beamforming for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Lun; Poor, H Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Via collaborative beamforming, nodes in a wireless network are able to transmit a common message over long distances in an energy efficient fashion. However, the process of making available the same message to all collaborating nodes introduces delays. In this paper, a MAC-PHY cross-layer scheme is proposed that enables collaborative beamforming at significantly reduced collaboration overhead. It consists of two phases. In the first phase, nodes transmit locally in a random access time-slotted fashion. Simultaneous transmissions from multiple source nodes are viewed as linear mixtures of all transmitted packets. In the second phase, a set of collaborating nodes, acting as a distributed antenna system, beamform the received analog waveform to one or more faraway destinations. This step requires multiplication of the received analog waveform by a complex weight, which is independently computed by each cooperating node, and which allows packets bound to the same destination to add coherently at the destination n...

  3. Interference in wireless ad hoc networks with smart antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of directional antennas in wireless ad hoc networks can actually increase interference due to limitations of virtual carrier sensing. We derive a simple mathematical expression for interference in both physical and virtual carrier sense networks, which reveals counter-intuitively that receivers in large dense networks with directional antennas can experience larger interference than in omnidirectional networks unless the beamwidth is sufficiently small. Validity of mathematical analysis is confirmed using simulations.

  4. Multicost Routing Approach in Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ramamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A Wireless ad hoc network is a collection of autonomous movable nodes that communicate with each other over wireless links without any static infrastructure. In these networks there is no fixed topology because of the mobility of nodes, interference, multipath propagation and path loss. A variety of routing protocols and algorithm with varying network settings are analyzed to link between the nodes and communicate packets to their destinations. Most of these algorithms are single cost, in the logic that they consign a scalar cost parameter to every link and compute the path that has minimum cost. Although multicost routing, a vector of cost parameters is consigned to each link and the cost vector of a path is well-defined based on the cost vectors of the links that embrace it. Adjustable transmission power control of the nodes with multi cost routing algorithm can support optimizeto acquire the reduced interference and improve the ad hoc network performance. Approach: The link and path of the wireless network is consigned with several cost parameters. Hop count, total interference, node link delay, residual energy of a node and the node transmission power are the cost parameters assigned for link and path of the ad hoc networks. Multicost parameters are combined in different optimization function with respect to various routing algorithm. Results: Simulation and optimization shows multicost SUM/MIN Energy-Interference algorithm with variable transmission power can lead to decrease the interference and improves the overall network performance. Conclusion: The function optimized for wireless ad hoc networks that the Multicost SUM/MIN Energy-Interference algorithm achieves improved performance over than the single cost algorithm.

  5. MWAHCA: A Multimedia Wireless Ad Hoc Cluster Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node’s capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss. The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.

  6. Wireless ad hoc and sensor networks management, performance, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been employed across a wide range of applications, there are very few books that emphasize the algorithm description, performance analysis, and applications of network management techniques in WSNs. Filling this need, Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Management, Performance, and Applications summarizes not only traditional and classical network management techniques, but also state-of-the-art techniques in this area. The articles presented are expository, but scholarly in nature, including the appropriate history background, a review of current

  7. ON THE CAPACITY REGION OF WIRELESS AD HOC RELAY NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Qinyun; Yao Wangsheng; Peng Jianmin; Su Gang

    2006-01-01

    Network capacity is a key characteristic to evaluate the performance of wireless networks. The goal of this paper is to study the capacity of wireless ad hoc relay network. In the model, there is at most ns source nodes transmitting signal simultaneously in the network and the arbitrarily complex network coding is allowed. The upper capacity bound of the network model are derived from the max-flow min-cut theorem and the lower capacity bound are obtained by the rate-distortion function for the Gaussian source. Finally, simulation results show that the upper network capacity will decrease as the number of source nodes is increased.

  8. Analysis on Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N.Renjith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Outlook of wireless communication system marked an extreme transform with the invention of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. WSN is a promising technolog y for enabling a variety of applications like environmental monitoring, security and applications that save our lives and assets. In WSN, large numbers of sensor nodes are deployed to sensing and gathering information and forward them to the base station with the help of routing protocol. Routing protocols plays a major role by identifying and maintaining the routes in the network. Competence o f sensor networks relay on the strong and effective routing protocol used. In this paper, we present a simulation based performance evaluation of differen t Ad hoc routing protocols like AODV, DYMO, FSR, LANM AR, RIP and ZRP in Wireless Sensor Networks. Based on the study, the future research areas and k ey challenges for routing protocol in WSN are to optimize network performance for QoS support and en ergy conservation

  9. Defending Wormhole Attack in Wireless Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha S.Raote

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ad-hoc networks are the temporarily established wireless networks which does not require fixedinfrastructure it is also called as infrastructure less network. Because of some flaws of adhoc networksuch as shared wireless medium and lack of any central coordination makes them more prone to attacksin comparison with the wired network. Among all the attacks wormhole attack is the most severe attack.In this attack an attacker capture the packets at one location in the network and send it two anotherattacker at a distant location through tunnels which is established through different ways like packetencapsulation, using high power transmission or by using direct antennas. This tunnel between twocolluding attackers is virtual and it is called as a wormhole. The wormhole attack is possible even if theattacker has not comprised any hosts, and all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality.By using the various approaches for finding the solution over wormhole attack, the dynamic informationof the packets could still be modified. So in order to give more robust protection in some special scenariolike battlefields, which requires highly secured information, there is need of developing some securedmechanism for wormhole detection and prevention. Taking into consideration this problem the proposedscheme is developed. This paper discusses proposed works on wormhole attack along with its availablecounter measures in ad-hoc wireless network.

  10. A Smart Booster Approach In Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzar Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc network is upcoming next generation technology. The foremost reason to be the popularity of MANET is its infrastructure less nature. MANET is a group of wireless mobile nodes which are connected wirelessly. Nodes may be highly mobile because the beauty of wireless network (like MANET or cellular system lies in mobility. But due to this mobility of nodes, the topology of the node and network changed frequently. This frequent change topology affect to the communication between nodes. If nodes are within the range of each other they can communicate properly but if nodes are not in the range of each other, communication will not be possible smoothly or even ongoing communication may be disrupt or lost. So there is a need to develop and design a mechanism or system that can handle such types of situation and prevent communication failure or frequent link failure. In the present work a novel booster mechanism approach is proposed to overcome such situation or Link failure. In the proposed Approach, the level of the Power at both the Transmitter as well as Receiver is measured in order to maintain communication smooth between the nodes. If one node is moving away from the communicating node then both moving node will measure its receiving power with respect to the distance and if its current power level reaches the threshold level it switched “ON” its Booster and at the same time it send a message to source node which contains received power level of moving node due to this ,that source node also “ON” its Booster and thus both nodes connect together to protect the link failure during that mobility. The Booster Approach is a novel concept in the direction of smooth communication in dynamic or wireless environment in Mobile Ad hoc Network.

  11. Wireless sensor and ad hoc networks under diversified network scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Due to significant advantages, including convenience, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the implementation and use of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks have gained steep growth in recent years. This timely book presents the current state-of-the-art in these popular technologies, providing you with expert guidance for your projects in the field. You find broad-ranging coverage of important concepts and methods, definitions of key terminology, and a look at the direction of future research. Supported with nearly 150 illustrations, the book discusses a variety of critical topics, from topology

  12. An Intrusion Detection Architecture for Clustered Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc networks is a challenging task because these networks change their topologies dynamically, lack concentration points where aggregated traffic can be analyzed, utilize infrastructure protocols that are susceptible to manipulation, and rely on noisy, intermittent wireless communications. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on co-operative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. In this paper, we present a cooperative, distributed intrusion detection architecture based on clustering of the nodes that addresses the security vulnerabilities of the network and facilitates accurate detection of attacks. The architecture is organized as a dynamic hierarchy in which the intrusion data is acquired by the nodes and is incrementally aggregated, reduced in volume and analyzed as it flows upwards to the cluster-head. The cluster-heads of adja...

  13. An ad hoc wireless sensor network for tele medicine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in embedded computing systems have led to the emergence of wireless sensor networks (SNETs), consisting of small, battery-powered motes with limited computation and radio communication capabilities. SNETs permit data gathering and computation to be deeply embedded in the physical environment. Large scale ad hoc sensor networks (ASNET), when deployed among mobile patients, can provide dynamic data query architecture to allow medical specialists to monitor patients at any place via the web or cellular network. In case of an emergency, doctors and/or nurses will be contacted automatically through their handheld personal digital assistants (PDAs) or cellular phones. In specific, the proposed network consists of sensor nodes at the first layer whose responsibility is to measure, collect and communicate, via wired or wireless interface, readings to a microcontroller presenting the second layer of architecture. Deployed microcontrollers process incoming readings and report to a central system via a wireless interface. The implemented network distinguishes between periodic sensor readings and critical or event driven readings where higher priorities is given for the latter. In this paper we implement 3 special cases for tracking and monitoring patients and doctors using SNETs. In addition, the performance of a large scale of our implementation has been tested by means of mathematical analysis. (author)

  14. CAPACITY EVALUATION OF MULTI-CHANNEL WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jiandong; Zygmunt J. Haas; Min Sheng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the capacity of multi-channel, multi-hop ad hoc network is evaluated.In particular, the performance of multi-hop ad hoc network with single channel IEEE 802.11MAC utilizing different topologies is shown. Also the scaling laws of throughputs for large-scale ad hoc networks and the theoretical guaranteed throughput bounds for multi-channel gridtopology systems are proposed. The results presented in this work will help researchers to choosethe proper parameter settings in evaluation of protocols for multi-hop ad hoc networks.

  15. Optimizing Local Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, Salman

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate local capacity of wireless ad hoc networks with several medium access protocols and identify the most optimal protocol. We define local capacity as the average information rate received by a receiver randomly located in the network. We analyzed grid pattern protocols where simultaneous transmitters are positioned in a regular grid pattern, pure ALOHA protocols where simultaneous transmitters are dispatched according to a uniform Poisson distribution and exclusion protocols where simultaneous transmitters are dispatched according to an exclusion rule such as node coloring and carrier sense protocols. Our analysis allows us to conjecture that local capacity is optimal when simultaneous transmitters are positioned in a grid pattern based on equilateral triangles and our results show that this optimal local capacity is at most double the local capacity of simple ALOHA protocol. Our results also show that node coloring and carrier sense protocols approach the optimal local capacity by an ...

  16. The Evolution of IDS Solutions in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks To Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novarun Deb

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The domain of wireless networks is inherently vulnerable to attacks due to the unreliable wireless medium. Such networks can be secured from intrusions using either prevention or detection schemes. This paper focuses its study on intrusion detection rather than prevention of attacks. As attackers keep onimprovising too, an active prevention method alone cannot provide total security to the system. Here in lies the importance of intrusion detection systems (IDS that are solely designed to detect intrusions in real time. Wireless networks are broadly classified into Wireless Ad-hoc Networks (WAHNs, Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and the most recent Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs. Several IDS solutions have been proposed for these networks. This paper is an extension to a survey of IDS solutions for MANETs and WMNs published earlier in the sense that the present survey offers a comparative insight of recent IDS solutions for all the sub domains of wireless networks.

  17. DelPHI: wormhole detection mechanism for ad hoc wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, HS; Wong Lui, KS

    2006-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, data transmission is performed within an untrusted wireless environment. Various kinds of attack have been identified and corresponding solutions have been proposed. Wormhole attack is one of the serious attacks which forms a serious threat in the networks, especially against many ad hoc wireless routing protocols and location-based wireless security system. We identify two types of wormhole attacks. In the first type, malicious nodes do not take part in finding rou...

  18. Cluster-based Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Wu; Zhisheng Liu; Yongxin Feng; Guangxing Wang

    2004-01-01

    There are inherent vulnerabilities that are not easily preventable in the mobile Ad-Hoc networks.To build a highly secure wireless Ad-Hoc network,intrusion detection and response techniques need to be deployed;The intrusion detection and cluster-based Ad-Hoc networks has been introduced,then,an architecture for better intrusion detection based on cluster using Data Mining in wireless Ad-Hoc networks has been shown. A statistical anomaly detection approach has been used.The anomaly detection and trace analysis have been done locally in each node and possibly through cooperation with clusterhead detection in the network.

  19. A Survey on Security Issues in Wireless Ad hoc Network Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sreedhar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc wireless network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that self-configure to construct a network without the need for any established infrastructure or backbone. Ad hoc networks use mobile nodes to enable communication outside wireless transmission range. Due to the absence of any fixed infrastructure, it becomes difficult to make use of the existing routing techniques for network services, and this poses a number of challenges in ensuring the security of the communication. Many of the ad hoc routing protocols that address security issues rely on implicit trust relationships to route packets among participating nodes. The general security objectives like authentication, confidentiality, integrity, availability and nonrepudiation, the ad hoc routing protocols should also addresslocation confidentiality, cooperation fairness and absence oftraffic diversion. In this paper we attempt to analyze threatsfaced by the ad hoc network environment and provide a classification of the various security mechanisms.

  20. Improving the Congestion Control over Stateless Wireless Ad Hoc Network Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant Pujar; Prof. Vasudev K Parvati

    2013-01-01

    In this Paper, We are dealing with the Current Qos Models for MANETs. We have proposed theExtension of Stateless Wireless Ad Hoc Network (SWAN) in order to improve Qos by using the schedulingModule Stateless network model which uses Rate Control Algorithm to deliver service differentiation inmobile wireless ad hoc network in a simple, scalable manner. In the Results we have shown the CongestionFree Routing between two different nodes of a Network through Router.

  1. Quality of service on ad-hoc wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Paoliello Guimaraes, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Over the last years, Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) have captured the attention of the research community. The flexibility and cost savings they provide, due to the fact that no infrastructure is needed to deploy a MANET, is one of the most attractive possibilities of this technology. However, along with the flexibility, lots of problems arise due to the bad quality of transmission media, the scarcity of resources, etc. Since real-time communications will be common in MANETs, there has been ...

  2. Handbook on theoretical and algorithmic aspects of sensor, ad hoc wireless, and peer-to-peer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jie

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceAD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKSA Modular Cross Layer Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks, M. Conti, J. Crowcroft, G. Maselli, and G. TuriRouting Scalability in MANETs, J. Eriksson, S. Krishnamurthy and M. FaloutsosUniformly Distributed Algorithm for Virtual Backbone Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, D.S. KimMaximum Necessary Hop Count for Packet Routing in MANET, X. Chen and J. ShenEfficient Strategyproof Multicast in Selfish Wireless Networks, X.-Yang LiGeocasting in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, I. StojmenovicTopology Control for Ad hoc Networks: Present Solutions and Open Issues, C.-C. Shen a

  3. DESAIN ALGORITMA DAN SIMULASI ROUTING UNTUK GATEWAY AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixson Meok

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available   Routing protocol to the wireless ad hoc networks is very needed in the communication process between some terminals, to send the data packet through one or several node(s to the destination address where the network typology is always changing. Many previous works that discussed about routing ad hoc both for manet (mobile ad hoc networks and wireless networks, but the emphasis have more focus on comparing the performance of several routing ad hoc. While in this work, there is a bulding of routing algorithm model to gateway in land to the nodes that analogized as a boat that move on the sea. With the assumption that the communication inter terminals to radio band of Very High Frequency, thus algorithm that built in the simulation based on the range gap of the HF frequency. The result of this simulation will be developed as the platform to implement the service development of multiuser communication

  4. Routing in wireless ad hoc and sensor network underground with sensor data in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odei-Lartey, Emmanuel; Hartmann, Klaus; Ahmadian, Hamidreza

    2012-05-01

    This paper first describes the innovative topology and structure of a wireless ad hoc and sensor network in a so called line-in-the-underground formation and the feasibility of achieving a reliable wireless connection underground with regards to a borehole telemetry system. It further describes a routing algorithm/protocol implementation based on a modification of the ad hoc on-demand distance vector protocol to achieve a reliable underground communication scheme for the wireless ad hoc network deployed underground for sensor data acquisition in real time as applied in the borehole telemetry system. Simulations and experiments are conducted to investigate and verify the effectiveness of this routing technique and the performance results are shown.

  5. Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Raminder P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.

  6. Topology-Transparent Transmission Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-lei; WANG Chun-jiang; LIU Yuan-an; MA Lei-lei

    2005-01-01

    In order to maximize the average throughput and minimize the transmission slot delay in wireless Ad Hoc networks,an optimal topology-transparent transmission scheduling algorithm-multichannel Time-Spread Multiple Access(TSMA)is proposed.Further analysis is shown that the maximum degree is very sensitive to the network performance for a wireless Ad Hoc networks with N mobile nodes.Moreover,the proposed multichannel TSMA can improve the average throughput M times and decrease the average transmission slot delay M times,as compared with singlechannel TSMA when M channels are available.

  7. Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Santi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks: Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks provides the reader with an overview of mobility modelling, encompassing both theoretical and practical aspects related to the challenging mobility modelling task. It also: Provides up-to-date coverage of mobility models for next generation wireless networksOffers an in-depth discussion of the most representative mobility models for major next generation wireless network application scenarios, including WLAN/mesh networks, vehicular networks, wireless sensor networks, and

  8. Efficient Optimal Packet Management in Distributed Wireless Ad-Hoc Environment using DST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Amudhavel,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective Packet Management (PM is widely used in distributed wireless environments to reduce the access costs and improve data availability. Therefore, packet transmission in wireless environment becomes one of the important challenges for effective data transfer and maintaining the reliability of data . This paper addresses theissues in maintaining the effective packet management in the wireless ad hoc network environments and proposes an effective solution for the same using an optimization technique. The proposed approach concentrates on effective packet management in the dynamic environment and maintaining local consistency issues which occur in the Distributed Wireless Ad-Hoc network environment. Therefore, this paper evaluates the efficiency of existing techniques, and proposes a more efficient local packet management algorithm. The new algorithm leverages existing techniques which are shown to be efficient. This paper also addresses the advantages and disadvantages of various packet management and its issues.

  9. SVANET: A Smart Vehicular Ad Hoc Network for Efficient Data Transmission with Wireless Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo; Ming-Jer Chiang; Shih-Lin Wu

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET) architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmissio...

  10. On the Geometrical Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Wireless Ad Hoc Networks and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless ad hoc network, messages are transmitted, received, and forwarded in a finite geometrical region and the transmission of messages is highly dependent on the locations of the nodes. Therefore the study of geometrical relationship between nodes in wireless ad hoc networks is of fundamental importance in the network architecture design and performance evaluation. However, most previous works concentrated on the networks deployed in the two-dimensional region or in the infinite three-dimensional space, while in many cases wireless ad hoc networks are deployed in the finite three-dimensional space. In this paper, we analyze the geometrical characteristics of the three-dimensional wireless ad hoc network in a finite space in the framework of random graph and deduce an expression to calculate the distance probability distribution between network nodes that are independently and uniformly distributed in a finite cuboid space. Based on the theoretical result, we present some meaningful results on the finite three-dimensional network performance, including the node degree and the max-flow capacity. Furthermore, we investigate some approximation properties of the distance probability distribution function derived in the paper.

  11. A QoS Based MAC Protocol For Wireless Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana khare

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia communication over wireless Ad-hoc networks has become the drivingtechnology for many of the important applications, experiencing dramatic market growth and promisingrevolutionary experiences in personal communication, gaming, entertainment, military, security,environment monitoring, and more. The advances in wireless communications and growth of real-timeapplications have necessitated the development of wireless networks that can support high Quality ofService (QoS and power control. A node in an ad hoc network is normally battery operated which posesa huge constraint on the power consumption of such a node. Hence, designing a power efficient MACprotocol for ad hoc wireless networks is a major challenge. In this paper, we propose a CDMA basedpower controlled medium access protocol for mobile and ad hoc network (MNA. The protocol conservespower and provides QoS guarantees for multimedia traffics. In that network one of the fundamentalchallenger in MANETs is how to increase the overall network throughputs well as reading the delaywhile maintaining how energy consumption for packet processing in communication. simulation resultsshows that the performance of the protocol with increase in traffic while QoS is better in terms of Energyconsumption, throughput, & communication delay than existing protocol.

  12. Universe Detectors for Sybil Defense in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vora, Adnan; Nesterenko, Mikhail; Tixeuil, Sébastien; Delaët, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    The Sybil attack in unknown port networks such as wireless is not considered tractable. A wireless node is not capable of independently differentiating the universe of real nodes from the universe of arbitrary non-existent fictitious nodes created by the attacker. Similar to failure detectors, we propose to use universe detectors to help nodes determine which universe is real. In this paper, we (i) define several variants of the neighborhood discovery problem under Sybil attack (ii) propose a...

  13. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  14. MULTICAST ROUTING WITH QUALITY OF SERVICE CONSTRAINTS IN THE AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Idrissi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent multimedia applications and services are very demanding in terms of Quality of Service (QoS. This creates new challenges in ensuring QoS when delivering those services over wireless networks. Motivated by the need of supporting high quality multicast applications in wireless ad hoc networks, we propose a network topology that can minimize the power when connecting the source node to the destination nodes in multicast sessions with the respect of the QoS provisions. We formulated the problem as integer linear programming problem with a set of energy and QoS constraints. We minimize the total power of energy used by nodes while satisfying QoS constraints (Bandwidth and maximum delay that are crucial to wireless ad hoc network performance.

  15. Time synchronization in ad-hoc wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nishant

    2013-06-01

    Advances in micro-electronics and developments in the various technologies have given birth to this era of wireless sensor networks. A sensor network is the one which provides information about the surrounding environment by sensing it and clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks plays a vital role to maintain the integrity of entire network. In this paper two major low energy consumption clock synchronization algorithms, Reference Broadcast Synchronization (RBS) and Timing-Sync Protocol for Sensor Networks (TPSN) are simulated, which result in high level of accuracy, reliability, handles substantially greater node densities, supports mobility, and hence perform well under all possible conditions.

  16. Ad Hoc Wireless Networking and Shared Computation for Autonomous Multirobot Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Hall, Jason S.; Horning, James; Romano, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.40734 A wireless ad hoc network is introduced that enables inter-robot communication and shared computation among multiple robots with PC/104-based single board computers running the real-time application interface patched Linux operating system. Through the use of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc technology and User Datagram Protocol, each robot is able to exchange data without the need of a centralized router ...

  17. Computing Nash Equilibrium in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Peter E.; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim G.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of computing Nash equilibrium in wireless networks modeled by Weighted Timed Automata. Such formalism comes together with a logic that can be used to describe complex features such as timed energy constraints. Our contribution is a method for solving this problem us...

  18. Address autoconfiguration in wireless ad hoc networks: protocols and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cempaka Wangi, N.I.; Prasad, R.V.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of smaller devices having higher computational capacity and wireless communication capabilities, the world is becoming completely networked. Although, the mobile nature of these devices provides ubiquitous services, it also poses many challenges. In this article, we look in depth at

  19. User—dependent Perfect—scheduling Multiple Access (UPMA) for Wireless Ad Hoc Networ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIJiandong; LIWeiying; YANGJiawei; WENGJiwei

    2003-01-01

    A new multiple access protocol for wireless Internet access, called user-dependent perfect-scheduling multiple access (UPMA), is proposed. Packet transmis-sions are scheduled according to the number of active users,packet queue length and round-robin service rule. The proposed self-organizing algorithm is used to determine the number of active users. Users in ad h0c network are divided into clusters by the self-organizing algorithm. In each cluster an independent UPMA is used. UPMA al-gorithms for star and ad hoc wireless network are given.Performance analysis shows that UPMA have stable and very high throughnut.

  20. Maximization of Energy Efficiency in Wireless ad hoc and Sensor Networks With SERENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, an analysis of the node energy consumption distribution shows that the largest part is due to the time spent in the idle state. This result is at the origin of SERENA, an algorithm to SchEdule RoutEr Nodes Activity. SERENA allows router nodes to sleep, while ensuring end-to-end communication in the wireless network. It is a localized and decentralized algorithm assigning time slots to nodes. Any node stays awake only during its slot and the slots assigned to its neighbors, it sleeps the remaining time. Simulation results show that SERENA enables us to maximize network lifetime while increasing the number of user messages delivered. SERENA is based on a two-hop coloring algorithm, whose complexity in terms of colors and rounds is evaluated. We then quantify the slot reuse. Finally, we show how SERENA improves the node energy consumption distribution and maximizes the energy efficiency of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We compare SERENA with classical TDMA and optimized variants such as USAP in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks.

  1. A QoS Routing Protocol based on Available Bandwidth Estimation for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaniche, Heni; Frikha, Mounir; Kamoun, Farouk

    2011-01-01

    At the same time as the emergence of multimedia in mobile Ad hoc networks, research for the introduction of the quality of service (QoS) has received much attention. However, when designing a QoS solution, the estimation of the available resources still represents one of the main issues. This paper suggests an approach to estimate available resources on a node. This approach is based on the estimation of the busy ratio of the shared canal. We consider in our estimation the several constraints related to the Ad hoc transmission mode such as Interference phenomena. This approach is implemented on the AODV routing protocol. We call AODVwithQOS our new routing protocol. We also performed a performance evaluation by simulations using NS2 simulator. The results confirm that AODVwithQoS provides QoS support in ad hoc wireless networks with good performance and low overhead.

  2. Wireless Ad-hoc Network Model for Video Transmission in the Tunnel of Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc networks have been widely used for its flexibility and quick development, especially in emergent conditions. Recently they are introduced to coal mines underground for rescuing after disasters such as gas explosions. Significantly, we construct a network model named Chain Model to simulate the special circumstance in the tunnel of the mine. Moreover, for studying effects of different routing protocols used in this model when transmitting video data, Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV are compared with each other in the experiment based on our model. The result indicates that AODV performs best among the three protocols in this model in terms of packet loss ratio, end-to-end delay time and throughput, which is significant for our future research on ad hoc networks for rescuing in coal mines underground.

  3. VIRTUAL BACKBONE CONTENT ROUTING IN WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Gao

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new content routing based on the virtual backbone structure, which groups wireless nodes and contents into a virtual architecture. Our approach is scalable, works with local information,and does not rely on address information. The naming system uses flat naming to identify nodes and contents, and organizes these identifiers together. Backbone nodes can be selected automatically or predefined to direct their associated normal nodes in a local area. The normal nodes are guided by the backbone nodes to full fill the searching and routing processes. With a virtual structure, the searching performance can be improved by using the DHT technique.Experiments using ns2 simulator demonstrate that this virtual backbone routing architecture has the following significances: workable without being aware address in a mobile situation; scalable with the size of network; efficient in terms of the reduced hop counts and short end-to-end delay, and also resistant to the dead-end problem.

  4. A Distributed Virtual Backbone Formation for Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong-tao; HE Chen; JIANG Ling-ge

    2007-01-01

    The virtual backbone is an approach for solving routing problems in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. A connected dominating set (CDS) was proposed as a virtual backbone to improve the performance of wireless networks. The quality of a virtual backbone is measured not only by approximation factor, which is the ratio of its size to that of minimum CDS, but also time complexity and message complexity. In this paper, a distributed algorithm is presented to construct a minimum CDS for ad hoc and sensor networks. By destroying triangular loops in the virtual backbone, the proposed algorithm can effectively construct a CDS with smaller size. Moreover, our algorithm, which is fully localized, has a constant approximation ratio, linear message and time complexity, and low implementation complexity. The simulation results and theoretical analysis show that our algorithm has better efficiency and performance than conventional approaches.

  5. Load Balancing In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks With Low Forwarding Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Dadhich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad-hoc network comprises of a set of wireless nodes and requires no fixed infrastructure. Forefficient communication between nodes, ad-hoc networks are typically grouped in to clusters, whereeach cluster has a clusterhead (or Master. In our study, we will take a communication model that isderived from that of BlueTooth. Clusterhead nodes are responsible for the formation of clusters eachconsisting of a number of nodes (analog to cells in a cellular network and maintenance of the topologyof the network. Consequently, the clusterhead tend to become potential points of failures and naturally,there will be load imbalanced. Thus, it is important to consider load balancing in any clusteringalgorithm. In this paper, we consider the situation when each node has some load, given by theparameter forwarding Index.

  6. An Immuno-Inspired Approach to Misbehavior Detection in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Drozda, Martin; Schaust, Sven; Szczerbicka, Helena

    2010-01-01

    We propose and evaluate an immuno-inspired approach to misbehavior detection in ad hoc wireless networks. Node misbehavior can be the result of an intrusion, or a software or hardware failure. Our approach is motivated by co-stimulatory signals present in the Biological immune system. The results show that co-stimulation in ad hoc wireless networks can both substantially improve energy efficiency of detection and, at the same time, help achieve low false positives rates. The energy efficiency improvement is almost two orders of magnitude, if compared to misbehavior detection based on watchdogs. We provide a characterization of the trade-offs between detection approaches executed by a single node and by several nodes in cooperation. Additionally, we investigate several feature sets for misbehavior detection. These feature sets impose different requirements on the detection system, most notably from the energy efficiency point of view.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Distributed Synchronous Greedy Graph Coloring Algorithms on Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Ruzgar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Graph coloring is a widely used technique for allocation of time and frequency slots to nodes, for formingclusters, for constructing independent sets and dominating sets on wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. Agood coloring approach should produce low color count as possible. Besides, since the nodes of a wirelessad hoc and sensor network operate with limited bandwidth, energy and computing resources, the coloringshould be computed with few message passing and computational steps. In this paper, we provide aperformance evaluation of distributed synchronous greedy graph coloring algorithms on ad hoc and sensornetworks. We provide both theoretical and practical evaluations of distributed largest first and thedistributed version of Brelaz’s algorithm. We showed that although distributed version of Brelaz’salgorithm produces less color count, its resource consumption is worse than distributed largest firstalgorithm.

  8. Power-Controlled Data Transmission in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgehan Berberoglu; Taner Cevik

    2016-01-01

    Energy scarcity and interference are two important factors determining the performance of wireless ad-hoc networks that should be considered in depth. A promising method of achieving energy conservation is the transmission power control. Transmission power control also contributes to the mitigation of interference thereby promotes throughput by means of rendering multiple hosts to communicate in the same neighborhood simultaneously without impairing each other’s transmissions. However, as ide...

  9. New horizons in mobile and wireless communications, v.4 ad hoc networks and pans

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2009-01-01

    Based on cutting-edge research projects in the field, this book (part of a comprehensive 4-volume series) provides the latest details and covers the most impactful aspects of mobile, wireless, and broadband communications development. These books present key systems and enabling technologies in a clear and accessible manner, offering you a detailed roadmap the future evolution of next generation communications. Other volumes cover Networks, Services and Applications; Reconfigurability; and Ad Hoc Networks.

  10. Detection and Control of Vampire Attacks in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anoopa S; Sudha S K

    2014-01-01

    Ad-hoc low-power wireless networks are the most promising research direction in sensing and pervasive computing. Prior security work in this area has focused primarily on denial of service at the routing or medium access control levels. Earlier, the resource depletion attacks are considered only as a routing problem, very recently these are classified in to a new group called “vampire attacks”. This thesis work explores the identification of resource depletion attacks at the r...

  11. Asymptotic Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Realistic Links under a Honey Comb Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Asnani, Himanshu

    2007-01-01

    We consider the effects of Rayleigh fading and lognormal shadowing in the physical interference model for all the successful transmissions of traffic across the network. New bounds are derived for the capacity of a given random ad hoc wireless network that reflect packet drop or capture probability of the transmission links. These bounds are based on a simplified network topology termed as honey-comb topology under a given routing and scheduling scheme.

  12. HIERARCHICAL DESIGN BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS AD HOC SENSOR NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saiful Islam Mamun; A.F.M. Sultanul Kabir

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, wireless ad hoc sensor network becomes popular both in civil and military jobs.However, security is one of the significant challenges for sensor network because of their deploymentin open and unprotected environment. As cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect sensornetwork from external attacks, intrusion detection system needs to be introduced. Though intrusionprevention mechanism is one of the major and efficient methods against attacks, but there might besome atta...

  13. Hierarchical Design Based Intrusion Detection System For Wireless Ad hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Mamun, Mohammad Saiful Islam; Kabir, A. F. M Sultanul

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, wireless ad hoc sensor network becomes popular both in civil and military jobs. However, security is one of the significant challenges for sensor network because of their deployment in open and unprotected environment. As cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect sensor network from external attacks, intrusion detection system needs to be introduced. Though intrusion prevention mechanism is one of the major and efficient methods against attacks, but there might be some...

  14. Fortifying Intrusion Detection Systems in Dynamic Ad Hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelouahid Derhab; Abdelghani Bouras; Mustapha Reda Senouci; Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    We investigate three aspects of dynamicity in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks and their impact on the efficiency of intrusion detection systems (IDSs). The first aspect is magnitude dynamicity, in which the IDS has to efficiently determine whether the changes occurring in the network are due to malicious behaviors or or due to normal changing of user requirements. The second aspect is nature dynamicity that occurs when a malicious node is continuously switching its behavior between normal...

  15. Fault Tolerant Mechanism for Multimedia Flows in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Based on Fast Switching Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia traffic can be forwarded through a wireless ad hoc network using the available resources of the nodes. Several models and protocols have been designed in order to organize and arrange the nodes to improve transmissions along the network. We use a cluster-based framework, called MWAHCA architecture, which optimizes multimedia transmissions over a wireless ad hoc network. It was proposed by us in a previous research work. This architecture is focused on decreasing quality of service (QoS parameters like latency, jitter, and packet loss, but other network features were not developed, like load balance or fault tolerance. In this paper, we propose a new fault tolerance mechanism, using as a base the MWAHCA architecture, in order to recover any multimedia flow crossing the wireless ad hoc network when there is a node failure. The algorithm can run independently for each multimedia flow. The main objective is to keep the QoS parameters as low as possible. To achieve this goal, the convergence time must be controlled and reduced. This paper provides the designed protocol, the analytical model of the algorithm, and a software application developed to test its performance in a real laboratory.

  16. Intelligent Stale-Frame Discards for Real-Time Video Streaming over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheu Tsang-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents intelligent early packet discards (I-EPD for real-time video streaming over a multihop wireless ad hoc network. In a multihop wireless ad hoc network, the quality of transferring real-time video streams could be seriously degraded, since every intermediate node (IN functionally like relay device does not possess large buffer and sufficient bandwidth. Even worse, a selected relay node could leave or power off unexpectedly, which breaks the route to destination. Thus, a stale video frame is useless even if it can reach destination after network traffic becomes smooth or failed route is reconfigured. In the proposed I-EPD, an IN can intelligently determine whether a buffered video packet should be early discarded. For the purpose of validation, we implement the I-EPD on Linux-based embedded systems. Via the comparisons of performance metrics (packet/frame discards ratios, PSNR, etc., we demonstrate that video quality over a wireless ad hoc network can be substantially improved and unnecessary bandwidth wastage is greatly reduced.

  17. Smart border: ad-hoc wireless sensor networks for border surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2011-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been proposed as promising candidates to provide automated monitoring, target tracking, and intrusion detection for border surveillance. In this paper, we demonstrate an ad-hoc wireless sensor network system for border surveillance. The network consists of heterogeneously autonomous sensor nodes that distributively cooperate with each other to enable a smart border in remote areas. This paper also presents energy-aware and sleeping algorithms designed to maximize the operating lifetime of the deployed sensor network. Lessons learned in building the network and important findings from field experiments are shared in the paper.

  18. Protocols for Detection and Removal of Wormholes for Secure Routing and Neighborhood Creation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayajneh, Thaier Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are suitable and sometimes the only solution for several applications. Many applications, particularly those in military and critical civilian domains (such as battlefield surveillance and emergency rescue) require that ad hoc networks be secure and stable. In fact, security is one of the main barriers to the extensive use…

  19. Comparison of a Cell-Based Energy Conservation Techniqueand MST Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Blough, Douglas; Leoncini, Mauro; Resta, Giovanni; Santi, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    Cooperative strategies and topology control protocols have been recently proposed as effective techniques to reduce energy consumption in wireless ad hoc networks. Although these approaches share the same goal of extending network lifetime, they can be considered as orthogonal approaches.

  20. A multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks based on channel characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhuo; Zhong, Sheng; Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. PMID:23766725

  1. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  2. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part II: Proactive Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This work is the second of a two-part series of papers on the effectiveness of cooperative techniques in non-centralized carrier sense-based ad hoc wireless networks. While Part I extensively discussed reactive cooperation, characterized by relayed transmissions triggered by failure events at the intended receiver, Part II investigates in depth proactive solutions, in which the source of a packet exploits channel state information to preemptively coordinate with relays in order to achieve the optimal overall rate to the destination. In particular, this work shows by means of both analysis and simulation that the performance of reactive cooperation is reduced by the intrinsic nature of the considered medium access policy, which biases the distribution of the available relays, locating them in unfavorable positions for rate optimization. Moreover, the highly dynamic nature of interference that characterizes non-infrastructured ad hoc networks is proved to hamper the efficacy and the reliability of preemptively ...

  3. Constructing Path Efficient and Energy Aware Virtual Multicast Backbones in Static Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaghna Acharya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For stationary wireless ad hoc networks, one of the key challenging issues in routing and multicasting isto conserve as much energy as possible without compromising path efficiency measured as end-to-enddelay. In this paper, we address the problem of path efficient and energy aware multicasting in staticwireless ad hoc networks. We propose a novel distributed scalable algorithm for finding a virtualmulticast backbone (VMB. Based on this VMB, we have further developed a multicasting scheme thatjointly improves path efficiency and energy conservation. By exploiting inherent broadcast advantage ofwireless communication and employing a more realistic energy consumption model for wirelesscommunication which not only depends on radio propagation losses but also on energy losses intransceiver circuitry, our simulation results show that the proposed VMB-based multicasting schemeoutperforms existing prominent tree based energy conserving, path efficient multicasting schemes.

  4. GBP-WAHSN: A Group-Based Protocol for Large Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaime Lloret; Miguel Garcia; Jesus Tomás; Fernando Boronat

    2008-01-01

    Grouping nodes gives better performance to the whole network by diminishing the average network delay and avoiding unnecessary message for warding and additional overhead. Many routing protocols for ad-hoc and sensor network shave been designed but none of them are based on groups. In this paper, we will start defining group-based topologies,and then we will show how some wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WAHSN) routing protocols perform when the nodes are arranged in groups. In our proposal connections between groups are established as a function of the proximity of the nodes and the neighbor's available capacity (based on the node's energy). We describe the architecture proposal, the messages that are needed for the proper operation and its mathematical description. We have also simulated how much time is needed to propagate information between groups. Finally, we will show a comparison with other architectures.

  5. OMNeT++-Based Cross-Layer Simulator for Content Transmission over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massin R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexbility and deployment simplicity are among the numerous advantages of wireless links when compared to standard wired communications. However, challenges do remain high for wireless communications, in particular due to the wireless medium inherent unreliability, and to the desired flexibility, which entails complex protocol procedures. In that context simulation is an important tool to understand and design the protocols that manage the wireless networks. This paper introduces a new simulation framework based on the OMNeT++ simulator whose goal is to enable the study of data and multimedia content transmission over hybrid wired/wireless ad hoc networks, as well as the design of innovative radio access schemes. To achieve this goal, the complete protocol stack from the application to the physical layer is simulated, and the real bits and bytes of the messages transferred on the radio channel are exchanged. To ensure that this framework is reusable and extensible in future studies and projects, a modular software and protocol architecture has been defined. Although still in progress, our work has already provided some valuable results concerning cross layer HARQ/MAC protocol performance and video transmission over the wireless channel, as illustrated by results examples.

  6. Optimal Routing and Power Control for a Single Cell, Dense, Ad Hoc Wireless Network

    CERN Document Server

    Ramaiyan, Venkatesh; Altman, Eitan

    2009-01-01

    We consider a dense, ad hoc wireless network, confined to a small region. The wireless network is operated as a single cell, i.e., only one successful transmission is supported at a time. Data packets are sent between sourcedestination pairs by multihop relaying. We assume that nodes self-organise into a multihop network such that all hops are of length d meters, where d is a design parameter. There is a contention based multiaccess scheme, and it is assumed that every node always has data to send, either originated from it or a transit packet (saturation assumption). In this scenario, we seek to maximize a measure of the transport capacity of the network (measured in bit-meters per second) over power controls (in a fading environment) and over the hop distance d, subject to an average power constraint. We first argue that for a dense collection of nodes confined to a small region, single cell operation is efficient for single user decoding transceivers. Then, operating the dense ad hoc wireless network (desc...

  7. Load-balanced broadcast routing in wireless Ad-hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In wireless Ad-hoc networks, where mobile hosts are powered by batteries, the entire network may be partitioned because of the drainage of a small set of batteries.Therefore, the crucial issue is to improve the energy efficiency, with an objective of balancing energy consumption.A greedy algorithm called weighted minimum spanning tree (WMST) has been proposed, in which time complexity is O(n2).This algorithm takes into account the initial energy of each node and energy consumption of each communication.Simulation has demonstrated that the performance of the proposed algorithm improves the load balance and prolongs the lifetime.

  8. Energy generation for an ad hoc wireless sensor network-based monitoring system using animal head movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm;

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy to electronics is an imperative constraining factor to be considered during the design process of mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks (MANETs). This influence is especially important when the MANET is deployed unattended or the wireless modules within the MANET...

  9. On capacity of wireless ad hoc networks with MIMO MMSE receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Widely adopted at home, business places, and hot spots, wireless ad-hoc networks are expected to provide broadband services parallel to their wired counterparts in near future. To address this need, MIMO techniques, which are capable of offering several-fold increase in capacity, hold significant promise. Most previous work on capacity analysis of ad-hoc networks is based on an implicit assumption that each node has only one antenna. Core to the analysis therein is the characterization of a geometric area, referred to as the exclusion region, which quantizes the amount of spatial resource occupied by a link. When multiple antennas are deployed at each node, however, multiple links can transmit in the vicinity of each other simultaneously, as interference can now be suppressed by spatial signal processing. As such, a link no longer exclusively occupies a geometric area, making the concept of "exclusion region" not applicable any more. In this paper, we investigate link-layer throughput capacity of MIMO ad-hoc ...

  10. HIERARCHICAL DESIGN BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS AD HOC SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saiful Islam Mamun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless ad hoc sensor network becomes popular both in civil and military jobs.However, security is one of the significant challenges for sensor network because of their deploymentin open and unprotected environment. As cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect sensornetwork from external attacks, intrusion detection system needs to be introduced. Though intrusionprevention mechanism is one of the major and efficient methods against attacks, but there might besome attacks for which prevention method is not known. Besides preventing the system from someknown attacks, intrusion detection system gather necessary information related to attack technique andhelp in the development of intrusion prevention system. In addition to reviewing the present attacksavailable in wireless sensor network this paper examines the current efforts to intrusion detectionsystem against wireless sensor network. In this paper we propose a hierarchical architectural designbased intrusion detection system that fits the current demands and restrictions of wireless ad hocsensor network. In this proposed intrusion detection system architecture we followed clusteringmechanism to build a four level hierarchical network which enhances network scalability to largegeographical area and use both anomaly and misuse detection techniques for intrusion detection. Weintroduce policy based detection mechanism as well as intrusion response together with GSM cellconcept for intrusion detection architecture.

  11. A Framework for Providing E-Services to the Rural Areas using Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan; Sayeed, Sabit Anjum; Ahmed, Farruk; Hong, Choong Seon

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the proliferation of mobile computing devices has driven a revolutionary change in the computing world. The nature of ubiquitous devices makes wireless networks the easiest solution for their interconnection. This has led to the rapid growth of several wireless systems like wireless ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks etc. In this paper we have proposed a framework for rural development by providing various e-services to the rural areas with the help of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We have discussed how timely and accurate information could be collected from the rural areas using wireless technologies. In addition to this, we have also mentioned the technical and operational challenges that could hinder the implementation of such a framework in the rural areas in the developing countries.

  12. Detection and Control of Vampire Attacks in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoopa S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc low-power wireless networks are the most promising research direction in sensing and pervasive computing. Prior security work in this area has focused primarily on denial of service at the routing or medium access control levels. Earlier, the resource depletion attacks are considered only as a routing problem, very recently these are classified in to a new group called “vampire attacks”. This thesis work explores the identification of resource depletion attacks at the routing protocol layer and in the application layer, which permanently disable networks by quickly draining nodes’ battery power. These Vampire attacks are not specific to a particular protocol, but rather rely on the properties of many popular classes of routing protocols. It is clear that all examined protocols are susceptible to Vampire attacks, which are devastating, difficult to detect, and are easy to carry out using as few as one malicious insider sending only protocol compliant messages. In the worst case, a single Vampire can increase network-wide energy usage by a factor of O(N, where N in the number of network nodes. In this work a detection and control strategy is proposed for these vampire attacks, along with a secure packet forwarding mechanism, which will save Ad-hoc wireless nodes from power drainage due to vampire packets.

  13. Improving TCP Performance over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Busy Tone Assisted Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that transmission control protocol (TCP performance degrades severely in IEEE 802.11-based wireless ad hoc networks. We first identify two critical issues leading to the TCP performance degradation: (1 unreliable broadcast, since broadcast frames are transmitted without the request-to-send and clear-to-send (RTS/CTS dialog and Data/ACK handshake, so they are vulnerable to the hidden terminal problem; and (2 false link failure which occurs when a node cannot successfully transmit data temporarily due to medium contention. We then propose a scheme to use a narrow-bandwidth, out-of-band busy tone channel to make reservation for broadcast and link error detection frames only. The proposed scheme is simple and power efficient, because only the sender needs to transmit two short messages in the busy tone channel before sending broadcast or link error detection frames in the data channel. Analytical results show that the proposed scheme can dramatically reduce the collision probability of broadcast and link error detection frames. Extensive simulations with different network topologies further demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve TCP throughput by 23% to 150%, depending on user mobility, and effectively enhance both short-term and long-term fairness among coexisting TCP flows in multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  14. SVANET: A Smart Vehicular Ad Hoc Network for Efficient Data Transmission with Wireless Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Chiang, Ming-Jer; Wu, Shih-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET) architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmission protocol for the vehicles in the highway, in which data can be forwarded with the help of vehicles if they are connected with each other or data can be forwarded with the help of nearby wireless sensors. Our data transmission protocol is designed to increase the driving safety, to prevent accidents and to utilize channels efficiently by adjusting the control and service channel time intervals dynamically. Besides, our protocol can transmit information to vehicles in advance, so that drivers can decide an alternate route in case of traffic congestion. For various data sharing, we design a method that can select a few leader nodes among vehicles running along a highway to broadcast data efficiently. Simulation results show that our protocol can outperform the existing standard in terms of the end to end packet delivery ratio and latency. PMID:25429409

  15. SVANET: A smart vehicular ad hoc network for efficient data transmission with wireless sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Chiang, Ming-Jer; Wu, Shih-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET) architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmission protocol for the vehicles in the highway, in which data can be forwarded with the help of vehicles if they are connected with each other or data can be forwarded with the help of nearby wireless sensors. Our data transmission protocol is designed to increase the driving safety, to prevent accidents and to utilize channels efficiently by adjusting the control and service channel time intervals dynamically. Besides, our protocol can transmit information to vehicles in advance, so that drivers can decide an alternate route in case of traffic congestion. For various data sharing, we design a method that can select a few leader nodes among vehicles running along a highway to broadcast data efficiently. Simulation results show that our protocol can outperform the existing standard in terms of the end to end packet delivery ratio and latency. PMID:25429409

  16. SVANET: A Smart Vehicular Ad Hoc Network for Efficient Data Transmission with Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmission protocol for the vehicles in the highway, in which data can be forwarded with the help of vehicles if they are connected with each other or data can be forwarded with the help of nearby wireless sensors. Our data transmission protocol is designed to increase the driving safety, to prevent accidents and to utilize channels efficiently by adjusting the control and service channel time intervals dynamically. Besides, our protocol can transmit information to vehicles in advance, so that drivers can decide an alternate route in case of traffic congestion. For various data sharing, we design a method that can select a few leader nodes among vehicles running along a highway to broadcast data efficiently. Simulation results show that our protocol can outperform the existing standard in terms of the end to end packet delivery ratio and latency.

  17. A load-balanced minimum energy routing algorithm for Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks (WSNs) have received considerable academia research attention at present. The energy-constraint sensor nodes in WSNs operate on limited batteries, so it is a very important issue to use energy efficiently and reduce power consumption. To maximize the network lifetime, it is essential to prolong each individual node's lifetime through minimizing the transmission energy consumption, so that many minimum energy routing schemes for traditional mobile ad hoc network have been developed for this reason. This paper presents a novel minimum energy routing algorithm named Load-Balanced Minimum Energy Routing (LBMER) for WSNs considering both sensor nodes' energy consumption status and the sensor nodes'hierarchical congestion levels, which uses mixture of energy balance and traffic balance to solve the problem of "hot spots" of WSNs and avoid the situation of"hot spots" sensor nodes using their energy at much higher rate and die much faster than the other nodes. The path router established by LBMER will not be very congested and the traffic will be distributed evenly in the WSNs.Simulation results verified that the LBMER performance is better than that of Min-Hop routing and the existing minimum energy routing scheme MTPR (Total Transmission Power Routing).

  18. Real-Time Video Streaming in Multi-hop Wireless Static Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Even, Guy; Medina, Moti; Shimon,; Shahar,; Zadorojniy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We deal with the problem of streaming multiple video streams between pairs of nodes in a multi-hop wireless ad hoc network. The nodes are positioned on a plane, know their locations, and are synchronized (via GPS). We consider a 802.11g WiFi network in which NICs can hop between non-overlapping frequency channels in a synchronous fashion. We design a centralized algorithm that computes a frequency assignment and a schedule whose goal is to maximize the minimum throughput over all the video streams. In addition, we developed a localized flow-control mechanism to stabilize the queue lengths. We simulated traffic scheduled by the algorithm using OMNET++/MixiM (i.e., physical SINR interference model with 802.11g) to test whether the computed throughput is achieved.

  19. A Self-Organization Framework for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks as Small Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Abhik; Gauthier, Vincent; Yeo, Chai Kiat; Afifi, Hossam; Lee, Bu Sung

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the benefits of small world networks, we propose a self-organization framework for wireless ad hoc networks. We investigate the use of directional beamforming for creating long-range short cuts between nodes. Using simulation results for randomized beamforming as a guideline, we identify crucial design issues for algorithm design. Our results show that, while significant path length reduction is achievable, this is accompanied by the problem of asymmetric paths between nodes. Subsequently, we propose a distributed algorithm for small world creation that achieves path length reduction while maintaining connectivity. We define a new centrality measure that estimates the structural importance of nodes based on traffic flow in the network, which is used to identify the optimum nodes for beamforming. We show, using simulations, that this leads to significant reduction in path length while maintaining connectivity.

  20. RMAC: A Reliable MAC Protocol Supporting Multicast for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Sheng Si; Cheng-Zhi Li

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new reliable MAC protocol called "RMAC" supporting reliable multicast for wireless ad hoc networks. By utilizing the busy tones to realize the multicast reliability, RMAC has three novelties: (1) it uses a variablelength control frame to stipulate an order for the receivers to respond, thus solving the feedback collision problem; (2) it extends the usage of busy tone for preventing data frame collisions into the multicast scenario; and (3) it introduces a new usage of busy tone for acknowledging data frames positively. In addition, RMAC is generalized into a comprehensive MAC protocol that provides both reliable and unreliable services for all the three modes of communications: unicast, multicast,and broadcast, making it capable of supporting various upper-layer protocols. The evaluation shows that RMAC achieves high reliability with very limited overhead. RMAC is also compared with other reliable MAC protocols, showing that RMAC not only provides higher reliability but also involves lower cost.

  1. An Anchorless Cooperative Localization System for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhar Mahmud Towhid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a wireless ad-hoc localization system where each node is assumed to be equipped with ranging (RSSI/TDoA and AoA capability. Using these capabilities each node can measure distance and bearing of neighboring nodes. These measurements are supplied to each connected nodes in the network. Using the measurements of each neighboring node pairs, a node can construct a whole network coordinate map, where the location of every node is shown relative to a reference point (i.e. the node’s own location. Using this network coordinate map, the nodes can maintain connectivity with their neighbors. Unlike triangulation, the system does not need at least two or more neighbors of each node for approximating the node position, rather it can attain this even with a single neighbor. We will also show that the system has reliable accuracy when more accurate ranging and angulation systems are used

  2. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part I: Reactive Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative techniques have been shown to significantly improve the performance of wireless systems. Despite being a mature technology in single communication link scenarios, their implementation in wider, and practical, networks poses several challenges which have not been fully identified and understood so far. In this two-part paper, the implementation of cooperative communications in non-centralized ad hoc networks with sensing-based channel access is extensively discussed. Both analysis and simulation are employed to provide a clear understanding of the mutual influence between the link layer contention mechanism and collaborative protocols. Part I of this work focuses on reactive cooperation, in which relaying is triggered by packet delivery failure events, while Part II addresses proactive approaches, preemptively initiated by the source based on channel state information. Results show that sensing-based channel access significantly hampers the effectiveness of cooperation by biasing the spatial distri...

  3. Probabilistic Modelling of Information Propagation in Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics of broadcasting wireless ad-hoc networks is studied through probabilistic modelling. A randomized transmission discipline is assumed in accordance with existing MAC definitions such as WLAN with Decentralized Coordination or IEEE-802.15.4. Message reception is assumed...... to be governed by node power-down policies and is equivalently assumed to be randomized. Altogether randomization facilitates a probabilistic model in the shape of an integro-differential equation governing the propagation of information, where brownian node mobility may be accounted for by including an extra...... diffusion term. The established model is analyzed for transient behaviour and a travelling wave solution facilitates expressions for propagation speed as well as parametrized analysis of network reliability and node power consumption. Applications of the developed models for node localization and network...

  4. On the Optimal Transmission Range in Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, Salman; Adjih, Cedric

    2012-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks with randomly distributed nodes, we measure the normalized optimum transmission range and the network throughput, which is inversely proportional to the minimized number of transmissions required to reach the destination over multi-hop path, of various medium access schemes. Our objective is to determine the optimum transmission range that achieves the most optimal tradeoff between the progress of packets in desired directions towards their respective destinations and the number of transmissions required to deliver the packets. We analyze the optimum average transmission range with ALOHA based scheme where simultaneous transmitters are dispatched according to a uniform Poisson distribution and compare it with the maximum transmission range with various grid pattern based schemes where simultaneous transmitters are positioned in specific regular grid patterns. It is shown that at typical values of signal-to-interference ratio threshold and attenuation coefficient, the most optimal t...

  5. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-07-14

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes.

  6. An Investigation about Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karthik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any stand-alone infrastructure or centralized administration. Mobile Ad-hoc networks are self-organizing and self-configuring multihop wireless networks where, the structure of the network changes dynamically. This is mainly due to the mobility of nodes. The Nodes in the network not only acts as hosts but also as routers that route data to or from other nodes in network. In mobile ad-hoc networks a routing procedure is always needed to find a path so as to forward the packets appropriately between the source and the destination. The main aim of any ad-hoc network routing protocol is to meet the challenges of the dynamically changing topology and establish a correct and an efficient communication path between any two nodes with minimum routing overhead and bandwidth consumption. The design problem of such a routing protocol is not simple since an ad hoc environment introduces new challenges that are not present in fixed networks. A number of routing protocols have been proposed for this purpose like Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Destination- Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV. In this paper, we study and compare the performance of the following three routing protocols AODV, DSR and DSDV.

  7. Intelligent self-organization methods for wireless ad hoc sensor networks based on limited resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2006-05-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network (WSN) is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. To a greater degree than the terminals found in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for communications, sensor nodes are resource-constrained, with limited computational processing, bandwidth, memory, and power, and are typically unattended once in operation. Consequently, the level of information exchange among nodes, to support any complex adaptive algorithms to establish network connectivity and optimize throughput, not only deplete those limited resources and creates high overhead in narrowband communications, but also increase network vulnerability to eavesdropping by malicious nodes. Cooperation among nodes, critical to the mission of sensor networks, can thus be disrupted by the inappropriate choice of the method for self-organization. Recent published contributions to the self-configuration of ad hoc sensor networks, e.g., self-organizing mapping and swarm intelligence techniques, have been based on the adaptive control of the cross-layer interactions found in MANET protocols to achieve one or more performance objectives: connectivity, intrusion resistance, power control, throughput, and delay. However, few studies have examined the performance of these algorithms when implemented with the limited resources of WSNs. In this paper, self-organization algorithms for the initiation, operation and maintenance of a network topology from a collection of wireless sensor nodes are proposed that improve the performance metrics significant to WSNs. The intelligent algorithm approach emphasizes low computational complexity, energy efficiency and robust adaptation to change, allowing distributed implementation with the actual limited resources of the cooperative nodes of the network. Extensions of the

  8. A Robust Routing Strategy for Density Spanner based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divi Mydhili1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem for wireless ad hoc networks has been to design overlay networks that allow time- and energy-efficient routing. Many local-control strategies for maintaining such overlay networks have already been suggested, but most of them are based on an oversimplified wireless communication model. We address cooperative caching in wireless networks, where the nodes may be mobile and exchange information in a peer-to-peer fashion. We consider both cases of nodes with large and small-sized caches. For large-sized caches, we devise a strategy where nodes, independent of each other, decide whether to cache some content and for how long. In the case of small-sized caches, we aim to design a content replacement strategy that allows nodes to successfully store newly received information while maintaining the good performance of the content distribution system. Under both conditions, each node takes decisions according to its perception of what nearby users may store in their caches and with the aim of differentiating its own cache content from the other nodes’. In this paper, we suggest a model that is much more general than previous models. It allows the path loss of transmissions to significantly deviate from the idealistic unit disk model and does not even require the path loss to form a metric. Also, our model is apparently the first proposed for algorithm designs that does not only model transmission and interference issues but also aims at providing a realistic model for physical carrier sensing. Physical carrier sensing is needed so that our protocols do not require any prior information (not even an estimate on the number of nodes about the wireless network to run efficiently.

  9. A Near-Optimal Optimization Algorithm for Link Assignment in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-Chang Liu; Bao-Hua Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years, wireless networking technologies have made vast forays in our daily lives. In wireless ad-hoc networks, links are set up by a number of units without any permanent infrastructures. In this paper, the resource optimization is considered to maximize the network throughput by efficiently using the network capacity, where multi-hop functionality and spatial TDMA (STDMA) access scheme are used. The objective is to find the minimum frame length with given traffic distributions and corresponding routing information. Because of the complex structure of the underlying mathematical problem, previous work and analysis become intractable for networks of realistic sizes. The problem is addressed through mathematical programming approach, the linear integer formulation is developed for optimizing the network throughput, and then the similarity between the original problem and the graph edge coloring problem is shown through the conflict graph concept. A column generation solution is proposed and several enhancements are made in order to fasten its convergence. Numerical results demonstrate that the theoretical limit of the throughput can be efficiently computed for networks of realistic sizes.

  10. A Routing Strategy for Non-Cooperation Wireless Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung T. Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Choosing routes such that the network lifetime is maximized in a wireless network with limited energy resources is a major routing problem in wireless multi-hop ad hoc networks. In this paper, we study the problem where participants are rationally selfish and non-cooperative. By selfish we designate the users who are ready to tamper with their source-routing (senders could choose intermediate nodes in the routing paths or next hop selection strategies in order to increase the total number of packets transmitted, but do not try to harm or drop packets of the other nodes. The problem therefore amounts to a non-cooperative game. In the works [2,6,19,23], the authors show that the game admits Nash equilibria [1]. Along this line, we first show that if the cost function is linear, this game has pure-strategy equilibrium flow even though participants have different demands. However, finding a Nash equilibrium for a normal game is computationally hard [9]. In this work, inspired by mixed-strategy equilibrium, we propose a simple local routing algorithm called MIxed Path Routing protocol (MiPR. Using analysis and simulations, we show that MiPR drives the system to an equilibrium state where selfish participants do not have incentive to deviate. Moreover, MiPR significantly improves the network lifetime as compared to original routing protocols.

  11. A Review and Comparison of Quality of Service Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Prasad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Service (QoS guarantees must be supported in a network that intends to carry real time andmultimedia traffic. IETF RFC 2386 defines QoS as a set of service requirements to be met by the networkwhile transporting a packet stream from source to the destination. The dynamic network topology andwireless bandwidth sharing makes QoS provisioning far more challenging in wireless networks ascompared to the wired counterparts. The support for the QoS services is underpinned by QoS routing. AQoS routing protocol selects network routes with sufficient resources for the satisfaction of the requestedQoS parameters. The goal of QoS routing is to satisfy the QoS requirements for each admittedconnection, while achieving global efficiency in resource utilization. The problem of QoS routing withmultiple additive constraints is known to be NP-hard. This requires the QoS dynamics to be fullyunderstood before it can be implemented in wireless ad hoc networks. The paper discusses the issuesinvolved in QoS routing and presents an overview and comparison of some existing QoS routingprotocols. The article concludes with some open issues for further investigation.

  12. A System of Umpires for Security of Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyaswamy Kathirvel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a self-created self-organized and self-administering set of nodes connectedvia wireless links without the aid of any fixed infrastructure or centralized administrator. Protecting the network layer frommalicious attacks is an important and challenging issue in both wired and wireless networks and the issue becomes even morechallenging in the case of MANET. In this paper we propose a solution of umpiring system (US that provides security forrouting and data forwarding operations. Umpiring system consist of three models, are single umpiring system (SUS, doubleumpiring system (DUS, and triple umpiring system (TUS. In our system each node in the path from source to destination hasdual roles to perform: packet forwarding and umpiring.US does not apply any cryptographic techniques on the routing andpacket forwarding message. In the umpiring role, each node in the path closely monitors the behavior of its succeeding nodeand if any misbehavior is noticed immediately flags off the guilty node. For demonstration, we have implemented the umpiringsystem by modifying the popular AODV protocol.

  13. p-RWBO: a novel low-collision and QoS-supported MAC for wireless ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Keping; LI Yun; ZHAO WeiLiang; WANG ChongGang; Kazem SOHRABY

    2008-01-01

    QoS supported MAC mechanism is a key issue for supporting QoS in wireless ad hoc networks. A new backoff algorithm, named RWBO+BEB, was proposed previously to decrease the packet collision probability significantly. In this paper, it is explored how to make RWBO+BEB support service differentiation in wireless ad hoc networks, and a novel proportional service differentiation algorithm, named p-RWBO, is proposed to allocate the wireless bandwidth according to the bandwidth ratio of each station. In p-RWBO, station n's walking probability (Pw, n) is selected according to its allocated bandwidth ratio. An analytical model is proposed to analyze how to choose Pw, n according to the bandwidth ratios of station n. The simulation results indicate that p-RWBO can differentiate services in terms of both bandwidth and delay.

  14. PROTOCOLS FOR INCREASING THE LIFETIME OF NODES OF AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Malarkodi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption of nodes in ad hoc networks is a critical issue as they predominantly operate on batteries. In order to improve the lifetime of an ad hoc network, all the nodes must be utilized evenly and the power required for connections must be minimized. Energy management deals with the process of managing energy resources by means of controlling the battery discharge, adjusting the transmission power and scheduling of power sources so as to increase the lifetime of the nodes of an ad hoc wireless network. In this paper, two protocols are proposed to improve the lifetime of the nodes. The first protocol assumes smart battery packages with L cells and uses dynamic programming (DP to optimally select the set of cells used to satisfy a request for power. The second one proposes a MAC layer protocol denoted as Power Aware medium Access Control (PAMAC protocol which enables the network layer to select a route with minimum total power requirement among the possible routes between a source and a destination provided all nodes in the routes have battery capacity above a threshold. The life time of the nodes using the DP based scheduling policy is found through simulation and compared with that obtained using the techniques reported in the literature. It is found that DP based policy increases the lifetime of the mobile nodes by a factor of 1.15 to 1.8. The life expectancy, the average power consumption and throughput of the network using PAMAC protocol are computed through simulation and compared with that of the other MAC layer protocols 802.11, MACA, and CSMA. Besides this, the life expectancy and average power consumption of the network for different values of threshold are also compared. From the simulation results, it is observed that PAMAC consumes the least power and provides the longest lifetime among the various MAC Layer protocols. Moreover, using PAMAC as the MAC layer protocol, the performance obtained using different routing layer

  15. The Evolution of IDS Solutions in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks To Wireless Mesh Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Novarun Deb; Manali Chakraborty; Nabendu Chaki

    2011-01-01

    The domain of wireless networks is inherently vulnerable to attacks due to the unreliable wireless medium. Such networks can be secured from intrusions using either prevention or detection schemes. This paper focuses its study on intrusion detection rather than prevention of attacks. As attackers keep onimprovising too, an active prevention method alone cannot provide total security to the system. Here in lies the importance of intrusion detection systems (IDS) that are solely designed to de...

  16. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  17. Further Development of Synchronous Array Method for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbo Hua

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A further development of the synchronous array method (SAM as a medium access control scheme for large-scale ad hoc wireless networks is presented. Under SAM, all transmissions of data packets between adjacent nodes are synchronized on a frame-by-frame basis, and the spacing between concurrent cochannel transmissions of data packets is properly controlled. An opportunistic SAM (O-SAM is presented which allows concurrent cochannel transmissions to be locally adaptive to channel gain variations. A distributed SAM (D-SAM is discussed that schedules all concurrent cochannel transmissions in a distributed fashion. For networks of low mobility, the control overhead required by SAM can be made much smaller than the payload. By analysis and simulation, the intranetwork throughput of O-SAM and D-SAM is evaluated. The effects of traffic load and multiple antennas on the intranetwork throughput are studied. The throughput of ALOHA is also analyzed and compared with that of O-SAM and D-SAM. By a distance-weighted throughput, a comparison of long distance transmission versus short distance transmission is also presented. The study of D-SAM reveals an important insight into the MSH-DSCH protocol adopted in IEEE 802.16 standards.

  18. Capacity Scaling of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Effect of Finite Wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Si-Hyeon

    2010-01-01

    We study the capacity scaling of wireless ad hoc networks considering the effect of finite wavelength. $n$ source--destination pairs are assumed to be randomly placed in areas of 1 (dense network) and $n$ (extended network). \\"{O}zg\\"{u}r \\emph{et al.} showed that the linear capacity scaling is possible for the dense network and the extended network with path-loss exponent equal to 2, which is achieved by hierarchical cooperation (HC). However, such a linear capacity scaling was shown to violate the physical limit on degrees of freedom by Franceschetti \\emph{et al}. The cause of the contradiction is the idealized channel model used in the analysis of the HC, in which the channel correlation due to the finite wavelength is ignored. In this paper, we use a channel model that captures the channel correlation correctly, modify the HC accordingly, and analyze its throughput scaling in terms of both $n$ and the wavelength. Our result shows exactly how the throughput scaling of HC is degraded due to the effect of fi...

  19. A DRIVEN BACKUP ROUTING TABLE TO FIND ALTERNATIVE DISJOINT PATH IN AD HOC WIRELESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan S. Abujassar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The performances of the routing protocols are important since they compute the primary path betweensource and destination. In addition, routing protocols need to detect failure within a short period oftime when nodes move to start updating the routing table in order to find a new primary path tothe destination. Meantime, loss of packets and end-to- end delays will increase thereby reducingthroughput and degrading the performance of the network. This paper proposes a new algorithm,DBRT (Driven Backup Routing Table, to improve the existing proactive protocols such as DSDV(Destination Sequenced Distance Vector protocol by creating a backup routing table to providemultiple alternative routes. The DBRT algorithm identifies adjacent nodes for each node in the samerange and then selects one of these as a backup next hop according to the available path to thedestination. The results show that loss of data packets, throughput and end-to-end delay times betweensource and destination are improved. The results show that the new protocol does not degrade thenetwork’s performance despite sending extra messages to construct and update the new backuprouting table. Simulations (using an NS2 simulator are undertaken to demonstrate the differencebetween using a DSDV protocol with or without the proposed schema.Index Terms; Network Protocols ;( DSDV Destination Sequenced Distance Vector ; DBRT (Driven BackupRouting Table;Wireless Network; Mobile Ad Hoc Network

  20. Analysis of DDoS Attack Effect and Protection Scheme in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramratan Ahirwal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET every node functions as transmitter, router and data sink is network without infrastructure. Detecting malicious nodes in an open ad-hoc network in whichparticipating nodes have no previous security associations presents a number of challenges not faced by traditional wired networks. Traffic monitoring in wired networks is usually performed at switches,routers and gateways, but an ad-hoc network does not have these types of network elements where the Intrusion Detection System (IDS can collect and analyse audit data for the entire network. A number ofneighbour-monitoring, trust-building, and cluster-based voting schemes have been proposed in the research to enable the detection and reporting of malicious activity in ad-hoc networks. The resourcesconsumed by ad-hoc network member nodes to monitor, detect, report, and diagnose malicious activity, however, may be greater than simply rerouting packets through a different available path. In this paperwe are trying to protect our network from distributed denial of service attack (DDOS, In this paper we present method for determining intrusion or misbehave in MANET using intrusion detection system and protect the network from distributed denial of service (DDOS and analysis the result on the bases of actual TCP flow monitoring, routing load ,packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay in normal , DDOS attack and IDS time .

  1. Two-Way Transmission Capacity of Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vaze, Rahul; Kien T. Truong; Weber, Steven; Heath Jr, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The transmission capacity of an ad-hoc network is the maximum density of active transmitters per unit area, given an outage constraint at each receiver for a fixed rate of transmission. Most prior work on finding the transmission capacity of ad-hoc networks has focused only on one-way communication where a source communicates with a destination and no data is sent from the destination to the source. In practice, however, two-way or bidirectional data transmission is required to support contro...

  2. Cross-layer design for intrusion detection and data security in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-09-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. The nodes are severely resource-constrained, with limited processing, memory and power capacities and must operate cooperatively to fulfill a common mission in typically unattended modes. In a wireless sensor network (WSN), each sensor at a node can observe locally some underlying physical phenomenon and sends a quantized version of the observation to sink (destination) nodes via wireless links. Since the wireless medium can be easily eavesdropped, links can be compromised by intrusion attacks from nodes that may mount denial-of-service attacks or insert spurious information into routing packets, leading to routing loops, long timeouts, impersonation, and node exhaustion. A cross-layer design based on protocol-layer interactions is proposed for detection and identification of various intrusion attacks on WSN operation. A feature set is formed from selected cross-layer parameters of the WSN protocol to detect and identify security threats due to intrusion attacks. A separate protocol is not constructed from the cross-layer design; instead, security attributes and quantified trust levels at and among nodes established during data exchanges complement customary WSN metrics of energy usage, reliability, route availability, and end-to-end quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning. Statistical pattern recognition algorithms are applied that use observed feature-set patterns observed during network operations, viewed as security audit logs. These algorithms provide the "best" network global performance in the presence of various intrusion attacks. A set of mobile (software) agents distributed at the nodes implement the algorithms, by moving among the layers involved in the network response at each active node

  3. FRCA: A Fuzzy Relevance-Based Cluster Head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taegwon Jeong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP, the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA, and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM. The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms.

  4. FRCA: a fuzzy relevance-based cluster head selection algorithm for wireless mobile ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chongdeuk; Jeong, Taegwon

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA) to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP), the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA), and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM). The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms.

  5. FRCA: a fuzzy relevance-based cluster head selection algorithm for wireless mobile ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chongdeuk; Jeong, Taegwon

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA) to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP), the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA), and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM). The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms. PMID:22163905

  6. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  7. Unsupervised algorithms for intrusion detection and identification in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2009-05-01

    In previous work by the author, parameters across network protocol layers were selected as features in supervised algorithms that detect and identify certain intrusion attacks on wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WSNs) carrying multisensor data. The algorithms improved the residual performance of the intrusion prevention measures provided by any dynamic key-management schemes and trust models implemented among network nodes. The approach of this paper does not train algorithms on the signature of known attack traffic, but, instead, the approach is based on unsupervised anomaly detection techniques that learn the signature of normal network traffic. Unsupervised learning does not require the data to be labeled or to be purely of one type, i.e., normal or attack traffic. The approach can be augmented to add any security attributes and quantified trust levels, established during data exchanges among nodes, to the set of cross-layer features from the WSN protocols. A two-stage framework is introduced for the security algorithms to overcome the problems of input size and resource constraints. The first stage is an unsupervised clustering algorithm which reduces the payload of network data packets to a tractable size. The second stage is a traditional anomaly detection algorithm based on a variation of support vector machines (SVMs), whose efficiency is improved by the availability of data in the packet payload. In the first stage, selected algorithms are adapted to WSN platforms to meet system requirements for simple parallel distributed computation, distributed storage and data robustness. A set of mobile software agents, acting like an ant colony in securing the WSN, are distributed at the nodes to implement the algorithms. The agents move among the layers involved in the network response to the intrusions at each active node and trustworthy neighborhood, collecting parametric values and executing assigned decision tasks. This minimizes the need to move large amounts

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF NETWORK BASED NOVEL ADAPTIVE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagrut Solanki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes which dynamically form a temporary network without any infrastructure or centralize entity. There are number of routing protocol exists in ad hoc network and this protocols have been compared. These protocols are like DSR (Dynamic Source Routing, AODV (Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Algorithm, and TORA (Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm like more. AODV is Reactive routing protocol. We modify the existing AODV protocol. All Routing Protocol have different Strategies of routing like End to End delay, Packet delivery ratio, Traffic overhead and Power Consumptions. Routing Deals with route discovery between source and destination. Aim of Dissertation is to improve route error tolerance mechanism of AODV. In our propose scheme the transmission starts from closest neighbor node if the link fail in middle of the transmission. That shows very important reductions in delay and it improves the packet delivery ratio. It also reduces the routing overhead by reducing frequency of route discovery process.

  9. A State-of-the-art Survey on IDS for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks and Wireless Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Novarun; Chaki, Nabendu

    2011-01-01

    An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) detects malicious and selfish nodes in a network. Ad hoc networks are often secured by using either intrusion detection or by secure routing. Designing efficient IDS for wireless ad-hoc networks that would not affect the performance of the network significantly is indeed a challenging task. Arguably, the most common thing in a review paper in the domain of wireless networks is to compare the performances of different solutions using simulation results. However, variance in multiple configuration aspects including that due to different underlying routing protocols, makes the task of simulation based comparative evaluation of IDS solutions somewhat unrealistic. In stead, the authors have followed an analytic approach to identify the gaps in the existing IDS solutions for MANETs and wireless mesh networks. The paper aims to ease the job of a new researcher by exposing him to the state of the art research issues on IDS. Nearly 80% of the works cited in this paper are published ...

  10. Monitoring and classifying animal behavior using ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks and artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria;

    2012-01-01

    perceptron (MLP)-based artificial neural network (ANN). The best performance of the ANN in terms of the mean squared error (MSE) and the convergence speed was achieved when it was initialized and trained using the Nguyen–Widrow and Levenberg–Marquardt back-propagation algorithms, respectively. The success...... into their corresponding behavioral modes. However, network unreliability and high-energy consumption have limited the applicability of those systems. In this study, a 2.4-GHz ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor network (MANET) that is able to overcome those problems is presented. The designed MANET showed high...

  11. Queueing models for mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de Roland

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents models for the performance analysis of a recent communication paradigm: mobile ad hoc networking. The objective of mobile ad hoc networking is to provide wireless connectivity between stations in a highly dynamic environment. These dynamics are driven by the mobility of stations

  12. Optimalization of Beacon Selection for Localization in Wireless AD-HOC Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we engage in optimalization of convenient beacons for localization position of a node in the ad-hoc network. An algorithm designed by us localizes position of moving or static node by RSS (Received Signal Strength method and trilateration. At first, localization of unknown node runs by combination of all beacons. Than optimalizating algorithmreduces the number of beacons (and repeats localization, while only three left. Its reduction is based on highest levels of received signal strength. It is only when signals are from the nearest beacons. Position localizating exactness is statistically interpreted from all localization by beacons combination and its repeating.

  13. Enabling real-time H.26L video services over wireless ad hoc networks using joint admission and transmission power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yong; Modestino, James W.; Qu, Qi; Wang, Xiaochun

    2003-06-01

    In a wireless ad hoc network, packets are sent from node-to-node in a multihop fashion until they reach the destination. In this paper we investigate the capacity of a wireless ad hoc network in supporting packet video transport. The ad hoc network consists of n homogeneous video users with each of them also serving as a relay node for other users. We investigate how the time delay aspects the video throughput in such an ad hoc network and how to provide a time-delay bounded packet video delivery service over such a network? The analytical results indicate that appropriate joint admission and power control have to be employed in order to efficiently utilize the network capacity while operating under the delay constraint as the distance between source and destination changes.

  14. Adaptive and Fuzzy Approaches for Nodes Affinity Management in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Natsheh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In most of the ad-hoc routing protocols, a static link lifetime (LL is used for a newly discovered neighbors. Though this works well for networks with fixed infrastructures, it is inadequate for ad-hoc networks due to nodes mobility and frequent breaks of links. To overcome this problem, routing protocols with estimated LL using nodes affinity were introduced. However, these protocols also used the static estimated LL during the connection time. In contrast to that, in this paper two methods are presented to estimate LL based on nodes affinity and then continually update those values depending on changes of the affinity. In the first method, linear function is used to map the relationship between the signal strength fluctuation and LL. In the second method, fuzzy logic system is used to map this relationship in a nonlinear fashion. Significance of the proposed methods is validated using simulation. Results indicate that fuzzy method provides the most efficient and robust LL values for routing protocols.

  15. A robust cross-layer metric for routing protocol in mobile wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Chisci, Luigi; Fabbrini, Luca; Giovannetti, Giulio

    2012-12-01

    In a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) where Mobile Nodes (MNs) self-organize to ensure the communication over radio links, routing protocols clearly play a significant role. In future MANETs, protocols should provide routing under full mobility, power constraints, fast time-varying channels, and nodes subject to high loading. In this article, a novel robust routing protocol, named distributed X-layer fastest path (DXFP), is proposed. The protocol is based on a cross-layer metric which is robust against the time-variations of the network as far as topology (mobility), congestion of the nodes and channel quality (fading, power constraints) are concerned. All these features are integrated in a single physical cost, i.e., the network crossing time, which has to be minimized. Furthermore, several routes from source to destination are stored for a given data flow to efficiently face the disconnections which frequently occur in MANETs. It is shown that the DXFP protocol, though locally operating in a fully distributed way within the MNs, provides, for each data flow, the optimum routes according to the considered metric. The DXFP protocol has been compared with two of the most commonly used routing protocols for MANETs, i.e., dynamic source routing and ad hoc on-demand distance vector, showing significant improvements in performance and robustness.

  16. Greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines for wireless ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyungJune

    2014-01-01

    We present a greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines in ad hoc sensor networks of stationary nodes and multiple mobile nodes with scheduled trajectory path and arrival time. In the proposed routing strategy, each stationary ad hoc node en route decides whether to relay a shortest-path stationary node toward destination or a passing-by mobile node that will carry closer to destination. We aim to utilize mobile nodes to minimize the total routing cost as far as the selected route can satisfy the end-to-end packet deadline. We evaluate our proposed routing algorithm in terms of routing cost, packet delivery ratio, packet delivery time, and usability of mobile nodes based on network level simulations. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm fully exploits the remaining time till packet deadline to turn into networking benefits of reducing the overall routing cost and improving packet delivery performance. Also, we demonstrate that the routing scheme guarantees packet delivery with hard deadlines, contributing to QoS improvement in various network services. PMID:25258736

  17. Performance Analysis of a Cluster-Based MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alonso-Zárate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model to evaluate the non-saturated performance of the Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks (DQMANs in single-hop networks is presented in this paper. DQMAN is comprised of a spontaneous, temporary, and dynamic clustering mechanism integrated with a near-optimum distributed queuing Medium Access Control (MAC protocol. Clustering is executed in a distributed manner using a mechanism inspired by the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF of the IEEE 802.11. Once a station seizes the channel, it becomes the temporary clusterhead of a spontaneous cluster and it coordinates the peer-to-peer communications between the clustermembers. Within each cluster, a near-optimum distributed queuing MAC protocol is executed. The theoretical performance analysis of DQMAN in single-hop networks under non-saturation conditions is presented in this paper. The approach integrates the analysis of the clustering mechanism into the MAC layer model. Up to the knowledge of the authors, this approach is novel in the literature. In addition, the performance of an ad hoc network using DQMAN is compared to that obtained when using the DCF of the IEEE 802.11, as a benchmark reference.

  18. Rate-aware optimal transmission power analysis in wireless ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Lin; Li Minglu; Yu Jiadi

    2008-01-01

    The problem of transmission power control in a rate-aware way is investigated to improve the through put of wireless ad hoe network.The behavior of basic IEEE 802.11 DCF is approximated by the p-persistent CSMA through a Markov chain model.The throughput model takes hidden terminals, multi-hop flow and concurrent interference into account.Numerical results show that the optimal transmission power derived from this model could balance the tradeoff between spatial reuse and data rate and hence yield maximum throughput.

  19. Potentials, Limitations and Applications of long-term and mobile ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Lapteva, Yulia; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2014-05-01

    To characterize environmental systems it is necessary to identify and describe processes with suitable methods. Environmental systems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, so individual measurements for their complete representation are often not sufficient. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems offer significant benefits as a better consideration of the local test conditions becomes possible. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous environmental systems. Significant advantages in the application of mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks are their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, a point measurement with a sensor is significantly improved by measuring at several points. It is also possible to perform analog and digital signal processing and computation on the basis of the measured data close to the sensor. Hence, a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of sensor nodes. Furthermore, their localization via satellite, the miniaturization of the nodes and long-term energy self-sufficiency are current topics under investigation. The possibilities and limitations of the applicability of wireless sensor networks for long-term and mobile environmental monitoring are presented. A concepts and realization example are given in the field of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes .This long term monitoring is part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Furthermore a mobile ad-hoc sensor network is presented for the monitoring of water induced mass wasting processes.

  20. Statistical-Based Joint Power Control for Wireless Ad Hoc CDMA Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGShu; RONGMongtian; CHENBo

    2005-01-01

    Current power control algorithm for CDMA-based ad hoc networks contains SIR and interference measurement, which is based on history information. However, for the traffics in today's or future's network, important statistical property is burstiness. As a consequence, the interference at a given receiving node may fluctuate dramatically. So the convergence speed of power control is not fast and the performance degrades. This paper presents a joint power control model. To a receiving node, all transmitting nodes assigned in same time slot adjust their transmitter power based on current information, which takes into account the adjustments of transmitter power of other transmitting nodes. Based on the joint power control model, this paper proposes a statisticalbased power control algorithm. Through this new algorithm, the interference is estimated more exactly. The simulation results indicated that the proposed power control algorithm outperforms the old algorithm.

  1. ON THE PROBABILITY OF K-CONNECTIVITY IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS UNDER DIFFERENT MOBILITY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare the probability of k-Connectivity of an ad hoc network under Random Way Point (RWP,City Section and Manhattan mobility models. A Network is said to be k-Connected if there exists at least kedge disjoint paths between any pair of nodes in that network at any given time and velocity. Initially, foreach of the three mobility models, the movement of the each node in the ad hoc network at a givenvelocity and time are captured and stored in the Node Movement Database (NMDB. Using themovements in the NMDB, the location of the node at a given time is computed and stored in the NodeLocation Database (NLDB. A weighted graph is created using the location of the nodes from NLDB,which is converted into a residual graph. The k-Connectivity of this residual graph is obtained by runningFord-Fulkerson’s algorithm on it. Ford Fulkerson’s algorithm computes the maximum flow of a networkby recording the flows assigned to different routes from each node to all the other nodes in the network.When run for a particular source-destination pair (s, d pair on a residual network graph with unit edgeweights as capacity, the maximum flow determined by Ford-Fulkerson’ algorithm is the number of edgedisjoint s-d paths on the network graph. Simulations show that the RWP model yields the highestprobability of k-Connectivity compared to City Section and Manhattan mobility models for a majority ofdifferent node densities and velocities considered. Simulation results also show that, for all the threemobility models, as the k value increases, the probability of k-Connectivity decreases for a given densityand velocity and as the density increases the probability of k-Connectivity increases.

  2. A Secure Intrusion Detection System against DDOS Attack in Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Using Multi-Hop Routing Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dinesh. S. Banabakode,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network is a technology which are used in society in daily life an activities such as in traffic surveillance, in building construction or it’s application is used in battlefield also. In MANET there is no control of any node here is no centralized controller that’s why each node has its own routing capability. And each node act as device and its change its connection to other devices. The main problem of today’s MANET is a security, because there is no any centralized controller. Our main aim is that we protect them from DDOS attack in terms of flooding through messages, packet drop, end to end delay and energy dropping etc. For that we are applying many techniques for saving energy of nodes and identifying malicious node and types of DDOS attack and in this paper we are discussing this technique.

  3. Topology Discovering and Power saving Mechanism for Routing in a Tree of Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa Zabian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Power management in mobile network is an open challenges where the power level in the network influences the network life time. However, there are a trade off between the power consumption and the connectivity in mobile networks. We present a topology control mechanism and a routing protocol for Ad-Hoc wireless networks that chooses the shortest path given the lower power consumption. The power consumption in forwarding a packet in the proposed topology is depends on only two main factors are the number of hops and the packet size. Our analytical results are confirmed by our simulation results where both has give the same results for power consumption in sending a packet taking in consideration only the power consumed in communication.

  4. A MODEL FOR CONGESTION CONTROL OF TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL IN MOBILE WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib M. Monzer Habbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is a fundamental protocol in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite.TCP was well designed and optimized to work over wired networks where most packet loss occurs due to network congestion. In theory, TCP should not care whether it is running over wired networks, WLANs, or Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs. In practice, it does matter because most TCP deployments have been carefully designed based on the assumption that congestion is the main factor of network instability. However, MANETs have other dominating factors that cause network instability. Forgetting the impact of these factors violates some design principles of TCP congestion control and open questions for future research to address. This study aims to introduce a model that shows the impact of MANET factors on TCP congestion control. To achieve this aim, Design Research Methodology (DRM proposed by BLESSING was used as a guide to present this model. The proposed model describes the existing situation of TCP congestion control. Furthermore, it points to the factors that are most suitable to be addressed by researchers in order to improve TCP performance. This research proposes a novel model to present the impact of MANET factors on TCP congestion control. The model is expected to serve as a benchmark for any intended improvement and enhancement of TCP congestion control over MANET.

  5. Stochastic Analysis of Non-slotted Aloha in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Blaszczyszyn, Bartek

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose two analytically tractable stochastic models of non-slotted Aloha for Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs): one model assumes a static pattern of nodes while the other assumes that the pattern of nodes varies over time. Both models feature transmitters randomly located in the Euclidean plane, according to a Poisson point process with the receivers randomly located at a fixed distance from the emitters. We concentrate on the so-called outage scenario, where a successful transmission requires a Signal-to-Interference-and-Noise Ratio (SINR) larger than a given threshold. With Rayleigh fading and the SINR averaged over the duration of the packet transmission, both models lead to closed form expressions for the probability of successful transmission. We show an excellent matching of these results with simulations. Using our models we compare the performances of non-slotted Aloha to previously studied slotted Aloha. We observe that when the path loss is not very strong both models, when appropri...

  6. A More Efficient Group Key Distribution Scheme for Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; CHEN Ke-fei; WEN Mi; ZHENG Yan-fei

    2008-01-01

    As the wireless medium is characterized by its lossy nature, reliable communication cannot be as-sumed in the key management scheme. Therefore self-healing is a good property for key distribution scheme in wireless applications. A new self-healing key distribution scheme was proposed, which is optimal in terms of user memory storage and efficient in terms of communication complexity.

  7. Service placement in ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenburg, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Service provisioning in ad hoc networks is challenging given the difficulties of communicating over a wireless channel and the potential heterogeneity and mobility of the devices that form the network. Service placement is the process of selecting an optimal set of nodes to host the implementation of a service in light of a given service demand and network topology. The key advantage of active service placement in ad hoc networks is that it allows for the service configuration to be adapted continuously at run time. ""Service Placement in Ad Hoc Networks"" proposes the SPi service placement fr

  8. 无线Ad Hoc 网的公平性问题%Fair Medium Access in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华; 张晓敏

    2004-01-01

    目前的Ad hoc 网中,为了解决隐蔽站问题提出了许多方法,IEEE 802.11 DCF MAC协议作为一种在无线Ad hoc网中被建议使用的标准,受到人们的关注.在IEEE 802.11 DCF中通过使用RTS/CTS握手,以及ACK确认帧,减轻了隐蔽站的影响,但它将导致"捕获"效应,即一些站占有共享信道,而其他站得不到信道,这也叫"公平性"问题.这篇文章叙述了一些有关"公平性"的解决办法,并通过仿真,说明改变IEEE 802.11中的退避算法,可提高Ad hoc网的公平性.

  9. On using multiple routing metrics with destination sequenced distance vector protocol for MultiHop wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, M.; Fazio, P.; Voznak, M.; Partila, P.; Komosny, D.; Tovarek, J.; Chmelikova, Z.

    2016-05-01

    A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes which communicate without a fixed backbone or centralized infrastructure. Due to the frequent mobility of nodes, routes connecting two distant nodes may change. Therefore, it is not possible to establish a priori fixed paths for message delivery through the network. Because of its importance, routing is the most studied problem in mobile ad hoc networks. In addition, if the Quality of Service (QoS) is demanded, one must guarantee the QoS not only over a single hop but over an entire wireless multi-hop path which may not be a trivial task. In turns, this requires the propagation of QoS information within the network. The key to the support of QoS reporting is QoS routing, which provides path QoS information at each source. To support QoS for real-time traffic one needs to know not only minimum delay on the path to the destination but also the bandwidth available on it. Therefore, throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead are traditional performance metrics used to evaluate the performance of routing protocol. To obtain additional information about the link, most of quality-link metrics are based on calculation of the lost probabilities of links by broadcasting probe packets. In this paper, we address the problem of including multiple routing metrics in existing routing packets that are broadcasted through the network. We evaluate the efficiency of such approach with modified version of DSDV routing protocols in ns-3 simulator.

  10. A REVIEW PAPER ON AD HOC NETWORK SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Singh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a survey of secure ad hoc routing protocols for wireless networks. Ad hoc network is a collection of nodes that is connected through a wireless medium forming rapidly changing topologies. Attacks on ad hoc network routing protocols disrupt network performance and reliability with there solution. We briefly present the most popular protocols that follow the table-driven and the source-initiated on-demand approaches. The comparison between the proposed solutions and parameters of ad hoc network shows the performance according to secure protocols. We discuss in this paper routing protocol and challenges and also discuss authentication in ad hoc network.

  11. Dynamic Hierarchical Sleep Scheduling for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Wen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two scheduling management schemes for wireless sensor networks, which manage the sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocate network resources efficiently. A local criterion is used to simultaneously establish the sensing coverage and connectivity such that dynamic cluster-based sleep scheduling can be achieved. The proposed schemes are simulated and analyzed to abstract the network behaviors in a number of settings. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithms provide efficient network power control and can achieve high scalability in wireless sensor networks.

  12. A topology control algorithm for preserving minimum-energy paths in wireless ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhong; CHANG Yilin; CUI Can; ZHANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    In this Paper,a distributed topology control algorithm is proposed.By adjusting the transmission power of each node,this algorithm constructs a wireless network topology with minimum-energy property,i.e.,it preserves a minimum-energy path between every pair of nodes.Moreover,the proposed algorithm can be used in both homogenous and heterogeneous wireless networks.and it can also work without an explicit propagation channel model or the position information of nodes.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has advantages over the topology control algorithm based on direct-transmission region in terms of average node degree and power efficiency.

  13. Reliable routing protocols for dynamic wireless ad hoc and sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jian

    2007-01-01

    The vision of ubiquitous computing requires the development of devices and technologies, which can be pervasive without being intrusive. The basic components of such a smart environment will be small nodes with sensing and wireless communications capabilities, able to organize flexibly into a networ

  14. Wireless sensor and mobile ad-hoc networks vehicular and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Fuqaha, Ala

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the practical perspectives in using wireless sensor networks (WSN) to develop real world applications that can be used for space exploration. These applications include sensor interfaces, remote wireless vehicles, space crew health monitoring and instrumentation. The material discusses how applications of WSN originally developed for space travel and exploration are being applied and used in multiple real world applications, allowing for the development of smart systems that have characteristics such as self-healing, self-diagnosis, and emergency healthcare notification. This book also: ·         Discusses how multidisciplinary fields can be implemented in a single application ·         Reviews exhaustively the state-of-the-art research in WSN for space and vehicular applications ·         Covers smart systems that have self-healing, self-diagnosis, and emergency healthcare notification

  15. Improvement in Medium Access Control protocol based on new contention scheme for wireless ad hoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Ellammal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In todays wireless networks, stations using the IEEE 802.11 standard contend for the channel using the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF. Research has shown that DCF€™s performance degrades especially with the large number of stations. This becomes more concerning due to the increasing proliferation of wireless devices. In this paper, we present a Medium Access Control (MAC scheme for wireless LANs and compare its performance to DCF . Our scheme, which attempts to resolve the contention in a constant number of slots (or constant time, is called CONSTI. The contention resolution happens over a predefined number of slots. In a slot, the stations probabilistically send a jam signal on the channel. The stations listening retire if they hear a jam signal. The others continue to the next slot. Over several slots, we aim to have one station remaining in the contention, which will then transmit its data. We find the optimal parameters of CONSTI and present an analysis on its performance.

  16. Design and Implementation of AMRP for Multi hop wireless Mobile ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.R.Balakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper have analyzed the interruption concert of a multi-hop wireless network in which the routes between resource-objective pairs are fixed. It has developed a new queue grouping technique to handle the complex correlations of the service process resulting from the multi-hop nature of the flows and their mutual sharing of the wireless medium. A general set based interfering model is assumed that imposes constraints on links that can be served simultaneously at any given time. These interference constraints are used to obtain a fundamental lower bound on the interruption concert of any scheduling policy for the system. It presents a systematic methodology to derive such lower bounds. For a special wireless system, namely the clique, it design a policy that is sample path interruption is finest. For the cycle queue network, where the interruption finest policy is known, the expected interruption of the optimal policy numerically coincides with the lower bound. The lower bound analysis provides useful insights into the design and analysis of optimal or nearly optimal scheduling policies.

  17. Adaptive Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Long-term and Event-oriented Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Chirila, Andrei Marian; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, complexity and dynamic. Hence, single point measurements are often not sufficient for their complete representation. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic environmental systems offer significant benefits as a better consideration to the local test conditions, due to the simple adjustment of the sensor distribution, the sensor types and the sample rate. Another advantage of wireless ad-hoc sensor networks is their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, individual point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several points continuously. In this work a concept and realization for Long-term ecosystem research is given in the field monitoring of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes. This long term analyses are part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Regarding to the adaptive behavior of the network, also a mobile version was developed to overcome the lack of information of temporally and spatially fixed measurements for the detection and recording of highly dynamic or time limited processes. First results of different field campaigns are given to present the potentials and limitations of this application in environmental science, especially for the monitoring of the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes, soil-atmosphere interaction and the validation of remote sensing data.

  18. Combined bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods in cross-layer protocol optimization for wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2011-06-01

    Published studies have focused on the application of one bio-inspired or evolutionary computational method to the functions of a single protocol layer in a wireless ad hoc sensor network (WSN). For example, swarm intelligence in the form of ant colony optimization (ACO), has been repeatedly considered for the routing of data/information among nodes, a network-layer function, while genetic algorithms (GAs) have been used to select transmission frequencies and power levels, physical-layer functions. Similarly, artificial immune systems (AISs) as well as trust models of quantized data reputation have been invoked for detection of network intrusions that cause anomalies in data and information; these act on the application and presentation layers. Most recently, a self-organizing scheduling scheme inspired by frog-calling behavior for reliable data transmission in wireless sensor networks, termed anti-phase synchronization, has been applied to realize collision-free transmissions between neighboring nodes, a function of the MAC layer. In a novel departure from previous work, the cross-layer approach to WSN protocol design suggests applying more than one evolutionary computational method to the functions of the appropriate layers to improve the QoS performance of the cross-layer design beyond that of one method applied to a single layer's functions. A baseline WSN protocol design, embedding GAs, anti-phase synchronization, ACO, and a trust model based on quantized data reputation at the physical, MAC, network, and application layers, respectively, is constructed. Simulation results demonstrate the synergies among the bioinspired/ evolutionary methods of the proposed baseline design improve the overall QoS performance of networks over that of a single computational method.

  19. Self-Organization of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks as Small Worlds Using Long Range Directional Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Abhik; Gauthier, Vincent; Yeo, Chai Kiat; Afifi, Hossam; Lee, Bu Sung

    2011-01-01

    We study how long range directional beams can be used for self-organization of a wireless network to exhibit small world properties. Using simulation results for randomized beamforming as a guideline, we identify crucial design issues for algorithm design. Subsequently, we propose an algorithm for deterministic creation of small worlds. We define a new centrality measure that estimates the structural importance of nodes based on traffic flow in the network, which is used to identify the optimum nodes for beamforming. This results in significant reduction in path length while maintaining connectivity.

  20. Solar-powered ad-hoc wireless sensor network for border surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Norwood, Robert A.; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as means of providing automated monitoring, target tracking, and intrusion detection. Solar-powered WSNs that adopt innovative sensors with low power consumption and forefront networking technologies can provide rapidly deployable situational awareness and effective security control at the border at low cost. In our paper, we introduce the prototype of our new solar-powered WSN platform for Border Security. We consider practical issues in WSNs, including sensing environment classification, survivability under harsh weather conditions, and efficient solar energy harvesting. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of our new solar-powered WSN.

  1. Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.

  2. SMAODV: A Novel Smart Protocol for Routing in Ad-hoc Wireless Networks Using the PageRank Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gozali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ad-Hoc networks are the kind of wireless networks that their configuration is done automatically and also the nodes are moving with a certain speed. For this reason the created paths (routes are often unstable and these paths are usually broken by switching nodes. In this respect, choosing the right path and routing mechanism become more diverse in these networks. In this research by applying some changes to the AODV routing protocols, two new protocols are presented: The first protocol is SAODV, which is a protocol for multi-path which finds the minimum length path between source and destination nodes and then sequentially sends the packets in these paths. The second protocol is SMAODV, which is a verified version of the first one but it finds multi-paths with minimum length for sending the control packets by the use of webpage rank algorithm and a smart mechanism for determining the amount of sending packets. This would cause the energy at any point in the network nodes with minimum variance and increase the network lifetime. The results of simulations in the NS-2 network simulator also verify that our proposed methods have better efficiency than the basic AODV protocol, and improve the network performance and decrease the end-to-end delay of receipt packets.

  3. Load balancing strategy of heterogeneous wireless networks based on multi-hop routing algorithm of ad hoc network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xuebing; Wang Qingping; Zhu Guangxi; Liu Gan

    2009-01-01

    Because of different system capacities of base station (BS) or access point (AP) and ununiformity of traffic distribution in different cells, quantities of new call users may be blocked in overloaded cell in communication hot spots. Whereas in some neighboring under-loaded cells, bandwidth may be superfluous because there are only few users to request services. In order to raise resource utilization of the whole heterogeneous networks, several novel load balancing strategies are proposed, which combine the call admission control policy and multi-hop routing protocol of ad-hoc network for load balancing. These load balancing strategies firstly make a decision whether to admit a new call or not by considering some parameters like load index and route cost, etc.., and then transfer the denied users into neighboring under-loaded cell with surplus channel according to optimum multi-hop routing algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed load balancing strategies can distribute traffics to the whole heterogeneous wireless networks, improve the load balance index efficiently, and avoid the call block phenomenon almost absolutely.

  4. Opportunistic Routing with Congestion Diversity in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bhorkar, Abhijeet; Javidi, Tara

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of routing packets across a multi-hop network consisting of multiple sources of traffic and wireless links while ensuring bounded expected delay. Each packet transmission can be overheard by a random subset of receiver nodes among which the next relay is selected opportunistically. The main challenge in the design of minimum-delay routing policies is balancing the trade-off between routing the packets along the shortest paths to the destination and distributing traffic according to the maximum backpressure. Combining important aspects of shortest path and backpressure routing, this paper provides a systematic development of a distributed opportunistic routing policy with congestion diversity ({D-ORCD}). {D-ORCD} uses a measure of draining time to opportunistically identify and route packets along the paths with an expected low overall congestion. {D-ORCD} is proved to ensure a bounded expected delay for all networks and under any admissible traffic. Furthermore, this paper proposes a p...

  5. Information Potential Fields Navigation in Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As wireless sensor networks (WSNs are increasingly being deployed in some important applications, it becomes imperative that we consider application requirements in in-network processes. We intend to use a WSN to aid information querying and navigation within a dynamic and real-time environment. We propose a novel method that relies on the heat diffusion equation to finish the navigation process conveniently and easily. From the perspective of theoretical analysis, our proposed work holds the lower constraint condition. We use multiple scales to reach the goal of accurate navigation. We present a multi-scale gradient descent method to satisfy users’ requirements in WSNs. Formula derivations and simulations show that the method is accurately and efficiently able to solve typical sensor network configuration information navigation problems. Simultaneously, the structure of heat diffusion equation allows more flexibility and adaptability in searching algorithm designs.

  6. Energy Effective Congestion Control for Multicast with Network Coding in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanxin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve network throughput and reduce energy consumption, we propose in this paper a cross-layer optimization design that is able to achieve multicast utility maximization and energy consumption minimization. The joint optimization of congestion control and power allocation is formulated to be a nonlinear nonconvex problem. Using dual decomposition, a distributed optimization algorithm is proposed to avoid the congestion by control flow rate at the source node and eliminate the bottleneck by allocating the power at the intermediate node. Simulation results show that the cross-layer algorithm can increase network performance, reduce the energy consumption of wireless nodes and prolong the network lifetime, while keeping network throughput basically unchanged.

  7. Development of Innovative and Inexpensive Optical Sensors in Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Hannes; Schima, Robert; Assing, Martin; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Due to the heterogeneity and dynamic of ecosystems, the observation and monitoring of natural processes necessitate a high temporal and spatial resolution. This also requires inexpensive and adaptive measurements as well as innovative monitoring strategies. To this end, the application of ad-hoc wireless sensor networks holds the potential of creating an adequate monitoring platform. In order to achieve a comprehensive monitoring in space and time with affordability, it is necessary to reduce the sensor costs. Common investigation methods, especially with regard to vegetation processes, are based on optical measurements. In particular, different wavelengths correspond to specific properties of the plants and preserve the possibility to derive information about the ecosystem, e.g. photosynthetic performance or nutrient content. In this context, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensors and hyperspectral sensors are in major use. This work aims the development, evaluation and application of inexpensive but high performance optical sensors for the implementation in wireless sensor networks. Photosynthetically active radiation designates the spectral range from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis. PAR sensors enable the detection of the reflected solar light of the vegetation in the whole PAR wave band. The amount of absorption indicates photosynthetic activity of the plant, with good approximation. Hyperspectral sensors observe specific parts or rather distinct wavelengths of the solar light spectrum and facilitate the determination of the main pigment classes, e.g. Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and Anthocyanin. Due to the specific absorption of certain pigments, a characteristic spectral signature can be seen in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, known as narrow-band peaks. In an analogous manner, also the presence and concentration of different nutrients cause a characteristic spectral

  8. An Intrusion Detection System Framework for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Singh; Surbhi Chauhan; Kamal Kant; Reshma Doknaia

    2012-01-01

    Secure and efficient communication among a set of mobile nodes is one of the most important aspects in ad-hoc wireless networks. Wireless networks are particularly vulnerable to intrusion, as they operate in open medium, and use cooperative strategies for network communications. By efficiently merging audit data from multiple network sensors, we analyze the entire ad hoc wireless network for intrusions and try to inhibit intrusion attempts. This paper presents an intrusion detection system fo...

  9. Vehicular ad hoc network security and privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, X

    2015-01-01

    Unlike any other book in this area, this book provides innovative solutions to security issues, making this book a must read for anyone working with or studying security measures. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Security and Privacy mainly focuses on security and privacy issues related to vehicular communication systems. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to vehicular ad hoc network and its unique security threats and privacy concerns and then illustrates how to address those challenges in highly dynamic and large size wireless network environments from multiple perspectives. This book is richly illustrated with detailed designs and results for approaching security and privacy threats.

  10. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aldabbas, Hamza; Janicke, Helge; Al-Bayatti, Ali; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4117

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis. These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours' data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters) and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nod...

  11. A Survey of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Marwa Altayeb; Imad Mahgoub

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the aspect of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is becoming an interesting research area; VANET is a mobile ad hoc network considered as a special case of mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Similar to MANET, VANET is characterized as autonomous and self-configured wireless network. However, VANET has very dynamic topology, large and variable network size, and constrained mobility; these characteristics led to the need for efficient routing and resource saving VANET protocols, to f...

  12. Geocasting and Multicasting Routing Operation in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    R.Kruthika

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers, the different multicasting routing protocols in wireless mobile Ad hoc network (MANET).An Ad hoc network is composed of mobile nodes without the presence of a wired support infrastructure .In this environment routing/multicasting protocols are faced with the challenge of producing multihop router under host mobility and band constraints. Various approaches and routing protocol have been proposed to address Ad hoc networking problems and multiple standardization effort wit...

  13. A Simple Hybrid Wormhole Algorithm for Detection and Removal of Wormhole Attacks for Secure Routing In Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.VANI,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrastructure of a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET has no routers for routing, and all nodes must share the same routing protocol to assist each other when transmitting messages. However, almost allcommon routing protocols at present consider performance as first priority, and have little defense capability against the malicious nodes. Many researches have proposed various protocols of higher safety to defend against attacks; however, each has specific defense objects, and is unable to defend against particular attacks. Of all the types of attacks, the wormhole attack poses the greatest threat and is very difficult to prevent; therefore, this paper focuses on the wormhole attack, by combing three techniques. So that our proposed scheme has three techniques based on hop count, decision anomaly, neighbor list count methods are combined to detect andisolate wormhole attacks in ad hoc networks. That manages how the nodes are going to behave and which to route the packets in secured way.

  14. Optimal channel choice for collaborative ad-hoc dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Boudec, J-Y. L.; Vojnovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative ad-hoc dissemination of information has been proposed as an efficient means to disseminate information among devices in a wireless ad-hoc network. Devices help in forwarding the information channels to the entire network, by disseminating the channels they subscribe to, plus others...

  15. Decentralized position verification in geographic ad hoc routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinmüller, Tim; Schoch, Elmar; Kargl, Frank; Maihöfer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Inter-vehicle communication is regarded as one of the major applications of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Compared to MANETs or wireless sensor networks (WSNs), these so-called vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have unique requirements on network protocols. The requirements result mainly from no

  16. C-LOAD POWER CONTROL PROTOCOL-CROSS-LAYER DESIGN OF A NETWORK LAYER LOAD POWER CONTROL PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arivoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc network scenario, Cross-layer design is emerging, important in wireless ad hoc network and the power control methods. Power control is the intelligent selection of transmit power in a communication to achieve the better performance within the system. Cross-layer is used to sharing the information between the layers. Physical to Transport layer information are shared in this protocol, due to this cross-layering is designed to optimize the power control. CLD using LOADPOWER (LOADPOW control protocol is reduce the overall end-end delay and the energy consumption using transmission power. The novelty of this work deals with both low and high transmission power control methodologies. So many power control schemes are dealt in MAC layer but this work, Power control protocol was done in network layer and it plays a vital role. A MAC approach to power control only does a local optimization whereas network layer is capable of global optimization. Simulation was done in NS-2 simulator with the performance metrics as improved throughput, energy consumption and end-end delay. The key concept is to improve the throughput, saves energy by sending all the packets with optimal transmission power according to the network load. A comparison of few protocols with Load Power Control Protocol (LPCP was implemented and got the better performances using NS-2 simulator.

  17. TOWARD CALIBRATED MODULAR WIRELESS SYSTEM BASED AD HOC SENSORS FOR IN SITU LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS AS SUPPORT TO SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASAAD CHAHBOUN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for in situ Land Surface Temperature (LST measurements' campaigns for satellite algorithms validations. The proposed method based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is constituted by modules of node arrays. Each of which is constituted by 25 smart nodes scattered throughout a target field. Every node represents a Thermal Infra Red (TIR radiation sensor and keeps a minimum size while ensuring the functions of communication, sensing, and processing. This Wireless-LST (Wi-LST system is convenient to beinstalled on a field pointing to any type of targets (e.g. bare soil, grass, water, etc.. Ad hoc topology is adopted among the TIR nodes with multi-hop mesh routing protocol for communication, acquisition data are transmitted to the client tier wirelessly. Using these emergent technologies, we propose a practical method for Wi-LSTsystem calibration. TIR sensor (i.e. OSM101 from OMEGA society measures temperature, which is conditioned and amplified by an AD595 within a precision of 0.1 °C. Assessed LST is transmitted over thedeveloped ad hoc WSN modules (i.e. MICA2DOT from CROSSBOW society, and collected at in situ base station (i.e. PANASONIC CF19 laptop using an integrated database. LST is evaluated with a polynomialalgorithm structure as part of developed software. Finally, the comparison of the mean values of LST(Wi-LST in each site with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS sensor, obtained from the daily LST product (MOD11C1 developed by the MODIS-NASA Science Team, on board TERRA satellite during the campaign period is provided.

  18. Flexible Authentication in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Gil, P; Molina-Gil, J; Hernández-Goya, C

    2010-01-01

    A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is a form of Mobile ad-hoc network, to provide communications among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed roadside equipment. The key operation in VANETs is the broadcast of messages. Consequently, the vehicles need to make sure that the information has been sent by an authentic node in the network. VANETs present unique challenges such as high node mobility, real-time constraints, scalability, gradual deployment and privacy. No existent technique addresses all these requirements. In particular, both inter-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside wireless communications present different characteristics that should be taken into account when defining node authentication services. That is exactly what is done in this paper, where the features of inter-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside communications are analyzed to propose differentiated services for node authentication, according to privacy and efficiency needs.

  19. A Security Private Key Distribution Management Method in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks%无线Ad Hoc网络中一种分布式密钥安全管理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祝

    2013-01-01

    An Ad Hoc wireless network is an autonomous self-organizing system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links where undirectly connected nodes can communicate via intermediate nodes.Providing security support is a challenging task because wireless networks are susceptible to be attacked ranging from passive eavesdropping to active interference.In this paper,a private key distribution management method is presented for wireless Ad Hoc network.The protocol is based on selecting altruism nodes and avoiding utilitarianism nodes by neighbor's observation to performed (k,n) threshold cryptography for the strong private key protection.The protocol is efficient for an untrustworthy Ad Hoc network,also prevents a k-1 adversaries from gaining information about the secret private key.%Ad Hoc无线网络是一种自组织移动网络,其中节点是通过不直接连接的中间节点来进行传输.无线网络是非常敏感的,攻击范围可以是被动的偷听,也可以是主动的干预,提供安全支持是一个挑战任务.论文提出了一种分布式密钥安全管理方法,这个方法是选择利他节点,并通过邻居观察完成(k,n)门限密钥,形成强密钥保护避免选择功利性强的节点.本方法对非信任的Ad Hoc网络是十分有效的,避免了k-1对手通过密钥获得信息.

  20. Decentralized Network-level Synchronization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voulgaris, Spyros; Dobson, Matthew; Steen, van Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Energy is the scarcest resource in ad hoc wireless networks, particularly in wireless sensor networks requiring a long lifetime. Intermittently switching the radio on and off is widely adopted as the most effective way to keep energy consumption low. This, however, prevents the very goal of communic

  1. A Study On OFDM In Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Nasereldin Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is the physical layer in emerging wireless local area networks that are also being targeted for ad hoc networking. OFDM can be also exploited in ad hoc networks to improve the energy performance of mobile devices. It is important in wireless networks because it can be used adaptively in a dynamically changing channel. This study gives a detailed view about OFDM and how it is useful to increase the bandwidth. This paper also gives an idea about how OFDM can be a promising technology for high capacity wireless communication.

  2. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed idea shows that it is a better approach based on gossip routing.

  3. Ad Hoc networks and wireless sensor networks in telecommunications application%Ad Hoc网络与无线传感器网络在电信中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锴

    2009-01-01

    重点介绍Ad Hoc网络与其它传统通信网络相比具有的显著特点,这些特点使得Ad Hoc组网成为无线网络和移动计算领域最集中研究的热点,以及Ad Hoc网络在电信业的应用,除本身具有的重要价值外, 还具有大规模电信级服务.同时介绍无线传感器网络,介绍其特点,对WSN在电信中的应用前景进行分析.%This article puts emphasis on the Ad Hoc networks compared to other traditional communications networks with a notable feature,which make Ad Hoc networks into the wireless network and mobile computing research in the field with the highest concentration of hot spots, and Ad Hoc network applications in the telecommunications industry, in addition to the important value in itself, but also has a large-scale carrier-class service. At the same time, it introduces WSN with a comparative analysis of its characteristics,and analyzes WSN in telecommunications applications.

  4. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Aldabbas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis.These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours’ data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nodes. We evaluate our framework using the Network Simulator (NS-2 to check whether the privacy and confidentiality of the originator are met. For this we implemented the Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs, as NS-2 agents that manage and enforce the policies attached to packets at every node in the MANET.

  5. Connectivity-driven Attachment in Mobile Cellular Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Boite, Julien; Leguay, Jérémie

    2014-01-01

    International audience Cellular wireless technologies (e.g. LTE) can be used to build cellular ad hoc networks. In this new class of ad hoc networks, nodes are equipped with two radio interfaces: one being a terminal, the other one being an access point. In this context, attachment decisions based on traditional criteria (e.g. signal quality) may lead to network partitions or suboptimal path lengths, thus making access point selection critical to ensure efficient network connectivity. This...

  6. Routing in Terrestrial Free Space Optical Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yao; Sadegh Aminian, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication uses visible or infrared wavelengths to broadcast high speed data wirelessly through the atmospheric channel. The performance of terrestrial FSO channel mainly depends on the local atmospheric conditions. Ad hoc networks offer cost-effective solutions for communications in areas where infrastructure is unavailable, e.g., intelligent transport system, disaster recovery and battlefield scenarios. Traditional ad hoc networks operate in the radio...

  7. A Review of Anonymity in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    KERNÁCS János; SZILÁGYI Szabolcs

    2010-01-01

    An ad hoc network is a self-organizingnetwork of wireless links connecting mobile nodes.The mobile nodes can communicate without aninfrastructure. They form an arbitrary topology, wherethe nodes play the role of routers and are free to moverandomly. Mobile ad hoc networks requireanonymous communications, in order to thwart newwireless passive attacks, and to protect new assets ofinformation such as nodes’ locations, motion patterns,network topology and traffic patterns in addition toconventio...

  8. IDHOCNET: A Novel ID Centric Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrukh Khalid; Athar Mahboob; Choudhry Fahad Azim; Aqeel Ur Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Ad hoc networks lack support of infrastructure and operate in a shared bandwidth wireless environment. Presently, such networks have been realized by various adaptations in Internet Protocol (IP) architecture which was developed for infrastructure oriented hierarchical networks. The IP architecture has its known problem and issues even in infrastructure settings, like IP address overloading, mobility, multihoming, and so forth. Therefore, when such architecture is implemented in ad hoc scenar...

  9. Neural methods based on modified reputation rules for detection and identification of intrusion attacks in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2010-04-01

    Determining methods to secure the process of data fusion against attacks by compromised nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and to quantify the uncertainty that may exist in the aggregation results is a critical issue in mitigating the effects of intrusion attacks. Published research has introduced the concept of the trustworthiness (reputation) of a single sensor node. Reputation is evaluated using an information-theoretic concept, the Kullback- Leibler (KL) distance. Reputation is added to the set of security features. In data aggregation, an opinion, a metric of the degree of belief, is generated to represent the uncertainty in the aggregation result. As aggregate information is disseminated along routes to the sink node(s), its corresponding opinion is propagated and regulated by Josang's belief model. By applying subjective logic on the opinion to manage trust propagation, the uncertainty inherent in aggregation results can be quantified for use in decision making. The concepts of reputation and opinion are modified to allow their application to a class of dynamic WSNs. Using reputation as a factor in determining interim aggregate information is equivalent to implementation of a reputation-based security filter at each processing stage of data fusion, thereby improving the intrusion detection and identification results based on unsupervised techniques. In particular, the reputation-based version of the probabilistic neural network (PNN) learns the signature of normal network traffic with the random probability weights normally used in the PNN replaced by the trust-based quantified reputations of sensor data or subsequent aggregation results generated by the sequential implementation of a version of Josang's belief model. A two-stage, intrusion detection and identification algorithm is implemented to overcome the problems of large sensor data loads and resource restrictions in WSNs. Performance of the twostage algorithm is assessed in simulations of WSN

  10. A Survey of Multicast Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Waqar Farooq; Khan, Muazzam A.; Saad Rehman; Nazar Abbas Saqib

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are autonomous and self-configurable wireless ad hoc networks and considered as a subset of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). MANET is composed of self-organizing mobile nodes which communicate through a wireless link without any network infrastructure. A VANET uses vehicles as mobile nodes for creating a network within a range of 100 to 1000 meters. VANET is developed for improving road safety and for providing the latest services of intelligent transport sy...

  11. Routing in Highly Dynamic Ad Hoc Networks: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun G Menon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to analyze the various issues and challenges involved in routing of data packets in highly mobile ad hoc networks. Routing in ad hoc networks has always been a challenging and tough task due to the dynamic topology and error prone wireless channel. There are a number of issues like lack of centralized control, constantly moving nodes etc that has to be considered while routing a data packet from the source to the destination in the ad hoc network. Routing of data packets becomes much more difficult with increased mobility of nodes. This paper analyses the various issues in routing of data packets from the source to the destination node and also lists down the parameters that has to be considered while designing and selecting a routing protocol for highly mobile ad hoc networks.

  12. The Extended Clustering AD HOC Routing Protocol (ECRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buthayna Al-Sharaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks are acollection of mobile nodes communicating via wireless channels without any fixedinfrastructure. Because of their ease and low cost of building, ad hoc networks have a lot of attractiveapplications in different fields. The topology of ad hoc networks changes dynamically, and each node in thenetwork can act as a host or router.With the increase in the number of wirelessdevices andlarge amountof traffic to be exchanged, the demand for scalable routing protocols has increased. This paper presents ascalable routing protocol, based on AODV protocol, called the Extended Clustering Ad Hoc RoutingProtocol (ECRP. This is a hybrid protocol, which combines reactive and proactive approaches in routing.The protocol uses theGlobal PositioningSystem todetermine the position of certain nodesin the network.The evaluation methodology and simulation results obtained showthat the protocol is efficient and scaleswell in large networks

  13. DEHAR: a Distributed Energy Harvesting Aware Routing Algorithm for Ad-hoc Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Koefoed; Madsen, Jan; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2010-01-01

    One of the key design goals in Wireless Sensor Networks is long lasting or even continuous operation. Continuous operation is made possible through energy harvesting. Keeping the network operational imposes a demand to prevent network segmentation and power loss in nodes. It is therefore important...... that the best energy-wise route is found for each data transfer from a source node to the sink node. We present a new adaptive and distributed routing algorithm for finding energy optimised routes in a wireless sensor network with energy harvesting. The algorithm finds an energy efficient route from each source...... node to a single sink node, taking into account the current energy status of the network. By simulation, the algorithm is shown to be able to adapt to changes in harvested and stored energy. Simulations show that continuous operation is possible....

  14. Power-Aware Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (PHIDS) using Cellular Automata in Wireless AdHoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sree, Pokkuluri Kiran; Babu, Inampudi Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Adhoc wireless network with their changing topology and distributed nature are more prone to intruders. The network monitoring functionality should be in operation as long as the network exists with nil constraints. The efficiency of an Intrusion detection system in the case of an adhoc network is not only determined by its dynamicity in monitoring but also in its flexibility in utilizing the available power in each of its nodes. In this paper we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system, b...

  15. Power control algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuraj L. Pradhan

    2011-07-01

    We will also focus on an adaptive distributed power management (DISPOW algorithm as an example of the multi-parameter optimization approach which manages the transmit power of nodes in a wireless ad hoc network to preserve network connectivity and cooperatively reduce interference. We will show that the algorithm in a distributed manner builds a unique stable network topology tailored to its surrounding node density and propagation environment over random topologies in a dynamic mobile wireless channel.

  16. Multiagent Based Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Manvi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are a compelling application of ad hoc networks, because of the potential to access specific context information (e.g. traffic conditions, service updates, route planning and deliver multimedia services (Voice over IP, in-car entertainment, instant messaging, etc.. This paper proposes an agent based information dissemination model for VANETs. A two-tier agent architecture is employed comprising of the following: 1 'lightweight', network-facing, mobile agents; 2 'heavyweight', application-facing, norm-aware agents. The limitations of VANETs lead us to consider a hybrid wireless network architecture that includes Wireless LAN/Cellular and ad hoc networking for analyzing the proposed model. The proposed model provides flexibility, adaptability and maintainability for traffic information dissemination in VANETs as well as supports robust and agile network management. The proposed model has been simulated in various network scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.

  17. A kind of intrusion detection system of wireless Ad Hoc ethernet based on domain%一种基于域的无线Ad HOC网络入侵检测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚媛媛

    2012-01-01

    无线Ad Hoc网络因其高度动态的拓扑、无线链路、无固定基础设施的支持等一些特性使得它与其他网络相比是非常脆弱的.现有针对有线网络开发的IDS很难适用于这种网络.提出一种称为ZBIDS(Zone-Based Intrusion Detection System)的入侵检测系统,该系统采用两级层次化结构,属于分布式IDS.ZBIDS系统通过基于马尔可夫链的分类器来检测具有序列化特征的入侵.仿真结果表明,基于马尔可夫链的分类器具有较好的入侵检测性能.%Wireless Ad Hoc ethernet is comparatively vulnerable its characteristics such as dynamic topology, wireless connection and non-fixed foundation. The current IDS which are developed to suit network connection can' t adapt to the wireless one. This essay suggests the Zone-Based Intrusion Detection System (ZBIDS) which adopts two-stage hierarchical structure, belonging to distributive IDS. The ZBIDS can detect the ordered intrusion by the Markov chain classifier. The simulation results show that the Markov chain classifier can better detect the intrusion.

  18. A WMPLS Based Multicast Mechanism in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mengyang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Merging MPLS into multicast routing protocol in Mobile Ad hoc network is an elegant method to enhance the network performance and an efficient solution for multicast scalability and control overhead problems. Based on the Wireless MPLS technology, the mechanism and evaluation of a new multicast protocol, the Label Switching Multicast Routing Protocol (LSMRP is presented in this paper.

  19. Authentication and consensus overhead in vehicular ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, Jonathan; Mammeri, Zoubir

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks aim at increasing passenger safety by exchanging warning messages between vehicles wirelessly. A main challenge is to resist to various malicious abuses and security attacks. However, any security mechanism comes with overhead. We analyze how the authentication algorithm EC

  20. A survey of TCP over ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Altman, Eitan; Nain, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was designed to provide reliable end-to-end delivery of data over unreliable networks. In practice, most TCP deployments have been carefully designed in the context of wired networks. Ignoring the properties of wireless ad hoc networks can lead to TCP implemen

  1. Using Wikipedia categories for ad hoc search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of category information for ad hoc retrieval in Wikipedia. We show that techniques for entity ranking exploiting this category information can also be applied to ad hoc topics and lead to significant improvements. Automatically assigned target categories are good sur

  2. Performance Evaluation of Important Ad Hoc Network Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad hoc network is a collection of specific infrastructureless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without any centralized administration. A user can move anytime in an ad hoc scenario and, as a result, such a network needs to have routing protocols which can adopt dynamically changing topology. To accomplish this, a number of ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed and implemented, which include dynamic source routing (DSR, ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing, and temporally ordered routing algorithm (TORA. Although considerable amount of simulation work has been done to measure the performance of these routing protocols, due to the constant changing nature of these protocols, a new performance evaluation is essential. Accordingly, in this paper, we analyze the performance differentials to compare the above-mentioned commonly used ad hoc network routing protocols. We also analyzed the performance over varying loads for each of these protocols using OPNET Modeler 10.5. Our findings show that for specific differentials, TORA shows better performance over the two on-demand protocols, that is, DSR and AODV. Our findings are expected to lead to further performance improvements of various ad hoc networks in the future.

  3. A Reactive Location Service for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Käsemann, Michael; Füßler, Holger; Hartenstein, Hannes; Mauve, Martin

    2002-01-01

    We present and analyze a reactive location service RLS for mobile ad hoc networks. RLS provides a mobile node in a wireless ad-hoc network with the means to inquire the current geographical position of another node on-demand and can be used as a building block for location-based routing. We provide a comparison of RLS to an ideal omniscient location service as well as to the complex Grid Location Service (GLS). In addition, we compare the performance of greedy location-based routing in combin...

  4. Summary of routing protocols and classifications of wireless mobile Ad Hoc networks%无线Ad Hoc网络的路由协议及分类概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长安

    2007-01-01

    无线移动Ad Hoc网络(Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks)是随着无线通信技术的快速发展而出现的一种新型网络.它具有无中心结点限制、无有线介质限制、自组性、自愈性、高移动性和快速建立等优点,适合在复杂不确定的移动环境中应用.总括了Ad Hoc的基本概念、原理和现状,针对无线Ad Hoc网络特有的节能、QoS和安全三方面要求,对目前的Ad Hoc相关协议进行了概述、对比和分类, 有助于进一步研究.

  5. The Adaptive Optimized Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kunal Vikas Patil; M.R. Dhage

    2013-01-01

    The vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a superior newtechnology. Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a subclassof MANET that is mobile ad hoc networks. Vehicular ad hocnetwork provides wireless communication among vehicles andvehicles to roadside equipments. The communication betweenvehicles is more important for safety and more probably forentertainment as well. The performance of communicationdepends on how better the routing takes place in the network.Routing of data depends on routing pr...

  6. Multilevel security model for ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Changda; Ju Shiguang

    2008-01-01

    Modern battlefield doctrine is based on mobility, flexibility, and rapid response to changing situations.As is well known, mobile ad hoc network systems are among the best utilities for battlefield activity. Although much research has been done on secure routing, security issues have largely been ignored in applying mobile ad hoc network theory to computer technology. An ad hoc network is usually assumed to be homogeneous, which is an irrational assumption for armies. It is clear that soldiers, commanders, and commanders-in-chief should have different security levels and computation powers as they have access to asymmetric resources. Imitating basic military rank levels in battlefield situations, how multilevel security can be introduced into ad hoc networks is indicated, thereby controlling restricted classified information flows among nodes that have different security levels.

  7. Reliable routing algorithm in marine ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Wei; YANG Yong-Tian

    2004-01-01

    A routing algorithm called DNH for increasing efficiency of mobile ad hoc network is presented, which is based on a new criterion called TSS ( Temporarily Steady State) , combining with wireless transmission theory that makes networks topology correspondingly stabilization. Also the DNH algorithm has the characteristics of giving up queuing in a node, but selecting another idle node instead of the node for forwarding data packets if the node has a full throughput. Simulation evaluation shows that selecting another node is better than queuing in a full throughout node if some conditions are satisfied, especially during a sea battle, every warship in ad hoc network wants to contest time and increase propagation reliability. The DNH algorithm can help decrease routing time, and raise efficiency of marine ad hoc networks.

  8. SIMULATION STUDY OF BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN THE MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEENU SHARMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad hoc network is a temporary network set up by wireless nodes usually moving randomly and communicating without a network infrastructure. Due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, however, wireless ad hoc networks may be unprotected against attacks by the malicious nodes. In this study we investigated the effects of Blackhole attacks on the network performance. We simulated Blackhole attacks in Qualnet Simulator and measured the packet loss in the network with and without a blackhole. The simulation is done on AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol. The network performance in the presence of a blackhole is reduced up to 26%.

  9. AD HOC P2P on Android

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Sathya; Byun, YoungJoon; Cebrowski Institute; CSUMB, C.S.I.T. Program

    2011-01-01

    In conjunction with the NPS C.S. Department MWC Group, this research looks at establishing an Ad Hoc Peer-to-Peer network on cell phones, specifically using the Android OS. Work comprised of Android Device, Library, and Application Design. The Library used was AODV (Ad Hoc on demand Distance Vector) and hardware devices must be controlled directly in addition to application enhancements. A prototype has been created and communication was achieved. Future work to include enhancements to contro...

  10. Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Kamanashis; Ali, Md. Liakat

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of communication devices or nodes that wish to communicate without any fixed infrastructure and pre-determined organization of available links. The nodes in MANET themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. Although the ongoing trend is to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their certain unique properties, the main challenge is the vulnerability to security attacks. A number of challenges like o...

  11. Research on Security of Wireless Ad Hoc Network%无线Ad Hoc网络的安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯运仿

    2007-01-01

    Ad Hoc网络是一种多跳移动无线网络.分析了Ad Hoc网络安全性问题,探讨了Ad Hoc网络安全策略,提出了一种自组织网络层安全方案.提出了按无线Ad Hoc网络的安全需求进行分级,然后分别实现的解决策略.

  12. Energy Consumption Model in Ad Hoc Mobile Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher HENI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to model the nodes battery discharge in wireless ad hoc networks. Many work focus on the energy consumption in such networks. Even, the research in the highest layers of the ISO model, takes into account the energy consumption and efficiency. Indeed, thenodes that form such network are mobiles, so no instant recharge of battery. Also with special type of ad hoc networks are wireless sensors networks using non-rechargeable batteries. All nodes with an exhausted battery are considered death and left the network. To consider the energy consumption, in this work we model using a Markov chain, the discharge of the battery considering of instant activation and deactivation distribution function of these nodes.

  13. 移动Ad Hoc网络的入侵检测研究%Study on Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鲁西; 王志坚

    2005-01-01

    移动Ad Hoc网络是一种特殊的移动网络.目前的入侵检测技术不再适用于这种新的环境.本文在分析Ad Hoc网络的特点和当前的入侵检测技术后,给出了一种适合于Ad Hoc网络的入侵检测系统的结构.

  14. Mobility Prediction Based Neighborhood Discovery for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xu; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2010-01-01

    Hello protocol is the basic technique for neighborhood discovery in wireless ad hoc networks. It requires nodes to claim their existence/aliveness by periodic `hello' messages. Central to any hello protocol is the determination of `hello' message transmission rate. No fixed optimal rate exists in the presence of node mobility. The rate should in fact adapt to it, high for high mobility and low for low mobility. In this paper, we propose a novel mobility prediction based hello protocol, named ...

  15. Mobility Prediction Based Neighborhood Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xu; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2011-01-01

    International audience Hello protocol is the basic technique for neighborhood discovery in wireless ad hoc networks. It requires nodes to claim their existence/ aliveness by periodic 'hello' messages. Central to a hello protocol is the determination of 'hello' message transmission rate. No fixed optimal rate exists in the presence of node mobility. The rate should in fact adapt to it, high for high mobility and low for low mobility. In this paper, we propose a novel mobility prediction bas...

  16. A Survey: variants of TCP in Ad-hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Komal Zaman; Muddesar Iqbal; Muhammad Shafiq; Azeem Irshad; Saqib Rasool

    2013-01-01

    MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc network) forms a temporary network of wireless mobile nodes without any infrastructure where all nodes are allowed to move freely, configure themselves and interconnect with its neighbors to perform peer to peer communication and transmission. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) offers reliable, oriented connection and mechanism of end to end delivery. This article provides the review and comparison of existing variants of TCP for instance: The TCP Tahoe, The TCP Reno, Th...

  17. Ad Hoc无线网络及其路由协议分析%AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS AND ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成; 刘金刚

    2006-01-01

    Ad Hoc无线网络是由多个无线主机组成的一个没有任何集中管理设备的临时网络.本文首先概述了Ad Hoc无线网络,其次分析了Ad Hoc无线网络的组织结构和特点,并提出了设计Ad Hoc网络协议需要满足的条件,最后对目前运用于Ad Hoc无线网络的常用路由协议进行了重点的分析.

  18. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  19. Monitoring of slope-instabilities and deformations with Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in wireless ad-hoc Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernández-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    In most mountainous regions, landslides represent a major threat to human life, properties and infrastructures. Nowadays existing landslide monitoring systems are often characterized by high efforts in terms of purchase, installation, maintenance, manpower and material. In addition (or because of this) only small areas or selective points of the endangered zone can be observed by the system. Therefore the improvement of existing and the development of new monitoring and warning systems are of high relevance. The joint project "Sensor based Landslide Early Warning Systems" (SLEWS) deals with the development of a prototypic Alarm- and Early Warning system (EWS) for different types of landslides using low-cost micro-sensors (MEMS) integrated in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Modern so called Ad-Hoc, Multi-Hop wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized by a self organizing and self-healing capacity of the system (autonomous systems). The network consists of numerous individual and own energy-supply operating sensor nodes, that can send data packages from their measuring devices (here: MEMS) over other nodes (Multi-Hop) to a collection point (gateway). The gateway provides the interface to central processing and data retrieval units (PC, Laptop or server) outside the network. In order to detect and monitor the different landslide processes (like fall, topple, spreading or sliding) 3D MEMS capacitive sensors made from single silicon crystals and glass were chosen to measure acceleration, tilting and altitude changes. Based on the so called MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, the sensors combine very small mechanical and electronic units, sensing elements and transducers on a small microchip. The mass production of such type of sensors allows low cost applications in different areas (like automobile industries, medicine, and automation technology). Apart from the small and so space saving size and the low costs another advantage is the energy

  20. Connectivity in finite ad-hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HanXing; LU GuiLin; JIA WeiJia; ZHAO Wei

    2008-01-01

    Research on ad-hoc network connectivity has mainly focused on asymptotic results In the number of nodes in the network. For a one-dimensional ad-hoc network G1, assuming all the nodes are Independently uniform distributed in a closed Interval [O, Z](z ∈ R+), we derive a generic formula for the probability that the network is connected. The finite connected ad-hoc networks is analyzed. And we separately suggest necessary conditions to make the ad-hoc network to be connected in one and two dimensional cases, facing possible failed nodes (f-nodes). Based on the necessary condition and unit-disk assumption for the node transmission, we prove that the nodes of the connected two-dimensional ad-hoc networks (G2) can be di-vided into at most five different groups. For an f-node n0 in either of the five groups, we derive a close formula for the probability that there is at least one route between a pair of nodes in G2 - {no}.

  1. Ad Hoc Access Gateway Selection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Liu

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. For mobile nodes in Ad Hoc network to internet, internet communications in the peer nodes must be achieved through the gateway. Therefore, the key Ad Hoc Access Networks will focus on the discovery gateway, as well as gateway selection in the case of multi-gateway and handover problems between different gateways. This paper considers the mobile node and the gateway, based on the average number of hops from an average access time and the stability of routes, improved gateway selection algorithm were proposed. An improved gateway selection algorithm, which mainly considers the algorithm can improve the access time of Ad Hoc nodes and the continuity of communication between the gateways, were proposed. This can improve the quality of communication across the network.

  2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WORMHOLE SECURITY APPROACHES FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Hababeh; Issa Khalil; Abdallah Khreishah; Samir Bataineh

    2013-01-01

    Ad-hoc networks are talented but are exposed to the risk of wormhole attacks. However, a wormhole attack can be mounted easily and forms stern menaces in networks, particularly against various ad-hoc wireless networks. The Wormhole attack distorts the network topology and decrease the network systems performance. Therefore, identifying the possibility of wormhole attacks and recognizing techniques to defend them are central to the security of wireless networks as a whole. In this study, we wi...

  3. User-centred and context-aware identity management in mobile ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Arabo, Abdullahi

    2013-01-01

    The emergent notion of ubiquitous computing makes it possible for mobile devices to communicate and provide services via networks connected in an ad-hoc manner. These have resulted in the proliferation of wireless technologies such as Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANets), which offer attractive solutions for services that need flexible setup as well as dynamic and low cost wireless connectivity. However, the growing trend outlined above also raises serious concerns over Identity Management (IM) du...

  4. An Agent Based Intrusion Detection Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Reshmi, B. M.; Manvi, S. S.; Bhagyavati

    2006-01-01

    Intrusion detection has over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in case of wireless mobile ad hoc networks. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless mobile ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks in-spite of some security measures, and it may be too late before any counter action can take effect. As such, there is a need to complement traditional security mechanisms with efficient intrusion detection and r...

  5. Protection of an intrusion detection engine with watermarking in ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrokotsa, A.; Komninos, N.; Douligeris, C.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks have received great attention in recent years, mainly due to the evolution of wireless networking and mobile computing hardware. Nevertheless, many inherent vulnerabilities exist in mobile ad hoc networks and their applications that affect the security of wireless transactions. As intrusion prevention mechanisms, such as encryption and authentication, are not sufficient we need a second line of defense, Intrusion Detection. In this pa-per we present an intrusion detecti...

  6. Secure Clustering in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Nayyar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A vehicular Ad-hoc network is composed of moving cars as nodes without any infrastructure. Nodes self-organize to form a network over radio links. Security issues are commonly observed in vehicular ad hoc networks; like authentication and authorization issues. Secure Clustering plays a significant role in VANETs. In recent years, various secure clustering techniques with distinguishing feature have been newly proposed. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of these techniques are designed for VANETs and pave the way for the further research, a survey of the secure clustering techniques is discussed in detail in this paper. Qualitatively, as a result of highlighting various techniques of secure clustering certain conclusions are drawn which will enhance the availability and security of vehicular ad hoc networks. Nodes present in the clusters will work more efficiently and the message passing within the nodes will also get more authenticated from the cluster heads.

  7. Ad hoc networks telecommunications and game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Benslama, Malek; Batatia, Hadj

    2015-01-01

    Random SALOHA and CSMA protocols that are used to access MAC in ad hoc networks are very small compared to the multiple and spontaneous use of the transmission channel. So they have low immunity to the problems of packet collisions. Indeed, the transmission time is the critical factor in the operation of such networks. The simulations demonstrate the positive impact of erasure codes on the throughput of the transmission in ad hoc networks. However, the network still suffers from the intermittency and volatility of its efficiency throughout its operation, and it switches quickly to the satura

  8. Intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jamalipour, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been extensive research activity in the emerging area of Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (ICMANs). By considering the nature of intermittent connectivity in most real word mobile environments without any restrictions placed on users' behavior, ICMANs are eventually formed without any assumption with regard to the existence of a end-to-end path between two nodes wishing to communicate. It is different from the conventional Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), which have been implicitly viewed as a connected graph with established complete paths betwe

  9. TRUST ORIENTED SECURITY FRAMEWORK FOR AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Verma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc network is a group of wireless mobile hosts that are connected momentarily through wireless connections in the dearth of any centralized control or some supporting services. The mobile ad hoc network is at risk by its environment because of the vulnerabilities at channel and node level. The conventional security mechanisms deals with only protecting resources from unauthorized access, but are not capable to safeguard the network from who offer resources. Adding trust to the on hand security infrastructures would improvise the security of these environments. A trust oriented security framework for adhoc network using ontological engineering approach is proposed by modeling ad hoc network, the OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing protocol and trust model as OWL (Ontology Web language ontologies, which are integrated using Jena. In this model, a trustor can calculate its trust about trustee and use the calculated trust values to make decisions depending on the context of the application or interaction about granting or rejecting it. A number of experiments with a potential implementation of suggested framework are performed to validate the characteristics of a trust oriented model suggested by the literature by this framework

  10. Node Disjoint-Virtual Circuit Approach in Ad Hoc On-Demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing to offer Quality of Service in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.SREEDEVI,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-path routing represents a promising routing method for wireless mobile ad hoc networks. Multipath routing achieves load balancing and is more resilient to route failures. Numerous multipath routing protocols have been proposed for wireless ad hoc networks and the most important among them is Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV. By virtual circuit approach, using the property of node disjointness, its performance is evaluated. The simulation in Network Simulator (ns2 shows that it is good in its throughput with packet delivery ratio with less delay. The results conclude that AOMDV performs well than Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV in all above said aspects.

  11. Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs): Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs): Resource allocation techniques based on Bio-inspired computing

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Santosh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Spectrum is a scarce commodity, and considering the spectrum scarcity faced by the wireless-based service providers led to high congestion levels. Technical inefficiencies from pooled spectrum (this is nothing but the "common carrier principle" adopted in oil/gas/electricity pipelines/networks.), since all ad hoc networks share a common pool of channels, exhausting the available channels will force ad hoc networks to block the services. Researchers found that cognitive radio (CR) technology may resolve the spectrum scarcity. CR network proved to next generation wireless communication system that proposed as a way to reuse under-utilised spectrum of licensee user (primary network) in an opportunistic and non-interfering basis. A CR is a self-configuring entity in a wireless networking that senses its environment, tracks changes, and frequently exchanges information with their networks. Adding this layer of such intelligence to the ad hoc network by looking at the overall geography of the network known as cogni...

  12. ANALYSIS OF ROUTING IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An ad-hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any standalone infrastructure or centralized administration. Routing in Ad hoc networks is a challenging problem because nodes are mobile and links are continuously being created and broken.In this model we not only improves the reputation of the network but also provide a routing approach for reliable data transmission and also avoid the loop occurs in the communication. The mobile network is the dynamicnetwork that provides the solution for the inclusion and exclusion of dynamic nodes in the network. AODV and DSR are the two most popular routing protocols for ad-hoc network that we discussed here. In this paper we describe the way to find the node having packet loss and to perform the elimination of node from the network withoutperforming the rerouting and provide the reliable data transfer over the network. In this paper, we design and evaluate cooperative caching techniques to efficiently support data access in the ad-hoc network.

  13. Multihost ad-hoc network with the clustered Security networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Manikandan,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Security has becomes a primary concern in order to provide protected communication between mobile nodes in a host environment .Unlike the wire line network, the unique characteristics mobile ad-hoc networkpose a collection on autonomous nodes of terminals. Which ommunication with each other by forming multihost radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. Node in Ad-hoc network path is dynamic network topology. These challenges clearly make a case for building multifence security selection that achieve both protection and describe network performance. In this paper we focus on the fundamental security of protection. the multihost network connectivity between mobile nodes in a MANET.we Identify thesecurity issues related to this problem, disuse the challenges to security design and review the security proposals the protect multihost wireless networks. Some security mechanism used in wired network cannot simply is applied to protocol an ad-hoc network. After analyzing various type attacks ad-hoc network, a security for thefamous routing protocol, DSR (Dynamic sources routing is proposed the complete security solutions should cluster nodes and MANET encompass the security components of prevention, detection and reactions.

  14. Context discovery in ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are more and more present in our daily life. Such networks are often composed of mobile and battery-supplied devices, like laptops and PDAs. With no requirement for infrastructure support, MANETs can be used as temporary networks, such as for conference and office env

  15. Localization in Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de A.

    2003-01-01

    In many applications, like tracking persons, the position of sensor nodes is important. This report describes existing research in localization. Using these existing methods a localization method for ad-hoc sensor networks is presented. Simulation results are discussed and suggestions for implementa

  16. Extending Service Area of IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2012-06-01

    According to the current IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standards, IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks have the limitation that all STAs (Stations) are in the one-hop transmission range of each other. In this paper, to alleviate the limitation of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks we propose the efficient method for selecting the most appropriate pseudo AP (Access Point) from among the set of ad hoc STAs and extending the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks by the pseudo AP's relaying the internal traffic of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Numerical examples show that the proposed method significantly extends the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks.

  17. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei

    , thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore...... issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection......Due to the wide use of communicating mobile devices, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained in popularity in recent years. In order that the devices communicate properly, many protocols have been proposed working at different levels. Devices in an MANET are not stationary but may keep moving...

  18. Registration and Aggregate Cache Routing for Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Samad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is a temporary, infrastructure less wireless network composed of mobile nodes. Due to the limitations in the wireless environment, it may be necessary for one mobile host to enlist the aid of other hosts in forwarding a packet to its destination. Since traditional routing protocols cannot be directly applied in the MANET, a lot of routing protocols have been proposed. Though there are many wireless routing protocols developed, there is not a single algorithm to accomplish efficient route in dynamic environment. This paper presents a new routing technique based on registration of newly arrived nodes and checking the local cache for forwarding the packet to the desired destination called Registration and Aggregate Cache (RAC routing algorithm. Theoretically RAC algorithm eliminates the drawback of Table Driven and On Demand routing algorithm.

  19. BCR Routing for Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAMESH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless and the Mobile Networks appear to provide a wide range of applications. Following these, the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET aid in wide development of many applications. The achievement of the real world applications are attained through effective routing. The Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad hoc Network (ICMANET is a sparse network where a full connectivity is never possible. ICMANET is a disconnected MANET and is also a Delay Tolerant Network (DTN that sustains for higher delays. The routing in a disseminated network is a difficult task. A new routing scheme called Bee Colony Routing (BCR is been proposed with a motto of achieving optimal result in delivering the data packet towards the destined node. BCR is proposed with the basis of Bee Colony Optimization technique (BCO. The routing in ICMNAET is done by means of Bee routing protocol. This paper enchants a novel routing methodology for data transmission in ICMANET.

  20. Monitoring of slope-instabilities and deformations with Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in wireless ad-hoc Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernández-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    In most mountainous regions, landslides represent a major threat to human life, properties and infrastructures. Nowadays existing landslide monitoring systems are often characterized by high efforts in terms of purchase, installation, maintenance, manpower and material. In addition (or because of this) only small areas or selective points of the endangered zone can be observed by the system. Therefore the improvement of existing and the development of new monitoring and warning systems are of high relevance. The joint project "Sensor based Landslide Early Warning Systems" (SLEWS) deals with the development of a prototypic Alarm- and Early Warning system (EWS) for different types of landslides using low-cost micro-sensors (MEMS) integrated in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Modern so called Ad-Hoc, Multi-Hop wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized by a self organizing and self-healing capacity of the system (autonomous systems). The network consists of numerous individual and own energy-supply operating sensor nodes, that can send data packages from their measuring devices (here: MEMS) over other nodes (Multi-Hop) to a collection point (gateway). The gateway provides the interface to central processing and data retrieval units (PC, Laptop or server) outside the network. In order to detect and monitor the different landslide processes (like fall, topple, spreading or sliding) 3D MEMS capacitive sensors made from single silicon crystals and glass were chosen to measure acceleration, tilting and altitude changes. Based on the so called MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, the sensors combine very small mechanical and electronic units, sensing elements and transducers on a small microchip. The mass production of such type of sensors allows low cost applications in different areas (like automobile industries, medicine, and automation technology). Apart from the small and so space saving size and the low costs another advantage is the energy

  1. Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks; Principles and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Piran, Mohammad Jalil; Babu, G Praveen

    2011-01-01

    The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congestion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year by year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. Therefore, exploiting the new technologies, e.g. wireless sensor networks, is required as a solution of reduction of these saddening and reprehensible statistics. This has motivated us to propose a novel and comprehensive system to utilize Wireless Sensor Networks for vehicular networks. We coin the vehicular network employing wireless Sensor networks as Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Network, or VASNET in short. The proposed VASNET is particularly for highway traffic .VASNET is a self-organizing Ad Hoc and sensor network comprised of a large number of sensor nodes. In VASNET there are two kinds of sensor nodes, some are embedded on the vehicles-vehicular nodes- and others are deployed in predetermined distances besides the highway road, known as Road Side Sensor nodes (RSS...

  2. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment

  3. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-07-14

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment.

  4. MobileMAN: Mobile Metropolitan Ad hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The project aims to define and develop a metropolitan area, self-organizing and totally wireless network that we call Mobile Metropolitan Ad-hoc Network (MobileMAN). In a MobileMAN the users device are the network, no infrastructure is strictly required. A MobileMAN is finalized at providing, at a low cost and where and when is needed, the communication and interaction platform for people inside a man. It will support a kind of citizens network by which people could avoid the operators infras...

  5. Studies on urban vehicular ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongzi

    2013-01-01

    With the advancement of wireless technology, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a promising approach to realizing 'smart cities' and addressing many important transportation problems such as road safety, efficiency, and convenience.This brief provides an introduction to the large trace data set collected from thousands of taxis and buses in Shanghai, the largest metropolis in China. It also presents the challenges, design issues, performance modeling and evaluation of a wide spectrum of VANET research topics, ranging from realistic vehicular mobility models and opportunistic ro

  6. Research on Routing Protocol of Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Tuo Ming Fu; Che Min

    2016-01-01

    Routing protocol is an important content of mobile Ad Hoc. The typical mobile Ad Hoc network routing protocols is introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of these routing protocols are analyzed. A hybrid routing protocol is put forward based on this.

  7. 浅析Ad Hoc网络%A Superficial Analysis of Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建宽

    2011-01-01

    Ad Hoc network is a new-type, multi-hop, self-organizing wireless networks, compensating the limited transmission distance of wireless devices by multi-hop technology. Network nodes can be dynamically , ~eely and frequendy joining or quitting the network, so it can broaden the network coverage, and provide users with various services. This article introduces the concept, characteristics, applications and architecture of Ad Hoc networks, and the key technology that the Ad Hoc network requires.%Ad Hoc网络是一种新型、多跳、自组织的无线网络,借助于多跳转发技术弥补无线设备传输距离的有限性。网络节点能够动态地、随意地、频繁地进入和离开网络,从而拓宽了网络的覆盖范围,为用户提供各种服务。文中介绍了Ad Hoc网络的概念、特点、应用领域和体系结构,并指出了Ad Hoc网络需要的关键技术。

  8. A Channel Access Mechanism Based on Evolutionary Game in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks%无线AdHoc网络中一种基于演化博弈的信道接入机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方伟; 袁迎慧; 朱江

    2015-01-01

    针对多个有限理性用户接入多个信道的无线Ad hoc网络中,如何实现系统容量最大化问题,提出了一种基于演化博弈的信道接入机制。在该机制中,为了确保用户以分布式的行为方式实现系统容量最大化,推导并定义了一种新的收益函数,并在此基础上设计了一种能以较快的速度收敛到Nash均衡解的动态信道接入算法和与之对应的动态方程。理论分析和仿真结果表明,所提出的收益函数能在基于博弈的框架下实现系统容量最大化,且与之对应的动态方程具有全局逐步稳定性,当用户发生局部的理性偏移时能保证较快收敛和较小性能偏离。%How to realize the problem of maximizing system throughput for multiple bounded rationality users accessing multiple channels in wireless Ad hoc networks, a channel access mechanism based on ev-olutionary game was proposed. In the mechanism, in order to ensure realizing the maximization of system throughput for users in a distributed behavior manner, a new reward function was deduced and defined, on this basis a dynamic channel access algorithm and corresponding dynamic equation were designed for the mechanism, which converged to Nash equilibrium with faster speed. Theoretical analysis and simula-tion results show that the proposed reward function can realize the maximization of system throughput un-der the framework of game, and the corresponding dynamic equation was globally asymptotically stable, and when user deviated because of bounded rationality, it was still able to guarantee faster convergence and smaller performance deviation.

  9. Auto-configuration protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity. PMID:22163814

  10. An investigation of self-organization in ad-hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Akl, Ahmed; Gayraud, Thierry; Berthou, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    International audience Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging special type of ad-hoc wireless networks technology. It is usually designed for special purpose applications. WSN has its own special characteristics that differentiate it from other types of wireless networks. These differences raise new challenges to be overcome; one of them is self-organization. As in any rising domain, it is essential to specifically define the meaning of new terminologies. The terms self-organizing an...

  11. An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Godder

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is set up with multiple wireless devices without any infrastructure. Its employment is favored in many environments. Quality of Service (QoS is one of the main issues for any network and due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS is extremely a challenging task. It is modeled as a multi-layer problem and is considered in both Medium Access Control (MAC and routing layers for ad hoc networks. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol is one of the most used and popular reactive routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. This paper proposed a new protocol QoS based AODV (QAODV which is a modified version of AODV.

  12. Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Principles and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalil Piran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congest ion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year b y year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. Therefore, exp loiting the new technologies, e.g. wireless sensor networks, is required as a solution of reduction of these sad dening and reprehensible statistics. This has motiv ated us to propose a novel and comprehensive system to utilize Wireless Sensor Networks for vehicular networks. W e coin the vehicular network employing wireless Senso r networks as Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Network, or VASNET in short. The proposed VASNET is particularl y for highway traffic .VASNET is a self-organizing Ad Hoc and sensor network comprised of a large number of sensor nodes. In VASNET there are two kinds of sensor nodes, some are embedded on the vehicles-veh icular nodes- and others are deployed in predetermi ned distances besides the highway road, known as Road S ide Sensor nodes (RSS. The vehicular nodes are use d to sense the velocity of the vehicle for instance. We can have some Base Stations (BS such as Police Tra ffic Station, Firefighting Group and Rescue Team. The ba se stations may be stationary or mobile. VASNET provides capability of wireless communication betwe en vehicular nodes and stationary nodes, to increas e safety and comfort for vehicles on the highway road s. In this paper we explain main fundamentals and challenges of VASNET

  13. Inter-vehicle-communications based on ad hoc networking principles. The FleetNet Project

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Walter; Hartenstein, Hannes; Mauve, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) represent an emerging topic in wireless communication and networking. VANETs are currently receiving a lot of attention due to their promise of considerably increasing safety and comfort while being on the road. High mobility, adverse channel conditions, and market introduction are some of the key challenges one has to deal with when designing these spontaneous networks. Inter-Vehicle-Communications Based on Ad Hoc Networking Principles covers results and ac...

  14. Simulation-Based Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Vaishali D. Khairnar; Kotecha, Dr. Ketan

    2013-01-01

    A Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is a collection of wireless vehicle nodes forming a temporary network without using any centralized Road Side Unit (RSU). VANET protocols have to face high challenges due to dynamically changing topologies and symmetric links of networks. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the successful deployment of vehicular ad-hoc networks. An attempt has been made to compare the performance of two On-demand reactive routing protocols namely AODV ...

  15. A Survey on Security Issues in Ad Hoc Routing Protocols and their Mitigation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kayarkar, Harshavardhan

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETS) are transient networks of mobile nodes, connected through wireless links, without any fixed infrastructure or central management. Due to the self-configuring nature of these networks, the topology is highly dynamic. This makes the Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in MANETS highly vulnerable to serious security issues. In this paper, we survey the common security threats and attacks and summarize the solutions suggested in the survey to mitigate these security vulnerabilities.

  16. An Optimal Path Management Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using Fuzzy and Rough Set Theory

    OpenAIRE

    P. Seethalakshmi; M. J.A. Jude; Rajendran, G

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically forms a network. Most of the existing ad-hoc routing algorithms select the shortest path using various resources. However the selected path may not consider all the network parameters and this would result in link instability in the network. The problems with existing methods are frequent route change with respect to change in topology, congestion as result of traffic and battery limitat...

  17. A Simulation Study: The Impact of Random and Realistic Mobility Models on the Performance of Bypass-AODV in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baroudi Uthman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To bring VANET into reality, it is crucial to devise routing protocols that can exploit the inherited characteristics of VANET environment to enhance the performance of the running applications. Previous studies have shown that a certain routing protocol behaves differently under different presumed mobility patterns. Bypass-AODV is a new optimization of the AODV routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. It is proposed as a local recovery mechanism to enhance the performance of the AODV routing protocol. It shows outstanding performance under the Random Waypoint mobility model compared with AODV. However, Random Waypoint is a simple model that may be applicable to some scenarios but it is not sufficient to capture some important mobility characteristics of scenarios where VANETs are deployed. In this paper, we will investigate the performance of Bypass-AODV under a wide range of mobility models including other random mobility models, group mobility models, and vehicular mobility models. Simulation results show an interesting feature that is the insensitivity of Bypass-AODV to the selected random mobility model, and it has a clear performance improvement compared to AODV. For group mobility model, both protocols show a comparable performance, but for vehicular mobility models, Bypass-AODV suffers from performance degradation in high-speed conditions.

  18. Simulation study for Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using DMAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Sejwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of deafness problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs using directional antennas. Directional antennas arebeneficial for wireless ad hoc networks consisting of a collection of wireless hosts. A suitable Medium Access Control (MAC protocol must be designed to best utilize directional antennas. Deafness is caused whentwo nodes are in ongoing transmission and a third node (Deaf Node wants to communicate with one of that node. But it get no response because transmission of two nodes are in process. Though directional antennas offer better spatial reuse, but this problem can have a serious impact on network performance. A New DMAC (Directional Medium Access Control protocol uses flags in DNAV (Directional Network Allocation Vector tables to maintain information regarding the transmissionbetween the nodes in the network and their neighbor’s location. Two performance matrices have been used to show the impact of New DMAC algorithm on Deafness problem using simulator. These are RTS Failure Ratio and RTS Retransmission due to timeout

  19. An Incentive-Cooperative Forwarding Model Based on Punishment Mechanism in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks%Ad Hoc网络中基于惩罚机制的激励合作转发模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 黄传河; 杨文忠; 但峰; 徐利亚

    2011-01-01

    Due to the limited processing ability, storage and energy of mobile nodes in wireless Ad hoc networks, nodes always conserve their scare resources to show the selfish behavior. So stimulating the cooperation behaviors among nodes to actively forward packets is becoming an important research topic. According to the idea of classic game theory, this paper firstly proposes a one-step game model to analyze the payoff matrix between neighbor nodes, and extends the model to an infinite-repeated game on cooperated forwarding packets to enhance the collaboration behavior, and illustrates three punishment strategies towards behaviors of selfish nodes (one-step punishment strategy, severe punishment strategy and a general punishment strategy), and then derives the corresponding incentive cooperation forwarding conditions. Nevertheless, in this paper, we focus on the general punishment mechanism for consideration. Finally, to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the scheme and mechanism mentioned above, this paper implements this scheme and compares its performance with classic AODV protocol by using NS2, Moreover, displays the incentive-cooperative executing process of different utilities of selfish nodes during the simulation time. Simulation results show that this scheme can enhance cooperation effectively, improve throughput among the nodes, prolong the lifetime of the network and increase the expected total payoff of all nodes.%由于Ad hoc网络中的节点受到自身处理能力、存储空间和电池能量等各种资源的限制,节点为了节省自身的宝贵资源经常会表现出自私性,因此激励自私节点之间合作转发成为Ad hoe网络重要的研究内容.为此,结合重复博弈理论的思想,首先建立邻居节点之间的单阶段博弈模型,得到对应的支付策略,并对该模型进行延伸,建立了无限重复博弈模型来增强自私节点的合作行为,提出了3种激励自私节点的惩罚策略,分析了各自激

  20. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  1. Performance Analysis of TORA & DSR Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Geetha, D; T SARIKA

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. The main classes of routing protocols are Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A Reactive (on-demand) routing strategy is a popular routing category for wireless ad hoc routing. It is a relatively new ro...

  2. COMPARATIVE REVIEW FOR ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem S. A. Hamatta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks is one of the attractive research field that growing exponentially in the last decade. it surrounded by much challenges that should be solved the improve establishment of such networks. Failure of wireless link is considered as one of popular challenges faced by Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs. As this type of networks does not require any pre-exist hardware. As well as, every node have the ability of roaming where it can be connected to other nodes dynamically. Therefore, the network internal structure will be unpredictably changed frequently according to continuous activities between nodes that simultaneously update network topology in the basis of active ad-hoc nature. This model puts the functionality of routing operation in crucial angle in the area of research under mobile adhoc network field due to highly dynamic nature. Adapting such kernel makes MANET indigence new routing techniques to settle these challenges. Thereafter, tremendous amount of routing protocols proposed to argue with ad-hoc nature. Thus, it is quite difficult to specify which protocols operate efficiently under different mobile ad-hoc scenarios. This paper examines some of the prominent routing protocols that are designed for mobile ad-hoc networks by describing their structures, operations, features and then comparing their various characteristics.

  3. Flooding attack and defence in Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Hou Yafei; Zhong Yiping; Zhang Shiyong; Dai Zhoulin

    2006-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks are particularly vulnerable to denial of service (DOS) attacks launched through compromised nodes or intruders. In this paper, we present a new DOS attack and its defense in ad hoc networks. The new DOS attack, called Ad hoc Flooding Attack(AHFA), is that intruder broadcasts mass Route Request packets to exhaust the communication bandwidth and node resource so that the valid communication can not be kept. After analyzed Ad hoc Flooding Attack, we develop Flooding Attack Prevention (FAP), a generic defense against the Ad hoc Flooding Attack. When the intruder broadcasts exceeding packets of Route Request, the immediate neighbors of the intruder record the rate of Route Request. Once the threshold is exceeded, nodes deny any future request packets from the intruder. The results of our implementation show FAP can prevent the Ad hoc Flooding attack efficiently.

  4. TCP Issues in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Qiang Xu; Tie-Jun Wu

    2006-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a kind of very complex distributed communication systems with wireless mobile nodes that can be freely and dynamically self-organized into arbitrary and temporary network topologies. MANETs inherit several limitations of wireless networks, meanwhile make new challenges arising from the specificity of MANETs, such as route failures, hidden terminals and exposed terminals. When TCP is applied in a MANET environment, a number of tough problems have to be dealt with. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on this dynamic field is given. Specifically, for the first time all factors impairing TCP performance are identified based on network protocol hierarchy, I.e., lossy wireless channel at the physical layer; excessive contention and unfair access at the MAC layer; frail routing protocol at the network layer, the MAC layer and the network layer related mobile node; unfit congestion window size at the transport layer and the transport layer related asymmetric path. How these factors degrade TCP performance is clearly explained. Then, based on how to alleviate the impact of each of these factors listed above, the existing solutions are collected as comprehensively as possible and classified into a number of categories, and their advantages and limitations are discussed. Based on the limitations of these solutions, a set of open problems for designing more robust solutions is suggested.

  5. A Comparison of Routing Strategies for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Füßler, Holger; Mauve, Martin; Hartenstein, Hannes; Käsemann, Michael; Vollmer, Dieter

    2002-01-01

    On this paper we investigate the use of ad-hoc routing algorithms for the exchange of data between vehicles. There are two main aspects that are of interest in this context: the specific characteristics of ad-hoc networks formed by vehicles and the applicability of existing ad-hoc routing schemes to networks that display these characteristics. In order to address both aspects we generate realistic vehicular movement patterns of highway traffic scenarios using a well validated traffic simulati...

  6. Mobility Models for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaishali D. Khairnar; Pradhan, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    One of the emerging applications that belong to ambient systems is to transparently and directly interconnect vehicles on roads, making an ad hoc network that enables a variety of applications through distributed software without the need of any fixed and dedicated infrastructure. The network as well as the embedded computers and sensors in the vehicle will be invisible to the driver, who will get the required services during his journey. New type of ad hoc network is the Vehicular Ad hoc Net...

  7. Improving Reactive Ad Hoc Routing Performance by Geographic Route Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-da; YU Yan-bing; LU Di

    2005-01-01

    In order to help reactive ad hoc routing protocols select better-performance routes, a novel metric named geographic route length (GRL) is proposed. The relationship between GRL metric and routing performance is analyzed in detail. Combined with hop metric, GRL is applied into the original ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) to demonstrate its effectiveness. Simulation experiments have shown that GRL can effectively reduce packet delay and route discovery frequency, thus can improve reactive ad hoc routing performance.

  8. Ad Hoc Protocols Via Multi Agent Based Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Bazghandi; Mehdi Bazghandi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is investigating behaviors of Ad Hoc protocols in Agent-based simulation environments. First we bring brief introduction about agents and Ad Hoc networks. We introduce some agent-based simulation tools like NS-2. Then we focus on two protocols, which are Ad Hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AODV) and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV). At the end, we bring simulation results and discuss about their reasons.

  9. Policy Enforcing and Revoking Mechanism on Trusted Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha J; Mr. Manoj Challa

    2013-01-01

    In ad hoc networking the polices are vulnerable to a wide range of security in network attacks.The design of enforcing and revoking policy mechanisms is a challenging task, especially in comparison tosecuring the ad hoc network. In this paper, the designed and implemented mechanism to provide a trustedcommunication for file sharing in ad-hoc network is explained, where the mechanism has been developedwith the help of polices where each policy is a combination of set of parameters. Simulation ...

  10. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) implementation on android

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Mohammed Khalid Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The continual changing of self-organizing nodes located in an infrastructure-less mesh network is called ad hoc network. The recent years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in ad hoc networking. This research with the aid of Java Native Interface (JNI) and UNIX kernel tools for network, a method to build a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) has been implemented for Android devices to provide supplementary way of communication in certain situations where network infrastructure does not exist...

  11. Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariza Kamboj

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many crucial applications of MANETs like the battlefield, conference and disaster recovery defines the needs for group communications either one-to-many or many-to-many form. Multicast plays an important role in bandwidth scarce multihop mobile ad hoc networks comprise of limited battery power mobile nodes. Multicast protocols in MANETs generate many controls overhead for maintenance of multicast routingstructures due to frequent changes of network topology. Bigger multicast tables for the maintenance of network structures resultsin inefficient consumption of bandwidth of wireless links andbattery power of anemic mobile nodes, which in turn, pose thescalability problems as the network size is scaled up. However,many MANET applications demands scalability from time to time. Multicasting for MANETs, therefore, needs to reduce the state maintenance. As a remedy to these shortcomings, this paper roposes an overlay multicast protocol on application layer. In the proposed protocol titled “Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM” the network nodes construct overlay hierarchical framework to reduce the protocols states and constrain their distribution within limited scope. Based on zone around each node, it constructs a virtual structure at application layer mapped with the physical topology at network layer, thus formed two levels of hierarchy. The concept of two level hierarchies reduces the protocol state maintenance and hence supports the vertical scalability. Protocol depends on the location information obtained using a distributed location service, which effectively reduces the overhead for route searching and updating the source based multicast tree.

  12. Distributed intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Jiang Xinghao; Wu Yue; Liu Ning

    2008-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking(MANET)has become an exciting and important technology in recent years,because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices.Mobile ad hoc networks is highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium,dynamically changing network topology,cooperative algorithms,and lack of centralized monitoring and management point.The traditional way of protecting networks with firewalls and encryption software is no longer sufficient and effective for those features.A distributed intrusion detection approach based on timed automata is given.A cluster-based detection scheme is presented,where periodically a node is elected as the monitor node for a cluster.These monitor nodes can not only make local intrusion detection decisions,but also cooperatively take part in global intrusion detection.And then the timed automata is constructed by the way of manually abstracting the correct behaviours of the node according to the routing protocol of dynamic source routing(DSR).The monitor nodes can verify the behaviour of every nodes by timed automata,and validly detect real-time attacks without signatures of intrusion or trained data.Compared with the architecture where each node is its own IDS agent,the approach is much more efficient while maintaining the same level of effectiveness.Finally,the intrusion detection method is evaluated through simulation experiments.

  13. Reliable Multicast Error Recovery Algorithm in Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Abdullah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes characterized by wireless links. The major challenge in ad hoc networks lies in adapting multicast communication to several environments, where mobility is unlimited and failures are frequent. Reliable multicast delivery requires a multicast message to be received by all mobile nodes in the communication group. The recovery mechanism requires feedback messages from each one of the receivers. In the tree-based recovery protocols, a group of nodes into recovery regions designate a forwarding node per region for retransmitting lost messages. In this study, local error recovery algorithm is applied within these relatively smaller regions, where the repaired packets are retransmitted only to the requested receivers in the local group. These receivers create a sub group from the local group which itself is a subgroup of the global multicast group. By applying local error recovery algorithm, the number of duplicated packets, due to packets retransmission, decreases which lead to improving the system performance. Simulation results demonstrate the scalability of the proposed algorithm in comparison to Source Tree Reliable Multicast (STRM protocol. The algorithm achieved up to 2.33% improvement on the percentage of duplicated packets in stable mobility speed without incurring any further communication or intense computation overhead.

  14. A NOVEL ROUTING ATTACK IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. N. SATYANARAYANA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks will often be deployed in environments where the nodes of the networks are unattended and have little or no physical protection against tampering. The nodes of mobile ad hoc networks are thus susceptible to compromise. The networks are particularly vulnerable to denial of service (DOS attacks launched through compromised nodes or intruders. In this paper, we present a new DOS attack and its defense in ad hoc networks. The new DOS attack, called Ad Hoc Flooding Attack (AHFA, can result in denial of service when used against on-demand routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, such as AODV, DSR. The intruder broadcasts mass Route Request packets to exhaust the communication bandwidth and node resource so that the valid communication cannot be kept. After analyzed Ad Hoc Flooding Attack, we develop Flooding Attack Prevention (FAP, a generic defense against the Ad Hoc Flooding Attack in mobile ad hoc networks. When the intruder broadcasts exceeding packets of Route Request, the immediate neighbors of the intruder record the rate of Route Request. Once the threshold is exceeded, nodes deny any future request packets from the intruder. The results of our implementation show FAP can prevent the Ad Hoc Flooding attack efficiently.

  15. A novel technique for node authentication in mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Aluvala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of nodes in mobility that communicate to one another forming a network through wireless links, in which each node acts a router and forward packets to destinations. The dynamic topology and self-organizing of the nodes make them more vulnerable to the network. In MANET, the major challenging task is to provide security during the routing of data packets. Various kinds of attacks have been studied in ad hoc networks, but no proper solution found for these attacks. So, preventing the malicious nodes from destroying the network plays vital role in ad hoc networks. In this paper, a novel technique has been proposed to provide node authentication while a new node joining into the network and before initiating route discovery process in mobile ad hoc networks. Also shown how the proposed technique mitigates the impact of attacks on nodes.

  16. Analysis of Fuzzy Logic Based Intrusion Detection Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advancement in wireless technologies, many of new paradigms have opened for communications. Among these technologies, mobile ad hoc networks play a prominent role for providing communication in many areas because of its independent nature of predefined infrastructure. But in terms of security, these networks are more vulnerable than the conventional networks because firewall and gateway based security mechanisms cannot be applied on it. That’s why intrusion detection systems are used as keystone in these networks. Many number of intrusion detection systems have been discovered to handle the uncertain activity in mobile ad hoc networks. This paper emphasized on proposed fuzzy based intrusion detection systems in mobile ad hoc networks and presented their effectiveness to identify the intrusions. This paper also examines the drawbacks of fuzzy based intrusion detection systems and discussed the future directions in the field of intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks.

  17. Simulation Based: Study and Analysis of Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali D. Khairnar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET consists of vehicles which communicate with each other and exchange data via wireless communication links available between the vehicles which are in communication ranges of vehicles to improve the road safety in city. The communication between vehicles is used to provide road safety, comfort and entertainment. The performance of communication depends on how better routing takes place in the network. Routing data between the source and destination vehicle depends on the routing protocols being used in vehicular ad-hoc network. In this simulation based study we investigated about different ad hoc routing protocols for vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET. The main goal of our study was to identify which ad hoc routing protocol has better performance in highly mobile environment of vehicular ad-hoc network. We have measured the performance of routing protocols using 802.11p in vehicular ad-hoc network in which we considered the scenario of city (i.e. Route between Nerul and Vashi where we have take 1200 different types of vehicles and checked their performance. Routing protocols are selected after the literature review. The selected protocols are then evaluated through simulation under 802.11p in terms of performance metrics (i.e PDR & E2E delay

  18. Ad Hoc Network Security Technology%Ad hoc网络安全技术简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 李鑫; 黄红伟

    2011-01-01

    Ad hoc network is a kind of mobile network without fixed infrastructure;all nodes are composed of mobile host.As the mobility of the node leads to network topology changing quickly and node communication is based on wireless links,Ad hoc network is facing greater challenges more than cane network about security.In this paper,according to Ad hoe network security issues,we analysis common attacks in the Ad hoe network,focused on secure routing,key management and other key issues.%Ad hoc网络是一种没有有线基础设施支持的移动网络,网络中的节点均由移动主机构成。由于节点的移动性导致网络拓扑结构不断变化,节点通信完全依靠无线链路,相对于有线网络在安全性上面临更大的挑战。本文根据Ad hoc网络面临的安全问题,分析了Ad hoc网络中常见的攻击方式,并集中讨论了Ad hoc网络的安全路由、密钥管理等关键问题。

  19. Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc Network to the Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mao-ning

    2005-01-01

    A novel scheme is presented to integrate mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) with the Internet and support mobility across wireless local area networks (WLANs) and MANETs. The mobile nodes, connected as a MANET, employ the optimize d link state routing (OLSR) protocol for routing within the MANET. Mobility management across WLANs and MANETs is achieved through the hierarchical mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) protocol. The performance is evaluated on a HMIPv6 based test-bed composed of WLANs and MANETs. The efficiency gain obtained from using HMIPv6 in such a hybrid network is investigated. The investigation result shows that the use of HMIPv6 can achieve up to 27% gain on reducing the handoff latency when a mobile roams within a domain. Concerning the reduction of the signaling load on the Internet, the use of HMIPv6 can achieve at least a 54% gain and converges to 69%.

  20. Congestion Reduction Using Ad hoc Message Dissemination in Vehicular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hewer, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITS) and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad-hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through the network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to the receivers of this information. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols for influencing traffic flow, reducing congestion in road networks. The computational experiments presented in this paper show how an intelligent driver model (IDM) and car-following model can be adapted to 'react' to the reception of information. This model also presents the advantages of coupling together traffic modelling tools and network simulation tools.

  1. A Survey: variants of TCP in Ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Zaman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc network forms a temporary network of wireless mobile nodes without any infrastructure where all nodes are allowed to move freely, configure themselves and interconnect with its neighbors to perform peer to peer communication and transmission. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol offers reliable, oriented connection and mechanism of end to end delivery. This article provides the review and comparison of existing variants of TCP for instance: The TCP Tahoe, The TCP Reno, The TCP New Reno, The Lite, The Sack, The TCP Vegas, Westwood and The TCP Fack. TCP’s performance depends on the type of its variants due to missing of congestion control or improper activation procedures such as Slow Start, Fast Retransmission, and Congestion Avoidance, Retransmission, Fast Recovery, Selective Acknowledgement mechanism and Congestion Control. This analysis is essential to be aware about a better TCP implementation for a specific scenario and then nominated a suitable one.

  2. M-BOARD IN AN AD-HOC NETWORK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Panth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Notice Board is very essential part of any organization. This paper presents the design and implementation of M-Board (Mobile Notice Board for Ad-hoc Network Environment that can be established and made available for an educational or industry environment. The cost-free communication among the mobile phone clients and server takes place with the help of Bluetooth wireless technology. M-Board is particularly developed as an informative application environment to provide the basic information like daily events or timetable to the users. The design is based on the amalgamation of Java ME with other technologies like Java SE, Java EE, PHP and MySQL. The system is designed to provide simple, easy-to-use, cost-free solution in a ubiquitous environment. The system design is easily implemented and extensible allowing the number of clients in Personal Area Network (PAN for information exchange with the hotspot-server.

  3. Mobile Advertisement in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Advertisement is a location-aware dissemination solution built on top of a vehicular ad-hoc network. We envision a network of WiFi access points that dynamically disseminate data to clients running on the car's smart device. The approach can be considered an alternative to the static advertisement billboards and can be useful to business companies wanting to dynamically advertise their products and offers to people driving their car. The clients can subscribe to information based on specific topics. We present design solutions that use access points as emitters for transmitting messages to wireless-enabled devices equipped on vehicles. We also present implementation details for the evaluation of the proposed solution using a simulator designed for VANET application. The results show that the application can be used for transferring a significant amount of data even under difficult conditions, such as when cars are moving at increased speeds, or the congested Wi-Fi network causes significant packet loss...

  4. SECURITY CHALLENGES IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dorri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MANET is a kind of Ad Hoc network with mobile, wireless nodes. Because of its special characteristics like dynamic topology, hop-by-hop communications and easy and quick setup, MANET faced lots of challenges allegorically routing, security and clustering. The security challenges arise due to MANET’s selfconfiguration and self-maintenance capabilities. In this paper, we present an elaborate view of issues in MANET security. Based on MANET’s special characteristics, we define three security parameters for MANET. In addition we divided MANET security into two different aspects and discussed each one in details. A comprehensive analysis in security aspects of MANET and defeating approaches is presented. In addition, defeating approaches against attacks have been evaluated in some important metrics. After analyses and evaluations, future scopes of work have been presented.

  5. Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networking Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gavrilovska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc and sensor networks are becoming an increasingly popular wireless networking concepts lately. This paper analyzes and compares prominent routing schemes in these networking environments. The knowledge obtained can serve users to better understand short range wireless network solutions thus leading to options for implementation in various scenarios. In addition, it should aid researchers develop protocol improvements reliable for the technologies of interest.

  6. Highly Dynamic Nature of Mobile AD-HOC Networks (MANETs): Requirement of Stringent Security Measures

    OpenAIRE

    P. Balagangadhar Rao

    2011-01-01

    Wireless mobile AD-HOC networks (MANETs) can be established on demand and disappear when there is no need. Each mobile node in the network acts both as a terminal and also as a router. Thus, each mobile node is having a capability of forwarding packets of information to other peer nodes. The nodes are, basically, self-organized wireless interconnecting communication devices which can either extend or operate in concert with the wired networking infrastructure. Lot of research is going on, in ...

  7. Study of Impact of Mobile Ad hoc Networking and its Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashema Hasti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many people carry numerous portable devices, such as laptops, mobile phones, PDAs and mp3 players, for use in their professional and private lives. For the most part, these devices are used separately-that is, their applications do not interact. Imagine, however, if they could interact directly: participants at a meeting could share documents or presentations; all communication could automatically be routed through the wireless corporate campus network. These examples of spontaneous, ad hoc wireless communication between devices might be loosely defined as a scheme, often referred to as ad hoc networking, which allows devices to establish communication, anytime and anywhere without the aid of a central infrastructure. This paper describes the concept of mobile ad hoc networking (MANET and points out some of its applications that can be envisioned for future. Also, the paper presents two of the technical challenges MANET poses, which include Geocasting and QoS.

  8. Performance and Comparison of Multi-Hop Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols - Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilarasan S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad-hoc network is emerging network and form temporary networks. Due to its spontaneous nature the topology is frequently changes. Protocols selection and set up routing between any pair of nodes are the primary goal design for any wireless network. Several protocols are proposed in Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET and selected protocol must provide best capability of data delivery and data integrity. In this paper, we are study and analysis the performance and characteristic of Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV protocols using NS2 simulator. We are comparing the above said protocols based on the delay, throughput, control overhead and packet delivery ratio.

  9. The Realistic Mobility Evaluation of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network for Indian Automotive Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.Dhaka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, continuous progress in wireless communication has opened a new research field in computer networks. Now a day’s wireless ad-hoc networking is an emerging research technology that needs attention of the industry people and the academicians. A vehicular ad-hoc network uses vehicles as mobile nodes to create mobility in a network. It’s a challenge to generate realistic mobility for Indian networks as no TIGER or Shapefile map is available for Indian Automotive Networks. This paper simulates the realistic mobility of the Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs. The key feature of this work is the realistic mobility generation for the Indian Automotive Intelligent Transport System (ITS and also to analyze the throughput, packet delivery fraction (PDF and packet loss for realistic scenario. The experimental analysis helps in providing effective communication for safety to the driver and passengers.

  10. A Secure and Pragmatic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    An ad hoc network is a group of wireless mobile computers (or nodes), in which individual nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to allow nodes to communicate beyond direct wireless transmission range. Because of node mobility and power limitations, the network topology changes frequently. Routing protocol plays an important role in the ad hoc network. A recent trend in ad hoc network routing is the reactive on-demand philosophy where routes are established only when required. As an optimization for the current Dynamic Source Routing Protocol, a secure and pragmatic routes selection scheme based on Reputation Systems was proposed. We design the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol and implement simulation models using GloMoSim. Simulation results show that the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol provides better experimental results on packet delivery ratio, power consumption and system throughput than Dynamic Source Routing Protocol.

  11. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  12. A Multicast Routing Mechanism in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Through Label Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MengYang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Merging MPLS into multicast routing protocol in Mobile Ad hoc network is an elegant method to enhance the network performance and an efficient solution for multicast scalability and control overhead problems. Based on the Wireless MPLS technology, the mechanism and evaluation of a new multicast protocol, the Label Switching Multicast Routing Protocol (LSMRP is presented in this paper.

  13. Incentive-based control of ad hoc networks: a performance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbel, F.; Kresinski, A.E.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Ad hoc networks are self-configuring networks of mobile nodes, connected by wireless links. If a destination node is beyond the transmission range of an origin node, then the nodes must cooperate to provide a multi-hop route. Any node can act as a sender, receiver or transit node. It is clear that i

  14. BLESSED with opportunistic beacons: a lightweight data dissemination model for smart mobile ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces BLESSED, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the complementary utilization of the IEEE 802.11 and Bluetooth Low Energy standards. As a ubiq

  15. Modelling and Initial Validation of the DYMO Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espensen, Kristian Asbjørn Leth; Kjeldsen, Mads Keblov; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2008-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructureless network established by a set of mobile devices using wireless communication. The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) protocol is a routing protocol for multi-hop communication in MANETs currently under development by the Internet Engineering Task...

  16. Performance evaluation of fingerprint image processing for high Security Ad-hoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Velayutham

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of wireless technology, various mobile devices have been developed for military and civilian applications. Defense research and development has shown increasing interest in ad-hoc networks because a military has to be mobile peer-to-peer is a good architecture for mobile communication in coalition operations. In this paper, the methodology proposed is an novel robust approach on secure fingerprint authentication and matching techniques to implement in ad-hoc wireless networks. This is a difficult problem in ad-hoc network, as it involves bootstrapping trust between the devices. This journal would present a solution, which provides fingerprint authentication techniques to share their communication in ad-hoc network. In this approach, devices exchange a corresponding fingerprint with master device for mutual communication, which will then allow them to complete an authenticated key exchange protocol over the wireless link. The solution based on authenticating user fingerprint through the master device, and this master device handshakes with the corresponding slave device for authenticating the fingerprint all attacks on the wireless link, and directly captures the user's device that was proposed to talk to a particular unknown device mentioned previously in their physical proximity. The system is implemented in C# and the user node for a variety of different devices with Matlab.

  17. A Globally Accessible List (GAL Based Recovery Concept In Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Daniel,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is a mobile, multi-hop wireless network which is capable of autonomous operation whose primary role is to provide a reliable end to end communication between nodes in the network.However achieving reliable transmission in mobile wireless network is crucial due to change in the network topology caused by node mobility. Modern communication network is becoming increasing & diverse. This is the consequence of an increasing array of devices & services both wired & wireless. There are various protocols to facilitate communication in ad hoc network like DSR and TORA. However these approaches end up in the inefficient utilization of resources after link failure and congestion. This paper proposes an approach to get over this problem .We have added some static nodes which only keeps information related to the current working path and also helps in quick recovery in case of link failure .

  18. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes.

  19. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes. PMID:25202715

  20. Philosophical perspectives on ad hoc hypotheses and the Higgs mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon; Harlander, Robert; Karaca, Koray

    2014-01-01

    We examine physicists' charge of ad hocness against the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particle physics. We argue that even though this charge never rested on a clear-cut and well-entrenched definition of "ad hoc", it is based on conceptual and methodological assumptions and pri

  1. 无线ad hoc网络最小均方负载均衡路由算法%Least-mean-square routing with load-balancing for wireless ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈西豪; 陈惠民; 周伟

    2008-01-01

    Routing algorithm is a challenge for a mobile ad hoc network (MANET), but current routing protocols for MANETsconsider the path with minimum number of hops as the optimal path to a given destination. This strategy does not balancethe traffic load over a MANET, and may result in some disadvantages such as creating congested area, depleting power fasterand enlarging time delay in the nodes with heavy duties. In this paper, we propose a routing scheme that balances the loadover the network by selecting a path based on its mean load-square, the proposed routing metric can reflect not only the loadof the path, but also the load distribution along the path. Simulation results show effectiveness of this routing scheme onbalancing the load over all nodes in the network.

  2. AD HOC TEAMWORK BEHAVIORS FOR INFLUENCING A FLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Genter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc teamwork refers to the challenge of designing agents that can influence the behavior of a team, without prior coordination with its teammates. This paper considers influencing a flock of simple robotic agents to adopt a desired behavior within the context of ad hoc teamwork. Specifically, we examine how the ad hoc agents should behave in order to orient a flock towards a target heading as quickly as possible when given knowledge of, but no direct control over, the behavior of the flock. We introduce three algorithms which the ad hoc agents can use to influence the flock, and we examine the relative importance of coordinating the ad hoc agents versus planning farther ahead when given fixed computational resources. We present detailed experimental results for each of these algorithms, concluding that in this setting, inter-agent coordination and deeper lookahead planning are no more beneficial than short-term lookahead planning.

  3. Opinion Impact Models and Opinion Consensus Methods in Ad Hoc Tactical Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Demin Li; Jie Zhou; Jingjuan Zhu; Jiacun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Ad hoc social networks are special social networks, such as ad hoc tactical social networks, ad hoc firefighter social networks, and ad hoc vehicular social networks. The social networks possess both the properties of ad hoc network and social network. One of the challenge problems in ad hoc social networks is opinion impact and consensus, and the opinion impact plays a key role for information fusion and decision support in ad hoc social networks. In this paper, consider the impact of physic...

  4. I-Min: An Intelligent Fermat Point Based Energy Efficient Geographic Packet Forwarding Technique for Wireless Sensor and Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Kaushik; Das, and Pradip K; 10.5121/jgraphoc.2010.2204

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption and delay incurred in packet delivery are the two important metrics for measuring the performance of geographic routing protocols for Wireless Adhoc and Sensor Networks (WASN). A protocol capable of ensuring both lesser energy consumption and experiencing lesser delay in packet delivery is thus suitable for networks which are delay sensitive and energy hungry at the same time. Thus a smart packet forwarding technique addressing both the issues is thus the one looked for by any geographic routing protocol. In the present paper we have proposed a Fermat point based forwarding technique which reduces the delay experienced during packet delivery as well as the energy consumed for transmission and reception of data packets.

  5. QoS-aware multicast routing protocol for Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    Ad hoc wireless networks consist of mobile nodes interconnected by multihop communication paths. Unlike conventional wireless networks, ad hoc networks have no fixed network infrastructure or administrative support. Due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS) is an inherently complex, difficult issue and very important research issue. MAODV (Multicast Ad hoc Ondemand Distance Vector) routing protocol provides fast and efficient route establishment between mobile nodes that need to communicate with each other. MAODV has minimal control overhead and route acquisition latency. In addition to unicast routing, MAODV supports multicast and broadcast as well.The multicast routing problem with multiple QoS constraints, which may deal with the delay, bandwidth and packet loss measurements is discussed, and a network model for researching the ad hoc network QoS multicast routing problem is described. It presents a complete solution for QoS multicast routing based on an extension of the MAODV routing protocol that deals with delay, bandwidth and packet loss measurements. The solution is based on lower layer specifics. Simulation results show that, with the proposed QoS multicast routing protocol, end-to-end delay, bandwidth and packet loss on a route can be improved in most of cases. It is an available approach to multicast routing decision with multiple QoS constraints.

  6. Formal reconstruction of attack scenarios in mobile ad hoc and sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekhis Slim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several techniques of theoretical digital investigation are presented in the literature but most of them are unsuitable to cope with attacks in wireless networks, especially in Mobile Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (MASNets. In this article, we propose a formal approach for digital investigation of security attacks in wireless networks. We provide a model for describing attack scenarios in a wireless environment, and system and network evidence generated consequently. The use of formal approaches is motivated by the need to avoid ad hoc generation of results that impedes the accuracy of analysis and integrity of investigation. We develop an inference system that integrates the two types of evidence, handles incompleteness and duplication of information in them, and allows possible and provable actions and attack scenarios to be generated. To illustrate the proposal, we consider a case study dealing with the investigation of a remote buffer overflow attack.

  7. Survey: Comparison Estimation of Various Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanshu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes attached by wireless links. It represents a complex and dynamic distributed systems that consist of mobile wireless nodes that can freely self organize into an ad-hoc network topology. The devices in the network may have limited transmission range therefore multiple hops may be needed by one node to transfer data to another node in network. This leads to the need for an effective routing protocol. In this paper we study various classifications of routing protocols and their types for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks like DSDV, GSR, AODV, DSR, ZRP, FSR, CGSR, LAR, and Geocast Protocols. In this paper we also compare different routing protocols on based on a given set of parameters Scalability, Latency, Bandwidth, Control-overhead, Mobility impact.

  8. Review Strategies and Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Network- Internet Integration Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The desire to be connected anytime and anywhere has led to the development of wireless networks, opening new vista of research in pervasive and ubiquitous computing. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs use portable devices such as mobile phones, laptops or personal digital assistants (PDAs for spontaneous establishment of communication. Most existing research in the area of mobile Ad Hoc Networks is limited to stand-alone isolated networks. But connectivity of a mobile Ad Hoc network to the Internet is also desirable as more and more applications and services in our society now depend on fixed infrastructure networks. It is therefore important that dynamically deployed wireless Ad Hoc networks should also gain access to these fixed networks and their services. The integration of MANETs into Internet increases the networking flexibility and coverage of existing infrastructure networks. Although researchers have proposed many solutions, but it is still unclear which one offer the best performance compared to the others. When an Ad Hoc network is connected to Internet, it is important for the mobile nodes to detect efficiently available Internet gateways providing access to the Internet. Internet gateway discovery time and handover delay have strong influence on packet delay and throughput. The key challenge in providing connectivity is to minimize the overhead of mobile IP and Ad Hoc routing protocol between Internet and Ad Hoc networks. There, this paper focuses on proposed technical solutions on Internet gateway discovery and also we briefly describe different ways to provide global Internet access for MANETs. Finally, some challenges are also mentioned which need in depth investigation.

  9. Quality-of-service sensitivity to bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods for intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc multimedia sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2012-06-01

    In the author's previous work, a cross-layer protocol approach to wireless sensor network (WSN) intrusion detection an identification is created with multiple bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods applied to the functions of the protocol layers, a single method to each layer, to improve the intrusion-detection performance of the protocol over that of one method applied to only a single layer's functions. The WSN cross-layer protocol design embeds GAs, anti-phase synchronization, ACO, and a trust model based on quantized data reputation at the physical, MAC, network, and application layer, respectively. The construct neglects to assess the net effect of the combined bioinspired methods on the quality-of-service (QoS) performance for "normal" data streams, that is, streams without intrusions. Analytic expressions of throughput, delay, and jitter, coupled with simulation results for WSNs free of intrusion attacks, are the basis for sensitivity analyses of QoS metrics for normal traffic to the bio-inspired methods.

  10. A Comparison of the TCP Variants Performance over different Routing Protocols on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Biradar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a variant of TCP (Tahoe, Vegas, TCP is most widely used transport protocol in both wired and wireless networks. In mobile ad hoc networks, the topology changes frequently due to mobile nodes, this leads to significant packet losses and network throughput degradation. This is due to the fact that TCP fails to distinguish the path failure and network congestion. In this paper, the performances of TCP over different routing (DSR, AODV and DSDV protocols in ad hoc networks wasstudied by simulation experiments and results are reported.

  11. A secure and lightweight ad-hoc routing algorithm for personal networks

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jehangir; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing Personal Area Networks (PANs) to offer users innovative and personalized services. This interest is a consequence of the widespread use of mobile devices such as laptops, mobile phones, PDAs, digital cameras, wireless headsets, etc. to carry out a variety of user-centric tasks. The PAN itself is built upon an ad-hoc network where devices trust their neighbors to route their packets. The cooperative nature of ad-hoc netwo...

  12. Deny-by-Default Distributed Security Policy Enforcement in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicherry, Mansoor; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stavrou, Angelos

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are increasingly employed in tactical military and civil rapid-deployment networks, including emergency rescue operations and ad hoc disaster-relief networks. However, this flexibility of MANETs comes at a price, when compared to wired and base station-based wireless networks: MANETs are susceptible to both insider and outsider attacks. This is mainly because of the lack of a well-defined defense perimeter preventing the effective use of wired defenses including firewalls and intrusion detection systems.

  13. AD HOC TEAMWORK BEHAVIORS FOR INFLUENCING A FLOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Katie Genter; Peter Stone

    2016-01-01

    Ad hoc teamwork refers to the challenge of designing agents that can influence the behavior of a team, without prior coordination with its teammates. This paper considers influencing a flock of simple robotic agents to adopt a desired behavior within the context of ad hoc teamwork. Specifically, we examine how the ad hoc agents should behave in order to orient a flock towards a target heading as quickly as possible when given knowledge of, but no direct control over, the behavior of the flock...

  14. Broadcast design in cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief investigates the special challenges of broadcast design in cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks. It introduces two broadcast protocols in CR ad hoc networks: a quality-of-service based broadcast protocol under blind information and a fully-distributed broadcast protocol with collision avoidance. A novel unified analytical model is also presented to analyze the performance of the broadcast protocols. This is the first book dedicated to the unique broadcast design challenges in CR ad hoc networks. The authors also discuss the recent research on the performance analysis of broa

  15. Malware-Propagative Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Asymptotic Behavior Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasileios Karyotis; Anastasios Kakalis; Symeon Papavassiliou

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the spreading of malicious software over ad hoe networks, where legitimate nodes are prone to propagate the infections they receive from either an attacker or their already infected neighbors, is analyzed. Considering the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) node infection paradigm we propose a probabilistic model, on the basis of the theory of closed queuing networks, that aims at describing the aggregated behavior of the system when attacked by malicious nodes. Because of its nature, the model is also able to deal more effectively with the stochastic behavior of attackers and the inherent probabilistic nature of the wireless environment. The proposed model is able to describe accurately the asymptotic behavior of malware-propagative large scale ad hoc networking environments. Using the Norton equivalent of the closed queuing network, we obtain analytical results for its steady state behavior, which in turn is used for identifying the critical parameters affecting the operation of the network. Finally, through modeling and simulation, some additional numerical results are obtained with respect to the behavior of the system when multiple attackers are present, and regarding the time-dependent evolution and impact of an attack.

  16. Scalable Revocation in Hybrid Ad Hoc Networks: The SHARL Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Holsve Ofigsbø

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a simple, scalable and robust scheme for the distribution of revocation information in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The scheme is intended for ad hoc networks with a planned origin, and where a common point of trust exists. Mobile ad hoc networks have limited available bandwidth. The revocation lists must therefore be specific to the network. They are established with the aid of trusted gateways reporting the identity of the nodes to a central trusted entity. To minimize overhead, the revocation lists are distributed along with the routing messages. In the articles we discuss how the scheme can be implemented in conjunction with the predominant routing protocols in ad hoc networks. The article also provides a detailed security analysis of the proposed protocols, partly based on the use of formal methods.

  17. ACRR: Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing with Controlled Route Requests

    CERN Document Server

    Kataria, Jayesh; Sanyal, Sugata

    2010-01-01

    Reactive routing protocols like Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks which are used in Mobile and Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) work by flooding the network with control packets. There is generally a limit on the number of these packets that can be generated or forwarded. But a malicious node can disregard this limit and flood the network with fake control packets. These packets hog the limited bandwidth and processing power of genuine nodes in the network while being forwarded. Due to this, genuine route requests suffer and many routes either do not get a chance to materialize or they end up being longer than otherwise. In this paper we propose a non cryptographic solution to the above problem and prove its efficiency by means of simulation.

  18. Location Based Throughput Maximization Routing in Energy Constrained Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sumathy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless Ad-hoc network, power consumption becomes an important issue due to limited battery power. One of the reasons for energy expenditure in this network is irregularly distributed node pattern, which impose large interference range in certain area. To maximize the lifetime of ad-hoc mobile network, the power consumption rate of each node must be evenly distributed and the over all transmission range of each node must be minimized. Our protocol, Location based throughput maximization routing in energy constrained Ad-hoc network finds routing paths, which maximize the lifetime of individual nodes and minimize the total transmission energy consumption. The life of the entire network is increased and the network throughput is also increased. The reliability of the path is also increased. Location based energy constrained routing finds the distance between the nodes. Based on the distance the transmission power required is calculated and dynamically reduces the total transmission energy.

  19. A Decentralized VPN Service over Generalized Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Sho; Shima, Keiichi; Uo, Yojiro; Esaki, Hiroshi

    We present a decentralized VPN service that can be built over generalized mobile ad-hoc networks (Generalized MANETs), in which topologies can be represented as a time-varying directed multigraph. We address wireless ad-hoc networks and overlay ad-hoc networks as instances of Generalized MANETs. We first propose an architecture to operate on various kinds of networks through a single set of operations. Then, we design and implement a decentralized VPN service on the proposed architecture. Through the development and operation of a prototype system we implemented, we found that the proposed architecture makes the VPN service applicable to each instance of Generalized MANETs, and that the VPN service makes it possible for unmodified applications to operate on the networks.

  20. Decentralized Dynamic Load Balancing and Intersection Trust in Mobile Ad Hoc Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network is an autonomous system connected through wireless links. It does not have any fixed infrastructure, and the mobile nodes in the network coordinate among themselves for communication. This network can be formed by heterogeneous mobile devices like laptops, PDAs, cell phones etc. Highly capable device provides some services to low capability device and this will bring in a grid environment into the mobile ad hoc networks. A balanced allocation of load is a critical issue in such grids, considering its limitations in terms of power and availability. A decentralized approach is favored for a dispersed functioning of the grid, without draining a single chosen node. It is also essential to augment the resource allocation with an effective authorization mechanism, as the ad hoc grids lack permanent trusted central authority. In this paper, dynamic virtual organizations are constructed within this grid based on the resource commonalities of devices.

  1. Efficient Packet Forwarding Approach in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using EBGR Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Prasanth, K; Jayasudha, K; Chandrasekar, C

    2010-01-01

    VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Conventional routing protocols in MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Networks) are unable to fully address the unique characteristics in vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose EBGR (Edge Node Based Greedy Routing), a reliable greedy position based routing approach to forward packets to the node present in the edge of the transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop, with consideration of nodes moving in the direction of the destination. We propose Revival Mobility model (RMM) to evaluate the performance of our routing technique. This paper presents a detailed description of our approach and simulation results show that packet delivery ratio is improved considerably compared to other routing techniques of V...

  2. Efficient Packet Forwarding Approach in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using EBGR Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayasudha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Conventional routing protocols in MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Networks are unable to fully address the unique characteristics in vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose EBGR (Edge Node Based Greedy Routing, a reliable greedy position based routing approach to forward packets to the node present in the edge of the transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop, with consideration of nodes moving in the direction of the destination. We propose Revival Mobility model (RMM to evaluate the performance of our routing technique. This paper presents a detailed description of our approach and simulation results show that packet delivery ratio is improved considerably compared to other routing techniques of VANET.

  3. Coping With Misbehavior in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Buchegger, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we address the question of how to enable a system to operate despite the presence of misbehavior. Specifically, in a mobile ad-hoc network, how can we keep the network functional for normal nodes when other nodes do not route and forward correctly? Node misbehavior due to selfish or malicious reasons or faulty nodes can significantly degrade the performance of mobile ad-hoc networks. Existing approaches such as economic incentives or secure routing by cryptographic means allevi...

  4. Link Perdurability Based Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xuebin; Zhou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Ad Hoc networks are prone to link failures due to mobility. In this letter, a link perdurability based routing scheme is proposed to try dealing with this problem. This scheme uses signal strength measurements to estimate the route life time and hence chooses a stable route, and is implemented in two typical ad hoc routing protocols to evaluate its performance. The simulation results have shown that this scheme can improve these protocols' packet delivery ratio in cases where there are frequent link failures.

  5. An Efficient Proactive RSA Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui-shan; CHEN Ke-fei

    2007-01-01

    A proactive threshold signature scheme is very important to tolerate mobile attack in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient proactive threshold RSA signature scheme for ad hoc networks. The scheme consists of three protocols: the initial secret share distribution protocol, the signature generation protocol and the secret share refreshing protocol. Our scheme has three advantages. First, the signature generation protocol is efficient. Second, the signature generation protocol is resilient. Third, the share refreshing protocol is efficient.

  6. A SURVEY ON SPECTRUM-MAP BASED ON NORMAL OPPORTUNISTIC ROUTING METHODS FOR COGNITIVE RADIO AD HOC NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Hesham Mohammed Ali Abdullah; Dr. A.V. Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Radio (CR) technology has significant impacts on upper layer performance in Ad Hoc Networks (AHNs). In recent times, several number of investigation are conducted in CR are mostly focusing on the opportunistic spectrum admission and physical layer transmission throughput. However, CR technology determination also have considerable impacts in mobile Ad Hoc networks (AHNs), which enables wireless devices to dynamically create networks without essentially use of a fixed infrastructu...

  7. Channel Adaptive Shortest Path Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hui; XIE Fang; HU Jian-dong; ZHANG Ping

    2003-01-01

    Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a challenge owing to the dynamic nature of network topology and the resource constraints. To maximize the channel resource utilization and minimize the network transfer delay along the path, the shortest path with the minimum hops approach is often adopted. However, the quality of wireless channels among the mobile nodes is time varying owing to fading, shadowing and path loss. Considering adaptive channel coding and modulation scheme, the channel state can be characterized by different link throughputs. If routing selection based on the link throughput is implemented, the minimum transfer delay from source to destination and the maximal throughput may be obtained. In this paper, a Channel Adaptive Shortest Path Routing (CASPR) is presented. Based on the adaptive channel coding and modulation, the CASPR transforms the link throughput into the channel quality factor Q and finds the shortest routing according to the Q measure. Simulation results show that the average path length in the proposed routing scheme may be slightly higher than that of the conventional shortest path with the minimum hops approach, but it can reduce the average transfer delay and increase the packet deliver rate.

  8. Cluster Based Topology Control in Dynamic Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Parameswaran

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs, mobility of nodes, resource constraints and selfish behavior of nodes are important factors which may degrade the performance. Clustering is an effective scheme to improve the performance of MANETs features such as scalability, reliability, and stability. Each cluster member (CM is associated with only one cluster head (CH and can communicate with the CH by single hop communication. Mobility information is used by many existing clustering schemes such as weighted clustering algorithm (WCA Link expiration time prediction scheme and k-hop compound metric based clustering. In scheme 1 the CH election is based on a weighted sum of four different parameters such as node status, neighbor’s distribution, mobility, and remaining energy which brings flexibility but weight factor for each parameter if difficult. In scheme 2 lifetime of a wireless link between a node pair is predicted by GPS location information. In scheme 3 the predicted mobility parameter is combined with the connectivity to create a new compound metric for CH election. Despite various efforts in mobility clustering, not much work has been done specifically for high mobility nodes. Our proposed solution provides secure CH election and incentives to encourage nodes to honestly participating in election process. Mobility strategies are used to handle the various problems caused by node movements such as association losses to current CHs and CH role changes, for extending the connection lifetime and provide more stable clusters. The conducted simulation results shows that the proposed approach outperforms the existing clustering schemes.

  9. Reliability analysis of cluster-based ad-hoc networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jason L. [Quality Engineering and System Assurance, Armament Research Development Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States); Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel [School of Systems and Enterprises, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)], E-mail: Jose.Ramirez-Marquez@stevens.edu

    2008-10-15

    The mobile ad-hoc wireless network (MAWN) is a new and emerging network scheme that is being employed in a variety of applications. The MAWN varies from traditional networks because it is a self-forming and dynamic network. The MAWN is free of infrastructure and, as such, only the mobile nodes comprise the network. Pairs of nodes communicate either directly or through other nodes. To do so, each node acts, in turn, as a source, destination, and relay of messages. The virtue of a MAWN is the flexibility this provides; however, the challenge for reliability analyses is also brought about by this unique feature. The variability and volatility of the MAWN configuration makes typical reliability methods (e.g. reliability block diagram) inappropriate because no single structure or configuration represents all manifestations of a MAWN. For this reason, new methods are being developed to analyze the reliability of this new networking technology. New published methods adapt to this feature by treating the configuration probabilistically or by inclusion of embedded mobility models. This paper joins both methods together and expands upon these works by modifying the problem formulation to address the reliability analysis of a cluster-based MAWN. The cluster-based MAWN is deployed in applications with constraints on networking resources such as bandwidth and energy. This paper presents the problem's formulation, a discussion of applicable reliability metrics for the MAWN, and illustration of a Monte Carlo simulation method through the analysis of several example networks.

  10. Random Time Identity Based Firewall In Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Patel, R. B.; Singh, Parvinder

    2010-11-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-organizing network of mobile routers and associated hosts connected by wireless links. MANETs are highly flexible and adaptable but at the same time are highly prone to security risks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, and lack of centralized control. Firewall is an effective means of protecting a local network from network-based security threats and forms a key component in MANET security architecture. This paper presents a review of firewall implementation techniques in MANETs and their relative merits and demerits. A new approach is proposed to select MANET nodes at random for firewall implementation. This approach randomly select a new node as firewall after fixed time and based on critical value of certain parameters like power backup. This approach effectively balances power and resource utilization of entire MANET because responsibility of implementing firewall is equally shared among all the nodes. At the same time it ensures improved security for MANETs from outside attacks as intruder will not be able to find out the entry point in MANET due to the random selection of nodes for firewall implementation.

  11. Similarity-Based Clustering Strategy for Mobile Ad Hoc Multimedia Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia data are becoming popular in wireless ad hoc environments. However, the traditional content-based retrieval techniques are inefficient in ad hoc networks due to the multiple limitations such as node mobility, computation capability, memory space, network bandwidth, and data heterogeneity. To provide an efficient platform for multimedia retrieval, we propose to cluster ad hoc multimedia databases based on their semantic contents, and construct a virtual hierarchical indexing infrastructure overlaid on the mobile databases. This content-aware clustering scheme uses a semantic-aware framework as the theoretical foundation for data organization. Several novel techniques are presented to facilitate the representation and manipulation of multimedia data in ad hoc networks: 1 using concise distribution expressions to represent the semantic similarity of multimedia data, 2 constructing clusters based on the semantic relationships between multimedia entities, 3 reducing the cost of content-based multimedia retrieval through the restriction of semantic distances, and 4 employing a self-adaptive mechanism that dynamically adjusts to the content and topology changes of the ad hoc networks. The proposed scheme is scalable, fault-tolerant, and efficient in performing content-based multimedia retrieval as demonstrated in our combination of theoretical analysis and extensive experimental studies.

  12. Review of Artificial Immune System to Enhance Security in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Dalal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Networks consist of wireless host that communicate with each other. The routes in a Mobile Ad-hoc Network may consist of many hops through other hosts between source and destination. The hosts are not fixed in a Mobile Adhoc Network; due to host mobility topology can change any time. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are much more vulnerable to security attacks. Current research works on securing Mobile Adhoc Networks mainly focus on confidentiality, integrity,authentication, availability, and fairness. Design of routingprotocols is very much crucial in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. There are various techniques for securing Mobile Ad-hoc Network i.e. cryptography. Cryptography provides efficient mechanism to provide security, but it creates very much overhead. So, an approach is used which is analogous to Biological Immune System, known as Artificial Immune System (AIS. There is a reason of AIS to be used for security purposes because the Human Immune System (HIS protects the body against damage from an extremely large number of harmfulbacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, termed pathogens. It doesthis largely without prior knowledge of the structure of thesepathogens. AIS provide security by determining non-trusted nodes and eliminate all non-trusted nodes from the network.

  13. Hybrid Packet-Pheromone-Based Probabilistic Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkouli Nejad, Keyvan; Shawish, Ahmed; Jiang, Xiaohong; Horiguchi, Susumu

    Ad-Hoc networks are collections of mobile nodes communicating using wireless media without any fixed infrastructure. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make Ad-Hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like natural disasters or military conflicts. The current Ad-Hoc networks can only support either high mobility or high transmission rate at a time because they employ static approaches in their routing schemes. However, due to the continuous expansion of the Ad-Hoc network size, node-mobility and transmission rate, the development of new adaptive and dynamic routing schemes has become crucial. In this paper we propose a new routing scheme to support high transmission rates and high node-mobility simultaneously in a big Ad-Hoc network, by combining a new proposed packet-pheromone-based approach with the Hint Based Probabilistic Protocol (HBPP) for congestion avoidance with dynamic path selection in packet forwarding process. Because of using the available feedback information, the proposed algorithm does not introduce any additional overhead. The extensive simulation-based analysis conducted in this paper indicates that the proposed algorithm offers small packet-latency and achieves a significantly higher delivery probability in comparison with the available Hint-Based Probabilistic Protocol (HBPP).

  14. Impact of Rushing attack on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Palanisamy, V

    2009-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs) is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicate with each other via wireless links with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration such as base station or access points. Nodes in a MANETs operate both as host as well as routers to forward packets for each other in a multihop fashion. For many applications in wireless networks, multicasting is an important and frequent communication service. By multicasting, since a single message can be delivered to multiple receivers simultaneously. It greatly reduces the transmission cost when sending the same packet to multiple recipients. The security issue of MANETs in group communications is even more challenging because of involvement of multiple senders and multiple receivers. At that time of multicasting, mobile ad hoc network are unprotected by the attacks of malicious nodes because of vulnerabilities of routing protocols. Some of the attacks are Rushing attack, Blackhole attack, Sybil attack, Neighbor attack ...

  15. An Optimal CDS Construction Algorithm with Activity Scheduling in Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penumalli, Chakradhar; Palanichamy, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    A new energy efficient optimal Connected Dominating Set (CDS) algorithm with activity scheduling for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is proposed. This algorithm achieves energy efficiency by minimizing the Broadcast Storm Problem [BSP] and at the same time considering the node's remaining energy. The Connected Dominating Set is widely used as a virtual backbone or spine in mobile ad hoc networks [MANETs] or Wireless Sensor Networks [WSN]. The CDS of a graph representing a network has a significant impact on an efficient design of routing protocol in wireless networks. Here the CDS is a distributed algorithm with activity scheduling based on unit disk graph [UDG]. The node's mobility and residual energy (RE) are considered as parameters in the construction of stable optimal energy efficient CDS. The performance is evaluated at various node densities, various transmission ranges, and mobility rates. The theoretical analysis and simulation results of this algorithm are also presented which yield better results. PMID:26221627

  16. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WORMHOLE SECURITY APPROACHES FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Hababeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks are talented but are exposed to the risk of wormhole attacks. However, a wormhole attack can be mounted easily and forms stern menaces in networks, particularly against various ad-hoc wireless networks. The Wormhole attack distorts the network topology and decrease the network systems performance. Therefore, identifying the possibility of wormhole attacks and recognizing techniques to defend them are central to the security of wireless networks as a whole. In this study, we will summarize state of the art wormhole defense approaches, categories most of the existing typical approaches and discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. We will also point out some unfulfilled areas in the wormhole problem and provide some directions for future exploring.

  17. Secured 7 Layer Security Architecture (S7LSA For Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Srivastava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET constitutes a group of wireless mobile nodes that transmit information without any centralized control. MANETs are infrastructure-less and are dynamic in nature that is why; they require peremptorily new set of networking approach to put through to provide efficacious and successful end-to-end communication. The wireless and distributed nature of MANET poses a great challenge to system security designers. Although security problems in MANET have attracted much attention in the last few years, most research efforts have been focused on specific security areas, such as establishing trust infrastructure, securing routing protocols, or intrusion detection and response, none of the previous work proposes security solutions from a system architectural view. In this paper, we propose seven-layer security architecture for mobile ad hoc networks. A general description of functionalities in each layer is given.

  18. Vehicular ad hoc network for a surveillance system using multifrequency band enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunruangses, Montree; Sunat, Khamron; Mitatha, Somsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2010-09-01

    We present a new design of a surveillance system via a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) integrated by a 3-G or 4-G cellular wireless network. We propose dense wavelength division multiplexing wavelength enhancement for increasing the channel capacity and signal security. Increase in the number of channels can be obtained by increasing the wavelength density. Signal security is introduced by a specific wavelength filter controlled by the central operator. Optical communication wavelength enhancement is reviewed. The advantage of this proposed system is that it can easily be implemented and incorporated into the existing communication link in either a cellular or ad hoc wireless system, where signal security and hence privacy can be provided.

  19. Enhancement in Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cui-rong; YANG Xiao-zong; GAO Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Ad-hoc networking has mainly been associated with military battlefield networks. Security has received considerably less attention and the issue needs to be addressed before any successful applications will appear. Due to the insecure nature of the wireless link and their dynamically changing topology, wireless ad-hoc networks require a careful and security-oriented approach for designing routing protocols.In this paper, an AODV-based secure routing protocolENAODV is presented. A speed-optimized digital signature algorithm is integrated into the routing protocol. The protocol algorithm is implemented with NS-2. The security of the protocol is analyzed. The simulating results show that the performances of ENAODV protocol, such as average node energy consumption, packet delay and packet delivery is nearly the same as standard AODV protocol.

  20. Control Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking for survivable, dynamic, mobile Special Operation Force communications

    OpenAIRE

    Masacioglu, Mustafa.; McBride, Marlon

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited In the next generation of wireless communication systems, there will be a need for the rapid deployment of independent mobile users. Significant examples include establishing survivable, efficient, dynamic mobile communication for tactical Special Operation Force (SOF) networks, as well as SOF units that are ad hoc networking with first responders conducting emergency/rescue and disaster relief operations. Such network scenarios cannot re...

  1. An energy efficient adaptive HELLO algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    He, Danping; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ry, David

    2013-01-01

    International audience HELLO protocol or neighborhood discovery is essential in wireless ad hoc networks. It makes the rules for nodes to claim their existence/aliveness. In the presence of node mobility, no x optimal HELLO frequency and optimal transmission range exist to maintain accurate neighborhood tables while reducing the energy consumption and bandwidth occupation. Thus a Turnover based Frequency and transmission Power Adaptation algorithm (TFPA) is presented in this paper. The met...

  2. Simulation Based: Study and Analysis of Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vaishali D. Khairnar; Pradhan, Dr. S. N.

    2012-01-01

    A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) consists of vehicles which communicate with each other and exchange data via wireless communication links available between the vehicles which are in communication ranges of vehicles to improve the road safety in city. The communication between vehicles is used to provide road safety, comfort and entertainment. The performance of communication depends on how better routing takes place in the network. Routing data between the source and destination vehicle de...

  3. Replica Dissemination and Update Strategies in Cluster-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Denko, Mieso K.; Hua Lu

    2006-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that forms a temporary network without the aid of a fixed communication infrastructure. Since every node can be mobile and network topology changes can occur frequently, node disconnection is a common mode of operation in MANETs. Providing reliable data access and message delivery is a challenge in this dynamic network environment. Caching and replica allocation within the network can improve data accessibility by storin...

  4. Analysis of Multi-Hop Emergency Message Propagation in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Resta, Giovanni; Santi, Paolo; Simon, Janos

    2007-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are attracting the attention of researchers, industry, and governments for their potential of significantly increasing the safety level on the road. In order to understand whether VANETs can actually realize this goal, in this paper we analyze the dynamics of multihop emergency message dissemination in VANETs. Under a probabilistic wireless channel model that accounts for interference, we derive lower bounds on the probability that a car at distance d from t...

  5. Improved Performance of Bluetooth with Focus on Ad-Hoc Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    The number of devices making use of Bluetooth cable-replacement technology has rapidly increased in numbers thanks to the amount of implementations in cellular telephones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), etc. Instead of the point-to-point technique used today the wireless community demands more sophisticated solutions to transmit information between two devices, e.g. using a chat program within an ad-hoc network. However, Bluetooth provides neither a routing protocol, nor is the slave/sla...

  6. A Review of routing protocols for mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Selvakanmani, S.; Sumathi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. A cognitive radio is a radio that can change its transmitter parameters based on interaction with the environment in which it operates. The basic idea of cognitive radio networks is that the unlicensed devices (cognitive radio users or secondary users) need to vacate the spectrum band once the licensed device (p...

  7. OVERVIEW AND LITERATURE SURVEY ON ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MOBILE COGNITIVE RADIO AD HOC NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Selvakanmani, S.; Sumathi, Dr. M.

    2012-01-01

    Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. A cognitive radio is a radio that can change its transmitter parameters based on interaction with the environment in which it operates. The basic idea of cognitive radio networks is that the unlicensed devices (cognitive radio users or secondary users) need to vacate the spectrum band once the lic...

  8. Maintains Secure Intrusion Detection System for Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    B.Reddy Sumanth; T.Venkataramana

    2014-01-01

    Now a day’s mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are very popular research area. MANET is one of the mainly essential and unique applications. The mobility and scalability brought by wireless network made it possible in many applications. MANET does not require a fixed network infrastructure; every single node works as both a transmitter and a receiver. When the nodes are both within the same communication range then they communicate directly each other. These are significant factors i...

  9. Analysis of Fuzzy Logic Based Intrusion Detection Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, A.; V. N. Tiwari; Kumar, A

    2014-01-01

    Due to the advancement in wireless technologies, many of new paradigms have opened for communications. Among these technologies, mobile ad hoc networks play a prominent role for providing communication in many areas because of its independent nature of predefined infrastructure. But in terms of security, these networks are more vulnerable than the conventional networks because firewall and gateway based security mechanisms cannot be applied on it. That’s why intrusion detection systems are us...

  10. Cognitive radio network in vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET): A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne Mun-Yee Lim; Yoong Choon Chang; Mohamad Yusoff Alias; Jonathan Loo

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive radio network and Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) are recent emerging concepts in wireless networking. Cognitive radio network obtains knowledge of its operational geographical environment to manage sharing of spectrum between primary and secondary users, while VANET shares emergency safety messages among vehicles to ensure safety of users on the road. Cognitive radio network is employed in VANET to ensure the efficient use of spectrum, as well as to support VANET’s deployment. Ran...

  11. A New Cluster-based Wormhole Intrusion detection algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Debdutta Barman Roy; Rituparna Chaki; Nabendu Chaki

    2010-01-01

    In multi-hop wireless systems, the need for cooperation among nodes to relay each other's packets exposes them to a wide range of security attacks. A particularly devastating attack is the wormhole attack, where a malicious node records control traffic at one location and tunnels it to another compromised node, possibly far away, which replays it locally. Routing security in ad hoc networks is often equated with strong and feasible node authentication and lightweight cryptography. Unfortunate...

  12. Sécurité des communications de groupe dans les réseaux ad hoc

    OpenAIRE

    Bouassida, Mohamed Salah

    2006-01-01

    Multicast communication is an efficient mechanism, adapted to several applications such as video conferences, software distributions ...The principal advantage of this type of communications is the optimisation of network resources, mainly by reducing the bandwidth and the routers resources consumption.In parallel to the development of the multicast services within Internet, the last years saw the emergence of the ad hoc networks, due to the appearance of new wireless technologies and new sta...

  13. AUTHENTICATION ARCHITECTURE USING THRESHOLD CRYPTOGRAPHY IN KERBEROS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Hadj Gharib; Kamel Belloulata

    2014-01-01

    The use of wireless technologies is gradually increasing and risks related to the use of these technologies are considerable. Due to their dynamically changing topology and open environment without a centralized policy control of a traditional network, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and attacks. The ideal solution to overcome a myriad of security concerns in MANET’s is the use of reliable authentication architecture. In this paper we propose a...

  14. Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jungeblut

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a real-time Multiprocessor System-On-Chip (MPSoC for low power wireless applications. The multiprocessor is based on eight 32bit RISC processors that are connected via an Network-On-Chip (NoC. The NoC follows a novel approach with guaranteed bandwidth to the application that meets hard realtime requirements. At a clock frequency of 100 MHz the total power consumption of the MPSoC that has been fabricated in 180 nm UMC standard cell technology is 772 mW.

  15. LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Murugan Tamilarasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network is one of the wireless network in which mobile nodes are communicate with each other and have no infrastructure because no access point. The MANET protocols can be classified as proactive and reactive routing protocol. The proactive routing protocols, all nodes which participated in network have routing table. This table updated periodically and is used to find the path between source and destination. The reactive routing protocol, nodes are initiate route discovery procedure when on-demand routes. In order to find the better route in MANET, many routing protocols are designed in the recent years. But those protocols are not concentrating about communication links and battery energy. Communication links between nodes and energy of nodes are very important factor for improving quality of routing protocols. This study presents innovative Link Stability with Energy Aware (LSEA multipath routing protocol. The key idea of the protocol is find the link quality, maximum remaining energy and lower delay. Reflections of these factors are increasing the qualities like packet delivery ratio, throughputs and reduce end-to-end delay. The LSEAMRP was simulated on NS-2 and evaluation results also shown.

  16. An Agent Based Intrusion Detection Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Reshmi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection has over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in case of wireless mobile ad hoc networks. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless mobile ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks in-spite of some security measures, and it may be too late before any counter action can take effect. As such, there is a need to complement traditional security mechanisms with efficient intrusion detection and response systems. This paper proposes an agent-based model to address the aspect of intrusion detection in cluster based mobile wireless ad hoc network environment. The model comprises of a set of static and mobile agents, which are used to detect intrusions, respond to intrusions, and distribute selected and aggregated intrusion information to all other nodes in the network in an intelligent manner. The model is simulated to test its operation effectiveness by considering the performance parameters such as, detection rate, false positives, agent overheads, and intrusion information distribution time. Agent based approach facilitates flexible and adaptable security services. Also, it supports component based software engineering components such as maintainability, reachability, reusability, adaptability, flexibility, and customization.

  17. An Effective Approach for Mobile ad hoc Network via I-Watchdog Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Lal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is now days become very famous due to their fixed infrastructure-less quality and dynamic nature. They contain a large number of nodes which are connected and communicated to each other in wireless nature. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless technology that contains high mobility of nodes and does not depend on the background administrator for central authority, because they do not contain any infrastructure. Nodes of the MANET use radio wave for communication and having limited resources and limited computational power. The Topology of this network is changing very frequently because they are distributed in nature and self-configurable. Due to its wireless nature and lack of any central authority in the background, Mobile ad hoc networks are always vulnerable to some security issues and performance issues. The security imposes a huge impact on the performance of any network. Some of the security issues are black hole attack, flooding, wormhole attack etc. In this paper, we will discuss issues regarding low performance of Watchdog protocol used in the MANET and proposed an improved Watchdog mechanism, which is called by I-Watchdog protocol that overcomes the limitations of Watchdog protocol and gives high performance in terms of throughput, delay.

  18. Survey of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikumar. P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs are a promising communication scenario. Several new applications are envisioned, which will improve traffic management and safety. In comparison to other communication networks, Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs have unique requirements with respect to applications, types of communication, self-organization and other issues. VANETspecific protocol layers, a staircase approach for interaction among layers and the use of an information connector for cross-layer information exchange using the publisher/subscriber pattern. The main goal of VANET is providing safety and comfort for passengers. Each vehicle equipped with VANET device will be a node in the Ad-hoc network and can receive

  19. Dynamic Encryption Technology in Ad-hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhao-hui; WANG Shun-man; XU Kai; LIANG Qing

    2007-01-01

    A new dynamic encryption application in ad-hoc networks is proposed. The advantages of this method are its being able to use the previous ciphertext as a seed of a new encryption process, rendering the encryption process effective in all communication process by continuous dynamic key generation together with synchronization, and its capability to cut back on system bandages to a greater extent, which is valuable for the ad-hoc circumstance. In addition, the rationality and effectiveness of this novel encryption method have been verified by the test results.

  20. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

  1. Routing Protocol of Sparse Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huxiong

    Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is an application of mobile ad hoc technology in transportation systems, it has become an important part of ITS. Since multi-hop link is hard to set up in sparse VANET, a traffic-aware routing (TAR) protocol is proposed which estimates vehicle average neighbors (VAN) of roads by exchanging beacon messages between encounter vehicles. Road with high VAN is preferred to be selected as part of forwarding path at intersection. Packets are forwarded to the next intersection in road in a greedy manner. Simulations show that TAR outperforms the compared protocols in terms of both packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay.

  2. A Survey of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRADIP M. JAWANDHIYA,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc network (MANETs. Compared to wired networks, MANETs are more vulnerable to security attacks due to the lack of a trusted centralized authority and limited resources. Attacks on ad hoc networks can be classified as passive and active attacks, depending on whether the normal operation of the network is disrupted or not. In this paper, we are describing the all prominent attacks described in literature in a consistent manner to provide a concise comparison on attack types. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that studies all the existing attacks on MANETs.

  3. Analysis of AODV and DSR in Presence of Wormhole Attack in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVEK SHARMA,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network. It operates without the use of existing infrastructure. As mobile ad hoc network applications are deployed, security emerges as a central requirement. In this paper, we introduce the wormhole attack, a severe security attack in ad hocnetworks that is particularly challenging to defend against. The wormhole attack is possible even if the attacker has not compromised any hosts and even if all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality. In the wormhole attack, an attacker records packets (or bits at one location in the network, tunnels them (possiblyselectively to another location, and retransmits them there into the network. The wormhole attack can form a serious threat in wireless networks, especially against many ad hoc network routing protocols and locationbased wireless security systems. This paper analyses the performance of AODV and DSR routing protocols with and without wormhole attack. This would be a great help for the people conducting research on real world problems in MANET security.

  4. A New Proposal for Route Finding in Mobile AdHoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Vignesh Ramamoorthy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts connected by wireless links – the union of which forms an arbitrary topology. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily, thus the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet. There are various routing protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR, AODV and DSDV. This paper examines two routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks– the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV and the Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV. Generally, the routing algorithms can be classified into Reactive and Proactive. A Hybrid algorithm combines the basic properties of reactive and proactive into one. The proposed approach is a novel routing pattern based on Ant Colony Optimization and Multi Agent System. This pattern integrates two different algorithms together and helps to get optimum routes for a particular radio range. The approaches used here are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Multi Agent System (MAS. The proposed integrated approach has a relatively short route establishment time while using a small number of control messages which makes it a scalable routing approach. The overhead of this routing approach will be inexpensive and also will enable to have an alternate route during route failure. This proposed route finding scheme in order to provide high connectivity of nodes, will minimize the route discovery latency and the end-to-end delay.

  5. Study on the Current Situation and Evolvement on Ad Hoc Network%Ad Hoc网络的研究现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 蔡振

    2012-01-01

    Ad Hoc networks as a way to temporarily speed automatic network of mobile communication technologyhas been moreattention to the experts, the current wireless Ad Hoc network is a focus of study. This article describes the characteristics of Ad Hoc Networks and applications, and the research situation.%Ad Hoc网络做为一种能够临时快速自动组网的移动通信技术越来越得到专家们的重视,目前Ad Hoc网络也是无线网络研究中的一个重点和热点。介绍了Ad Hoc网络的特点和应用以及Ad Hoc网络的研究状况。

  6. Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Rakesh Kumar,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available hoc networks are self configuring network and by a random and quickly changing network topology; thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol can accommodate such an environment. Different protocols govern the mobile ad hoc networks and to improve the packet delivery ratio of Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks with high mobility, a message exchange scheme for its invalid route reconstruction is being used. Three protocols AODV, DSDV and I-DSDV were simulated using NS-2 package and were compared in terms of packet delivery ratio, end to end delay routing overhead in different environment; varying number of nodes, speed and pause time. Simulation results show that IDSDVcompared with DSDV, it reduces the number of dropped data packets with little increased overhead at higher rates of node mobility but still compete with AODV in higher node speed and number of node.

  7. A Novel Architecture for Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Patel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s wireless networks are vulnerable in many ways including illegal use, unauthorized access, denial of service attacks, eavesdropping so called war chalking. These problems are one of the main issues for wider uses of wireless network. On wired network intruder can access by wire but in wireless it has possibilities to access the computer anywhere in neighborhood. However, securing MANETs is highly challenging issue due to their inherent characteristics. Intrusion detection is an important security mechanism, but little effort has been directed towards efficient and effective architectures for Intrusion Detection System in the context of MANETs. We investigate existing Intrusion Detection Architecture design Issues, challenges and proposed a novel architecture based on a conceptual model for an IDS agent that lead to a secure collaboration environment integrating mobile ad hoc network and the wired backbone. In wireless/mobile ad hoc network, the limited power, weak computation capabilities of mobile nodes, and restricted bandwidth of the open media impede the establishment of a secure collaborative environment.

  8. Inter-Cluster Routing Authentication for Ad Hoc Networks by a Hierarchical Key Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueh-Min Huang; Hua-Yi Lin; Tzone-I Wang

    2006-01-01

    Dissimilar to traditional networks, the features of mobile wireless devices that can actively form a network without any infrastructure mean that mobile ad hoc networks frequently display partition due to node mobility or link failures. These indicate that an ad hoc network is difficult to provide on-line access to a trusted authority server. Therefore,applying traditional Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) security framework to mobile ad hoc networks will cause insecurities.This study proposes a scalable and elastic key management scheme integrated into Cluster Based Secure Routing Protocol (CBSRP) to enhance security and non-repudiation of routing authentication, and introduces an ID-Based internal routing authentication scheme to enhance the routing performance in an internal cluster. Additionally, a method of performing routing authentication between internal and external clusters, as well as inter-cluster routing authentication, is developed.The proposed cluster-based key management scheme distributes trust to an aggregation of cluster heads using a threshold scheme faculty, provides Certificate Authority (CA) with a fault tolerance mechanism to prevent a single point of compromise or failure, and saves CA large repositories from maintaining member certificates, making ad hoc networks robust to malicious behaviors and suitable for numerous mobile devices.

  9. Reliable and Efficient Broadcasting in Asymmetric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Minimized Forward Node List Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Murugesan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Network wide broadcasting is a fundamental operation in ad hoc networks. In broadcasting, a source node sends a message to all the other nodes in the network. Unlike in a wired network, a packet transmitted by a node in ad hoc wireless network can reach all neighbors. Therefore, the total number of transmissions (Forwarding nodes used as the cost criterion for broadcasting. Approach: This study proposes a reliable and efficient broadcasting algorithm using minimized forward node list algorithm which uses 2-hop neighborhood information more effectively to reduce redundant transmissions in asymmetric Mobile Ad hoc networks that guarantees full delivery. Among the 1-hop neighbors of the sender, only selected forwarding nodes retransmit the broadcast message. Forwarding nodes are selected such a way that to cover the uncovered 2-hop neighbors. Results: Simulation results show that the proposed broadcasting algorithm provides high delivery ratio, low broadcast forward ratio, low overhead and minimized delay. Conclusion: In this study, reliable and efficient broadcasting algorithm in asymmetric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using minimized forward node list algorithm has been proposed which provides low forward ratio, high delivery ratio while suppressing broadcast redundancy.

  10. Study of the IDS in wireless Ad Hoc networks based on mobile agents%基于移动代理的无线Ad Hoc网络IDS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张念丽

    2006-01-01

    介绍了无线Ad Hoc网络的特点和面临的安全问题,分析了移动代理在Ad Hoc网络入侵检测系统中的适用性,给出了一种基于移动代理的无线Ad Hoc网络入侵检测系统模型.

  11. TMAP ad hoc Working Group Fish Progress report 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, L.J.; Damm, U.; Diederichs, B.; Jager, Z.; Overzee, van H.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Building on previous work done by the TMAP ad hoc Working Group Fish, a meeting and a workshop were held in Hamburg in June and October 2007. The most important aim of both was to come to an agreement on how to proceed with the data preparations and analyses, and to facilitate the exchange of data a

  12. Routing in Ad Hoc Network Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanpara, Pimal; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    The ad hoc networks have dynamic topology and are infrastructure less. So it is required to implement a new network protocol for providing efficient end to end communication based on TCP/IP structure. There is a need to re-define or modify the functions of each layer of TCP/IP model to provide end to end communication between nodes. The mobility of the nodes and the limited resources are the main reason for this change. The main challenge in ad hoc networks is routing. Due to the mobility of the nodes in the ad hoc networks, routing becomes very difficult. Ant based algorithms are suitable for routing in ad hoc networks due to its dynamic nature and adaptive behavior. There are number of routing algorithms based on the concept of ant colony optimizations. It is quite difficult to determine the best ant based algorithm for routing as these algorithms perform differently under various circumstances such as the traffic distribution and network topology. In this paper, the overview of such routing algorithms is given.

  13. Performance modeling of data dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaqfeh, Moumena; Lakas, Abderrahmane; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) have become a cornerstone component of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). VANET applications present a huge potential for improving road safety and travel comfort, hence the growing interest of both academia and industry. The main advantage of VANETs is its...

  14. Dynamic Mobile IP routers in ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways

  15. Security Challenges and Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH.V. Raghavendran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile nodes that form a temporary network without of any existing network infrastructure or central access point. The popularity of these networks created security challenges as an important issue. The traditional routing protocols perform well with dynamically changing topology but are not designed to defense against security challenges. In this paper we discuss about current challenges in an ad hoc environment which includes the different types of potential attacks that are possible in the Mobile Ad hoc Networks that can harm its working and operation. We have done literature study and gathered information relating to various types of attacks. In our study, we have found that there is no general algorithm that suits well against the most commonly known attacks. But the complete security solution requires the prevention, detection and reaction mechanisms applied in MANET. To develop suitable security solutions for such environments, we must first understand how MANETs can be attacked. This paper provides a comprehensive study of attacks against mobile ad hoc networks. We present a detailed classification of the attacks against MANETs.

  16. Providing Location Security in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gongjun

    2010-01-01

    Location is fundamental information in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). Almost all VANET applications rely on location information. Therefore it is of importance to ensure location information integrity, meaning that location information is original (from the generator), correct (not bogus or fabricated) and unmodified (value not changed). We…

  17. Authentication Based on Multilayer Clustering in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Heyi-Sook

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a secure cluster-routing protocol based on a multilayer scheme in ad hoc networks. This work provides scalable, threshold authentication scheme in ad hoc networks. We present detailed security threats against ad hoc routing protocols, specifically examining cluster-based routing. Our proposed protocol, called "authentication based on multilayer clustering for ad hoc networks" (AMCAN, designs an end-to-end authentication protocol that relies on mutual trust between nodes in other clusters. The AMCAN strategy takes advantage of a multilayer architecture that is designed for an authentication protocol in a cluster head (CH using a new concept of control cluster head (CCH scheme. We propose an authentication protocol that uses certificates containing an asymmetric key and a multilayer architecture so that the CCH is achieved using the threshold scheme, thereby reducing the computational overhead and successfully defeating all identified attacks. We also use a more extensive area, such as a CCH, using an identification protocol to build a highly secure, highly available authentication service, which forms the core of our security framework.

  18. An Optimized OSPF Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Du

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an Optimized OSPF(Open Shortest Path First)protocol for MANETs (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. MANETs are multi-hop ad-hoc wireless networks where nodes can move arbitrarily in the topology. The network has no given infrastructure and can be set up quickly in any environment. Traditional OSPF is not also well used in multi-hop wireless networks. The optimized OSPF we proposed in this paper is a routing protocol which is more efficient for such mobile ad hoc networks. This paper describes and designs an optimized routing protocol for MANET referring to certain extensions to OSPF for MANET and OLSR routing protocol. The path selection optimization scheme we propose is aiming at reducing the number of redundant retransmissions while diffusing a broadcast message in the network and reducing overall overhead of control traffic。In conclusion, the optimized OSPF protocol improves the performance when using in MANETs as the experiment results show.

  19. Power-Controlled MAC Protocols with Dynamic Neighbor Prediction for Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; ZHANG Lin; XIAO Yong-kang; SHAN Xiu-ming

    2004-01-01

    Energy and bandwidth are the scarce resources in ad hoc networks because most of the mobile nodes are battery-supplied and share the exclusive wireless medium. Integrating the power control into MAC protocol is a promising technique to fully exploit these precious resources of ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper, a new intelligent power-controlled Medium Access Control (MAC) (iMAC) protocol with dynamic neighbor prediction is proposed. Through the elaborate design of the distributed transmit-receive strategy of mobile nodes, iMAC greatly outperforms the prevailing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in not only energy conservation but also network throughput. Using the Dynamic Neighbor Prediction (DNP), iMAC performs well in mobile scenes. To the best of our knowledge, iMAC is the first protocol that considers the performance deterioration of power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile scenes and then proposes a solution. Simulation results indicate that DNP is important and necessary for power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

  20. Guard against cooperative black hole attack in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Pratap Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous network that consists of nodes which communicate with each other with wireless channel. Due to its dynamic nature and mobility of nodes, mobile ad hoc networks are more vulnerable to security attack than conventional wired and wireless networks. One of the principal routing protocols AODV used in MANETs. The security of AODV protocol is influence by the particular type of attack called Black Hole attack. In a black hole attack, a malicious node injects a faked route reply claiming to havethe shortest and freshest route to the destination. However, when the data packets arrive, the malicious node discards them. To preventing black hole attack, this paper presents RBS (Reference Broadcast Synchronization & Relative velocity distance method for clock synchronization process in Mobile ad-hoc Network for removal of cooperative black hole node. This paper evaluates the performance in NS2 network simulator and our analysis indicates that this method is very suitable to remove black hole attack.

  1. A new Hierarchical Group Key Management based on Clustering Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman EL-SAYED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The migration from wired network to wireless network has been a global trend in the past few decades because they provide anytime-anywhere networking services. The wireless networks are rapidly deployed in the future, secure wireless environment will be mandatory. As well, The mobility and scalability brought by wireless network made it possible in many applications. Among all the contemporary wireless networks,Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET is one of the most important and unique applications. MANET is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multihop radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. Due to the nature of unreliable wireless medium data transfer is a major problem in MANET and it lacks security and reliability of data. The most suitable solution to provide the expected level of security to these services is the provision of a key management protocol. A Key management is vital part of security. This issue is even bigger in wireless network compared to wired network. The distribution of keys in an authenticated manner is a difficult task in MANET. When a member leaves or joins the group, it needs to generate a new key to maintain forward and backward secrecy. In this paper, we propose a new group key management schemes namely a Hierarchical, Simple, Efficient and Scalable Group Key (HSESGK based on clustering management scheme for MANETs and different other schemes are classified. Group members deduce the group key in a distributed manner.

  2. 无线传感器网络与传统Ad Hoc网络的比较研究%Comparison study of wireless sensor networks and traditional Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付军; 戴志诚; 汪秉文

    2007-01-01

    近年来,无线通信和电子技术的进步促进了Ad Hoc网络的发展,无线传感器网络是Ad Hoc网络的几大应用领域之一,但与传统Ad Hoc网络比有差异,传统Ad Hoc网络的协议大部分都不适合于无线传感器网络,文中从体系结构、协议栈和应用方面对无线传感器网络和传统Ad Hoc网络进行比较和分析.

  3. Comparison of Analytical and Measured Performance Results on Network Coding in IEEE 802.11 Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Fang; Médard, Muriel; Hundebøll, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    Network coding is a promising technology that has been shown to improve throughput in wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we compare the analytical and experimental performance of COPE-style network coding in IEEE 802.11 ad-hoc networks. In the experiments, we use a lightweight scheme called...

  4. On Protocols to Prevent Black Hole Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless or Mobile Networks emerged to replace the wired networks. The new generation of wireless network is relatively different than the comparisons of traditional wired network in many aspects like resource sharing, power usage, reliability, efficient, ease to handle, network infrastructure and routing protocols, etc. Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs are autonomous and decentralized wireless systems. MANETs consist of mobile nodes that are free in moving in and out in the network. There is an increasing threat of attacks on the MANET. Thus, in MANET black hole attack are mostly serious security attacks. In this paper, we have examined certain black hole attacks prevention routing protocols. Finally, we have compared some routing protocols using some important parameters and then addressed major issues related to this.

  5. Secure neighborhood discovery: A fundamental element for mobile ad hoc networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadimitratos, P.; Poturalski, M.; Schaller, P.;

    2008-01-01

    Pervasive computing systems will likely be deployed in the near future, with the proliferation of wireless devices and the emergence of ad hoc networking as key enablers. Coping with mobility and the volatility of wireless communications in such systems is critical. Neighborhood discovery (ND......) - the discovery of devices directly reachable for communication or in physical proximity - becomes a fundamental requirement and building block for various applications. However, the very nature of wireless mobile networks makes it easy to abuse ND and thereby compromise the overlying protocols and applications....... Thus, providing methods to mitigate this vulnerability and secure ND is crucial. In this article we focus on this problem and provide definitions of neighborhood types and ND protocol properties, as well as a broad classification of attacks. Our ND literature survey reveals that securing ND is indeed...

  6. O-DSR: OPTIMIZED DSR ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rjab Hajlaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile users that communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. When designing mobile ad hoc networks, several interesting and difficult problems arise because of the shared nature of the wireless medium, limited transmission power (range of wireless devices, node mobility, and battery limitations. This paper aims at providing a new schema to improve Dynamic Source Routing (DSR Protocol. The aim behind the proposed enhancement is to find the best route in acceptable time limit without having broadcast storm. Moreover, O-DSR enables network not only to overcome congestion but also maximize the lifetime of mobile nodes. Some simulations results show that the Route Request (RREQ and the Control Packet Overhead decrease by 15% when O-DSR is used, consequently. Also the global energy consumption in O-DSR is lower until to 60 % , which leads to a long lifetime of the network.

  7. Energy Behavior in Ad Hoc Network Minimizing the Number of Hops and Maintaining Connectivity of Mobile Terminals Which Move from One to the Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai, Lipur Sugiyanta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad-hoc network is a special kind of network, where all of the nodesmove in time. The topology of the network changes as the nodes are in theproximity of each other. Ad-hoc networks are generally self-configuring no stableinfrastructure takes a place. In this network, each node should help relayingpackets of neighboring nodes using multi-hop routing mechanism. Thismechanism is needed to reach far destination nodes to solve problem of deadcommunication. This multiple traffic hops within a wireless ad-hoc networkcaused dilemma. Wireless ad-hoc network that contain multiple hops becomeincreasingly vulnerable to problems such as energy degradation and rapidincreasing of overhead packets. This paper provides a generic routing frameworkthat balances energy efficient broadcast schemes in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networkand maintaining connectivity of nodes (mobile terminals. Typically, each node’sactivities will consume energy, either for sending packets, receiving orpreparing/processing packets. Number of hops, distance of nodes, and size ofpacket will determine the consumption of energy. The framework is based on theprinciple that additional relay nodes with appropriate energy and routing metricbetween source and final destination significantly reduces the energyconsumption necessary to deliver packets in Wireless Ad-Hoc Network whilekeep the connectivity of dynamic nodes. Using the framework, the averagenetwork connectivity is kept 18% higher and the lifetime of network lasting morethan 2.38% compared with network with Link State Routing mechanism. Thesimulation notes that the end-to-end delay may increase rapidly if relay nodesare more than five.

  8. Technology of Ad hoc Networks%Ad hoc技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹常义

    2002-01-01

    Ad hoc技术是从无线移动Ad hoc网络(WMANET)抽象出来的一个一般性概念,该项技术所标称的是自组识、多跳的一个临时分布式系统,是一种网络构架技术.它要面临多项难题.本文就是从OSI模型的角度把Ad hoc技术分层介绍,最后给出了一种WMANET应用方案.

  9. LAR VS DSR: EVALUATION OF AD HOC NETWORK PROTOCOLS IN PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT OF COMMUNICATION OF ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANIEH MOVAHEDI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling and managing of robots and their information communication to each other is an important issue, and wireless technologies without infrastructure like Ad hoc networks due to their quick trigger and cost slightness can play efficiently. Various protocols have been used in this field and in the recent study, two famous Ad hoc network protocols have been simulated for 4 km2 work areas with changes of the same elements in types of robots like speed, pause time, number of nodes, important parameters that show network optimization rate and include PDR, Throughput, End-To-End Delay by using simulation in GloMoSim software. In this research, for suitable protocols in every time, output has been calculated by making the same chance and then, obtained information was investigated statistically. In total, LAR protocol was recognized that had higher scores than DSR and could be used as an optimum protocol in robotic industries, technically.

  10. Enabling Adaptive Rate and Relay Selection for 802.11 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Neil; Wang, Wenye

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring wireless networks that lack permanent infrastructure and are formed among mobile nodes on demand. Rapid node mobility results in dramatic channel variation, or fading, that degrades MANET performance. Employing channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter can improve the throughput of routing and medium access control (MAC) protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Several routing algorithms in the literature explicitly incorporate the fading signal strength into the routing metric, thus selecting the routes with strong channel conditions. While these studies show that adaptation to the time-variant channel gain is beneficial in MANETs, they do not address the effect of the outdated fading CSI at the transmitter. For realistic mobile node speeds, the channel gain is rapidly varying, and becomes quickly outdated due the feedback delay. We analyze the link throughput of joint rate adaptation and adaptive relay selection in the presence of imperfect CSI. Mor...

  11. Enhancing On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocols using Mobility Prediction in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Makhlouf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-organizing wireless communication network in which mobile devices are based on no infrastructure like base stations or access points. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like disaster recovery or military conflict. Since node mobility may cause links to be broken frequently, a very important issue for routing in MANETs is how to set reliable paths which can last as long as possible. To solve this problem, non-random behaviors for the mobility patterns that mobile users exhibit are exploited. This paper introduces a scheme to improve On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP performances by using mobility prediction. 

  12. Implement DUMBO as a Network Based on Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are a large variety of wireless access networks. One of these networksis Digital Ubiquitous Mobile Broadband OLSR (DUMBO which has been stronglymotivated by the fact that large scale natural disasters can wipe out terrestrialcommunication infrastructure. DUMBO routers can automatically form one or more selfconfiguring,self-healing networks called Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. VehicleAd hoc Network (VANETs is an advanced version of MANETs. VANETs is offered tobe used by network service providers for managing connection to get a high performanceat real time, high bandwidth and high availability in networks such as WLAN, UMTS,Wi-MAX and etc. In this paper surveying DUMBONET Routers with relevant algorithm,approaches and solutions from the literature, will be consider.

  13. ADHOCFTSIM: A Simulator of Fault Tolerence In the AD-HOC Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Insaf Djebbar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility and diversity of Wireless Mobile Networks offer many opportunities that are not alwaystaken into account by existing distributed systems. In particular, the proliferation of mobile users and theuse of mobile Ad-Hoc promote the formation of collaborative groups to share resources. We propose asolution for the management of fault tolerance in the Ad-Hoc networks, combining the functions neededto better availability of data. Our contribution takes into account the characteristics of mobile terminalsin order to reduce the consumption of resources critical that energy, and to minimize the loss ofinformation. Our solution is based on the formation of clusters, where each is managed by a node leader.This solution is mainly composed of four sub-services, namely: prediction, replication, management ofnodes in the cluster and supervision. We have shown, using several sets of simulation, that our solution istwofold: minimizing the energy consumption which increases the life of the network and better supportdeal with requests lost.

  14. An optimized node-disjoint multipath routing scheme in mobile ad hoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liang, Mangui; Liu, Zhiyu

    2016-02-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), link failures are caused frequently because of node’s mobility and use of unreliable wireless channels for data transmission. Multipath routing strategy can cope with the problem of the traffic overloads while balancing the network resource consumption. In the paper, an optimized node-disjoint multipath routing (ONMR) protocol based on ad hoc on-demand vector (AODV) is proposed to establish effective multipath to enhance the network reliability and robustness. The scheme combines the characteristics of reverse AODV (R-AODV) strategy and on-demand node-disjoint multipath routing protocol to determine available node-disjoint routes with minimum routing control overhead. Meanwhile, it adds the backup routing strategy to make the process of data salvation more efficient in case of link failure. The results obtained through various simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of route availability, control overhead and packet delivery ratio.

  15. Improved Packet Forwarding Approach in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using RDGR Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Prasanth, K; Jayasudha, K; Chandrasekar, Dr C; 10.5121/ijngn.2010.2106

    2010-01-01

    VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Position based routing protocols are becoming popular due to advancement and availability of GPS devices. One of the critical issues of VANETs are frequent path disruptions caused by high speed mobility of vehicle that leads to broken links which results in low throughput and high overhead . This paper argues the use of information on vehicles' movement information (e.g., position, direction, speed of vehicles) to predict a possible link-breakage event prior to its occurrence. So in this paper we propose a Reliable Directional Greedy routing (RDGR), a reliable position based routing approach which obtains position, speed and direction of its neighboring nodes from GPS. This approach incorporates potential score based strategy...

  16. Neighbor Attack And Detection Mechanism In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parthiban

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs, security is one of the most important concerns because a MANETs system is much more vulnerable to attacks than a wired or infrastructure-based wireless network. Designing an effective security protocol for MANET is a very challenging task. This is mainlydue to the unique characteristics of MANETs, namely shared broadcast radio channel, insecure operatingenvironment, lack of central authority, lack of association among users, limited availability of resources, and physical vulnerability. In this paper we present simulation based study of the impact of neighbor attack on mesh-based Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET. And also we study the number of attackers and position affects the performance metrics such as packet delivery ratio and throughput. The study enables us to propose a secure neighbor detection mechanism (SNDM. A generic detection mechanism against neighbor attack for On Demand Routing Protocols is simulated on GlomoSim environment.

  17. Authentication Using Trust to Detect Misbehaving Nodes in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Q-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sivagurunathan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in Mobile Ad Hoc Network is crucial problem due to its open shared wireless medium, multi-hop and dynamic nature, constrained resources, lack of administration and cooperation. Traditionally routing protocols are designed to cope with routing operation but in practice they may be affected by misbehaving nodes so that they try to disturb the normal routing operations by launching different attacks with the intention to minimize or collapse the overall network performance. Therefore detecting a trusted node means ensuring authentication and securing routing can be expected. In this article we have proposed a Trust and Q-learning based Security (TQS model to detect the misbehaving nodes over Ad Hoc On Demand Distance-Vector (AODV routing protocol. Here we avoid the misbehaving nodes by calculating an aggregated reward, based on the Q-learning mechanism by using their historical forwarding and responding behaviour by the way misbehaving nodes can be isolated.

  18. The Access Performance Research of Wireless Ad hoc Network Based on IEEE 802.11%基于IEEE 802.11的无线Ad hoc网络的接入性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁景原; 陈杰

    2003-01-01

    无线Ad hoc网络对无线接入平台有着独特的要求,当前广泛使用的是基于IEEE802.11标准的接入平台.本文从理论和仿真两个方面考察IEEE 802.11标准采用的CSMA/CA接入方式对于无线多跳Ad hoc网络接入性能的影响,并找出制约该性能的因素.

  19. Comparative Analysis of AODV, OLSR, TORA, DSR and DSDV Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilpreet Kaur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs are autonomous and decentralized wireless systems. Mobile Ad hoc Network is a collection of mobile nodes in which the wireless links are frequently broken down due to mobility and dynamic infrastructure. Routing is a significant issue and challenge in ad hoc networks. Many Routing protocols have been proposed so far to improve the routing performance and reliability. This research paper describes the characteristics of ad hoc routing protocols Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV, Optimized link State Routing (OLSR, Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV based on the performance metrics like packet delivery fraction, Average delay, Normalized Routing load, Throughput and Jitter under low mobility and low traffic network as well as under high mobility and high traffic network. Results show that AODV has maximum throughput under low traffic and DSDV has maximum throughput under high traffic. As network becomes dense OLSR, DSR and DSDV perform well in terms of Throughput than AODV and TORA. TORA performs well in dense networks in terms of packet delivery fraction but at the same time Normalized Routing load of TORA is maximum among all the protocols in both the networks. DSDV has least Normalized Routing load in both low and high traffic. OLSR and DSDV give the least Jitter and Average Delay in both networks.

  20. A Survey on Intrusion in Ad Hoc Networks and its Detection Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Preetee K. Karmore,

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc wireless networks are defined as the category of wireless networks that utilizes multi-hop radio relaying and are capable of operating without the support of any fixed infrastructure hence, they are called infrastructure less networks. The lack of any central coordination makes them more vulnerable to attacks than wirednetworks. Due to some unique characteristics of MANETs, prevention methods alone are not sufficient to make them secure therefore, detection should be added as another defense before an attacker can breach the system. Network intrusion detection is the process of monitoring the events occurring in the network and analyzing them for signs of intrusions, defined as attempts to compromise the confidentiality. In this paper, we define and discuss varioustechniques of Intrusion Detection. We also present a description of routing protocols and types of security attacks possible in the network.

  1. An Overview of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for the Existing Protocols and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Omari, Saleh Ali K; 10.5121/jgraphhoc.2010.2107

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of two or more devices or nodes or terminals with wireless communications and networking capability that communicate with each other without the aid of any centralized administrator also the wireless nodes that can dynamically form a network to exchange information without using any existing fixed network infrastructure. And it's an autonomous system in which mobile hosts connected by wireless links are free to be dynamically and some time act as routers at the same time, and we discuss in this paper the distinct characteristics of traditional wired networks, including network configuration may change at any time, there is no direction or limit the movement and so on, and thus needed a new optional path Agreement (Routing Protocol) to identify nodes for these actions communicate with each other path, An ideal choice way the agreement should not only be able to find the right path, and the Ad Hoc Network must be able to adapt to changing network of this type at any...

  2. Distinguishing congestion from malicious behavior in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2004-08-01

    Packet dropping in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks could be a result of wireless link errors, congestion, or malicious packet drop attack. Current techniques for detecting malicious behavior either do not consider congestion in the network or are not able to detect in real time. Further more, they usually work at network layer. In this paper, we propose a TCP-Manet protocol, which reacts to congestion like TCP Reno protocol, and has additional capability to distinguish among congestion, wireless link error, and malicious packet drop attack. It is an end-to-end mechanism that does not require additional modifications to the nodes in the network. Since it is an extension of existing TCP protocol, it is compatible with existing protocols. It works in conjunction with the network layer and an unobtrusive monitor to assist the network in the detection and characterization of the nature of the behavior. Experimental results show that TCP-Manet has the same performance as that of TCP-Reno in wired network, and performs better in wireless ad-hoc networks in terms of throughput while having good detection effectiveness.

  3. A Research on Ad hoc Network Technology%Ad hoc 网络技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春霞

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc 网络是一种多跳、无中心的无线自组网络.它不需依赖任何预先设置的固定的网络设施,而能被迅速展开;而且具有灵活、机动、自适应和高抗毁等特性.基于Ad hoc网络的研究现状,讨论了Ad hoc 网络所涉及的网络体系结构、路由协议、网络安全、功率控制和节能技术等问题.

  4. Bandwidth Estimation For Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presents bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET, which uses some components of the two methods for the bandwidth estimation: 'Hello Bandwidth Estimation 'Listen Bandwidth Estimation. This paper also gives the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed method is based on the comparison of these two methods. Bandwidth estimation is an important issue in the Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET because bandwidth estimation in MANET is difficult, because each host has imprecise knowledge of the network status and links change dynamically. Therefore, an effective bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET is highly desirable. Ad hoc networks present unique advanced challenges, including the design of protocols for mobility management, effective routing, data transport, security, power management, and quality-of-service (QoS provisioning. Once these problems are solved, the practical use of MANETs will be realizable.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Routing Attacks in Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Syam Purkayastha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the mobile ad hoc networks the major role is played by the routing protocols in order to route the data from one mobile node to another mobile node. But in such mobile networks, routing protocols are vulnerable to various kinds of security attacks such as blackhole node attacks. The routing protocols of MANET are unprotected and hence resulted into the network with the malicious mobile nodes in the network. These malicious nodes in the network are basically acts as attacks in the network. In this paper, we modify the existing DSR protocol with the functionality of attacks detection without affecting overall performance of the network. Also, we are considering the various attacks on mobile ad hoc network called blackhole attack, flooding attack and show the comparative analysis of these attacks using network simulator ns-2.

  6. Implementing Smart Antenna System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Kulkarni P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the necessity of exchanging and sharing data increases, users demand easy connectivity, and fast networks whether they are at work, at home, or on the move. Nowadays, users are interested in interconnecting all their personal electronic devices (PEDs in an ad hoc fashion on the move. This type of network is referred to as Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET. When in such network a smart antenna System (SAS is implemented then we can achieve maximum capacity and improve the quality and coverage. So we are intended to implement such a SAS in the MANET. In this paper we have shown significance of Throughput and Bit Error Rate by implementing SAS in MANET using MATLABR2010a.

  7. Safety Message Power Transmission Control for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Samara, Ghassan; Al-Salihy, Wafaa A H

    2010-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is one of the most challenging research area in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In this research we proposed a dynamic power adjustment protocol that will be used for sending the periodical safety message. (Beacon)based on the analysis of the channel status depending on the channel congestion and the power used for transmission. The Beacon Power Control (BPC) protocol first sensed and examined the percentage of the channel congestion, the result obtained was used to adjust the transmission power for the safety message to reach the optimal power. This will lead to decrease the congestion in the channel and achieve good channel performance and beacon dissemination.

  8. A Secure Multi-Routing Platform for Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU She-jie; CHEN Jing; XIONG Zai-hong

    2008-01-01

    In an ad hoc network, it is usually difficult to optimize the assignment of network routing resources using a single type of routing protocol due to the differences in network scale, node moving mode and node distribution. Therefore, it is desirable to have nodes run multiple routing protocols simultaneously so that more than one protocols can be chosen to work jointly. For this purpose,a multiple routing platform for Ad hoc networks is proposed on a higher level of current routing protocols. In order to ensure the security of the platform, a security mechanism and its formal analysis by BAN logic is given. The simulation results of the network performance demonstrate that the proposed multi-routing platform is practicable in some complex applications.

  9. Simulator for Energy Efficient Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The research on various issues in Mobile ad hoc networks is getting popular because of its challenging nature and all time connectivity to communicate. Network simulators provide the platform to analyse and imitate the working of the nodes in the networks along with the traffic and other entities. The current work proposes the design of a simulator for the mobile ad hoc networks that provides a test bed for the energy efficient clustering in the dynamic network. Node parameters like degree of connectivity and average transmission power are considered for calculating the energy consumption of the mobile devices. Nodes that consume minimum energy among their 1-hop neighbours are selected as the cluster heads.

  10. AHBP: An Efficient Broadcast Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟; 卢锡城

    2001-01-01

    Broadcast is an important operation in many network protocols. It is utilized to discover routes to unknown nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and is the key factor in scaling on-demand routing protocols to large networks. This paper presents the Ad Hoc Broadcast Protocol (AHBP) and its performance is discussed. In the protocol, messages are only rebroadcast by broadcast relay gateways that constitute a connected dominating set of the network. AHBP can efficiently reduce the redundant messages which make flooding-like protocols perform badly in large dense networks. Simulations are conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the protocol. The simulation results have shown excellent reduction of broadcast redundancy with AHBP. It also contributes to a reduced level of broadcast collision and congestion.

  11. Power Control in Multi-cluster Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINYanliang; YANGYuhang

    2003-01-01

    Power control gives us many advantages including power saving, lower interference, and efficient channel utilization. We proposed two clustering algorithms with power control for multl-cluster mobile ad hoc networks in this paper. They improve the network throughput and the network stability as compared to other ad hoc networks in which all mobile nodes use the same transmission power. Furthermore, they help in reducing the system power consumption. We compared the performances of the two approaches. Simulation results show that the DCAP (Distributed clustering algorithm with power control) would achieve a better throughput performance and lower power consumption than the CCAP (Centralized clustering algorithm with power control), but it is complicated and liable to be affected by node velocity.

  12. Reformative multicast routing protocol based on Ad Hoc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜旺; 王华; 焦国太

    2008-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc networks has been widely applied to military field, emergency management, public service and so on. Because it is uncertain on network and communication, a great deal of energy will be consumed with nodes increasing and creating routing each other. The reformative on-demand multicast routing protocol was putted forward by researching the energy consuming of multicast routing protocol in Ad Hoc. It will decrease consumption in a big multicast flooding through studying the relaying group net structure based on map or wormhole. The energy consumption is reduced 30% by creating the two kinds of routing principles: minimization of energy consumption and minimization of maximum nodes energy consumption. The simulation result indicates that the reformative RODMRP is effective to reduce the energy consuming while routing protocol built.

  13. Shuttle-run synchronization in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sheng-Fei; Bi, Hong-Jie; Zou, Yong; Liu, Zong-Hua; Guan, Shu-Guang

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we study the collective dynamics of phase oscillators in a mobile ad hoc network whose topology changes dynamically. As the network size or the communication radius of individual oscillators increases, the topology of the ad hoc network first undergoes percolation, forming a giant cluster, and then gradually achieves global connectivity. It is shown that oscillator mobility generally enhances the coherence in such networks. Interestingly, we find a new type of phase synchronization/clustering, in which the phases of the oscillators are distributed in a certain narrow range, while the instantaneous frequencies change signs frequently, leading to shuttle-run-like motion of the oscillators in phase space. We conduct a theoretical analysis to explain the mechanism of this synchronization and obtain the critical transition point.

  14. Distributed Reinforcement Learning Approach for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Celimuge; Kumekawa, Kazuya; Kato, Toshihiko

    In Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), general purpose ad hoc routing protocols such as AODV cannot work efficiently due to the frequent changes in network topology caused by vehicle movement. This paper proposes a VANET routing protocol QLAODV (Q-Learning AODV) which suits unicast applications in high mobility scenarios. QLAODV is a distributed reinforcement learning routing protocol, which uses a Q-Learning algorithm to infer network state information and uses unicast control packets to check the path availability in a real time manner in order to allow Q-Learning to work efficiently in a highly dynamic network environment. QLAODV is favored by its dynamic route change mechanism, which makes it capable of reacting quickly to network topology changes. We present an analysis of the performance of QLAODV by simulation using different mobility models. The simulation results show that QLAODV can efficiently handle unicast applications in VANETs.

  15. Analyzing Reactive Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Kamaljit I. Lakhtaria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous mobile nodes forming network in an infrastructure less environment and has dynamic topology. MANET reactive protocols always not have low control overhead. The control overhead for reactive protocols is more sensitive to the traffic load, in terms of the number of traffic rows, and mobility, in terms of link connectivity change rates, than other protocols. Therefore, reactive protocols may only be suitable for MANETs with small number of traffic loads and small link connectivity change rates. It is already proved that, it is more feasible to maintain full network topology in a MANET with low control overhead. In this Research Paper through simulations that were carried out by using Network Simulator-2 (NS-2 we had analyze Reactive/ On-demand protocols such as Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV, Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR,

  16. Information Sharing Modalities for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    de Spindler, Alexandre; Grossniklaus, Michael; Lins, Christoph; Norrie, Moira C.

    2009-01-01

    Current mobile phone technologies have fostered the emergence of a new generation of mobile applications. Such applications allow users to interact and share information opportunistically when their mobile devices are in physical proximity or close to fixed installations. It has been shown how mobile applications such as collaborative filtering and location-based services can take advantage of ad-hoc connectivity to use physical proximity as a filter mechanism inherent to the application logi...

  17. Energy Aware OLSR-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wardi

    2012-01-01

    OLSR is a well-known proactive routing protocol designed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). OLSR adopts a concept of an MPR mechanism where only mobile nodes selected as MPR nodes can retransmit broadcast packets received from other mobile nodes. Although OLSR reduces the number of broadcast packets, MPR nodes consume more energy than other mobile nodes. Since mobile nodes in MANETs are powered by battery with limited energy, energy efficiency is a critical issue in designing a routing prot...

  18. Selective Cooperative Transmission in Ad Hoc Networks with Directional Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Eui-Jik Kim; Sungkwan Youm

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a selective cooperative transmission scheme (abbreviated SCT) for ad hoc network with directional antennas that leverages the benefits of directional-only antenna approach and cooperative communication. The main feature of SCT is its adaptability to the channel condition in the network. In other words, when the node sends data, SCT determines its transmission strategy on either direct or cooperative transmission via a relay node called a forwarder, depending on the transmi...

  19. Connectivity analysis of one-dimensional ad-hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    Applications and communication protocols in dynamic ad-hoc networks are exposed to physical limitations imposed by the connectivity relations that result from mobility. Motivated by vehicular freeway scenarios, this paper analyzes a number of important connectivity metrics for instantaneous snaps...... analytic expressions for the distributions and moments of these random variables for general stationary MAP processes on a one dimensional space. The numerical results compares bursty vehicular traffic with independent movement scenarios described by a Poisson process....

  20. Verteilte Zugangskontrolle in offenen Ad-hoc-Netzen

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In Ad-hoc-Netzen sind aktive Mitarbeit aller Teilnehmer und Einbringung eigener, knapper Ressourcen zugunsten Anderer unverzichtbar. Das hier vorgestellte verteilte Zugangskontrollsystem schließt dazu unkooperative Nutznießer aus dem Netz aus. Grundlage dafür sind gegenseitige Kooperativitätseinschätzungen der autonomen, einander a priori meist unbekannten Teilnehmer, die durch automatische Verhaltensbeobachtung sowie durch Austausch und Verknüpfung von Einschätzungen ermittelt werden.

  1. An Approach In Optimization Of Ad-Hoc Routing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different optimization of Ad-hoc routing algorithm is surveyed and a new method using training based optimization algorithm for reducing the complexity of routing algorithms is suggested. A binary matrix is assigned to each node in the network and gets updated after each data transfer using the protocols. The use of optimization algorithm in routing algorithm can reduce the complexity of routing to the least amount possible.

  2. A new traffic allocation algorithm in Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; MIAO Jian-song; SUN Dan-dan; ZHOU Li-gang; DING Wei

    2006-01-01

    A dynamic traffic distribution algorithm based on the minimization product of packet delay and packet energy consumption is proposed. The algorithm is based on packet delay and energy consumption in allocating traffic, which can optimize the network performance. Simulation demonstrated that the algorithm could dynamically adjust to the traffic distribution between paths, which can minimize the product of packet delay and energy consumption in mobile Ad hoc networks.

  3. A Robust Reputation System for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Buchegger, Sonja; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2003-01-01

    Reputation systems in mobile ad-hoc networks can be tricked by the spreading of false reputation ratings, be it false accusations or false praise. Simple solutions such as exclusively relying on one`s own direct observations have drawbacks, as they do not make use of all the information available. We propose a fully distributed reputation system that can cope with false disseminated information. In our approach, everyone maintains a reputation rating and a trust rating about everyone ...

  4. Precise Positioning Systems for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gufran Ahmad Ansari; Samir A. Elsagheer Mohamed; A. Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a very promising research venue that can offers many useful and critical applications including the safety applications. Most of these applications require that each vehicle knows precisely its current position in real time. GPS is the most common positioning technique for VANET. However, it is not accurate. Moreover, the GPS signals cannot be received in the tunnels, undergrounds, or near tall buildings. Thus, no positioning service can be obtained in the...

  5. Security Analysis of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET)

    OpenAIRE

    Samara, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) has mostly gained the attention of today's research efforts, while current solutions to achieve secure VANET, to protect the network from adversary and attacks still not enough, trying to reach a satisfactory level, for the driver and manufacturer to achieve safety of life and infotainment. The need for a robust VANET networks is strongly dependent on their security and privacy features, which will be discussed in this paper. In this paper a various types of ...

  6. Routing Security in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Jonny; Dooley, Laurence S.; Pulkkis, Goran

    2012-01-01

    The role of infrastructure-less mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in ubiquitous networks is outlined. In a MANET there are no dedicated routers and all network nodes must contribute to routing. Classification of routing protocols for MANET is based on how routing information is acquired and maintained by mobile nodes and/or on roles of network nodes in a routing. According to the first classification base, MANET routing protocols are proactive, reactive, or hybrid combinations of proactive and ...

  7. Cost management based security framework in mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Security issues are always difficult to deal with in mobile ad hoc networks. People seldom studied the costs of those security schemes respectively and for some security methods designed and adopted beforehand, their effects are often investigated one by one. In fact, when facing certain attacks, different methods would respond individually and result in waste of resources.Making use of the cost management idea, we analyze the costs of security measures in mobile ad hoc networks and introduce a security framework based on security mechanisms cost management. Under the framework, the network system's own tasks can be finished in time and the whole network's security costs can be decreased. We discuss the process of security costs computation at each mobile node and in certain nodes groups. To show how to use the proposed security framework in certain applications, we give examples of DoS attacks and costs computation of defense methods. The results showed that more secure environment can be achieved based on the security framework in mobile ad hoc networks.

  8. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Elizarraras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15% compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput.

  9. An Algorithm for Localization in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Barani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning a node in Vehicular Ad-Hoc networks is one of the most interested research areas in recent years. In many Ad-Hoc networks such as Vehicular Ad-Hoc networks in which the nodes are considered as vehicles, move very fast in streets and highways. So, to have a safe and fast transport system, any vehicle should know where a traffic problem such as a broken vehicle occurs. GPS is one of the equipments which have been widely used for positioning service. Problem statement: Vehicle can use a GPS receiver to determine its position. But, all vehicles have not been equipped with GPS or they cannot receive GPS signals in some places such as inside of a tunnel. In these situations, the vehicle should use a GPS free method to find its location. Approach: In this study, a new method based on transmission range had been suggested. Results: This algorithm had been compared with a similar algorithm ODAM in same situations. The best performance for Optimized Disseminating Alarm Message (ODAM is when 40% of nodes are equipped with GPS. Conclusion: We executed our algorithm on this situation and compared it with ODAM results. At the end of this study, we can see our algorithm in compare to ODAM has better results.

  10. Link Stability and Node Energy Conscious Local Route-Repair Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha Banerjee; Paramartha Dutta

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: A mobile ad hoc network is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. As the nodes are free to move randomly, topology of the network may change rapidly and unpredictably. As a result, intermediate nodes in the communication routes tend to lose connection with each other during the communication process. In order to repair a broken link, an end-to-end (from source to destination) route discovery is typically performed to establish a new route fo...

  11. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wen Hu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  12. Outage Analysis of Opportunistic Cooperative Ad Hoc Networks with Randomly Located Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wen Xing; Hai-Chuan Ding; Guang-Hua Yang; Shao-Dan Ma; Ze-Song Fei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,an opportunistic cooperative ad hoc sensor network with randomly located nodes is analyzed.The randomness of nodes' locations is captured by a homogeneous Poisson point process.The effect of imperfect interference cancellation is also taken into account in the analysis.Based on the theory of stochastic geometry,outage probability and cooperative gain are derived.It is demonstrated that explicit performance gain can be achieved through cooperation.The analyses are corroborated by extensive simulation results and the analytical results can thus serve as a guideline for wireless sensor network design.

  13. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chenn-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  14. QDSR: QoS-aware Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIMinghong; YAOYinxiong; BAIYingcai

    2004-01-01

    QoS routing in wireless ad hoc networks faces many technical challenges due to time varying link and random mobility of nodes in these dynamic networks.In this paper, we design a QoS-aware dynamic source routing protocol (QDSR), based on DSR . QDSR uses minimum cost as the constraint, modifies route discovery, route reply and route maintenance mechanisms in DSR, adds the capability of path testing and initial resource reservation.The results of robustness and stability and performances imulations demonstrate that it suits the fluctuation of dynamic environment very well.

  15. An SPN analysis method for parallel scheduling in Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛琳阳; 徐文超; 贾世楼

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new analytic method for modeling and evaluating mobile ad hoc networks (MANET)is proposed. Petri nets technique is introduced into MANET and a packet-flow parallel scheduling scheme is presented using Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN). The flowing of tokens is used in graphics mode to characterize dynamical features of sharing a single wireless channel. Through SPN reachability analysis and isomorphic continuous time Markov process equations, some network parameters, such as channel efficiency, one-hop transmission delay etc. , can be obtained. Compared with conventional performance evaluation methods, the above parameters are mathematical expressions instead of test results from a simulator.

  16. ECDSA - Performance improvements of intrusion detection in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available wireless network with collection of mobile nodes without an underlying infrastructure. In this network, the occurrences of misbehavior nodes are a main problem that degrades the network performance. In previous technique watchdog is used to detect nodes misbehaviors in the mobile ad-hoc network, but it contains some of potential issues. To avoid these issues we propose a novel algorithm named as Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA particularly designed for increases the security in network.

  17. A Review of Current Routing Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Hafeez Khokhar; Md. Asri Ngadi; Satria Mandala

    2008-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a dynamic wireless network that can be formed without any pre-existing infrastructure in which each node can act as a router. MANET has no clear line of defense, so, it is accessible to both legitimate network users and malicious attackers. In the presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challenges in MANET is to design the robust security solution that can protect MANET from various routing attacks. Different mechanisms have been proposed using various ...

  18. Ad Hoc Network Routing Reconfiguration Technology%Ad Hoc 网络路由重构技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔尧; 容晓峰; 谢安明

    2015-01-01

    Because of its characteristics ,Ad Hoc network appears to have received extensive attention ,especially from the military field ,has been widely studied and applied .In some special military applications ,the moving direction and mov‐ing speed of nodes have great relationship with the military requirements ,which led to the network topology changes in real time .In such a tactical Ad Hoc dynamically changing networks ,how to provide better routing services to ensure timely and accurate delivery of information is an urgent need to address the problem .To address this issue ,the characteristics and the main factors of Ad Hoc network routing reconstruction are decribed and a new shortest path routing selection algorithm based on the hop and bandwidth is proposed .Experiments show that the algorithm can select a new link to the destination node when routing reconstruction ,thus ensuring the command operations information transmission smoothly of tactical Ad Hoc network environment .%由于 Ad Hoc 网络的特点,从它出现就一直受到了各界的广泛关注,尤其是在军事领域中,得到了广泛的研究与应用。在一些特殊的军事应用中,节点的移动方向以及移动速度都与作战需求有很大的关系,这导致网络拓扑结构实时变化。而在战术 Ad Hoc 网络这样一个动态变化的网络中,怎么样提供更好的路由服务、确保信息及时准确的送达是一个迫切需要解决的问题。针对这个问题论文主要介绍 Ad Hoc 网络路由重构技术的特点和主要因素,并在原有路由重构算法的基础上提出一种基于路径跳数和带宽的最短路径路由选择算法,通过实验验证,该算法能在网络拓扑结构发生变化触发路由重构时,有效选择一条到达目的节点的新链路,从而保证战术 Ad Hoc 网络环境下,指挥作战信息的畅通传输。

  19. A Network Security and Defense Program Based on Ad Hoc%一种基于Ad Hoc的网络安全防御方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成兵; 陈明东

    2012-01-01

    Analying of Wireless Ad Hoc networks play an important role in society, and its facing a variety of security threats, this paper discusses the advantages and limitations of various network security solutions and technologies for wireless Ad Hoc networks , proposes an in-depth security defense program and explains its implementation process, while points out some of the problems of wireless Ad Hoc networks need to be resolved in the security field.%分析无线Ad Hoc网络在社会中发挥的重要作用及其面临的多种安全威胁,讨论目前各种网络安全解决方案和技术的优点及局限性,提出一种针对无线Ad Hoc网络的纵深安全防御方案并阐述其执行过程,同时指出无线Ad Hoc网络在安全领域急需解决的一些问题.

  20. Enhanced Antenna Position Implementation Over Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VNET) In 3D Space

    CERN Document Server

    Kanrar, Soumen

    2011-01-01

    The technology related to networking moves wired connection to wireless connection.The basic problem concern in the wireless domain, random packet loss for the end to end connection. In this paper we show the performance and the impact of the packet loss and delay, by the bit error rate throughput etc with respect to the real world scenario vehicular ad hoc network in 3-dimension space (VANET in 3D). Over the years software development has responded to the increasing growth of wireless connectivity in developing network enabled software. In this paper we consider the real world physical problem in three dimensional wireless domain and map the problem to analytical problem . In this paper we simulate that analytic problem with respect to real world scenario by using enhanced antenna position system (EAPS) mounted over the mobile node in 3D space. In this paper we convert the real world problem into lab oriented problem by using the EAPS -system and shown the performance in wireless domain in 3 dimensional spac...

  1. DYNAMIC K-MEANS ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZED ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zandieh Shirazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic K-means algorithm to improve the routing process in Mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs is presented. Mobile ad-hoc networks are a collocation of mobile wireless nodes that can operate without using focal access points, pre-existing infrastructures, or a centralized management point. In MANETs, the quick motion of nodes modifies the topology of network. This feature of MANETS is lead to various problems in the routing process such as increase of the overhead massages and inefficient routing between nodes of network. A large variety of clustering methods have been developed for establishing an efficient routing process in MANETs. Routing is one of the crucial topics which are having significant impact on MANETs performance. The K-means algorithm is one of the effective clustering methods aimed to reduce routing difficulties related to bandwidth, throughput and power consumption. This paper proposed a new K-means clustering algorithm to find out optimal path from source node to destinations node in MANETs. The main goal of proposed approach which is called the dynamic K-means clustering methods is to solve the limitation of basic K-means method like permanent cluster head and fixed cluster members. The experimental results demonstrate that using dynamic K-means scheme enhance the performance of routing process in Mobile ad-hoc networks.

  2. Reducing Packet Transmission Delay in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks using Edge Node Based Greedy Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Prasanth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Conventional routing protocols in MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Networks are unable to fully address the unique characteristics in vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose EBGR (Edge Node Based Greedy Routing, a greedy position based routing approach to forward packets to the node present in the edge of the limited transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop, with consideration of nodes moving in the direction of the destination. We propose Revival Mobility model (RMM to evaluate the performance of our routing technique. This paper presents a detailed description of our approach and simulation results show that end to end delay in packet transmission is minimized considerably compared to current routing protocols of VANET.

  3. Using Apriori algorithm to prevent black hole attack in mobile Ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Mirabedini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is considered as an autonomous network, which consists of mobile nodes, which communicate with each other over wireless links. When there is no fixed infrastructure, nodes have to cooperate in order to incorporate the necessary network functionality. Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol is one of the primary principal routing protocols implemented in Ad hoc networks. The security of the AODV protocol is threaded by a specific kind of attack called ‘Black Hole’ attack. This paper presents a technique to prevent the Black hole attack by implementing negotiation with neighbors who claim to maintain a route to destination. Negotiation process is strengthen by apriori method to judge about suspicious node. Apriori algorithm is an effective association rule mining method with relatively low complexity, which is proper for MANETs. To achieve more improvement, fuzzy version of ADOV is used. The simulation results indicate that the proposed protocol provides more securable routing and also more efficiency in terms of packet delivery, overhead and detection rate than the conventional AODV and fuzzy AODV in the presence of Black hole attacks.

  4. RTOS BASED SECURE SHORTEST PATH ROUTING ALGORITHM IN MOBILE AD- HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Increase of number of the nodes in the wireless computing environment leads to different issues like power, data rate, QoS, simulators and security. Among these the security is the peak issue faced by most of the wireless networks. Especially networks without having a centralized system (MANETS is facing severe security issues. One of the major security issues is the wormhole attack while finding the shortest path. The aim of this paper is to propose an algorithm to find a secure shortest path against wormhole attack. Existing algorithms are mainly concentrated on detecting the malicious node but they are hardware specific like directional antennas and synchronized clocks. But the proposed algorithm is both software and hardware specific. RTOS is included to make the ad hoc network a real time application.

  5. RTOS Based Secure Shortest Path Routing Algorithm In Mobile Ad- Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramesh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Increase of number of the nodes in the wireless computing environment leads to different issues like power, data rate, QoS, simulators and security. Among these the security is the peak issue faced by most of the wireless networks. Especially networks without having a centralized system (MANETS is facing severe security issues. One of the major security issues is the wormhole attack while finding the shortest path. The aim of this paper is to propose an algorithm to find a secure shortest path against wormhole attack. Existing algorithms are mainly concentrated on detecting the malicious node but they are hardware specific like directional antennas and synchronized clocks. But the proposed algorithm is both software and hardware specific. RTOS is included to make the ad hoc network a real time application.

  6. AUTHENTICATION ARCHITECTURE USING THRESHOLD CRYPTOGRAPHY IN KERBEROS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadj Gharib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless technologies is gradually increasing and risks related to the use of these technologies are considerable. Due to their dynamically changing topology and open environment without a centralized policy control of a traditional network, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and attacks. The ideal solution to overcome a myriad of security concerns in MANET’s is the use of reliable authentication architecture. In this paper we propose a new key management scheme based on threshold cryptography in kerberos for MANET’s, the proposed scheme uses the elliptic curve cryptography method that consumes fewer resources well adapted to the wireless environment. Our approach shows a strength and effectiveness against attacks.

  7. A Survey of Routing Attacks and Security Measures in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Sudhir; Sharma, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a set of mobile nodes which are self-configuring and connected by wireless links automatically as per the defined routing protocol. The absence of a central management agency or a fixed infrastructure is a key feature of MANETs. These nodes communicate with each other by interchange of packets, which for those nodes not in wireless range goes hop by hop. Due to lack of a defined central authority, securitizing the routing process becomes a challenging task thereby leaving MANETs vulnerable to attacks, which results in deterioration in the performance characteristics as well as raises a serious question mark about the reliability of such networks. In this paper we have attempted to present an overview of the routing protocols, the known routing attacks and the proposed countermeasures to these attacks in various works.

  8. Impact of Throughput in Enhancing the Efficiency of Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network - A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jayaraj

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHNs constitute a viable solution to solve the current problems of inefficiency in the spectrum allocation, and to deploy highly reconfigurable and self-organizing wireless networks. Cognitive Radio (CR devices are envisaged to utilize the spectrum in an opportunistic way by dynamically accessing different licensed portions of the spectrum. However the phenomena of channel fading and primary cum secondary interference in cognitive radio networks does not guarantee application demands to be achieved continuously over time. Availability of limited spectrum and the inadequate spectrum resource usage necessitates a new communication standard to utilize the existing wireless spectrum opportunistically. This paper discusses currently existing mechanism for providing better efficiency by utilizing cognitive network intelligence. The frequencies used are utilized to the maximum extent without any interference. This paper aims in comparing the techniques used for enhancing the throughput in CR.

  9. Intrusion Detection In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using GA Based Feature Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Nallusamy, R; Duraiswamy, K

    2009-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) has become an exciting and important technology in recent years because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices. MANETs are highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology and lack of centralized monitoring point. It is important to search new architecture and mechanisms to protect the wireless networks and mobile computing application. IDS analyze the network activities by means of audit data and use patterns of well-known attacks or normal profile to detect potential attacks. There are two methods to analyze: misuse detection and anomaly detection. Misuse detection is not effective against unknown attacks and therefore, anomaly detection method is used. In this approach, the audit data is collected from each mobile node after simulating the attack and compared with the normal behavior of the system. If there is any deviation from normal behavior then the event is considered as an attack. Some of the features of collected audi...

  10. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others. PMID:26694396

  11. A Novel Approach for Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Network with an Enhanced Trust Calculation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chauhan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Adhoc Network is a group of wireless mobile computers in which nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to allow them to communicate beyond direct wireless transmission range. Due to wide-ranging characteristics of the Ad Hoc Networks like decentralization, dynamic topology and neighbor based routing, it is always at a risk to internal as well as external attacks. In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET where security is a crucial issue, trust plays an important factor that could improve the number of successful data transmission process. Many solutions have been proposed by the reaearchers and currently being improved in this area. Most of them are designed to operate in specific particular situations, which may fail to work successfully in other scenarios. The aim of this present work is to emphasize on the use of trust concept to enhance the security by calculating proportion based trust in a global manner. The present work offers an alternate to improve the trustworthiness of the neighbourhood and secure the routing procedure. It helps in computing the trust in neighbours and selecting the most secure route from the available ones for the data transfer. In the proposed model, trust is not calculated for any particular situation instead, it is computed based on a summary of behaviour of the node for a specific amount of period.

  12. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-12-15

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.

  13. Performance Analysis of TORA & DSR Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D GEETHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. The main classes of routing protocols are Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A Reactive (on-demand routing strategy is a popular routing category for wireless ad hoc routing. It is a relatively new routing philosophy that provides a scalable solution to relatively large network topologies. The design follows the idea that each node tries to reduce routing overhead by sending routing packets whenever a communication is requested. In this paper an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent on demand reactive routing protocols for MANETs: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocols. This subjected the protocols to identical loads and environmental conditions and evaluates their relative performance with respect to quantitative metrics; throughput, average delay, packet delivery ratio and routing load. From the detailed simulation results and analysis of presented, we use NS-2 simulator for simulation of DSR and TORA protocol and variation occurs in mobility of packets, time interval between the packets sent and packet size of packets sent in throughout the protocols.

  14. Distributed optimization of a multisubchannel Ad Hoc cognitive radio network

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we study the distributed-duality-based optimization of a multisubchannel ad hoc cognitive radio network (CRN) that coexists with a multicell primary radio network (PRN). For radio resource allocation in multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) systems, the orthogonal-access-based exclusive subchannel assignment (ESA) technique has been a popular method, but it is suboptimal in ad hoc networks, because nonorthogonal access between multiple secondary-user links by using shared subchannel assignment (SSA) can bring a higher weighted sum rate. We utilize the Lagrangian dual composition tool and design low-complexity near-optimal SSA resource allocation methods, assuming practical discrete-rate modulation and that the CRN-to-PRN interference constraint has to strictly be satisfied. However, available SSA methods for CRNs are either suboptimal or involve high complexity and suffer from slow convergence. To address this problem, we design fast-convergence SSA duality schemes and introduce several novel methods to increase the speed of convergence and to satisfy various system constraints with low complexity. For practical implementation in ad hoc CRNs, we design distributed-duality schemes that involve only a small number of CRN local information exchanges for dual update. The effects of many system parameters are presented through simulation results, which show that the near-optimal SSA duality scheme can perform significantly better than the suboptimal ESA duality and SSA-iterative waterfilling schemes and that the performance loss of the distributed schemes is small, compared with their centralized counterparts. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Transmission of Successful Route Error Message(RERR) in Routing Aware Multiple Description Video Coding over Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Kinjal; Sharma, Dharmendar; Mishra, Priyanka; Rakesh, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Video transmission over mobile ad-hoc networks is becoming important as these networks become more widely used in the wireless networks. We propose a routing-aware multiple description video coding approach to support video transmission over mobile ad-hoc networks with single and multiple path transport. We build a model to estimate the packet loss probability of each packet transmitted over the network based on the standard ad-hoc routing messages and network parameters without losing the RERR message. We then calculate the frame loss probability in order to eliminate error without any loss of data.

  16. Ad Hoc Selection of Voice over Internet Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Mitchell G. (Inventor); Bullock, John T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a communication system technique involving ad hoc selection of at least two audio streams is provided. Each of the at least two audio streams is a packetized version of an audio source. A data connection exists between a server and a client where a transport protocol actively propagates the at least two audio streams from the server to the client. Furthermore, software instructions executable on the client indicate a presence of the at least two audio streams, allow selection of at least one of the at least two audio streams, and direct the selected at least one of the at least two audio streams for audio playback.

  17. Recovery from Wormhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xiao-jun; TIAN Chang; ZHANG Yu-sen

    2006-01-01

    Wormhole attack is a serious threat against MANET (mobile ad hoc network) and its routing protocols.A new approach-tunnel key node identification (TKNI) was proposed. Based on tunnel-key-node identification and priority-based route discovery, TKNI can rapidly rebuild the communications that have been blocked by wormhole attack. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed approach aims at both static and dynamic topology environment, involves addressing visible and invisible wormhole attack modes, requires no extra hardware, has a low overhead, and can be easily applied to MANET.

  18. Complex Threshold Key Management for Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; XIONG Zhong-wei; LI Zhi-tang

    2005-01-01

    A complex threshold key management framework has been proposed, which can address the challenges posed by the unique nature of Ad hoc network. Depending on the cooperation of the controller and participation nodes, this scheme should be efficient in the operation environmental alteration and tolerant faults of node, which take the advantages of the benefits of both key management approaches and alleviate their limitations. For the cooperation of the controller and participation nodes, a (t,n) threshold Elliptic curve sign-encryption scheme with the specified receiver also has been proposed. Using this threshold signencryption scheme, the key management distributes the trust between a controller and a set of participation nodes.

  19. Gestión de confianza en redes ad hoc

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Joancomartí, Jordi; Rifà Pous, Helena

    2006-01-01

    El despliegue de un esquema de confianza es fundamental para poder desarrollar servicios de seguridad que permitan administrar y operar una red. Sin embargo, las soluciones empleadas en las redes tradicionales no se adaptan a un entorno ad hoc debido a la naturaleza dinámica y sin infraestructura de estas redes. En el presente trabajo se propone un esquema de confianza práctico y eficiente basado en una infraestructura de clave pública distribuida, umbral y jerárquica, que no requiere sincron...

  20. A Timed Calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengying Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop a timed calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks embodying the peculiarities of local broadcast, node mobility and communication interference. We present a Reduction Semantics and a Labelled Transition Semantics and prove the equivalence between them. We then apply our calculus to model and study some MAC-layer protocols with special emphasis on node mobility and communication interference. A main purpose of the semantics is to describe the various forms of interference while nodes change their locations in the network. Such interference only occurs when a node is simultaneously reached by more than one ongoing transmission over the same channel.

  1. Analysis of Multipath Routing in Random Ad Hoc Networks Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Das

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed a multipath routing protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Multipath routing overcomes various problems that occur in data delivery through a single path. The proposed protocol selects multiple neighbor nodes of source node to establish multiple paths towards destination. These nodes are selected based on their minimum remaining distance from destination. We have computed the length of various paths and average hops count for different node density in the network. We have considered only three paths for our evaluation. The results show that path-2 gives better results in term of hop count and path length among three paths.

  2. EXTENDED DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Kumari Sharma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available MANET is a collection of self-configurable mobile nodes. Several routing protocols are proposed for ad hoc network among which DSR and AODV On demand routing protocols are mostly used. Existing Dynamic source routing protocol is not suitable for large network because packet size gets increased according to the number of nodes travelled by route discovery packet. In this paper, extended DSR routing protocol is proposed to eliminate the above limitation of existing DSR. Proposed protocol will be suitable for small and large both types of networks.

  3. Collaboration Layer for Robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz; Broberg, Jacob Honor´e;

    2009-01-01

    In many applications multiple robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are required to collaborate in order to solve a task. This paper shows by proof of concept that a Collaboration Layer can be modelled and designed to handle the collaborative communication, which enables robots in small to medium size...... networks to solve tasks collaboratively. In this proposal the Collaboration Layer is modelled to handle service and position discovery, group management, and synchronisation among robots, but the layer is also designed to be extendable. Based on this model of the Collaboration Layer, generic services...

  4. A framework for reactive optimization in mobile ad hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClary, Dan; Syrotiuk, Violet; Kulahci, Murat

    2008-01-01

    We present a framework to optimize the performance of a mobile ad hoc network over a wide range of operating conditions. It includes screening experiments to quantify the parameters and interactions among parameters influential to throughput. Profile-driven regression is applied to obtain a model...... of the non-linear behaviour of throughput. The intermediate models obtained in this modelling effort are used to adapt the parameters as the network conditions change, in order to maximize throughput. The improvements in throughput range from 10-26 times the use of the default parameter settings...

  5. Power-Aware Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Sevil; Clark, John A.; Tapiador, Juan E.

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a highly promising new form of networking. However they are more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. In addition, conventional intrusion detection systems (IDS) are ineffective and inefficient for highly dynamic and resource-constrained environments. Achieving an effective operational MANET requires tradeoffs to be made between functional and non-functional criteria. In this paper we show how Genetic Programming (GP) together with a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) can be used to synthesise intrusion detection programs that make optimal tradeoffs between security criteria and the power they consume.

  6. Escape probability based routing for ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xuanping; Qin Zheng; Li Xin

    2006-01-01

    Routes in an ad hoc network may fail frequently because of node mobility. Stability therefore can be an important element in the design of routing protocols. The node escape probability is introduced to estimate the lifetime and stability of link between neighboring nodes and the escape probability based routing (EPBR) scheme to discover stable routes is proposed. Simulation results show that the EPBR can discover stable routes to reduce the number of route rediscovery, and is applicable for the situation that has highly dynamic network topology with broad area of communication.

  7. The distributed parallel genetic algorithm on the ad hoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Afifi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, mobile computing is one of the important issues in computer and network sciences. Using the processing power of mobile devices purposefully for solving complex issues is one of the research fields for researchers. One of the important issues in the optimization which needs a high processing power for finding the best possible answer is travelling salesman problem. In this paper, by providing a method based on the distributed parallel genetic algorithm on a number of mobile nodes in the Ad Hoc network, it was attempted to increase the speed of finding the best answer for the travelling salesman algorithm.

  8. Mobile ad hoc networking the cutting edge directions

    CERN Document Server

    Basagni, Stefano; Giordano, Silvia; Stojmenovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    ""An excellent book for those who are interested in learning the current status of research and development . . . [and] who want to get a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art.""-E-Streams This book provides up-to-date information on research and development in the rapidly growing area of networks based on the multihop ad hoc networking paradigm. It reviews all classes of networks that have successfully adopted this paradigm, pointing out how they penetrated the mass market and sparked breakthrough research. Covering both physical issues and applica

  9. VMQL: A Visual Language for Ad-Hoc Model Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    In large scale model based development, analysis level models are more like knowledge bases than engineering artifacts. Their effectiveness depends, to a large degree, on the ability of domain experts to retrieve information from them ad hoc. For large scale models, however, existing query...... facilities are inadequate. The Visual Model Query Language (VMQL) is a novel approach that uses the respective modeling language of the source model as the query language, too. The semantics of VMQL is defined formally based on graphs, so that query execution can be defined as graph matching. VMQL has been...... applied to several visual modeling languages, implemented, and validated in small case studies, and several controlled experiments....

  10. Application of MAC protocol in aeronautical Ad Hoc networks%MAC协议在航空自组网中应用综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹振林; 孙荣平; 柏长帅

    2013-01-01

      MAC protocol of aeronautical Ad hoc network is a direct controller of grouping messages in the wireless channel sending and reception. Therefore,in aeronautical Ad Hoc network,it is crucial for the performance of aeronautical Ad Hoc net⁃work whether MAC protocol can efficiently and fairly use the limited wireless channel resources. The MAC functions and the in⁃fluence factors of aeronautical Ad Hoc networks on MAC protocols are summarized in in this paper. MAC protocol characteristics of the wireless Ad Hoc networks and the key technologys of aeronautical Ad Hoc networks are analyzed in combination with the application of MAC in MANET.%  航空自组网MAC协议是分组报文在无线信道上发送和接收的直接控制者,因此,在航空自组网中,MAC协议能否高效、公平地利用有限的无线信道资源对航空自组网的性能起至关重要的作用。概述了MAC的功能作用、航空自组网对MAC协议的影响因素,并结合MAC在MANET中的应用,分析了无线自组网MAC协议的特点和航空自组网MAC协议的关键技术。

  11. NDTAODV: NEIGHBOR DEFENSE TECHNIQUE FOR AD HOC ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR (AODV TO MITIGATE FLOOD ATTACK IN MANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshai Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs are collections of mobile nodes that can communicate with one another using multihop wireless links. MANETs are often deployed in the environments, where there is no fixed infrastructure and centralized management. The nodes of mobile ad hoc networks are susceptible to compromise. In such a scenario, designing an efficient, reliable and secure routing protocol has been a major challengesue over the last many years. The routing protocol Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV has no security measures in-built in it. It is vulnerable to many types of routing attacks. The flood attack is one of them. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective technique to secure Ad hoc Ondemand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol against flood attacks. To deal with a flood attack, we have proposed Neighbor Defense Technique for Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (NDTAODV. This makes AODV more robust. The proposed technique has been designed to isolate the flood attacker with the use of timers, peak value and hello alarm technique. We have simulated our work in Network Simulator NS-2.33 (NS-2 with different pause times by way of different number of malicious nodes. We have compared the performance of NDTAODV with the AODV in normal situation as well as in the presence of malicious attacks. We have considered Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF, Average Throughpu

  12. Automated Position System Implementation over Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks in 2-Dimension Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Kanrar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The real world scenario have changed from the wired connection to wireless connection. Over the years software development has responded to the increasing growth of wireless connectivity in developing network enabled software. The problem arises in the wireless domain due to random packet loss in transport layer and as well as in data link layer for the end to end connection. The basic problem we have considered in this paper is to convert the real world scenario of "Vehicular ad hoc network"into lab oriented problem by used the APS-system and study the result to achieve better performance in wireless domain. Approach: We map the real world physical problem into analytical problem and simulate that analytic problem with respect to real world scenario by Automated Position System (APS for antenna mounted over the mobile node in 2D space. Results: We quantify the performance and the impact of the packet loss, delay, by the bit error rate and throughput with respect to the real world scenario of VANET in the MAC layer, data link layer and transport layer. Conclusion: We observe that the Directional the Antenna which is mounted over the vehicle gives less bit error in comparison to Isotropic and Discone antenna.

  13. Enhanced Antenna Position Implementation Over Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VNET In 3D Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Kanrar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The technology related to networking moves wired connection to wireless connection. The basic problem concern in the wireless domain, random packet loss for the end to end connection. Inthis paper we show the performance and the impact of the packet loss and delay, by the bit error rate throughput etc with respect to the real world scenario vehicular ad hoc network in 3-dimension space(VANET in 3D. Over the years software development has responded to the increasing growth of wireless connectivity in developing network enabled software. In this paper we consider the real world physicalproblem in three dimensional wireless domain and map the problem to analytical problem . In this paper we simulate that analytic problem with respect to real world scenario by using enhanced antenna position system (EAPS mounted over the mobile node in 3D space. In this paper we convert the real world problem into lab oriented problem by using the EAPS –system and shown the performance inwireless domain in 3 dimensional space.

  14. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK ROUTING PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur Gulati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is an infrastructure less and decentralized network which need a robust dynamic routing protocol. Many routing protocols for such networks have been proposed so far to find optimized routes from source to the destination and prominent among them are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocols. The performance comparison of these protocols should be considered as the primary step towards the invention of a new routing protocol. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive routing protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR based on QoS metrics (packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay, throughput, jitter, normalized routing overhead and normalized MAC overhead by using the NS-2 simulator. The performance comparison is conducted by varying mobility speed, number of nodes and data rate. The comparison results show that AODV performs optimally well not the best among all the studied protocols.

  15. LAMAN: Load Adaptable MAC for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realp Marc

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc radio networks, mechanisms on how to access the radio channel are extremely important in order to improve network efficiency. In this paper, the load adaptable medium access control for ad hoc networks (LAMAN protocol is described. LAMAN is a novel decentralized multipacket MAC protocol designed following a cross-layer approach. Basically, this protocol is a hybrid CDMA-TDMA-based protocol that aims at throughput maximization in multipacket communication environments by efficiently combining contention and conflict-free protocol components. Such combination of components is used to adapt the nodes' access priority to changes on the traffic load while, at the same time, accounting for the multipacket reception (MPR capability of the receivers. A theoretical analysis of the system is developed presenting closed expressions of network throughput and packet delay. By simulations the validity of our analysis is shown and the performances of a LAMAN-based system and an Aloha-CDMA-based one are compared.

  16. Evaluating And Comparison Of Intrusion In Mobile AD HOC Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zougagh Hicham

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile ad hoc network (MANETs has been widespread in many applications.Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The absolute security in the mobile ad hoc network is very hard to achieve because of its fundamental characteristics, such as dynamic topology, open medium, absence of infrastructure, limited power and limited bandwidth. The Prevention methods like authentication and cryptography techniques alone are not able to provide the security to these types of networks. However, these techniques have a limitation on the effects of prevention techniques in general and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to prevent newer attacks that are designed for circumventing the existing security measures. For this reason, there is a need of second mechanism to “detect and response” these newer attacks. Therefore, efficient intrusion detection must be deployed to facilitate the identification and isolation of attacks. In this article we classify the architecture for IDS that have so far been introduced for MANETs, and then existing intrusion detection techniques in MANETs presented and compared. We then provide some directions for future researches.

  17. Identification of node behavior for Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyati Choure , Sanjay Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In present scenario, in ad-hoc network, the behavior of nodes are not very stable. They do not work properly and satisfactory. They are not cooperative and acting selfishly. They show their selfishness to share their resources like bandwidth to save life of battery, they are not hasitate to block thepackets sent by others for forwarding and transmit their own packets. Due to higher Mobility of the different nodes makes the situation even more complicated. Multiple routing protocols especially for these conditions have been developed during the last few years, to find optimized routes from a source to some destination.But it is still difficult to know the actual shortest path without attackers or bad nodes. Ad-hoc network suffer from the lot of issues i.e. congestion, Throughput, delay, security, network overhead. Packet delivery ratio is the issues of ongoing research. Cause of node failure may be either natural failure of node links or it may be due to act of an attacker or bad node which may degrade performance of network slowly or drastically, which also need to identify or determined. In this paper, we identify the good and bad nodes. A simulation has been performed to achieve better performance of modified AODV. Good result has been obtained in terms of Throughout, Packet Delivery Ratio.

  18. Energy Efficient Probabilistic Broadcasting for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2016-08-01

    In mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) flooding method is used for broadcasting route request (RREQ) packet from one node to another node for route discovery. This is the simplest method of broadcasting of RREQ packets but it often results in broadcast storm problem, originating collisions and congestion of packets in the network. A probabilistic broadcasting is one of the widely used broadcasting scheme for route discovery in MANETs and provides solution for broadcasting storm problem. But it does not consider limited energy of the battery of the nodes. In this paper, a new energy efficient probabilistic broadcasting (EEPB) is proposed in which probability of broadcasting RREQs is calculated with respect to remaining energy of nodes. The analysis of simulation results clearly indicate that an EEPB route discovery scheme in ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) can increase the network lifetime with a decrease in the average power consumption and RREQ packet overhead. It also decreases the number of dropped packets in the network, in comparison to other EEPB schemes like energy constraint gossip (ECG), energy aware gossip (EAG), energy based gossip (EBG) and network lifetime through energy efficient broadcast gossip (NEBG).

  19. Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Ad hoc Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nawaz Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network resource restrictions on bandwidth, processing capabilities, battery life and memory of mobile devices lead tradeoff between security and resources consumption. Due to some unique properties of MANETs, proactive security mechanism like authentication, confidentiality, access control and non-repudiation are hard to put into practice. While some additional security requirements are also needed, like cooperation fairness, location confidentiality, data freshness and absence of traffic diversion. Traditional security mechanism i.e. authentication and encryption, provide a security beach to MANETs. But some reactive security mechanism is required who analyze the routing packets and also check the overall network behavior of MANETs. Here we propose a local-distributed intrusion detection system for ad hoc mobile networks. In the proposed distributed-ID, each mobile node works as a smart agent. Data collect by node locally and it analyze that data for malicious activity. If any abnormal activity discover, it informs the surrounding nodes as well as the base station. It works like a Client-Server model, each node works in collaboration with server, updating its database each time by server using Markov process. The proposed local distributed- IDS shows a balance between false positive and false negative rate. Re-active security mechanism is very useful in finding abnormal activities although proactive security mechanism present there. Distributed local-IDS useful for deep level inspection and is suited with the varying nature of the MANETs.

  20. SPM: Source Privacy for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Source privacy plays a key role in communication infrastructure protection. It is a critical security requirement for many mission critical communications. This is especially true for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs due to node mobility and lack of physical protection. Existing cryptosystem-based techniques and broadcasting-based techniques cannot be easily adapted to MANET because of their extensive cryptographic computation and/or large communication overhead. In this paper, we first propose a novel unconditionally secure source anonymous message authentication scheme (SAMAS. This scheme enables message sender to transmit messages without relying on any trusted third parties. While providing source privacy, the proposed scheme can also provide message content authenticity. We then propose a novel communication protocol for MANET that can ensure communication privacy for both message sender and message recipient. This protocol can also protect end-to-end routing privacy. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is secure against various attacks. The theoretical analysis and simulation show that the proposed scheme is efficient and can provide high message delivery ratio. The proposed protocol can be used for critical infrastructure protection and secure file sharing in mobile ad hoc networks where dynamic groups can be formed.

  1. Securing Zone Routing Protocol in Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution in the field of security analysis on mobile ad-hoc networks, and security requirements of applications. Limitations of the mobile nodes have been studied in order to design a secure routing protocol that thwarts different kinds of attacks. Our approach is based on the Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP; the most popular hybrid routing protocol. The importance of the proposed solution lies in the fact that it ensures security as needed by providing a comprehensive architecture of Secure Zone Routing Protocol (SZRP based on efficient key management, secure neighbor discovery, secure routing packets, detection of malicious nodes, and preventing these nodes from destroying the network. In order to fulfill these objectives, both efficient key management and secure neighbor mechanisms have been designed to be performed prior to the functioning of the protocol.To validate the proposed solution, we use the network simulator NS-2 to test the performance of secure protocol and compare it with the conventional zone routing protocol over different number of factors that affect the network. Our results evidently show that our secure version paragons the conventional protocol in the packet delivery ratio while it has a tolerable increase in the routing overhead and average delay. Also, security analysis proves in details that the proposed protocol is robust enough to thwart all classes of ad-hoc attacks.

  2. SEMAN: A Novel Secure Middleware for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the particularities of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs, such as dynamic topology and self-organization, the implementation of complex and flexible applications is a challenge. To enable the deployment of these applications, several middleware solutions were proposed. However, these solutions do not completely consider the security requirements of these networks. Based on the limitations of the existing solutions, this paper presents a new secure middleware, called Secure Middleware for Ad Hoc Networks (SEMAN, which provides a set of basic and secure services to MANETs aiming to facilitate the development of distributed, complex, and flexible applications. SEMAN considers the context of applications and organizes nodes into groups, also based on these contexts. The middleware includes three modules: service, processing, and security. Security module is the main part of the middleware. It has the following components: key management, trust management, and group management. All these components were developed and are described in this paper. They are supported by a cryptographic core and behave according to security rules and policies. The integration of these components provides security guarantees against attacks to the applications that usethe middleware services.

  3. Advances in Ad Hoc Network Technology%Ad Hoc网络技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵耀培; 张福强; 董茜

    2005-01-01

    Ad Hoc 网络现在是非常有吸引力的研究方向.本文介绍了Ad Hoc 网络的定义、特点、体系结构、信道接入协议,最后分析了Ad Hoc 网络面临的问题.希望本文能为进行Ad Hoc 网络技术研究的人们提供一定的方便.

  4. Making friends on the fly advances in ad hoc teamwork

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the encounter and interaction of agents such as robots with other agents and describes how they cooperate with their previously unknown teammates, forming an Ad Hoc team. It presents a new algorithm, PLASTIC, that allows agents to quickly adapt to new teammates by reusing knowledge learned from previous teammates.  PLASTIC is instantiated in both a model-based approach, PLASTIC-Model, and a policy-based approach, PLASTIC-Policy.  In addition to reusing knowledge learned from previous teammates, PLASTIC also allows users to provide expert-knowledge and can use transfer learning (such as the new TwoStageTransfer algorithm) to quickly create models of new teammates when it has some information about its new teammates. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on three domains, ranging from multi-armed bandits to simulated robot soccer games.

  5. A Distributed Mutual Exclusion Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Dagdeviren

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distributed mutual exclusion algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks. This algorithm requires a ring of cluster coordinators as the underlying topology. The topology is built by first providing clusters of mobile nodes in the first step and then forming a backbone consisting of the cluster heads in a ring as the second step. The modified version of the Ricart-Agrawala Algorithm on top of this topologyprovides analytically and experimentally an order of decrease in message complexity with respect to the original algorithm. We analyze the algorithm, provide performance results of the implementation, discuss the fault tolerance and the other algorithmic extensions, and show that this architecture can be used for other middleware functions in mobile networks.

  6. Precise positioning systems for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Samir A Elsagheer; Ansari, Gufran Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a very promising research venue that can offers many useful and critical applications including the safety applications. Most of these applications require that each vehicle knows precisely its current position in real time. GPS is the most common positioning technique for VANET. However, it is not accurate. Moreover, the GPS signals cannot be received in the tunnels, undergrounds, or near tall buildings. Thus, no positioning service can be obtained in these locations. Even if the Deferential GPS (DGPS) can provide high accuracy, but still no GPS converge in these locations. In this paper, we provide positioning techniques for VANET that can provide accurate positioning service in the areas where GPS signals are hindered by the obstacles. Experimental results show significant improvement in the accuracy. This allows when combined with DGPS the continuity of a precise positioning service that can be used by most of the VANET applications.

  7. On service differentiation in mobile Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺亮; 叶澄清

    2004-01-01

    A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile. Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks.

  8. Parallel routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Khaled; Arafeh, Bassel; Alzeidi, Nasser; 10.5121/ijcnc.2011.3506

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes and evaluates a new position-based Parallel Routing Protocol (PRP) for simultaneously routing multiple data packets over disjoint paths in a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) for higher reliability and reduced communication delays. PRP views the geographical region where the MANET is located as a virtual 2-dimensional grid of cells. Cell-disjoint (parallel) paths between grid cells are constructed and used for building pre-computed routing tables. A single gateway node in each grid cell handles routing through that grid cell reducing routing overheads. Each node maintains updated information about its own location in the virtual grid using GPS. Nodes also keep track of the location of other nodes using a new proposed cell-based broadcasting algorithm. Nodes exchange energy level information with neighbors allowing energy-aware selection of the gateway nodes. Performance evaluation results have been derived showing the attractiveness of the proposed parallel routing protocol from different resp...

  9. On service differentiation in mobile Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺亮; 叶澄清

    2004-01-01

    A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the Received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile.Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks.

  10. On service differentiation in mobile Ad Hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-liang; Ye, Cheng-qing

    2004-09-01

    A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile. Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks. PMID:15323003

  11. Realistic Mobility Modeling for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Hilal; Tugcu, Tuna

    2009-08-01

    Simulations used for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) are mostly based on random mobility and fail to consider individual behaviors of the vehicles. Unrealistic assumptions about mobility produce misleading results about the behavior of routing protocols in real deployments. In this paper, a realistic mobility modeling tool, Mobility for Vehicles (MOVE), which considers the basic mobility behaviors of vehicles, is proposed for a more accurate evaluation. The proposed model is tested against the Random Waypoint (RWP) model using AODV and OLSR protocols. The results show that the mobility model significantly affects the number of nodes within the transmission range of a node, the volume of control traffic, and the number of collisions. It is shown that number of intersections, grid size, and node density are important parameters when dealing with VANET performance.

  12. Opportunistic Channel Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks with Queue Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Wang, Yongchao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a distributed opportunistic channel access strategy in ad hoc network is proposed. We consider the multiple sources contend for the transmission opportunity, the winner source decides to transmit or restart contention based on the current channel condition. Owing to real data assumption at all links, the decision still needs to consider the stability of the queues. We formulate the channel opportunistic scheduling as a constrained optimization problem which maximizes the system average throughput with the constraints that the queues of all links are stable. The proposed optimization model is solved by Lyapunov stability in queueing theory. The successive channel access problem is decoupled into single optimal stopping problem at every frame and solved with Lyapunov algorithm. The threshold for every frame is different, and it is derived based on the instantaneous queue information. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed strategy.

  13. Topology for efficient information dissemination in ad-hoc networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, E.; Okino, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the information dissemination problem in ad-hoc wirless networks. First, we analyze the probability of successful broadcast, assuming: the nodes are uniformly distributed, the available area has a lower bould relative to the total number of nodes, and there is zero knowledge of the overall topology of the network. By showing that the probability of such events is small, we are motivated to extract good graph topologies to minimize the overall transmissions. Three algorithms are used to generate topologies of the network with guaranteed connectivity. These are the minimum radius graph, the relative neighborhood graph and the minimum spanning tree. Our simulation shows that the relative neighborhood graph has certain good graph properties, which makes it suitable for efficient information dissemination.

  14. Secure Routing and Data Transmission in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed S. Alnumay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an identity (ID based protocol that secures AODV and TCP so that it can be used in dynamic and attack prone environments of mobile ad hoc networks. The proposed protocol protects AODV using Sequential Aggregate Signatures (SAS based on RSA. It also generates a session key for each pair of source-destination nodes of a MANET for securing the end-to-end transmitted data. Here each node has an ID which is evaluated from its public key and the messages that are sent are authenticated with a signature/ MAC. The proposed scheme does not allow a node to change its ID throughout the network lifetime. Thus it makes the network secure against attacks that target AODV and TCP in MANET. We present performance analysis to validate our claim.

  15. An Adaptive Replica Allocation Algorithm in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingZheng; JinshuSu; KanYang

    2004-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), nodes move freely and the distribution of access requests changes dynamically. Replica allocation in such a dynamic environment is a significant challenge. In this paoer, a dynamic adaptive replica allocation algorithm that can adapt to the nodes motion is proposed to minimize the communication cost of object access. When changes occur in the access requests of the object or the network topology, each replica node collects access requests from its neighbors and makes decisions locally to expand replica to neighbors or to relinquish the replica. The algorithm dynamically adapts the replica allocation scheme to a local optimal one. Simulation results show that our algorithms efficiently reduce the communication cost of object access in MANET environment.

  16. Vehicular ad hoc networks standards, solutions, and research

    CERN Document Server

    Molinaro, Antonella; Scopigno, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) from the their onset, gradually going into technical details, providing a clear understanding of both theoretical foundations and more practical investigation. The editors gathered top-ranking authors to provide comprehensiveness and timely content; the invited authors were carefully selected from a list of who’s who in the respective field of interest: there are as many from Academia as from Standardization and Industry sectors from around the world. The covered topics are organized around five Parts starting from an historical overview of vehicular communications and standardization/harmonization activities (Part I), then progressing to the theoretical foundations of VANETs and a description of the day-one standard-compliant solutions (Part II), hence going into details of vehicular networking and security (Part III) and to the tools to study VANETs, from mobility and channel models, to network simulators and field trial methodologies (Part IV), and fi...

  17. T2AR: trust-aware ad-hoc routing protocol for MANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjayan, Gayathri; Subbiah, Janakiraman

    2016-01-01

    Secure data transfer against the malicious attacks is an important issue in an infrastructure-less independent network called mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). Trust assurance between MANET nodes is the key parameter in the high-security provision under dynamic topology variations and open wireless constraints. But, the malicious behavior of nodes reduces the trust level of the nodes that leads to an insecure data delivery. The increase in malicious attacks causes the excessive energy consumption that leads to a reduction of network lifetime. The lack of positional information update of the nodes in ad-hoc on-demand vector (AODV) protocol during the connection establishment offers less trust level between the nodes. Hence, the trust rate computation using energy and mobility models and its update are the essential tasks for secure data delivery. This paper proposes a trust-aware ad-hoc routing (T2AR) protocol to improve the trust level between the nodes in MANET. The proposed method modifies the traditional AODV routing protocol with the constraints of trust rate, energy, mobility based malicious behavior prediction. The packet sequence ID matching from the log reports of neighbor nodes determine the trust rate that avoids the malicious report generation. Besides, the direct and indirect trust observation schemes utilization increases the trust level. Besides, the received signal strength indicator utilization determines the trusted node is within the communication range or not. The comparative analysis between the proposed T2AR with the existing methods such as TRUNCMAN, RBT, GR, FBR and DICOTIDS regarding the average end-to-end delay, throughput, false positives, packet delivery ratio shows the effectiveness of T2AR in the secure MANET environment design. PMID:27441127

  18. Higher Throughput Maintenance Using Average Time Standard for Multipath Data Delivery Ad-hoc Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.Shanmugasundaram

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless network has come out as one of the key enablers for reliable data delivery for different types of applications.Ad-hoc network consists of self-actuated node that collaborates in order to transfer the information.Trajectory-based Statistical Forwarding (TSF method used optimal target point selection algorithm to forward packets in order to satisfy probability of packet delivery over multi-hopbut failed provide higher throughputon the multipath data delivery. TheVoid Aware Pressure Routing (VAPR method used hop count and intensity information to build a directional data delivery system but performance of specialized geographic routing based multipath data delivery was not attained. To maintain the higher throughput level on ad-hoc network data delivery, Median Multicast Throughput Data Delivery (MMTDD mechanism is proposed in thispaper.The basic idea of MMTDD mechanism is to divide a message into multiple shares and deliver them via multiple independent source paths to the destination. MMTDD mechanism with the average time standard takes the best threshold value for every data (i.e., packet partitioning by avoiding packet loss. By this means, MMTDD mechanism uses the Average Time Standard (ATS to guarantee the required packet allocationwith higher throughput level. With the application of ATS, the MMTDD mechanism derives the theoretical model by attaining approximately 4% higher throughput level on the multipath data delivery in ad-hoc network.MMTDD mechanism makes use of time scheduling schemestodiscover and maintain data delivery paths with minimal time consumption.Median Multicast in MMTDD mechanism used the balanced state flow model to deliver data on multiple paths and experiment is conducted on factors such as time consumption, data delivery rate,average delivery delay and throughput level.

  19. A HYBRID APPROACH FOR NODE CO-OPERATION BASED CLUSTERING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sathiyakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is termed as a set of wireless nodes which could be built with infrastructure less environment where network services are afforded by the nodes themselves. In such a situation, if a node refuses to co-operate with other nodes, then it will lead to a considerable diminution in throughput and the network operation decreases to low optimum value. Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the collaboration of nodes for packet routing ahead. Nevertheless, much of the existing work in MANETs imagines that mobile nodes (probably possessed by selfish users will pursue prearranged protocols without variation. Therefore, implementing the co-operation between the nodes turn out to be an significant issue. The previous work described a secured key model for ad hoc network with efficient node clustering based on reputation and ranking model. But the downside is that the co-operation with the nodes is less results in a communication error. To enhance the security in MANET, in this work, we present a hybrid approach, build a node co-operation among the nodes in MANET by evaluating the weightage of cooperativeness of each node in MANET. With the estimation of normal co-operative nodes, nodes are restructured on its own (self. Then clustering is made with the reorganized nodes to form a secured communication among the nodes in the MANET environment. The Simulation of the proposed Hybrid Approach for Node Cooperation based Clustering (HANCC work is done for varying topology, node size, attack type and intensity with different pause time settings and the performance evaluations are carried over in terms of node cooperativeness, clustering efficiency, communication overhead and compared with an existing secured key model. Compared to an existing secured key model, the proposed HANCC performance is 80-90% high.

  20. A Light-Weight Service Discovery Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranwa A. Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks devices do not rely on a fixed infrastructure and thus have to be self-organizing. This gives rise to various challenges to network applications. Existing service discovery protocols fall short of accommodating the complexities of the ad-hoc environment. However, the performance of distributed service discovery architectures that rely on a virtual backbone for locating and registering available services appeared very promising in terms of average delay but in terms of message overhead, are the most heavy-weight. In this research we propose a very light-weight, robust and reliable model for service discovery in wireless and mobile networks by taking into account the limited resources to which are subjected the mobile units. Approach: Three processes are involved in service discovery protocols using virtual dynamic backbone for mobile ad hoc networks: registration, discovery and consistency maintenance. More specifically, the model analytically and realistically differentiates stable from unstable nodes in the network in order to form a subset of nodes constituting a relatively stable virtual Backbone (BB. Results: Overall, results acquired were very satisfactory and meet the performance objectives of effectiveness especially in terms of network load. A notable reduction of almost 80% of message signaling was observed in the network. This criterion distinguishes our proposal and corroborate to its light-weight characteristic. On the other hand, results showed reasonable mean time delay to the requests initiated by the clients. Conclusion: Extensive simulation results obtained confirm the efficiency and the light-weight characteristic of our approach in significantly reducing the cost of message overhead in addition to having the best delay values when compared with strategies well-known in the literature.